WorldWideScience

Sample records for scarlet pimpernel cobalamin

  1. Scarlet fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... streptococcus . This is the same bacteria that cause strep throat . Causes Scarlet fever was once a very serious ... fever is infection with the bacteria that cause strep throat. An outbreak of strep throat or scarlet fever ...

  2. Scarlet Fever

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-06-09

    Katherine Fleming-Dutra, pediatrician, discusses scarlet fever, its cause, how to treat it, and how to prevent its spread.  Created: 6/9/2011 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 6/9/2011.

  3. The Fuzzy Scarlet Letter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallas, Aaron M.

    2012-01-01

    Critics of the public release of teacher evaluation scores sometimes liken these ratings to the scarlet letter worn by Hester Prynne in Nathaniel Hawthorne's classic novel. The comparison is apt. But public school teachers who are subjected to public shaming because of their students' test scores can rarely expect the opportunities for redemption…

  4. Signs of scarlet fever (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlet fever is a disease caused by an infection with group A beta-hemolytic streptococcal bacteria that occurs in a small percentage of people with strep throat. The illness typically begins with a fever and ...

  5. Cobalamin analogues in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Obeid, Rima; Herrmann, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Haptocorrin (HC) carries cobalamin analogues (CorA), but whether CorA are produced in the body is unknown. All cobalamins (Cbl) to the foetus are delivered by the Cbl-specific protein transcobalamin (TC), and therefore analysis of cord serum for CorA may help to clarify the origin of ......A in the human body are derived from Cbl....

  6. Pharmacological properties of Anagallis arvensis L. ("scarlet pimpernel") and Anagallis foemina Mill. ("blue pimpernel") traditionally used as wound healing remedies in Navarra (Spain)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    López, Víctor; Jäger, Anna Katharina; Akerreta, Silvia

    2011-01-01

    -inflammatory properties were measured in terms of COX-1 and -2 inhibition as well as superoxide radical scavenging capacity. RESULTS: Both species exerted antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects. The methanolic extract obtained from Anagallis arvensis seemed to produce the highest inhibition in Candida albicans (MIC...

  7. Rapid Decolorization of Cobalamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falah H. Hussein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The photocatalytic decolorization of cobalamin was carried out in aqueous solution of different types of catalysts including ZnO, TiO2 (Degussa P25, TiO2 (Hombikat UV100, TiO2 (Millennium PC105, and TiO2 (Koronose 2073 by using UVA source of irradiation. The effect of various parameters such as photocatalyst amount, cobalamin concentration, type of catalyst, pH of aqueous solution, light intensity, addition of H2O2, flow rate of O2, type of current gas, and temperature on photocatalytic oxidation was investigated. The results indicated that the photocatalytic decolorization of cobalamin was well described by pseudo-first-order kinetics according to the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. The effect of temperature on the efficiency of photodecolorization of cobalamin was also studied in the range 278–298 K. The activation energy was calculated according to Arrhenius plot and was found equal to  kJ·mol−1 for ZnO and  kJ·mol−1 for TiO2 (Degussa P25. The results of the total organic carbon (TOC analysis indicate that the rate of decolorization of dye was faster than the total mineralization. Decolorization and mineralization of cobalamin in the absence of light and/or catalyst were performed to demonstrate that the presence of light and catalyst is essential for the decolorization of this cobalamin. The results show that the activity of different types of catalysts used in this study was of the sequence: ZnO > TiO2 (Degussa P25 > TiO2 (Hombikat UV100 > TiO2 (Millennium PC105 > TiO2 (Koronose 2073.

  8. Rapid Decolorization of Cobalamin

    OpenAIRE

    Falah H. Hussein; Ahmed F. Halbus

    2012-01-01

    The photocatalytic decolorization of cobalamin was carried out in aqueous solution of different types of catalysts including ZnO, TiO2 (Degussa P25), TiO2 (Hombikat UV100), TiO2 (Millennium PC105), and TiO2 (Koronose 2073) by using UVA source of irradiation. The effect of various parameters such as photocatalyst amount, cobalamin concentration, type of catalyst, pH of aqueous solution, light intensity, addition of H2O2, flow rate of O2, type of current gas, and temperature on photocatalytic o...

  9. Unexpected high plasma cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan F B; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    It is well-established that more than 8% of patients examined for vitamin B12 deficiency unexpectedly have increased plasma levels of the vitamin, but so far there are no guidelines for the clinical interpretation of such findings. In this review, we summarise known associations between high plasma...... cobalamin binding proteins, transcobalamin and haptocorrin. Based on current knowledge, we suggest a strategy for the clinical interpretation of unexpected high plasma cobalamin. Since a number of the associated diseases are critical and life-threatening, the strategy promotes the concept of 'think...

  10. Alcoholic cirrhosis and cobalamin metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, D; Benhayoun, S; Adjalla, C; Gélot, M M; Renkes, P; Gérard, P; Felden, F; Belleville, F; Gaucher, P; Guéant, J L; Nicolas, J P

    1997-01-01

    The cobalamin status of 27 patients suffering from alcoholic cirrhosis and 20 control subjects was analyzed. Plasma cobalamin (p < 0.005), total corrinoids (p < 0.005) and their analogs (p < 0.05) were all significantly elevated in the cirrhosis patients. These differences were due to increased haptocorrin (HC)-bound corrinoid (p < 0.02), which could be explained by a deficient hepatic clearance of cobalamin bound to HC. The increase in the concentration of true cobalamin was greater than that of its analogs. There were positive correlations between cholestasis (serum alkaline phosphatase) and plasma analog concentrations (p < 0.05), HC-bound cobalamin (p < 0.005) and total corrinoids bound to HC (p < 0.005). The plasma concentrations of the indicators of cobalamin deficiency, homocysteine (p < 0.05) and methylmalonic acid (p < 0.001), were increased, which could indicate poor cellular penetration of vitamin B12 or a defect in the activation of the two vitamin-B12-dependent enzymes.

  11. Source / component separation with NMF and scarlet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Peter; Moolekamp, Fred; LSST Data Management, WFIRST Preparatory Science

    2018-01-01

    Astronomical data are often superpositions of multiple source signals. I will introduce the open-source analysis framework scarlet, based on the Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF), that achieves efficient source separation and enables flexible constraints or priors on the shape of the signals and/or the signal amplitude across multiple observations.I will demonstrate scarlet's capabilities of separating multi-component photo-z distributions, AGN jets from host galaxies, and more generally: crowded extragalactic fields in the HSC survey. I will also discuss extensions for joint pixel-level deblending with images from LSST and WFIRST, and for hyperspectral or grism data.

  12. Oscar Wilde and the scarlet woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, E

    1997-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, England was embroiled in a political debate over the importation of Roman Catholic rituals into the Anglican Church, not to mention the re-establishment of the Roman Church itself in Great Britain. Victorian anti-Catholic rhetoric draws upon the figure of the Whore of Babylon to depict the Roman Catholic Church as the Scarlet Woman, a femme fatale who perverts Christianity and seduces Englishmen with elaborate rituals and lascivious whisperings in the confessional. In writing Salomé, Oscar Wilde played ironically on the hysterical eroticism of the No Popery movement by mining the paradox of biblical sensuality. He invested his play with a biblical wealth of archaic metaphors and gestures that took their cues from The Song of Songs and The Book of Revelation. He became the ecclesiastical dandy that evangelicals feared most, a poet enamored of the Scarlet Woman, a would-be convert who exposed the scandal of Christianity as art.

  13. morphological descriptors and micro satellite diversity among scarlet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    section Oliganthes, Dunal Bitter. The scarlet eggplant (S. aethiopicum L) comprises of four groups (Gilo, Shum, Aculeatum and ..... 3= Yellow orange, 4= Deep orange, 5= Fired red, 6= Poppy red, 7= Scarlet red, 8= Brown, 9= Black. 9. Fruit cross section. 1= Circular (no grooves), 3= Elliptic, no grooves, 5= Few grooves, ...

  14. Cobalamin Deficiency in Elderly Patients: A Personal View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Andrès

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin (vitamin B12 deficiency is particularly common in the elderly (>65 years of age but is often unrecognized because its clinical manifestations are subtle; however, they are also potentially serious, particularly from a neuropsychiatric and hematological perspective. In the elderly, the main causes of cobalamin deficiency are pernicious anemia and food-cobalamin malabsorption. Food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome is a disorder characterized by the inability to release cobalamin from food or its binding proteins. This syndrome is usually caused by atrophic gastritis, related or unrelated to Helicobacter pylori infection, and long-term ingestion of antacids and biguanides. Management of cobalamin deficiency with cobalamin injections is currently well documented but new routes of cobalamin administration (oral and nasal are being studied, especially oral cobalamin therapy for food-cobalamin malabsorption.

  15. Cobalamins uncovered by modern electronic structure calculations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta; Ryde, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    This review describes how computational methods have contributed to the held of cobalamin chemistry since the start of the new millennium. Cobalamins are cobalt-dependent cofactors that are used for alkyl transfer and radical initiation by several classes of enzymes. Since the entry of modern...... electronic-structure calculations, in particular density functional methods, the understanding of the molecular mechanism of cobalamins has changed dramatically, going from a dominating view of trans-steric strain effects to a much more complex view involving an arsenal of catalytic strategies. Among...

  16. 89Zr-Cobalamin PET Tracer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuda-Wedagedara, Akhila N W; Workinger, Jayme L; Nexo, Ebba

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12, or cobalamin (Cbl), is an essential nutrient. Acquisition, transport, and cellular internalization of Cbl are dependent on specific binding proteins and associated receptors. The circulating transport protein transcobalamin (TC) promotes cellular uptake via binding to specific recept...

  17. Cobalamin and haptocorrin in human milk and cobalamin-related variables in mother and child: a 9-mo longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greibe, Eva; Lildballe, Dorte L; Streym, Súsanna; Vestergaard, Peter; Rejnmark, Lars; Mosekilde, Leif; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-08-01

    Measurement of milk cobalamin is hampered by the high content of the cobalamin-binding protein haptocorrin, and limited data are available relating trustworthy measures of milk cobalamin to cobalamin status in healthy mothers and their children. The objectives were to explore the concentration of cobalamin and haptocorrin in foremilk and hindmilk during the first 9 mo of lactation and to relate these results to biomarkers of an impaired cobalamin status of mother and child. Milk samples from 25 mothers were collected at 2 wk, 4 mo, and 9 mo postpartum for the measurement of cobalamin and haptocorrin. Plasma samples from a larger cohort of lactating mothers (n = 107) and their infants (n = 108) were collected at the same time points for the measurement of cobalamin, holotranscobalamin, total transcobalamin, total haptocorrin, and methylmalonic acid. Median (range) concentrations of cobalamin in hindmilk were 760 (210-1880), 290 (140-690), and 440 (160-1940) pmol/L at 2 wk, 4 mo, and 9 mo, respectively; the respective haptocorrin concentrations were 25 (9-102), 22 (4-100), and 180 (30-460) nmol/L. We found slightly lower values in foremilk. A decrease in milk cobalamin at 4 mo was associated with decreases in plasma cobalamin (P , 0.0001) and holotranscobalamin (P , 0.0001) in the infants. Strong positive associations in paired maternal-infant cobalamin concentrations were found at all time points. Foremilk and hindmilk contained comparable amounts of cobalamin and haptocorrin, but marked changes were observed during 9 mo of lactation. At 4 mo, low concentrations of milk cobalamin mirrored biochemical changes in infants, which suggests an impaired cobalamin status and indicates that nutrition from only mother's milk may not be sufficient for the supply of cobalamin from this age. This trial was registered by the Danish Data Protection Agency at www.datatilsynet.dk/english as 2008-41-2185.

  18. mScarlet : a bright monomeric red fluorescent protein for cellular imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bindels, D.S.; Haarbosch, L.; van Weeren, L.; Postma, M.; Wiese, K.E.; Mastop, M.; Aumonier, S.; Gotthard, G.; Royant, A.; Hink, M.A.; Gadella Jr, T.W.J.

    2017-01-01

    We report the engineering of mScarlet, a truly monomeric red fluorescent protein with record brightness, quantum yield (70%) and fluorescence lifetime (3.9 ns). We developed mScarlet starting with a consensus synthetic template and using improved spectroscopic screening techniques; mScarlet's

  19. Acute cholecystitis in a child with scarlet fever: A rare association ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Group A streptococcal infection is common in children; however, scarlet fever is now considered rare except for isolated outbreaks. One of the rarest complications of scarlet fever is acute cholecystitis – very few cases have been reported in the literature. A 5-year-old boy was admitted with scarlet fever complicated by acute ...

  20. Metformin Lowers Serum Cobalamin without Changing Other Markers of Cobalamin Status: A Study on Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Trolle, G. Birgitta; Bor, Mustafa Vakur

    2013-01-01

    Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin is followed by a decline in plasma cobalamin, but it is unsettled whether this denotes an impaired cobalamin status. This study has explored changes in the markers of cobalamin status in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome treated with metformin (1...

  1. Cobalamin and its binding protein in rat milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raaberg, Lasse; Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1989-01-01

    Cobalamin and its binding protein, haptocorrin, are present in rat milk throughout the lactation period. The concentration of cobalamin is approximately 0.3-times the concentration of the unsaturated binding protein. The concentration of the unsaturated cobalamin-binding protein varies between 18...... nmol l-1 and 16 nmol l-1. The binding protein has a Stokes radius of 2.49 nm when saturated with cobalamin and 2.61 nm when unsaturated. It binds cobalamin over a broad range of pH and is able to bind cobinamide also. With immunohistochemistry, we find haptocorrin immunoreactivity in the mammary glands...

  2. Cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven F Werder

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Steven F Werder1,21Kansas University School of Medicine – Wichita, Wichita, KS, USA; 2Community Health Center of Southeast Kansas, Pittsburg, KS, USAIntroduction: Although consensus guidelines recommend checking serum B12 in patients with dementia, clinicians are often faced with various questions: (1 Which patients should be tested? (2 What test should be ordered? (3 How are inferences made from such testing? (4 In addition to serum B12, should other tests be ordered? (5 Is B12 deficiency compatible with dementia of the Alzheimer’s type? (6 What is to be expected from treatment? (7 How is B12 deficiency treated?Methods: On January 31st, 2009, a Medline search was performed revealing 1,627 citations related to cobalamin deficiency, hyperhomocysteinemia, and dementia. After limiting the search terms, all abstracts and/or articles and other references were categorized into six major groups (general, biochemistry, manifestations, associations and risks, evaluation, and treatment and then reviewed in answering the above questions.Results: The six major groups above are described in detail. Seventy-five key studies, series, and clinical trials were identified. Evidence-based suggestions for patient management were developed.Discussion: Evidence is convincing that hyperhomocysteinemia, with or without hypovitaminosis B12, is a risk factor for dementia. In the absence of hyperhomocysteinemia, evidence is less convincing that hypovitaminosis B12 is a risk factor for dementia. B12 deficiency manifestations are variable and include abnormal psychiatric, neurological, gastrointestinal, and hematological findings. Radiological images of individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia frequently demonstrate leukoaraiosis. Assessing serum B12 and treatment of B12 deficiency is crucial for those cases in which pernicious anemia is suspected and may be useful for mild cognitive impairment and mild to moderate dementia. The serum B12 level is the standard initial test

  3. Cobalamin Related Parameters and Disease Patterns in Patients with Increased Serum Cobalamin Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Nexø, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    levels (odds ratio (95% confidence interval)): alcoholism (5.74 (2.76–11.96)), liver disease (8.53 (3.59–20.23)), and cancer (5.48 (2.85–10.55)). Elevated haptocorrin levels were seen in patients with alcoholism, cancer, liver-, renal-, autoimmune-, and bronchopulmonary disease. No clinical associations...... to sCD320 and total and holo transcobalamin levels were found. Conclusion: In non-supplemented patients, high cobalamin levels were associated to high haptocorrin levels, and several diagnoses, including alcoholism, liver disease and cancer. Our study emphasizes that clinicians should take high serum......Background: Measurement of serum cobalamin levels is routinely used to diagnose cobalamin deficiency. Surprisingly, approximately 15% of patients have high cobalamin levels and no consensus exists regarding the clinical implications. Methods: Hospital-treated patients above 18 years of age referred...

  4. Cobalamin and haptocorrin in human milk and cobalamin-related variables in mother and child: a 9-mo longitudinal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Lildballe, Dorte Launholt; við Streym, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    to explore the concentration of cobalamin and haptocorrin in foremilk and hindmilk during the first 9 mo of lactation and to relate these results to biomarkers of an impaired cobalamin status of mother and child. DESIGN: Milk samples from 25 mothers were collected at 2 wk, 4 mo, and 9 mo postpartum...... comparable amounts of cobalamin and haptocorrin, but marked changes were observed during 9 mo of lactation. At 4 mo, low concentrations of milk cobalamin mirrored biochemical changes in infants, which suggests an impaired cobalamin status and indicates that nutrition from only mother's milk may...

  5. Metformin Lowers Serum Cobalamin without Changing Other Markers of Cobalamin Status: A Study on Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebba Nexo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Treatment with the anti-diabetic drug metformin is followed by a decline in plasma cobalamin, but it is unsettled whether this denotes an impaired cobalamin status. This study has explored changes in the markers of cobalamin status in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome treated with metformin (1.5–2.5 g per day (n = 29 or placebo (n = 23 for six months. Serum samples were collected before and after two, four, and six months of treatment. We found serum cobalamin to decline and reach significant lower levels after six months of treatment (p = 0.003. Despite the decline in serum cobalamin, we observed no reductions in the physiological active part of cobalamin bound to transcobalamin (holotranscobalamin, or increase in the metabolic marker of cobalamin status, methylmalonic acid. Instead, the non-functional part of circulating cobalamin bound to haptocorrin declined (p = 0.0009. Our results have two implications: The data questions whether metformin treatment induces an impaired cobalamin status in PCOS patients, and further suggests that serum cobalamin is a futile marker for judging cobalamin status in metformin-treated patients.

  6. Homocysteine and cobalamin status in German vegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, Annika; Koschizke, Jochen W; Leitzmann, Claus; Hahn, Andreas

    2004-05-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the homocysteine and cobalamin status of German vegans and determine whether the intake of very small amounts of foods of animal origin can improve this status. Cross-sectional study, Germany. The dietary and nutritional intakes of 131 vegans (73 women, 58 men; age range: 20.2-82.1 years) were evaluated using a general questionnaire and two food-frequency questionnaires. The prevalence of inadequate cobalamin status in volunteers of the German Vegan Study was 28.2%, and that of hyperhomocysteinaemia, 38.1%. Moderate vegans were affected to a lesser extent than were strict vegans. Duration of veganism and cobalamin concentration were inversely correlated (Spearman's r=-0.175, P=0.047). Folate concentration and erythrocyte aspartic acid aminotransferase activity were not correlated with plasma homocysteine concentration, but duration of veganism correlated positively with homocysteine concentration (Spearman's r=0.319, Pveganism; r=-0.602, P<0.001). Cobalamin status needs to be improved in order to minimise the risk of hyperhomocysteinaemia.

  7. Oral cobalamin supplementation in cats with hypocobalaminaemia: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toresson, Linda; Steiner, Joerg M; Olmedal, Gunilla; Larsen, MajBritt; Suchodolski, Jan S; Spillmann, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Objectives The objective of the study was to evaluate whether oral cobalamin supplementation can restore normocobal-aminaemia in cats with hypocobalaminaemia and clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease. Methods This was a retrospective study based on a computerised database search for client-owned cats treated at Evidensia Specialist Animal Hospital, Helsingborg, Sweden, during the period December 2013 to August 2016. Inclusion criteria were cats with clinical signs of chronic enteropathy, an initial serum cobalamin concentration ⩽250 pmol/l (reference interval 214-738 pmol/l) and oral treatment with cobalamin tablets. Results Twenty-five cats met the inclusion criteria. The cats were treated with 0.25 mg cyanocobalamin tablets once daily. Serum cobalamin concentration was rechecked 27-94 days after continuous oral cobalamin supplementation. All cats had serum cobalamin concentrations above the reference interval after oral cobalamin supplementation. Median (range) serum cobalamin concentration was 128 pmol/l (111-250 pmol/l) prior to treatment and 2701 pmol/l (738-16,359 pmol/l) after supplementation. This difference was statistically significant ( P cats with hypocobalaminaemia. Thus, oral cobalamin supplementation is a promising alternative to parenteral administration. Prospective comparative studies in cats being treated with parenteral vs oral cobalamin supplementation in a larger number of patients are warranted before oral supplementation can be recommended for routine use.

  8. Elevated Serum S-Adenosylhomocysteine in Cobalamin Deficient Megaloblastic Anemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira M.; Morita, Olga E.; Pagliusi, Regina A.; Blaia-d’Avila, Vera L.; Allen, Robert H.; Stabler, Sally P.

    2007-01-01

    Impaired methylation due to accumulation of S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH) may contribute to the pathophysiology of cobalamin deficient anemia. We assayed serum S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), SAH, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA) in 15 subjects with cobalamin deficient megaloblastic anemia and compared results to 19 subjects with anemia/pancytopenia due to other causes. Cobalamin deficient subjects had a median hematocrit of 20% and mean cell volume of 111.7 fL. The median serum cobalamin was 37 pg/mL, MMA 3030 nmol/L and tHcy 62.0 umol/L. SAH was elevated in 13 of 15 subjects (median value 42 nmol/L) and the median SAM was normal (103 nmol/L) but SAM/SAH ratio was low, 2.5. The SAH was higher and SAM/SAH ratio lower in cobalamin deficient subjects as compared to those with other anemias after excluding 4 patients with renal insufficiency. SAM concentrations were not low in cobalamin deficiency. Cobalamin injections corrected anemia, MMA, tHcy, SAM/SAH ratio and SAH. Some hematologic variables were inversely correlated with SAH and cobalamin but not tHcy or MMA. In conclusion, serum SAH is elevated in cobalamin deficient subjects with megaloblastic anemia and corrects with parenteral cobalamin therapy. PMID:17292722

  9. The Cobalamin-binding Protein in Zebrafish is an Intermediate Between the Three Cobalamin-binding Proteins in Human

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva Holm; Fedosov, Sergey; Nexø, Ebba

    2012-01-01

    knowledge concerning the phylogenetic evolution of kindred proteins. We identified a cobalamin binding capacity in zebrafish protein extracts (8.2 pmol/fish) and ambient water (13.5 pmol/fish) associated with a single protein. The protein showed resistance toward degradation by trypsin and chymotrypsin......In humans, three soluble extracellular cobalamin-binding proteins; transcobalamin (TC), intrinsic factor (IF), and haptocorrin (HC), are involved in the uptake and transport of cobalamin. In this study, we investigate a cobalamin-binding protein from zebrafish (Danio rerio) and summarize current...... with human IF. The absorbance spectrum of the purified protein in complex with hydroxo-cobalamin resembled those of human HC and IF, but not TC. We searched available databases to further explore the phylogenies of the three cobalamin-binding proteins in higher vertebrates. Apparently, TC-like proteins...

  10. mScarlet: a bright monomeric red fluorescent protein for cellular imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindels, Daphne S; Haarbosch, Lindsay; van Weeren, Laura; Postma, Marten; Wiese, Katrin E; Mastop, Marieke; Aumonier, Sylvain; Gotthard, Guillaume; Royant, Antoine; Hink, Mark A; Gadella, Theodorus W J

    2017-01-01

    We report the engineering of mScarlet, a truly monomeric red fluorescent protein with record brightness, quantum yield (70%) and fluorescence lifetime (3.9 ns). We developed mScarlet starting with a consensus synthetic template and using improved spectroscopic screening techniques; mScarlet's crystal structure reveals a planar and rigidified chromophore. mScarlet outperforms existing red fluorescent proteins as a fusion tag, and it is especially useful as a Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) acceptor in ratiometric imaging.

  11. Observations on the behaviour of the Scarlet Ibis, Eudocimus ruber, in Artis Zoo, Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spil, R.E.; Walstijn, van M.W.; Albrecht, H.

    1985-01-01

    The Scarlet Ibis, Eudocimus ruber (Linnaeus), fam. Threskiornithidae, is the closest relative of the White Ibis, Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus). The two species live in adjoining geographical areas. Nothing is known about the Scarlet Ibis’s breeding biology in the wild and only little about its breeding

  12. Synthesis of Cobalamin Analogues Using Enzymatic and Chemical Modification Methods, and Subsequent Identification of Cobalamin Localisation in a Variety of Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Nemoto-Smith, Emi H

    2017-01-01

    Cobalamin, also known as vitamin B12, is an essential nutrient for many different organisms including mammals, fish, birds, nematodes, and a variety of bacteria. However, cobalamin is only synthesised by a few bacteria and archaea. Organisms that cannot synthesise cobalamin de novo must obtain it from their diet. In humans, the cobalamin uptake mechanism has been studied in detail, but in many organisms, such as Caenorhabditis elegans, no method of transport has been defined, and their need f...

  13. Cobalamin Deficiency: Clinical Picture and Radiological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Briani

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 deficiency causes a wide range of hematological, gastrointestinal, psychiatric and neurological disorders. Hematological presentation of cobalamin deficiency ranges from the incidental increase of mean corpuscular volume and neutrophil hypersegmentation to symptoms due to severe anemia, such as angor, dyspnea on exertion, fatigue or symptoms related to congestive heart failure, such as ankle edema, orthopnea and nocturia. Neuropsychiatric symptoms may precede hematologic signs and are represented by myelopathy, neuropathy, dementia and, less often, optic nerve atrophy. The spinal cord manifestation, subacute combined degeneration (SCD, is characterized by symmetric dysesthesia, disturbance of position sense and spastic paraparesis or tetraparesis. The most consistent MRI finding is a symmetrical abnormally increased T2 signal intensity confined to posterior or posterior and lateral columns in the cervical and thoracic spinal cord. Isolated peripheral neuropathy is less frequent, but likely overlooked. Vitamin B12 deficiency has been correlated negatively with cognitive functioning in healthy elderly subjects. Symptoms include slow mentation, memory impairment, attention deficits and dementia. Optic neuropathy occurs occasionally in adult patient. It is characterized by symmetric, painless and progressive visual loss. Parenteral replacement therapy should be started soon after the vitamin deficiency has been established.

  14. Holotranscobalamin remains unchanged during pregnancy. Longitudinal changes of cobalamins and their binding proteins during pregnancy and postpartum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Hvas, Anne-Mette; Milman, Nils

    2007-01-01

    We confirm a decrease in cobalamins during pregnancy, and report that the active part of cobalamins (holotranscobalamin, holoTC) remains unchanged. The decrease in cobalamins is explained by a decreased holohaptocorrin (holoHC), suggesting that holoTC rather than cobalamins should be used as a ma...

  15. A single rainbow trout cobalamin-binding protein stands in for three human binders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Fedosov, Sergey; Sorensen, Boe S

    2012-01-01

    -binding proteins of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to compare their properties with those of the three human cobalamin-binding proteins. High cobalamin-binding capacity was found in trout stomach (210 pmol/g), roe (400 pmol/g), roe fluid (390 nmol/liter), and plasma (2500 nmol/liter). In all cases...... affinity for the cobalamin analog cobinamide. Like haptocorrin and transcobalamin, the trout cobalamin-binding protein was present in plasma and recognized ligands with altered nucleotide moiety. Like intrinsic factors, the trout cobalamin-binding protein was present in the stomach and resisted degradation...

  16. Interaction between super-reduced cobalamin and selenite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereven'kov, I. A.; Salnikov, D. S.; Makarov, S. V.

    2017-12-01

    The kinetics of the reaction between the two-electron reduced form of cobalamin (super-reduced cobalamin, cob(I)alamin, or Cbl(I)) and sodium selenite in an alkaline medium is studied spectrophotometrically. It is shown that the selenite rapidly oxidizes Cbl(I) to cob(II)alamin (Cbl(II)). It is established that the active form of the oxidant is the protonated selenite anion (HSeO3 -), which receives six electrons during the reaction and transforms into HSe-. The reactions of cob(I)alamin oxidation by selenite and sulfite are compared.

  17. Significance of cobalamin inactivation in normal and malignant hematopoiesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.A.M. Ermens (Anton)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with several aspects of the effects of cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide on cellular folate metabolism and the consequences on normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Kroes et al. demonstrated the antileukemic effects of nitrous oxide either or not in combination

  18. Probing the cis and trans Influence in Cobalamin Chemistry by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The electronic spectra of 11 cobalamin complexes were analysed by Gaussian analysis. It is shown that the αβ-region of the spectrum, sometimes attributed to a forbidden π --> π* transition and its vibrational fine structure actually consists of several overlapping transitions, of which between three and five could be resolved ...

  19. Impact of meteorological changes on the incidence of scarlet fever in Hefei City, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yu; Huang, Xiao-lei; Wang, Yu-jie; Zhang, Jun-qing; Zhang, Qi; Dang, Yue-wen; Wang, Jing

    2016-10-01

    Studies on scarlet fever with meteorological factors included were few. We aimed to illustrate meteorological factors' effects on monthly incidence of scarlet fever. Cases of scarlet fever were collected from the report of legal infectious disease in Hefei City from 1985 to 2006; the meteorological data were obtained from the weather bureau of Hefei City. Monthly incidence and corresponding meteorological data in these 22 years were used to develop the model. The model of auto regressive integrated moving average with covariates was used in statistical analyses. There was a highest peak from March to June and a small peak from November to January. The incidence of scarlet fever ranges from 0 to 0.71502 (per 105 population). SARIMAX (1,0,0)(1,0,0)12 model was fitted with monthly incidence and meteorological data optimally. It was shown that relative humidity ( β = -0.002, p = 0.020), mean temperature ( β = 0.006, p = 0.004), and 1 month lag minimum temperature ( β = -0.007, p < 0.001) had effect on the incidence of scarlet fever in Hefei. Besides, the incidence in a previous month (AR( β) = 0.469, p < 0.001) and in 12 months before (SAR( β) = 0.255, p < 0.001) was positively associated with the incidence. This study shows that scarlet fever incidence was negatively associated with monthly minimum temperature and relative humidity while was positively associated with mean temperature in Hefei City, China. Besides, the ARIMA model could be useful not only for prediction but also for the analysis of multiple correlations.

  20. Scarlet Fever Epidemic in China Caused by Streptococcus pyogenes Serotype M12: Epidemiologic and Molecular Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhai You

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available From 2011, Hong Kong and mainland China have witnessed a sharp increase in reported cases, with subsequent reports of epidemic scarlet fever in North Asia and the United Kingdom. Here we examine epidemiological data and investigate the genomic context of the predominantly serotype M12 Streptococcus pyogenes scarlet fever isolates from mainland China. Incident case data was obtained from the Chinese Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System. The relative risk of scarlet fever in recent outbreak years 2011–2016 was calculated using the median age-standardised incidence rate, compared to years 2003–2010 prior this outbreak. Whole genome sequencing was performed on 32 emm12 scarlet fever isolates and 13 emm12 non-scarlet fever isolates collected from different geographic regions of China, and compared with 203 published emm12 S. pyogenes genomes predominantly from scarlet fever outbreaks in Hong Kong (n = 134 and the United Kingdom (n = 63. We found during the outbreak period (2011–2016, the median age-standardised incidence in China was 4.14/100,000 (95% confidence interval (CI 4.11-4.18, 2.62-fold higher (95% CI 2.57-2.66 than that of 1.58/100,000 (95% CI 1.56-1.61 during the baseline period prior to the outbreak (2003−2010. Highest incidence was reported for children 5 years of age (80.5/100,000. Streptococcal toxin encoding prophage φHKU.vir and φHKU.ssa in addition to the macrolide and tetracycline resistant ICE-emm12 and ICE-HKU397 elements were found amongst mainland China multi-clonal emm12 isolates suggesting a role in selection and expansion of scarlet fever lineages in China. Global dissemination of toxin encoded prophage has played a role in the expansion of scarlet fever emm12 clones. These findings emphasize the role of comprehensive surveillance approaches for monitoring of epidemic human disease.

  1. Effect of supplementation with cobalamin carried either by a milk product or a capsule in mildly cobalamin-deficient elderly Dutch persons.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.; Zutphen, M. van; Groot, L.C. de; Eussen, S.; Blom, H.J.; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of cobalamin deficiency occurs in the elderly population, which may be treated orally or with injections. Little is known about the relative bioavailability of crystalline cobalamin added to food products. OBJECTIVE: The objective was to assess the effect of

  2. Intrinsic factor blocking antibody interference is not detected in five automated cobalamin immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrigan, Stephen D; Yang, David T; Straseski, Joely A

    2014-05-01

    To systematically assess five automated cobalamin assays for intrinsic factor binding antibody (IFBA)-induced interference using pooled serum. Six pools created from IFBA-negative and IFBA-positive serum representing low, normal, and high cobalamin concentrations were analyzed before and after polyethylene glycol (PEG) precipitation of immunoglobulins on five cobalamin assays: the Centaur XP (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics, Tarrytown, NY), IMMULITE 2000 (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), ARCHITECT i2000SR (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, IL), UniCel Dxl 800 (Beckman Coulter, Chaska, MN), and Modular E170 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN). Cobalamin concentrations before and after PEG treatment were similar, almost all within a 30% total allowable error, with no difference in pattern between the IFBA-negative and IFBA-positive pools regardless of the cobalamin concentration. Our results suggest that, under optimal conditions, the five automated cobalamin assays assessed are not susceptible to IFBA-mediated interference.

  3. New insights into carrier binding and epithelial uptake of the erythropoietic nutrients cobalamin and folate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moestrup, Søren K

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In addition to malnutrition several genetic and acquired conditions may affect the homeostasis of cobalamin (vitamin B12) and folate, leading to megaloblastic anemia and other diseases. The present review describes new insight into protein handling of cobalamin and folate. RECENT...... FINDINGS: The recent solution of the three-dimensional structure of the cobalamin binder transcobalamin shows two separate domains enclosing the vitamin. This structure apparently also applies for the other homologous cobalamin binders, intrinsic factor and haptocorrin. Genetic studies of inherited...... cobalamin malabsorption and biochemical studies have now revealed that the functional receptor for uptake of intrinsic factor-vitamin cobalamin complexes also is a complex itself consisting of two different gene products, cubilin and amnionless. A role in folate uptake of megalin, an endocytic receptor...

  4. Three family members with elevated plasma cobalamin, transcobalamin and soluble transcobalamin receptor (sCD320)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Lücke, Elke; Arendt, Johan F B; Nissen, Peter H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma cobalamin is requested in order to diagnose cobalamin deficiency and low levels confirm a deficient state. Here, we present three family members with unexpected high levels of cobalamin. METHODS: We included a patient referred for cobalamin measurement due to neurological...... symptoms, her son and her daughter. Mother and son both suffered from myotonic dystrophy type II, while the daughter tested negative for this disease. Blood samples were analyzed for cobalamin, haptocorrin, transcobalamin, holoTC, and sCD320. We employed gel filtration and antibody precipitation...... transcobalamin and part of sCD320. CONCLUSIONS: The high cobalamin levels were mainly explained by high levels of holoTC, possibly caused by complex formation with its soluble receptor, sCD320. The family occurrence points to a genetic explanation....

  5. The Continuity of American Letters in "The Scarlet Letter" and "The Beast in the Jungle."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Jane

    1967-01-01

    Fictional works, of different literary periods, which share a common perception of man can be explicated and compared with each other to illustrate a continuing tradition in American literature. Such a basis for comparison exists between Hawthorne's romance, "The Scarlet Letter," which appeared in 1850, and Henry James' fantasy,…

  6. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-16

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014.  Created: 8/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2016.

  7. Early procurement of scarlet macaws and the emergence of social complexity in Chaco Canyon, NM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Adam S; Plog, Stephen; Culleton, Brendan J; Gilman, Patricia A; LeBlanc, Steven A; Whiteley, Peter M; Claramunt, Santiago; Kennett, Douglas J

    2015-07-07

    High-precision accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) (14)C dates of scarlet macaw (Ara macao) skeletal remains provide the first direct evidence from Chaco Canyon in northwestern New Mexico that these Neotropical birds were procured from Mesoamerica by Pueblo people as early as ∼ A.D. 900-975. Chaco was a prominent prehistoric Pueblo center with a dense concentration of multistoried great houses constructed from the 9th through early 12th centuries. At the best known great house of Pueblo Bonito, unusual burial crypts and significant quantities of exotic and symbolically important materials, including scarlet macaws, turquoise, marine shell, and cacao, suggest societal complexity unprecedented elsewhere in the Puebloan world. Scarlet macaws are known markers of social and political status among the Pueblos. New AMS (14)C-dated scarlet macaw remains from Pueblo Bonito demonstrate that these birds were acquired persistently from Mesoamerica between A.D. 900 and 1150. Most of the macaws date before the hypothesized apogeal Chacoan period (A.D. 1040-1110) to which they are commonly attributed. The 10th century acquisition of these birds is consistent with the hypothesis that more formalized status hierarchies developed with significant connections to Mesoamerica before the post-A.D. 1040 architectural florescence in Chaco Canyon.

  8. Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-11-18

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the essay, Pandemic Fear and Literature: Observations from Jack London’s The Scarlet Plague.  Created: 11/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 11/20/2014.

  9. Mixed marriages in Ba's so long a letter and scarlet song | Simon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Love is the prerequisite for marriage in all cultures. This fact is negated in the marriage relationships described in Ba's two works. This paper examines mixed marriages in Mariama Ba's So Long a Letter and Scarlet Song and its impact on women. It also highlights the woman's predicament in general and the way forward ...

  10. Studies on population dynamics of the scarlet mite, Brevipalpus phoenicis, a pest of tea in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    Tea is the national drink of Indonesia. The habitual consumption prevents intestinal infections; the production provides many Indonesians with a living. The production is affected by scarlet mites (Brevipalpus phoenicis GEIJSKES), an important pest of tropical and

  11. Dietary Deficiency of Cobalamin Presented Solely as Schizoaffective Disorder in a Lacto-Vegetarian Adolescent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjaya, Somashekarappa; Manjunatha, Narayana; Manjunatha, Rajashekaaiah; Kumar, Seetharamarao Udaya

    2015-01-01

    Cobalamin is an important nutrient. It is not synthesized in human body and supplied only in nonvegetarian diet. Its deficiency reported with range of psychiatric disorders. Only four pediatric cases have been reported as psychiatric disorders. Authors report a case of dietary deficiency of cobalamin presenting solely as schizoaffective disorder without hematological/neurological manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of cobalamin deficiency is an opportunity to reverse pathophysiology. This case highlights the importance of diet history and serum cobalamin level in atypical psychiatric presentations.

  12. Evaluation of serum cobalamin concentrations in dogs of 164 dog breeds (2006-2010).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grützner, Niels; Cranford, Shannon M; Norby, Bo; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2012-11-01

    Altered serum cobalamin concentrations have been observed in dogs with gastrointestinal disorders such as exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) or gastrointestinal inflammation. The aims of the current study were 1) to identify breeds with a higher proportion of dogs with a decreased serum cobalamin concentration, 2) to determine whether dogs with such decreased concentrations tend to have serum canine trypsin-like immunoreactivity (cTLI) concentrations diagnostic for EPI, and 3) to compare the number of submissions for serum cobalamin analysis by breed to the American Kennel Club (AKC) breed ranking list of 2009. In this retrospective study, results of 28,675 cobalamin tests were reviewed. Akitas, Chinese Shar-Peis, German Shepherd Dogs, Greyhounds, and Labrador Retrievers had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the lower limit of the reference interval (Dogs, and Border Collies had increased proportions of serum cobalamin concentrations below the detection limit of the assay (Dogs with serum cobalamin concentrations <150 ng/l were more likely to have a serum cTLI concentration considered diagnostic for EPI (≤2.5 µg/l; all P ≤ 0.001). The breed with the highest proportion of samples submitted for serum cobalamin analysis in comparison with the AKC ranking list was the Greyhound (odds ratio: 84.6; P < 0.0001). In Akitas and Border Collies, further investigations are warranted to clarify if a potentially breed-specific gastrointestinal disorder is responsible for the increased frequency of decreased serum cobalamin and cTLI concentrations.

  13. Significance of cobalamin inactivation in normal and malignant hematopoiesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ermens, Anton

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis deals with several aspects of the effects of cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide on cellular folate metabolism and the consequences on normal and malignant hematopoiesis. Kroes et al. demonstrated the antileukemic effects of nitrous oxide either or not in combination with other drugs interfering with the folate metabolism (132-136). Especially the potentiation of methotrexate activity in the employed rat model for myeloid leukemia (BNML) after preexposure to nitrou...

  14. Scarlet fever is caused by a limited number of Streptococcus pyogenes lineages and is associated with the exotoxin genes ssa, speA and speC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Costa, Catarina; Carriço, Joao A; Ramirez, Mario; Melo-Cristino, Jose

    2014-03-01

    Several outbreaks of scarlet fever caused by Streptococcus pyogenes were recently reported. Scarlet fever is historically considered a toxin-mediated disease, dependent on the production of the exotoxins SpeA and SpeC, but a strict association between scarlet fever and these exotoxins is not always detected. The aims of this study were to characterize the scarlet fever bacterial isolates recovered from patients in a Lisbon hospital and to identify any distinctive characteristics of such isolates. We characterized a collection of 303 pharyngeal S. pyogenes collected between 2002 and 2008. One-hundred and one were isolated from scarlet fever patients and 202 were associated to a diagnosis of tonsillo-pharyngitis. Isolates were characterized by T and emm typing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis profiling and superantigen gene profiling. The diversity of the scarlet fever isolates was lower than that of the pharyngitis isolates. Specific lineages of emm87, emm4 and emm3 were overrepresented in scarlet fever isolates but only 1 pulsed field gel electrophoresis major lineage was significantly associated with scarlet fever. Multivariate analysis indicated associations of ssa, speA and speC with scarlet fever. In nonoutbreak conditions, scarlet fever is caused by a number of distinct genetic lineages. The lower diversity of these isolates and the association with specific exotoxin genes indicates that some lineages are more prone to cause this presentation than others even in nonoutbreak conditions.

  15. Influence of duration and dose of metformin on cobalamin deficiency in type 2 diabetes patients using metformin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, Joline W J; Hart, Huberta E.; Kuijs, Ron; Kooijman-Buiting, Antoinette M J; Rutten, Guy E H M

    2015-01-01

    Metformin use is associated with cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency. However, the influence of both duration and dose of metformin is unclear. Studies using holotranscobalamin, a marker for cellular cobalamin deficiency, are scarce. We therefore investigated the prevalence of cobalamin deficiency in

  16. Influence of biostimulant and substrate volume on root growth and development of scarlet sage (Salvia splendens L.) transplants

    OpenAIRE

    Zeljković Svjetlana B.; Parađiković Nada A.; Babić Tamara S.; Đurić Gordana D.; Oljača Rodoljub M.; Vinković Tomislav M.; Tkalec Monika B.

    2010-01-01

    The influence of biostimulant and substrate volume on scarlet sage transplants growth and development was examined in this investigation. There was one cultivar of scarlet sage used in trial which was transplanted in pots of two different volumes. Plants were treated with biostimulant (Radifarm) in concentration of 0.25% or left untreated (control). During the trial, root and aboveground fresh and dry mass were recorded. Treatment with biostimulant and bigg...

  17. Cobalamin Status from Pregnancy to Early Childhood: Lessons from Global Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, Rima; Murphy, Michelle; Solé-Navais, Pol; Yajnik, Chittaranjan

    2017-11-01

    Low cobalamin intake and status during pregnancy or lactation have been linked to adverse maternal and perinatal health outcomes, whereas low cobalamin status during early childhood is associated with impaired development in children. Women who begin pregnancy with depleted stores (low or very low plasma cobalamin) will give birth to depleted infants who are likely to develop deficiency symptoms during the first few weeks or months postpartum. Newly ingested cobalamin during pregnancy and lactation (from diet or supplements) is transferred to the child and is not likely to correct cobalamin status in depleted women. The prevalence of low cobalamin status is high especially in low-income settings or in populations with a low intake of animal products. Folate and cobalamin play interdependent roles in one-carbon metabolism. Although folic acid supplementation during early pregnancy is widely recommended and practiced, cobalamin supplementation during pregnancy and lactation has received little attention. Furthermore, the intake recommendations for pregnant and lactating women and in early life need reevaluation in the light of newly available evidence in the field. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  18. Low bone mineral density and bone mineral content are associated with low cobalamin status in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.; Dusseldorp, M. van; Schneede, J.; Groot, L.C.P.G.M. de; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cobalamin deficiency is prevalent in vegetarians and has been associated with increased risk of osteoporosis. Aim of the study: To examine the association between cobalamin status and bone mineral density in adolescents formerly fed a macrobiotic diet and in their counterparts. Methods:

  19. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao, Psittaciformes: Psittacidae Nest Characteristics in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John L Guittar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao is an endangered species. In Costa Rica, the Scarlet Macaw population of the Central Pacific Conservation Area (ACOPAC, n =432 individuals has undergone considerable study and has been used effectively as a flagship species for regional conservation. Costa Rica’s only other viable Scarlet Macaw population, located in the Osa Peninsula Conservation Area (ACOSA, n=800-1200 individuals, remains virtually unstudied. We studied ACOSA Scarlet Macaw nest cavities from February 19th to March 22nd 2006. Through informal interviews with park guards and residents, we found a total of 57 potential nests in 52 trees. Eleven nests were reported as frequently poached. Scarlet Macaws used 14 identified tree species, ten of which are unrecorded in Costa Rica. The most common nesting trees were Caryocar costaricense (n=12, 24%, Schizolobium parahyba (n=9, 18.0%, Ceiba pentandra (n=7, 14.0% and Ficus sp. (n=5, 10.0%. We compare nesting characteristics to those recorded in ACOPAC. A combination of bottom-up and top-down strategies are necessary to ensure the Scarlet Macaw’s long-term success, including environmental education in local schools, community stewardship of active nests, and the advertisement of stricter penalties for poaching. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 387-393. Epub 2009 June 30.

  20. Relationship between cobalamin deficiency and delirium in elderly patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevuk U

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Utkan Sevuk,1 Erkan Baysal,2 Nurettin Ay,3 Yakup Altas,2 Rojhat Altindag,2 Baris Yaylak,2 Vahhac Alp,3 Ertan Demirtas4 1Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, 2Department of Cardiology, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, 3Department of General Surgery, Diyarbakir Gazi Yasargil Education and Research Hospital, Diyarbakir, 4Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Liv Hospital, Ankara, Turkey Background: Delirium is common after cardiac surgery and is independently associated with increased morbidity, mortality, prolonged hospital stays, and higher costs. Cobalamin (vitamin B12 deficiency is a common cause of neuropsychiatric symptoms and affects up to 40% of elderly people. The relationship between cobalamin deficiency and the occurrence of delirium after cardiac surgery has not been examined in previous studies. We examined the relationship between cobalamin deficiency and delirium in elderly patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG surgery.Material and methods: A total of 100 patients with cobalamin deficiency undergoing CABG were enrolled in this retrospective study. Control group comprised 100 patients without cobalamin deficiency undergoing CABG. Patients aged 65 years or over were included. Diagnosis of delirium was made using Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist. Delirium severity was measured using the Delirium Rating Scale-revised-98.Results: Patients with cobalamin deficiency had a significantly higher incidence of delirium (42% vs 26%; P=0.017 and higher delirium severity scores (16.5±2.9 vs 15.03±2.48; P=0.034 than patients without cobalamin deficiency. Cobalamin levels were significantly lower in patients with delirium than patients without delirium (P=0.004. Delirium severity score showed a moderate correlation with cobalamin levels (Ρ=-0.27; P=0.024. Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that

  1. Enzymatic extraction of cobalamin from monoclonal antibody captured haptocorrin and transcobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Mørkbak, Anne Louise; Nexo, Ebba

    2007-01-01

    house) linked to magnetic microspheres were used for precipitation of the proteins. The cobalamins were subsequently released by degradation of TC or HC with subtilisin Carlsberg (EC.3.4.21.14). RESULTS: Recovery for the extraction of (57)Co-cyanocobalamin ((57)Co-hydroxycobalamin) was higher than 99...... methods. Enzymatic extracted cobalamin constituted 118-187% of that measured in serum with routine methods (n=16). CONCLUSION: We present a method that allows extraction of cobalamins from their binding proteins without modifying the vitamin. The procedure may be useful especially for extractions aiming......OBJECTIVES: Current extraction methods for cobalamins from serum influence the molecular characteristics of the vitamin. Therefore, an extraction procedure that leaves the cobalamins unchanged is needed. DESIGN AND METHODS: Monoclonal antibodies towards transcobalamin (TC) and haptocorrin (HC) (in...

  2. Insights into the reactivation of cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutmos, Markos; Datta, Supratim; Pattridge, Katherine A.; Smith, Janet L.; Matthews, Rowena G.; (Michigan)

    2009-12-10

    Cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) is a modular protein that catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine to produce methionine and tetrahydrofolate. The cobalamin cofactor, which serves as both acceptor and donor of the methyl group, is oxidized once every {approx}2,000 catalytic cycles and must be reactivated by the uptake of an electron from reduced flavodoxin and a methyl group from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet). Previous structures of a C-terminal fragment of MetH (MetH{sup CT}) revealed a reactivation conformation that juxtaposes the cobalamin- and AdoMet-binding domains. Here we describe 2 structures of a disulfide stabilized MetH{sup CT} ({sub s-s}MetH{sup CT}) that offer further insight into the reactivation of MetH. The structure of {sub s-s}MetH{sup CT} with cob(II)alamin and S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine represents the enzyme in the reactivation step preceding electron transfer from flavodoxin. The structure supports earlier suggestions that the enzyme acts to lower the reduction potential of the Co(II)/Co(I) couple by elongating the bond between the cobalt and its upper axial water ligand, effectively making the cobalt 4-coordinate, and illuminates the role of Tyr-1139 in the stabilization of this 4-coordinate state. The structure of {sub s-s}MetH{sub CT} with aquocobalamin may represent a transient state at the end of reactivation as the newly remethylated 5-coordinate methylcobalamin returns to the 6-coordinate state, triggering the rearrangement to a catalytic conformation.

  3. Beach almond (Terminalia catappa, Combretaceae) seed production and predation by scarlet macaws (Ara macao) and variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Jonathan J; McCoy, Michael B; Vaughan, Christopher S

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of ecological impacts of exotic beach almond (Terminalia catappa) in the central Pacific of Costa Rica are little known, but studies have found this species to be a potentially important food source for endangered scarlet macaws (Ara macao). In this study, reproductive phenology and seed predation by variegated squirrels (Sciurus variegatoides) and scarlet macaws were measured during March and April 2011 on beaches of central Pacific coastal Costa Rica. Seed productivity and predation levels were quantified on a weekly basis for 111 beach almond trees to assess the importance of beach almond as a food source for scarlet macaws and the extent of resource partitioning between seed predators. Seed production of the trees was great (about 194 272 seeds) and approximately 67% of seeds were predated by seed predators. Macaws consumed an estimated 49% of seeds while squirrels consumed 18%. Additionally, evidence of resource partitioning between squirrels and macaws was found. Scarlet macaws preferred to feed on the northern side and edge of the canopy while squirrels preferred to feed on the southern and inside parts of the canopy. Both species ate most seeds on the ocean side of the tree. Despite the status of this tree as an exotic species, the beach almond appears to be an important resource for scarlet macaw population recovery. The resource produced by this tree should be taken into account as reforestation efforts continue in Costa Rica.

  4. Free and protein-bound cobalamin absorption in healthy middle-aged and older subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Asselt, D Z; van den Broek, W J; Lamers, C B; Corstens, F H; Hoefnagels, W H

    1996-08-01

    To study free- and protein-bound cobalamin absorption and the correlation with atrophic gastritis in healthy middle-aged and older subjects. A cross-sectional study. Fifty-two healthy subjects, aged 26 to 87 years, apparently free from conditions known to influence the cobalamin status. Middle-aged subjects were defined as those younger than 65 years of age (median age 57 years) and older subjects as those 65 years and older (median age 75 years). Protein-bound cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of scrambled egg yolk, labeled in vivo with 57 Co-cobalamin by injecting a hen with 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. The percentage of 57 Co-cobalamin bound to protein was 65%. Free cobalamin absorption was assessed by 48-hour urinary excretion method following oral administration of crystalline 57 Co-cyanocobalamin. Plasma cobalamin, folate and fasting plasma gastrin, and pepsinogen A and C concentrations were determined. The median urinary excretion of egg yolk 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 12.3% (25th and 75th percentiles 10.5%-14.5%) compared with 11.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 9.8%-13.6%) in older subjects (P = .283). The median urinary excretion after administration of free 57 Co-cobalamin in middle-aged subjects was 25.7% (25th and 75th percentiles 20.6%-30.7%) compared with 27.9% (25th and 75th percentiles 21.4%-34.5%) in older subjects (P = .694). Neither egg yolk nor free 57 Co-cobalamin excretion correlated with age. A ratio of pepsinogen A to pepsinogen C less than 1.6, indicating atrophic gastritis, was found in 13 subjects. Within the atrophic gastritis group, 11 subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration greater than or equal to 17 micrograms/L, indicating mild to moderate atrophic gastritis, and two subjects had a pepsinogen A concentration less than 17 micrograms/L, indicating severe atrophic gastritis or gastric atrophy. All subjects had normal fasting plasma gastrin concentrations. Free

  5. The marker of cobalamin deficiency, plasma methylmalonic acid, correlates to plasma creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, A M; Juul, S; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the two diagnostic tests, plasma methylmalonic acid and plasma cobalamins, and their association with plasma creatinine, age and sex. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of simultaneous laboratory measurements. SETTING: County of Aarhus, Denmark. SUBJECTS...

  6. A longitudinal study of serum cobalamins and its binding proteins in lactating women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørkbak, A L; Ramlau-Hansen, C H; Møller, U K

    2006-01-01

    were analysed. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in serum cobalamins or its binding proteins related to supplementation with vitamin B12 or the duration of lactation. Serum cobalamins remained unchanged from 3 weeks to 9 months post-partum. Total TC (holoTC) (median+/-s.e. pmol...... in HC during a 9-month period post-partum. No differences were observed between the vitamin B12-supplemented and the unsupplemented groups. Thus, supplementation with vitamin B12 has no impact on the circulating level of serum cobalamins or its binding proteins in a Danish population of lactating......OBJECTIVE: To examine longitudinal changes in serum cobalamins, transcobalamin (TC) and haptocorrin (HC) during lactation and to investigate the influence of vitamin B12 supplementation on these parameters. DESIGN: A 9-month follow-up study. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Lactating mothers (N=89) including...

  7. Cobalamin status during normal pregnancy and postpartum: a longitudinal study comprising 406 danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, KE; Bergholt, T

    2006-01-01

    -) cobalamin, P-methylmalonic acid and P-homocysteine was measured at 18, 32 and 39 wk gestation and 8 wk postpartum during lactation. RESULTS: P-cobalamin showed a gradual, significant decline during pregnancy (P ... and 8 wk postpartum median values were 225, 172, 161 and 319 pmol/L, respectively. P-methylmalonic displayed a gradual, significant increase during pregnancy as well as postpartum (P homocysteine demonstrated...

  8. Scarlet fever: A not so typical exanthematous pharyngotonsillitis (based on 171 cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Vera, César; de Dios Javierre, Bárbara; Castán Larraz, Beatriz; Arana Navarro, Teresa; Cenarro Guerrero, Teresa; Ruiz Pastora, Rafael; Sánchez Gimeno, Javier

    2016-01-01

    To describe the age, signs and clinical symptoms of children with scarlet fever at the present time, and to check whether they are equivalent to those with traditional streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis. An observational, retrospective study was conducted on the clinical records of 5500 children aged from 0 to 15 years attending a primary health care center. A record was made of the percentage of the cases in which signs and symptoms appear and the Centor score was calculated. Microbiological diagnosis of the disease was made using the rapid antigen-detection test or traditional culture. A total of 171 out of 252 scarlet fever diagnoses were microbiologically verified in 158 patients. The median age was 3.8 years (interquartile range: 2.91-4.78), with the majority (57%) under the age of 4 years. There was fever in 89% of the processes (95% CI: 84-94%), with a temperature of >38°C in 73% (95% CI: 65-80%), enlarged lymph nodes in 70% (95% CI: 58-82%), absence of cough in 73% (95% CI: 65-80%), and tonsillar exudate in only 24% (95% CI: 17-31%). The Centor score (n=105) was ≤2 points in 86% (95% CI: 79-92%). The only difference regarding age is that episodes in patients under the age of 4 years old have significantly higher fever (>38°C) than the older ones (80% versus 63%. OR 3.13; 95% CI: 1.46-6.71). Scarlet fever pharyngotonsillitis differs from the traditional streptococcal pharyngotonsillitis, and its evaluation using clinical prediction rules such as Centor or McIsaac is questionable. The main diagnostic key must certainly be rash, regardless of patient age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  9. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandyo, Ram K; Ulak, Manjeswori; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Schneede, Jørn; Ueland, Per M; Strand, Tor A

    2016-06-22

    Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon.

  10. Serum cobalamin and methylmalonic acid concentrations in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghoff, Nora; Parnell, Nolie K; Hill, Steve L; Suchodolski, Jan S; Steiner, Jörg M

    2013-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia or methylmalonic acidemia (or both) in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease. Serum samples from 56 dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and 43 control dogs. Serum cobalamin and methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations were measured in all samples and compared between groups. A correlation between serum cobalamin and MMA concentrations and the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index was evaluated via the Spearman rank correlation. 20 of 56 (36%) dogs with gastrointestinal disease had hypocobalaminemia. Serum cobalamin concentrations were significantly lower in dogs with gastrointestinal disease than in control dogs. Five of 56 (9%) dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and 5 of 20 (25%) hypocobalaminemic dogs had increased MMA concentrations. There was a significant negative correlation (Spearman r = -0.450) between serum cobalamin and MMA concentrations in dogs with gastrointestinal disease. No correlation was found between the canine chronic enteropathy clinical activity index and serum cobalamin or MMA concentrations. These data indicated the prevalence of hypocobalaminemia in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease was 20 of 56 (36%). Five of 20 (25%) hypocobalaminemic dogs had increased serum MMA concentrations, which indicated that although hypocobalaminemia was common in these dogs, it did not always appear to be associated with a deficiency of cobalamin on a cellular level. Hypocobalaminemia is a risk factor for negative outcome in dogs with chronic gastrointestinal disease and should be considered in every patient with corresponding clinical signs.

  11. MtrA of the sodium ion pumping methyltransferase binds cobalamin in a unique mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Tristan; Ermler, Ulrich; Shima, Seigo

    2016-06-21

    In the three domains of life, vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is primarily used in methyltransferase and isomerase reactions. The methyltransferase complex MtrA-H of methanogenic archaea has a key function in energy conservation by catalysing the methyl transfer from methyl-tetrahydromethanopterin to coenzyme M and its coupling with sodium-ion translocation. The cobalamin-binding subunit MtrA is not homologous to any known B12-binding proteins and is proposed as the motor of the sodium-ion pump. Here, we present crystal structures of the soluble domain of the membrane-associated MtrA from Methanocaldococcus jannaschii and the cytoplasmic MtrA homologue/cobalamin complex from Methanothermus fervidus. The MtrA fold corresponds to the Rossmann-type α/β fold, which is also found in many cobalamin-containing proteins. Surprisingly, the cobalamin-binding site of MtrA differed greatly from all the other cobalamin-binding sites. Nevertheless, the hydrogen-bond linkage at the lower axial-ligand site of cobalt was equivalently constructed to that found in other methyltransferases and mutases. A distinct polypeptide segment fixed through the hydrogen-bond linkage in the relaxed Co(III) state might be involved in propagating the energy released upon corrinoid demethylation to the sodium-translocation site by a conformational change.

  12. Scarlet Macaw, Ara macao, (Psittaciformes: Psittacidae diet in Central Pacific Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available From 1993 to 1997, we observed Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao feeding behavior in Central Pacific Costa Rica. Feeding data acquired in this study were not collected systematically, but opportunistically whenever macaws were observed feeding. To supplement feeding observations, we conducted interviews with local residents. Scarlet Macaws fed on seeds, fruits, leaves, flowers and/or bark of 43 plant species. Various plant parts eaten by macaws from several tree species contain secondary compounds toxic to humans, and additional species included in their diet are nonnative, introduced for agricultural purposes. Important macaw feeding tree species are Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, and Hura crepitans; these species are also crucial to this macaw population because of nest cavities they provide. The results of this study contribute to the conservation of Scarlet Macaws in Central Pacific Costa Rica through promoting protection of individual trees, and through local elementary school reforestation programs focusing on tree species that macaws use for feeding and/or nesting. Scarlet Macaw conservation is extremely important, as numerous population pressures have caused significant declines in macaw numbers in Costa Rica. Rev. Biol. Trop. 54 (3: 919-926. Epub 2006 Sept. 29.Entre 1993-97, observamos el comportamiento de alimentación de la lapa roja (Ara macao en el Pacifico Central de Costa Rica. La lapa roja se alimentó de semillas, frutas, hojas, flores y corteza de 43 especies de plantas. Varias partes de las plantas comidas por las lapas contienen compuestos secundarios tóxicos al ser humano, y especies adicionales incluidas en la dieta son exóticas; introducidas por razones agrícolas, forestales o estéticas. Especies de árboles importantes como alimento de la lapa roja incluyen: Ceiba pentandra, Schizolobium parahybum, y Hura crepitans; también son criticas para la población de la lapa roja debido a proveen cavidades para anidaci

  13. The scarlet eye colour gene of the tephritid fruit fly: Bactrocera tryoni and the nature of two eye colour mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J T; Bennett, C L; Stewart, G J; Frommer, M; Raphael, K A

    2003-06-01

    A homologue of the Drosophila melanogaster eye-colour gene, scarlet (st), has been isolated from the genome of the tephritid fruit fly, Bactrocera tryoni. The comparison of the B. tryoni and D. melanogaster scarlet gene shows 71.2% and 79.3% sequence identity at the DNA and the derived amino acid level, respectively. Two allelic eye-colour mutations of B. tryoni, orange-eyes and lemon-eyes, have been recovered and found to be colocalized with the st gene. The st gene sequence in the two mutant strains has been examined for DNA sequence changes and expression levels.

  14. Biomarkers of cobalamin (vitamin B-12) status in the epidemiologic setting: a critical overview of context, applications, and performance characteristics of cobalamin, methylmalonic acid, and holotranscobalamin II 1 2 3 4

    OpenAIRE

    Carmel, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Cobalamin deficiency is relatively common, but the great majority of cases in epidemiologic surveys have subclinical cobalamin deficiency (SCCD), not classical clinical deficiency. Because SCCD has no known clinical expression, its diagnosis depends solely on biochemical biomarkers, whose optimal application becomes crucial yet remains unsettled. This review critically examines the current diagnostic concepts, tools, and interpretations. Their exploration begins with understanding that SCCD d...

  15. [BPNN simulation of photocatalytic degradation of reactive scarlet BES by UV-Vis spectrophotometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Tao; He, Guo-Li; Xiang, Ming-Li

    2009-10-01

    The use of chemometric techniques and multivariate experimental designs for the photocatalytic reaction of reactive scarlet BES in aqueous solution under ultraviolet light irradiation is described. The efficiency of photocatalytic degradation was evaluated by the analysis of the parameter of decoloration efficiency determined by UV absorption at 540 nm using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer in different conditions. Five factors, such as the amount of titanium oxide ([TiO2]), the concentrations of reactive scarlet BES (c(0)), irradiation time (t), the pH value (pH) and temperature (T), were studied. [TiO2]. c(0), t and pH selected on the basis of the results of variance analysis by Plackett-Burman design were used as independent variables. Training sets and test sets of back propagation neural network (BPNN) were formed by Box-Behnken design and uniform design U10 (10 x 5(2) x 2) respectively. The process of photocatalytic degradation of the target object was simulated by the BPNN model. The correlation coefficient (r) of the calculation results for training set and test set by BPNN is 0.996 4 and 0.963 6 respectively, and the mean relative errors between the predictive value and experimental value of decoloration efficiency are 6.14 and 7.76, respectively. The modeled BPNN was applied to analyze the influence of four factors on decoloration efficiency. The results showed that the initial conditions of c(0) being lower, pH 5.0 and appropriate amount of [TiO2] contribute to improving the decoloration efficiency of reactive scarlet BES. Under the condition of c(0) = 40 mg x L(-1), the optimized experimental condition of the system was obtained: [TiO2] = 1.20 g x L(-1) and pH 5.0. Under the optimized experimental condition, the experimental value of decoloration efficiency is 98.20% when irradiation time is 35 minutes and the predictive value of decoloration efficiency is 99.16% under the same condition. The relative error of decoloration efficiency between the predictive

  16. Nutritional Intake and Status of Cobalamin and Folate among Non-Pregnant Women of Reproductive Age in Bhaktapur, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram K. Chandyo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin and folate are especially important for women of childbearing age due to their ubiquitous role in fetal growth and development. Population-based data on cobalamin and folate status are lacking from Nepal, where diets are mostly vegetarian. The objectives of the study were to investigate cobalamin and folate intake and status, and to explore associations with socio-demographics, anthropometrics, anemia, and dietary habits. Following a random selection of geographical clusters, we collected blood samples from 500 non-pregnant women and 24-h dietary recalls and food frequency questionnaires from a subsample of 379 women. Twenty percent of the women did not consume any food containing cobalamin during the days recalled, and in 72% nutritional cobalamin intake was <1 μg/day. Eighty-four percent of the women had cobalamin intake lower than the estimated average requirement (EAR (<2 μg/day. In contrast, only 12% of the women had a folate intake less than 100 μg per day, whereas 62% had intake between 100 and 320 μg. Low plasma cobalamin (<150 pmol/L was found in 42% of the women, most of whom (88% also had elevated levels of methylmalonic acid. Our results indicated a high prevalence of nutritional cobalamin deficiency, while folate deficiency was uncommon.

  17. The man in the scarlet cloak. The mysterious death of Peter Anthony Motteux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ober, W B

    1991-09-01

    Peter Anthony Motteux (1663-1718), a Huguenot refugee in London, established a literary reputation by completing Sir Thomas Urquhart's translation of Rabelais' Gargantua and Pantagruel, then Cervantes' Don Quixote. He later became an import-export merchant. On his 55th birthday he donned his scarlet cloak and went out on the town. He picked up a prostitute and after some dalliance returned to her bordello. Shortly thereafter he was found dead, although the evidence is that he was in good health when he arrived. Literary evidence is that he died from assisted erotic asphyxia, a variant of autoerotic asphyxia, cf. the case of Frantisek Koczwara (Am J Forensic Med Pathol 5:145-149, 1984.)

  18. Amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal in the feather barbs of the scarlet macaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhan, Tianrong; Shi, Lei; Zi, Jian; Yablonovitch, Eli

    2012-07-03

    Noniridescent coloration by the spongy keratin in parrot feather barbs has fascinated scientists. Nonetheless, its ultimate origin remains as yet unanswered, and a quantitative structural and optical description is still lacking. Here we report on structural and optical characterizations and numerical simulations of the blue feather barbs of the scarlet macaw. We found that the sponge in the feather barbs is an amorphous diamond-structured photonic crystal with only short-range order. It possesses an isotropic photonic pseudogap that is ultimately responsible for the brilliant noniridescent coloration. We further unravel an ingenious structural optimization for attaining maximum coloration apparently resulting from natural evolution. Upon increasing the material refractive index above the level provided by nature, there is an interesting transition from a photonic pseudogap to a complete bandgap.

  19. Serum cobalamin concentrations and small intestinal ultrasound changes in 75 cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jugan, Maria C; August, John R

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate ultrasonographic changes in the small intestine of cats with clinical signs of gastrointestinal disease and low or low-normal serum cobalamin concentrations. Methods Records for client-owned cats presenting to the small animal hospital with signs of gastrointestinal disease and in which serum cobalamin concentrations were measured from 2000-2013 were reviewed. Inclusion criteria were cobalamin concentrations cats, abdominal ultrasound was performed in 207 of those cats and a diagnosis was available for 75 of them. Small intestinal ultrasound changes were detected in 49/75 (65%) cats. Abnormalities included thickening, loss of wall layer definition, echogenicity alterations and discrete masses. Serum cobalamin concentrations disease, neoplasia, infectious disease and normal histopathology. Cobalamin concentration was significantly lower in cats with lymphoma or inflammatory bowel disease compared with other gastrointestinal neoplasia ( P = 0.031). No difference was found between cobalamin concentration and the presence of ultrasound abnormalities, specific ultrasound changes or albumin concentration. Conclusions and relevance One-third of symptomatic cats with hypocobalaminemia or low-normal cobalamin concentrations may have an ultrasonographically normal small intestine. For the majority of cats in this study, histopathologic abnormalities were observed in the small intestine, regardless of ultrasound changes. These findings suggest gastrointestinal disease should not be excluded based on low-normal cobalamin concentrations, even with a concurrent normal ultrasound examination. Additional studies are needed in cats with low-normal serum cobalamin concentrations, as a definitive diagnosis was not pursued consistently in those cats. However, data from this study suggest that careful monitoring, histopathologic evaluation and future cobalamin supplementation may be warranted.

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on Dietary Reference Values for cobalamin (vitamin B12)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    2015-01-01

    cobalamin, holotranscobalamin (holoTC), methylmalonic acid (MMA) and plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), is the most suitable approach to derive DRVs for cobalamin. The Panel notes the uncertainties with respect to cut-off values for cobalamin insufficiency of these indicators and that an Average Requirement...... (AR) cannot be determined from the limited data available. There is consistent evidence in adults that a cobalamin intake of 4 μg/day and greater is associated with serum concentrations of holoTC and cobalamin within the reference ranges derived from healthy subjects, together with MMA and t...

  1. [Effect of cobalamin derivatives on DNA synthesis in cells of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iordan, E P; Petukhova, N I; Vorob'eva, L I

    1987-01-01

    The increase of DNA-synthesis rate (according incorporation [8-14C]adenine) in B12-deficient cells Propionibacterium shermanii as a result of different cobalamines adding into the cell suspension including metoxyethyladenile analog of adenozilcobalamin and some components of vitamin B12 molecule has been found. The DNA-synthesis rate in B12-deficient cells is nearly twice lower as compared with one in B12-normal cells. Considerable stimulative effect (80-100%) was provided with coenzyme forms of cobalamin. The data confirm the participation of vitamin B12 in DNA-synthesis in Propionibacterium cells.

  2. Experimental capabilities of 0.4 PW, 1 shot/min Scarlet laser facility for high energy density science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, P L; Willis, C; Daskalova, R L; George, K M; Feister, S; Jiang, S; Snyder, J; Marketon, J; Schumacher, D W; Akli, K U; Van Woerkom, L; Freeman, R R; Chowdhury, E A

    2016-06-10

    We report on the recently completed 400 TW upgrade to the Scarlet laser at The Ohio State University. Scarlet is a Ti:sapphire-based ultrashort pulse system that delivers >10  J in 30 fs pulses to a 2 μm full width at half-maximum focal spot, resulting in intensities exceeding 5×1021  W/cm2. The laser fires at a repetition rate of once per minute and is equipped with a suite of on-demand and on-shot diagnostics detailed here, allowing for rapid collection of experimental statistics. As part of the upgrade, the entire laser system has been redesigned to facilitate consistent, characterized high intensity data collection at high repetition rates. The design and functionality of the laser and target chambers are described along with initial data from commissioning experimental shots.

  3. Emergence of scarlet fever Streptococcus pyogenes emm12 clones in Hong Kong is associated with toxin acquisition and multidrug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Mark R; Holden, Matthew T; Coupland, Paul; Chen, Jonathan H K; Venturini, Carola; Barnett, Timothy C; Zakour, Nouri L Ben; Tse, Herman; Dougan, Gordon; Yuen, Kwok-Yung; Walker, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    A scarlet fever outbreak began in mainland China and Hong Kong in 2011 (refs. 1-6). Macrolide- and tetracycline-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes emm12 isolates represent the majority of clinical cases. Recently, we identified two mobile genetic elements that were closely associated with emm12 outbreak isolates: the integrative and conjugative element ICE-emm12, encoding genes for tetracycline and macrolide resistance, and prophage ΦHKU.vir, encoding the superantigens SSA and SpeC, as well as the DNase Spd1 (ref. 4). Here we sequenced the genomes of 141 emm12 isolates, including 132 isolated in Hong Kong between 2005 and 2011. We found that the introduction of several ICE-emm12 variants, ΦHKU.vir and a new prophage, ΦHKU.ssa, occurred in three distinct emm12 lineages late in the twentieth century. Acquisition of ssa and transposable elements encoding multidrug resistance genes triggered the expansion of scarlet fever-associated emm12 lineages in Hong Kong. The occurrence of multidrug-resistant ssa-harboring scarlet fever strains should prompt heightened surveillance within China and abroad for the dissemination of these mobile genetic elements.

  4. Molecular epidemiological characteristics of Streptococcus pyogenes strains involved in an outbreak of scarlet fever in China, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yuan Hai; Song, Yan Yan; Yan, Xiao Mei; Wang, Hai Bin; Zhang, Meng Han; Tao, Xiao Xia; Li, Lei Lei; Zhang, Yu Xin; Jiang, Xi Hong; Zhang, Bing Hua; Zhou, Hao; Xiao, Di; Jin, Lian Mei; Feng, Zi Jian; Luo, Feng Ji; Zhang, Jian Zhong

    2013-11-01

    To investigate molecular characterization of streptococcus pyogenes isolates involved in an outbreak of scarlet fever in China in 2011. Seventy-four Streptococcal pyogenes involved in an outbreak of scarlet fever were isolated from pediatric patients in the areas with high incidence in China from May to August of 2011. Emm genotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), superantigen (SAg) genes and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling were analyzed for these isolates. A total of 4 different emm types were identified. Emm12 was the most prevalent type which contained four predominating PFGE patterns corresponding to four different virulence and superantigen profiles. Emm12 (79.7%) and emm1 (14.9%) accounted for approximately 94% of all the isolates. The speA gene was all negative in emm12 isolates and positive in emm1 isolates. All strains were resistant to erythromycin, and 89.4% of them were resistant to erythromycin, tracycline, and clindamycin simultaneously. Several highly diversified clones with a high macrolide resistance rate comprise a predominant proportion of circulating strains, though no new emm type was found in this outbreak. The data provide a baseline for further surveillance of scarlet fever, which may contribute to the explanation of the outbreak and development of a GAS vaccine in China. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship of recurrent aphthous stomatitis and Helicobacter pylori, cytokine gene polymorphism and cobalamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakar, Tolga; Serin, Ender; Coşar, Arif Mansur; Arslan Taş, Didem; Ataç, Fatma Belgin

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether Helicobacter pylori causes or triggers recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) through cytokine gene polymorphism and/or cobalamin deficiency. Thirty-six patients with RAS and 130 patients without RAS were genotyped for IL-1β (-511C/T) and IL-6 (-174G/C) and evaluated for H. pylori infection and serum cobalamin level. The patient groups according to RAS had similar rates of H. pylori gastritis and interleukin genotypes/alleles, and there was a non-significant difference between serum cobalamin levels (p>0.05). RAS patients with H. pylori gastritis showed a higher frequency (51.9%) of GC IL-6 genotype than RAS patients without H. pylori gastritis (11.1%) (p=0.036). Non-GG genotype and C allele were increased in patients without RAS and with H. pylori gastritis (p<0.05). Patients with H. pylori gastritis showed a lower value of serum cobalamin without statistical significance, although this difference was more prominent in RAS patients (p=0.07). The carriage of the C allele of IL-6 may lead a susceptibility to chronic gastric inflammation after contamination with H. pylori. If H. pylori infection is justified as a predisposing factor for RAS and its severity by further studies, we can speculate that subjects with genetic susceptibility to this infection may benefit from H. pylori eradication treatment with respect to RAS.

  6. Mutations in THAP11 cause an inborn error of cobalamin metabolism and developmental abnormalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Anita M; Yu, Hung-Chun; Brebner, Alison

    2017-01-01

    CblX (MIM309541) is an X-linked recessive disorder characterized by defects in cobalamin (vitamin B12) metabolism and other developmental defects. Mutations in HCFC1, a transcriptional co-regulator which interacts with multiple transcription factors, have been associated with cblX. HCFC1 regulate...

  7. [Solubilizing effect of anionic detergents on cobalamin-protein compounds in Propionibacterium shermanii cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, S A; Datsiuk, N M; Snezhko, I A

    1985-01-01

    The effect of some anionic detergents on Propionibacterium shermanii cells was studied. The correlation was investigated between detergent concentrations and the content of solubilized protein in cell-free extracts. Sodium dodecyl sulfate, sodium deoxycholate and sodium cholate were shown to be capable of extracting cobalamin-protein and flavin-protein compounds from P. shermanii cells.

  8. Degradation and detoxification of disperse dye Scarlet RR by Galactomyces geotrichum MTCC 1360.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, S U; Ghodake, G S; Telke, A A; Tamboli, D P; Govindwar, S P

    2009-04-01

    Galactomyces geotrichum MTCC 1360 degraded the Scarlet RR (100 mg/l) dye within 18 h, under shaking conditions (150 rpm) in malt yeast medium. The optimum pH and the temperature for decolorization were pH 12 and 50 degrees , respectively. Enzymatic studies revealed an induction of the enzymes, including flavin reductase during the initial stage and lignin peroxidase after complete decolorization of the dye. Decolorization of the dye was induced by the addition of CaCO3 to the medium. EDTA had an inhibitory effect on the dye decolorization along with the laccase activity. The metabolites formed after complete decolorization were analyzed by UV-VIS, HPLC, and FTIR. The GC/MS identification of 3 H quinazolin-4- one, 2-ethylamino-acetamide, 1-chloro-4-nitro-benzene, N- (4-chloro-phenyl)-hydroxylamine, and 4-chloro-pheny-lamine as the final metabolites corroborated with the degradation pathway is suggested to understand the mechanism used by G.geotrichum and thereby aiding development of technologies for the application of this organism to the cleaning-up of aquatic and terrestrial environments.

  9. Syndromic surveillance models using Web data: the case of scarlet fever in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaras, Loukas; García-Barriocanal, Elena; Sicilia, Miguel-Angel

    2012-03-01

    Recent research has shown the potential of Web queries as a source for syndromic surveillance, and existing studies show that these queries can be used as a basis for estimation and prediction of the development of a syndromic disease, such as influenza, using log linear (logit) statistical models. Two alternative models are applied to the relationship between cases and Web queries in this paper. We examine the applicability of using statistical methods to relate search engine queries with scarlet fever cases in the UK, taking advantage of tools to acquire the appropriate data from Google, and using an alternative statistical method based on gamma distributions. The results show that using logit models, the Pearson correlation factor between Web queries and the data obtained from the official agencies must be over 0.90, otherwise the prediction of the peak and the spread of the distributions gives significant deviations. In this paper, we describe the gamma distribution model and show that we can obtain better results in all cases using gamma transformations, and especially in those with a smaller correlation factor.

  10. High phenolics Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce improves glucose metabolism in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Diana M; Roopchand, Diana E; Poulev, Alexander; Kuhn, Peter; Armas, Isabel; Johnson, William D; Oren, Andrew; Ribnicky, David; Zelzion, Ehud; Bhattacharya, Debashish; Raskin, Ilya

    2016-11-01

    The ability of high phenolic Rutgers Scarlet Lettuce (RSL) to attenuate metabolic syndrome and gut dysbiosis was studied in very high fat diet (VHFD)-fed mice. Phenolic absorption was assessed in vivo and in a gastrointestinal tract model. Mice were fed VHFD, VHFD supplemented with RSL (RSL-VHFD) or store-purchased green lettuce (GL-VHFD), or low-fat diet (LFD) for 13 weeks. Compared to VHFD or GL-VHFD-fed groups, RSL-VHFD group showed significantly improved oral glucose tolerance (pphenolics chlorogenic acid, quercetin-3-glucoside, and quercetin-malonyl-glucoside were bioaccessible in the TIM-1 digestion model, but had relatively low recovery. RSL phenolics contributed to attenuation of post-prandial hyperglycemia. Changes in gut microbiota were likely due to microbiota accessible carbohydrates in RSL and GL rather than RSL phenolics, which may be metabolized, absorbed, or degraded before reaching the colon. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Streptococcus pyogenes and re-emergence of scarlet fever as a public health problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Samson SY; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2012-01-01

    Explosive outbreaks of infectious diseases occasionally occur without immediately obvious epidemiological or microbiological explanations. Plague, cholera and Streptococcus pyogenes infection are some of the epidemic-prone bacterial infections. Besides epidemiological and conventional microbiological methods, the next-generation gene sequencing technology permits prompt detection of genomic and transcriptomic profiles associated with invasive phenotypes. Horizontal gene transfer due to mobile genetic elements carrying virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance, or mutations associated with the two component CovRS operon are important bacterial factors conferring survival advantage or invasiveness. The high incidence of scarlet fever in children less than 10 years old suggests that the lack of protective immunity is an important host factor. A high population density, overcrowded living environment and a low yearly rainfall are environmental factors contributing to outbreak development. Inappropriate antibiotic use is not only ineffective for treatment, but may actually drive an epidemic caused by drug-resistant strains and worsen patient outcomes by increasing the bacterial density at the site of infection and inducing toxin production. Surveillance of severe S. pyogenes infection is important because it can complicate concurrent chickenpox and influenza. Concomitant outbreaks of these two latter infections with a highly virulent and drug-resistant S. pyogenes strain can be disastrous. PMID:26038416

  12. Cobalamin Protection against Oxidative Stress in the Acidophilic Iron-oxidizing Bacterium Leptospirillum group II CF-1

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    Gloria Paz Levicán

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Members of the genus Leptospirillum are aerobic iron-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the phylum Nitrospira. They are important members of microbial communities that catalyze the biomining of sulfidic ores, thereby solubilizing metal ions. These microorganisms live under extremely acidic and metal-loaded environments and thus must tolerate high concentrations of reactive oxygen species. Cobalamin (vitamin B12 is a cobalt-containing tetrapyrrole cofactor involved in intramolecular rearrangement reactions and has recently been suggested to be an intracellular antioxidant. In this work, we investigated the effect of the exogenous addition of cobalamin on oxidative stress parameters in Leptospirillum group II strain CF-1. Our results revealed that the external supplementation of cobalamin reduces the levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the damage to biomolecules, and also stimulates the growth and survival of cells exposed to oxidative stress exerted by ferric ion, hydrogen peroxide, chromate and diamide. Furthermore, exposure of strain CF-1 to oxidative stress elicitors resulted in the transcriptional activation of the cbiA gene encoding CbiA of the cobalamin biosynthetic pathway. Altogether, these data suggest that cobalamin plays an important role in redox protection of Leptospirillum strain CF-1, supporting survival of this microorganism under extremely oxidative environmental conditions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying the protective effect of cobalamin against oxidative stress may help to develop strategies to make biomining processes more effective.

  13. Development of CHARMM-compatible force-field parameters for cobalamin and related cofactors from quantum mechanical calculations.

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    Pavlova, Anna; Parks, Jerry M; Gumbart, James C

    2018-01-15

    Corrinoid cofactors such as cobalamin are used by many enzymes and are essential for most living organisms. Therefore, there is broad interest in investigating cobalamin-protein interactions with molecular dynamics simulations. Previously developed parameters for cobalamins are based mainly on crystal structure data. Here, we report CHARMM-compatible force field parameters for several corrinoids developed from quantum mechanical calculations. We provide parameters for corrinoids in three oxidation states, Co3+, Co2+ and Co1+, and with various axial ligands. Lennard-Jones parameters for the cobalt center in the Co(II) and Co(I) states were optimized using a helium atom probe, and partial atomic charges were obtained with a combination of natural population analysis (NPA) and restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) fitting approaches. The Force Field Toolkit was used to optimize all bonded terms. The resulting parameters, determined solely from calculations of cobalamin alone or in water, were then validated by assessing their agreement with DFT geometries and by analyzing molecular dynamics simulation trajectories of several corrinoid proteins for which X-ray crystal structures are available. In each case, we obtained excellent agreement with the reference data. In comparison to previous CHARMM-compatible parameters for cobalamin we observe a better agreement for the fold angle and lower RMSD in the cobalamin binding site. The approach described here is readily adaptable for developing CHARMM-compatible force-field parameters of other corrinoids or large biomolecules.

  14. Cobalamin C defect-hemolytic uremic syndrome caused by new mutation in MMACHC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrovic, Amra; Canpolat, Nur; Caliskan, Salim; Sever, Lale; Kıykım, Ertugrul; Agbas, Ayse; Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2016-08-01

    Atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) is mostly linked to defects in the regulation of alternative complement pathway, but a rare form is caused by an inherited defect of cobalamin 1 metabolism. Cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism that results from mutations in methylmalonic aciduria and homocysteinuria (MMACHC). The most severe form of cblC deficiency and the associated high mortality rate are mostly observed in neonates or in infants severe multiorgan involvement at the age of 5 months and who was successfully treated with vitamin B12, betaine, coenzyme Q10 and l-carnitene, and who had a new homozygous mutation of MMACHC. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  15. METHYLMALONIC ACID AND HOMOCYSTEIN SERUM IN DIAGNOSING MEGALOBLASTIC ANEMIA DUE TO COBALAMIN AND FOLATE DEFICIENCY IN TRAVEL MEDICINE

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    Made Gian Indra Rahayuda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Anemia is a major global health problem, especially in developing countries. Anemia is a condition where the red blood cell mass and / or hemoglobin mass that circulating in the body was decreased to below normal level so it can not function well in providing oxygen to the body tissues. One of the most common type is megaloblastic anemia. Megaloblastic anemia is mostly caused by vitamin B12 (cobalamin and folate deficiency. One of the causes of cobalamin and folate deficiency anemia is tropical sprue. Cobalamin deficiency anemia and folate deficiency anemia gives a similar symptom, but in cobalamin deficiency there is neuropathy symptoms. Normal serum folate is between 3-15 ng/mL. Normal folate erythrocyte is 150-600 ng/mL. In cobalamin deficiency, serum cobalamin decreased below the cut off point 100pg/mL (normally 100 - 400pg/mL. Other examination such as elevated homocysteine??, methylmalonic acid, or formioglutamic acid (FIGLU in the urine can confirm the diagnosis of cobalamin and folic acid deficiency. There is no consensus on the cut-off point of homocysteine ??and MMA. Homocysteine ??has been considered to increase when the levels are above 12-14 ?mol /L in women and in the 14-15 ?mol/L. According to research by Robert et al in the case of cobalamin deficiency, serum tHcy> 15.0 ?mol/L. Most research considers the increase of MMA in cobalamin deficiency is> 0:28 ?mol / L, but the cut off point in circulation varies between 0:21 to 0:48 ?mol/L. MMA level is increased in serum and urine in cobalamin deficiency, whereas MMA normal in folate deficiency. /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font

  16. Reducing Capacity, Chlorogenic Acid Content and Biological Activity in a Collection of Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum and Gboma (S. macrocarpon Eggplants

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    Mariola Plazas

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum and gboma (S. macrocarpon eggplants are important vegetables in Sub-Saharan Africa. Few studies have been made on these crops regarding the diversity of phenolic content and their biological activity. We have studied the reducing activity, the chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acid contents in a collection of 56 accessions of scarlet eggplant, including the four cultivated groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, Shum and the weedy intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi types, as well as in eight accessions of gboma eggplant, including the cultivated S. macrocarpon and its wild ancestor, S. dasyphyllum. A sample of the accessions evaluated in this collection has been tested for inhibition of nitric oxide (NO using macrophage cell cultures. The results show that there is a great diversity in both crops for reducing activity, chlorogenic acid content and chlorogenic acid peak area (% of total phenolic acids. Heritability (H2 for these traits was intermediate to high in both crops. In all samples, chlorogenic acid was the major phenolic acid and accounted for more than 50% of the chromatogram peak area. Considerable differences were found among and within groups for these traits, but the greatest values for total phenolics and chlorogenic acid content were found in S. dasyphyllum. In most groups, reducing activity was positively correlated (with values of up to 0.904 in the Aculeatum group with chlorogenic acid content. Inhibition of NO was greatest in samples having a high chlorogenic acid content. The results show that both crops are a relevant source of chlorogenic acid and other phenolic acids. The high diversity found also indicates that there are good prospects for breeding new scarlet and gboma eggplant cultivars with improved content in phenolics and bioactive properties.

  17. A multi-platform draft de novo genome assembly and comparative analysis for the Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao.

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    Christopher M Seabury

    Full Text Available Data deposition to NCBI Genomes: This Whole Genome Shotgun project has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AMXX00000000 (SMACv1.0, unscaffolded genome assembly. The version described in this paper is the first version (AMXX01000000. The scaffolded assembly (SMACv1.1 has been deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank under the accession AOUJ00000000, and is also the first version (AOUJ01000000. Strong biological interest in traits such as the acquisition and utilization of speech, cognitive abilities, and longevity catalyzed the utilization of two next-generation sequencing platforms to provide the first-draft de novo genome assembly for the large, new world parrot Ara macao (Scarlet Macaw. Despite the challenges associated with genome assembly for an outbred avian species, including 951,507 high-quality putative single nucleotide polymorphisms, the final genome assembly (>1.035 Gb includes more than 997 Mb of unambiguous sequence data (excluding N's. Cytogenetic analyses including ZooFISH revealed complex rearrangements associated with two scarlet macaw macrochromosomes (AMA6, AMA7, which supports the hypothesis that translocations, fusions, and intragenomic rearrangements are key factors associated with karyotype evolution among parrots. In silico annotation of the scarlet macaw genome provided robust evidence for 14,405 nuclear gene annotation models, their predicted transcripts and proteins, and a complete mitochondrial genome. Comparative analyses involving the scarlet macaw, chicken, and zebra finch genomes revealed high levels of nucleotide-based conservation as well as evidence for overall genome stability among the three highly divergent species. Application of a new whole-genome analysis of divergence involving all three species yielded prioritized candidate genes and noncoding regions for parrot traits of interest (i.e., speech, intelligence, longevity which were independently supported by the results of previous human GWAS

  18. Pernicious Anemia Associated Cobalamin Deficiency and Thrombotic Microangiopathy: Case Report and Review of the Literature

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    Farhanah Yousaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 43-year-old Hispanic male without significant previous medical history was brought to emergency department for syncope following a blood draw to investigate a 40 lbs weight loss during the past 6 months associated with decreased appetite and progressive fatigue. The patient also reported a 1-month history of jaundice. On examination, he was hemodynamically stable and afebrile with pallor and diffuse jaundice but without skin rash or palpable purpura. Normal sensations and power in all extremities were evident on neurological exam. Presence of hemolytic anemia, schistocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH was suggestive of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP. However, presence of leukopenia, macrocytes, and an inadequate reticulocyte response to the degree of anemia served as initial clues to an alternative diagnosis. Two and one units of packed red blood cells were transfused on day 1 and day 3, respectively. In addition, one unit of platelets was transfused on day 2. Daily therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE was initiated and continued until ADAMTS-13 result ruled out TTP. A low cobalamin (vitamin B12 level was evident at initial laboratory work-up and subsequent testing revealed positive intrinsic factor-blocking antibodies supporting a diagnosis of pernicious anemia with severe cobalamin deficiency. Hematological improvement was observed following vitamin B12 supplementation. The patient was discharged and markedly improved on day 9 with outpatient follow-up for cobalamin supplementation.

  19. Long‐term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on plasma homocysteine in elderly patients with cobalamin deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Marília Campos Abreu; de Oliveira, Celso Affonso; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Clementino, Nelma Cristina Diogo; Antunes, Leonardo França; Oliveira, Ricardo Araújo; Martins, Almir Sousa; Del Puerto, Helen Lima; D'Almeida, Vânia; Galdieri, Luciano; Pedroso, Ênio Roberto Pietra; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Álvares; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2007-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori gastritis may lead to impairment of the production of pepsinogen and acid, which are essential to cobalamin absorption. In turn, cobalamin deficiency leads to hyperhomocysteinaemia, a risk factor for cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. Aim To evaluate the effect of H pylori eradication on plasma homocysteine levels in elderly patients. Patients Sixty‐two H pylori‐positive elderly patients with cobalamin deficiency were prospectively studied. Methods Homocysteine and cobalamin concentrations were determined before, 6 and 12 months after H pylori eradication. Results Corpus atrophy was observed in a few patients; otherwise, in most of them, the degree of corpus gastritis was moderate to severe. The initial homocysteine mean (SD) levels decreased from 41.0 (27.1) to 21.6 (10.1) μmol/l at the 6 month follow‐up (p<0.001) and to 13.1 (3.8) μmol/l 12 months after H pylori eradication (p<0.001). Conversely, initial cobalamin mean levels increased from 145.5 (48.7) pmol/l to 209.8 (87.1) pmol/l and to 271.2 (140.8) pmol/l, 6 and 12 months after treatment, respectively (p<0.001 for both). Although the erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume was within reference intervals, it decreased significantly 6 (p = 0.002) and 12 (p<0.001) months after treatment. Conclusions The results of the current study demonstrated that the eradication of H pylori in elderly patients with cobalamin deficiency is followed by increasing of cobalamin and decreasing of homocysteine blood levels. PMID:17005765

  20. Long-term effect of Helicobacter pylori eradication on plasma homocysteine in elderly patients with cobalamin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Marília Campos Abreu; de Oliveira, Celso Affonso; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Clementino, Nelma Cristina Diogo; Antunes, Leonardo França; Oliveira, Ricardo Araújo; Martins, Almir Sousa; Del Puerto, Helen Lima; D'Almeida, Vânia; Galdieri, Luciano; Pedroso, Enio Roberto Pietra; Cabral, Mônica Maria Demas Alvares; Nogueira, Ana Margarida Miguel Ferreira; Queiroz, Dulciene Maria Magalhães

    2007-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori gastritis may lead to impairment of the production of pepsinogen and acid, which are essential to cobalamin absorption. In turn, cobalamin deficiency leads to hyperhomocysteinaemia, a risk factor for cardio and cerebrovascular diseases. To evaluate the effect of H pylori eradication on plasma homocysteine levels in elderly patients. Sixty-two H pylori-positive elderly patients with cobalamin deficiency were prospectively studied. Homocysteine and cobalamin concentrations were determined before, 6 and 12 months after H pylori eradication. Corpus atrophy was observed in a few patients; otherwise, in most of them, the degree of corpus gastritis was moderate to severe. The initial homocysteine mean (SD) levels decreased from 41.0 (27.1) to 21.6 (10.1) micromol/l at the 6 month follow-up (p<0.001) and to 13.1 (3.8) micromol/l 12 months after H pylori eradication (p<0.001). Conversely, initial cobalamin mean levels increased from 145.5 (48.7) pmol/l to 209.8 (87.1) pmol/l and to 271.2 (140.8) pmol/l, 6 and 12 months after treatment, respectively (p<0.001 for both). Although the erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume was within reference intervals, it decreased significantly 6 (p = 0.002) and 12 (p<0.001) months after treatment. The results of the current study demonstrated that the eradication of H pylori in elderly patients with cobalamin deficiency is followed by increasing of cobalamin and decreasing of homocysteine blood levels.

  1. Structure of the cobalamin-binding protein of a putative O-demethylase from Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2

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    Sjuts, Hanno; Dunstan, Mark S.; Fisher, Karl; Leys, David, E-mail: david.leys@manchester.ac.uk [University of Manchester, 131 Princess Street, Manchester M1 7DN (United Kingdom)

    2013-08-01

    The first crystal structure of the vitamin B12-binding protein from a three-component O-demethylase enzyme system is reported. During O-demethylation methyl groups are transferred from phenyl methyl ethers to tetrahydrofolate via methyl-B12 intermediates. This study describes the identification and the structural and spectroscopic analysis of a cobalamin-binding protein (termed CobDH) implicated in O-demethylation by the organohalide-respiring bacterium Desulfitobacterium hafniense DCB-2. The 1.5 Å resolution crystal structure of CobDH is presented in the cobalamin-bound state and reveals that the protein is composed of an N-terminal helix-bundle domain and a C-terminal Rossmann-fold domain, with the cobalamin coordinated in the base-off/His-on conformation similar to other cobalamin-binding domains that catalyse methyl-transfer reactions. EPR spectroscopy of CobDH confirms cobalamin binding and reveals the presence of a cob(III)alamin superoxide, indicating binding of oxygen to the fully oxidized cofactor. These data provide the first structural insights into the methyltransferase reactions that occur during O-demethylation by D. hafniense.

  2. A disulfide-stabilized conformer of methionine synthase reveals an unexpected role for the histidine ligand of the cobalamin cofactor

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    Datta, Supratim; Koutmos, Markos; Pattridge, Katherine A.; Ludwig, Martha L.; Matthews, Rowena G. (Michigan)

    2008-07-08

    B{sub 12}-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli is a large modular protein that is alternately methylated by methyltetrahydrofolate to form methylcobalamin and demethylated by homocysteine to form cob(I)alamin. Major domain rearrangements are required to allow cobalamin to react with three different substrates: homocysteine, methyltetrahydrofolate, and S-adenosyl-l-methionine (AdoMet). These same rearrangements appear to preclude crystallization of the wild-type enzyme. Disulfide cross-linking was used to lock a C-terminal fragment of the enzyme into a unique conformation. Cysteine point mutations were introduced at Ile-690 and Gly-743. These cysteine residues span the cap and the cobalamin-binding module and form a cross-link that reduces the conformational space accessed by the enzyme, facilitating protein crystallization. Here, we describe an x-ray structure of the mutant fragment in the reactivation conformation; this conformation enables the transfer of a methyl group from AdoMet to the cobalamin cofactor. In the structure, the axial ligand to the cobalamin, His-759, dissociates from the cobalamin and forms intermodular contacts with residues in the AdoMet-binding module. This unanticipated intermodular interaction is expected to play a major role in controlling the distribution of conformers required for the catalytic and the reactivation cycles of the enzyme.

  3. A dodecylamine derivative of cyanocobalamin potently inhibits the activities of cobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Yabuta, Yukinori; Ichiyanagi, Tsuyoshi; Kawano, Tsuyoshi; Watanabe, Fumio

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we showed that cyanocobalamin dodecylamine, a ribose 5'-carbamate derivative of cyanocobalamin, was absorbed and accumulated to significant levels by Caenorhabditis elegans and was not further metabolized. The levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, which serve as indicators of cobalamin deficiency, were significantly increased in C. elegans treated with the dodecylamine derivative, indicating severe cobalamin deficiency. Kinetic studies show that the affinity of the cyanocobalamin dodecylamine derivative was greater for two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, compared with their respective coenzymes, suggesting that the dodecylamine derivative inactivated these enzymes. The dodecylamine derivative did not affect the levels of mRNAs encoding these enzymes or those of other proteins involved in intercellular cobalamin metabolism, including methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mmcm-1), methylmalonic acidemia cobalamin A complementation group (mmaa-1), methylmalonic aciduria cblC type (cblc-1), and methionine synthase reductase (mtrr-1). In contrast, the level of the mRNAs encoding cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (mmab-1) was increased significantly and identical to that of cobalamin-deficient C. elegans. These results indicate that the cyanocobalamin-dodecylamine derivative acts as a potent inhibitor of cobalamin-dependent enzymes and induces severe cobalamin deficiency in C. elegans.

  4. A dodecylamine derivative of cyanocobalamin potently inhibits the activities of cobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase of Caenorhabditis elegans

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    Tomohiro Bito

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we showed that cyanocobalamin dodecylamine, a ribose 5′-carbamate derivative of cyanocobalamin, was absorbed and accumulated to significant levels by Caenorhabditis elegans and was not further metabolized. The levels of methylmalonic acid and homocysteine, which serve as indicators of cobalamin deficiency, were significantly increased in C. elegans treated with the dodecylamine derivative, indicating severe cobalamin deficiency. Kinetic studies show that the affinity of the cyanocobalamin dodecylamine derivative was greater for two cobalamin-dependent enzymes, methylmalonyl-CoA mutase and methionine synthase, compared with their respective coenzymes, suggesting that the dodecylamine derivative inactivated these enzymes. The dodecylamine derivative did not affect the levels of mRNAs encoding these enzymes or those of other proteins involved in intercellular cobalamin metabolism, including methylmalonyl-CoA mutase (mmcm-1, methylmalonic acidemia cobalamin A complementation group (mmaa-1, methylmalonic aciduria cblC type (cblc-1, and methionine synthase reductase (mtrr-1. In contrast, the level of the mRNAs encoding cob(Ialamin adenosyltransferase (mmab-1 was increased significantly and identical to that of cobalamin-deficient C. elegans. These results indicate that the cyanocobalamin-dodecylamine derivative acts as a potent inhibitor of cobalamin-dependent enzymes and induces severe cobalamin deficiency in C. elegans.

  5. Conventional and phenomics characterization provides insight into the diversity and relationships of hypervariable scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum L. and gboma (S. macrocarpon L. eggplant complexes

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    Mariola ePlazas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum and gboma (S. macrocarpon eggplants are major vegetable crops in sub-Saharan Africa. Together with their respective wild ancestors (S. anguivi and S. dasyphyllum and intermediate cultivated-wild forms they constitute the so-called scarlet and gboma eggplant complexes. We used conventional descriptors and the high-throughput phenomics tool Tomato Analyzer for characterizing 63 accessions of the scarlet eggplant complex, including the four S. aethiopicum cultivar groups (Aculeatum, Gilo, Kumba, and Shum, Intermediate S. aethiopicum-S. anguivi forms, and S. anguivi, and 12 cultivated and wild accessions of the gboma eggplant complex. A large diversity was found between both complexes, showing that they are very well differentiated from each other. Within the scarlet eggplant complex, many significant differences were also found among cultivar groups, but more differences were found for fruit traits evaluated with Tomato Analyzer than with conventional descriptors. In particular, Tomato Analyzer phenomics characterization was useful for distinguishing small fruited groups (Shum, Intermediate, and S. anguivi, as well as groups for which few or no significant differences were observed for plant traits. Multivariate principal components analysis (PCA separated well all groups, except the Intermediate group which plotted between S. anguivi and small fruited S. aethiopicum accessions. For the gboma eggplant complex, S. dasyphyllum was clearly distinguished from S. macrocarpon and an important diversity was found in the latter. The results have shown that both complexes are hypervariable and have provided insight into their diversity and relationships. The information obtained has important implications for the conservation and management of genetic resources as well as for the selection and breeding of both scarlet and gboma eggplants.

  6. Philornis sp. bot fly larvae in free living scarlet macaw nestlings and a new technique for their extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George; Vigo, Gabriela; Ortiz, Lizzie; Rozsa, Lajos; Brightsmith, Donald J

    2013-09-01

    Bot fly larvae (Philornis genus) are obligate subcutaneous blood-feeding parasites of Neotropical birds including psittacines. We analyze twelve years of data on scarlet macaw (Ara macao) nestlings in natural and artificial nests in the lowland forests of southeastern Peru and report prevalence and intensity of Philornis parasitism. Bot fly prevalence was 28.9% while mean intensity was 5.0 larvae per infected chick. Prevalence in natural nests (11%, N=90 nestlings) was lower than in wooden nest-boxes (39%, N=57) and PVC boxes (39%, N=109). We describe a new technique of removing Philornis larvae using a reverse syringe design snake bite extractor. We compare this new technique to two other methods for removing bots from macaw chicks and find the new method the most suitable. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Coccinin, an antifungal peptide with antiproliferative and HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitory activities from large scarlet runner beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Patrick H K; Ng, T B

    2004-12-01

    An antifungal peptide, designated coccinin, with a molecular mass of 7kDa and an N-terminal sequence resembling those of defensins, was purified from the seeds of large scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus cv. 'Major'). The peptide isolated was unadsorbed on DEAE-cellulose, and adsorbed on Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S. The peptide excerted antifungal activity on a number of fungal species including Botrytis cinerea, Coprinus comatus, Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola, and Rhizoctonia solani. It also inhibited proliferation in the leukemia cell lines HL60 and L1210, and reduced the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. However, it did not affect proliferation of mouse splenocytes.

  8. Phaseococcin, an antifungal protein with antiproliferative and anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activities from small scarlet runner beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngai, Patrick H K; Ng, T B

    2005-04-01

    From the seeds of small scarlet runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus 'Minor'), an antifungal protein with an N-terminal sequence homologous to those of defensins was isolated. The antifungal protein bound to Affi-gel blue gel and Mono S but it did not bind to DEAE-cellulose. It was further purified by gel filtration on a Superdex peptide column. It exhibited a molecular mass of 5422 Da as determined by mass spectrometry. The protein, designated as phaseococcin, suppressed mycelial growth in a number of fungi including Botrytis cinerea, Coprinus comatus, Fusarium oxysporum, Mycosphaerella arachidicola, Physalospora piricola, and Rhizoctonia solani. It also inhibited proliferation in several Bacillus species and the leukemia cell lines HL60 and L1210 and curtailed the activity of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase. It did not affect proliferation of mouse splenocytes and neither did it inhibit protein synthesis in a cell-free rabbit reticulocyte lysate system.

  9. A Lacanian Reading of the Two Novels The Scarlet Letter And Private Memoirs And Confessions of A Justified Sinner

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    Marjan Yazdanpanahi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two novels The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner and The Scarlet Letter written by James Hogg and Nathaniel Hawthorn from the perspective of Jacques Lacan theories: the mirror stage, the-name-of-the-father and desire. The mirror stage refers to historical value and an essential libidinal relationship with the body-image. The-name-of-the-father is defined as the prohibitive role of the father as the one who lays down the incest taboo in the Oedipus complex. Meanwhile, desire is neither the appetite for satisfaction, nor the demand for love, but the difference that results from the subtraction of the first from the second.

  10. Association of the shuffling of Streptococcus pyogenes clones and the fluctuation of scarlet fever cases between 2000 and 2006 in central Taiwan

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    Wang Wan-Ling

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of scarlet fever occurrences reported between 2000 and 2006 fluctuated considerably in central Taiwan and throughout the nation. Isolates of Streptococcus pyogenes were collected from scarlet fever patients in central Taiwan and were characterized by emm sequencing and a standardized pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE method. National weekly report data were collected for investigating epidemiological trends. Results A total of 23 emm types were identified in 1,218 S. pyogenes isolates. The five most prevalent emm types were emm12 (50.4%, emm4 (23.2%, emm1 (16.4%, emm6 (3.8% and emm22 (3.0%. PFGE analysis with SmaI suggested that, with a few exceptions, strains with a common emm type belonged to the same clone. There were two large emm12 clones, one with DNA resistant to cleavage by SmaI. Each prevalent emm clone had major PFGE strain(s and many minor strains. Most of the minor strains emerged in the population and disappeared soon after. Even some major strains remained prevalent for only 2–3 years before declining. The large fluctuation of scarlet fever cases between 2000 and 2006 was associated with the shuffling of six prevalent emm clones. In 2003, the dramatic drop in scarlet fever cases in central Taiwan and throughout the whole country was associated with the occurrence of a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS outbreak that occurred between late-February and mid-June in Taiwan. Conclusion The occurrences of scarlet fever in central Taiwan in 2000–2006 were primarily caused by five emm types, which accounted for 96.8% of the isolates collected. Most of the S. pyogenes strains (as defined by PFGE genotypes emerged and lasted for only a few years. The fluctuation in the number of scarlet fever cases during the seven years can be primarily attributed to the shuffling of six prevalent emm clones and to the SARS outbreak in 2003.

  11. Vitamin-responsive disorders: cobalamin, folate, biotin, vitamins B1 and E.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, Matthias R

    2013-01-01

    The catalytic properties of many enzymes depend on the participation of vitamins as obligatory cofactors. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and folic acid (folate) deficiencies in infants and children classically present with megaloblastic anemia and are often accompanied by neurological signs. A number of rare inborn errors of cobalamin and folate absorption, transport, cellular uptake, and intracellular metabolism have been delineated and identification of disease-causing mutations has improved our ability to diagnose and treat many of these conditions. Two inherited defects in biotin metabolism are known, holocarboxylase synthetase and biotinidase deficiency. Both lead to multiple carboxylase deficiency manifesting with metabolic acidosis, neurological abnormalities, and skin rash. Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia is characterized by megaloblastic anemia, non-type I diabetes, and sensorineural deafness that responds to pharmacological doses of thiamine (vitamin B1). Individuals affected with inherited vitamin E deficiencies including ataxia with isolated vitamin E deficiency and abetalipoproteinemia present with a spinocerebellar syndrome similar to patients with Friedreich's ataxia. If started early, treatment of these defects by oral or parenteral administration of the relevant vitamin often results in correction of the metabolic defect and reversal of the signs of disease, stressing the importance of early and correct diagnosis in these treatable conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of the Cobalamin and Fep Operons in Methylobium petrolphilum PM1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, J

    2005-09-06

    The bacterium Methylobium petroleophilum PM1 is economically important due to its ability to degrade methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a fuel additive. Because PM1 is a representative of all MTBE degraders, it is important to understand the transport pathways critical for the organism to survive in its particular environment. In this study, the cobalamin pathway and select iron transport genes will be characterized to help further understand all metabolic pathways in PM1. PM1 contains a total of four cobalamin operons. A single operon is located on the chromosome. Located on the megaplasmid are two tandem repeats of cob operons and a very close representative of the cob operon located on the chromosome. The fep operon, an iron transport mechanism, lies within the multiple copies of the cob operon. The cob operon and the fep operon appear to be unrelated except for a shared need for the T-on-B-dependent energy transduction complex to assist the operons in moving large molecules across the outer membrane of the cell. A genomic study of the cob and the fep operons with that of phylogenetically related organisms helped to confirm the identity of the cob and fep operons and to represent the pathways. More study of the pathways should be done to find the relationship that positions the two seemingly unrelated cob and fep genes together in what appears to be one operon.

  13. Characterization and immunohistochemical localization of rat salivary cobalamin-binding protein and comparison with human salivary haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nexø, Ebba; Poulsen, Steen Seier

    1985-01-01

    Rat saliva contains a cobalamin-binding protein that binds cobalamin as well as cobinamide. The protein binds cobalamin with an affinity constant of 8 X 10(10) l X mol-1, and it binds cobalamin over a more narrow pH range (pH 7.5-10) than does human haptocorrin. It has a Stokes radius of 2.45 nm...... as compared to the Stokes radius of 4.50 nm for human haptocorrin. Upon isoelectricfocusing it dissociates into four strong bands with pI between 7 and 8, while human haptocorrin dissociates into acid isoproteins. Since human haptocorrin binds to concanavalin A while rat haptocorrin does not, we suggest...... that rat haptocorrin lacks carbohydrate. The substance concentration of rat saliva haptocorrin is 0.04-12.9 nmol X l-1 (median 7.5 nmol X l-1, n = 9) for control animals. After stimulation with isoproterenol, a beta-adrenergic agent, the substance concentration is 46.4-96.6 nmol X l-1 (median 69.7 nmol X l...

  14. The functional cobalamin (vitamin B12)-intrinsic factor receptor is a novel complex of cubilin and amnionless

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyfe, John C; Madsen, Mette; Højrup, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (I-GS, megaloblastic anemia 1) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by intestinal cobalamin (vitamin B(12)) malabsorption and proteinuria. I-GS-causing mutations are found in either of 2 genes encoding the epithelial proteins: cubilin and amnionless (AMN...

  15. Cob(I)alamin reacts with sucralose to afford an alkylcobalamin: relevance to in vivo cobalamin and sucralose interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motwani, Hitesh V; Qiu, Shiran; Golding, Bernard T; Kylin, Henrik; Törnqvist, Margareta

    2011-04-01

    Vitamin B(12), viz., cyano- or hydroxo-cobalamin, can be chemically or enzymatically converted into the derivatives methyl- and adenosyl-cobalamin, which are complex organometallic cofactors associated with several cobalamin-dependent enzymes. The reduced form of vitamin B(12), cob(I)alamin {Cbl(I)}, obtained by reduction of hydroxocobalamin (OH-Cbl) with e.g. sodium borohydride, is one of the most powerful nucleophiles known. Cbl(I) was shown to react readily with the synthetic sweetener sucralose (1,6-dichloro-1,6-dideoxy-β-D-fructofuranosyl-4-chloro-4-deoxy-α-D-galactopyranoside) in an aqueous system to form an alkylcobalamin (Suc-Cbl). This occurred by replacement of one of the three chlorine atoms of sucralose with a cobalamin moiety. The efficiency of trapping sucralose in presence of excess Cbl(I) was estimated to be >90%. Furthermore, in an in vitro study using human liver S9 with NADPH regeneration, in presence of OH-Cbl and sucralose, Suc-Cbl was shown to be formed. The Suc-Cbl was characterized primarily by LC-ESI(+)-MS/MS. Given the human consumption of sucralose from food and beverages, such a reaction between the sweetener and reduced vitamin B(12) could occur in vivo. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. MTRR rs326119 polymorphism is associated with plasma concentrations of homocysteine and cobalamin, but not with congenital heart disease or coronary atherosclerosis in Brazilian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Horita

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the MTRR rs326119 variant might be a genetic marker associated with homocysteine and cobalamin concentrations, but not a strong risk factor for CHD or coronary atherosclerosis in the Brazilian population.

  17. Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Analyses Reveal the Structure and Dynamics of a Dechlorinating Community Containing Dehalococcoides mccartyi and Corrinoid-Providing Microorganisms under Cobalamin-Limited Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Men, Yujie; Yu, Ke; Bælum, Jacob; Gao, Ying; Tremblay, Julien; Prestat, Emmanuel; Stenuit, Ben; Tringe, Susannah G.; Jansson, Janet; Zhang, Tong; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa; Liu, Shuang-Jiang

    2017-02-10

    ABSTRACT

    The aim of this study is to obtain a systems-level understanding of the interactions betweenDehalococcoidesand corrinoid-supplying microorganisms by analyzing community structures and functional compositions, activities, and dynamics in trichloroethene (TCE)-dechlorinating enrichments. Metagenomes and metatranscriptomes of the dechlorinating enrichments with and without exogenous cobalamin were compared. Seven putative draft genomes were binned from the metagenomes. At an early stage (2 days), more transcripts of genes in theVeillonellaceaebin-genome were detected in the metatranscriptome of the enrichment without exogenous cobalamin than in the one with the addition of cobalamin. Among these genes, sporulation-related genes exhibited the highest differential expression when cobalamin was not added, suggesting a possible release route of corrinoids from corrinoid producers. Other differentially expressed genes include those involved in energy conservation and nutrient transport (including cobalt transport). The most highly expressed corrinoidde novobiosynthesis pathway was also assigned to theVeillonellaceaebin-genome. Targeted quantitative PCR (qPCR) analyses confirmed higher transcript abundances of those corrinoid biosynthesis genes in the enrichment without exogenous cobalamin than in the enrichment with cobalamin. Furthermore, the corrinoid salvaging and modification pathway ofDehalococcoideswas upregulated in response to the cobalamin stress. This study provides important insights into the microbial interactions and roles played by members of dechlorinating communities under cobalamin-limited conditions.

    IMPORTANCEThe key

  18. Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii: characterization of the cobalamin-inhibited form and subunit-cofactor interactions studied by analytical ultracentrifugation.

    OpenAIRE

    Marsh, E N; Harding, S E

    1993-01-01

    A large proportion of adenosylcobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermannii is isolated in an inactive form which contains a tightly bound cobalamin. Even when the enzyme was denatured in 5.0 M guanidine hydrochloride the cobalamin remained associated with the protein. However, when dithiothreitol was added to the denatured protein, the pink inhibitor was rapidly converted into a yellow-brown compound which could be removed by dialysis. Enzyme activity could b...

  19. The complete genome sequence of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis IP31758, the causative agent of Far East scarlet-like fever.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Eppinger

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The first reported Far East scarlet-like fever (FESLF epidemic swept the Pacific coastal region of Russia in the late 1950s. Symptoms of the severe infection included erythematous skin rash and desquamation, exanthema, hyperhemic tongue, and a toxic shock syndrome. The term FESLF was coined for the infection because it shares clinical presentations with scarlet fever caused by group A streptococci. The causative agent was later identified as Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, although the range of morbidities was vastly different from classical pseudotuberculosis symptoms. To understand the origin and emergence of the peculiar clinical features of FESLF, we have sequenced the genome of the FESLF-causing strain Y. pseudotuberculosis IP31758 and compared it with that of another Y. pseudotuberculosis strain, IP32953, which causes classical gastrointestinal symptoms. The unique gene pool of Y pseudotuberculosis IP31758 accounts for more than 260 strain-specific genes and introduces individual physiological capabilities and virulence determinants, with a significant proportion horizontally acquired that likely originated from Enterobacteriaceae and other soil-dwelling bacteria that persist in the same ecological niche. The mobile genome pool includes two novel plasmids phylogenetically unrelated to all currently reported Yersinia plasmids. An icm/dot type IVB secretion system, shared only with the intracellular persisting pathogens of the order Legionellales, was found on the larger plasmid and could contribute to scarlatinoid fever symptoms in patients due to the introduction of immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive capabilities. We determined the common and unique traits resulting from genome evolution and speciation within the genus Yersinia and drew a more accurate species border between Y. pseudotuberculosis and Y. pestis. In contrast to the lack of genetic diversity observed in the evolutionary young descending Y. pestis lineage, the population

  20. Activities of various cobalamins for Euglena gracilis with reference to vitamin B12 assay with Euglena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. F.; McEwan, Fiona

    1971-01-01

    Coenzyme B12 and methylcobalamin in water are less active in promoting growth of Euglena gracilis Z strain than the same concentrations of cyanocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin which are equally active. When bound to human serum or human liver homogenate, however, the activities of these four cobalamins do not differ significantly with one exception. The results suggest that the Euglena assay using cyanocobalamin standards is not satisfactory for quantitation of coenzyme B12 and methylcobalamin in water but acceptable when coenzyme B12 and methylcobalamin are bound to serum or liver. Sulphitocobalamin in water is as active as cyanocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin but nitritocobalamin is less active. Factor B, the monocarboxylic acids of cyanocobalamin and hydroxocobalamin, and the dicarboxylic acid of cyanocobalamin in water were inactive. PMID:5572999

  1. Structure of a bacterial microcompartment shell protein bound to a cobalamin cofactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Michael C; Crowley, Christopher S; Kopstein, Jeffrey; Bobik, Thomas A; Yeates, Todd O

    2014-12-01

    The EutL shell protein is a key component of the ethanolamine-utilization microcompartment, which serves to compartmentalize ethanolamine degradation in diverse bacteria. The apparent function of this shell protein is to facilitate the selective diffusion of large cofactor molecules between the cytoplasm and the lumen of the microcompartment. While EutL is implicated in molecular-transport phenomena, the details of its function, including the identity of its transport substrate, remain unknown. Here, the 2.1 Å resolution X-ray crystal structure of a EutL shell protein bound to cobalamin (vitamin B12) is presented and the potential relevance of the observed protein-ligand interaction is briefly discussed. This work represents the first structure of a bacterial microcompartment shell protein bound to a potentially relevant cofactor molecule.

  2. Assembly of the intrinsic factor domains and oligomerization of the protein in the presence of cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Fedosova, Natalya U; Berglund, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Human intrinsic factor (IF) was purified from the recombinant plant Arabidopsis thaliana by affinity chromatography. Cobalamin (Cbl) saturated protein was separated by gel filtration into peaks I and II, which contained according to SDS electrophoresis the 50 kDa full-length protein IF(50...... in peak I, whereas 50 kDa cleaved monomers were found in peak II. The protein devoid of Cbl dissociated to the elementary units incapable of association in the absence of Cbl. The individual proteolytic fragments bound Cbl at high concentration of the ligand; however, neither IF(30).Cbl nor IF(20).Cbl......) and a mixture of two fragments, respectively. Two components of peak II were identified as the 30 kDa N-terminal peptide IF(30) and the 20 kDa C-terminal glycopeptide IF(20). Measurements of M(w) under the nondenaturing conditions were conducted by static light scattering. They revealed 100 kDa IF dimers...

  3. Scarlet Macaw (Ara macao (Psitaciformes: Psittacidae Parental Nest Visitation in Costa Rica: Implications for Research and Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Vaughan

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We studied temporal parental visitation of Scarlet Macaws (Ara macao to six active nests in the Central Pacific Conservation Region of Costa Rica. Total parental time in the nest decreased significantly as the nestlings aged. Results provide guidelines to scientists for planning invasive activities to nestlings, such as placement of radio collars, or biological sample collection. These activities should be performed close to the end of the nesting period for minimal disturbance of parents and nestlings. Our results also provide information to aid wildlife guards in protecting active nests from poachers when chicks are close to fledging. Rev. Biol. Trop. 57 (1-2: 395-400. Epub 2009 June 30.Estudiamos las visitas temporales de padres de la lapa roja (Ara macao a seis nidos activos en el Área de Conservación del Pacifico Central (Costa Rica. El tiempo total que pasaron los padres en los nidos bajó en forma significativa en relación con el crecimiento de los pichones. Estos resultados pueden ayudar a los científicos a planear sus actividades "invasivas", tales como colocación de radio collares o colección de muestras biológicas. Las actividades deben coincidir con el final de la época de anidación para molestar menos a las aves. Nuestros resultados proveen información que puede ayudar a los guardaparques a proteger nidos activos cuando los pichones estan casi listos para salir.

  4. Ethanol lowers glutathione in rat liver and brain and inhibits methionine synthase in a cobalamin-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waly, Mostafa I; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Deth, Richard C

    2011-02-01

    Methionine synthase (MS) is a ubiquitous enzyme that requires vitamin B12 (cobalamin) and 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate for the methylation of homocysteine to methionine. Previous studies have shown that acute or chronic ethanol (ETOH) administration results in the inhibition of MS and depletion of glutathione (GSH), and it has been proposed that GSH is required for the synthesis of methylcobalamin (MeCbl). We measured GSH levels and investigated the ability of different cobalamin cofactors [cyano- (CNCbl), glutathionyl- (GSCbl), hydroxo- (OHCbl), and MeCbl] to support MS activity in liver and brain cortex from control and ETOH-treated rats. In control animals, MS activity was higher in liver than in cortex for all cobalamins and MeCbl-based activity was higher than for other cofactors. S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) was required for OHCbl, CNCbl, and GSCbl-based activity, but not for MeCbl. Feeding an ETOH-containing diet for four weeks caused a significant decrease in liver MS activity, in a cobalamin-dependent manner (OHCbl ≥ CNCbl > GSCbl > MeCbl). In brain cortex, OHCbl, CNCbl, and GSCbl-based activity was reduced by ETOH treatment, but MeCbl-based activity was unaffected. GSH levels were reduced by ETOH treatment in both liver and cortex homogenates, and addition of GSH restored OHCbl-based MS activity to control levels. Betaine administration had no significant effect on GSH levels or MS activity in either control or ETOH-fed groups. The ETOH-induced decrease in OHCbl-based MS activity is secondary to decreased GSH levels and a decreased ability to synthesize MeCbl. The ability of MeCbl to completely offset ETOH inhibition in brain cortex, but not liver, suggests tissue-specific differences in the GSH-dependent regulation of MS activity. Copyright © 2010 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  5. Heterogeneity of gastric histology and function in food cobalamin malabsorption: absence of atrophic gastritis and achlorhydria in some patients with severe malabsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H; Weinstein, W M; Carmel, R

    2000-11-01

    The common but incompletely understood entity of malabsorption of food bound cobalamin is generally presumed to arise from gastritis and/or achlorhydria. To conduct a systematic comparative examination of gastric histology and function. Nineteen volunteers, either healthy or with low cobalamin levels, were prospectively studied without prior knowledge of their absorption or gastric status. All subjects underwent prospective assessment of food cobalamin absorption by the egg yolk cobalamin absorption test, endoscopy, histological grading of biopsies from six gastric sites, measurement of gastric secretory function, assay for serum gastrin and antiparietal cell antibodies, and direct tests for Helicobacter pylori infection. The six subjects with severe malabsorption (group I) had worse histological scores overall and lower acid and pepsin secretion than the eight subjects with normal absorption (group III) or the five subjects with mild malabsorption (group II). However, histological findings, and acid and pepsin secretion overlapped considerably between individual subjects in group I and group III. Two distinct subgroups of three subjects each emerged within group I. One subgroup (IA) had severe gastric atrophy and achlorhydria. The other subgroup (IB) had little atrophy and only mild hypochlorhydria; the gastric findings were indistinguishable from those in many subjects with normal absorption. Absorption improved in the two subjects in subgroup IB and in one subject in group II who received antibiotics, along with evidence of clearing of H pylori. None of the subjects in group IA responded to antibiotics. Food cobalamin malabsorption arises in at least two different gastric settings, one of which involves neither gastric atrophy nor achlorhydria. Malabsorption can respond to antibiotics, but only in some patients. Food cobalamin malabsorption is not always synonymous with atrophic gastritis and achlorhydria, and hypochlorhydria does not always guarantee food

  6. Desempenho agronômico da cenoura adubada com jitirana antes de sua semeadura Agronomic performance of carrot fertilized with scarlet starglory before sowing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mychelle Karla Teixeira de Oliveira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A jitirana é uma planta herbácea nativa que se apresenta como uma fonte potencial para adubação verde no nordeste semi-árido do Brasil e gera inúmeros benefícios, com destaque para o aumento da disponibilidade de nutrientes para as culturas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho agronômico da cenoura adubada com jitirana antes de sua semeadura. Um experimento foi conduzido na horta didática do Departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN, no período de setembro a dezembro de 2008. O delineamento experimental usado foi em blocos completos casualizados com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4 x 4 + 1, com três repetições. O primeiro fator foi constituído pelas quantidades de jitirana incorporadas ao solo (5,4; 8,8; 12,2 e 15,6 t ha-1 em base seca e o segundo fator pelos tempos de incorporação da jitirana (0; 10; 20 e 30 dias antes da semeadura da cenoura - DAS. O tratamento adicional (testemunha foi de 80 t ha-1 de esterco bovino. As características avaliadas na cenoura foram: altura das plantas, número de folhas por planta, massa seca da parte aérea, produtividade comercial, produtividade refugo e produtividade classificada. Não houve interação significativa entre os fatores quantidades de jitirana incorporadas ao solo e seus tempos de incorporação antes da semeadura da cenoura em nenhuma das características avaliadas. O melhor desempenho produtivo da cenoura foi obtido na quantidade de 15,6 t ha-1 de jitirana incorporada ao solo e no tempo de 20 dias antes de sua semeadura.The scarlet starglory is an herbaceous plant native that is presented as a potential source for green manure in the semi-arid northeast of Brazil, and generates many benefits, especially the increased availability of nutrients for crops. The objective of this present study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of carrot fertilized with scarlet starglory before

  7. Effect of intramuscular injection of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of Fresh and Cooled Stallion Semen

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    Nicolás Cazales Penino

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of butafosfan in combination with cobalamin modulates many cellular metabolic functions in several species. Its use enhances productive and reproductive performance and reduces stress responses in animals. Despite all these attributes, so far there have been no controlled studies to evaluate the effects of butafosfan and cobalamin on the quality of stallion semen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the action of butafosfan in combination with cobalamin on the quality of fresh and cooled stallion semen. Four healthy stallions were kept in the same place and under the same management conditions during the entire experiment. Stallions were randomly assigned to two treatment groups in a 2x2 crossover design. Group A stallions were treated with an intramuscular injection of butafosfan twice a week for 80 days, while group B did not receive any treatment. After that, both groups were not treated for another 80 days allowing a washout period for the treated group. Then, the groups were reversed, and group B was treated with butafosfan and group A acted as the control for another 80 days. Semen was collected twice a week, diluted in skim milk and evaluated for total sperm count, total and progressive sperm motility, membrane integrity (CFDA/PI staining and membrane functionality (HOS test at 0 and 24 hours after preservation at 5ºC. Data were analyzed by comparing the values obtained from the treated stallions between the 60th and 84th days of treatment and the values obtained from the same stallion during the control period. The ejaculates of the washout period and between days 1 and 63 of treatment were not considered. A total of 85 ejaculates were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Means were compared by the Tukey test at the 5% level of significance. No significant differences were observed in fresh and cooled semen regarding the total sperm count, total motility, progressive motility, membrane integrity and membrane functionality in the

  8. Effect of administration of Streptococcus salivarius K12 on the occurrence of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media in 3 years old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pierro, F; Colombo, M; Giuliani, M G; Danza, M L; Basile, I; Bollani, T; Conti, A M; Zanvit, A; Rottoli, A S

    2016-11-01

    Streptococcus salivarius K12 (BLIS K12) is a probiotic strain strongly antagonistic to the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes, the most important bacterial cause of pharyngeal infections in humans. Shown to colonize the oral cavity and to be safe for human use, BLIS K12 has previously been reported to reduce pharyngo-tonsillitis episodes in children or adults known to have experienced recurrent streptococcal infection. The present study was focussed upon evaluating the role of BLIS K12 in the control of streptococcal disease and acute otitis media in children attending the first year of kindergarten. By randomization, 222 enrolled children attending the first year of kindergarten were divided into a treated group (N = 111) receiving for 6 months a daily treatment with BLIS K12 (Bactoblis®) and a control group (N = 111) who were monitored as untreated controls. During the 6 months of treatment and 3 months of follow-up, the children were evaluated for treatment tolerance, and for episodes of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media. During the 6-month trial (N = 111 per group) the incidence of streptococcal pharyngo-tonsillitis, scarlet fever and acute otitis media was approximately 16%, 9% and 44% respectively in the treated group and 48%, 4% and 80% in the control group. During the 3-months follow-up (N = 29 per group) the corresponding rates of infection were 15%, 0% and 12% in the treated group and 26%, 6% and 36% in the controls. No apparent side effects were detected in the treated group either during treatment or follow-up. All of the enrolled children completed the study. The daily administration of BLIS K12 to children attending their first year of kindergarten was associated with a significant reduction in episodes of streptococcal pharyngitis and acute otitis media. No protection against scarlet fever was detected.

  9. Ophthalmic Manifestations and Long-Term Visual Outcomes in Patients with Cobalamin C Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Brian P.; Thompson, Amy H.; Sloan, Jennifer; Manoli, Irini; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Zein, Wadih M.; Venditti, Charles P.

    2015-01-01

    Ocular manifestations of cobalamin C deficiency include a developmental as well as a degenerative phenotype and lack strict correlation to metabolic status, but may be mitigated by prenatal or early treatment. Purpose To explore the ocular manifestations of cobalamin C (cblC) deficiency, an inborn error of intracellular vitamin B12 metabolism caused by mutations in the MMACHC gene. Design Retrospective, observational case series. Participants Twenty-five cblC patients underwent clinical and ophthalmic examination at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center between August 2004 and September 2012. Patient ages ranged from 2 to 27 years at last ophthalmic visit, and follow-up ranged from 0 to 83 months (median, 36 months; range, 13–83 months) over a total of 69 visits. Methods Best-corrected Snellen visual acuity, slit-lamp biomicroscopy, dilated fundus examination, wide-field photography, fundus autofluorescence imaging, sedated electroretinography, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography, and metabolite assessment. Main Outcome Measures Visual acuity and presence and degree of retinal degeneration and optic nerve pallor. Results Nystagmus (64%), strabismus (52%), macular degeneration (72%), optic nerve pallor (68%), and vascular changes (64%) were present. c.271dupA (p.R91KfsX14) homozygous patients (n = 14) showed early and extensive macular degeneration. Electroretinography showed that scotopic and photopic responses were reduced and delayed, but were preserved remarkably in some patients despite severe degeneration. Optical coherence tomography images through the central macular lesion of a patient with severe retinal degeneration showed extreme thinning, some preservation of retinal lamination, and nearly complete loss of the outer nuclear layer. Despite hyperhomocysteinemia, no patients exhibited lens dislocation. Conclusions This longitudinal study reports ocular outcomes in the largest group of patients with cblC deficiency systematically

  10. Cobalamin C deficiency in an adolescent with altered mental status and anorexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmandar, Maria H; Bawcom, Amanda; Romano, Mary E; Hamid, Rizwan

    2014-12-01

    Although cobalamin (cbl) C deficiency is the most common inherited disorder of vitamin B12 metabolism, the late-onset form of the disease can be difficult to recognize because it has a broad phenotypic spectrum. In this report, we describe an adolescent female exposed to unknown illicit substances and sexual abuse who presented with psychosis, anorexia, seizures, and ataxia. The patient's diagnosis was delayed until a metabolic workup was initiated, revealing hyperhomocysteinemia, low normal plasma methionine, and methylmalonic aciduria. Ultimately, cblC deficiency was confirmed when molecular testing showed compound heterozygosity for mutations (c.271dupA and c.482G>A) in the MMACHC gene. This diagnosis led to appropriate treatment with hydroxocobalamin, betaine, and folate, which resulted in improvement of her clinical symptoms and laboratory values. This patient demonstrates a previously unrecognized presentation of late-onset cblC deficiency. Although neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in late-onset disease, seizures and cerebellar involvement are not. Furthermore, anorexia has not been previously described in these patients. This case emphasizes that inborn errors of metabolism should be part of the differential diagnosis for a teenager presenting with altered mental status, especially when the diagnosis is challenging or neurologic symptoms are unexplained. Correct diagnosis of this condition is important because treatment is available and can result in clinical improvement.(1.) Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Late Onset Cobalamin Disorder and Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome: A Rare Cause of Nephrotic Syndrome

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    Gianluigi Ardissino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS is an unrare and severe thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA caused by several pathogenetic mechanisms among which Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections and complement dysregulation are the most common. However, very rarely and particularly in neonates and infants, disorders of cobalamin metabolism (CblC can present with or be complicated by TMA. Herein we describe a case of atypical HUS (aHUS related to CblC disease which first presented in a previously healthy boy at age of 13.6 years. The clinical picture was initially dominated by nephrotic range proteinuria and severe hypertension followed by renal failure. The specific treatment with high dose of hydroxycobalamin rapidly obtained the remission of TMA and the complete recovery of renal function. We conclude that plasma homocysteine and methionine determinations together with urine organic acid analysis should be included in the diagnostic work-up of any patient with TMA and/or nephrotic syndrome regardless of age.

  12. Neuregulin 1 Promotes Glutathione-Dependent Neuronal Cobalamin Metabolism by Stimulating Cysteine Uptake

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    Yiting Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuregulin 1 (NRG-1 is a key neurotrophic factor involved in energy homeostasis and CNS development, and impaired NRG-1 signaling is associated with neurological disorders. Cobalamin (Cbl, also known as vitamin B12, is an essential micronutrient which mammals must acquire through diet, and neurologic dysfunction is a primary clinical manifestation of Cbl deficiency. Here we show that NRG-1 stimulates synthesis of the two bioactive Cbl species adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl and methylcobalamin (MeCbl in human neuroblastoma cells by both promoting conversion of inactive to active Cbl species and increasing neuronal Cbl uptake. Formation of active Cbls is glutathione- (GSH- dependent and the NRG-1-initiated increase is dependent upon its stimulation of cysteine uptake by excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3, leading to increased GSH. The stimulatory effect of NRG-1 on cellular Cbl uptake is associated with increased expression of megalin, which is known to facilitate Cbl transport in ileum and kidney. MeCbl is a required cofactor for methionine synthase (MS and we demonstrate the ability of NRG-1 to increase MS activity, and affect levels of methionine methylation cycle metabolites. Our results identify novel neuroprotective roles of NRG-1 including stimulating antioxidant synthesis and promoting active Cbl formation.

  13. The relationship of leukocyte anisocytosis to holotranscobalamin, a marker of cobalamin deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, C; Medina, P; Nydegger, U E; Bahador, Z; Brinkmann, T; Von Landenberg, P; Risch, M; Risch, L

    2012-04-01

    After measurement of the mean volumes of leukocyte subpopulations as well as the distribution widths (DW) of these volumes has become available, we investigated whether such morphometric leukocyte parameters are associated with a commonly used marker of cobalamin deficiency, i.e., holotranscobalamin (HoloTC). Further, we determined reference intervals for these parameters in an elderly population. Consecutive subjectively healthy and volunteering individuals ≥60 years were included. Using the UniCel DxH 800 Coulter Cellular Analysis System MoMV, mean neutrophil volume (NeMV), mean lymphocyte volume (LyMV), monocyte anisocytosis (MoV-DW), neutrophil anisocytosis (NeV-DW), and lymphocyte anisocytosis (LyV-DW) were assessed together with other parameters including HoloTC. A total of 150 individuals were included in the study. Reference intervals were not dependent on age and gender. MoV-DW (P = 0.002) and NeV-DW (P = 0.02) were significantly lower, and LyMV was significantly higher (P = 0.04) in participants with a HoloTC concentration <28 pm. In contrast, MCV, MoMV, NeMV, and LyV-DW were not associated with HoloTC concentrations. The area under the curve (AUC) in the receiver operating characteristic analysis for detecting a HoloTC <28 pm was 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI) (0.73, 0.87)] for MoV-DW and 0.73 (0.66, 0.80) for NeV-DW. In this collective of subjectively healthy elderly individuals, monocyte anisocytosis, neutrophil anisocytosis and mean lymphocyte volume were associated with decreased HoloTC. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. (89)Zr-Cobalamin PET Tracer: Synthesis, Cellular Uptake, and Use for Tumor Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuda-Wedagedara, Akhila N W; Workinger, Jayme L; Nexo, Ebba; Doyle, Robert P; Viola-Villegas, Nerissa

    2017-10-31

    Vitamin B12, or cobalamin (Cbl), is an essential nutrient. Acquisition, transport, and cellular internalization of Cbl are dependent on specific binding proteins and associated receptors. The circulating transport protein transcobalamin (TC) promotes cellular uptake via binding to specific receptors such as CD320, a receptor upregulated in several cancer cell lines. In this study, we report the successful synthesis of (89)Zirconium-labeled Cbl that was derivatized with desferrioxamine ((89)Zr-Cbl). We document the purity of the tracer and its binding to TC compared with that of unmodified cyano-Cbl (CN-Cbl). In vitro studies employing the CD320 receptor-positive breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-453 showed a 6- to 10-fold greater uptake of (89)Zr-Cbl when compared with the uptake in the presence of 200-fold excess of CN-Cbl at 37 °C. We used nude mice with MDA-MB-453 tumors to study the feasibility of employing the tracer to visualize CD320 positive tumors. In vivo positron emission tomography images displayed a clear visualization of the tumor with 1.42 ± 0.48 %ID/g uptake (n = 3) at 4 h after injection (p.i.) with the tracer retained at 48 h p.i. Ex vivo biodistribution studies using (89)Zr-Cbl exhibited the highest uptake in kidney and liver at 48 h p.i. Results document the feasibility of synthesizing a Cbl-based tracer suitable for both in vivo and ex vivo studies of Cbl trafficking and with the potential to visualize tumors expressing TC receptors, such as CD320.

  15. Cobalamin C Deficiency Shows a Rapidly Progressing Maculopathy With Severe Photoreceptor and Ganglion Cell Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonafede, Lucas; Ficicioglu, Can H.; Serrano, Leona; Han, Grace; Morgan, Jessica I. W.; Mills, Monte D.; Forbes, Brian J.; Davidson, Stefanie L.; Binenbaum, Gil; Kaplan, Paige B.; Nichols, Charles W.; Verloo, Patrick; Leroy, Bart P.; Maguire, Albert M.; Aleman, Tomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To describe in detail the retinal structure and function of a group of patients with cobalamin C (cblC) disease. Methods Patients (n = 11, age 4 months to 15 years) with cblC disease (9/11, early onset) diagnosed by newborn screening underwent complete ophthalmic examinations, fundus photography, near-infrared reflectance imaging, and spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Electroretinograms (ERGs) were performed in a subset of patients. Results Patients carried homozygous or compound heterozygote mutations in the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C (MMACHC) gene. Late-onset patients had a normal exam. All early-onset patients showed a maculopathy; older subjects had a retina-wide degeneration (n = 4; >7 years of age). In general, retinal changes were first observed before 1 year of age and progressed within months to a well-established maculopathy. Pseudocolobomas were documented in three patients. Measurable visual acuities ranged from 20/200 to 20/540. Nystagmus was present in 8/11 patients; 5/6 patients had normal ERGs; 1/6 had reduced rod-mediated responses. Spectral-domain OCT showed macular thinning, with severe ganglion cell layer (GCL) and outer nuclear layer (ONL) loss. Inner retinal thickening was observed in areas of total GCL/ONL loss. A normal lamination pattern in the peripapillary nasal retina was often seen despite severe central and/or retina-wide disease. Conclusions Patients with early-onset cblC and MMACHC mutations showed an early-onset, unusually fast-progressing maculopathy with severe central ONL and GCL loss. An abnormally thickened inner retina supports a remodeling response to both photoreceptor and ganglion cell degeneration and/or an interference with normal development in early-onset cblC. PMID:26658511

  16. Cell Type-Specific Modulation of Cobalamin Uptake by Bovine Serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hua; Ruberu, Kalani; Li, Hongyun; Garner, Brett

    2016-01-01

    Tracking cellular 57Co-labelled cobalamin (57Co-Cbl) uptake is a well-established method for studying Cbl homeostasis. Previous studies established that bovine serum is not generally permissive for cellular Cbl uptake when used as a supplement in cell culture medium, whereas supplementation with human serum promotes cellular Cbl uptake. The underlying reasons for these differences are not fully defined. In the current study we address this question. We extend earlier observations by showing that fetal calf serum inhibits cellular 57Co-Cbl uptake by HT1080 cells (a fibrosarcoma-derived fibroblast cell line). Furthermore, we discovered that a simple heat-treatment protocol (95°C for 10 min) ameliorates this inhibitory activity for HT1080 cell 57Co-Cbl uptake. We provide evidence that the very high level of haptocorrin in bovine serum (as compared to human serum) is responsible for this inhibitory activity. We suggest that bovine haptocorrin competes with cell-derived transcobalamin for Cbl binding, and that cellular Cbl uptake may be minimised in the presence of large amounts of bovine haptocorrin that are present under routine in vitro cell culture conditions. In experiments conducted with AG01518 cells (a neonatal foreskin-derived fibroblast cell line), overall cellular 57Co-Cbl uptake was 86% lower than for HT1080 cells, cellular TC production was below levels detectable by western blotting, and heat treatment of fetal calf serum resulted in only a modest increase in cellular 57Co-Cbl uptake. We recommend a careful assessment of cell culture protocols should be conducted in order to determine the potential benefits that heat-treated bovine serum may provide for in vitro studies of mammalian cell lines.

  17. Cell Type-Specific Modulation of Cobalamin Uptake by Bovine Serum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Zhao

    Full Text Available Tracking cellular 57Co-labelled cobalamin (57Co-Cbl uptake is a well-established method for studying Cbl homeostasis. Previous studies established that bovine serum is not generally permissive for cellular Cbl uptake when used as a supplement in cell culture medium, whereas supplementation with human serum promotes cellular Cbl uptake. The underlying reasons for these differences are not fully defined. In the current study we address this question. We extend earlier observations by showing that fetal calf serum inhibits cellular 57Co-Cbl uptake by HT1080 cells (a fibrosarcoma-derived fibroblast cell line. Furthermore, we discovered that a simple heat-treatment protocol (95°C for 10 min ameliorates this inhibitory activity for HT1080 cell 57Co-Cbl uptake. We provide evidence that the very high level of haptocorrin in bovine serum (as compared to human serum is responsible for this inhibitory activity. We suggest that bovine haptocorrin competes with cell-derived transcobalamin for Cbl binding, and that cellular Cbl uptake may be minimised in the presence of large amounts of bovine haptocorrin that are present under routine in vitro cell culture conditions. In experiments conducted with AG01518 cells (a neonatal foreskin-derived fibroblast cell line, overall cellular 57Co-Cbl uptake was 86% lower than for HT1080 cells, cellular TC production was below levels detectable by western blotting, and heat treatment of fetal calf serum resulted in only a modest increase in cellular 57Co-Cbl uptake. We recommend a careful assessment of cell culture protocols should be conducted in order to determine the potential benefits that heat-treated bovine serum may provide for in vitro studies of mammalian cell lines.

  18. Use of a "silver bullet" to resolve crystal lattice dislocation disorder: a cobalamin complex of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagautriere, Thomas; Bashiri, Ghader; Baker, Edward N

    2015-02-01

    The use of small molecules as "silver bullets" that can bind to generate crosslinks between protein molecules has been advanced as a powerful means of enhancing success in protein crystallization (McPherson and Cudney, 2006). We have explored this approach in attempts to overcome an order-disorder phenomenon that complicated the structural analysis of the enzyme Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (P5CDH, Mtb-PruA). Using the Silver Bullets Bio screen, we obtained new crystal packing using cobalamin as a co-crystallization agent. This crystal form did not display the order-disorder phenomenon previously encountered. Solution of the crystal structure showed that cobalamin molecules are present in the crystal contacts. Although the cobalamin binding probably does not have physiological relevance, it reflects similarities in the nucleotide-binding region of Mtb-PruA, with the nucleotide loop of cobalamin sharing the binding site for the adenine moiety of NAD(+). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii: characterization of the cobalamin-inhibited form and subunit-cofactor interactions studied by analytical ultracentrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, E N; Harding, S E

    1993-03-01

    A large proportion of adenosylcobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermannii is isolated in an inactive form which contains a tightly bound cobalamin. Even when the enzyme was denatured in 5.0 M guanidine hydrochloride the cobalamin remained associated with the protein. However, when dithiothreitol was added to the denatured protein, the pink inhibitor was rapidly converted into a yellow-brown compound which could be removed by dialysis. Enzyme activity could be recovered after removal of the denaturant, although surprisingly this did not depend on prior treatment with dithiothreitol. The interaction between the protein and inhibitor was investigated by using analytical ultracentrifugation under denaturing conditions. The sedimentation coefficient s20,w was measured in various concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride. A complicated picture emerged in which at low denaturant concentrations subunit dissociation, partial unfolding and aggregation occur, whereas at high concentration the protein behaves as a monodisperse species. No major differences in sedimentation were observed between the enzyme-cobalamin complex and the cobalamin-free enzyme, suggesting that the inhibitor does not significantly stabilize higher-order structure within the protein.

  20. Amnionless function is required for cubilin brush-border expression and intrinsic factor-cobalamin (vitamin B12) absorption in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Qianchuan; Madsen, Mette; Kilkenney, Adam

    2005-01-01

    malabsorption of cobalamin (vitamin B12) and urinary loss of several specific low-molecular-weight proteins. Vital insight into the molecular pathology of I-GS has been obtained from studies of dogs with a similar syndrome. In this work, we show that I-GS segregates in a large canine kindred due to an in...

  1. Scarlet Fever (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can happen in kids who also have strep throat or strep skin infections. The strep bacteria make ... Eating can be painful for kids with severe strep throat, so serving soft foods or a liquid diet ...

  2. Operation Pied Piper: a geographical reappraisal of the impact of wartime evacuation on scarlet fever and diphtheria rates in England and Wales, 1939-1945.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallman-Raynor, M R; Cliff, A D

    2015-10-01

    This paper examines the geographical impact of the British Government's wartime evacuation scheme on notified rates of two common acute childhood diseases (scarlet fever and diphtheria) in the 1470 local government districts of England and Wales, 1939-1945. Drawing on the notifications of communicable diseases collated by the General Register Office (GRO), we establish pre-war (baseline) disease rates for the 1470 districts. For the war years, techniques of binary logistic regression analysis are used to assess the associations between (a) above-baseline ('raised') disease rates in evacuation, neutral and reception districts and (b) the major phases of the evacuation scheme. The analysis demonstrates that the evacuation was temporally associated with distinct national and regional effects on notified levels of disease activity. These effects were most pronounced in the early years of the dispersal (1939-1941) and corresponded with initial levels of evacuation-related population change at the regional and district scales.

  3. Inherited cobalamin malabsorption. Mutations in three genes reveal functional and ethnic patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanner Stephan M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inherited malabsorption of cobalamin (Cbl causes hematological and neurological abnormalities that can be fatal. Three genes have been implicated in Cbl malabsorption; yet, only about 10% of ~400-500 reported cases have been molecularly studied to date. Recessive mutations in CUBN or AMN cause Imerslund-Gräsbeck Syndrome (IGS, while recessive mutations in GIF cause Intrinsic Factor Deficiency (IFD. IGS and IFD differ in that IGS usually presents with proteinuria, which is not observed in IFD. The genetic heterogeneity and numerous differential diagnoses make clinical assessment difficult. Methods We present a large genetic screening study of 154 families or patients with suspected hereditary Cbl malabsorption. Patients and their families have been accrued over a period spanning >12 years. Systematic genetic testing of the three genes CUBN, AMN, and GIF was accomplished using a combination of single strand conformation polymorphism and DNA and RNA sequencing. In addition, six genes that were contenders for a role in inherited Cbl malabsorption were studied in a subset of these patients. Results Our results revealed population-specific mutations, mutational hotspots, and functionally distinct regions in the three causal genes. We identified mutations in 126/154 unrelated cases (82%. Fifty-three of 126 cases (42% were mutated in CUBN, 45/126 (36% were mutated in AMN, and 28/126 (22% had mutations in GIF. We found 26 undescribed mutations in CUBN, 19 in AMN, and 7 in GIF for a total of 52 novel defects described herein. We excluded six other candidate genes as culprits and concluded that additional genes might be involved. Conclusions Cbl malabsorption is found worldwide and genetically complex. However, our results indicate that population-specific founder mutations are quite common. Consequently, targeted genetic testing has become feasible if ethnic ancestry is considered. These results will facilitate clinical and

  4. Oxidative stress inactivates cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise R Hondorp

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available In nature, Escherichia coli are exposed to harsh and non-ideal growth environments-nutrients may be limiting, and cells are often challenged by oxidative stress. For E. coli cells confronting these realities, there appears to be a link between oxidative stress, methionine availability, and the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of methionine biosynthesis, cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE. We found that E. coli cells subjected to transient oxidative stress during growth in minimal medium develop a methionine auxotrophy, which can be traced to an effect on MetE. Further experiments demonstrated that the purified enzyme is inactivated by oxidized glutathione (GSSG at a rate that correlates with protein oxidation. The unique site of oxidation was identified by selectively cleaving N-terminally to each reduced cysteine and analyzing the results by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Stoichiometric glutathionylation of MetE by GSSG occurs at cysteine 645, which is strategically located at the entrance to the active site. Direct evidence of MetE oxidation in vivo was obtained from thiol-trapping experiments in two different E. coli strains that contain highly oxidizing cytoplasmic environments. Moreover, MetE is completely oxidized in wild-type E. coli treated with the thiol-oxidizing agent diamide; reduced enzyme reappears just prior to the cells resuming normal growth. We argue that for E. coli experiencing oxidizing conditions in minimal medium, MetE is readily inactivated, resulting in cellular methionine limitation. Glutathionylation of the protein provides a strategy to modulate in vivo activity of the enzyme while protecting the active site from further damage, in an easily reversible manner. While glutathionylation of proteins is a fairly common mode of redox regulation in eukaryotes, very few proteins in E. coli are known to be modified in this manner. Our results are complementary to the independent findings of Leichert

  5. Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE: a face-to-face double barrel that evolved by gene duplication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pejchal

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy without using an intermediate methyl carrier. Although MetE displays no detectable sequence homology with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH, both enzymes require zinc for activation and binding of Hcy. Crystallographic analyses of MetE from T. maritima reveal an unusual dual-barrel structure in which the active site lies between the tops of the two (betaalpha(8 barrels. The fold of the N-terminal barrel confirms that it has evolved from the C-terminal polypeptide by gene duplication; comparisons of the barrels provide an intriguing example of homologous domain evolution in which binding sites are obliterated. The C-terminal barrel incorporates the zinc ion that binds and activates Hcy. The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys(3Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. Hcy associates at the face of the metal opposite glutamate, which moves away from the zinc in the binary E.Hcy complex. The folate substrate is not intimately associated with the N-terminal barrel; instead, elements from both barrels contribute binding determinants in a binary complex in which the folate substrate is incorrectly oriented for methyl transfer. Atypical locations of the Hcy and folate sites in the C-terminal barrel presumably permit direct interaction of the substrates in a ternary complex. Structures of the binary substrate complexes imply that rearrangement of folate, perhaps accompanied by domain rearrangement, must occur before formation of a ternary complex that is competent for methyl transfer.

  6. Cobalamin-Independent Methionine Synthase (MetE): A Face-to-Face Double Barrel that Evolved by Gene Duplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pejcha, Robert; Ludwig, Martha L. (Michigan)

    2010-03-08

    Cobalamin-independent methionine synthase (MetE) catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to L-homocysteine (Hcy) without using an intermediate methyl carrier. Although MetE displays no detectable sequence homology with cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), both enzymes require zinc for activation and binding of Hcy. Crystallographic analyses of MetE from T. maritima reveal an unusual dual-barrel structure in which the active site lies between the tops of the two ({beta}{alpha}){sub 8} barrels. The fold of the N-terminal barrel confirms that it has evolved from the C-terminal polypeptide by gene duplication; comparisons of the barrels provide an intriguing example of homologous domain evolution in which binding sites are obliterated. The C-terminal barrel incorporates the zinc ion that binds and activates Hcy. The zinc-binding site in MetE is distinguished from the (Cys){sub 3}Zn site in the related enzymes, MetH and betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase, by its position in the barrel and by the metal ligands, which are histidine, cysteine, glutamate, and cysteine in the resting form of MetE. Hcy associates at the face of the metal opposite glutamate, which moves away from the zinc in the binary E {center_dot} Hcy complex. The folate substrate is not intimately associated with the N-terminal barrel; instead, elements from both barrels contribute binding determinants in a binary complex in which the folate substrate is incorrectly oriented for methyl transfer. Atypical locations of the Hcy and folate sites in the C-terminal barrel presumably permit direct interaction of the substrates in a ternary complex. Structures of the binary substrate complexes imply that rearrangement of folate, perhaps accompanied by domain rearrangement, must occur before formation of a ternary complex that is competent for methyl transfer.

  7. Cobalamin speciation using reversed-phase micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanes, Enrique G. E-mail: yanes@bhnrc.usda.gov; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J. E-mail: miller-ihli@bhnrc.usda.gov

    2004-06-18

    Micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was optimized for the determination and separation of a mixture of cobalt containing species. Four cobalamin species (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) representing the various forms of vitamin B12 as well as the harmful corrinoid analogue cobinamide dicyanide were separated using reversed-phase microcapillary chromatography with columns containing C18 packing material with a 2-{mu}m particle size. Selection of organic solvents for the separation took into consideration compatibility with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer being used for element specific detection. Optimized method conditions included use of a methanol gradient and make-up solution for the nebulizer. Some issues associated with dead volume were overcome by the extension of the gradient program. The total analysis time was 52 min. The column-to-column variability was evaluated and was found to be very reasonable (9% RSD on average), confirming that this method is rugged and that the technology should be easily transferred to other laboratories.

  8. A frameshift mutation in the cubilin gene (CUBN in Border Collies with Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (selective cobalamin malabsorption.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Owczarek-Lipska

    Full Text Available Imerslund-Gräsbeck syndrome (IGS or selective cobalamin malabsorption has been described in humans and dogs. IGS occurs in Border Collies and is inherited as a monogenic autosomal recessive trait in this breed. Using 7 IGS cases and 7 non-affected controls we mapped the causative mutation by genome-wide association and homozygosity mapping to a 3.53 Mb interval on chromosome 2. We re-sequenced the genome of one affected dog at ∼10× coverage and detected 17 non-synonymous variants in the critical interval. Two of these non-synonymous variants were in the cubilin gene (CUBN, which is known to play an essential role in cobalamin uptake from the ileum. We tested these two CUBN variants for association with IGS in larger cohorts of dogs and found that only one of them was perfectly associated with the phenotype. This variant, a single base pair deletion (c.8392delC, is predicted to cause a frameshift and premature stop codon in the CUBN gene. The resulting mutant open reading frame is 821 codons shorter than the wildtype open reading frame (p.Q2798Rfs*3. Interestingly, we observed an additional nonsense mutation in the MRC1 gene encoding the mannose receptor, C type 1, which was in perfect linkage disequilibrium with the CUBN frameshift mutation. Based on our genetic data and the known role of CUBN for cobalamin uptake we conclude that the identified CUBN frameshift mutation is most likely causative for IGS in Border Collies.

  9. Cobalamin production by Lactobacillus coryniformis: biochemical identification of the synthetized corrinoid and genomic analysis of the biosynthetic cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Andrea Carolina; Vannini, Verónica; Bonacina, Julieta; Font, Graciela; Saavedra, Lucila; Taranto, María Pía

    2016-10-13

    Despite the fact that most vitamins are present in a variety of foods, malnutrition, unbalanced diets or insufficient intake of foods are still the cause of vitamin deficiencies in humans in some countries. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) is a complex compound that is only naturally produced by bacteria and archea. It has been reported that certain strains belonging to lactic acid bacteria group are capable of synthesized water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B-group, as vitamin B12. In this context, the goal of the present paper was to evaluate and characterize the production of vitamin B12 in Lactobacillus coryniformis CRL 1001, a heterofermentative strain isolated from silage. Cell extract of L. coryniformis CRL 1001, isolated from silage, is able to correct the coenzyme B12 requirement of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium AR 2680 in minimal medium. The chemical characterization of the corrinoid-like molecule isolated from CRL 1001 cell extract using HPLC and mass spectrometry is reported. The majority of the corrinoid produced by this strain has adenine like Coα-ligand instead 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole. Genomic studies revealed the presence of the complete machinery of the anaerobic biosynthesis pathway of coenzyme B12. The detected genes encode all proteins for the corrin ring biosynthesis and for the binding of upper (β) and lower (α) ligands in one continuous stretch of the chromosome. The results here described show for the first time that L. coryniformis subsp. coryniformis CRL 1001 is able to produce pseudocobalamin containing adenine instead of 5,6-dimethlbenzimidazole in the Coα-ligand. Genomic analysis allowed the identification and characterization of the complete de novo biosynthetic pathway of the corrinoid produced by the CRL 1001 strain.

  10. Isolation and characterization of 14 additional genes specifying the anaerobic biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B12) in Propionibacterium freudenreichii (P. shermanii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessner, Charles A; Huang, Ke-Xue; Warren, Martin J; Raux, Evelyne; Scott, A Ian

    2002-06-01

    A search for genes encoding enzymes involved in cobalamin (vitamin B12) production in the commercially important organism Propionibacterium freudenreichii (P. shermanii) has resulted in the isolation of an additional 14 genes encoding enzymes responsible for 17 steps of the anaerobic B12 pathway in this organism. All of the genes believed to be necessary for the biosynthesis of adenosylcobinamide from uroporphyrinogen III have now been isolated except two (cbiA and an as yet unidentified gene encoding cobalt reductase). Most of the genes are contained in two divergent operons, one of which, in turn, is closely linked to the operon encoding the B12-dependent enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. The close linkage of the three genes encoding the subunits of transcarboxylase to the hemYHBXRL gene cluster is reported. The functions of the P. freudenreichii B12 pathway genes are discussed, and a mechanism for the regulation of cobalamin and propionic acid production by oxygen in this organism is proposed.

  11. A Black Cohosh Extract Causes Hematologic and Biochemical Changes Consistent with a Functional Cobalamin Deficiency in Female B6C3F1/N Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cora, Michelle C; Gwinn, William; Wilson, Ralph; King, Debra; Waidyanatha, Suramya; Kissling, Grace E; Brar, Sukhdev S; Olivera, Dorian; Blystone, Chad; Travlos, Greg

    2017-07-01

    Black cohosh rhizome, available as a dietary supplement, is most commonly marketed as a remedy for dysmenorrhea and menopausal symptoms. A previous subchronic toxicity study of black cohosh dried ethanolic extract (BCE) in female mice revealed a dose-dependent ineffective erythropoiesis with a macrocytosis consistent with the condition known as megaloblastic anemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential mechanisms by which BCE induces these particular hematological changes. B6C3F1/N female mice (32/group) were exposed by gavage to vehicle or 1,000 mg/kg BCE for 92 days. Blood samples were analyzed for hematology, renal and hepatic clinical chemistry, serum folate and cobalamin, red blood cell (RBC) folate, and plasma homocysteine and methylmalonic acid (MMA). Folate levels were measured in liver and kidney. Hematological changes included decreased RBC count; increased mean corpuscular volume; and decreased reticulocyte, white blood cell, neutrophil, and lymphocyte counts. Blood smear evaluation revealed increased Howell-Jolly bodies and occasional basophilic stippling in treated animals. Plasma homocysteine and MMA concentrations were increased in treated animals. Under the conditions of our study, BCE administration caused hematological and clinical chemistry changes consistent with a functional cobalamin, and possibly folate, deficiency. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism by which BCE causes increases in homocysteine and MMA.

  12. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Mutti

    Full Text Available Coβ-4-ethylphenyl-cob(III alamin (EtPhCbl is an organometallic analogue of vitamin B12 (CNCbl which binds to transcobalamin (TC, a plasma protein that facilitates the cellular uptake of cobalamin (Cbl. In vitro assays with key enzymes do not convert EtPhCbl to the active coenzyme forms of Cbl suggesting that administration of EtPhCbl may cause cellular Cbl deficiency. Here, we investigate the in vivo effect of EtPhCbl in mice and its ability, if any, to induce Cbl deficiency. We show that EtPhCbl binds to mouse TC and we examined mice that received 3.5 nmol/24h EtPhCbl (n=6, 3.5 nmol/24h CNCbl (n=7 or NaCl (control group (n=5 through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA and homocysteine (tHcy. Plasma MMA (mean±SEM was elevated in animals treated with EtPhCbl (1.01±0.12 µmol/L compared to controls (0.30±0.02 µmol/L and CNCbl (0.29±0.01 µmol/L treated animals. The same pattern was observed for tHcy. Plasma total Cbl concentration was higher in animals treated with EtPhCbl (128.82±1.87 nmol/L than in CNCbl treated animals (87.64±0.93 nmol/L. However, the organ levels of total Cbl were significantly lower in animals treated with EtPhCbl compared to CNCbl treated animals or controls, notably in the liver (157.07±8.56 pmol/g vs. 603.85±20.02 pmol/g, and 443.09±12.32 pmol/g, respectively. Differences between the three groups was analysed using one-way ANOVA and, Bonferroni post-hoc test. EtPhCbl was present in all tissues, except the spinal cord, accounting for 35-90% of total Cbl. In conclusion, treatment with EtPhCbl induces biochemical evidence of Cbl deficiency. This may in part be caused by a compromised tissue accumulation of Cbl.

  13. Synergistic effect of nano-sized mackinawite with cyano-cobalamin in cement slurries for reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyung, Daeseung [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Sihn, Youngho [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sangwoo [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sungjun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Konkuk University, 120 Neungdong-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029 (Korea, Republic of); Amin, Muhammad Tahir; Alazba, Abdulrahman Ali [Alamoudi Water Chair, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451 (Saudi Arabia); Lee, Woojin, E-mail: woojin_lee@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34141 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-05

    Highlights: • Complete degradation of PCE was observed in nFeS-Cbl(III)-cement at pH 12. • PCE was completely degraded to non-chlorinated organic compounds by this system. • Co redox couple and Ca species in cement played a pivotal role for PCE reduction. • Increases in Cbl(III) concentration, cement ratio, and pH enhanced PCE degradation. • Efficiency of the system for PCE reduction was good even at high concentration of PCE. - Abstract: Experiments were conducted to investigate the reductive dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by nano-Mackinawite (nFeS) with cyano-cobalamin (Cbl(III)) in cement slurries. Almost complete degradation of PCE by nFeS-Cbl(III) was observed in cement slurries in 5 h and its degradation kinetics (k{sub obs-PCE} = 0.57 h{sup −1}) was 6-times faster than that of nFeS-Cbl(III) without the cement slurries. PCE was finally transformed to non-chlorinated organic compounds such as ethylene, acetylene, and C3-C4 hydrocarbons by nFeS-Cbl(III) in cement slurries. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and PCE degradation by cement components (SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and CaO) revealed that both the reduced Co species in Cbl(III) and the presence of Ca in cement played an important role for the enhanced reductive dechlorination of PCE. The increase in the concentration of Cbl(III) (0.005–0.1 mM), cement ratio (0.05–0.2), and suspension pH (11.5–13.5) accelerated the PCE degradation kinetics by providing more favorable environments for the production of reactive Ca species and reduction of Co species. We also observed that the degradation efficiency of PCE by nFeS-Cbl(III)-cement lasted even at high concentration of PCE. The experimental results obtained from this study could provide fundamental knowledge of redox interactions among nFeS, Cbl(III), and cement, which could significantly enhance reductive dechlorination of chlorinated organics in contaminated natural and engineered environments.

  14. Down-regulation of transcobalamin receptor TCblR/CD320 by siRNA inhibits cobalamin uptake and proliferation of cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Shao-Chiang [School of Graduate Studies, SUNY-Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203 (United States); Nakayama, Yasumi; Sequeira, Jeffrey M. [Department of Medicine, Cell Biology, SUNY-Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203 (United States); Quadros, Edward V., E-mail: Edward.Quadros@downstate.edu [Department of Medicine, Cell Biology, SUNY-Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203 (United States); School of Graduate Studies, SUNY-Downstate Medical Center, Brooklyn, NY 11203 (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The clinical phenotype of cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency is dictated by the essential role of this vitamin in two key enzymatic reactions. Multiple proteins and receptors participate in the absorption, transport and delivery of this vitamin to tissue cells. Cellular uptake of Cbl is mediated by transcobalamin (TC), a plasma protein and a transmembrane receptor (TCblR) with high affinity for TC saturated with Cbl. Knockdown of TCblR with siRNA results in decreased TC-Cbl uptake. The ensuing Cbl deficiency leads to an increase in doubling time and decreased proliferation of these cells. The study confirms the seminal role of this receptor in the cellular uptake of Cbl and its down-regulation as a potential strategy to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells.

  15. The Effects of Methionine-Enriched and Vitamins (Folate, Pyridoxine and Cobalamine-Deficient Diet on Exploratory Activity in Rats - A Brief Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mijailovic Natasa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased homocysteine levels induced by methionine nutritional overload (twice as standard and deficiency of the vitamins folate, pyridoxine and cobalamine, which plays an important role in homocysteine metabolism in anxiety-related behaviour, expressed by means of exploratory activity in rats. Twenty-three male Wistar albino rats (4 weeks old, 100±15 g body weight were divided into three groups: control (n=8, methionine-enriched (Meth+, 7.7 g of methionine/kg chow, n=7 and methionine-enriched vitamin-deficient (Meth+Vit-, 7.7 g of methionine/ kg chow, deficient in folate, pyridoxine and cobalamine - 0.08, 0.01 and 0.01 mg/kg, n=8. All animals had free access to food and water for 30 days. Behavioural testing was performed using the elevated plus maze (EPM test. Standard parameters for vertical exploratory activity, the number of rearings and the number of head-dippings, as well as the total exploratory activity (summarizing overall exploratory activity in the EPM were significantly reduced following 30 days of methionine nutritional overload (p<0.05, p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively. A methionine-enriched diet coupled with a reduction in some B vitamins resulted in a more pronounced decline in exploratory drive observed in the EPM test compared to the control (p<0.01. The decline in total exploratory activity associated with vitamin deficiency was significant compared to the Meth+ group (p<0.05. The results of this study highlight the important role of homocysteine in the modulation of exploratory activity in rats. Decreased exploratory drive induced by both a methionine-enriched and vitamin-deficient diet could be attributed to an anxiogenic effect of hyperhomocysteinemia.

  16. Growth Retardation, General Hypotonia, and Loss of Acquired Neuromotor Skills in the Infants of Mothers With Cobalamin Deficiency and the Possible Role of Succinyl-CoA and Glycine in the Pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Bicakci, Zafer

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) deficiency can cause metabolic, hematological, and neurological abnormalities. Adequate levels of succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) cannot be synthesized from methylmalonyl-CoA because of the decreased activity of the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase enzyme that uses Cbl as the cofactor. Succinyl-CoA synthesis deficiency leads to decreased heme synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The reason of growth retardation can be gluconeogenesis deficiency together with heme synthesis d...

  17. Quantidades e tempos de decomposição da jitirana no desempenho agronômico do coentro Amounts and times of decomposition of scarlet starglory on agronomic performance of cilandro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Ferreira Linhares

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available A prática da adubação verde promove benefícios aos sistemas de produção de hortaliças. Este trabalho foi conduzido na fazenda experimental Rafael Fernandes do Departamento de Ciências Vegetais da Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN, no período de junho a outubro de 2009, com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho agronômico do coentro da cultivar 'Verdão' sob diferentes quantidades e tempos de incorporação da jitirana ao solo. O delineamento experimental usado foi de blocos completos casualizados com os tratamentos arranjados em esquema fatorial 4x4, com três repetições, com 144 plantas por parcela, sendo o primeiro fator constituído pelas quantidades de jitirana (5,4; 8,8; 12,2 e 15,6Mg ha-1 em base seca, o segundo pelos tempos de sua incorporação ao solo (0, 10, 20 e 30 dias antes a semeadura - DAS. A cultivar de coentro plantado foi a 'Verdão'. As características avaliadas foram: altura e número de hastes por planta, matéria fresca e massa da matéria seca da parte aérea. Foi observada interação significativa para número de hastes por planta. O melhor desempenho agronômico do coentro foi obtido na quantidade de 15,6Mg ha-1 de jitirana incorporada ao solo, no tempo de 30 dias.The practice of green manuring promotes benefits to production systems of hortals. One experiment was carried out at experimental farm of Departament of plant Sciences, Federal Rural University of the Semi-Arid (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN, in the period from June to October 2009, with the aim of evaluating the agronomic performance of coriander under different amounts and decomposition times of and scarlet starglory incorporated into the soil. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with treatments arranged in a 4x4, with three replications, and 144 plants per plot, where the first factor consisted of the amounts of scarlet starglory (5.4, 8.8, 12.2 and 15.6Mg ha-1 dry matter, the second one by the times of soil

  18. Alternatively Spliced Methionine Synthase in SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells: Cobalamin and GSH Dependence and Inhibitory Effects of Neurotoxic Metals and Thimerosal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Waly

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The folate and cobalamin (Cbl- dependent enzyme methionine synthase (MS is highly sensitive to oxidation and its activity affects all methylation reactions. Recent studies have revealed alternative splicing of MS mRNA in human brain and patient-derived fibroblasts. Here we show that MS mRNA in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells is alternatively spliced, resulting in three primary protein species, thus providing a useful model to examine cofactor dependence of these variant enzymes. MS activity was dependent upon methylcobalamin (MeCbl or the combination of hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl and S-adenosylmethionine (SAM. OHCbl-based activity was eliminated by depletion of the antioxidant glutathione (GSH but could be rescued by provision of either glutathionylcobalamin (GSCbl or MeCbl. Pretreatment of cells with lead, arsenic, aluminum, mercury, or the ethylmercury-containing preservative thimerosal lowered GSH levels and inhibited MS activity in association with decreased uptake of cysteine, which is rate-limiting for GSH synthesis. Thimerosal treatment decreased cellular levels of GSCbl and MeCbl. These findings indicate that the alternatively spliced form of MS expressed in SH-SY5Y human neuronal cells is sensitive to inhibition by thimerosal and neurotoxic metals, and lower GSH levels contribute to their inhibitory action.

  19. Organometallic DNA-B12Conjugates as Potential Oligonucleotide Vectors: Synthesis and Structural and Binding Studies with Human Cobalamin-Transport Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutti, Elena; Hunger, Miriam; Fedosov, Sergey; Nexo, Ebba; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2017-11-16

    The synthesis and structural characterization of Co-(dN) 25 -Cbl (Cbl: cobalamin; dN: deoxynucleotide) and Co-(dN) 39 -Cbl, which are organometallic DNA-B 12 conjugates with single DNA strands consisting of 25 and 39 deoxynucleotides, respectively, and binding studies of these two DNA-Cbl conjugates to three homologous human Cbl transporting proteins, transcobalamin (TC), intrinsic factor (IF), and haptocorrin (HC), are reported. This investigation tests the suitability of such DNA-Cbls for the task of eventual in vivo oligonucleotide delivery. The binding of DNA-Cbl to TC, IF, and HC was investigated in competition with either a fluorescent Cbl derivative and Co-(dN) 25 -Cbl, or radiolabeled vitamin B 12 ( 57 Co-CNCbl) and Co-(dN) 25 -Cbl or Co-(dN) 39 -Cbl. Binding of the new DNA-Cbl conjugates was fast and tight with TC, but poorer with HC and IF, which extends a similar original finding with the simpler DNA-Cbl, Co-(dN) 18 -Cbl. The contrasting affinities of TC versus IF and HC for the DNA-Cbl conjugates are rationalized herein by a stepwise mechanism of Cbl binding. Critical contributions to overall affinity result from gradual conformational adaptations of the Cbl-binding proteins to the DNA-Cbl, which is first bound to the respective β domains. This transition is fast with TC, but slow with IF and HC, with which weaker binding results. The invariably tight interaction of the DNA-Cbl conjugates with TC makes the Cbl moiety a potential natural vector for the specific delivery of oligonucleotide loads from the blood into cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Efficient methylation of C2 in l-tryptophan by the cobalamin-dependent radical S-adenosylmethionine methylase TsrM requires an unmodified N1 amine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczyk, Anthony J; Wang, Bo; Silakov, Alexey; Ho, Jackson V; Booker, Squire J

    2017-09-15

    TsrM catalyzes the methylation of C2 in l-tryptophan (Trp). This reaction is the first step in the biosynthesis of the quinaldic acid moiety of the thiopeptide antibiotic thiostrepton, which exhibits potent activity against Gram-positive pathogens. TsrM is a member of the radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) superfamily of enzymes, but it does not catalyze the formation of 5'-deoxyadenosin-5'-yl or any other SAM-derived radical. In addition to a [4Fe-4S] cluster, TsrM contains a cobalamin cofactor that serves as an intermediate methyl carrier in its reaction. However, how this cofactor donates a methyl moiety to the Trp substrate is unknown. Here, we showed that the unmodified N1 position of Trp is important for turnover and that 1-thia-Trp and 1-oxa-Trp serve as competitive inhibitors. We also showed that β-cyclopropyl-Trp undergoes C2 methylation in the absence of cyclopropyl ring opening, disfavoring mechanisms that involve unpaired electron density at C3 of the indole ring. Moreover, we showed that all other indole-substituted analogs of Trp undergo methylation at varying but measurable rates and that the analog 7-aza-Trp, which is expected to temper the nucleophilicity of C2 in Trp, is a very poor substrate. Last, no formation of cob(II)alamin or substrate radicals was observed during the reaction with Trp or any molecule within a tested panel of Trp analogs. In summary, our results are most consistent with a mechanism that involves two polar nucleophilic displacements, the second of which requires deprotonation of the indole nitrogen in Trp during its attack on methylcobalamin. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  1. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina Antimicrobial sensitivity and typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated during a scarlet fever outbreak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto González Pedraza-Avilés

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA. Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron porcentajes de sensibilidad. La concentración inhibitoria mínima (CIM se obtuvo por microdilución semiautomatizada. Se utilizó un secuenciador automatizado de DNA para el análisis de variación de secuencias en los genes que codifican para proteína M y SpeA. Resultados. Todas las cepas fueron sensibles a beta-lactámicos y clindamicina; 12.7% fueron resistentes a eritromicina. El serotipo M2 fue el más frecuente, 27 del total. Prácticamente todas las bacterias (96% con el gen SpeA tienen el gen que codifica para el serotipo M2. Conclusiones. Debido a la reciente reaparición de infecciones por SGA se sugiere realizar estudios tanto de sensibilidad a macrólidos y beta-lactámicos, como de epidemiología molecular.Objective. To evaluate the in vitro activities of 13 antimicrobial agents against 47 group A Streptococcus pyogenes (GAS strains, and to determine the presence of genes encoding streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin A (SpeA and the M--protein serotypes. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted at Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana, during a scarlet fever outbreak occurring between December 1999 and January 2000, among 137 children at Colegio Espíritu de América. Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs were obtained by the semiautomated microdilution method. Automated DNA sequencing was used for analysis of sequence variation in genes encoding the M protein, and SpeA. Results. All strains were sensitive to

  2. Axial Ligation and Redox Changes at the Cobalt Ion in Cobalamin Bound to Corrinoid Iron-Sulfur Protein (CoFeSP or in Solution Characterized by XAS and DFT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peer Schrapers

    Full Text Available A cobalamin (Cbl cofactor in corrinoid iron-sulfur protein (CoFeSP is the primary methyl group donor and acceptor in biological carbon oxide conversion along the reductive acetyl-CoA pathway. Changes of the axial coordination of the cobalt ion within the corrin macrocycle upon redox transitions in aqua-, methyl-, and cyano-Cbl bound to CoFeSP or in solution were studied using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS at the Co K-edge in combination with density functional theory (DFT calculations, supported by metal content and cobalt redox level quantification with further spectroscopic methods. Calculation of the highly variable pre-edge X-ray absorption features due to core-to-valence (ctv electronic transitions, XANES shape analysis, and cobalt-ligand bond lengths determination from EXAFS has yielded models for the molecular and electronic structures of the cobalt sites. This suggested the absence of a ligand at cobalt in CoFeSP in α-position where the dimethylbenzimidazole (dmb base of the cofactor is bound in Cbl in solution. As main species, (dmbCoIII(OH2, (dmbCoII(OH2, and (dmbCoIII(CH3 sites for solution Cbl and CoIII(OH2, CoII(OH2, and CoIII(CH3 sites in CoFeSP-Cbl were identified. Our data support binding of a serine residue from the reductive-activator protein (RACo of CoFeSP to the cobalt ion in the CoFeSP-RACo protein complex that stabilizes Co(II. The absence of an α-ligand at cobalt not only tunes the redox potential of the cobalamin cofactor into the physiological range, but is also important for CoFeSP reactivation.

  3. Cellular uptake of metallated cobalamins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Mai Thanh Quynh; Stürup, Stefan; Lambert, Ian Henry

    2016-01-01

    Cellular uptake of vitamin B12-cisplatin conjugates was estimated via detection of their metal constituents (Co, Pt, and Re) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Vitamin B12 (cyano-cob(iii)alamin) and aquo-cob(iii)alamin [Cbl-OH2](+), which differ in the β-axial ligands (CN......(-) and H2O, respectively), were included as control samples. The results indicated that B12 derivatives delivered cisplatin to both cellular cytosol and nuclei with an efficiency of one third compared to the uptake of free cisplatin cis-[Pt(II)Cl2(NH3)2]. In addition, uptake of charged B12 derivatives...

  4. Scarlet Fever: A Group A Streptococcal Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... uses them Stay home from work, school, or daycare until you no longer have a fever and ... last updated: January 22, 2018 Content source: National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases , Division of Bacterial ...

  5. Badge of Honor or Scarlet Letter?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zunino, Diego; Dushnitsky, Gary; Van Praag, Mirjam

    skill. We predict that investors will discount entrepreneurs that experienced past failure. However, in the presence of a signal of skill, the magnitude of the failure discount is reduced. We test our predictions using an online experiment where respondents are potential investors in seed stage ventures...... via equity crowdfunding. Respondents evaluate a realistic investment opportunity in a between-subjects design, where we decompose the effect of failure into luck and skill. Our results indicate that investors discount entrepreneurs who have experienced failure. Past failure in the presence of a signal...... of skill, however, is not discounted. The findings indicate no discount of failure based on the “failed” label only. Overall, our analysis sheds light on the rationality of investors. In a world where entrepreneurial failure is prevalent, we find that investors are sensitive to its core drivers: luck...

  6. Analytical Bias Exceeding Desirable Quality Goal in 4 out of 5 Common Immunoassays: Results of a Native Single Serum Sample External Quality Assessment Program for Cobalamin, Folate, Ferritin, Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone, and Free T4 Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Gunn B B; Rustad, Pål; Berg, Jens P; Aakre, Kristin M

    2016-09-01

    We undertook this study to evaluate method differences for 5 components analyzed by immunoassays, to explore whether the use of method-dependent reference intervals may compensate for method differences, and to investigate commutability of external quality assessment (EQA) materials. Twenty fresh native single serum samples, a fresh native serum pool, Nordic Federation of Clinical Chemistry Reference Serum X (serum X) (serum pool), and 2 EQA materials were sent to 38 laboratories for measurement of cobalamin, folate, ferritin, free T4, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by 5 different measurement procedures [Roche Cobas (n = 15), Roche Modular (n = 4), Abbott Architect (n = 8), Beckman Coulter Unicel (n = 2), and Siemens ADVIA Centaur (n = 9)]. The target value for each component was calculated based on the mean of method means or measured by a reference measurement procedure (free T4). Quality specifications were based on biological variation. Local reference intervals were reported from all laboratories. Method differences that exceeded acceptable bias were found for all components except folate. Free T4 differences from the uncommonly used reference measurement procedure were large. Reference intervals differed between measurement procedures but also within 1 measurement procedure. The serum X material was commutable for all components and measurement procedures, whereas the EQA materials were noncommutable in 13 of 50 occasions (5 components, 5 methods, 2 EQA materials). The bias between the measurement procedures was unacceptably large in 4/5 tested components. Traceability to reference materials as claimed by the manufacturers did not lead to acceptable harmonization. Adjustment of reference intervals in accordance with method differences and use of commutable EQA samples are not implemented commonly. © 2016 American Association for Clinical Chemistry.

  7. Cobalamin Concentrations in Fetal Liver Show Gender Differences: A Result from Using a High-Pressure Liquid Chromatography-Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry as an Ultratrace Cobalt Speciation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosle, Janine; Goetz, Sven; Raab, Andrea; Krupp, Eva M; Scheckel, Kirk G; Lombi, Enzo; Meharg, Andrew A; Fowler, Paul A; Feldmann, Jörg

    2016-12-20

    Maternal diet and lifestyle choices may affect placental transfer of cobalamin (Cbl) to the fetus. Fetal liver concentration of Cbl reflects nutritional status with regards to vitamin B12, but at these low concentration current Cbl measurement methods lack robustness. An analytical method based on enzymatic extraction with subsequent reversed-phase-high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) separation and parallel ICPMS and electrospray ionization (ESI)-Orbitrap-MS to determine specifically Cbl species in liver samples of only 10-50 mg was developed using 14 pig livers. Subsequently 55 human fetal livers were analyzed. HPLC-ICPMS analysis for cobalt (Co) and Cbl gave detection limits of 0.18 ng/g and 0.88 ng/g d.m. in liver samples, respectively, with a recovery of >95%. Total Co (Cot) concentration did not reflect the amount of Cbl or vitamin B12 in the liver. Cbl bound Co contributes only 45 ± 15% to Cot. XRF mapping and μXANES analysis confirmed the occurrence of non-Cbl cobalt in pig liver hot spots indicating particular Co. No correlations of total cobalt nor Cbl with fetal weight or weeks of gestation were found for the human fetal livers. Although no gender difference could be identified for total Co concentration, female livers were significantly higher in Cbl concentration (24.1 ± 7.8 ng/g) than those from male fetuses (19.8 ± 7.1 ng/g) (p = 0.04). This HPLC-ICPMS method was able to quantify total Cot and Cbl in fetus liver, and it was sensitive and precise enough to identify this gender difference.

  8. Distribuição volumétrica e diâmetro de gotas de pontas de pulverização de energia hidráulica para controle de corda-de-viola Volumetric distribution and droplet size of hydraulic spraying nozzles for the control of scarlet morningglory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Ferreira

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As pontas de pulverização são responsáveis pela formação das gotas, e cada ponta apresenta características próprias relacionadas ao espectro de gotas e perfil de deposição, específicas para determinados alvos. Este trabalho teve o objetivo de caracterizar o diâmetro e a uniformidade das gotas e o perfil de distribuição volumétrica das pontas de pulverização AI 110015 e TTI 110015, bem como seu efeito sobre a mortalidade de corda-de-viola, com herbicida pré-emergente, associado ou não a adjuvantes. Avaliou-se o número de plantas emergidas e os pesos secos da parte aérea e radicular das plantas. Os perfis de distribuição volumétrica para a altura de 40 cm foram avaliados em mesa de deposição. A partir dos perfis de distribuição, simulou-se o padrão de deposição ao longo da barra de pulverização. O espectro do diâmetro de gotas foi determinado em analisador de tamanho de partículas por difração de luz laser . O herbicida diuron + hexazinona foi eficiente no controle em préemergência de corda-de-viola, podendo ser utilizado polimetil siloxano organomodificado ou óleo mineral como adjuvantes, associados às pontas de pulverização AI 110015 ou TTI 110015. O uso de adjuvantes proporcionou aumento no diâmetro mediano volumétrico e redução na porcentagem de gotas com diâmetro inferior a 100 µm. O espaçamento sugerido entre os bicos na barra de pulverização foi de 70 cm para o modelo AI 110015 e 80 cm para o modelo TTI 110015.Nozzles are responsible for the formation of drops, with each side presenting its own characteristics related to droplet deposition spectrum and profile specific to certain targets. This study aimed to characterize the diameter and uniformity of the droplets and volumetric distribution profile of nozzles AI 110015 and 110015 TTI, as well as their effect on the mortality of scarlet morningglory, using pre-emergent herbicide, alone or combined with adjuvants. The number of emerging

  9. Growth retardation, general hypotonia, and loss of acquired neuromotor skills in the infants of mothers with cobalamin deficiency and the possible role of succinyl-CoA and glycine in the pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicakci, Zafer

    2015-03-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl) deficiency can cause metabolic, hematological, and neurological abnormalities. Adequate levels of succinyl-coenzyme A (CoA) cannot be synthesized from methylmalonyl-CoA because of the decreased activity of the methylmalonyl-CoA mutase enzyme that uses Cbl as the cofactor. Succinyl-CoA synthesis deficiency leads to decreased heme synthesis and gluconeogenesis. The reason of growth retardation can be gluconeogenesis deficiency together with heme synthesis deficiency whereas the reason of the neurological abnormalities can be glycine increase in the tissue due to decreased heme synthesis. We present 7 infants diagnosed with severe nutritional Cbl deficiency and discuss the role of succinyl-CoA and glycine in the possible pathogenesis in this article. Patients brought to our clinic with a complaint of growth retardation and diagnosed with nutritional Cbl deficiency were included in the study. There were 5 females and 2 males. The mean age was 11 ± 2.30 (range 6-13) months. All patients had general muscular hypotonia and 4 had growth retardation. Neuromotor growth retardation was found in 4 of the children who had previously shown normal neuromotor development for age. The mean Cbl level was 83.8 ± 27.6 (45.6-114) pg/mL. The mean Cbl level of the mothers was 155 ± 56.6 (88-258) pg/mL. Six of the patients had anemia and 1 had thrombocytopenia. Mean corpuscular volume value was 91.5 ± 12.2 fL. Following treatment, the muscle tonus of the patients improved, the anemia and growth retardation decreased, and the lost neuromotor abilities were recovered. Severe nutritional Cbl deficiency is an important nutritional disease where complications can be prevented with early treatment. When evaluating the pathogenesis, it should be noted that nutritional Cbl deficiency is a succinyl-CoA synthesis deficiency.

  10. A defective mutant of Salmonella enterica Serovar Gallinarum in cobalamin biosynthesis is avirulent in chickens Mutante de Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum duplo defectivo na biossíntese de cobalamina é avirulento para aves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Boldrin de Paiva

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG is a fowl typhoid agent in chickens and is a severe disease with worldwide economic impact as its mortality may reach up to 80%. It is one of a small group of serovars that typically produces typhoid-like infections in a narrow range of host species and which therefore represents a good model for human typhoid. The survival mechanisms are not considered to be virulent mechanisms but are essential for the life of the bacterium. Mutants of Salmonella Gallinarum containing defective genes, related to cobalamin biosynthesis and which Salmonella spp. has to be produced to survive when it is in an anaerobic environment, were produced in this study. Salmonella Gallinarum is an intracellular parasite. Therefore, this study could provide information about whether vitamin B12 biosynthesis might be essential to its survival in the host. The results showed that the singular deletion in cbiA or cobS genes did not interfere in the life of Salmonella Gallinarum in the host, perhaps because single deletion is not enough to impede vitamin B12 biosynthesis. It was noticed that diluted SG mutants with single deletion produced higher mortality than the wild strain of SG. When double mutation was carried out, the Salmonella Gallinarum mutant was unable to provoke mortality in susceptible chickens. This work showed that B12 biosynthesis is a very important step in the metabolism of Salmonella Gallinarum during the infection of the chickens. Further research on bacterium physiology should be carried out to elucidate the events described in this research and to assess the mutant as a vaccine strain.Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum (SG é o agente do tifo aviário, doença severa que provoca mortalidade em até 80% do plantel de aves. SG encontra-se entre os poucos sorotipos de Salmonella que são agentes etiológicos de enfermidade específica, à semelhança de Salmonella Typhi em seres humanos podendo, portanto, servir

  11. Anemias excluding cobalamin and folate deficiencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublis, Stephanie; Shah, Shefali; Nand, Sucha; Anderes, Elise

    2014-01-01

    Anemias are one of the commonest maladies affecting humans. They result from either a failure of production by the bone marrow (hypoproliferative), or from premature destruction or loss (hyperproliferative) of red cells. Hypoproliferative anemias typically result from deficiencies of essential nutrients, stem cell abnormalities or deficiency, and infiltrative processes of the bone marrow. In the hyperproliferative forms, the bone marrow function is normal and anemia results from bleeding or shortened erythrocyte lifespan due to hemoglobinopathies, red cell enzyme disorders, membrane defects, or external factors such as antibodies, trauma, or heat injury. The etiology of anemia is frequently obvious, but when obscure, a systematic diagnostic approach frequently yields the answer. It is important to realize that anemias are usually a consequence of another disease process, which must be identified. Without correction of the underlying disease process, the treatment is likely to fail. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Relationships in Data Sanitization: A Study in Scarlet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, Matt; Cummins, Justin; Peisert, Sean; Singh, Anhad; Bhumiratana, Bhume; Agarwal, Deborah A.; Frincke, Deborah A.; Hogarth, Michael

    2010-09-23

    Data anonymization and sanitization are essential components to using and sharing data, but most approaches to performing those actions either fail to take into account all of the stakeholders, are ad hoc, or both. In this paper, we discuss a means of doing so.

  13. Le mythe de la Wilderness dans The Scarlet Letter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauric Guillaud

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Wilderness... Un mot-piège qui résume l’Amérique dans la complexité de son espace-temps, un mot-pieuvre dont la polysémie tentaculaire renvoie au tabou ultime : l’ensauvagement du corps et de l’âme. Au bout du chemin gît le bewilderment, mélange d’ahurissement, de perplexité, de confusion qui s’empare du civilisé désorienté. Menace de contagion, d’indianisation, de plongée régressive dans les abîmes des sylves obscures. La wilderness, écrit J. R. Rougé, est « la réalité concrète d’une terre n...

  14. Morphological descriptors and micro satellite diversity among scarlet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Nei's coefficients for morphological descriptors and SSR data indicated that S. aethiopicum groups showed a wide genetic base. MM1102 and MM457 showed high relatedness for pubescence and moderate prickles. These traits are useful during selection and intellectual right. The Kumba and Shum groups are ...

  15. Reversible Myelopathy on Magnetic Resonance Imaging Due to Cobalamin Deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Ju Lee

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Subacute combined degeneration (SCD is known as myelopathy due to vitamin B12 deficiency. SCD always involves the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord, with the neuropathologic change showing vacuolation of the white matter. We describe 2 patients who presented with ataxic gait, impaired proprioception over limbs, and even mental change due to vitamin B12 deficiency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the cervical spine showed increased signal intensity on T2-weighted imaging, and laboratory data showed low serum vitamin B12 level. The 2 patients were treated with vitamin B12 injection intramuscularly. There was clinical improvement after treatment along with normalization of the MRI.

  16. Mechanism of Cobalamin-Mediated Reductive Dehalogenation of Chloroethylenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ji, Li; Wang, Chenchen; Ji, Shujing

    2017-01-01

    Reductive dehalogenation involvingcobalamin has been proved to be a promising strategy for decontamination of the polluted environment. However, cob(I)alamin can act both as a strong reductant and a powerful nucleophile, and thus, several competing dehalogenation pathways may be involved. This wo...

  17. The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity and polyphenolic content of some herbal teas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apak, Reşat; Güçlü, Kubilay; Ozyürek, Mustafa; Esin Karademir, Saliha; Erçağ, Erol

    2006-01-01

    The total antioxidant capacity of the aqueous extracts of some endemic herbs-prepared as infusions by steeping these herbs in hot water--was assayed with bis(neocuproine)copper(II) chloride, also known as the cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) reagent, which was easily accessible, rapid, stable and responsive to both hydrophilic and lipophilic antioxidants. The highest antioxidant capacities of some herbal teas available in the Turkish market were observed for scarlet pimpernel (Anagallis arvensis), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), green tea (Camellia sinensis) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), in this order (1.63, 1.18, 1.07, and 0.99 mmol trolox equivalent (TR)/g, respectively). For infusions prepared from ready-to-use tea bags, the CUPRAC values were highest for Ceylon blended ordinary tea (4.41), green tea with lemon (1.61), English breakfast ordinary tea (1.26) and green tea (0.94), all of which were manufactured types of C. sinensis. Following the strongest antioxidant herbs with capacities close to or slightly exceeding 1.0 mmol TR/g, sage, thyme, coriander, coltsfoot, blackberry and immortelle (Helichrysum) exhibited capacities around 0.5 mmol TR/g. The correlation of the Folin total phenolic content of herbal teas with their CUPRAC and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt) total antioxidant capacities gave linear curves with correlation coefficients of 0.966 and 0.936, respectively, showing that the CUPRAC assay results better correlated with total phenolic content of herbal teas. Absorbance versus concentration data at different dilutions and upon standard additions of model antioxidant compounds (trolox and quercetin) to herbal tea infusions showed that the absorbances (at 450 nm of the CUPRAC method) due to different antioxidant compounds in herbal tea infusions were additive; that is, the tested antioxidants did not chemically interact to cause apparent deviations from Beer's law.

  18. 77 FR 40221 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Scarlet Macaw

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... other areas of Columbia outside the Amazon Biome) of this species. (2) Information on the species... percent) of the species' current range lies within the Amazon Biome of South America (BLI 2011a... primarily in the Maya Forest region of eastern Chiapas (Mexico), northern Guatemala, and southwest Belize...

  19. Site index curves for black, white, scarlet, and chestnut oaks in the Central States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willard H. Carmean

    1971-01-01

    Stem analyses showed polymorphic patterns of height growth for each species and for different levels of site quality. New site index curves are presented that show better height growth in later years than predicted by older harmonized site index curves.

  20. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Kasai; Hayashi, Takehiko I; Hitoshi Ohnishi; Kazutaka Suzuki; Daisuke Hayasaka; Koichi Goka

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3...

  1. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takehiko I; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Goka, Koichi

    2016-03-16

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3 months after application. However, residuals of these insecticides in the paddy soil were detected throughout the experimental period. Plankton species were affected by clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole right after the applications, but they recovered after the concentrations decreased. On the other hand, the effects of fipronil treatment, especially on Odonata, were larger than those of any other treatment. The number of adult dragonflies completing eclosion was severely decreased in the fipronil treatment. These results suggest that the accumulation of these insecticides in paddy soil reduces biodiversity by eliminating dragonfly nymphs, which occupy a high trophic level in paddy fields.

  2. Fipronil application on rice paddy fields reduces densities of common skimmer and scarlet skimmer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasai, Atsushi; Hayashi, Takehiko I.; Ohnishi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Hayasaka, Daisuke; Goka, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Several reports suggested that rice seedling nursery-box application of some systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil) is the cause of the decline in dragonfly species noted since the 1990s in Japan. We conducted paddy mesocosm experiments to investigate the effect of the systemic insecticides clothianidin, fipronil and chlorantraniliprole on rice paddy field biological communities. Concentrations of all insecticides in the paddy water were reduced to the limit of detection within 3 months after application. However, residuals of these insecticides in the paddy soil were detected throughout the experimental period. Plankton species were affected by clothianidin and chlorantraniliprole right after the applications, but they recovered after the concentrations decreased. On the other hand, the effects of fipronil treatment, especially on Odonata, were larger than those of any other treatment. The number of adult dragonflies completing eclosion was severely decreased in the fipronil treatment. These results suggest that the accumulation of these insecticides in paddy soil reduces biodiversity by eliminating dragonfly nymphs, which occupy a high trophic level in paddy fields. PMID:26979488

  3. Acute cholecystitis in a child with scarlet fever: A rare association

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    upper quadrant, associated with mild fever. On examination there was tenderness in the right upper quadrant of his abdomen. His amylase was 35 IU/L, lipase 22.6 IU/L, full blood count 16 800/µL. (neutrophils 65%) and CRP 74 mg/L. Virology studies including. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, hepatitis A, B and C, cytomegalovirus.

  4. Domestication Genomics of the Open-Pollinated Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azalea Guerra-García

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The runner bean is a legume species from Mesoamerica closely related to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris. It is a perennial species, but it is usually cultivated in small-scale agriculture as an annual crop for its dry seeds and edible immature pods. Unlike the common bean, P. coccineus has received little attention from a genetic standpoint. In this work we aim to (1 provide information about the domestication history and domestication events of P. coccineus; (2 examine the distribution and level of genetic diversity in wild and cultivated Mexican populations of this species; and, (3 identify candidate loci to natural and artificial selection. For this, we generated genotyping by sequencing data (42,548 SNPs from 242 individuals of P. coccineus and the domesticated forms of the closely related species P. vulgaris (20 and P. dumosus (35. Eight genetic clusters were detected, of which half corresponds to wild populations and the rest to domesticated plants. The cultivated populations conform a monophyletic clade, suggesting that only one domestication event occurred in Mexico, and that it took place around populations of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. No difference between wild and domesticated levels of genetic diversity was detected and effective population sizes are relatively high, supporting a weak genetic bottleneck during domestication. Most populations presented an excess of heterozygotes, probably due to inbreeding depression. One population of P. coccineus subsp. striatus had the greatest excess and seems to be genetically isolated despite being geographically close to other wild populations. Contrasting with previous studies, we did not find evidence of recent gene flow between wild and cultivated populations. Based on outlier detection methods, we identified 24 domestication-related SNPs, 13 related to cultivar diversification and eight under natural selection. Few of these SNPs fell within annotated loci, but the annotated domestication-related SNPs are highly expressed in flowers and pods. Our results contribute to the understanding of the domestication history of P. coccineus, and highlight how the genetic signatures of domestication can be substantially different between closely related species.

  5. Domestication Genomics of the Open-Pollinated Scarlet Runner Bean (Phaseolus coccineus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-García, Azalea; Suárez-Atilano, Marco; Mastretta-Yanes, Alicia; Delgado-Salinas, Alfonso; Piñero, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    The runner bean is a legume species from Mesoamerica closely related to common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). It is a perennial species, but it is usually cultivated in small-scale agriculture as an annual crop for its dry seeds and edible immature pods. Unlike the common bean, P. coccineus has received little attention from a genetic standpoint. In this work we aim to (1) provide information about the domestication history and domestication events of P. coccineus; (2) examine the distribution and level of genetic diversity in wild and cultivated Mexican populations of this species; and, (3) identify candidate loci to natural and artificial selection. For this, we generated genotyping by sequencing data (42,548 SNPs) from 242 individuals of P. coccineus and the domesticated forms of the closely related species P. vulgaris (20) and P. dumosus (35). Eight genetic clusters were detected, of which half corresponds to wild populations and the rest to domesticated plants. The cultivated populations conform a monophyletic clade, suggesting that only one domestication event occurred in Mexico, and that it took place around populations of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. No difference between wild and domesticated levels of genetic diversity was detected and effective population sizes are relatively high, supporting a weak genetic bottleneck during domestication. Most populations presented an excess of heterozygotes, probably due to inbreeding depression. One population of P. coccineus subsp. striatus had the greatest excess and seems to be genetically isolated despite being geographically close to other wild populations. Contrasting with previous studies, we did not find evidence of recent gene flow between wild and cultivated populations. Based on outlier detection methods, we identified 24 domestication-related SNPs, 13 related to cultivar diversification and eight under natural selection. Few of these SNPs fell within annotated loci, but the annotated domestication-related SNPs are highly expressed in flowers and pods. Our results contribute to the understanding of the domestication history of P. coccineus, and highlight how the genetic signatures of domestication can be substantially different between closely related species. PMID:29187858

  6. In vitro regeneration of solanum aethiopicum L. (scarlet eggplant), an african vegetable crop with potential ornamental value

    Science.gov (United States)

    Successful in vitro regeneration of plantlets was obtained from shoot tips of five Solanum aethiopicum (African eggplants) accessions evaluated in two media, M1 and M2. The M1 medium consisted of Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal salt mixture supplemented with 20 g/L sucrose, 0.75 g/L MgCl2, and 2 g/L ...

  7. Effect of extra-pair paternity and parental quality on brood sex ratio in the scarlet rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poláková, Radka; Schnitzer, J.; Vinkler, Michal; Bryja, Josef; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 61, 3-4 (2012), s. 225-232 ISSN 0139-7893 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA ČR GA206/06/0851 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : sex allocation * extra-pair mating * parental attractiveness Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 0.494, year: 2012

  8. Giving Christian Universities a Scarlet Letter: Examining the Canadian Association of University Teachers' Opposition to Faith-Based Hiring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glanzer, Perry L.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008 the Canadian Association of University Teachers (CAUT) has launched investigations into five Canadian faith-based universities to determine if they violate CAUT's particular understanding of academic freedom. The source of the violation concerns the universities' faith-based hiring requirements, which CAUT maintains violates the…

  9. Celiac disease manifesting as isolated cobalamin deficiency megaloblastic anemia: Case series and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Sakaleshpur Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of gluten in genetically susceptible individuals. It has been identified as one of the most common lifelong disorders on a worldwide basis. Enteropathy in CD is thought to be the final consequence of an abnormal immune reaction, showing features of both an innate and adaptive response to gluten prolamins. The clinical spectrum is wide, including cases with either typical intestinal or atypical extra intestinal features, or silent forms. Anemia has frequently been reported as the only manifestation or the most frequent extra-intestinal symptom of CD. The only available treatment consists in dietary exclusion of grains containing gluten.

  10. Anti-leukemic potential of methyl-cobalamin inactivation by nitrous oxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Abels; A.C.M. Kroes (Aloys C.M.); A.A.M. Ermens (Anton); J. van Kapel (Jan); M. Schoester (Martijn); L.J.M. Spijkers (L. J M); J. Lindemans (Jan)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractMyelo‐cytotoxicity of extended nitrous oxide (N2O) inhalation was described almost forty years ago and then incidentally applied already with temporary success for suppressing leukemia. In 1948 the accompanying megaloblastic maturation arrest was explained by inactivation of the

  11. Composite organization of the cobalamin binding and cubilin recognition sites of intrinsic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Fedosova, Natalya U; Berglund, Lars

    2005-01-01

    of the ligand. Each isolated fragment of IF was tested for the binding to the specific receptor cubilin in the presence or absence of Cbl. Neither apo nor holo forms of IF(20) and IF(30) were recognized by the receptor. When two fragments were mixed and incubated with Cbl, they associated into a stable complex......, IF(30+20).Cbl, which bound to cubilin as well as the noncleaved IF(50).Cbl complex. We suggest that formation of the cubilin recognition site on IF is caused by assembly of two distant domains, which allows the saturated protein to be recognized by the receptor. The obtained parameters for ligand...

  12. A User’s Guide to the Coastal Engineering Research Center’s (CERC’S) Field Research Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    CUSTER , E.S., "Grain Size Curves of Sediments in the GUY, S.C., "Heavy Mineral Analysis of North Carolina Beach Sounds of North Carolina," Dissertation...Pickerelweed Family Lythraceae Lythrun linerae L. Loosestrife Family Primulaceae Saomue pazviflorua Raf . Water pimpernel Family Malvaceae Hibisous

  13. Studies on ATP-diphosphohydrolase nucleotide-binding sites by intrinsic fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kettlun

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Potato apyrase, a soluble ATP-diphosphohydrolase, was purified to homogeneity from several clonal varieties of Solanum tuberosum. Depending on the source of the enzyme, differences in kinetic and physicochemical properties have been described, which cannot be explained by the amino acid residues present in the active site. In order to understand the different kinetic behavior of the Pimpernel (ATPase/ADPase = 10 and Desirée (ATPase/ADPase = 1 isoenzymes, the nucleotide-binding site of these apyrases was explored using the intrinsic fluorescence of tryptophan. The intrinsic fluorescence of the two apyrases was slightly different. The maximum emission wavelengths of the Desirée and Pimpernel enzymes were 336 and 340 nm, respectively, suggesting small differences in the microenvironment of Trp residues. The Pimpernel enzyme emitted more fluorescence than the Desirée apyrase at the same concentration although both enzymes have the same number of Trp residues. The binding of the nonhydrolyzable substrate analogs decreased the fluorescence emission of both apyrases, indicating the presence of conformational changes in the neighborhood of Trp residues. Experiments with quenchers of different polarities, such as acrylamide, Cs+ and I- indicated the existence of differences in the nucleotide-binding site, as further shown by quenching experiments in the presence of nonhydrolyzable substrate analogs. Differences in the nucleotide-binding site may explain, at least in part, the kinetic differences of the Pimpernel and Desirée isoapyrases.

  14. Identification of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) as a molecular gate for cellular export of cobalamin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beedholm-Ebsen, Rasmus; van de Wetering, Koen; Hardlei, Tore

    2010-01-01

    transporters by cellular gene silencing showed a role in cellular Cbl efflux of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC)-drug transporter, ABCC1, alias multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1), which is present in the basolateral membrane of intestinal epithelium and in other cells. The ability of MRP1 to mediate ATP......-dependent Cbl transport was confirmed by vesicular transport experiments, and a physiologic role of MRP1 in mammalian Cbl homeostasis is indicated by the phenotype of knockout mice with targeted disruption of MRP1. These animals have a reduced concentration of Cbl in plasma and in the storage organs liver...

  15. Anaerobic growth of Paracoccus denitrificans requires cobalamin : characterization of cobK and cobJ genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shearer, N.; Hinsley, A.P.; Van Spanning, R J; Spiro, S.

    1999-01-01

    A pleiotropic mutant of Paracoccus denitrificans, which has a severe defect that affects its anaerobic growth when either nitrate, nitrite, or nitrous oxide is used as the terminal electron acceptor and which is also unable to use ethanolamine as a carbon and energy source for aerobic growth, was

  16. 4-ethylphenyl-cobalamin impairs tissue uptake of vitamin B12 and causes vitamin B12 deficiency in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Ruetz, Markus; Birn, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    (n=7) or NaCl (control group) (n=5) through osmotic mini-pumps for four weeks. We analyzed plasma, urine, liver, spleen, submaxillary glands and spinal cord for Cbl and markers of Cbl deficiency including methylmalonic acid (MMA) and homocysteine (tHcy). Plasma MMA (mean±SEM) was elevated in animals...

  17. Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically labeled (14)C-cobalamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkeet, Colleen; Dueker, Stephen R; Lango, Jozsef; Buchholz, Bruce A; Miller, Joshua W; Green, Ralph; Hammock, Bruce D; Roth, John R; Anderson, Peter J

    2006-04-11

    There is a need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B(12). Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B(12) is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of carbon-14 ((14)C)-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of (14)C in microliter volumes of biological samples with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B(12) in the range of normal dietary intake. The B(12) used was quantitatively labeled with (14)C at one particular atom of the dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonella metabolism. To grow aerobically on ethanolamine, Salmonella enterica must be provided with either preformed B(12) or two of its precursors, cobinamide and DMB. When provided with (14)C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced (14)C-B(12) of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) (1 Ci = 37 GBq) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 microg, 2.2 kBq/59 nCi) of purified (14)C-B(12) was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B(12) assimilation.

  18. Human vitamin B12 absorption measurement by accelerator mass spectrometry using specifically labeled 14C-cobalamin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkeet, Colleen; Dueker, Stephen R.; Lango, Jozsef; Buchholz, Bruce A.; Miller, Joshua W.; Green, Ralph; Hammock, Bruce D.; Roth, John R.; Anderson, Peter J.

    2006-01-01

    There is a need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B12. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B12 is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of carbon-14 (14C)-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of 14C in microliter volumes of biological samples with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B12 in the range of normal dietary intake. The B12 used was quantitatively labeled with 14C at one particular atom of the dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB) moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonella metabolism. To grow aerobically on ethanolamine, Salmonella enterica must be provided with either preformed B12 or two of its precursors, cobinamide and DMB. When provided with 14C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced 14C-B12 of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) (1 Ci = 37 GBq) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 μg, 2.2 kBq/59 nCi) of purified 14C-B12 was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B12 assimilation. PMID:16585531

  19. Human Vitamin B12 Absorption and Metabolism are Measured by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry Using Specifically Labeled 14C-Cobalamin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carkeet, C; Dueker, S R; Lango, J; Buchholz, B A; Miller, J W; Green, R; Hammock, B D; Roth, J R; Anderson, P J

    2006-01-26

    There is need for an improved test of human ability to assimilate dietary vitamin B{sub 12}. Assaying and understanding absorption and uptake of B{sub 12} is important because defects can lead to hematological and neurological complications. Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is uniquely suited for assessing absorption and kinetics of {sup 14}C-labeled substances after oral ingestion because it is more sensitive than decay counting and can measure levels of carbon-14 ({sup 14}C) in microliter volumes of biological samples, with negligible exposure of subjects to radioactivity. The test we describe employs amounts of B{sub 12} in the range of normal dietary intake. The B{sub 12} used was quantitatively labeled with {sup 14}C at one particular atom of the DMB moiety by exploiting idiosyncrasies of Salmonellametabolism. In order to grow aerobically on ethanolamine, S. entericamust be provided with either pre-formed B{sub 12} or two of its precursors: cobinamide and dimethylbenzimidazole (DMB). When provided with {sup 14}C-DMB specifically labeled in the C2 position, cells produced {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} of high specific activity (2.1 GBq/mmol, 58 mCi/mmol) and no detectable dilution of label from endogenous DMB synthesis. In a human kinetic study, a physiological dose (1.5 mg, 2.2 KBq/59 nCi) of purified {sup 14}C-B{sub 12} was administered and showed plasma appearance and clearance curves consistent with the predicted behavior of the pure vitamin. This method opens new avenues for study of B{sub 12} assimilation.

  20. The prevalence of cobalamin deficiency among vegetarians assessed by serum vitamin B12: a review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, R; Lester, S E; Babatunde, T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals following vegetarian diets are at risk for developing vitamin B12 deficiency owing to suboptimal intake. As vitamin B12 is essential for the synthesis of nucleic acids, erythrocytes and in the maintenance of myelin, deficiency may result in a variety of symptoms. Some of these symptoms may be severe while others may be irreversible. The objective of this review was to assess vitamin B12 deficiency, based on reported serum vitamin B12, among individuals adhering to different types of vegetarian diets. A systematic literature search was carried out using multiple search engines including PubMed, Medline, CINAHL plus, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health Collection and Nursing/Academic Edition. The inclusion criteria consisted of original studies that assessed serum vitamin B12, studies written in English, non-case studies and studies that reported actual percentages of vitamin B12 deficiency. Forty research studies were included. The deficiency prevalence among infants reached 45%. The deficiency among the children and adolescents ranged from 0 to 33.3%. Deficiency among pregnant women ranged from 17 to 39%, dependent on the trimester. Adults and elderly individuals had a deficiency range of 0-86.5%. Higher deficiency prevalence was reported in vegans than in other vegetarians. Thus, with few exceptions, the reviewed studies documented relatively high deficiency prevalence among vegetarians. Vegans who do not ingest vitamin B12 supplements were found to be at especially high risk. Vegetarians, especially vegans, should give strong consideration to the use of vitamin B12 supplements to ensure adequate vitamin B12 intake. Vegetarians, regardless of the type of vegetarian diet they adhere to, should be screened for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  1. The Effects of Pistacia terebinthus Leaf Extracts and Giberellic Acid on Plant Height, Inflorescence Survival and Inflorescence Numbers of Pelargonium ‘Ringo Deep Scarlet' /

    OpenAIRE

    BULUT, Yahya; Atabeyoğlu, Ömer; Kordali, Şaban

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT : In this paper, the effects of petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl alcohol extracts of Pistacia terebinthus leaves at 100 and 200 ppm doses and Giberellic Acid (GA3), which is used commonly as plant-growth hormone were investigated on plant height, inflorescence survivor and numbers of Pelargonium ‘Ringo Deep Scarlet’. The applications of GA3 and all extracts lengthened the inflorescence survivor of pelargonium in comparison to untreated control group. However, two dos...

  2. Erasing the Scarlet Letter: How Positive Media Messages about Sex Can Lead to Better Sexual Health among College Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Erika K.

    2017-01-01

    This study explores how positive media messages about sex can lead to better sexual health among young adults (college students at a large university, N = 228) by de-emphasizing sensation seeking, condom embarrassment, and stigma. Employing social learning theory and normative influence frameworks, the research found that college-age women had…

  3. Super-resolution imaging with Pontamine Fast Scarlet 4BS enables direct visualization of cellulose orientation and cell connection architecture in onion epidermis cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liesche, Johannes; Ziomkiewicz, Iwona; Schulz, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    present the first super-resolution images of cellulose bundles in the plant cell wall produced by direct stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (dSTORM) in combination with total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. Since TIRF limits observation to the cell surface, we tested...... as alternatives 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and confocal microscopy, combined with image deconvolution. Both methods offer lower resolution than STORM, but enable 3D imaging. While 3D-SIM produced strong artifacts, deconvolution gave good results. The resolution was improved over conventional...

  4. Landscapes of The Mind: The Setting as Psyche in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter And F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby Landscapes of The Mind: The Setting as Psyche in Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter And F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gatsby

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cruce Stark

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the closing moment of F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gateby, Nick returns for one last look at what once was Gateby's house. But instead of physical buildings, he has a vision of an earlier time, a vision of the "old island" that "flowered once for Dutch sailor's eyes -- a fresh green breast of the new world." "For a transitory enchanted moment," Nick thinks, "man must have held his breath in the presence of this continent, compelled into an aesthetic contemplation he neither understood nor desired, face to face for the last time in history with something commensurate to his capacity for wonder (182." In the closing moment of F. Scott Fitzgerald's The Great Gateby, Nick returns for one last look at what once was Gateby's house. But instead of physical buildings, he has a vision of an earlier time, a vision of the "old island" that "flowered once for Dutch sailor's eyes -- a fresh green breast of the new world." "For a transitory enchanted moment," Nick thinks, "man must have held his breath in the presence of this continent, compelled into an aesthetic contemplation he neither understood nor desired, face to face for the last time in history with something commensurate to his capacity for wonder (182."

  5. REDUCTIVE TRANSFORMATION OF TRICHLOROETHENE CATALYZED BY COBALAMIN: REACTIVITIES OF THE INTERMEDIATES, ACETYLENE, CHLOROACETYLENE, AND THE DCE ISOMERS. (R825689C073)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. Application of a fluorescent cobalamin analogue for analysis of the binding kinetics. A study employing recombinant human transcobalamin and intrinsic factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedosov, Sergey N; Grissom, Charles B; Fedosova, Natalya U

    2006-01-01

    facilitated detailed kinetic analysis of Cbl binding. We found that TC had the same affinity for CBC and Cbl (K(d) = 5 x 10(-15) m), whereas interaction of CBC with the highly specific protein IF was more complex. For instance, CBC behaved normally in the partial reactions CBC + IF(30) and CBC + IF(20) when...... this behaviour. The most stable component had K(d) = 1.5 x 10(-13) m, which guarantees the binding of CBC to IF under physiological conditions. The specific intestinal receptor cubilin bound both IF-CBC and IF-Cbl with equal affinity. In conclusion, the fluorescent analogue CBC can be used as a reporting agent...

  7. Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses reveal the structure and dynamics of a dechlorinating community containing Dehalococcoides mccartyi and corrinoid-providing microorganisms under cobalamin-limited conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Men, Yujie; Yu, Ke; Baelum, Jacob; Gao, Ying; Tremblay, Julien; Prestat, Emmanuel; Stenuit, Ben; Tringe, Susannah G; Jansson, Janet; Zhang, Tong; Alvarez-Cohen, Lisa

    2017-01-01

      The aim of this study is to obtain a systems-level understanding of the interactions between Dehalococcoides and corrinoid-supplying microorganisms by analyzing community structures and functional...

  8. Folate, homocysteine, and cobalamin status in patients with rheumatoid arthritis treated with methotrexate, and the effect of low dose folic acid supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornung, Nete; Ellingsen, Torkell; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian

    2004-01-01

    blood cell (RBC) folate and a rise in plasma homocysteine. Intracellular concentrations of MTX were inversely correlated to RBC folate levels after treatment for a longer period (mean 41 months). Supplement with low dose folic acid prevented or diminished the influence of MTX on folate status and had...... a protective effect on MTX induced liver toxicity without changing the efficacy of MTX. CONCLUSION: MTX interferes with folate and homocysteine metabolism, and the intracellular concentration of MTX may play a role. Our results indicate low dose folic acid supplementation has a beneficial effect on MTX...

  9. The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollset, Stein Emil; Igland, Jannicke; Jenab, Mazda; Fredriksen, Ase; Meyer, Klaus; Eussen, Simone; Gjessing, Hakon K.; Ueland, Per Magne; Pera, Guillem; Sala, Nuria; Agudo, Antonio; Capella, Gabriel; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Palli, Domenico; Boeing, Heiner; Weikert, Cornelia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Carneiro, Fatima; Pala, Valeria; Vineis, Paolo; Tumino, Rosario; Panico, Salvatore; Berglund, Goran; Manjer, Jonas; Stenling, Roger; Hallmans, Goran; Martinez, Carmen; Dorronsoro, Miren; Barricarte, Aurelio; Navarro, Carmen; Quiros, Jose R.; Allen, Naomi; Key, Timothy J.; Bingham, Sheila; Linseisen, Jakob; Kaaks, Rudolf; Overvad, Kim; Tjonneland, Anne; Buchner, Frederike L.; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Numans, Mattijs E.; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lund, Eiliv; Slimani, Nadia; Ferrari, Pietro; Riboli, Elio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first

  10. The association of gastric cancer risk with plasma folate, cobalamin, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vollset, S.E.; Igland, J.; Jenab, M.; Fredriksen, A.; Meyer, K.; Eussen, S.; Gjessing, H.K.; Ueland, P.M.; Pera, G.; Sala, N.; Agudo, A.; Capella, G.; Giudice, G. Del; Palli, D.; Boeing, H.; Weikert, C.; Bueno-De-Mesquita, H.B.; Carneiro, F.; Pala, V.; Vineis, P.; Tumino, R.; Panico, S.; Berglund, G.; Manjer, J.; Stenling, R.; Hallmans, G.; Martinez, C.; Dorronsoro, M.; Barricarte, A.; Navarro, C.; Quiros, J.R.; Allen, N.; Key, T.J.; Bingham, S.; Linseisen, J.; Kaaks, R.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Buchner, F.L.; Peeters, P.H.; Numans, M.E.; Clavel-Chapelon, F.; Boutron-Ruault, M.C.; Trichopoulou, A.; Lund, E.; Slimani, N.; Ferrari, P.; Riboli, E.; Gonzalez, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown inconsistent associations of folate intake and polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene with gastric cancer risk. Our nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort is the first

  11. Renal thrombotic microangiopathy in patients with cblC defect : review of an under-recognized entity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, Bodo B; van Spronsen, FrancJan; Diepstra, Arjan; Berger, Rolf M F; Kömhoff, Martin

    Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cobalamin C (cblC) type, is the most common genetic type of functional cobalamin (vitamin B-12) deficiency. This metabolic disease is characterized by marked heterogeneity of neurocognitive disease (microcephaly, seizures, developmental delay, ataxia,

  12. Sensibilidad antimicrobiana y caracterización de cepas de Streptococcus pyogenes aisladas de un brote de escarlatina Antimicrobial sensitivity and typing of Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated during a scarlet fever outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto González Pedraza-Avilés; Catalina Ortiz-Zaragoza; Ricardo Mota-Vázquez; Ma Eloísa Dickinson-Bannack; Rocío Dávila-Mendoza; Miguel Angel Fernández-Ortega

    2002-01-01

    Objetivo. Evaluar la actividad in vitro de 13 antibióticos contra 47 Streptococcus pyogenes grupo A (SGA). Determinar la presencia de genes que codifican para exotoxina pirogénica estreptocóccica A (SpeA) y serotipos con base en proteína M. Material y métodos. Estudio transversal hecho en el Centro de Salud Dr. José Castro Villagrana sobre un brote de escarlatina en el Colegio Espíritu de América, entre diciembre de 1999 y enero de 2000. El número de niños estudiados fue 137. Se extrajeron po...

  13. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 defiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.J.P.M.; Groot, de C.P.G.M.; Clarke, R.J.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, van W.A.

    2005-01-01

    Background Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B12 deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. Methods We conducted a randomized,

  14. Oral cyanocobalamin supplementation in older people with vitamin B12 deficiency: a dose-finding trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eussen, S.; Groot, L.C. de; Clarke, R.; Schneede, J.; Ueland, P.M.; Hoefnagels, W.H.L.; Staveren, W.A. van

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Supplementation with high doses of oral cobalamin is as effective as cobalamin administered by intramuscular injection to correct plasma markers of vitamin B(12) deficiency, but the effects of lower oral doses of cobalamin on such markers are uncertain. METHODS: We conducted a

  15. Dicty_cDB: VSK205 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence. 88 1e-13 1 CA898547 |CA898547.1 PCEP02999 Scarlet Runner Bean Embryo-Proper Region Phaseolus coccineus...sequence. 60 1e-13 2 CA907616 |CA907616.1 PCSC17404 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 60 1e-13 2 CA907618 |CA907618.1 PCSC19544 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSC377 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 54 0.001 1 CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 0.002 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  17. 77 FR 30524 - Pesticide Products; Receipt of Applications To Register New Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ..., goji berry, martynia, naranjilla, okra, pea eggplant, roselle, scarlet eggplant, sunberry, tree tomato... including aronia berry, bearberry, bilberry, blueberry (highbush and lowbush), Chilean guava, cloudberry...

  18. Dicty_cDB: SLI786 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence. 46 1e-04 2 CA904584 |CA904584.1 PCS01796X5 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 5e-04 2 CA904604 |CA904604.1 PCSC15981 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 6e-04 2 CA904596 |CA904596.1 PCSC11746 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 6e-04 2 CA899885 |CA899885.1 PCS00240M13R Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region pCR2.1 Phaseolus

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLJ525 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence. 46 9e-05 2 CA904584 |CA904584.1 PCS01796X5 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 4e-04 2 CA904604 |CA904604.1 PCSC15981 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 4e-04 2 CA904596 |CA904596.1 PCSC11746 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 4e-04 2 CA899885 |CA899885.1 PCS00240M13R Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region pCR2.1 Phaseolus

  20. Tumor Imaging in Patients with Advanced Tumors Using a New 99mTc-Radiolabeled Vitamin B12 Derivative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sah, Bert-Ram; Schibli, Roger; Waibel, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Targeting cancer cells with vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is hampered by unwanted physiologic tissue uptake mediated by transcobalamin. Adhering to good manufacturing practice, we have developed a new (99m)Tc-cobalamin derivative ((99m)Tc(CO)3-[(4-amido-butyl)-pyridin-2-yl-methyl-amino-acetato] cobalamin......, (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin). The derivative shows no binding to transcobalamin but is recognized by haptocorrin, a protein present in the circulation and notably expressed in many tumor cells. In this prospective study, we investigated cancer-specific uptake of (99m)Tc-PAMA-cobalamin in 10 patients...

  1. Dicty_cDB: SSC890 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available pieces. 34 4.2 3 CA901669 |CA901669.1 PCSC18945 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 5.7 1 CA901667 |CA901667.1 PCSC17036 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  2. Dicty_cDB: CFJ762 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA912899 |CA912899.1 PCS05885F Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 44 1.0 1 CA912898 |CA912898.1 PCS02586 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  3. Dicty_cDB: SSA127 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA910640 |CA910640.1 PCSC10898 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 48 8e-07 2 CA910641 |CA910641.1 PCSC17517 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  4. Dicty_cDB: SSM569 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA910640 |CA910640.1 PCSC10898 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 48 6e-07 2 CA910641 |CA910641.1 PCSC17517 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  5. ADIÇÃO DE JITIRANA AO SOLO NO DESEMPENHO DE RÚCULA CV. FOLHA LARGA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Ferreira Linhares

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out at a greenhouse of Plant Science Department of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA, Mossoró-RN, in the period of May to June of 2006, with the objective of determing the best treatment with scarlet starglory (Merremia aegyptia L. incorporated to with soil on rocket performance cv. Folha Larga. A completely randomized desing with six treatments and four replications. The treatment consist of: T1 - 19g pot-1 of scarlet starglory in green base plus; T2 - 28g pot-1 of scarlet starglory in green base plus; T3 - 37g pot-1 of scarlet starglory in green base; T4 - 46g pot-1 of scarlet starglory in green base; T5 - 55g pot-1 of scarlet starglory in green base; T6 - Fertilization with NPK at the recommended dose for the crop and. The rocket cultivar grown was Folha Larga. The evaluated traits were: plant height, number of leaves per pot, shoo fresh and dry mass. All the evaluated traits were significantly affected by the amounts of scarlet starglory incorporated. Height mean value for plant height, shoo fresh, dry mass and number of leaves were obtained in the amount of scarlet starglory incorporated of 19 g pot-1.

  6. Hester Prynne as Role Model: Pro & Con.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McWalters, John B.; DeSalvo, Louise

    1980-01-01

    McWalters denies DeSalvo's previous claim (see EJ 209 302) that "The Scarlet Letter" harms students through its message of repressed sexuality; he suggests that the book does not condemn sexuality. DeSalvo replies that "The Scarlet Letter" is presented to students in a harmful way; she again calls for the use of literature that…

  7. Dicty_cDB: VSI702 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 1e-04 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 1e-04 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.008 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.012 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  8. Dicty_cDB: VSD431 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 6e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 6e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.006 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.008 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  9. Dicty_cDB: VSJ740 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 9e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 9e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.007 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.011 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  10. Dicty_cDB: VSD593 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 2e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 2e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 54 0.001 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.003 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  11. Dicty_cDB: VSC515 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 3e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 3e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 54 0.001 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.004 1 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  12. Dicty_cDB: SSG590 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sequence. 86 3e-22 2 CA908372 |CA908372.1 PCSC07390 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 68 1e-21 4 CA908369 |CA908369.1 PCS04428F Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 68 1e-21 4 CA898692 |CA898692.1 PCEP05653 Scarlet Runner Bean Embryo-Proper Region Phaseolus coccineus...sequence. 68 2e-21 4 CA898689 |CA898689.1 PCEP00678 Scarlet Runner Bean Embryo-Proper Region Phaseolus coccineus...sequence. 58 2e-19 3 CA908371 |CA908371.1 PCSC06406F Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSD561 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 9e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 9e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.008 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.011 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  14. Dicty_cDB: VSJ632 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 9e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 9e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.008 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.012 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  15. Dicty_cDB: VSF747 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 3e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 3e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 54 0.001 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.004 1 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSF128 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 9e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 9e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.008 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.011 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  17. Dicty_cDB: VSF285 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 5e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 5e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.006 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.006 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  18. Dicty_cDB: VSK329 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 6e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 6e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.006 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.008 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  19. Dicty_cDB: VSG632 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 2e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 2e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 54 0.001 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.003 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  20. Dicty_cDB: VSK316 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 9e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 9e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.007 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.011 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  1. Dicty_cDB: VSE673 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 3e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 3e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 54 0.001 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.004 1 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  2. Dicty_cDB: VSK496 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 1e-04 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 1e-04 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.008 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.012 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  3. Dicty_cDB: VSG490 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 8e-05 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 50 8e-05 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 52 0.007 1 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 42 0.010 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  4. Dicty_cDB: VSK123 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available alignments: (bits) Value N CA903142 |CA903142.1 PCSC20414 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 46 8e-04 2 CA903144 |CA903144.1 PCSC21037 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 46 8e-04 2 CA903143 |CA903143.1 PCSC20975 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...servazzii. 40 0.074 2 CA903132 |CA903132.1 PCSC13732 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus...sequence. 38 0.095 2 CA903131 |CA903131.1 PCSC13701 Scarlet Runner Bean Suspensor Region TriplEx2 Phaseolus

  5. Vitamin B(12) dependent changes in mouse spinal cord expression of vitamin B(12) related proteins and the epidermal growth factor system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mutti, Elena; Lildballe, Dorte L; Kristensen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    Chronic vitamin B(12) (cobalamin) deficiency in the mammalian central nervous system causes degenerative damage, especially in the spinal cord. Previous studies have shown that cobalamin status alters spinal cord expression of epidermal growth factor (EGF) and its receptor in rats. Employing...

  6. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiencies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    folate deficiency (≤ 2 - 3 ng/mL). Correlation analysis showed that serum cobalamin and homocysteine in the study samples were not significant (p > 0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of severe cobalamin deficiency with clinical significance is high in the elderly population of Shiraz, Iran. Keywords: Vitamin B12 deficiency, ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-1256 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-1256 ref|ZP_01754413.1| cobalamin 5'-phosphate synthase [Roseobacter s...p. SK209-2-6] gb|EBA16605.1| cobalamin 5'-phosphate synthase [Roseobacter sp. SK209-2-6] ZP_01754413.1 2.2 36% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-24-0066 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-24-0066 ref|NP_638404.1| cobalamin synthase [Xanthomonas campestris pv. c...ampestris str. ATCC 33913] gb|AAM42328.1| cobalamin synthase [Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris str. ATCC 33913] NP_638404.1 0.21 30% ...

  9. Vitamin B12: a novel indicator of bone health in vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhonukshe-Rutten, R.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Background: A number of modifiable predictors for osteoporosis and fractures have been identified, including nutritional factors, such as vitamin D deficiency and low calcium intake. Cobalamin deficiency has been suggested to affect bone metabolism. Pernicious anaemia, which can result in cobalamin

  10. Plaadid / Valner Valme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Valme, Valner, 1970-

    2002-01-01

    Uutest plaatidest "30 Seconds To Mars", E-Rotic "Sexual Healing", Mandarava & Buchert "Feng Shui", Vanessa Mae "The Best Of", Leann Rimes "Twisted Angel" Xzibit "Man vs Mashine", India. Airie "Voyage To India", Tori Amos "Scarlet Walk"

  11. Impetigo Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of impetigo cases are caused by staphyloccus, or “staph,” bacteria, while the rest are caused by streptococcus ... responsible for “strep” throat and scarlet fever). If staph bacteria are to blame, the infection may cause ...

  12. PANDAS: Frequently Asked Questions about Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal ....

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... episodic course of symptoms? My child has had strep throat before, and he has tics and/or OCD. ... suddenly appear following a strep infection (such as strep throat or scarlet fever); or The symptoms of OCD ...

  13. Strep Test: Rapid (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of group A streptococcus bacteria, which can cause strep throat and other infections (including scarlet fever, abscesses, and pneumonia). Strep throat is a bacterial infection that affects the back ...

  14. Using a Hierarchical Approach to Model Regional Source Sink Dynamics for Neotropical Nearctic Songbirds to Inform Management Practices on Department of Defense Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-20

    216 212 66 0.295 0.237 0.236 0.233 -- YES YES Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea 673 700 768 455 0.592 0.593 0.592 0.839 YES YES YES Northern...Summer Tanager Piranga rubra 6 1 0 0 4 0 6 1 18 Scarlet Tanager Piranga olivacea 31 2 30 1 18 3 28 2 115 Eastern Towhee Pipilo erythrophthalmus 18 8

  15. The association between varicella (chickenpox and group A streptococcus infections in historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Coleman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of the research is to investigate the historical relationship between varicella and Streptococcus pyogenes infections. In the past few decades, varicella has been identified as a risk factor for invasive group A streptococcus infections. The question is whether this relationship also existed between varicella and scarlet fever in the historical era. Methods: The analysis begins with a search of historical medical reports on the relationship between varicella and scarlet fever epidemics in the late 19th and early 20th century, as well as in more recent empirical studies. Correlations and cross-correlations between varicella and scarlet fever are analyzed using weekly public health case reports from 1924 to 1932 for Boston, Chicago, New York City, and Philadelphia. Regression models are used to estimate the relationship between varicella and scarlet fever after controlling for seasonal forcing. Results: Historical records give limited support for a causal relationship between varicella and scarlet fever but indicate that these diseases often occurred close in time to each other. Likewise, statistical analysis shows that varicella and scarlet fever epidemics are closely aligned with each other, and varicella has a strong relationship with scarlet fever. The relationship is stronger than reported in any previous research on the two diseases. Conclusion: The close correspondence of the two diseases likely depends on multiple factors, including seasonal forcing, a causal relationship, and co-infections. The results raise questions about whether this close relationship might have had a synergistic effect or a role in the evolution of S. pyogenes from the virulent, high incidence epidemics of the 19th century to the relatively benign scarlet fever of the 1950s.

  16. The association between varicella (chickenpox) and group A streptococcus infections in historical perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the research is to investigate the historical relationship between varicella and Streptococcus pyogenes infections. In the past few decades, varicella has been identified as a risk factor for invasive group A streptococcus infections. The question is whether this relationship also existed between varicella and scarlet fever in the historical era. Methods: The analysis begins with a search of historical medical reports on the relationship between varicella and scarlet fever epidemics in the late 19th and early 20th century, as well as in more recent empirical studies. Correlations and cross-correlations between varicella and scarlet fever are analyzed using weekly public health case reports from 1924 to 1932 for Boston, Chicago, New York City, and Philadelphia. Regression models are used to estimate the relationship between varicella and scarlet fever after controlling for seasonal forcing. Results: Historical records give limited support for a causal relationship between varicella and scarlet fever but indicate that these diseases often occurred close in time to each other. Likewise, statistical analysis shows that varicella and scarlet fever epidemics are closely aligned with each other, and varicella has a strong relationship with scarlet fever. The relationship is stronger than reported in any previous research on the two diseases. Conclusion: The close correspondence of the two diseases likely depends on multiple factors, including seasonal forcing, a causal relationship, and co-infections. The results raise questions about whether this close relationship might have had a synergistic effect or a role in the evolution of S. pyogenes from the virulent, high incidence epidemics of the 19th century to the relatively benign scarlet fever of the 1950s. PMID:27504182

  17. Insider Threat Detection on the Windows Operating System using Virtual Machine Introspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-14

    Included ferrari picture 16:46 16:46 w7_3 Scarlet reply to green 16:51 w7_3 Scarlet web browsing(reddit, facebook, gmail , youtube, pandora, amazon...Documents 17:44 w7_2 Mustard web browsing(reddit, facebook, gmail , youtube, pandora, amazon,chase) 17:44 17:44 w7_2 Search for Crawford in

  18. Wheat ABA-insensitive mutants result in reduced grain dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, Elizabeth C.; Nelson, Sven K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the isolation of wheat mutants in the hard red spring Scarlet resulting in reduced sensitivity to the plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) during seed germination. ABA induces seed dormancy during embryo maturation and inhibits the germination of mature seeds. Wheat sensitivity to ABA gradually decreases with dry after-ripening. Scarlet grain normally fails to germinate when fully dormant, shows ABA sensitive germination when partially after-ripened, and becomes ABA insensitive when after-ripened for 8–12 months. Scarlet ABA-insensitive (ScABI) mutants were isolated based on the ability to germinate on 5 µM ABA after only 3 weeks of after-ripening, a condition under which Scarlet would fail to germinate. Six independent seed-specific mutants were recovered. ScABI 1, ScABI2, ScABI3 and ScABI4 are able to germinate more efficiently than Scarlet at up to 25 µM ABA. The two strongest ABA insensitive lines, ScABI3 and ScABI4, both proved to be partly dominant suggesting that they result from gain-of-function mutations. The ScABI1, ScABI2, ScABI3, ScABI4, and ScABI5 mutants after-ripen more rapidly than Scarlet. Thus, ABA insensi-tivity is associated with decreased grain dormancy in Scarlet wheat. This suggests that ABA sensitivity is an important factor controlling grain dormancy in wheat, a trait that impacts seedling emergence and pre-harvest sprouting resistance. PMID:25431501

  19. The growth and flowering of Salvia splendens Sellow ex Roem. et Schult. under flowerbed conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Błażewicz-Woźniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the influence of accompanying plants as well as bark mulching, common for green areas, on the growth, flowering and decorative values of scarlet sage Salvia splendens Sellow ex Roem. et Schult. The field experiment included two cultivars of sage: ‘Red Torreador’ and ‘Luna’; two species of accompanying plants: French marigold – Tagetes patula nana L. ‘Petit Gold’ and flossflower – Ageratum houstonianum Mill.; as well as pine bark mulching. The control group was a monoculture of scarlet sage, without mulching. Pine bark mulching had a beneficial influence on almost all growth and flowering characteristics of scarlet sage. The plants growing on mulched soil were higher, had more leaves and branches as well as their inflorescences were longer and had more whorls than the plants growing without mulching. S. splendens growing with other species had fewer leaves and fewer branches. Its side stems and lateral inflorescences were shorter. The accompanying species also limited the mass of scarlet sage. The vicinity of marigold and flossflower had no influence on the height of S. splendens plants, the number of whorls and flowers within inflorescences. The growth of scarlet sage was largely modified by weather conditions; the plants grew best between June 20th and July 18th, with the best decorative effect achieved in July. The drought caused the flowers to dry out during the second half of the summer each year, limiting the decorative values of sage.

  20. [Effect of a corrinoid on Methanosarcina barkeri DNA synthesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhkova, E P; Briukhanov, A L

    2009-01-01

    Methanosarcina barkeri is capable of synthesizing large amounts of corrinoids, compounds of the vitamin B12 group, although not cobalamin. In the present work, exogenous cobalamin was demonstrated to upregulate DNA synthesis in M. harkeri cell suspensions incubated under air. The effect is similar to the one in Propionibacterium freudenreichii cells, though less pronounced. The growth of the archaeon under anaerobic conditions was shown to be suppressed by cobalamin and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole. The data obtained suggest the presence of a corrinoid-dependent ribonucleotide reductase in the archaeon cells which provides for deoxyribose precursors for DNA biosynthesis independently of the presence of molecular oxygen in the medium. Growth suppression under anoxic conditions by cobalamin and 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole may be due to a decrease in the concentration of factor III, a polyfunctional corrinoid dominating in M. barkeri cells.

  1. A U-shaped relationship between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Ueland, Per Magne; Vollset, Stein Emil; Midttun, Oivind; Olsen, Anja; Tjonneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise; Teucher, Birgit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Benetou, Vassiliki; Naska, Androniki; Jenab, Mazda; Slimani, Nadia; Romieu, Isabelle; Michaud, Dominique S.; Palli, Domenico; Sieri, Sabina; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Skeie, Guri; Duell, Eric J.; Rodriguez, Laudina; Molina-Montes, Esther; Maria Huerta, Jose; Larranaga, Nerea; Barricarte Gurrea, Aurelio; Johansen, Dorthe; Manjer, Jonas; Ye, Weimin; Sund, Malin; Peeters, Petra H. M.; Jeurnink, Suzanne; Wareham, Nicholas; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Crowe, Francesca; Riboli, Elio; Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas; Vineis, Paolo

    Folate intake has shown an inverse association with pancreatic cancer; nevertheless, results from plasma measurements were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to examine the association between plasma total homocysteine, methionine, folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, riboflavin, flavin

  2. A promising approach to enhance microalgae productivity by exogenous supply of vitamins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Puja Tandon; Qiang Jin; Limin Huang

    2017-01-01

    ... in the production of the cofactor for the vitamin [17-19, 36]. [...]the presence of a specific cofactor such as methionine synthase within the gene repertoires of the microalgae decides the actual availability of the cobalamin...

  3. Establishing a Method for Measuring Serum Methylmalonic Acid and Application to Women with a History of Breast Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hauge, Ileana

    2002-01-01

    Serum concentrations of methylmalonic acid (MMA), a dicarboxylic acid and intermediate in the conversion of propionic acid to succinic acid, are elevated if there is deficiency of cobalamin (vitamin B12...

  4. Diagnosis of vitamin B12 deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    HU, Rehman

    1984-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency occurs primarily as a result  of insufficient dietary intake or poor absorp-tion. There is widespread global prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency, resulting in considerable morbidity.

  5. Evaluation of the ability to metabolize 1,2-propanediol by heterofermentative bacteria of the genus Lactobacillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Zielińska

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: All tested isolates showed the ability to effectively metabolize 1,2-PD (in the presence of cobalamin and its conversion to propionic acid, which reveals that investigated bacteria meet the essential requirements of microorganisms with a potential application.

  6. Does B12 vitamin limit phytoplankton growth in the new Iberian Peninsula?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Barber Lluch

    2014-07-01

    Surface autotrophic microbial populations were monthly collected and exposed to known nutrient concentrations and incubated under in situ light and temperature conditions. The experimental addition treatments included: a inorganic nutrients (nitrate, ammonium and phosphate; b B12 vitamin (cobalamin and c inorganic nutrients and cobalamin. On two occasions, four additional treatments were included: d organic nutrients (glucose and amino acids; e a combination of inorganic and organic nutrients; f organic nutrients and cobalamin; g inorganic and organic nutrients plus cobalamin. Amendment experiments lasted 4 days. Samples were collected every 24h for Chlorophyll-a concentration, pico- and nanoplankton abundance and heterotrophic bacterial abundance determination. Our results suggest that phytoplankton growth is co-limited by inorganic nutrients and B12-vitamin. This co-limitation varied along the study period likely related to changes in community composition and ambient nutrient and B-vitamins concentrations.

  7. The effect of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole on vitamin B12 synthesis and protein production in Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. freudenreichii

    OpenAIRE

    Ishchenko, Tatiana

    2014-01-01

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is commonly known as a Swiss-type cheese ripening culture, and is also frequently applied in the industrial production of vitamin B12 (cobalamin). One way to increase vitamin B12 productivity is the supplementation of medium with 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI), the lower ligand of cobalamin. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the effect of exogenous DMBI on vitamin B12 synthesis and protein production in type strain of P. freudenreichii ssp. freudenre...

  8. Phytoplankton-bacterial interactions mediate micronutrient colimitation at the coastal Antarctic sea ice edge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Erin M; McCrow, John P; Moustafa, Ahmed; Zheng, Hong; McQuaid, Jeffrey B; Delmont, Tom O; Post, Anton F; Sipler, Rachel E; Spackeen, Jenna L; Xu, Kai; Bronk, Deborah A; Hutchins, David A; Allen, Andrew E

    2015-08-11

    Southern Ocean primary productivity plays a key role in global ocean biogeochemistry and climate. At the Southern Ocean sea ice edge in coastal McMurdo Sound, we observed simultaneous cobalamin and iron limitation of surface water phytoplankton communities in late Austral summer. Cobalamin is produced only by bacteria and archaea, suggesting phytoplankton-bacterial interactions must play a role in this limitation. To characterize these interactions and investigate the molecular basis of multiple nutrient limitation, we examined transitions in global gene expression over short time scales, induced by shifts in micronutrient availability. Diatoms, the dominant primary producers, exhibited transcriptional patterns indicative of co-occurring iron and cobalamin deprivation. The major contributor to cobalamin biosynthesis gene expression was a gammaproteobacterial population, Oceanospirillaceae ASP10-02a. This group also contributed significantly to metagenomic cobalamin biosynthesis gene abundance throughout Southern Ocean surface waters. Oceanospirillaceae ASP10-02a displayed elevated expression of organic matter acquisition and cell surface attachment-related genes, consistent with a mutualistic relationship in which they are dependent on phytoplankton growth to fuel cobalamin production. Separate bacterial groups, including Methylophaga, appeared to rely on phytoplankton for carbon and energy sources, but displayed gene expression patterns consistent with iron and cobalamin deprivation. This suggests they also compete with phytoplankton and are important cobalamin consumers. Expression patterns of siderophore- related genes offer evidence for bacterial influences on iron availability as well. The nature and degree of this episodic colimitation appear to be mediated by a series of phytoplankton-bacterial interactions in both positive and negative feedback loops.

  9. Oral Cyanocobalamin is Effective in the Treatment of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomollón, Fernando; Gargallo, Carla J.; Muñoz, Jose Fernando; Vicente, Raquel; Lue, Alberto; Mir, Alberto; García-Alvarado, Marta; Gracia, Marta; García-López, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Cobalamin deficiency is common in patients with Crohn’s disease (CD). Intramuscular cobalamin continues to be the standard therapy for the deficiency and maintenance treatment in these patients, although oral route has been demonstrated to be effective in other pathologies with impaired absorption. Our aims were to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy in the treatment of cobalamin deficiency and in long-term maintenance in patients with Crohn’s disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 94 patients with Crohn’s disease and cobalamin deficiency. Seventy-six patients had B12 deficiency and 94.7% of them normalized their cobalamin levels with oral treatment. The most used dose was 1 mg/day, but there were no significant differences in treatment effectiveness depending on the dose used (≥1 mg/24 h vs. <1 mg/24 h). Eighty-two patients had previous documented B12 deficiency and were treated with oral B12 to maintain their correct cobalamin levels. After a mean follow-up of 3 years, the oral route was effective as maintenance treatment in 81.7% of patients. A lack of treatment adherence was admitted by 46.6% of patients in who the oral route failed. In conclusion, our study shows that oral cyanocobalamin provides effective acute and maintenance treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency caused by CD with or without ileum resection. PMID:28335526

  10. Oral Cyanocobalamin is Effective in the Treatment of Vitamin B12 Deficiency in Crohn's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomollón, Fernando; Gargallo, Carla J; Muñoz, Jose Fernando; Vicente, Raquel; Lue, Alberto; Mir, Alberto; García-Alvarado, Marta; Gracia, Marta; García-López, Santiago

    2017-03-20

    Cobalamin deficiency is common in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). Intramuscular cobalamin continues to be the standard therapy for the deficiency and maintenance treatment in these patients, although oral route has been demonstrated to be effective in other pathologies with impaired absorption. Our aims were to evaluate the efficacy of oral therapy in the treatment of cobalamin deficiency and in long-term maintenance in patients with Crohn's disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study that included 94 patients with Crohn's disease and cobalamin deficiency. Seventy-six patients had B12 deficiency and 94.7% of them normalized their cobalamin levels with oral treatment. The most used dose was 1 mg/day, but there were no significant differences in treatment effectiveness depending on the dose used (≥1 mg/24 h vs. B12 deficiency and were treated with oral B12 to maintain their correct cobalamin levels. After a mean follow-up of 3 years, the oral route was effective as maintenance treatment in 81.7% of patients. A lack of treatment adherence was admitted by 46.6% of patients in who the oral route failed. In conclusion, our study shows that oral cyanocobalamin provides effective acute and maintenance treatment for vitamin B12 deficiency caused by CD with or without ileum resection.

  11. Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR). Volume 7, Number 4, April 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-01

    esophagus 523 10.2 Intestinal infections due to other organisms 113 5.9 Dentofacial anomalies 521 10.2 Streptococcal sore throat and scarlet fever 90...appendicitis 162 14.2 Meningitis due to enterovirus 48 9.6 Cholelithiasis 129 11.3 Streptococcal sore throat and scarlet fever 24 4.8 Other noninfectious...Sep 2000 Ft Sill 0 1 2 3 0 10 20 30 40 50 1. ARD rate = cases per 100 trainees per week. 2. SASI ( Strep ARD surveillance index) = (ARD rate

  12. Polyarteritis nodosa presenting as a bladder outlet obstruction

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A computed tomography scan of the brain revealed small-vessel disease. A bladder neck mass was visualised on cystoscopy. ... An uncontrasted brain computed tomography. (CT) scan revealed age-inappropriate atrophy with .... and fibrinoid necrosis of the vessel wall (black arrow) (Martius Scarlet Blue, 400× magnification).

  13. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    (Indian Coral Tree;Hindi:Pangra)of Leguminosae is a small, quick-growing deciduous tree with a small crown. Branches are covered with dark conical prickles, which fall off after some time. The leaves are compound with three leaflets. Bright red or scarlet flowers which appear following leaf fall are in clusters at branch ends.

  14. Res Feb Cov 07 Print.pdf

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    tree. It is also occasionally found in cultivation in gardens of plains as an ornamental tree. The leaves are large (4-8in long), dark-green, elliptic and are covered with rough hairs. Flowers are grouped in attractive large open terminal clusters. They are 1-2 in, long, orange or orange-scarlet in colour with the corolla lobes ...

  15. Using fire to restore pine/hardwood ecosystems in the Southern Appalachians of North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    James M. Vose; Wayne T. Swank; Barton D. Clinton; Ronald L. Hendrick; Amy E. Major

    1997-01-01

    In the Southern Appalachians, mixed pine/hardwood ecosystems occupy the most xeric sites (i.e., south/west aspect ridge sites). They are typically comprised of varying proportions of pitch pine (Pinus rigida), Virginia pine (Pinus virginiana), and/or shortleaf pine (Pinus echinata) and a mixture of hardwoods, including scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea), chestnut oak (...

  16. Site preparation burning to improve southern Appalachian pine-hardwood stands: aboveground biomass, forest floor mass, and nitrogen and carbon pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Vose; W.T. Swank

    1993-01-01

    Prescribed fire is currently used as a site preparation treat-ment in mixed pine-hardwood ecosystems of the southern Appalachians.Stands receiving this treatment typically consist of mixtures of pitch pine (Pinus rigidu Mill.), scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus L.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and dense under-stories dominated by...

  17. a short "istory of the development of south africa's naval uniform

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I'. Cdr L. R. Heydenrych,. VRD, wearing the full dress uniform which was not worn here after the amalgama- tion of the RNVR(SA) and SDF in 1942. Notice the fulldress ..... scarlet, dental officers orange and chaplains mauve distinguishing cloth. Today welfare of- ficers, pharmacists and nursing sisters all wear maroon and ...

  18. SA FORCES IN THE SECOND WORLD WAR

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A shoulder flash of a strip of orange-scarlet, seven-eighths of an inch wide, was adopted as the badge of ...... tered the Chianti hills covering the southern approaches to Florence. A bitter struggle followed for the mountains and ridges over- looking the Florence road. Witwatersrand. Rifles/De La Rey Regiment distinguished.

  19. Plant Regeneration and Genetic Transformation in Eggplant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Harmander Gill

    2014-02-05

    Feb 5, 2014 ... culture.Thisomitsthecallusandembryoidphases,reduces use of auxin from the in vitro culture and leads to direct formation of new shoots from the explants ..... potential new crops for subtropical climates, the scarlet (Solanum aethiopicum) and gboma (S. macrocarpon) eggplants. New Zealand. J. Crop Hortic.

  20. Oriënterend onderzoek over de reuzen- en dwergplanten in F1 en volgende generaties van Phaseolus vulgaris L. x Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerts, Sipke Johannes

    1949-01-01

    A cross is studied between the selffertilising bush bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) "Zeeuwse Bruine Boon" and crossfertilising runner bean (Phaseolus multiflorus Lam.) "stam" (a scarlet flowering stockrunner-bean) or some other (climbing) runners. With the bushbean as mother this cross easily results

  1. Acorn Production Characteristics of Southern Appalachian Oaks: A Simple Method to Predict Within-Year Crop Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathryn H. Greenberg; Bernard R. Parresol

    2000-01-01

    We examined acorn production from 1993-97 by black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), northern red oak (Q. rubra L.), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muenchh.), chestnut oak (Q. prinus L.), and white oak (Q. alba L.) in the Southern Appalichians to determine how frequency of acorn...

  2. Assessing wood quality of borer-infested red oak logs with a resonance acoustic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang; Henry E. Stelzer; Jan Wiedenbeck; Patricia K. Lebow; Robert J. Ross

    2009-01-01

    Large numbers of black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muenchh.) trees are declining and dying in the Missouri Ozark forest as a result of oak decline. Red oak borer-infested trees produce low-grade logs that become extremely difficult to merchandize as the level of insect attack increases. The objective of this study was to investigate...

  3. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    graphing the chloroform solution of the crude dye, a scarlet band appeared | at the top of the alumina column, while an orange percolate moved down- º wards. The dye recovered from the chloroform percolate crystallized from glacial acetic acid in red needles, m.p. 221–22° (Found: N, 15.5. C.H.O.N., requires N, 15.6%).

  4. Evaluation of an Oxygen-Diffusion Dressing for Accelerated Healing of Donor-Site Wounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    such as fine- mesh gauze, scarlet-red gauze, Xeroform gauze, and other dressings. Slow healing times, cellulitis , and pain are perennial problems in...burn wound cellulitis preoperatively, and critically ill patients on mechanical ventilation who would be unable to provide consent for the study or

  5. Evalution of advanced sweetpotato genotypes for resistance to soil insect pests, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three insect susceptible cultivars (‘Beauregard’, ‘Hernandez’, and 'SC 1149-19'), two insect-resistant cultivars ('Charleston Scarlet' and ‘Ruddy’), and 43 advanced sweetpotato genotypes were evaluated for insect resistance in replicated field trials at Charleston, SC. Thirty-three genotypes had si...

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    loose axillary and terminal much-branched inflorescence, small (about. 0.4 cm) and greenish. Fruit is globose, fleshy, 5–10 mm in diameter, smooth, pink to scarlet when mature and single-seeded. The fibrous branches of S. persica are used as toothbrush as they prevent tooth decay. The leaves are used as fodder and also ...

  7. Scholarly Appraisals of Literary Works Taught in High Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunning, Stephen, Ed.; Sams, Henry W., Ed.

    Critical essays on eight literary works--four from the conventional literature curriculum and four less widely taught--are collected in this publication. Each o f the four standard selections--"Great Expectations,""Julius Caesar,""The Scarlet Letter," and "Macbeth"--is treated in two essays and a bibliography; and each of the less widely taught…

  8. Res March 2013 Cover Tp.cdr

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    family Myrtaceae (Jamunor Guavafamily). It produces one of the most spectacular and attractive flowers among all Syzygiums. The flowers have numerous attractive stamens which give them the appearance of powderpuffs. The flowers have two color morphs, scarlet and white which are producedondifferent trees. However,.

  9. RE-SONANCE--IJU-ly

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The normal (wild type) eye color in Drosophila is red. In Part 2 of this series, we described some mutants in which the colour is variable - such as white, brown, scarlet, etc. We also discussed that some of these eye colour phenotypes are due to genes present on different chromosomes. Now let us study the inheritance of ...

  10. Fire scars and tree vigor following prescribed fires in Missouri Ozark upland forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron P. Stevenson; Rose-Marie Muzika; Richard P. Guyette

    2008-01-01

    The goal of our project was to examine basal fire scars caused by prescribed fires and tree vigor in upland forests of the Missouri Ozarks. Fire scar data were collected in 100 plots from black oak (Quercus velutina Lam.), scarlet oak (Q. coccinea Muench.), Shumard oak (Q. shumardii Buckl.), post oak (Q...

  11. An Archeological Overview and Management Plan for the Harry Diamond Laboratories-Woodbridge Research Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-07-01

    Shropshire , Ralph M. Peck, Milton Brown, John Ganz and Rodney Metzger of the Harry Diamond Laboratories. All gave generously of their time and providedr...Entrance. Journal of Geology 73:201-229. Hutton, Henry I. 1903. Tombstones of the Scarlet Family. William and Mary Quarterly Series 1, 11:145. Jennings

  12. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thomas, S. Vol 10, No 3 (2016) - Articles Acute cholecystitis in a child with scarlet fever: A rare association. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1999-7671. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact ...

  13. Res Oct 2012 Cover 04.01.12 Tp 1

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    which attains a height of upto 40 meters. It belongs to the family Celastraceae. It is normally seen growing in marshy or water- logged areas along forest streams and rivers. The disc-shaped flowers which appear in bunches at the end of the branches are cream colored when fresh but turn scarlet red after maturity.

  14. Lophopetalum wightianum

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    tree which attains a height of upto 40 meters. Itbelongstofamily Celastraceae. Itisnormally seen growing in marshy or water-logged areas along forest streams and rivers. The disc- shaped flowers which appear in bunches at the end of the branches are cream colored when fresh but turn scarlet red after maturity.

  15. Fourth Period Discovers Hester as Mother: Hawthorne's Mother?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heginbotham, Eleanor

    1986-01-01

    A teacher discusses how she used criticism of "The Scarlet Letter," when studying the book, in her honors class. The students were also intrigued by the biographical information they learned about Hawthorne, and eager to use it in interpreting his novel. (SRT)

  16. Women's Vantage Points and New Realities: A Philosophic Viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Maxine

    Women who are able to acknowledge their distinctive perceptions and to relate them to their lives are the ones most likely to expose the oppressiveness of a power-driven society. Nathaniel Hawthorne's fictional character, Hester Prynne ("The Scarlet Letter") illustrates a crucial theme: a woman's faculty for critical awareness and her ability to…

  17. Delonix regia Rat. (Gulmohar) is a highly ornamental tree largely ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Delonix regia Rat. (Gulmohar) is a highly ornamental tree largely cultivated on roadsides and in gardens for its beautiful foliage and scarlet red (lowers. Gulmohar trees in full bloom and new leaves dominate other flora in summer months. The infusion of flowers is used in bronchitis, asthma and malaria.

  18. Mental Health Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... failure. It makes me human." – Scarlet Pomers, musician and former co-star on TV’s "Reba" Could ... health problem. Sometimes these problems are caused by brain damage, child abuse, or other traumas. But kids ...

  19. !F[o we ring

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This, the calyx tube as well as the flower stalk are orange-red to scarlet-red in colour. Pistils in the female flower are discrete. Usually, five fruits develop from each flower which are membranaceous and break into leaf-like carpels long before their maturity. The carpels bear wrinkled globose seeds on their margins. Firmiana ...

  20. 319----14 Dec 2009.indd [Final version].indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-12-14

    Dec 14, 2009 ... Sadducees,5 elders (of the people),6 chief priests and high priest,7 scribes (of the ... but also, by the same token, to turn prisoners over to Pilate for trial within ..... 'purple cloak' of Mark for a 'scarlet robe', the attire of a Roman foot soldier and ...... the children in and around Bethlehem who were two years old.

  1. Complete Genome Sequences of emm111 Type Streptococcus pyogenes Strain GUR, with Antitumor Activity, and Its Derivative Strain GURSA1 with an Inactivated emm Gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suvorova, Maria A; Tsapieva, Anna N; Bak, Emilie Glad

    2017-01-01

    We present here the complete genome sequence of Streptococcus pyogenes type emm111 strain GUR, a throat isolate from a scarlet fever patient, which has been used to treat cancer patients in the former Soviet Union. We also present the complete genome sequence of its derivative strain GURSA1...

  2. Effects of soil compaction, forest leaf litter and nitrogen fertilizer on two oak species and microbial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Jordan; F., Jr. Ponder; V. C. Hubbard

    2003-01-01

    A greenhouse study examined the effects of soil compaction and forest leaf litter on the growth and nitrogen (N) uptake and recovery of red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and scarlet oak (Quercus coccinea Muencch) seedlings and selected microbial activity over a 6-month period. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with...

  3. 75 FR 12563 - Patuxent Research Refuge, Anne Arundel and Prince George's Counties, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-16

    ... Scarlet Tanager Loop, Laurel, MD 20708. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Brad Knudsen, Refuge Manager... developing a CCP is to provide refuge managers with a 15-year plan for achieving refuge purposes and... team leader or project leader (see ADDRESSES). You may also send comments anytime during the planning...

  4. 75 FR 20841 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ...; okra; pea eggplant; pepino; roselle; scarlet eggplant, including cultivars, varieties and/or hybrids of... ingredient: Spinosad. Proposed Use(s): Seed treatments on: bulb vegetables (crop group 3); dried shelled pea...); cantaloupe; pumpkin; watermelon; winter squash; edible-podded legume vegetables (subgroup 6A); field corn...

  5. 934 Snippets of Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Young to old inflorescences of a colour variant of the pernicious weed Lantana camara. Freshly opened flowers are yellow and change gradu- ally to orange, scarlet and magenta. See p.1003. Eugene Paul Wigner. (1902–1995). ( Illustration: Subhankar Biswas ). Front Cover. Back Cover. 931. Classroom. An Easily Con-.

  6. Guilt in Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lurene

    In this paper, guilt in literature is considered within the following four categories: private guilt, shared guilt, implied guilt, and public guilt. Among characters in literature that suffer from guilt as a private matter are Arthur Dimmesdale in "The Scarlet Letter," Pip in "Great Expectations," Edna in "The…

  7. Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, M S

    2000-01-01

    Pure vegetarian diets might cause cobalamin deficiency due to lack of dietary intake. It was hypothesized that a population following a vegan diet consuming mostly raw fruits and vegetables, carrot juice, and dehydrated barley grass juice would be able to avoid vitamin B12 deficiency naturally. Subjects were recruited at a health ministers' reunion based on adherence to the Hallelujah diet for at least 2 years. Serum cobalamin and urinary methylmalonic acid (MMA) assays were performed. Follow-up with sublingual tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements was carried out on subjects with abnormal MMA results. 49 subjects were tested. Most subjects (10th to 90th percentile) had followed this diet 23-49 months. 6 subjects had serum B12 concentrations nutritional yeast, but not probiotic supplements, significantly reduced group mean MMA concentrations (tablet p 0.20). The urinary MMA assay is effective for identifying early metabolic cobalamin deficiency. People following the Hallelujah diet and other raw-food vegetarian diets should regularly monitor their urinary MMA levels, consume a sublingual cobalamin supplement, or consume cobalamin in their food.

  8. Vitamin B12 content in raw and cooked beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerwonka, Małgorzata; Szterk, Arkadiusz; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the vitamin B12 content and profile of cobalamin bioactive forms in raw and cooked beef. The study showed that vitamin B12 distribution is unequal among beef muscles. The content of this nutrient ranges from 0.7 to 1.5 μg/100 g of tissue. In beef, three biologically active forms of vitamin B12 were determined, i.e.: methylcobalamin, adenosylcobalamin and hydroxycobalamin; the dominating form of vitamin B12 was adenosylcobalamin (68% of total cobalamins). The process of roasting and grilling had little effect on the vitamin B12 content in the final product as compared to the raw meat. The fried product was characterised by about a 32% lower content of cobalamins than in raw meat. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. RESISTENCIA AL TIZÓN TARDÍO (Phytophthora infestans EN CLONES PROMISORIOS DE PAPA EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Barquero

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la resistencia al tizón tardío presente en 83 genotipos de papa, provenientes de diferentes cruces y fusión de protoplastos de líneas de mejoramiento con las especies silves- tres Solanum bulbocastanum, S. circaeifolium, S. okadae, S. laxissimum, S. berthaultii, S. pinnatisectum y S. commersonii. Los materiales fueron evaluados en el campo, y en el labora- torio se realizó pruebas de foliolos separados, utilizando como inóculo una raza compleja (1- 11 de P. infestans. Los genotipos provenientes de las hibridaciones somáticas o cruces con las especies silvestres S. bulbocastanum, S. circaei-folium y S. okadae fueron los que presentaron los valores más bajos del área bajo la curva de desarrollo de la enfermedad: 60, 80 y 79, res- pectivamente. Las variedades Alpha, Waych'a,Pimpernell y Granola, utilizadas como testigos, presentaron los valores más altos del área bajo la curva 477, 474, 466 y 427, respectivamente.

  10. Coordination chemistry controls the thiol oxidase activity of the B12-trafficking protein CblC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhu; Shanmuganathan, Aranganathan; Ruetz, Markus; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Lesniak, Nicholas A; Kräutler, Bernhard; Brunold, Thomas C; Koutmos, Markos; Banerjee, Ruma

    2017-06-09

    The cobalamin or B 12 cofactor supports sulfur and one-carbon metabolism and the catabolism of odd-chain fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids, and cholesterol. CblC is a B 12 -processing enzyme involved in an early cytoplasmic step in the cofactor-trafficking pathway. It catalyzes the glutathione (GSH)-dependent dealkylation of alkylcobalamins and the reductive decyanation of cyanocobalamin. CblC from Caenorhabditis elegans ( ce CblC) also exhibits a robust thiol oxidase activity, converting reduced GSH to oxidized GSSG with concomitant scrubbing of ambient dissolved O 2 The mechanism of thiol oxidation catalyzed by ce CblC is not known. In this study, we demonstrate that novel coordination chemistry accessible to ce CblC-bound cobalamin supports its thiol oxidase activity via a glutathionyl-cobalamin intermediate. Deglutathionylation of glutathionyl-cobalamin by a second molecule of GSH yields GSSG. The crystal structure of ce CblC provides insights into how architectural differences at the α- and β-faces of cobalamin promote the thiol oxidase activity of ce CblC but mute it in wild-type human CblC. The R161G and R161Q mutations in human CblC unmask its latent thiol oxidase activity and are correlated with increased cellular oxidative stress disease. In summary, we have uncovered key architectural features in the cobalamin-binding pocket that support unusual cob(II)alamin coordination chemistry and enable the thiol oxidase activity of ce CblC. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  11. Structure of Human B12 Trafficking Protein CblD Reveals Molecular Mimicry and Identifies a New Subfamily of Nitro-FMN Reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Kazuhiro; Gherasim, Carmen; Banerjee, Ruma; Koutmos, Markos

    2015-12-04

    In mammals, B12 (or cobalamin) is an essential cofactor required by methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. A complex intracellular pathway supports the assimilation of cobalamin into its active cofactor forms and delivery to its target enzymes. MMADHC (the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type D protein), commonly referred to as CblD, is a key chaperone involved in intracellular cobalamin trafficking, and mutations in CblD cause methylmalonic aciduria and/or homocystinuria. Herein, we report the first crystal structure of the globular C-terminal domain of human CblD, which is sufficient for its interaction with MMADHC (the methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria type C protein), or CblC, and for supporting the cytoplasmic cobalamin trafficking pathway. CblD contains an α+β fold that is structurally reminiscent of the nitro-FMN reductase superfamily. Two of the closest structural relatives of CblD are CblC, a multifunctional enzyme important for cobalamin trafficking, and the activation domain of methionine synthase. CblD, CblC, and the activation domain of methionine synthase share several distinguishing features and, together with two recently described corrinoid-dependent reductive dehalogenases, constitute a new subclass within the nitro-FMN reductase superfamily. We demonstrate that CblD enhances oxidation of cob(II)alamin bound to CblC and that disease-causing mutations in CblD impair the kinetics of this reaction. The striking structural similarity of CblD to CblC, believed to be contiguous in the cobalamin trafficking pathway, suggests the co-option of molecular mimicry as a strategy for achieving its function. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Vitamin B12 Phosphate Conjugation and Its Effect on Binding to the Human B12 -Binding Proteins Intrinsic Factor and Haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ó Proinsias, Keith; Ociepa, Michał; Pluta, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    and its limitations examined. The resulting derivatives, particularly those bearing terminal alkyne and azide groups, were isolated and used in copper-catalyzed alkyne-azide cycloaddition reactions (CuAAC). Their sensitivity towards light revealed their potential as photocleavable molecules. The binding......The binding of vitamin B12 derivatives to human B12 transporter proteins is strongly influenced by the type and site of modification of the cobalamin original structure. We have prepared the first cobalamin derivative modified at the phosphate moiety. The reaction conditions were fully optimized...

  13. Kinetics and mechanism of the reaction between aquacobalamin and isoniazid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumakov, S. O.; Dereven'kov, I. A.; Salnikov, D. S.; Makarov, S. V.

    2017-10-01

    Kinetics of the reaction of aquacobalamin (H2OCbl) with isoniazid (isonicotinic acid hydrazide, INH) in weakly alkaline, neutral, and weakly acidic media was studied using UV-Vis spectroscopy. It is shown that the reversible formation of a complex more stable than those of cobalamin(III) with pyridine and hydrazine occurs during the reaction. A mechanism of the reaction includes reversible stages of binding a neutral INH molecule by cobalamin(III) through an oxygen atom with its subsequent deprotonation, along with the reversible interaction of H2OCbl and the negatively charged form of INH.

  14. Pathogenic Mutations Differentially Affect the Catalytic Activities of the Human B12-processing Chaperone CblC and Increase Futile Redox Cycling*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, Carmen; Ruetz, Markus; Li, Zhu; Hudolin, Stephanie; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-01-01

    Human CblC catalyzes the elimination of the upper axial ligand in cobalamin or B12 derivatives entering the cell from circulation. This processing step is critical for assimilation of dietary cobalamin into the active cofactor forms that support the B12-dependent enzymes, methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Using a modified nitroreductase scaffold tailored to bind cobalamin and glutathione, CblC exhibits versatility in the mechanism by which it removes cyano versus alkyl ligands in cobalamin. In this study, we have characterized the effects of two pathogenic missense mutations at the same residue, R161G and R161Q, which are associated with early and late onset of the CblC disorder, respectively. We find that the R161Q and R161G CblC mutants display lower protein stability and decreased dealkylation but not decyanation activity, suggesting that cyanocobalamin might be therapeutically useful for patients carrying mutations at Arg-161. The mutant proteins also exhibit impaired glutathione binding. In the presence of physiologically relevant glutathione concentrations, stabilization of the cob(II)alamin derivative is observed, which occurs at the expense of increased oxidation of glutathione. Futile redox cycling, which is suppressed in wild-type human CblC, explains the reported increase in oxidative stress levels associated with the CblC disorder. PMID:25809485

  15. Pathogenic mutations differentially affect the catalytic activities of the human B12-processing chaperone CblC and increase futile redox cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherasim, Carmen; Ruetz, Markus; Li, Zhu; Hudolin, Stephanie; Banerjee, Ruma

    2015-05-01

    Human CblC catalyzes the elimination of the upper axial ligand in cobalamin or B12 derivatives entering the cell from circulation. This processing step is critical for assimilation of dietary cobalamin into the active cofactor forms that support the B12-dependent enzymes, methionine synthase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Using a modified nitroreductase scaffold tailored to bind cobalamin and glutathione, CblC exhibits versatility in the mechanism by which it removes cyano versus alkyl ligands in cobalamin. In this study, we have characterized the effects of two pathogenic missense mutations at the same residue, R161G and R161Q, which are associated with early and late onset of the CblC disorder, respectively. We find that the R161Q and R161G CblC mutants display lower protein stability and decreased dealkylation but not decyanation activity, suggesting that cyanocobalamin might be therapeutically useful for patients carrying mutations at Arg-161. The mutant proteins also exhibit impaired glutathione binding. In the presence of physiologically relevant glutathione concentrations, stabilization of the cob(II)alamin derivative is observed, which occurs at the expense of increased oxidation of glutathione. Futile redox cycling, which is suppressed in wild-type human CblC, explains the reported increase in oxidative stress levels associated with the CblC disorder. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiencies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kamran B Lankarani1, Payam Peymani1*, Sahar Zare2, Reza Tabrizi1, MH. Kazemi3 and ... gastritis, intestinal malabsorption, pancreatic insufficiency ..... B vitamins, homocysteine, and neurocognitive function in the elderly. Am J Clin Nutr 2000; 71: 614– 620. 5. Wolters M, Strohle A, Hahn A. Cobalamin: a critical vitamin in ...

  17. Prevalence of Vitamin B12 and Folate Deficiencies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the prevalence of cobalamin and folate deficiencies among the elderly in the general population of Shiraz in southern Iran. Methods: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study including 340 individuals who are over 50 years old and were selected randomly from all the regions of Shiraz. Results: The ...

  18. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-11-29

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  19. Autoimmune gastritis and parietal cell reactivity in two children with abnormal intestinal permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greenwood, Deanne L. V.; Crock, Patricia; Braye, Stephen; Davidson, Patricia; Sentry, John W.

    Autoimmune gastritis is characterised by lymphocytic infiltration of the gastric submucosa, with loss of parietal and chief cells and achlorhydria. Often, gastritis is expressed clinically as cobalamin deficiency with megaloblastic anaemia, which is generally described as a disease of the elderly.

  20. Structures of the N-terminal modules imply large domain motions during catalysis by methionine synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, John C; Huddler, Donald P; Hilgers, Mark T; Romanchuk, Gail; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha L

    2004-03-16

    B(12)-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) is a large modular enzyme that utilizes the cobalamin cofactor as a methyl donor or acceptor in three separate reactions. Each methyl transfer occurs at a different substrate-binding domain and requires a different arrangement of modules. In the catalytic cycle, the cobalamin-binding domain carries methylcobalamin to the homocysteine (Hcy) domain to form methionine and returns cob(I)alamin to the folate (Fol) domain for remethylation by methyltetrahydrofolate (CH(3)-H(4)folate). Here, we describe crystal structures of a fragment of MetH from Thermotoga maritima comprising the domains that bind Hcy and CH(3)-H(4)folate. These substrate-binding domains are (beta alpha)(8) barrels packed tightly against one another with their barrel axes perpendicular. The properties of the domain interface suggest that the two barrels remain associated during catalysis. The Hcy and CH(3)-H(4)folate substrates are bound at the C termini of their respective barrels in orientations that position them for reaction with cobalamin, but the two active sites are separated by approximately 50 A. To complete the catalytic cycle, the cobalamin-binding domain must travel back and forth between these distant active sites.

  1. Genetic Variation in Vitamin B-12 Content of Bovine Milk and Its Association with SNP along the Bovine Genome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.J.M.; Bouwman, A.C.; Sprong, R.C.; Arendonk, van J.A.M.; Visker, M.H.P.W.

    2013-01-01

    Vitamin B-12 (also called cobalamin) is essential for human health and current intake levels of vitamin B-12 are considered to be too low. Natural enrichment of the vitamin B-12 content in milk, an important dietary source of vitamin B-12, may help to increase vitamin B-12 intake. Natural enrichment

  2. Involvement of CarA/LitR and CRP/FNR family transcriptional regulators in light-induced carotenoid production in Thermus thermophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takano, Hideaki; Kondo, Masato; Usui, Noriyoshi; Usui, Toshimitsu; Ohzeki, Hiromichi; Yamazaki, Ryuta; Washioka, Misato; Nakamura, Akira; Hoshino, Takayuki; Hakamata, Wataru; Beppu, Teruhiko; Ueda, Kenji

    2011-05-01

    Members of the CarA/LitR family are MerR-type transcriptional regulators that contain a C-terminal cobalamin-binding domain. They are thought to be involved in light-induced transcriptional regulation in a wide variety of nonphototrophic bacteria. Based on the distribution of this kind of regulator, the current study examined carotenoid production in Thermus thermophilus, and it was found to occur in a light-induced manner. litR and carotenoid and cobalamin biosynthesis genes were all located on the large plasmid of this organism. litR or cobalamin biosynthesis gene knockout mutants were unable to switch off carotenoid production under dark conditions, while a mutant with a mutation in the downstream gene adjacent to litR (TT_P0055), which encodes a CRP/FNR family transcriptional regulator, was unable to produce carotenoids, irrespective of light conditions. Overall, genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that LitR is bound by cobalamin and associates with the intergenic promoter region between litR and crtB (phytoene synthase gene), repressing the bidirectional transcription of litR and crtB. It is probable that derepression of LitR caused by some photodependent mechanism induces the expression of TT_P0055 protein, which serves as a transcriptional activator for the crtB operon and hence causes the expression of carotenoid biosynthesis and the DNA repair system under light condition.

  3. Dietary intake of the water-soluble vitamins B1, B2, B6, B12 and C in 10 countries in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olsen, A.; Halkjaer, J.; van Gils, C. H.; Buijsse, B.; Verhagen, H.; Jenab, M.; Boutron-Ruault, M. C.; Ericson, U.; Ocke, M. C.; Peeters, P. H. M.; Touvier, M.; Niravong, M.; Waaseth, M.; Skeie, G.; Khaw, K. T.; Travis, R.; Ferrari, P.; Sanchez, M. J.; Agudo, A.; Overvad, K.; Linseisen, J.; Weikert, C.; Sacerdote, C.; Evangelista, A.; Zylis, D.; Tsiotas, K.; Manjer, J.; van Guelpen, B.; Riboli, E.; Slimani, N.; Bingham, S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the intake of vitamins thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), B6 (pyridoxine), B12 (cobalamine) and C (ascorbic acid) and their food sources among 27 centres in 10 countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Methods:

  4. A simple high-throughput method for the determination of plasma methylmalonic acid by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.J.; Rooij, A. van; Hogeveen, M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cobalamin (Cbl) deficiency is a common clinical phenomenon, in particular among the elderly and possibly also among infants. Methylmalonic acid (MMA) is the most sensitive and specific marker of intracellular Cbl status, but its application is hindered by limited methods available for

  5. Methylmalonic acid values in healthy Dutch children.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeveen, M.; Beynum, I van; Rooij, A. van; Kluijtmans, L.; Heijer, M. den; Blom, H.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasma methylmalonic acid (MMA) is a specific marker for functional cobalamin deficiency. This deficiency can give rise to non-specific but serious symptoms in childhood such as developmental delay, convulsions and failure to thrive and may even lead to irreversible neurological damage.

  6. De diagnostiek van vitamine-B12-deficiëntie herzien

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiersinga, W. J.; de Rooij, S. E. J. A.; Huijmans, J. G. M.; Fischer, C.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.

    2005-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency is a common disorder with potential irreversible haematological and neurological consequences. Currently used diagnostic tests such as the evaluation of serum vitamin B12 and the Schilling test are insufficient, e.g. the positive predictive value of a low serum

  7. The reactivity of B12 cofactors: the proteins make a difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, M L; Drennan, C L; Matthews, R G

    1996-05-15

    Determination of the structure of intact methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii, and comparisons with the structure of the cobalamin-binding fragment of methionine synthase from Escherichia coli, afford a first glimpse at the similarities and distinctions between the two principal classes of B12-dependent enzymes: the mutases and the methyltransferases.

  8. Kinetics of reactions of aquacobalamin with aspartic and glutamic acids and their amides in water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui, T. T. T.; Sal'nikov, D. S.; Dereven'kov, I. A.; Makarov, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    The kinetics of aquacobalamin reaction with aspartic and glutamic acids, and with their amides in water solutions, is studied via spectrophotometry. The kinetic and activation parameters of the process are determined. It is shown that the reaction product is cobalamin-amino acid complex. The data are compared to results on the reaction between aquacobalamin and primary amines.

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However, sub...

  10. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Rizzo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism.

  11. ASSESSMENT OF MACRONUTRIENTS AND HEAVY METALS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    ABSTRACT. The macronutrients and heavy metals content of different parts of a locally found herb named ... inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry. (AAS). .... involved in the formation of vitamin B12 or cobalamin and as such essential for erythrocyte.

  12. Fatty acid profile, cholesterol and oxidative status in broiler chicken ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nazim

    2015-05-25

    May 25, 2015 ... contain a higher proportion of phospholipids than white muscles and thus a relatively higher amount of PUFA. (Wood et .... 5 Supplied per kg diet: Vitamin A 11 494 IU; vitamin D 1 725 IU; vitamin E 40 IU; vitamin K3 2.29 mg; cobalamin 0.05 mg; thiamine ... spectrophotometer (Secomam, Domont, France).

  13. High performance liquid chromatography method for rapid and accurate determination of homocysteine in plasma and serum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vester, Birte; Rasmussen, K

    1991-01-01

    Determination of homocysteine in plasma or serum for evaluation of cobalamin and folate deficiency is becoming an important diagnostic procedure. Accurate, rapid and low cost methods for measuring homocysteine are therefore required. We have improved an HPLC method and made it suitable for clinical...

  14. Vitamin B12 among Vegetarians: Status, Assessment and Supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Gianluca; Laganà, Antonio Simone; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; La Ferrera, Gioacchina Maria Grazia; Buscema, Massimo; Rossetti, Paola; Nigro, Angela; Muscia, Vincenzo; Valenti, Gaetano; Sapia, Fabrizio; Sarpietro, Giuseppe; Zigarelli, Micol; Vitale, Salvatore Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Cobalamin is an essential molecule for humans. It acts as a cofactor in one-carbon transfers through methylation and molecular rearrangement. These functions take place in fatty acid, amino acid and nucleic acid metabolic pathways. The deficiency of vitamin B12 is clinically manifested in the blood and nervous system where the cobalamin plays a key role in cell replication and in fatty acid metabolism. Hypovitaminosis arises from inadequate absorption, from genetic defects that alter transport through the body, or from inadequate intake as a result of diet. With the growing adoption of vegetarian eating styles in Western countries, there is growing focus on whether diets that exclude animal foods are adequate. Since food availability in these countries is not a problem, and therefore plant foods are sufficiently adequate, the most delicate issue remains the contribution of cobalamin, which is poorly represented in plants. In this review, we will discuss the status of vitamin B12 among vegetarians, the diagnostic markers for the detection of cobalamin deficiency and appropriate sources for sufficient intake, through the description of the features and functions of vitamin B12 and its absorption mechanism. PMID:27916823

  15. Vitamin B12: advances and insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) constitutes an amazing area of research with many hidden facets. Key milestones in this area have been developed over 10 decades. This long process of trials and errors, and search and discoveries has radically changed our understanding for the role of this nutrient...

  16. [A historical survey of diphtheria in the Western World, China and Japan. Part II: Modern age (from sixteenth century to the beginning of nineteenth century)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A

    1996-09-01

    In Europe and North America, literatures on diphtheritic diseases was increasing from sixteenth to eighteenth century. In New England of North America, diphtheria and scarlet fever occurred epidemically in mingled form from 1735 to the succeeding year. Thereafter, many physicians in Europe and America treated patients of diphtheria and had different opinions about the nature of croup and diphtheria. In China, its own clinical medicine progressed extraordinarily during the modern age. Laryngeal specialists appeared and wrote special monographs about the pharynx and larynx. A physician wrote about "epidemic exanthem", which the author presumes to be a complicated form of scarlet fever and diphtheria. In Japan, diphtheria occurred in sporadic form usually, and in epidemic form occasionally. Japanese physicians studied medicine from China since the ancient age, and also introduced European medicine through the Netherlands in the eighteenth century. So Japanese physicians learned knowledge about throat diseases and diphtheria from Chinese and European medicine.

  17. Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome in Child. A Case Report and a Review from Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grama Alina

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS is the medical term used to define a skin condition induced by the exfoliative toxins produced by Staphylococcus aureus. The disorder is also known as Ritter disease, bullous impetigo, neonatal pemphigus, or staphylococcal scarlet fever. The disease especially affects infants and small children, but has also been described in adults. Prompt therapy with proper antibiotics and supportive treatment has led to a decrease in the mortality rate.

  18. Environmental Assessment for Central Tennessee Relay Node Site No. RN 8E911TN

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-19

    Tennessee consist primarily of mature hickory-oak forest, as well as red, white, and scarlet oak (NFS, 1977). Black gum, sweet gum, and 3-4 maple are...Cleveland Pneumatic Company, the Tennessee Apparel Corporation, the Wilson Sporting Goods Company, the Coca Cola and Dr. Pepper Bottling Company, and the... Botany . American Book Company, New York, New York. FICWD, 1989. Federal Manual for Identifying and Delineating Jurisdictional Wetlands. U.S. Army Corps of

  19. Análisis no-lineal de la dinámica de enfermedades infecciosas en Chile

    OpenAIRE

    CANALS L,MAURICIO; Labra S,Fabián

    1999-01-01

    Background: The incidence of infectious diseases generally has large fluctuations, probably due to interactions between seasonal fluctuations and those secondary to case-susceptible host interactions. Aim: To analyze the complexity and attractant topological resemblance of seven infectious diseases in Chile. Material and methods: The annual incidence of measles, whooping cough, scarlet fever, meningococcal meningitis, diphtheria, typhoid fever and poliomyelitis was obtained from the annual re...

  20. [Pharyngo-tonsillitis and necrosing submaxillary adenitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes associated with toxic shock syndrome in children from Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maulén de Vázquez, I; González-Galnares, M; Ridaura-Sanz, C; Saucedo-Sánchez, A; Osnaya-Martínez, H

    1993-08-01

    We report on six previously healthy children between nine months and nine years old, who suffered streptococcal faringoamigdalitis and cervical adenitis with scarlet fever and toxic shock syndrome; four of them died in a fulminant course and two survived. These patients behave similarly to others reported from United States of America, England and Australia, and in similar way these clinical entity could be due to bacterial pyrogenic exotoxins according to the clinical fulminant course.

  1. Sherlock Holmes and anaesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, J R

    1988-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's first Sherlock Holmes adventure, A Study in Scarlet, was published 100 years ago. Between 1887 and 1927 he wrote 56 short stories and four novels about his fictional detective. Episodes in the adventures which relate to anaesthetic drugs are described. Use of the drugs was criminal in the case of chloroform, opium, and curare; therapeutic in the case of morphine; and recreational when Holmes himself used cocaine.

  2. Modified elastic tissue-Masson trichrome stain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, W

    1984-07-01

    A combined elastic tissue-Masson technique is presented which stains elastic fibers of all sizes, nuclei and connective tissue. The modified elastic tissue stain consists of hematoxylin, ferric chloride and Verhoeff's iodine; nuclei and elastic fibers are stained blue-black in six minutes without differentiation. By contrast, cytoplasmic elements are stained red, (Biebrich scarlet-acid fuchsin) and collagen is stained green (light green) or blue (aniline blue). The entire staining procedure takes approximately one hour.

  3. Seasonality and comparative dynamics of six childhood infections in pre-vaccination Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Metcalf, C. Jessica E.; Bjørnstad, Ottar N.; Grenfell, Bryan T.

    2009-01-01

    Seasonal variation in infection transmission is a key determinant of epidemic dynamics of acute infections. For measles, the best-understood strongly immunizing directly transmitted childhood infection, the perception is that term-time forcing is the main driver of seasonality in developed countr...... bacterial infections, pertussis, scarlet fever and diphtheria, there is additionally a strong increase in transmission during the late summer before the end of school vacations....

  4. Microbial Threats to Health. Emerging Infections: Microbial Threats to Health in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-10-01

    intensive care unit and placed on a respirator. He died six weeks later of sepsis (disseminated infection) (Goldman, 1991). 34 FACTORS IN EMERGENCE 35 The...other conditions caused by the bacteria include scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, puerperal fever, septicemia, wound infections, and pneumonia - rarely...group A bacteria cause sepsis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (which can be fatal) DIAGNOSIS -identification of group A streptococcal antigen

  5. Oak Decline in Missouri: History Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay R. Law; Ross Melick; Charly Studyvin; James R. Steinman

    2004-01-01

    In the 1980s, following extreme winters in the late 1970s and severe droughts in 1976, 1980, and 1983, dead and dying scarlet and black oaks were found on 185,000 acres of the Mark Twain National Forest. That decline event was linked to environmental stresses (Law and Gott 1987). Severe oak decline is now affecting an estimated 500,000 acres on the Mark Twain. High-...

  6. MÉTODOS DE SUPERAÇÃO DE DORMÊNCIA EM SEMENTES DE JITIRANA

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo César Ferreira Linhares; Francisco Bezerra Neto; Maria Clarete Cardoso Ribeiro; Patrício Borges Maracajá; Grace Kelly Leite de Lima

    2007-01-01

    An experiment was carried out in the Botanical Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido (UFERSA), Mossoró-RN, aiming to evaluate the efficiency of dormancy breaking methods on seed germination of scarlet starglory in hypochloride sodium. A completely randomized desing was used with five treatments and four replications. The treatments consisted of T1 - Seed immersion in hypochloride sodium for 15 minutes, T2 - Seed immersion in hypochloride sodium for 25 minutes, T3 - Seed i...

  7. U.S. Air Force Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search for Suffolk County Air Force Base (Retired) Landfills 1 and 2. Suffolk County Airport, Westhampton Beach, New York.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-20

    with white oak ( Quercus alba) and scarlet oak (2. coccinea). The upper shrub layer is composed almost completely of scrub oak (Q. ilicifolia...rereizrina 63weet fern Family Fagaceae .~uercus alba Wdhite oak */-vercus ilicifolia Scrub oak / Quercus Velutina Black oak t’.uercus coccinea bcorlet oak...rubrum Red or swamp maple Family Betulaceae cf V’Alnus rugosa (j Smooth alder Family Vitaceae / rthenocissus quin~uefolia Virginia creeperA tis Jlabrusca

  8. Vitamin B12: Unique Metalorganic Compounds and the Most Complex Vitamins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Randaccio

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The chemistry and biochemistry of the vitamin B12 compounds (cobalamins, XCbl are described, with particular emphasis on their structural aspects and their relationships with properties and function. A brief history of B12, reveals how much the effort of chemists, biochemists and crystallographers have contributed in the past to understand the basic properties of this very complex vitamin. The properties of the two cobalamins, the two important B12 cofactors Ado- and MeCbl are described, with particular emphasis on how the Co-C bond cleavage is involved in the enzymatic mechanisms. The main structural features of cobalamins are described, with particular reference to the axial fragment. The structure/property relationships in cobalamins are summarized. The recent studies on base-off/base-on equilibrium are emphasized for their relevance to the mode of binding of the cofactor to the protein scaffold. The absorption, transport and cellular uptake of cobalamins and the structure of the B12 transport proteins, IF and TC, in mammals are reviewed. The B12 transport in bacteria and the structure of the so far determined proteins are briefly described. The currently accepted mechanisms for the catalytic cycles of the AdoCbl and MeCbl enzymes are reported. The structure and function of B12 enzymes, particularly the important mammalian enzymes methyltransferase (MetH and methyl-malonyl-coenzymeA mutase (MMCM, are described and briefly discussed. Since fast proliferating cells require higher amount of vitamin B12 than that required by normal cells, the study of B12 conjugates as targeting agents has recently gained importance. Bioconjugates have been studied as potential agents for delivering radioisotopes and NMR probes or as various cytotoxic agents towards cancer cells in humans and the most recent studies are described. Specifically, functionalized bioconjugates are used as “Trojan horses” to carry into the cell the appropriate antitumour or

  9. Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on radish production using Nutrient Film Technique (NFT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowiak, C. L.; Ruffe, L. M.; Yorio, N. C.; Wheeler, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    Radish plants (Raphanus sativus L. cvs. Cherry Belle, Giant White Globe, and Early Scarlet Globe) were grown in four different CO2 enriched environments, 0.04, 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00 kPa (400, 1000, 5000, 10000 ppm). Cultivar responses to CO2 treatments varied, where cv. Cherry Belle showed no significant response to CO2 enrichment, cv. Giant White Globe was moderately affected and Early Scarlet Globe was strongly affected. Enrichment at 0.10 kPa led to greater root dry matter (DM) than 1.00 kPa for cv. Giant White Glove, whereas 0.10 kPa produced greater storage root, shoot, and root DM than 1.00 kPa for cv. Early Scarlet Globe. The data suggest that 1.00 kPa CO2 may be detrimental to the growth of certain radish cultivars. Root:shoot ratios tended to increase with increasing CO2 concentration. Water use efficiency (g biomass/kg H2O) increased with increasing CO2 enrichment, up to 0.5 kPa but then declined at the 1.00 kPa treatment. The total nitric acid used to maintain nutrient solution pH was lowest at the 1.00 kPa treatment as well, suggesting a decreased demand of nutrients by the plants at the highest CO2 level.

  10. Concentrators Enhance Solar Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    "Right now, solar electric propulsion is being looked at very seriously," says Michael Piszczor, chief of the photovoltaic and power technologies branch at Glen Research Center. The reason, he explains, originates with a unique NASA mission from the late 1990s. In 1998, the Deep Space 1 spacecraft launched from Kennedy Space Center to test a dozen different space technologies, including SCARLET, or the Solar Concentrator Array with Refractive Linear Element Technology. As a solar array that focused sunlight on a smaller solar cell to generate electric power, SCARLET not only powered Deep Space 1 s instruments but also powered its ion engine, which propelled the spacecraft throughout its journey. Deep Space 1 was the first spacecraft powered by a refractive concentrator design like SCARLET, and also utilized multi-junction solar cells, or cells made of multiple layers of different materials. For the duration of its 38-month mission, SCARLET performed flawlessly, even as Deep Space 1 flew by Comet Borrelly and Asteroid Braille. "Everyone remembers the ion engine on Deep Space 1, but they tend to forget that the SCARLET array powered it," says Piszczor. "Not only did both technologies work as designed, but the synergy between the two, solar power and propulsion together, is really the important aspect of this technology demonstration mission. It was the first successful use of solar electric propulsion for primary propulsion." More than a decade later, NASA is keenly interested in using solar electric propulsion (SEP) for future space missions. A key issue is cost, and SEP has the potential to substantially reduce cost compared to conventional chemical propulsion technology. "SEP allows you to use spacecraft that are smaller, lighter, and less costly," says Piszczor. "Even though it might take longer to get somewhere using SEP, if you are willing to trade time for cost and smaller vehicles, it s a good trade." Potentially, SEP could be used on future science missions

  11. Determination of vitamin B12 in dairy products by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Zironi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is a water-soluble molecule composed of a tetrapyrrolic complex with a cobalt atom at its centre. It is an essential regulatory element, synthesized only by bacteria; for this reason it is present only in food of animal origin and the daily requirement for humans is about 1 to 2 µg. Since milk and dairy products provide a significant dietary cobalamin intake, an ultra performance liquid chromatographytandem mass spectrometry method was applied to samples collected at different stages along the process of cheese making in order to evaluate the distribution of this molecule. In particular, samples of milk, rennet, whey, ricotta cheese, curd, mozzarella cheese and caciotta cheese were analysed. Results showed a level of vitamin B12 about 10 times higher in whey and ricotta cheese with respect to the milk they are derived from. These data would confirm the tendency of cobalamine to concentrate in the proteic fractions along the cheese production process.

  12. Vitamin B12 as a modulator of gut microbial ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, Patrick H; Taga, Michiko E; Goodman, Andrew L

    2014-11-04

    The microbial mechanisms and key metabolites that shape the composition of the human gut microbiota are largely unknown, impeding efforts to manipulate dysbiotic microbial communities toward stability and health. Vitamins, which by definition are not synthesized in sufficient quantities by the host and can mediate fundamental biological processes in microbes, represent an attractive target for reshaping microbial communities. Here, we discuss how vitamin B12 (cobalamin) impacts diverse host-microbe symbioses. Although cobalamin is synthesized by some human gut microbes, it is a precious resource in the gut and is likely not provisioned to the host in significant quantities. However, this vitamin may make an unrecognized contribution in shaping the structure and function of human gut microbial communities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Diagnosis and management of pernicious anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annibale, Bruno; Lahner, Edith; Fave, Gianfranco Delle

    2011-12-01

    Pernicious anemia is a macrocytic anemia due to cobalamin deficiency, which is the result of intrinsic factor deficiency. Pernicious anemia is associated with atrophic body gastritis, whose diagnostic criteria are based on the histologic evidence of gastric body atrophy associated with hypochlorhydria. Serological markers suggesting the presence of oxyntic mucosa damage are increased levels of fasting gastrin and decreased levels of Pepsinogen I. Without the now obsolete Schilling's test, intrinsic factor deficiency may not be proven, and gastric intrinsic factor output after pentagastric stimulation has been proposed. Intrinsic factor autoantibodies are useful surrogate markers of pernicious anemia. The management of patients with pernicious anemia should focus on the life-long replacement treatment with cobalamin and the monitoring to early diagnose an eventual onset of iron deficiency. Moreover, these patients should be advised about possible gastrointestinal long-term consequences, such as gastric cancer and carcinoids.

  14. [Hemolytic anemias and vitamin B12 deficieny].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietzfelbinger, Hermann; Hubmann, Max

    2015-08-01

    Hemolytic anemias consist of corpuscular, immun-hemolytic and toxic hemolytic anemias. Within the group of corpuscular hemolytic anemias, except for the paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), all symptoms are caused by underlying heredetiary disorders within the red blood cell membran (hereditary spherocytosis), deficiencies of red cell enzymes (G6PDH- and pyrovatkinase deficiency) or disorders in the hemoglobin molecule (thalassaemia and sickle cell disease). Immune-hemolytic anemias are acquired hemolytic anemias and hemolysis is caused by auto- or allo-antibodies which are directed against red blood cell antigens. They are classified as warm, cold, mixed type or drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Therapy consists of glucocorticoids and other immunsuppressive drugs. Pernicious anemia is the most important vitamin B12 deficiency disorder. Diagnosis relies on cobalamin deficiency and antibodies to intrinsic factor. The management should focus on a possibly life-long replacement treatment with cobalamin. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Severe vitamin B₁₂ deficiency in a 15-year-old boy: presentation with haemolysis and pancytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Ebru Yılmaz; Keskin, Mahmut

    2015-05-14

    A 15-year-old boy on a vegetarian diet presented with severe macrocytic anaemia (haemoglobin, 5.1 g/dL; mean corpuscular volume, 116 fL) in addition to leucopenia and thrombocytopaenia (pancytopenia), icterus secondary to haemolysis and splenomegaly. Laboratory investigations revealed severe vitamin B12 (cobalamin) deficiency. Following cobalamin replacement therapy, the patient reported increased well-being, including appetite and weight gain, and his icterus resolved. In the follow-up laboratory examinations, leucocyte and platelet counts in addition to serum bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase levels normalised. At the end of 2 months, laboratory findings, including haemoglobin level, were all within the normal range. We present this case as a reminder that severe vitamin B12 deficiency may present with findings mimicking acute leukaemia (pancytopenia and splenomegaly) and findings suggestive of pseudothrombotic microangiopathy. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  16. THE LINK BETWEEN VITAMIN В12 DEFICIENCY, RISK OF CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES AND AGING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Disorder of formation of vitamin B12, which has a wide range  of biological properties and is involved in the regulation of many important physiological functions, is the basis of a number of serious diseases. Usually internists consider that vitamin В12 deficiency is associated with disturbances of hematopoiesis or central nervous system. However cobalamin deficiency also affects the state of the cardiovascular system. Its connections to the increased incidence of myocardial infarction, stroke, and congestive heart failure were found, as well as the elevated risk of restenosis after coronary artery bypass surgery. Besides, there are data that demonstrate an association between vitamin В12 and telomere length (a marker of aging. This review presents the main reasons of cobalamin deficiency in the elderly, as well as an analysis of clinical studies that show the link between vitamin В12 deficiency and the risk of cardio-vascular diseases and aging process.

  17. [Participation of methylcobalamin in the methylation of Propionibacterium shermanii DNA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshkina, N V; Vorob'eva, L I; Iordan, E P

    1979-01-01

    Propionibacterium shermanii is characterized by a high content of 5-methylcytosine (5 MC). The level of 5-MC in B12-deficient cells of the culture is twice as low as in the control. The in vitro treatment of DNA isolated from the B12-deficient cells with methyl-cobalamin in the presence of the extract of control cells possessing the activity of DNA-methylase increases the content of 5-MC to the control level. No additional methylation of DNA in vitro takes place in the absence of the methylase system and in the presence of other forms of corrynoids. The methylating activity is displayed either in the presence of methionine or without it. The inhibitor of methylcobalamin, i.e. diftorchlormethyl-cobalamin, blocks methylation of DNA. Small quantities of S-adenosylmethionine are necessary for the reaction of methylation.

  18. [Methylcobalamin-dependent enzymatic methylation of DNA in a cell-free extract of Propionibacterium shermanii].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshkina, N V; Vorob'eva, L I; Bur'ianov, Ia I

    1981-01-01

    The regulation of the functional activity of Propionibacterium shermanii cells by cobalamin is accompanied by an increase in the methylation of their DNA at the cytosine residue: the DNA from B12-deficient cells is undermethylated as compared with the DNA from control cells, i. e. cells synthesizing corrinoids. The results of in vitro experiments make it possible to correlate this phenomenon with the capability of DNA methylases from B12-deficient and control cells to function with different donors of methyl groups. Just as the enzymes methylating adenine and cytosine in B12-deficient cells, adenine DNA methylase from cells synthesizing corrinoids is active in vitro with S-adenosylmethionine. Cytosine DNA methylase from P. shermanii control cells is inactive with S-adenosylmethionine and transfers methyl groups only in the presence of cobalamins.

  19. Oral manifestations of vitamin B12 deficiency: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Hélder Antônio Rebelo; Neto, Nicolau Conte; Ferreira, Karen Bechara; Fonseca, Felipe Paiva; Vallinoto, Gizelle Monteiro; Pontes, Flávia Sirotheau Corrêa; Pinto, Décio dos Santos

    2009-09-01

    Megaloblastic anemias are a subgroup of macrocytic anemias, in which distinctive morphologic abnormalities occur in red cell precursors in bone marrow, namely megaloblastic erythropoiesis. Of the many causes of megaloblastic anemia, the most common are disorders resulting from cobalamin or folate deficiency. The clinical symptoms are weakness, fatigue, shortness of breath and neurologic abnormalities. The presence of oral signs and symptoms, including glossitis, angular cheilitis, recurrent oral ulcer, oral candidiasis, diffuse erythematous mucositis and pale oral mucosa offer the dentist an opportunity to participate in the diagnosis of this condition. Early diagnosis is important to prevent neurologic signs, which could be irreversible. The aim of this paper is to describe the oral changes in a patient with megaloblastic anemia caused by a dietary deficiency of cobalamin.

  20. Thromboembolism in Dogs with Protein-Losing Enteropathy with Non-Neoplastic Chronic Small Intestinal Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacinto, Ana M L; Ridyard, Alison E; Aroch, Itamar; Watson, Penny J; Morrison, Linda R; Chandler, Marge L; Kuzi, Sharon

    Dogs with protein-losing enteropathy (PLE) are suggested to be at increased risk of developing thromboembolic events. However, with some exceptions, there are very few reports of thromboembolism in such dogs. This multicentre retrospective observational study describes a case series of thromboembolism (TE) in eight dogs with PLE secondary to non-neoplastic, chronic small intestinal disease. Seven dogs had poorly controlled PLE when the thromboembolic event occurred. Pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) occurred in six dogs, while one dog developed splenic vein thrombosis and another had concurrent splenic vein and aortic TE. Six dogs died, all with PTE. Antithrombin activity was decreased in one of two dogs in which it was measured. Serum cobalamin and folate concentrations were measured in three dogs and cobalamin was subnormal in all three. Serum magnesium, measured in two dogs, was low in both. Dogs with uncontrolled chronic small intestinal disease and PLE are at risk for developing serious life-threatening TE, mostly PTE.

  1. Megaloblastic anaemia: Folic acid and vitamin B12 metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.B. Castellanos-Sinco

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Folic acid and cobalamin are B-group vitamins that play an essential role in many cellular processes. Deficiency in one or both of these vitamins causes megaloblastic anaemia, a disease characterized by the presence of megaloblasts. Megaloblasts occur when inhibition of DNA synthesis causes asynchronous maturation between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Clinical manifestations are similar to those of other types of anaemia, with the exception of cobalamin deficiency megaloblastic anaemia, which presents distinctive neurological symptoms. An understanding of the metabolism of these vitamins will enable clinicians to make the best use and interpretation of laboratory studies and monitor therapeutic strategies, which consist mainly of administering supplements to restore body reserves.

  2. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    OpenAIRE

    Karin Nilsson; Lars Gustafson; Björn Hultberg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD) exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease) of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy...

  3. BluB/CobT2 fusion enzyme activity reveals mechanisms responsible for production of active form of vitamin B12 by Propionibacterium freudenreichii

    OpenAIRE

    Deptula, Paulina; Kylli, Petri; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Holm, Liisa; Kostiainen, Risto; Piironen, Vieno; Savijoki, Kirsi; Varmanen, Pekka

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a food grade bacterium that has gained attention as a producer of appreciable amounts of cobalamin, a cobamide with activity of vitamin B12. Production of active form of vitamin is a prerequisite for attempts to naturally fortify foods with B12 by microbial fermentation. Active vitamin B12 is distinguished from the pseudovitamin by the presence of 5,6-...

  4. Production of tetrapyrrole compounds and vitamin B12 using genetically engineering of Propionibacterium freudenreichii. An overview

    OpenAIRE

    Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Piao, Yongzhe; Kiatpapan, Pornpimon; Yamashita, Mitsuo

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a commercially important bacterium that is used in the production of cheeses, cobalamin (vitamin B12) and propionic acid. Metabolic engineering using genetically improved strains will make the fermentation process more economical and also enhance the quality of the products. Host-vector systems and expression vectors using strong promoters from P. freudenreichii were developed in propionibacteria. By using these expression vectors an...

  5. A U-shaped association between plasma folate and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition

    OpenAIRE

    Chuang, Shu-Chun; Stolzenberg-Solomon, Rachael; Ueland, Per Magne; Vollset, Stein Emil; Middtun, Øivind; Olsen, Anja; Tjønneland, Anne; Overvad, Kim; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Morois, Sophie; Clavel-Chapelon, Franςoise; Teucher, Brigit; Kaaks, Rudolf; Weikert, Cornelia; Boeing, Heiner

    2011-01-01

    Folate intake has shown an inverse association with pancreatic cancer; nevertheless, results from plasma measurements were inconsistent. The aim of this study is to examine the association between plasma total homocysteine, methionine, folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, riboflavin, and flavin mononucleotide and pancreatic cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). We conducted a nested case-control study in the EPIC cohort, which has an ave...

  6. Microelements and inherited metabolic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marklová, Eliska

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the main groups of inherited metabolic diseases, including mitochondrial, peroxisomal and lysosomal defects, organic acidurias, porphyrias, defects of amino acids, saccharides and fatty acids metabolism, disorders of transport and utilisation of microelements have also been recognized. Recent findings concerning hereditary hemochromatosis (iron), Wilson and Menkes diseases (copper), molybdenum cofactor deficiency (molybdenum), defects of cobalamine synthesis (cobalt) and acrodermatitis enteropathica (zinc) are reviewed.

  7. Basal Gnathostomes Provide Unique Insights into the Evolution of Vitamin B12 Binders

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Marques, M?nica; Ruivo, Raquel; Delgado, In?s; Wilson, Jonathan M.; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Castro, L. Filipe C.

    2014-01-01

    The uptake and transport of vitamin B12 (cobalamin; Cbl) in mammals involves a refined system with three evolutionarily related transporters: transcobalamin 1 (Tcn1), transcobalamin 2 (Tcn2), and the gastric intrinsic factor (Gif). Teleosts have a single documented binder with intermediate features to the human counterparts. Consequently, it has been proposed that the expansion of Cbl binders occurred after the separation of Actinopterygians. Here, we demonstrate that the diversification of t...

  8. [Complication of a vegetarian diet in a breast-fed girl (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacroix, J; Macher, M A; Badoual, J; Huault, G

    1981-04-01

    A case is presented of megaloblastic anemia with metabolic acidosis. The baby was eleven months old. She was strictly fed with human milk from a vegetarian mother. Baby's and mother's B 12 serum levels were low. Baby's weight and neurological development were retarded. Complications included acido-cetosis, coagulation disorder and liver disorder. All these problems were corrected by cobalamine supplementation. X-rays also disclosed bone demineralization.

  9. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Richard E. Frye; Rossignol, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the fact that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) continues to rise, no effective medical treatments have become standard of care. In this paper we review some of the pathophysiological abnormalities associated with ASD and their potential associated treatments. Overall, there is evidence for some children with ASD being affected by seizure and epilepsy, neurotransmitter dysfunction, sleep disorders, metabolic abnormalities, including abnormalities in folate, cobalamin, t...

  10. Kinetics and equilibria for the axial ligation of bromomethyl (aqua ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    nished a significant amount of data4,5 that have pro- vided a foundation for understanding the behaviour of cobalamins.6 Randaccio et al.7–9 compared the ..... complex in the absence of DNA, εb is the extinction coefficient of the complex fully bound to DNA. In the plots [DNA]/(εb – εf) vs. [DNA], Kb is given by the ratio of ...

  11. Electronically excited states of vitamin B12 and methylcobalamin: theoretical analysis of absorption, CD, and MCD data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Harald; Kornobis, Karina; Ruud, Kenneth; Kozlowski, Pawel M

    2011-02-03

    Linear and quadratic response time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) has been applied to investigate absorption (Abs), circular dichroism (CD), and magnetic CD (MCD) spectra of cyanocobalamin (CNCbl) and methylcobalamin (MeCbl). Although electronically excited states of both cobalamins have been probed by applying different experimental techniques, their exact nature remains poorly understood from an electronic structure point of view. Recent theoretical studies have revealed a lot of relevant information about their properties but also left some unresolved issues related to the nature of individual transitions. In this contribution, not only Abs but also CD and MCD spectra of both cobalamins were computed for direct comparison with experiment. The results were evaluated with respect to the choice of exchange-correlation functional, basis set, and the environment (gas phase or solvent) used in the calculation. Taking into account the complexity of the CNCbl and MeCbl systems, reliable agreement between theory and experiment was achieved based on calculations employing the BP86 functional, particularly for the low-energy α/β bands. This spectral range has been traditionally interpreted as a vibrational progression associated with a single electronic excitation, but according to the present analysis for both cobalamins, these bands are best interpreted as consisting of multiple electronic transitions.

  12. Metagenomics approach to the study of the gut microbiome structure and function in zebrafish Danio rerio fed with gluten formulated diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hyunmin; Hakim, Joseph A; Powell, Mickie L; Kumar, Ranjit; Eipers, Peter G; Morrow, Casey D; Crowley, Michael; Lefkowitz, Elliot J; Watts, Stephen A; Bej, Asim K

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we report the gut microbial composition and predictive functional profiles of zebrafish, Danio rerio, fed with a control formulated diet (CFD), and a gluten formulated diet (GFD) using a metagenomics approach and bioinformatics tools. The microbial communities of the GFD-fed D. rerio displayed heightened abundances of Legionellales, Rhizobiaceae, and Rhodobacter, as compared to the CFD-fed counterparts. Predicted metagenomics of microbial communities (PICRUSt) in GFD-fed D. rerio showed KEGG functional categories corresponding to bile secretion, secondary bile acid biosynthesis, and the metabolism of glycine, serine, and threonine. The CFD-fed D. rerio exhibited KEGG functional categories of bacteria-mediated cobalamin biosynthesis, which was supported by the presence of cobalamin synthesizers such as Bacteroides and Lactobacillus. Though these bacteria were absent in GFD-fed D. rerio, a comparable level of the cobalamin biosynthesis KEGG functional category was observed, which could be contributed by the compensatory enrichment of Cetobacterium. Based on these results, we conclude D. rerio to be a suitable alternative animal model for the use of a targeted metagenomics approach along with bioinformatics tools to further investigate the relationship between the gluten diet and microbiome profile in the gut ecosystem leading to gastrointestinal diseases and other undesired adverse health effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Effective atomic numbers, electron densities and kinetic energy released in matter of vitamins for photon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.

  14. Vitamin B-12 and homocysteine status among vegetarians: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmadfa, Ibrahim; Singer, Ingrid

    2009-05-01

    Evidence exists that well-planned vegetarian diets provide numerous health benefits and are appropriate for all stages of the life cycle. It is also known that animal foods provide micronutrients that are nonexistent or available only in limited amounts in plant foods. Restriction or exclusion of all animal foods may therefore result in low intake of certain micronutrients such as vitamin B-12, thereby affecting vitamin B-12 status and elevating plasma homocysteine concentrations. Overall, the studies we reviewed showed reduced mean vitamin B-12 status and elevated mean homocysteine concentrations in vegetarians, particularly among vegans. Low vitamin B-12 intake may lead to decreased bioavailability and functional deficiency of cobalamin. Although early noticeable symptoms of vitamin B-12 deficiency are nonspecific (unusual fatigue, digestion problems, frequent upper respiratory infections), the best-known clinical manifestations of cobalamin malabsorption are hematologic (pernicious anemia) and neurologic symptoms. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Given these health concerns, vegetarians, particularly vegans, must be advised to carefully plan their diets, to monitor their plasma vitamin B-12 on a regular basis to facilitate early detection of low cobalamin status, and to use vitamin B-12-fortified foods or take vitamin B-12 supplements if necessary.

  15. Evaluation of cats fed vegetarian diets and attitudes of their caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakefield, Lorelei A; Shofer, Frances S; Michel, Kathryn E

    2006-07-01

    To determine motivation and feeding practices of people who feed their cats vegetarian diets as well as taurine and cobalamin status of cats consuming vegetarian diets. Cross-sectional study. 34 cats that had been exclusively fed a commercial or homemade vegetarian diet and 52 cats that had been fed a conventional diet for > or = 1 year. Participants were recruited through a Web site and from attendees of a national animal welfare conference. Caregivers of cats in both groups answered a telephone questionnaire regarding feeding practices for their cats. Blood was obtained from a subset of cats that had been fed vegetarian diets. Blood and plasma taurine and serum cobalamin concentrations were measured. People who fed vegetarian diets to their cats did so largely for ethical considerations and were more likely than people who fed conventional diets to believe that there are health benefits associated with a vegetarian diet and that conventional commercial cat foods are unwholesome. Both groups were aware of the potential health problems that could arise from improperly formulated vegetarian diets. All cats evaluated had serum cobalamin concentrations within reference range, and 14 of 17 had blood taurine concentrations within reference range. Vegetarian diets are fed to cats primarily for ethical considerations. Results of this study should aid practitioners in communicating with and providing advice to such clients.

  16. [The importance of vitamin B12 in psychiatry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamrowska, Anna; Kasprzak, Krzysztof; Marciniak, Jarosław; Goch, Aleksander; Kamrowski, Czesław

    2010-03-01

    The article drew attention to the construction of a vitamin B12 deficiency and its importance in the human body. Emphasizes the role of cobalamin as a structural element involved, among others cobamides in such reactions as the synthesis of purine and pyrimidine biosynthesis or choline. Two metabolically active forms of cobalamin: methylcobalamin and adenosylcobalamin and their importance to the human body were presented. The process of absorption of vitamin B12 and methionine in revealing the importance of the neurological symptoms was described. The chemical importance and cause vitamin B12 deficiency was stressed. The attention was paid upon the role of acid in methylomalon determination of vitamin B12 deficiency in the human body. Disclosure reports analyzed the relationship of vitamin B12 from the emergence of psychotic symptoms. Particular attention is given to teams which binds to the vitamin B12 deficiency--depressive, delusional and manic. Based on case reports were analyzed cases with deficiency symptoms associated with a deficit of vitamin B12. Also points to the possibility of diagnosing cobalamin deficiency even before the onset of clinical symptoms.

  17. [Renal decapsulation for the treatment of anuria : A "forgotten" treatment from the early 20th century].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dräger, D L; Protzel, C; Hakenberg, O W

    2017-01-01

    In the early 20th century, Harrison first performed renal decapsulation in anuric children with scarlet fever and observed improvement in renal function postoperatively. The pathophysiological explanation was seen in intraparenchymal renal pressure due to edema which was improved by surgical decapsulation. The technique of decapsulation was simple excision after incision and blunt dissection of the renal parenchyma. Renal decapsulation then became a procedure commonly used for many indications in inflammatory renal conditions; indications were renal angioneurosis, hydronephrosis, toxic, bacterial and chronic nephritis, renal abscess and even eclampsia. With the beginning of the antibiotic era, renal decapsulation became obsolete and has disappeared from the urological spectrum completely.

  18. Simultaneous Spectrophotometric Determination of Mixtures of Food Colorants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mad Reza Oveisi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of food colorants, containing new coccine , ponceaue 6R and scarlet GN were simultaneously analyzed by spectrophotometry without previous chemical separation. Sixty mixtures of colorants with three-components were evaluated and the spectrograms were smoothed through the use of seven experimental points. The multivariate data consisted of normal, first- and second-derivative absorbance spectra (∆λ=5 nm registered from 300-650 nm . The data obtained from experiments were processed by PLS method and the proposed method was applied satisfactorily for determination of these colorants in two commercial food products.

  19. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Volatile Thymoquinone from Monarda didyma and M. fistulosa Herbs.

    OpenAIRE

    Sovová, H. (Helena); Sajfrtová, M. (Marie); Topiař, M. (Martin)

    2015-01-01

    Volatile oil rich in thymoquinone (TQ) was extracted from dry aerial parts of scarlet bee balm (Monarda didyma) and wild bergamot (Monarda fistulosa) with supercritical CO2. The optimum extraction conditions were determined as 12 MPa and 40 degrees C for both yield (0.6 mg TQ/g M. didyma and 1.7 mg TQ/g M. fistulosa) and high TQ concentration in extract (5.2 and 10.2% w/w, resp.). The difference in the extraction kinetics of volatile oil and cuticular waxes was examined. The supercritical flu...

  20. Sherlock Holmes

    OpenAIRE

    Fiddler, Michael

    1991-01-01

    Sir Arthur Conan Doyles' Sherlock Holmes 'canon' consists of 56 short stories and 4 novels published between 1887 and 1927. Holmes first appeared in A Study in Scarlet in 1887 in Beeton's Christmas Annual. Doyle killed off the character in The Adventure of the Final Problem in December 1893. Doyle returned to Holmes in the serialised (1901-2) The Hound of the Baskervilles, which was set before the character's death. Lucrative offers from the Strand Magazine in the UK and Collier's Weekly in t...

  1. The chemistry of John Dalton's color blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, D M; Dulai, K S; Bowmaker, J K; Mollon, J D

    1995-02-17

    John Dalton described his own color blindness in 1794. In common with his brother, he confused scarlet with green and pink with blue. Dalton supposed that his vitreous humor was tinted blue, selectively absorbing longer wavelengths. He instructed that his eyes should be examined after his death, but the examination revealed that the humors were perfectly clear. In experiments presented here, DNA extracted from his preserved eye tissue showed that Dalton was a deuteranope, lacking the middlewave photopigment of the retina. This diagnosis is shown to be compatible with the historical record of his phenotype, although it contradicts Thomas Young's belief that Dalton was a protanope.

  2. Peculiarities of infectious diseases course accompanied by quinsy syndrome in children (data from children infectious hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovchinnikova T.A.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to study morbidity dynamics for the period of 15 years and to determine clinical signs that accompany quinsy syndrome (diphtheria, infectious mononucleosis, scarlet fever, quinsy. Retrospective study analysis of annual reports and case-histories was carried out. 323 cases of infectious diseases accompanied by quinsy syndrome were examined. Clinical and epidemic signs of diseases were determined during the period of morbidity raise. The current clinical course of diseases was characterized in detail. The significant percentage of renal complications in case of pharyngonasal cavity lesion was shown

  3. Effect of 8-week oral supplementation with 3-µg cyano-B12 or hydroxo-B12 in a vitamin B12-deficient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greibe, Eva; Mahalle, Namita; Bhide, Vijayshri; Fedosov, Sergey; Heegaard, Christian W; Naik, Sadanand; Nexo, Ebba

    2017-12-05

    We compare the effect of 8-week oral supplementation with cyano-B12 (currently used in vitamin pills) and hydroxo-B12 (predominant form in the diet) in a population with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. Fifty-one healthy Indian adults with baseline serum cobalamin B12 (n = 15), 3-µg hydroxo-B12 (n = 16), or a placebo (n = 20). Blood at baseline, and each following week, was examined for total cobalamin, holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid, and homocysteine. The study groups did not differ at baseline and were characterized by [median (range)] serum cobalamin [128 (68-191) pmol/L], holotranscobalamin [16 (6-41) pmol/L], methylmalonic acid [0.8 (0.3-1.7) µmol/L], homocysteine [17.9 (8.5-100.9) µmol/L], and a combined indicator of B12 status 4cB12 of - 1.65 (- 0.64 to - 4.07). The group supplemented with cyano-B12 showed a higher increase in total serum cobalamin than the group treated with hydroxo-B12, while other biomarkers changed comparably in the two groups. After 8 weeks of treatment, the biomarker values of the supplemented groups (pooled) differed significantly from the placebo group. Yet, the vitamin B12 status was still poor [cobalamin: 168 (87-302) pmol/L; holotranscobalamin: 19 (8-45) pmol/L; methylmalonic acid: 0.7 (0.2-1.7) µmol/L; homocysteine: 17.2 (2.6-96.8) µmol/L; 4cB12 = - 1.34 (- 0.33 to - 3.3)]. 8-week supplementation with 3-µg cyano-B12 elevated serum cobalamin more than 3 µg hydroxo-B12, but all other biomarkers changed similarly in both groups. Supplementation with 3 µg vitamin B12 did not reverse the low status in individuals with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. REF/2017/02/013343.

  4. Screening of Chemical Dyes in Traditional Chinese Medicine by HPTLC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Fengyan; He, Yi; Zheng, Xiaowei; Wang, Ruizhong; Lu, Jing; Dai, Zhong; Ma, Shuangcheng

    2017-10-17

    It has been uncovered that chemical dyes are illegally used in traditional Chinese medicines to brighten colorand cover up inferiority, which threaten the safety of patients. In the present study, an HPTLC-MS method was developed for the effective screening of 11 chemical dyes (Sudan I, II, III, and IV; 808 Scarlet; Sudan Red 7B; malachite green; Basic Orange 2; auramine; Orange II; and erythrosine) in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) raw materials and Chinese patent medicines. Firstly, unwashed HPTLC plates were chosen by comparing the background signals of the TLC plates used directly and prewashed with analytical grade and HPLC grade solvents. Twice developments were conducted to isolate chemical dyes of different polarity. Possible adulterants were preliminarily identified by comparing R f values and in situ UV-Vis spectra with those of the references. Further confirmation was conducted by tandem MS analysis via an elution head-based TLC-MS interface. Sudan I and IV, 808 Scarlet, and Orange II were successfully detected in eight batches of TCM. The proposed method could be applied as a reliable technology for the screening of chemical dyes in TCM.

  5. Qualitative performance of lettuce cultivars in four seasons in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otaciana Maria dos Prazeres da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The major challenge in producing good quality lettuce in the semiarid region is the climatic factors such as high temperature, high luminosity and low air relative humidity, which affect the quality characteristics of leafy vegetables. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of lettuce cultivars of Crisphead (Angelina, Amelia and Taina, Mimosa (Mila, Mimosa and Lavinia, Green-leaf (Scarlet, Vera, Isabella and Vanda and Loose-leaf (Elisa and Regiane in four seasons: summer (12/21/2012, autumn (3/21/2013, winter (06/21/2013 and spring (09/23/2013 in the conditions of Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte state. The experimental design was a complete randomized block with four replications. The following characteristics were quantified: pH, titratable acidity, soluble solids (SS and total soluble sugars. The quality of the lettuce was influenced by the cultivar and environmental conditions. Lower titratable acidity was recorded for Green-leaf and Loose-leaf groups in the summer and for Crisphead groups in the autumn. The highest content of soluble solids were achieved in autumn for cultivars Vera, Vanda, Isabela, Elisa and Regiane; to Lavinia, Angelina, Amelia and Tainá, and summer and autumn stood out from the other growing seasons for this trait. Cultivars Scarlet, Angelina and Amelia had higher levels of total soluble sugars in the summer; Mila and Lavinia in spring; Elisa and Regiane in winter and Tainá in spring.

  6. Jhumpa Lahiri's Unaccustomed Earth and the Reading of Nathaniel Hawthorne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israa Hashim Taher

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Born in England, to Bengali parents, and raised in America, Jhumpa Lahiri (1967 has been variously labeled as Indian-American, post-modern, post-colonial, and Indian writer. Naming Lahiri has been a long and intricate process. However, the identity she chooses for herself is something different. She wants herself to be simply recognized as an American writer. In her first novel, The Namesake (2003, the  protagonist, reflecting the dilemma of his creator, suffers the confusing experience of having an appropriate name.  Lahiri  resorts to Russian literature to establish an identity for her protagonist. In her second collection of short stories,  Unaccustomed Earth (2008, Lahiri uses the American writer Nathaniel Hawthorne not just to suggest the title, and epigraph for the collection, but more importantly to "establish her belonging in an American literary canon," as Ambreen Hai suggests in "Re-Rooting Families: The Alter/Natal as the Central Dynamic of Jhumpa Lahiri's Unaccustomed Earth." I want to push this argument further by suggesting that Lahiri attempts to gain her formal entry into the main stream American literature by re-writing Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter (1850in reverse order in "Hema and Kaushik", the second part of  Unaccustomed Earth. Keywords: Lahiri, Hawthorne, India, Scarlet Letter, identity, America

  7. Developmental patterns of 3-hydroxykynurenine accumulation in white and various other eye color mutants of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, A J; Summers, K M; Ryall, R L

    1977-12-01

    Several points of biochemical similarity between white and scarlet mutants suggest that both are defective in the transport of xanthommatin precursors. In both, accumulation of 3-hydroxykynurenine is negligible during larval life and occurs at only a slow rate during adult development. Larvae of both mutants also excrete 3H-3-hydroxykynurenine and 3H-kynurenine rapidly, which probably accounts for the normal levels of kynurenine during larval life. 3-Hydroxykynurenine levels are abnormal in all white mutants which were studied, although in two alleles which are strongly pigmented (w(sat) and w(col)) accumulation is enhanced rather than diminished. In w(a), larval accumulation is normal but accumulation during adult development is greatly diminished, suggesting that this mutation has a tissue-specific effect. Similar levels were found in zeste females. Of the 11 other eye color mutants tested, abnormal levels of 3-hydroxykynurenine were found in eight. In four of these (claret, light, lightoid, and pink), larval accumulation is negligible, suggesting that these have defects in the kynurenine transport system like scarlet and white. In three others, however (brown, karmoisin, and rosy), accumulation during larval life is enhanced. In cardinal accumulation is normal during larval life but is excessive during adult development. This evidence supports the suggestion that the cd mutation blocks the final step of xanthommatin synthesis.

  8. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Charu; Kawatra, Rahul; Gupta, Jaya; Awasthi, Vishnu; Dungana, Homnath

    2016-01-01

    True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases) received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg) weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20) patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS) after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus.

  9. Therapeutic role of Vitamin B12 in patients of chronic tinnitus: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available True tinnitus is a phantom auditory perception arising from a source or trigger in the cochlea, brainstem, or at higher centers and has no detectable acoustic generator. The most accepted is the famous neurophysiologic model of Jastreboff, which stresses that tinnitus, is a subcortical perception and results from the processing of weak neural activity in the periphery. The aim of this study is to determine the role of Vitamin B12 in treatment of chronic tinnitus. In this randomized, double-blind pilot study, total 40 patients were enrolled, of which 20 in Group A (cases received intramuscular therapy of 1 ml Vitamin B12 (2500 mcg weekly for a period of 6 weeks and Group B (20 patients received placebo isotonic saline 01 ml intramuscular. The patients were subjected to Vitamin B12 assay and audiometry pre- and post-therapy. Of the total patients of tinnitus, 17 were Vitamin B12 deficient that is 42.5% showed deficiency when the normal levels were considered to be 250 pg/ml. A paired t-test showed that in Group A, patients with Vitamin B12 deficiency showed significant improvement in mean tinnitus severity index score and visual analog scale (VAS after Vitamin B12 therapy. This pilot study highlights the significant prevalence of Vitamin B12 deficiency in North Indian population and improvement in tinnitus severity scores and VAS in cobalamin-deficient patients receiving intramuscular Vitamin B12 weekly for 6 weeks further provides a link between cobalamin deficiency and tinnitus thereby suggestive of a therapeutic role of B12 in cobalamin-deficient patients of tinnitus.

  10. Capturing One of the Human Gut Microbiome's Most Wanted

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeraldo, Patricio; Hernandez, Alvaro; Nielsen, Henrik Bjørn

    2016-01-01

    for a "most wanted" taxa, contained three essentially complete genomes belonging to a previously uncultivated species. This species is most closely related to Eubacterium desmolans and the clostridial cluster IV/CIostridium leptum subgroup species Butyncicoccus pullicaecorum (71-76% average nucleotide...... identity). Gene function analysis indicates that the species is an obligate anaerobe, forms spores, and produces the antiinflammatory short -chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate. It also appears to take up metabolically costly molecules such as cobalamin, methionine, and branch-chained amino acids from...

  11. 4-[(4′-Chloromethyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-ylmethyl]bis(dimethylglyoximato-κ2N,N′(pyridine-κNcobalt(IIIThis article is dedicated to late Professor B. D. Gupta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarvendra Kumar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Co(C14H14Cl(C4H6N2O22(C5H5N], is a model compound for the more complex cobalamines like vitamins B12. The CoIII atom is coordinated by a (4′-chloromethyl-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-ylmethyl group, an N-bonded pyridine and two N,N′-bidentate dimethylglyoximate ligands in a distorted octahedral geometry. The glyoximate ligands exhibit intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which is very common in cobaloxime derivatives.

  12. Effect of 8-week oral supplementation with 3-ug cyano-B12 or hydroxo-B12 in a vitamin B12-deficient population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greibe, Eva; Mahalle, Namita; Bhide, Vijayshri

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: We compare the effect of 8-week oral supplementation with cyano-B12 (currently used in vitamin pills) and hydroxo-B12 (predominant form in the diet) in a population with nutritional vitamin B12 deficiency. METHODS: Fifty-one healthy Indian adults with baseline serum cobalamin .../L were supplied for 8 weeks with daily oral supplements of 3-µg cyano-B12 (n = 15), 3-µg hydroxo-B12 (n = 16), or a placebo (n = 20). Blood at baseline, and each following week, was examined for total cobalamin, holotranscobalamin, methylmalonic acid, and homocysteine. RESULTS: The study groups did...

  13. Elimination reaction of 2-hydroxyalkyloobaloximes in acidic solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.M.L.

    1979-01-01

    Research is reported on the establishment of a rate law and mechanism for the ..beta..-OH-alkylcobaloxime decomposition reaction in acid media. The compounds used in the study are ..beta..-OH-Et(Co)py (or H/sub 2/O), ..beta..-OH-i-Pr(Co)py (or H/sub 2/O), ..beta..-OH-n-Pr(Co)py (or H/sub 2/O), and ..beta..-OH-n-PrCo(DBF/sub 2/)/sub 2/py. These cobaloximes were used as model compounds for the cobalamins, the vitamin B group.

  14. A pernicious leucoencephalopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Molloy, A

    2012-02-01

    Pernicious anaemia may manifest various neurological symptoms and signs ranging from the subtle to the dramatic. We describe a young man with cobalamin deficiency presenting with sensorimotor deficits, ataxia, dysarthria, mild cognitive deterioration and altered mood of insidious onset. The MRI brain findings were in keeping with a leucoencephalopathy without evidence of MRI changes in the spinal cord. This constellation of features has been reported rarely. His response to treatment as well as the marked improvement of the leucoencephalopathy on imaging suggests at least partial reversibility of the neurological deficits.

  15. Transcobalamin from cow milk: isolation and physico-chemical properties

    OpenAIRE

    Fedosov, Sergey; Petersen, Torben Ellebæk; Nexø, Ebba

    1996-01-01

    The concentration of endogenous cobalamin (Cbl) in cow milk was 3.3 nM while the Cbl-binding capacity was 0.05 nM. Both endogenous and newly added Cbl showed similar quantitative distribution between a 280 kDa protein complex (45%) and a 43 kDa Cbl-binder (55%). Long time incubation, as well as urea treatment, was accompanied by a slow release of the 43 kDa Cbl-binder from the 280 kDa fraction. No other Cbl-binding proteins appeared after these procedures. The 43 kDa binder from cow milk, dep...

  16. The human intrinsic factor-vitamin B12 receptor, cubilin: molecular characterization and chromosomal mapping of the gene to 10p within the autosomal recessive megaloblastic anemia (MGA1) region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozyraki, R; Kristiansen, M; Silahtaroglu, A

    1998-01-01

    -5445 on the short arm of chromosome 10. This is within the autosomal recessive megaloblastic anemia (MGA1) 6-cM region harboring the unknown recessive-gene locus of juvenile megaloblastic anemia caused by intestinal malabsorption of cobalamin (Imerslund-Gräsbeck's disease). In conclusion, the present...... molecular and genetic information on human cubilin now provides circumstantial evidence that an impaired synthesis, processing, or ligand binding of cubilin is the molecular background of this hereditary form of megaloblastic anemia. Udgivelsesdato: 1998-May-15...

  17. Resistance imparted by vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin B12 to the acute hepatic glycogen change in rats caused by noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bei-Wei; Piao, Mei-Lan; Zhang, Yu; Han, Song; An, Qing-Da; Murata, Yoshiyuki; Tada, Mikiro

    2006-04-01

    The effects of vitamin C, vitamin E and vitamin B12 on the noise-induced acute change in hepatic glycogen content in rats were investigated. The exposure of rats to 95 dB and 110 dB of noise acutely reduced their hepatic glycogens. Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol) attenuated the noise-induced acute reduction in the hepatic glycogen contents. This result suggests that antioxidants could reduce the change via reactive oxygen species. Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) delayed the noise-induced change, a finding that suggests that vitamin B12 could postpone the acute change via compensating for vitamin B12 deficiency.

  18. Reversible Vitamin B12 Deficiency Presenting with Acute Dementia, Paraparesis, and Normal Hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Almoallim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 is essential for neurological function and its deficiency is associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders. We report the case of a previously healthy 53-year-old male patient presenting with delirium and multiple neurological findings. Complete blood analysis indicated megaloblastic anemia. All infectious causes were excluded owing to negative cultures (blood and urine. Tests for human immunodeficiency virus, syphilis, and toxoplasma were also negative. Metabolic workup showed severe vitamin B12 deficiency, decreased reticulocyte count, and increased direct bilirubin and lactate dehydrogenase. Intramuscular injection of cobalamin was started, and the patient showed significant improvement.

  19. Vitamin B12 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ralph; Allen, Lindsay H; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (B12; also known as cobalamin) is a B vitamin that has an important role in cellular metabolism, especially in DNA synthesis, methylation and mitochondrial metabolism. Clinical B12 deficiency with classic haematological and neurological manifestations is relatively uncommon. However...... remain debated. Management depends on B12 supplementation, either via high-dose oral routes or via parenteral administration. This Primer describes the current knowledge surrounding B12 deficiency, and highlights improvements in diagnostic methods as well as shifting concepts about the prevalence, causes...

  20. The subunit structure of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francalanci, F; Davis, N K; Fuller, J Q; Murfitt, D; Leadlay, P F

    1986-06-01

    5'-Deoxyadenosylcobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase was purified to homogeneity from Propionibacterium shermanii by a simplified procedure. The native enzyme has an apparent Mr of 165,000, similar to the enzyme from other sources but larger than previously reported. It consists of two non-identical subunits, of Mr 79,000 and 67,000 respectively. The smaller subunit is apparently not a proteolytic fragment of the larger one. The final preparation usually contained some inactive mutase, bearing a tenaciously bound cobalamin species. This protein proved to be readily separable from apoenzyme by fast protein liquid chromatography on anion-exchange columns.

  1. Vitamin B12 transport from food to the body's cells--a sophisticated, multistep pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne J; Rasmussen, Mie R; Andersen, Christian B F

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin B(12) (B(12); also known as cobalamin) is a cofactor in many metabolic processes; deficiency of this vitamin is associated with megaloblastic anaemia and various neurological disorders. In contrast to many prokaryotes, humans and other mammals are unable to synthesize B(12). Instead...... in the transport pathway are also known culprits of functional B(12) deficiency. Biochemical and genetic approaches have identified novel proteins in the B(12) transport pathway--now known to involve more than 15 gene products--delineating a coherent pathway for B(12) trafficking from food to the body's cells...

  2. Identification and cloning of four riboswitches from Burkholderia pseudomallei strain K96243

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munyati-Othman, Noor; Fatah, Ahmad Luqman Abdul; Piji, Mohd Al Akmarul Fizree Bin Md; Ramlan, Effirul Ikhwan; Raih, Mohd Firdaus

    2015-09-01

    Structured RNAs referred as riboswitches have been predicted to be present in the genome sequence of Burkholderia pseudomallei strain K96243. Four of the riboswitches were identified and analyzed through BLASTN, Rfam search and multiple sequence alignment. The RNA aptamers belong to the following riboswitch classifications: glycine riboswitch, cobalamin riboswitch, S-adenosyl-(L)-homocysteine (SAH) riboswitch and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) riboswitch. The conserved nucleotides for each aptamer were identified and were marked on the secondary structure generated by RNAfold. These riboswitches were successfully amplified and cloned for further study.

  3. Effects of vitamin B12 and folate deficiency on brain development in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Maureen M.

    2011-01-01

    Folate deficiency in the periconceptional period contributes to neural tube defects; deficits in vitamin B12 (cobalamin) have negative consequences on the developing brain during infancy; and deficits of both vitamins are associated with a greater risk of depression during adulthood. This review examines two mechanisms linking folate and vitamin B12 deficiency to abnormal behavior and development in infants: disruptions to myelination and inflammatory processes. Future investigations should focus on the relationship between the timing of deficient and marginal vitamin B12 status and outcomes such as infant growth, cognition, social development, and depressive symptoms, along with prevention of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency. PMID:18709887

  4. New Methods for the Analysis of Water-Soluble Vitamins in Infant Formula and Adult/Pediatric Nutritionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Frederic; Giménez, Ester Campos; Konings, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Water-soluble vitamins (WSVs) are a group of organic compounds which are essential micronutrients. WSVs could be divided between the B complex group and vitamin C (l-ascorbic acid). Within the B complex group, eight vitamins are recognized: vitamins B1 (thiamin), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin or niacinamide), B5 (pantothenic acid), B6 (pyridoxine, pyridoxal, or pyridoxamine), B7 (biotin), B9 (folic acid), and B12 (various cobalamins). This paper reviews the new methods for the analysis of these vitamins, with a focus on infant formula and adult nutritionals.

  5. Structural basis for receptor recognition of vitamin-B(12)-intrinsic factor complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Madsen, Mette; Storm, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B(12)) is a bacterial organic compound and an essential coenzyme in mammals, which take it up from the diet. This occurs by the combined action of the gastric intrinsic factor (IF) and the ileal endocytic cubam receptor formed by the 460-kilodalton (kDa) protein cubilin...... and the 45-kDa transmembrane protein amnionless. Loss of function of any of these proteins ultimately leads to Cbl deficiency in man. Here we present the crystal structure of the complex between IF-Cbl and the cubilin IF-Cbl-binding-region (CUB(5-8)) determined at 3.3 A resolution. The structure provides...

  6. Measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum using resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiminis, G.; Schartner, E. P.; Brooks, J. L.; Hutchinson, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin and its derivatives) deficiency has been identified as a potential modifiable risk factor for dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Chronic deficiency of vitamin B12 has been significantly associated with an increased risk of cognitive decline. An effective and efficient method for measuring vitamin B12 concentration in human blood would enable ongoing tracking and assessment of this potential modifiable risk factor. In this work we present an optical sensor based on resonance Raman spectroscopy for rapid measurements of vitamin B12 in human blood serum. The measurement takes less than a minute and requires minimum preparation (centrifuging) of the collected blood samples.

  7. Production and characterization of cyanocobalamin-enriched lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) grown using hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Tomohiro; Ohishi, Noriharu; Hatanaka, Yuka; Takenaka, Shigeo; Nishihara, Eiji; Yabuta, Yukinori; Watanabe, Fumio

    2013-04-24

    When lettuces (Lactuca sativa L.) grown for 30 days in hydroponic culture were treated with various concentrations of cyanocobalamin for 24 h, its content in their leaves increased significantly from nondetectable to 164.6 ± 74.7 ng/g fresh weight. This finding indicated that consumption of only two or three of these fresh leaves is sufficient to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance for adults of 2.4 μg/day. Analyses using a cobalamin-dependent Escherichia coli 215 bioautogram and LC/ESI-MS/MS demonstrated that the cyanocobalamin absorbed from the nutrient solutions by the leaves did not alter any other compounds such as coenzymes and inactive corrinoids. Gel filtration indicated that most (86%) of the cyanocobalamin in the leaves was recovered in the free cyanocobalamin fractions. These results indicated that cyanocobalamin-enriched lettuce leaves would be an excellent source of free cyanocobalamin, particularly for strict vegetarians or elderly people with food-bound cobalamin malabsorption.

  8. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nilsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy in patients with VaD. Results: Elevated plasma tHcy levels in patients with VaD could only partly be attributed to cobalamin/folate deficiency or renal impairment. Plasma tHcy might also be related to the vascular disease process since patients with depression and vascular disease exhibited similar plasma tHcy levels to patients with VaD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy might be a sensitive marker for the vascular disease process in patients with VaD and that the level also is a reflection of changes in the other main determinants of plasma tHcy.

  9. Evolution in a family of chelatases facilitated by the introduction of active site asymmetry and protein oligomerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romão, Célia V.; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Lobo, Susana A. L.; Carrondo, Maria A.; Brindley, Amanda A.; Deery, Evelyne; Matias, Pedro M.; Pickersgill, Richard W.; Saraiva, Lígia M.; Warren, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    The class II chelatases associated with heme, siroheme, and cobalamin biosynthesis are structurally related enzymes that insert a specific metal ion (Fe2+ or Co2+) into the center of a modified tetrapyrrole (protoporphyrin or sirohydrochlorin). The structures of two related class II enzymes, CbiXS from Archaeoglobus fulgidus and CbiK from Salmonella enterica, that are responsible for the insertion of cobalt along the cobalamin biosynthesis pathway are presented in complex with their metallated product. A further structure of a CbiK from Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough reveals how cobalt is bound at the active site. The crystal structures show that the binding of sirohydrochlorin is distinctly different to porphyrin binding in the protoporphyrin ferrochelatases and provide a molecular overview of the mechanism of chelation. The structures also give insights into the evolution of chelatase form and function. Finally, the structure of a periplasmic form of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough CbiK reveals a novel tetrameric arrangement of its subunits that are stabilized by the presence of a heme b cofactor. Whereas retaining colbaltochelatase activity, this protein has acquired a central cavity with the potential to chaperone or transport metals across the periplasmic space, thereby evolving a new use for an ancient protein subunit. PMID:21173279

  10. Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndrome 3 Onset with Severe Ketoacidosis in a 74-Year-Old Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Benedini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D, autoimmune thyroid disease, and autoimmune gastritis often occur together forming the so-called autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 3 (APS3. We here report a clinical case of a 74-year-old woman who presented for the first time with severe hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis diagnosed as T1D. Further clinical investigations revealed concomitant severe hypothyroidism with autoimmune thyroid disease and severe cobalamin deficiency due to chronic atrophic gastritis. The diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus was confirmed by the detection of autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase 65, islet cell antibodies, and anti-insulin autoantibodies. Anti-thyroperoxidase, anti-thyroglobulin, and anti-gastric parietal cell antibodies were also clearly positive. The case emphasized that new onset diabetic ketoacidosis, hypothyroidism, and cobalamin deficiency may simultaneously occur, and one disease can mask the features of the other, thereby making diagnosis difficult. It is noteworthy that an APS3 acute episode occurred in an asymptomatic elder woman for any autoimmune diseases.

  11. Leaf proteomics of drought-sensitive and -tolerant genotypes of fennel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi, Ehsaneh; Fakheri, Barat Ali; Aharizad, Saeed; Emamjomeh, Abbasali; Norouzi, Majid; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2017-11-01

    Fennel is attracted attention as a useful resource as researching medicinal plant for drought tolerance. To elucidate the response mechanism in drought-sensitive and -tolerant genotypes of fennel leaf, a gel-free/label-free proteomic technique was used. Fifty-day-old plants were subjected to drought stress for 60days. The relative water and proline contents were decreased and increased in sensitive genotypes, respectively; however, they were not a big change in tolerant genotypes. Photosynthesis was decreased in the sensitive genotypes under drought; however, it was increased in the tolerant genotype. In both drought-sensitive and -tolerant genotypes, proteins related to protein metabolism and cell organization were predominately affected under drought stress. The abundance of phosphoribulokinase and phosphoglycerate kinase enzymes were decreased and increased in drought-sensitive and -tolerant genotypes, respectively; however, the abundance of RuBisCO and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzymes were increased and decreased in drought-sensitive and -tolerant genotypes, respectively. Under drought stress, the abundance of glycolysis-related proteins was decreased in sensitive genotypes; however, they were increased in tolerance genotypes. Commonly changed proteins with polyethylene glycol fractionation such as cobalamin-independent methionine synthase were decreased and increased in drought-sensitive and -tolerant genotypes, respectively. These results suggest that cobalamin-independent methionine synthetase is involved in the tolerance of drought-tolerant fennel leaf under drought stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Combination of vitamin B12 active forms improved fetal growth in Wistar rats through up-regulation of placental miR-16 and miR-21 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Tejas; Mishra, Sanjay; More, Amol; Otiv, Suhas; Apte, Kishori; Joshi, Kalpana

    2017-12-15

    Epidemiological studies have indicated importance of folate and vitamin (B12) during pregnancy. Also available evidence on efficacy of B12 forms viz. Cyanocobalamin (Cbl), Methylcobalamin (MeCbl), Adenosylcobalamin (AdCbl) and Hydroxycobalamin (HCbl) in preventing or treating cobalamin deficiency is limited. The present study examines the effect of various forms of B12 in combination with folate during pregnancy and their effect on gestational outcomes. In the present study, we examined the effect of various vitamin B12 forms in presence of recommended folate (RFol: 400μg/day) and high folate (HFol: 5mg/day) on gestational outcomes in female Wistar rats. Dams dosed with excessive folate (HFol group) delivered low birth weight (LBW) offsprings (pB12 supplementation. Excessive folate supplementation and homocysteine levels showed inverse association with placental weight (pB12 supplementation significantly up-regulated placental miR-16 and miR-21, associated with fetal growth which in turn reflected in improved birthweights. Supplementation with vitamin B12 forms, especially combination of active forms of cobalamins: MeCbl+AdCbl significantly increased birth weights (pB12 along with folate during pregnancy had positive impact on the gestational outcomes. We have shown for the first time that combination of active forms of vitamin B12: MeCbl+AdCbl has better efficacy as compared to Cbl, MeCbl, AdCbl and HCbl alone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Vitamin B12 regulates photosystem gene expression via the CrtJ antirepressor AerR in Rhodobacter capsulatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhuo; Li, Keran; Hammad, Loubna A.; Karty, Jonathan A.; Bauer, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The tetrapyrroles heme, bacteriochlorophyll and cobalamin (B12) exhibit a complex interrelationship regarding their synthesis. In this study, we demonstrate that AerR functions as an antirepressor of the tetrapyrrole regulator CrtJ. We show that purified AerR contains B12 that is bound to a conserved histidine (His145) in AerR. The interaction of AerR to CrtJ was further demonstrated in vitro by pull down experiments using AerR as bait and quantified using microscale thermophoresis. DNase I DNA footprint assays show that AerR containing B12 inhibits CrtJ binding to the bchC promoter. We further show that bchC expression is greatly repressed in a B12 auxotroph of Rhodobacter capsulatus and that B12 regulation of gene expression is mediated by AerR’s ability to function as an antirepressor of CrtJ. This study thus provides a mechanism for how the essential tetrapyrrole, cobalamin controls the synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll, an essential component of the photosystem. PMID:24329562

  14. Metal active site elasticity linked to activation of homocysteine in methionine synthases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutmos, Markos; Pejchal, Robert; Bomer, Theresa M.; Matthews, Rowena G.; Smith, Janet L.; Ludwig, Martha L. (Michigan)

    2008-04-02

    Enzymes possessing catalytic zinc centers perform a variety of fundamental processes in nature, including methyl transfer to thiols. Cobalamin-independent (MetE) and cobalamin-dependent (MetH) methionine synthases are two such enzyme families. Although they perform the same net reaction, transfer of a methyl group from methyltetrahydrofolate to homocysteine (Hcy) to form methionine, they display markedly different catalytic strategies, modular organization, and active site zinc centers. Here we report crystal structures of zinc-replete MetE and MetH, both in the presence and absence of Hcy. Structural investigation of the catalytic zinc sites of these two methyltransferases reveals an unexpected inversion of zinc geometry upon binding of Hcy and displacement of an endogenous ligand in both enzymes. In both cases a significant movement of the zinc relative to the protein scaffold accompanies inversion. These structures provide new information on the activation of thiols by zinc-containing enzymes and have led us to propose a paradigm for the mechanism of action of the catalytic zinc sites in these and related methyltransferases. Specifically, zinc is mobile in the active sites of MetE and MetH, and its dynamic nature helps facilitate the active site conformational changes necessary for thiol activation and methyl transfer.

  15. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Lise Bjørke-Monsen

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA; and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI, in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP, and riboflavin (p < 0.001, and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001. Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant.

  16. Unter Krankheitsbedrohung. Vorbemerkungen zu einer Historischen Erforschung der Grossen Epidemien in der Österreichischen Bukowina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harieta Mareci-Sabol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Under Threat of Disease. Introduction to a Historical Study of the Great Epidemics in Austrian Bukovina Like natural disasters, wars and famine, epidemics recorded in Austrian Bukovina, affected people from all layers of society, leaving deep traces in memory and mentality. Considered as divine punishment or attributed to poverty, ignorance and lack of hygiene, they modeled different behaviors, reactions and attitudes, causing panic, tension, isolation, economic decline and, in some cases, depopulation. Information drawn from a variety of sources (from parish and civil registers to newspapers or memories provides an overview of morbid events recorded in Bucovina, from the late XVIIIth century to the early XXth century. Consecutive or recurrent episodes of plague, cholera, diphtheria, typhoid fever and typhus, measles, scarlet, smallpox and influenza have disrupted both rural and urban communities, imposing the imperial authorities, local officials, doctors, priests, teachers, and journalists to initiate some mechanisms for prevention, limitation or eradication of the disease.

  17. The tubulins of animals, plants, fungi and protists implications for metazoan evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Melvyn; Ludueña, Richard F.; Morejohn, Louis C.; Asnes, Clara; Hoffman, Eugene

    1984-03-01

    α-Tubulin subunits from trout (S. gairdneri) sperm tails, sea urchin (S. purpuratus) cilia, protistan alga (C. elongatum) flagella and rose (Paul's Scarlet) cytoplasm have been characterized by limited proteolytic cleavage with the enzymeStaphylococcus aureus protease and electrophoresis of the digestion products on SDS-PAGE. The resulting patterns corresponded to either of two major types representative of animal and non-animal α-tubulins, respectively. A total of 28 α-tubulins have now been characterized by this method. They are classified in this paper according to the type of cleavage pattern generated by the enzymeS. aureus protease. The implications of these results for metazoan evolution are discussed.

  18. ADUBAÇÃO FOSFATADA NA CULTURA DO JILÓ IRRIGADO NAS CONDIÇÕES DE CASSILÂNDIA-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Augusto Biscaro

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the reply of the scarlet culture (Solanum gilo Raddi irrigated submitted the different applied doses phosphate in the plantation hollow. The used experimental delineation was of randomized blocks, being tested four levels of simple superphosphate (0, 1.000, 2.000, 3.000 kg ha-1. The phosphate fertilization in the plantation caused an increase in the following characteristics total of fruits to plant, commercial weight of fruits to plant, not commercial weight of the fruits to plant and productivity to fruits to hectare. The doses of phosphate that got a bigger efficiency to get a good productivity in the conditions of Cassilândia-MS, was of 1590 kg ha-1 of simple superphosphate that is the equivalent 286,2 kg of P2O5.

  19. Predator cognition permits imperfect coral snake mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, David W; Pfennig, David W

    2010-12-01

    Batesian mimicry is often imprecise. An underexplored explanation for imperfect mimicry is that predators might not be able to use all dimensions of prey phenotype to distinguish mimics from models and thus permit imperfect mimicry to persist. We conducted a field experiment to test whether or not predators can distinguish deadly coral snakes (Micrurus fulvius) from nonvenomous scarlet kingsnakes (Lampropeltis elapsoides). Although the two species closely resemble one another, the order of colored rings that encircle their bodies differs. Despite this imprecise mimicry, we found that L. elapsoides that match coral snakes in other respects are not under selection to match the ring order of their model. We suggest that L. elapsoides have evolved only those signals necessary to deceive predators. Generally, imperfect mimicry might suffice if it exploits limitations in predator cognitive abilities.

  20. A Batesian mimic and its model share color production mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. KIKUCHI, David W. PFENNIG

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Batesian mimics are harmless prey species that resemble dangerous ones (models, and thus receive protection from predators. How such adaptive resemblances evolve is a classical problem in evolutionary biology. Mimicry is typically thought to be difficult to evolve, especially if the model and mimic produce the convergent phenotype through different proximate mechanisms. However, mimicry may evolve more readily if mimic and model share similar pathways for producing the convergent phenotype. In such cases, these pathways can be co-opted in ancestral mimic populations to produce high-fidelity mimicry without the need for major evolutionary innovations. Here, we show that a Batesian mimic, the scarlet kingsnake Lampropeltis elapsoides, produces its coloration using the same physiological mechanisms as does its model, the eastern coral snake Micrurus fulvius. Therefore, precise color mimicry may have been able to evolve easily in this system. Generally, we know relatively little about the proximate mechanisms underlying mimicry [Current Zoology 58 (4: 658–667, 2012].

  1. [Sanitary conditions, health care and epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in Cracow in the period of Galicia autonomy (since 60ties/70ties of 19th century until 1914)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2008-01-01

    After Galicia had received autonomy at the turn of the 60s and 70s of the XIX century in Cracow the changes in order to repair long-running neglects were introduced. In order to fulfill this aim, cobbled pavement surfaces of the roads as well as sewage and water supply systems were constructed. District sanitary physicians (ten physicians in 1914 after in 1910-1912 neglected suburbs were attached to the city) were supposed to inspect health care of inhabitants. In spite of remarkable results (especially during the ten years before the World War I) there were many challenges, also concerning improvement of housing conditions. Among the most dangerous diseases predominated tuberculosis, followed by scarlet fever, diphteria, measles and whooping cough, typhoid fever and dysentery. Recrudescent typhus fever and smallpox did not cause considerable health danger any more.

  2. Indução de florescimento de plantas de ciclâmen após a aplicação de GA3 Flowering induction of cyclamen plants after applying GA3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica Mielke

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A floricultura brasileira vem se destacando como alternativa econômica de cultivo agrícola. Uma das dificuldades de expansão desta atividade é o baixo consumo destes produtos pelos brasileiros, o que em parte pode ser explicado pelo seu alto custo. A aplicação de reguladores de crescimento pode reduzir este custo e aumentar a qualidade das plantas envasadas. Neste contexto, a giberelina tem mostrado atuar na indução de florescimento e na antecipação da antese. O ciclâmen (Cyclamen persicum Mill. é uma planta ornamental cultivada em vaso que apresenta alto custo de produção. Assim, objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito da aplicação do ácido giberélico (GA3 sobre o florescimento de ciclâmen. O experimento foi conduzido em área de produção comercial de ciclâmen localizada no município de Quatro Barras (PR. Duas cultivares de ciclâmen, cv. Concerto Scarlet 'Caruso'® e Concerto Purple 'Papagenoa'® foram tratadas com GA3 a 0, 15, 30, 45 e 60mgL-1. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com arranjo fatorial (2x5. Melhores resultados foram observados na cultivar Concerto Scarlet 'Caruso'® com 45 mgL-1 de GA3 e na cultivar Concerto Purple 'Papagenoa'® com 30 mgL-1 de GA3. Em ambas as cultivares foi observado efeito fitotóxico quando foi aplicado 60 mgL-1 de GA3..Brazilian floriculture has demonstrated to be an economical alternative as agricultural crop. One of the difficulties for the expansion of this local activity is the low consumption of these products by Brazilians, which may be partially explained by its high cost. Plant growth regulators might reduce this cost and increase quality. Cyclamen (Cyclamen persicum Mill. is an ornamental plant cultivated in vase with high production cost. The aim of this trial was to evaluate the effects of gibberellic acid (GA3 on the cyclamen flowering. It was performed in a grower, located in Quatro Barras, Paraná State, Brazil. Two

  3. [Darwin and bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledermann D, Walter

    2009-02-01

    As in 2009 the scientific world celebrates two hundreds years from the birthday of Charles Darwin and one hundred and fifty from the publication of The Origin of Species, an analysis of his complete work is performed, looking for any mention of bacteria. But it seems that the great naturahst never took knowledge about its existence, something rather improbable in a time when the discovery of bacteria shook the medical world, or he deliberately ignored them, not finding a place for such microscopic beings into his theory of evolution. But the bacteria badly affected his familiar life, killing scarlet fever one of his children and worsening to death the evolution of tuberculosis of his favourite Annie. Darwin himself could suffer the sickness of Chagas, whose etiological agent has a similar level to bacteria in the scale of evolution.

  4. Seeing Red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available It is an invasion, of sorts: a legion of vases, each about five feet high, made of porcelain. Floridly patterned and scarlet red, they are placed throughout the Yale Center for British Art (YCBA, on every floor, in the galleries, in the library court, on the stairs. The installation, Made in China, is by the artist Clare Twomey. Its effect is most improbable, with a surreal, larger-than-life quality. It is as if caterers were about to deliver a banquet for thousands of people; or a factory floor had been teleported into the galleries; or as if ceramics were finally being recognized as a dominant genre in British art.

  5. Krüppel homolog (Kr h) is a dosage-dependent modifier of gene expression in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevolenskaya, E V; Frolov, M V; Birchler, J A

    2000-04-01

    A lethal mutation in the Krüppel homolog (Kr h) was isolated in screens of P-element insertion mutations for modifiers of white gene expression. The mutation occurs in the 5' untranslated region of the Kr h gene and causes a lightening of the eye colour for several alleles of white due to a decrease in white steady-state mRNA levels at pupal stages. Two related genes, scarlet and brown, were significantly affected as well in early pupae. Genetic analysis of different white alleles suggests that enhancer sequences are necessary for interaction with KR H. Thus, the Kr h gene is a member of the dosage-dependent hierarchy effective upon white.

  6. Status of Standardization Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-30

    MIL-D-2273E DYLE MIX RECOLOR AND FLD DY GL H5 924 941 933 G GL MC 68 GS U 6820 A098 JAN-D-511A DYES GREEN AND SCARLET AR D2 872 892 904 A AR U B 6820...1077 MIL-L-83795A LAYOUT DYE BLUE 68 A2 904 914 944 A 68 U 6850 1079 MIL C XXXXX CLEANING COMPOUND PRECOATING 68 A4 E 904 921 921 A 68 N C 6850 1084 MIL...G AS U C 8475 TOTAL - 4 , DELINQUENT- 4 , STATUS CODES: A- 4 G - 0 ,Y - 0 , Z - 0 8520 A078 MIL-H-43606B GL HAND CLEANER WATERLESS GL F2 924 934 934 A

  7. Phytotoxicity and growth responses of ornamental bedding plants to ozone and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adedipe, N.O.; Barrett, R.F.; Ormrod, D.P.

    1972-01-01

    No appreciable signs of phytotoxicity were observed for 4 days following fumigation of plants (including begonias, petunias, snapdragons) with ozone of up to 80 parts per hundred million or sulfur dioxide of up to 400 pphm for 2 hr. Thereafter, there was considerable necrosis, particularly on begonias fumigated with the highest concentration of the pollutants. Growth suppression was reflected in reduced shoot and flower wt, and to a lesser degree in reduced flower number. Overall, begonias and petunias were the most sensitive. Coleus and snapdragons were moderately sensitive, while marigold, celosia, impatiens and salvia were tolerant. White Tausendschon was the most sensitive begonia cultivar while blue-flowered Capri was the most sensitive petunia. Mixed color petunias exhibited varying degrees of tolerance. Scarlet rainbow coleus was more sensitive than Pastel Rainbow. Measurements of growth alterations in plants were found very useful in determining latent forms of air pollutant injury.

  8. Photocatalytic degradation of AZO dyes by supported TiO2 + UV in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Wang, L; Kong, L; Yang, X; Wang, L; Zheng, S; Chen, F; MaiZhi, F; Zong, H

    2000-08-01

    The photocatalytic degradation performance of photocatalysts TiO2 supported on 13-X, Na-Y, 4A zeolites with different loading content was evaluated using the photocatalytic oxidation of dyes direct fast scarlet 4BS and acid red 3B in aqueous medium. The results showed that the best reaction dosage of TiO2-zeolite catalysts is about 2 g/l and the photocatalytic kinetics follows first order for all supported catalysts. The photocatalytic activity order of the three series catalysts is 13X type >Y type >4A type. The physical state of titanium dioxide on the supports is evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), BET, and FTIR.

  9. [Exanthema as a main symptom in the febrile child].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, C

    2005-08-01

    Distinguishing in febrile children between harmless rashes and those, which require specific action, is a common problem in pediatric primary care. Major exanthematous diseases necessitating emergency hospitalization include invasive meningococcal disease and rarely gram-negative septicaemia caused by other pathogens, staphylococcal and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, endocarditis, fever and rash in travellers returning from tropical countries and drug hypersensitivity syndrome. Therapeutic intervention is also necessary in patients with scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, varicella in postpuberal and immunocompromised individuals, in Kawasaki's disease, in Still's disease and in other non-infectious, inflammatory diseases (e.g., familial mediterranean fever). Finally, various specific measures need to be taken in reportable diseases, erythema infectiosum (parvovirus B19), primary HIV infection and in Henoch-Schölein purpura.

  10. [Childhood diseases with exanthema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opstelten, Wim; Eekhof, Just A H; Knuistingh Neven, Arie

    2011-01-01

    - Due to high vaccination coverage, measles and rubella (German measles) are now rarely seen in the Netherlands, which makes recognition of these diseases difficult. - Measles can also occur in people who have been immunized, as a result of vaccination failure. - Swift recognition of measles and rubella is necessary in order to manage them adequately and to prevent spreading of the disease. - Measles, rubella, and erythema infectiosum ('fifth disease') may result in complications during pregnancy. - Measles, rubella, scarlet fever, erythema infectiosum, and roseola ('sixth disease') can be difficult to differentiate. - In the Netherlands, diagnosis of a patient with measles or rubella, or of more than 1 patient with erythema infectiosum within one institution, must be reported to the local health authority within 1 working day. - Exclusion from school or a day-care facility is not required for any if the diseases discussed.

  11. Characterization of papain-like isoenzymes from latex of Asclepias curassavica by molecular biology validated by proteomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obregón, Walter D; Liggieri, Constanza S; Trejo, Sebastian A; Avilés, Francesc X; Vairo-Cavalli, Sandra E; Priolo, Nora S

    2009-01-01

    Latices from Asclepias spp are used in wound healing and the treatment of some digestive disorders. These pharmacological actions have been attributed to the presence of cysteine proteases in these milky latices. Asclepias curassavica (Asclepiadaceae), "scarlet milkweed" is a perennial subshrub native to South America. In the current paper we report a new approach directed at the selective biochemical and molecular characterization of asclepain cI (acI) and asclepain cII (acII), the enzymes responsible for the proteolytic activity of the scarlet milkweed latex. SDS-PAGE spots of both purified peptidases were digested with trypsin and Peptide Mass Fingerprints (PMFs) obtained showed no equivalent peptides. No identification was possible by MASCOT search due to the paucity of information concerning Asclepiadaceae latex cysteine proteinases available in databases. From total RNA extracted from latex samples, cDNA of both peptidases was obtained by RT-PCR using degenerate primers encoding Asclepiadaceae cysteine peptidase conserved domains. Theoretical PMFs of partial polypeptide sequences obtained by cloning (186 and 185 amino acids) were compared with empirical PMFs, confirming that the sequences of 186 and 185 amino acids correspond to acI and acII, respectively. N-terminal sequences of acI and acII, characterized by Edman sequencing, were overlapped with those coming from the cDNA to obtain the full-length sequence of both mature peptidases (212 and 211 residues respectively). Alignment and phylogenetic analysis confirmed that acI and acII belong to the subfamily C1A forming a new group of papain-like cysteine peptidases together with asclepain f from Asclepias fruticosa. We conclude that PMF could be adopted as an excellent tool to differentiate, in a fast and unequivocal way, peptidases with very similar physicochemical and functional properties, with advantages over other conventional methods (for instance enzyme kinetics) that are time consuming and afford less

  12. A Romanian Jew in Hollywood: Edward G. Robinson

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moldovan Raluca

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the contribution that actor Edward G. Robinson brought to the American film industry, beginning with his iconic role as gangster Little Caesar in Mervyn Le Roy’s 1931 production, and continuing with widely-acclaimed parts in classic film noirs such as Double Indemnity, The Woman in the Window and Scarlet Street. Edward G. Robinson was actually a Romanian Jew, born Emmanuel Goldenberg in Bucharest, in 1893, a relatively little known fact nowadays. By examining his biography, filmography and his best-known, most successful films (mentioned above, I show that Edward G. Robinson was one of classical Hollywood’s most influential actors; for instance, traits of his portrayal of Little Caesar (one of the very first American gangster films can be found in almost all subsequent cinematic gangster figures, from Scarface to Vito Corleone. In the same vein, the doomed noir characters he played in Fritz Lang’s The Woman in the Window and Scarlet Street are still considered by film critics today to be some of the finest, most nuanced examples of noir heroes. Therefore, the main body of my article will be dedicated to a more detailed analysis of these films, while the introductory section will trace his biography and discuss some of his better-known films, such as Confessions of a Nazi Spy and Key Largo. The present study highlights Edward G. Robinson’s merits and impact on the cinema industry, proving that this diminutive Romanian Jew of humble origins was indeed something of a giant during Hollywood’s classical era.

  13. Reliable CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Engineering in Caenorhabditis elegans Using a Single Efficient sgRNA and an Easily Recognizable Phenotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia El Mouridi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering strategies allow the directed modification of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome to introduce point mutations, generate knock-out mutants, and insert coding sequences for epitope or fluorescent tags. Three practical aspects, however, complicate such experiments. First, the efficiency and specificity of single-guide RNAs (sgRNA cannot be reliably predicted. Second, the detection of animals carrying genome edits can be challenging in the absence of clearly visible or selectable phenotypes. Third, the sgRNA target site must be inactivated after editing to avoid further double-strand break events. We describe here a strategy that addresses these complications by transplanting the protospacer of a highly efficient sgRNA into a gene of interest to render it amenable to genome engineering. This sgRNA targeting the dpy-10 gene generates genome edits at comparatively high frequency. We demonstrate that the transplanted protospacer is cleaved at the same time as the dpy-10 gene. Our strategy generates scarless genome edits because it no longer requires the introduction of mutations in endogenous sgRNA target sites. Modified progeny can be easily identified in the F1 generation, which drastically reduces the number of animals to be tested by PCR or phenotypic analysis. Using this strategy, we reliably generated precise deletion mutants, transcriptional reporters, and translational fusions with epitope tags and fluorescent reporter genes. In particular, we report here the first use of the new red fluorescent protein mScarlet in a multicellular organism. wrmScarlet, a C. elegans-optimized version, dramatically surpassed TagRFP-T by showing an eightfold increase in fluorescence in a direct comparison.

  14. Reliable CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Engineering in Caenorhabditis elegans Using a Single Efficient sgRNA and an Easily Recognizable Phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Mouridi, Sonia; Lecroisey, Claire; Tardy, Philippe; Mercier, Marine; Leclercq-Blondel, Alice; Zariohi, Nora; Boulin, Thomas

    2017-05-05

    CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering strategies allow the directed modification of the Caenorhabditis elegans genome to introduce point mutations, generate knock-out mutants, and insert coding sequences for epitope or fluorescent tags. Three practical aspects, however, complicate such experiments. First, the efficiency and specificity of single-guide RNAs (sgRNA) cannot be reliably predicted. Second, the detection of animals carrying genome edits can be challenging in the absence of clearly visible or selectable phenotypes. Third, the sgRNA target site must be inactivated after editing to avoid further double-strand break events. We describe here a strategy that addresses these complications by transplanting the protospacer of a highly efficient sgRNA into a gene of interest to render it amenable to genome engineering. This sgRNA targeting the dpy-10 gene generates genome edits at comparatively high frequency. We demonstrate that the transplanted protospacer is cleaved at the same time as the dpy-10 gene. Our strategy generates scarless genome edits because it no longer requires the introduction of mutations in endogenous sgRNA target sites. Modified progeny can be easily identified in the F1 generation, which drastically reduces the number of animals to be tested by PCR or phenotypic analysis. Using this strategy, we reliably generated precise deletion mutants, transcriptional reporters, and translational fusions with epitope tags and fluorescent reporter genes. In particular, we report here the first use of the new red fluorescent protein mScarlet in a multicellular organism. wrmScarlet, a C. elegans-optimized version, dramatically surpassed TagRFP-T by showing an eightfold increase in fluorescence in a direct comparison. Copyright © 2017 El Mouridi et al.

  15. Chemical composition and mosquito larvicidal activities of Salvia essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Jija; Thoppil, John E

    2011-05-01

    Vector control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. In this context, essential oils have received much attention as potentially useful bioactive compounds against insects. Therefore, our present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of essential oils from the aerial parts of Salvia elegans Vahl, Salvia dorisiana Standl., Salvia splendens Sello ex J.A. Schult Blue Ribbon, and S. splendens Sello ex J.A. Schult Scarlet Sage Red (Lamiaceae) against the fourth instar larvae of Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae). The mosquito larvicidal activities of the essential oils and chemical composition of four taxa of Salvia are investigated in this article for the first time. Chemical compositions of essential oils obtained from four taxa of Salvia were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), GC-FID, and the effects of essential oils on fourth instar larvae of A. albopictus were investigated. The main components identified from each Salvia essential oils were as follows: spathulenol (38.73%) and caryophyllene (10.32%) from S. elegans; ledol (45.8%) and 4,4'-[(p-phenylene)diisopropylidene]diphenol (17.38%) from S. dorisiana; β-cubebene (22.9%), and caryophyllene (12.99%) from S. splendens Blue Ribbon; phytol (41.46%) and cyclooctasulfur (24.88%) from S. splendens Scarlet Sage Red. The essential oils of S. elegans and S. splendens Blue Ribbon had excellent inhibitory larvicidal effect against A. albopictus larvae, and their LC(50) values in 24 h were 46.4 ppm (LC(90) = 121.8 ppm) and 59.2 ppm (LC(90) = 133.0 ppm), respectively. These findings demonstrate that the essential oils of these Salvia species could be considered as the powerful candidates to bring about useful botanicals so as to prevent the resurgence of mosquito vectors.

  16. Association of folate and other one-carbon related nutrients with hypermethylation status and expression of RARB, BRCA1, and RASSF1A genes in breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirouzpanah, Saeed; Taleban, Forough-Azam; Mehdipour, Parvin; Atri, Morteza

    2015-08-01

    Dietary methyl group donors could influence the hypermethylation status of certain putative genes. The present study explored the possible associations of dietary intake of one-carbon metabolism-related nutrients with promoter hypermethylation status and expression of retinoic acid receptor-beta (RARB), breast cancer-1 (BRCA1), and Ras association domain family-1, isoform A (RASSF1A) genes in Iranian women with breast cancer (BC). The hypermethylation status was investigated in 146 dissected BC tissue samples using methylation-specific PCR. The expression level was evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. Dietary nutrients were estimated using a validated 136-item food frequency questionnaire. Expression levels of the genes were associated with the unmethylated status of related promoters (p associated with methylated RARB and BRCA1. Low intake of residual folate and cobalamin was correlated with the methylated status of RARB for subjects at 48 years of age. High dietary intake of riboflavin and pyridoxine was the only determinant of the methylated promoter of RARB at odds ratios (ORs) of 4.15 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.28-13.50) and 2.53 (95 % CI 1.14-3.83) in multivariate models, respectively. One-carbon nutrients most often correlated inversely with the methylation-influenced expression of RARB. Although high folate intake increased the chance of unmethylation-dependent overexpression of BRCA1 3-fold, cobalamin and methionine were inversely linked to methylation-mediated expression. Nutritional epigenomics less actively influenced RASSF1A. These findings provide new insights into and a basic understanding of the selective contributions of individual B vitamins on hypermethylation and methylation-related expression of RARB and BRCA1 in BC. Hypermethylation at promoters of RARB, BRCA1, and RASSF1A is associated with reduced transcript levels of the respective gene in primary breast cancer tissue samples. Dietary folate and cobalamin intake is inversely associated

  17. BluB/CobT2 fusion enzyme activity reveals mechanisms responsible for production of active form of vitamin B₁₂ by Propionibacterium freudenreichii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deptula, Paulina; Kylli, Petri; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Holm, Liisa; Kostiainen, Risto; Piironen, Vieno; Savijoki, Kirsi; Varmanen, Pekka

    2015-11-23

    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a food grade bacterium that has gained attention as a producer of appreciable amounts of cobalamin, a cobamide with activity of vitamin B12. Production of active form of vitamin is a prerequisite for attempts to naturally fortify foods with B12 by microbial fermentation. Active vitamin B12 is distinguished from the pseudovitamin by the presence of 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI) as the lower ligand. Genomic data indicate that P. freudenreichii possesses a fusion gene, bluB/cobT2, coding for a predicted phosphoribosyltransferase/nitroreductase, which is presumably involved in production of vitamin B12. Understanding the mechanisms affecting the synthesis of different vitamin forms is useful for rational strain selection and essential for engineering of strains with improved B12 production properties. Here, we investigated the activity of heterologously expressed and purified fusion enzyme BluB/CobT2. Our results show that BluB/CoBT2 is responsible for the biosynthesis of the DMBI base and its activation into α-ribazole phosphate, preparing it for attachment as the lower ligand of cobalamin. The fusion enzyme was found to be efficient in metabolite channeling and the enzymes' inability to react with adenine, a lower ligand present in the pseudovitamin, revealed a mechanism favoring the production of the active form of the vitamin. P. freudenreichii did not produce cobalamin under strictly anaerobic conditions, confirming the requirement of oxygen for DMBI synthesis. In vivo experiments also revealed a clear preference for incorporating DMBI over adenine into cobamide under both microaerobic and anaerobic conditions. The herein described BluB/CobT2 is responsible for the production and activation of DMBI. Fusing those two activities results in high pressure towards production of the true vitamin B12 by efficiently activating DMBI formed within the same enzymatic complex. This indicates that BluB/CobT2 is the crucial enzyme in the

  18. Performance characteristics of the ARCHITECT Active-B12 (Holotranscobalamin) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrigan, Stephen D; Owen, William E; Straseski, Joely A

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) is a necessary cofactor in methionine and succinyl-CoA metabolism. Studies estimate the deficiency prevalence as high as 30% in the elderly population. Ten to thirty percent of circulating cobalamin is bound to transcobalamin (holotranscobalamin, holoTC) which can readily enter cells and is therefore considered the bioactive form. The objective of our study was to evaluate the analytical performance of a high-throughput, automated holoTC assay (ARCHITECT i2000(SR) Active-B12 (Holotranscobalamin)) and compare it to other available methods. Manufacturer-specified limits of blank (LoB), detection (LoD), and quantitation (LoQ), imprecision, interference, and linearity were evaluated for the ARCHITECT HoloTC assay. Residual de-identified serum samples were used to compare the ARCHITECT HoloTC assay with the automated AxSYM Active-B12 (Holotranscobalamin) assay (Abbott Diagnostics) and the manual Active-B12 (Holotranscobalamin) Enzyme Immunoassay (EIA) (Axis-Shield Diagnostics, Dundee, Scotland, UK). Manufacturer's claims of LoB, LoD, LoQ, imprecision, interference, and linearity to the highest point tested (113.4 pmol/L) were verified for the ARCHITECT HoloTC assay. Method comparison of the ARCHITECT HoloTC to the AxSYM HoloTC produced the following Deming regression statistics: (ARCHITECT(HoloTc)) = 0.941 (AxSYM(HoloTC)) + 1.2 pmol/L, S(y/x) = 6.4, r = 0.947 (n = 98). Comparison to the Active-B12 EIA produced: (ARCHITECT(HoloTC)) = 1.105 (EIA(Active-B12)) - 6.8 pmol/L, S(y/x) = 11.0, r = 0.950 (n = 221). This assay performed acceptably for LoB, LoD, LoQ, imprecision, interference, linearity and method comparison to the predicate device (AxSYM). An additional comparison to a manual Active-B12 EIA method performed similarly, with minor exceptions. This study determined that the ARCHITECT HoloTC assay is suitable for routine clinical use, which provides a high-throughput alternative for automated testing of this emerging marker of cobalamin

  19. Vitamin B-12 status in infancy is positively associated with development and cognitive functioning 5 y later in Nepalese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvestad, Ingrid; Hysing, Mari; Shrestha, Merina; Ulak, Manjeswori; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Henjum, Sigrun; Ueland, Per M; Midttun, Øyvind; Fawzi, Wafaie; Chandyo, Ram K; Shrestha, Prakash S; Strand, Tor A

    2017-05-01

    Background: Poor vitamin B-12 (cobalamin) status is widespread in South Asia. Insufficient vitamin B-12 status has been linked to poor neurodevelopment in young children.Objective: We measured the associations between vitamin B-12 status in infancy (2-12 mo) and the development and cognitive functioning in Nepalese children 5 y later.Design: Vitamin B-12 status was assessed in infancy with the use of plasma cobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), and methylmalonic acid (MMA). At 5 y of age, we measured development with the use of the Ages and Stages Questionnaire, 3rd edition (ASQ-3), and cognitive functioning by using the Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment, 2nd edition (NEPSY II), in 320 children. In regression models, we estimated the associations between vitamin B-12 status, including a combined indicator of vitamin B-12 status (3cB12) and scores on the ASQ-3 and NEPSY II subtests.Results: All markers of vitamin B-12 status with the exception of plasma cobalamin were significantly associated with the total ASQ-3 scores in the multiple regression models. A 1-unit increase in the 3cB12 score was associated with an increase in the total ASQ-3 score of 4.88 (95% CI: 2.09, 7.68; P = 0.001). Increases in both plasma tHcy and MMA (indicating poorer status) were associated with a decrease in scores on the NEPSY II affect recognition and geometric puzzle subtests. Each unit increment in 3cB12 scores was associated with increases of 0.82 (95% CI: 0.49, 1.14; P < 0.0005), 0.59 (95% CI: 0.10, 1.09; P = 0.020), and 0.24 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.47; P = 0.035) in the affect recognition, geometric puzzle, and block construction scores, respectively.Conclusions: Vitamin B-12 status in infancy is associated with development and performance on social perception tasks and visuospatial abilities at 5 y of age. The long-term effects of poor vitamin B-12 status in infancy need further investigation in randomized controlled trials. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  20. THE STUDY OF CLINICO-AETIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF PANCYTOPENIA IN ELDERLY POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijayashree Thyagaraj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Pancytopenia is a common problem in clinical practice. Pancytopenia is defined as haemoglobin less than 9 gm/dL, total leucocyte count less than 4,000/dL and platelet count less than 1 lakhs/dL. Causes of pancytopenia vary from nutritional deficiencies, bone marrow failure status and malignancies. Pancytopenia is a common problem in geriatric population also. In this study, we try to find common causes of pancytopenia in geriatric population in a tertiary care hospital. MATERIALS AND METHODS 40 consecutive patients who are more than 60 years of age attending General Medicine Outpatient Department were included in the study. Pancytopenia due to acute infections like viral fever and sepsis were excluded. Patients suspected to be having malignancies like lymphadenopathy and hepatosplenomegaly were also excluded. These patients were subjected to detailed history taking and clinical examination. Routine investigations like complete blood count, peripheral smear, reticulocyte count, Coombs test, serum cobalamin levels, renal function tests and liver function tests were done. Bone marrow examination was done in cases where indicated. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and anti-intrinsic factor antibody and antiparietal cell antibody were done where indicated. RESULTS Out of 40 patients included in the study, 25 were males and 15 were females. 28 patients were aged between 60-70 years, 10 patients between 70-80 years and 2 were more than 80 years old. Mean age of the patients was 68 years. Fatigue was the most common symptom (70%, fever was seen in 15% cases, mild cognitive impairment was reported in 10% patients and bleeding manifestations were seen in 5% cases. Most common cause of pancytopenia was cobalamin deficiency (60%. Others causes were aplastic anaemia (7.5%, chronic liver disease (5%, myelodysplasia (5%, drug induced (2.5% and HIV associated (2.5% cases. In this study, we saw that most common of pancytopenia was cause of cobalamin

  1. Radio-isotopic assays of vitamin B12: interest of Kappa index in a multicentric study. Dosages radio-isotopiques de la vitamine B12: interet du test Kappa dans une evaluation multicentrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fourre, C. (Hopital de Bicetre, 94 - le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)); Guiraud-Vitaux, F. (Hopital de Montfermeil, 93 (France)); Labriolle-Vaylet, C. de (Hopital Saint-Antoine, 75 - Paris (France)); Colas-Linhart, N. (Hopital Beaujon, 92 - Clichy (France))

    1993-12-01

    Owing to the lack of a reference technique and of an international cobalamin (vitamin B12) standard, and the large discrepancy between laboratory norms, the authors performed a multicentric study to compare five RIA kits usually used. First, classical tests were used to evaluate the analytical performances of each kit. Results did not demonstrate any superiority of one kit over another. Secondly, B12 values were classified among three categories (low, normal and high) characterized by laboratory and then manufacturer norms. The concordance between these two ''judgments'' was evaluated with the Kappa coefficient. In addition, the Kappa index proved that the norms supplied by the manufacturer were better than those of laboratories. But mean Kappa coefficient established for each norm gave us an insatisfactory result. Third, clinical informations allowed to improve the classification of the patients. New limits were defined for each technique and should be tested further, routinely in each laboratory. (author).

  2. Klinik for demensudredning--110 konsekutive patienter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Peter; Ehlers, L; Abelskov, K E

    1997-01-01

    not; of these, 27 suffered from other non-dementia diseases and 31 were without dementia or other psychiatric or neurological disease. Thirteen patients with Alzheimer's disease were treated with tacrine. Four patients underwent cobalamin substitution treatment and seven started antidepressant...... medication. Ten patients received acetylsalicylic acid (150 mg Q.D.) and two a levo-dopa-type drug. Twenty-six patients were followed by gerontopsychiatric district care. Because only 47% of the patients suspected of dementia actually fulfilled dementia criteria, the evaluation suggests that patients......Case reports of 110 patients referred to a neurological dementia clinic were reviewed to evaluate a standardized diagnostic program. The patients were evaluated by a neurologist, a gerontopsychiatrist, and a neuropsychologist. ICD-10 criteria were used. Fifty-two patients had dementia while 58 had...

  3. Comparison of Recombinant Human Haptocorrin Expressed in Human Embryonic Kidney Cells and Native Haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furger, Evelyne; Fedosov, Sergey N; Lildballe, Dorte Launholt

    2012-01-01

    HC, that compared to native HC contains four excessive amino acids (…LVPR) at the C-terminus, showed subtle changes in the binding kinetics of Cbl, cobinamide and the fluorescent Cbl conjugate CBC. The recombinant protein has properties very similar to native HC and although showing slightly different ligand......Haptocorrin (HC) is a circulating corrinoid binding protein with unclear function. In contrast to transcobalamin, the other transport protein in blood, HC is heavily glycosylated and binds a variety of cobalamin (Cbl) analogues. HC is present not only in blood but also in various secretions like...... milk, tears and saliva. No recombinant form of HC has been described so far. We report the expression of recombinant human HC (rhHC) in human embryonic kidney cells. We purified the protein with a yield of 6 mg (90 nmol) per litre of cell culture supernatant. The isolated rhHC behaved as native HC...

  4. Mouse Transcobalamin Has Features Resembling both Human Transcobalamin and Haptocorrin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hygum, Katrine; Lildballe, Dorte Launholt; Greibe, Eva

    2011-01-01

    In humans, the cobalamin (Cbl) -binding protein transcobalamin (TC) transports Cbl from the intestine and into all the cells of the body, whereas the glycoprotein haptocorrin (HC), which is present in both blood and exocrine secretions, is able to bind also corrinoids other than Cbl. The aim...... (like human HC). Antibodies raised against mouse TC identified the protein in secretory cells of the submaxillary gland and in the ducts of the mammary gland, i.e. at locations where HC is also found in humans. Analysis of the TC-mRNA level showed a high TC transcript level in these glands and also...... of this study is to explore the expression of the Cbl-binding protein HC as well as TC in mice. BLAST analysis showed no homologous gene coding for HC in mice. Submaxillary glands and serum displayed one protein capable of binding Cbl. This Cbl-binding protein was purified from 300 submaxillary glands...

  5. Stability of 35 biochemical and immunological routine tests after 10 hours storage and transport of human whole blood at 21°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Linda O; Faber, Nina R; Moller, Mette F

    2014-01-01

    hospitalized patients, and analyzed on Architect c8000 or Advia Centaur XP for 35 analytes at base line, and after storage and transport of whole blood in lithium-heparin or serum tubes at 21 ± 1°C for 10 h. Bias and imprecision (representing variation from analysis and storage) were calculated from values...... at baseline and after storage, and differences tested by paired t-tests. Results were compared to goals set by the laboratory. RESULTS: We observed no statistically significant bias and results within the goal for imprecision between baseline samples and 10-h samples for albumin, alkaline phosphatase...... thyroxine, immunoglobulin A, immunoglobulin M, orosomucoid, sodium, transferrin, and triglycerides met goals for imprecision, though they showed a minor, but statistically significant bias in results after storage. Cobalamin, folate, HDL-cholesterol, iron, phosphate, potassium, thyroid stimulating hormone...

  6. IFPA Senior Award Lecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, A M

    2016-01-01

    : In most mammals, yolk sac and chorion form a choriovitelline placenta to support the early embryo, although this soon is supplanted by a chorioallantoic placenta. Human and haplorrhine primates follow a second pattern where precocious development of the extraembryonic mesoderm leads to formation...... by the syncytiotrophoblast of the chorioallantoic placenta. These include transfer of passive immunity, iron, cobalamin and lipoprotein; protein and lipid synthesis; haematopoiesis; and germ cell storage. Most mammals have a large, fluid-filled allantoic cavity. This is not the case in human and haplorrhine primates where......BACKGROUND: Fetal membrane development varies greatly across mammals with significant implications for models of human placentation. METHOD: Therefore the major patterns of fetal membrane development are reviewed with special focus on functions of the inverted yolk sac in murine rodents. FINDINGS...

  7. Long-term Outcome of 4 Patients With Transcobalamin Deficiency Caused by 2 Novel TCN2 Mutations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nashabat, Marwan; Maegawa, Gustavo; Nissen, Peter H

    2017-01-01

    active metabolites; methylcobalamin and 5-deoxyadenosyl-cobalamin. Deficiency of TC results in an elevation in methylmalonic acid and homocysteine. Patients usually present with macrocytic anemia, pancytopenia, failure to thrive, gastrointestinal symptoms, and neurological dysfunction. In this study, we...... report 4 patients from 2 unrelated families, with confirmed diagnosis of TC deficiency. Patients initially had a typical presentation of TC deficiency: severe diarrhea and vomiting, recurrent infections, stomatitis, macrocytic anemia, and neutropenia. Interestingly one of the patients was diagnosed at 3...... showed 2 novel mutations in TCN2 gene. Patients were treated and stayed stable on weekly injection of Cbl. In conclusion, TC deficiency has a wide heterogeneity in clinical phenotype, genotype, laboratory, and radiologic findings. Early detection of the disease and early initiation of aggressive...

  8. Recommendations for diagnosis and management of metformin-induced vitamin B12 (Cbl) deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazokopakis, Elias E; Starakis, Ioannis K

    2012-09-01

    Metformin treatment is a known pharmacological cause of vitamin B12 (Cbl) deficiency with controversial responsible mechanisms. A possible diagnosis of this deficiency is based mainly on the combination of patient's medical history (usually long-term metformin use), clinical examination (possible neuropsychiatric symptoms and signs), laboratory studies which confirm a Cbl deficiency (haematological abnormalities, low serum Cbl levels, elevated serum total homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels), and exclusion other causes of Cbl deficiency (as pernicious anaemia, food-cobalamin malabsorption syndrome, other drugs, etc.). In our review, recommendations for diagnosis and management of metformin-induced Cbl deficiency (MICD) in diabetic patients based on medical bibliography are presented and discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Seven enzymes create extraordinary molecular complexity in an uncultivated bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Michael F; Helf, Maximilian J; Bhushan, Agneya; Morinaka, Brandon I; Piel, Jörn

    2017-04-01

    Uncultivated bacteria represent a massive resource of new enzymes and bioactive metabolites, but such bacteria remain functionally enigmatic. Polytheonamides are potent peptide cytotoxins produced by uncultivated bacteria that exist as symbionts in a marine sponge. Outside glycobiology, polytheonamides represent the most heavily post-translationally modified biomolecules that are derived from amino acids. The biosynthesis of polytheonamides involves up to 50 site-specific modifications to create a membrane-spanning β-helical structure. Here, we provide functional evidence that only seven enzymes are necessary for this process. They iteratively catalyse epimerization, methylation and hydroxylation of diverse amino acids. To reconstitute C-methylation, we employed the rarely used heterologous host Rhizobium leguminosarum to invoke the activities of two cobalamin-dependent C-methyltransferases. We observed 44 of the modifications to systematically unravel the biosynthesis of one of the most densely modified and metabolically obscure ribosome-derived molecules found in nature.

  10. Anaemi - praevalens og ætiologi hos patienter indlagt på en geriatrisk afdeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Andreas James Thestrup; Skjelbo, Erik

    2008-01-01

    interval 51-71%) than among women (27%, 95% confidence interval 21-34%). 30 of the anemic patients (27%) had anemia listed as a diagnosis, including 14 with the diagnosis anemia without specification. A minority of anemic patients had measurements of serum ferritin (37%), serum iron (10%), plasma cobalamin......INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of anemia among acutely admitted geriatric patients, and among these patients to ascertain how often anemia is listed as a diagnosis, the distribution of these diagnoses and to compare the diagnostic approach to anemia...... with that suggested in the literature. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Age, sex and hemoglobin concentrations (hgb) were registered for patients referred to the acute geriatric ward of Odense University Hospital between 6/1/04 and 8/31/04. The prevalence of anemia was determined on the basis of the local laboratory's sex...

  11. Oxygen-Controlled Catalysis by Vitamin B12 -TiO2 : Formation of Esters and Amides from Trichlorinated Organic Compounds by Photoirradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimakoshi, Hisashi; Hisaeda, Yoshio

    2015-12-14

    An oxygen switch in catalysis of the cobalamin derivative (B12 )-TiO2 hybrid catalyst for the dechlorination of trichlorinated organic compounds has been developed. The covalently bound B12 on the TiO2 surface transformed trichlorinated organic compounds into an ester and amide by UV light irradiation under mild conditions (in air at room temperature), while dichlorostilbenes (E and Z forms) were formed in nitrogen from benzotrichloride. A benzoyl chloride was formed as an intermediate of the ester and amide, which was detected by GC-MS. The substrate scope of the synthetic strategy is demonstrated with a range of various trichlorinated organic compounds. A photo-duet reaction utilizing the hole and conduction band electron of TiO2 in B12 -TiO2 for the amide formation was also developed. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Involuntary movements after correction of vitamin B12 deficiency: a video-case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanus, Caterina; Alberini, Elena; Costa, Paola; Colonna, Franco; Zennaro, Floriana; Carrozzi, Marco

    2012-06-01

    Involuntary movements can appear before and after initiation of vitamin B12 treatment. The pathogenesis of involuntary movements in vitamin B12 deficiency and their relationship with cobalamin injection remain unclear due to a lack of video-EEG documentation making the electroclinical correlation difficult to ascertain. Here, we report video-EEG and neuroimaging findings of an 11-month-old girl with vitamin B12 deficiency, who acutely developed involuntary movements a few days after initiation of vitamin B12 treatment with normal vitamin plasmatic levels. Abnormal movements were a combination of tremor and myoclonus involving the face, mouth, and left arm, which disappeared after discontinuation of therapy. [Published with video sequences].

  13. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Pedersen, Lars; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been...... a database of laboratory test results covering the entire population. Data on cancer incidence (follow-up 1998-2010), Cbl treatment, and prior diagnoses were obtained from medical registries. Patients receiving Cbl treatment were excluded. Cancer risks were calculated as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs......) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by plasma Cbl levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 333 667 persons without prevalent cancer and not receiving Cbl treatment. Six percent had Cbl levels greater than the upper reference limit (≥601 pmol/L). Cancer risk...

  14. Clinical implications and biochemical understanding of high plasma vitamin B12 levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen

    2016-01-01

    Måling af plasma cobalamin (Cbl, vitamin B12) anvendes i klinisk praksis til at diagnosticere eller udelukke Cbl-mangel. Denne mangeltilstand kan give blodmangel og symptomer fra mave- tarmkanalen og nervesystemet. Veganere, ældre og patienter med sygdomme eller tidligere operationer på mave......-tarmsystemet er i særlig risiko for at udvikle Cbl-mangel, der normalt vil ses ved et lavt plasma Cbl-niveau. Men blandt patienter der får målt plasma Cbl er der mange der har et forhøjet niveau. Dette har tidligere været forbundet med sygdomme i leveren eller nyrerne samt med cancer, men der eksisterer en...

  15. The subunit structure of methylmalonyl-CoA mutase from Propionibacterium shermanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francalanci, F; Davis, N K; Fuller, J Q; Murfitt, D; Leadlay, P F

    1986-01-01

    5'-Deoxyadenosylcobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-CoA mutase was purified to homogeneity from Propionibacterium shermanii by a simplified procedure. The native enzyme has an apparent Mr of 165,000, similar to the enzyme from other sources but larger than previously reported. It consists of two non-identical subunits, of Mr 79,000 and 67,000 respectively. The smaller subunit is apparently not a proteolytic fragment of the larger one. The final preparation usually contained some inactive mutase, bearing a tenaciously bound cobalamin species. This protein proved to be readily separable from apoenzyme by fast protein liquid chromatography on anion-exchange columns. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. PMID:2875711

  16. Hypocobalaminaemia as a cause of bone marrow failure and pancytopenia in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, E L; Eatroff, A E

    2017-05-01

    A male Domestic Short-hair cat was presented for chronic weight loss, lethargy and hyporexia. Complete haematological examination revealed non-regenerative anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, as well as Howell-Jolly bodies, anisocytosis, polychromasia and macrocytosis on blood smear evaluation. Histopathological evaluation of bone marrow biopsy disclosed hypocellularity consistent with bone marrow failure. Concurrent hypocobalaminaemia was identified and treated with parenteral cyanocobalamin supplementation. Other differential diagnoses for pancytopenia, including infectious, toxic, immune-mediated and neoplastic causes, were ruled out. The cat's erythrocyte, leucocyte and platelet counts normalised after 2 months of cyanocobalamin supplementation, suggesting that pancytopenia may be a rare manifestation of feline cobalamin deficiency. © 2017 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Decreased level of epidermal growth factor in milk from diabetic rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thulesen, J; Nexø, Ebba; Raaberg, Lasse

    1994-01-01

    . Furthermore, the time of eyelid opening was delayed, but no difference in the time of tooth eruption was observed. Insulin-treatment of diabetic rats restored the milk volume and the EGF concentration to values comparable to those of the controls. Pups of the insulin-treated diabetic dams were comparable......Experimental diabetes was induced in rats with streptozocin before mating, and the influence of diabetes on epidermal growth factor (EGF) in milk and on other milk components was studied. Throughout the lactation period, a significant decrease was found both in the production of milk...... and in the concentration of EGF in milk from untreated diabetic rats compared with an insulin-treated diabetic group and a control group. Thus, the total output of EGF in milk from diabetic rats was considerably decreased. The concentrations of total protein and haptocorrin, a cobalamin (vitamin B12)-binding protein...

  18. Strand specific RNA-sequencing and membrane lipid profiling reveals growth phase-dependent cold stress response mechanisms in Listeria monocytogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hingston, Patricia; Chen, Jessica; Allen, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    -supply-chain. This study utilized strand-specific RNA sequencing and whole cell fatty acid (FA) profiling to characterize the bacterium’s cold stress response. RNA and FAs were extracted from a cold-tolerant strain at five time points between early lag phase and late stationary-phase, both at 4°C and 20°C. Overall, more...... required for branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) synthesis, the osmolyte transporter genes opuCBCD, and the internalin A and D genes. Genes suppressed at 4°C were largely associated with cobalamin (B12) biosynthesis or the production/export of cell wall components. Antisense transcription accounted for up...... provides new information regarding cold-induced membrane composition changes in L. monocytogenes, the growth-phase dependency of its cold-stress regulon, and the active roles of antisense transcripts in regulating its cold stress response....

  19. Cubilin P1297L mutation associated with hereditary megaloblastic anemia 1 causes impaired recognition of intrinsic factor-vitamin B(12) by cubilin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, M; Aminoff, M; Jacobsen, Christian

    2000-01-01

    Megaloblastic anemia 1 (MGA1) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the selective intestinal malabsorption of intrinsic factor (IF) and vitamin B(12)/cobalamin (Cbl) in complex. Most Finnish patients with MGA1 carry the disease-specific P1297L mutation (FM1) in the IF-B(12) receptor, cubilin....... By site-directed mutagenesis, mammalian expression, and functional comparison of the purified wild-type and FM1 mutant forms of the IF-Cbl-binding cubilin region (CUB domains 5-8, amino acid 928-1386), we have investigated the functional implications of the P1297L mutation. Surface plasmon resonance...... analysis revealed that the P1297L substitution specifically increases the K(d) for IF-Cbl binding several-fold, largely by decreasing the association rate constant. In agreement with the binding data, the wild-type protein, but not the FM1 mutant protein, potently inhibits 37 degrees C uptake of iodine 125...

  20. Vitamin B12 Metabolism during Pregnancy and in Embryonic Mouse Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira A. Moreno-Garcia

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12 (cobalamin, Cbl is required for cellular metabolism. It is an essential coenzyme in mammals for two reactions: the conversion of homocysteine to methionine by the enzyme methionine synthase and the conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA by the enzyme methylmalonyl-CoA mutase. Symptoms of Cbl deficiency are hematological, neurological and cognitive, including megaloblastic anaemia, tingling and numbness of the extremities, gait abnormalities, visual disturbances, memory loss and dementia. During pregnancy Cbl is essential, presumably because of its role in DNA synthesis and methionine synthesis; however, there are conflicting studies regarding an association between early pregnancy loss and Cbl deficiency. We here review the literature about the requirement for Cbl during pregnancy, and summarized what is known of the expression pattern and function of genes required for Cbl metabolism in embryonic mouse models.

  1. Transcobalamin II Deficiency in Four Cases with Novel Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sule Unal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Transcobalamin II deficiency is one of the rare causes of inherited vitamin B12 disorders in which the patients have characteristically normal or high vitamin B12 levels related to the transport defect of vitamin B12 into the cell, ending up with intracellular cobalamin depletion and high homocysteine and methylmalonic acid levels. METHODS: Herein, we describe the findings at presentation of four patients who were diagnosed to have transcobalamin II deficiency with novel mutations. RESULTS: These patients with transcobalamin II deficiency were found to have novel mutations, of whom 2 had the same large deletion (homozygous c.1106+1516-1222+1231del. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Transcobalamin II deficiency should be considered in differential diagnosis of any infant with pancytopenia, failure to thrive, diarrhea, and vomiting.

  2. Plasma folate as marker of folate status in epidemiological studies: the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drogan, D; Klipstein-Grobusch, K; Wans, S; Luley, C; Boeing, H; Dierkes, J

    2004-09-01

    Folate deficiency is often discussed as a potential risk factor for CVD and some cancers. Reliable assessment of folate status in large-scale epidemiological studies is therefore of major importance. The present study assessed the value of plasma folate (PF) compared with erythrocyte folate (EF) as a marker of folate status in 363 participants in the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam cohort. EF and PF, total homocysteine (tHcy), pyridoxine, cobalamin, creatinine, total protein and packed cell volume were determined; glutamate carboxypeptidase (GCP) C1561T, reduced folate carrier (RFC) G80A and methylenetetrahydrofolate (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms were analysed. Anthropometric measurements were taken and dietary intake was assessed with the EPIC-Potsdam food-frequency questionnaire. Comparison of EF and PF with factors that may modulate their concentrations was performed. Cross-classification of blood folates in quintile categories resulted in correct classification into the same or adjacent category of 75.5 % of all subjects. Age, BMI, pyridoxine and cobalamin, fruit and vegetable intake, and vitamin supplementation 24 h before blood draw were positively associated with EF and with PF. For tHcy an inverse association was found. Participants with the MTHFR 677TT genotype showed significantly elevated EF concentrations compared with those with 677CT genotype; EF and PF were more strongly correlated (r 0.78, P<0.0001) for participants with MTHFR 677TT genotype than for those with the 677CC or 677CT genotype. In summary, our present results indicate that plasma folate seems to be a suitable marker for assessment of folate status for use in large-scale epidemiological studies.

  3. High resolution melting analysis of the MMAB gene in cblB patients and in those with undiagnosed methylmalonic aciduria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illson, Margaret L; Dempsey-Nunez, Laura; Kent, Jana; Huang, Qiuying; Brebner, Alison; Raff, Michael L; Watkins, David; Gilfix, Brian M; Wittwer, Carl T; Rosenblatt, David S

    2013-01-01

    Isolated methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) results either from a defect in the mitochondrial enzyme methylmalonylCoA mutase (MCM), or in the intracellular conversion of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) into its active coenzyme adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl). Mutations in the MMAB gene affect the function of the enzyme ATP:cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase (ATR) and the production of AdoCbl. Measurement of MCM function in cultured patient fibroblasts, followed by somatic cell complementation analysis in cases where MCM function is decreased, has classically been used to diagnose the cblB cobalamin disorder. A patient with persistent MMA, who could not be diagnosed using traditional somatic cell studies, was subsequently shown by sequencing in a clinical laboratory to contain two variants in the MMAB gene. This observation brings into question whether somatic cell studies have failed to diagnose other cblB patients with mild cellular phenotypes. A high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) assay was developed for the MMAB gene. It was used to scan 96 reference samples and two cohorts of patients: 42 patients diagnosed with cblB by complementation studies; and 181 patients with undiagnosed MMA. MMAB mutations, including one novel nonsense mutation (c.12 C>A [p.C4X]), were identified in all members of the cblB cohort. Four patients with undiagnosed MMA, including the index case described above, were found to contain variants in the MMAB gene: c.185C>T (p.T62M), c.394T>C (p.C132R), c.398C>T (p.S133F), c.521C>T (p.S174L), c.572G>A (p.R191Q). Only the index case was found to have two variants, suggesting that somatic cell studies diagnose almost all cblB patients. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Reactivation of methionine synthase from Thermotoga maritima (TM0268) requires the downstream gene product TM0269.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Sha; Romanchuk, Gail; Pattridge, Katherine; Lesley, Scott A; Wilson, Ian A; Matthews, Rowena G; Ludwig, Martha

    2007-08-01

    The crystal structure of the Thermotoga maritima gene product TM0269, determined as part of genome-wide structural coverage of T. maritima by the Joint Center for Structural Genomics, revealed structural homology with the fourth module of the cobalamin-dependent methionine synthase (MetH) from Escherichia coli, despite the lack of significant sequence homology. The gene specifying TM0269 lies in close proximity to another gene, TM0268, which shows sequence homology with the first three modules of E. coli MetH. The fourth module of E. coli MetH is required for reductive remethylation of the cob(II)alamin form of the cofactor and binds the methyl donor for this reactivation, S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). Measurements of the rates of methionine formation in the presence and absence of TM0269 and AdoMet demonstrate that both TM0269 and AdoMet are required for reactivation of the inactive cob(II)alamin form of TM0268. These activity measurements confirm the structure-based assignment of the function of the TM0269 gene product. In the presence of TM0269, AdoMet, and reductants, the measured activity of T. maritima MetH is maximal near 80 degrees C, where the specific activity of the purified protein is approximately 15% of that of E. coli methionine synthase (MetH) at 37 degrees C. Comparisons of the structures and sequences of TM0269 and the reactivation domain of E. coli MetH suggest that AdoMet may be bound somewhat differently by the homologous proteins. However, the conformation of a hairpin that is critical for cobalamin binding in E. coli MetH, which constitutes an essential structural element, is retained in the T. maritima reactivation protein despite striking divergence of the sequences.

  5. Cob(I)alamin: insight into the nature of electronically excited states elucidated via quantum chemical computations and analysis of absorption, CD and MCD data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornobis, Karina; Ruud, Kenneth; Kozlowski, Pawel M

    2013-02-07

    The nature of electronically excited states of the super-reduced form of vitamin B(12) (i.e., cob(I)alamin or B(12s)), a ubiquitous B(12) intermediate, was investigated by performing quantum-chemical calculations within the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) framework and by establishing their correspondence to experimental data. Using response theory, the electronic absorption (Abs), circular dichroism (CD) and magnetic CD (MCD) spectra of cob(I)alamin were simulated and directly compared with experiment. Several issues have been taken into considerations while performing the TD-DFT calculations, such as strong dependence on the applied exchange-correlation (XC) functional or structural simplification imposed on the cob(I)alamin. In addition, the low-lying transitions were also validated by performing CASSCF/MC-XQDPT2 calculations. By comparing computational results with existing experimental data a new level of understanding of electronic excitations has been established at the molecular level. The present study extends and confirms conclusions reached for other cobalamins. In particular, the better performance of the BP86 functional, rather than hybrid-type, was observed in terms of the excitations associated with both Co d and corrin π localized transitions. In addition, the lowest energy band was associated with multiple metal-to-ligand charge transfer excitations as opposed to the commonly assumed view of a single π → π* transition followed by vibrational progression. Finally, the use of the full cob(I)alamin structure, instead of simplified molecular models, shed new light on the spectral analyses of cobalamin systems and revealed new challenges of this approach related to long-range charge transfer excitations involving side chains.

  6. Is Cholesterol Sulfate Deficiency a Common Factor in Preeclampsia, Autism, and Pernicious Anemia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Liu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In a recent paper, we proposed that a contributing factor in autism is a deficiency in cholesterol sulfate supply. In this paper, we investigate a link between preeclampsia and subsequent autism in the child, and we hypothesize that both conditions can be attributed to a severe depletion of cholesterol sulfate. Through studies on the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS database, we demonstrate a strong statistical relationship among the signs and symptoms associated with autism and those associated with preeclampsia, pernicious anemia, and serious adverse reactions to vaccines. We show that VAERS reports associated with symptoms typical of pernicious anemia produce both a set of symptoms that are highly correlated with preeclampsia and another set highly correlated with autism. We explain this observation via an argument that, in a severe reaction, the cascade of events subsequent to vaccination reflects a profuse production of nitric oxide (NO and consequential destruction of both red blood cells (RBCs and cobalamin. This may explain the diverse signs and symptoms associated with both preeclampsia and severe vaccine adverse reactions. We argue that excess NO synthesis, induced by the aluminum and antigen in vaccines, results in hemolysis of RBCs, which allows hemoglobin to scavenge the excess NO, converting it to nitrate. The NO is also scavenged by cobalamin, leading to its inactivation and contributing to subsequent pernicious anemia. Finally, we demonstrate that severe adverse reactions to vaccines can be associated with life-threatening conditions related to the heart and brain, as well as stillbirth, when the vaccine is administered to a woman in the third-trimester of pregnancy, as demonstrated by statistical analysis of the Gardasil records.

  7. The salmonella transcriptome in lettuce and cilantro soft rot reveals a niche overlap with the animal host intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goudeau, Danielle M; Parker, Craig T; Zhou, Yaguang; Sela, Shlomo; Kroupitski, Yulia; Brandl, Maria T

    2013-01-01

    Fresh vegetables have been recurrently associated with salmonellosis outbreaks, and Salmonella contamination of retail produce has been correlated positively with the presence of soft rot disease. We observed that population sizes of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium SL1344 increased 56-fold when inoculated alone onto cilantro leaves, versus 2,884-fold when coinoculated with Dickeya dadantii, a prevalent pathogen that macerates plant tissue. A similar trend in S. enterica populations was observed for soft-rotted lettuce leaves. Transcriptome analysis of S. enterica cells that colonized D. dadantii-infected lettuce and cilantro leaves revealed a clear shift toward anaerobic metabolism and catabolism of substrates that are available due to the degradation of plant cells by the pectinolytic pathogen. Twenty-nine percent of the genes that were upregulated in cilantro macerates were also previously observed to have increased expression levels in the chicken intestine. Furthermore, multiple genes induced in soft rot lesions are also involved in the colonization of mouse, pig, and bovine models of host infection. Among those genes, the operons for ethanolamine and propanediol utilization as well as for the synthesis of cobalamin, a cofactor in these pathways, were the most highly upregulated genes in lettuce and cilantro lesions. In S. Typhimurium strain LT2, population sizes of mutants deficient in propanediol utilization or cobalamin synthesis were 10- and 3-fold lower, respectively, than those of the wild-type strain in macerated cilantro (P < 0.0002); in strain SL1344, such mutants behaved similarly to the parental strain. Anaerobic conditions and the utilization of nutrients in macerated plant tissue that are also present in the animal intestine indicate a niche overlap that may explain the high level of adaptation of S. enterica to soft rot lesions, a common postharvest plant disease.

  8. Micronutrient Intakes and Incidence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Adults: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Farhadnejad

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between micronutrient intakes and the 3.6-year incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD in adults. This cohort study was conducted, within the framework of the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, on 1692 subjects, aged ≥30 years, without CKD at the baseline. Dietary intakes were collected using a valid and reliable food-frequency questionnaire. Anthropometrics and biochemical measurements were taken. Chronic kidney disease was defined as eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2. The mean age of participants was 43.3 ± 11.4 years. In the fully adjusted model, individuals in the top quintile of folate (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.24–0.80, cobalamin (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.34–0.93, vitamin C (OR: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.21–0.69, vitamin E (OR: 0.45, 95% CI: 0.22–0.92, vitamin D (OR: 0.39, 95% CI: 0.21–0.70, potassium (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.23–0.97 and magnesium (OR: 0.41, 95% CI: 0.22–0.76 had decreased risk of CKD, and in the top quintile of sodium (OR: 1.64, 95% CI: 1.03–2.61, subjects had increased risk of CKD, in comparison to the bottom quintile. No significant associations were found between the intakes of other micronutrients. High intake of several micronutrients including vitamins C, E, D, cobalamin, folate, magnesium, and potassium was associated with a decreased risk, while sodium was associated with an increased risk of incident CKD.

  9. Vitamin B12 deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery: preventive strategies and key recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Shounak; Soriano, Jose; Louie Cruz, Allan; Dasanu, Constantin A

    2013-01-01

    Advances in bariatric surgery have brought about a paradigm shift in the management of obesity, with benefits extending beyond weight loss. However, nutritional deficiencies are an inherent problem in the postoperative period and often require lifelong supplementation. Vitamin B12, also referred to as cobalamin, is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies affecting this population. This review explores the pathophysiology of cobalamin deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and provides an overview of the effectiveness of various available vitamin B12 formulations. To identify the relevant literature, a systematic review of MEDLINE was conducted from the earliest dates through September 2012 for English-language articles describing the prevention and management of vitamin B12 deficiency in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Intramuscular vitamin B12 continues to be the gold standard of therapy for vitamin B12 deficiency, especially in symptomatic patients. In select patients with asymptomatic vitamin B12 deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), high-dose oral cyanocobalamin should be given a consideration, especially when there are concerns with the adherence to intramuscular therapy or if compliance comes into question. Unlike patients post-RYGB, those undergoing restrictive procedures such as gastric banding and sleeve gastrectomy may be maintained postoperatively on a lower-dose daily vitamin B12 supplementation. Efficacy data of nasal and sublingual routes for maintenance therapy is currently awaited. Patients undergoing bariatric surgery must be continuously educated on proper nutrition, the risk of developing significant vitamin B12 deficiency, and the role of supplements in avoiding catastrophic consequences. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Increased MMA concentration and body mass index are associated with spontaneous abortion in Brazilian women: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra-Shinohara, Elvira M; Pereira, Perla M; Kubota, Ananka M; Silva, Thaiomara A; Reis, Jucilene L; Miyashita, Gerson S; D'Almeida, Vânia; Allen, Robert H; Stabler, Sally P

    2010-03-01

    The pathophysiology of spontaneous abortion is complex and may involve the interaction of genetic and environmental factors. We evaluated the predictors of spontaneous abortion in Brazilian pregnant women. The effects of age, gestational age, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol ingestion, use of multivitamins and concentrations of vitamins (folate, cobalamin and vitamin B6) and vitamin-dependent metabolites were analyzed. Study population included 100 healthy women that attended pre-natal care in 2 health centers of Sao Paulo, Brazil, and in whom pregnancy outcome was known. Folate and cobalamin status was measured in blood specimens collected between 4 and 16 weeks. The genotypes for 8 gene polymorphisms were evaluated by PCR-RFLP. Eighty-eight women had normal pregnancy outcome (Group 1), while 12 experienced a miscarriage after blood collection (Group 2). Increased methylmalonic acid (MMA) concentrations were found in Group 2 (median [25th-75th percentile]=274 [149-425] nmol/l) relative to Group 1 (138 [98-185]) (PMMA, cystathionine, body mass index (BMI), cigarette smoking, alcohol ingestion and use of multivitamins the risk of abortion was significantly associated with MMA (OR [95% CI]=3.80 [1.36, 10.62] per quartile increase in MMA), BMI (OR [95% CI]=5.49 [1.29, 23.39] per quartile) and gestational age (OR [95% CI]=0.10 [0.01, 0.77] per increase of interval in gestational age). Increased serum MMA and BMI concentrations are associated with spontaneous abortion in Brazilian women. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of a vegan population in Germany: results from the German Vegan Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann, A; Koschizke, J W; Leitzmann, C; Hahn, A

    2003-08-01

    Evaluation of dietary intakes and lifestyle factors of German vegans. Cross-sectional study. Germany. Subjects were recruited through journal advertisements. Of 868 volunteers, only 154 participated in all study segments (pre- and main questionnaire, two 9-day food frequency questionnaires, blood sampling) and fulfilled the following study criteria: vegan dietary intake at least 1 year prior to study start, minimum age of 18 y, no pregnancy or childbirth during the last 12 months. No interventions. All the 154 subjects had a comparatively low BMI (median 21.2 kg/m(2)), with an extremely low mean consumption of alcohol (0.77+/-3.14 g/day) and tobacco (96.8% were nonsmokers). Mean energy intake (total collective: 8.23+/-2.77 MJ) was higher in strict vegans than in moderate ones. Mean carbohydrate, fat, and protein intakes in proportion to energy (total collective: 57.1:29.7:11.6%) agreed with current recommendations. Recommended intakes for vitamins and minerals were attained through diet, except for calcium (median intake: 81.1% of recommendation), iodine (median: 40.6%), and cobalamin (median: 8.8%). For the male subgroup, the intake of a small amount of food of animal origin improved vitamin and mineral nutrient densities (except for zinc), whereas this was not the case for the female subgroup (except for calcium). In order to reach favourable vitamin and mineral intakes, vegans should consider taking supplements containing riboflavin, cobalamin, calcium, and iodine. Intake of total energy and protein should also be improved.

  12. Structural and electronic similarity but functional difference in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase between coenzyme B12 and the analog 2',5'-dideoxyadenosylcobalamin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calafat, A M; Taoka, S; Puckett, J M; Semerad, C; Yan, H; Luo, L; Chen, H; Banerjee, R; Marzilli, L G

    1995-10-31

    The cofactor analog 2',5'-dideoxyadenosylcobalamin (ddAdoCbl) differs from the natural cofactor coenzyme B12 [5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (dAdoCbl)] by lacking only one oxygen atom. The 1H and 13C NMR spectra of ddAdoCbl have been assigned unambiguously by homonuclear and heteronuclear 2D NMR techniques. The 1H, 13C, and 31P chemical shift values for ddAdoCbl were compared with those of another organocobalamin, namely dAdoCbl. This assessment shows that the analog is very similar both electronically and structurally to the natural cofactor. The effectiveness of ddAdoCbl as a cofactor for both the human and Propionibacterium shermanii methylmalonyl-CoA mutases was compared with that of the natural cofactor. ddAdoCbl was found to be a competitive inhibitor with respect to dAdoCbl. Similar binding affinities to both enzymes were found for both the ddAdoCbl analog and the natural cofactor. However, in the presence of ddAdoCbl, the rate of conversion of methylmalonyl-CoA to succinyl-CoA was only 1-2% of that seen with the natural cofactor. There were no changes with time in the visible absorption spectrum of the bound cofactor analog in the presence of substrate, suggesting that the Co-C bond was not cleaved. The CD (circular dichroism) spectra of dAdoCbl and ddAdoCbl are very similar, consistent with the NMR results. The CD spectral changes upon binding to P. shermanii methylmalonyl-CoA mutase are large compared to those reported on the binding of dAdoCbl to ethanolamine ammonia lyase. Furthermore, the CD spectra of both enzyme-bound cobalamins are very similar, suggesting that similar changes in the conformation or structure in these cobalamins occur on binding to the enzyme.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Production of Ectopic Gastric Intrinsic Factor in Gastric Mucosa of Humans with Chronic Gastritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, J. S.; Carmel, R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Ectopic expression of gastric intrinsic factor (IF) has been described in rodent models of chronic gastritis. Aims The current study undertook to determine if ectopic IF was also present in chronic gastritis in humans and might identify the process of ectopic protein expression as part of the response to chronic injury. Methods Archived biopsies from mid-body, angularis and prepylorus of 9 patients with and without chronic gastritis and food-cobalamin malabsorption were examined in a blinded fashion by immunocytochemistry as were biopsies from 5 normal subjects. Cells with ectopic IF were further examined with antibodies against pepsin or with Griffonia simplicifolia II (GSII) to identity cells in the mucous neck cell compartment. Results Ectopic IF production in non-parietal cells was identified in cells that were H+,K+-ATPase-negative but IF-positive in 7 of the 9 patients (6/9 in the angularis and/or prepylorus biopsies and 1/9 only in the mid-body). These included 5 of the 6 H. pylori-infected patients and all 5 patients with severe food-cobalamin malabsorption. No normal control subjects demonstrated ectopic IF. The cells with ectopic IF were pepsinogen-positive peptic cells and were not GSII-positive. Expression was most extensive in patients and gastric regions with inflammation. In all but one sample, ectopic IF was observed near anatomical mucosal junctions, such as antral/body and prepylorus/duodenum junctions. Conclusions These data in humans with and without gastritis are consistent with the hypothesis that local factors influence ectopic gastric IF expression, arising from either the anatomical location, the focal inflammation, or both. PMID:21567190

  14. {sup 1}H MR spectroscopy of the basal ganglia in childhood: a semiquantitative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, W.W.M. [Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Diagnostic Radiol. and Organ Imaging; Wang, Z.J.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Zimmermann, R.A. [Department of Radiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, 34th St. and Civic Center Blvd., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Zhao, H. [Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Berry, G.T.; Kaplan, P.; Gibson, J. [Division of Metabolism, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kaplan, B.S. [Division of Nephrology, The Children`s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    1998-05-01

    Proton MR spectra of the basal ganglia were obtained from 28 patients, 24 male and 14 female, median age 16.3 months (5 weeks to 31 years). They included 17 patients with normal MRI of the basal ganglia without metabolic disturbance (control group) and 11 patients with various metabolic diseases: one case each of high serum sodium and high serum osmolarity, cobalamin C deficiency, Leigh disease, Galloway-Mowat syndrome, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, hemolytic-uremic syndrome and Wilson disease and two cases of Alagille syndrome and methylmalonic acidemia with abnormal MRI of the basal ganglia or blood or urine analysis (abnormal group). The MR spectrum was measured by using STEAM. The MR-visible water content of the region of interest was obtained. Levels of myoinositol, choline, creatine and N -acetylaspartate were measured using a semiquantitative approach, with absolute reference calibration. In the control group, there was a gradual drop of water content over the first year of life; N -acetylaspartate, creatine and myoinositol levels showed no significant change with age, in contrast to the occipital, parietal and cerebellar regions. Choline showed a gradual decrease for the first 2 years of life and then remained fairly constant. In the abnormal group the water content was not significantly different. N -Acetylaspartate was decreased in patients with high serum sodium and high serum osmolarity, cobalamin C deficiency, Leigh disease and one case of methylmalonic acidemia. Decreased creatine was also found in Leigh disease, and decreased choline in Galloway-Mowat syndrome and Wilson disease. Myoinositol was elevated in the patient with abnormally high serum sodium, and decreased in the hemolytic-uremic syndrome. (orig.) With 3 figs., 4 tabs., 35 refs.

  15. Intramuscular Cobinamide Sulfite in a Rabbit Model of Sub-Lethal Cyanide Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Matthew; Kim, Jae G.; Mahon, Sari B.; Lee, Jangwoen; Kreuter, Kelly A.; Blackledge, William; Mukai, David; Patterson, Steve; Mohammad, Othman; Sharma, Vijay S.; Boss, Gerry R.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the ability of an intramuscular cobinamide sulfite injection to rapidly reverse the physiologic effects of cyanide toxicity. Background Exposure to cyanide in fires and industrial exposures and intentional cyanide poisoning by terrorists leading to mass casualties is an ongoing threat. Current treatments for cyanide poisoning must be administered intravenously, and no rapid treatment methods are available for mass casualty cyanide exposures. Cobinamide is a cobalamin (vitamin B12) analog with an extraordinarily high affinity for cyanide that is more water-soluble than cobalamin. We investigated the use of intramuscular cobinamide sulfite to reverse cyanide toxicity induced physiologic changes in a sublethal cyanide exposure animal model. Methods New Zealand white rabbits were given 10 mg sodium cyanide intravenously over 60 minutes. Quantitative diffuse optical spectroscopy and continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy monitoring of tissue oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin concentrations were performed concurrently with blood cyanide level measurements and cobinamide levels. Immediately after completion of the cyanide infusion, the rabbits were injected intramuscularly with cobinamide sulfite (n=6) or inactive vehicle (controls, n=5). Results Intramuscular administration led to rapid mobilization of cobinamide and was extremely effective at reversing the physiologic effects of cyanide on oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin extraction. Recovery time to 63% of their baseline values in the central nervous system was in a mean of 1032 minutes in the control group and 9 minutes in the cobinamide group with a difference of 1023 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI] 116, 1874 minutes). In muscle tissue, recovery times were 76 and 24 minutes with a difference of 52 minutes (95% CI 7, 98min). Red blood cell cyanide levels returned towards normal significantly faster in cobinamide sulfite-treated animals than in control animals. Conclusions Intramuscular

  16. Renal thrombotic microangiopathy in patients with cblC defect: review of an under-recognized entity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Bodo B; van Spronsen, FrancJan; Diepstra, Arjan; Berger, Rolf M F; Kömhoff, Martin

    2017-05-01

    Methylmalonic aciduria and homocystinuria, cobalamin C (cblC) type, is the most common genetic type of functional cobalamin (vitamin B12) deficiency. This metabolic disease is characterized by marked heterogeneity of neurocognitive disease (microcephaly, seizures, developmental delay, ataxia, hypotonia) and variable extracentral nervous system involvement (failure to thrive, cardiovascular, renal, ocular) manifesting predominantly early in life, sometimes during gestation. To enhance awareness and understanding of renal disease associated with cblC defect, we studied biochemical, genetic, clinical, and histopathological data from 36 patients. Consistent clinical chemistry features of renal disease were intravascular hemolysis, hematuria, and proteinuria in all patients, with nephrotic-range proteinuria observed in three. Renal function ranged from normal to renal failure, with eight patients requiring (intermittent) dialysis. Two thirds were diagnosed with atypical (diarrhea-negative) hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). Renal histopathology analyses of biopsy samples from 16 patients revealed glomerular lesions typical of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). Treatment with hydroxycobalamin improved renal function in the majority, including three in whom dialysis could be withdrawn. Neurological sequelae were observed in 44 % and cardiopulmonary involvement in 39 % of patients, with half of the latter group demonstrating pulmonary hypertension. Mortality reached 100 % in untreated patients and 79 and 56 % in those with cardiopulmonary or neurological involvement, respectively. In all patients presenting with unclear intravascular hemolysis, hematuria, and proteinuria, cblC defect should be ruled out by determination of blood/plasma homocysteine levels and/or genetic testing, irrespective of actual renal function and neurological status, to ensure timely diagnosis and treatment.

  17. Identification and Treatment of Pathophysiological Comorbidities of Autism Spectrum Disorder to Achieve Optimal Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Frye

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD continues to rise, no effective medical treatments have become standard of care. In this paper we review some of the pathophysiological abnormalities associated with ASD and their potential associated treatments. Overall, there is evidence for some children with ASD being affected by seizure and epilepsy, neurotransmitter dysfunction, sleep disorders, metabolic abnormalities, including abnormalities in folate, cobalamin, tetrahydrobiopterin, carnitine, redox and mitochondrial metabolism, and immune and gastrointestinal disorders. Although evidence for an association between these pathophysiological abnormalities and ASD exists, the exact relationship to the etiology of ASD and its associated symptoms remains to be further defined in many cases. Despite these limitations, treatments targeting some of these pathophysiological abnormalities have been studied in some cases with high-quality studies, whereas treatments for other pathophysiological abnormalities have not been well studied in many cases. There are some areas of more promising treatments specific for ASD including neurotransmitter abnormalities, particularly imbalances in glutamate and acetylcholine, sleep onset disorder (with behavioral therapy and melatonin, and metabolic abnormalities in folate, cobalamin, tetrahydrobiopterin, carnitine, and redox pathways. There is some evidence for treatments of epilepsy and seizures, mitochondrial and immune disorders, and gastrointestinal abnormalities, particularly imbalances in the enteric microbiome, but further clinical studies are needed in these areas to better define treatments specific to children with ASD. Clearly, there are some promising areas of ASD research that could lead to novel treatments that could become standard of care in the future, but more research is needed to better define subgroups of children with ASD who are affected by specific pathophysiological

  18. Evaluation of clinicopathological features in cats with chronic gastrointestinal signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gianella, P; Pietra, M; Crisi, P E; Famigli Bergamini, P; Fracassi, F; Morini, M; Boari, A

    2017-03-01

    Food-responsive enteropathy (FRE), idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and alimentary tract lymphoma (AL) are often the remaining differentials for cats presenting with chronic gastrointestinal (GI) signs. Differential diagnosis is further complicated by overlapping clinicopathological features and histopathological changes, however. In this study we describe the clinical presentation of cats with chronic GI signs secondary to FRE, IBD, and AL, and evaluate possible associations between clinical, clinicopathological, ultrasonographic findings and diagnosis. The medical records of client-owned cats with chronic GI signs secondary to FRE, IBD, and AL were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models and receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis were used for testing the data. Of the 56 cats included in the study, 22 were diagnosed with FRE (mean age, 70 months ± 49), 17 with IBD (mean age, 101 months ± 40), and 17 with AL (mean age, 122 months ± 45). Cats with FRE were younger and presented more often with diarrhea and less frequently with muscle wasting than cats with IBD or AL. In cats with AL, serum cobalamin levels were lower than in those with FRE or IBD (239 ± 190 ng/L vs. 762 ± 408 ng/L and 625 ± 443 ng/L, respectively) and folate levels were higher than in cats with IBD (18.2 ± 4.2 μg/L vs. 9.1 ± 4.7 μg/L, respectively). Multivariate/ROC curve analysis showed increased values of BUN (sensitivity 100, specificity 29.4, criterion >37 mg/dl) and serum folate (sensitivity 80, specificity 100, criterion >15.6 μg/L) and reduced values of cobalamin (sensitivity 100, specificity 62.5, criterion ≤540 ng/L), which suggested a diagnosis of AL versus IBD. Some clinicopathological features evaluated at diagnosis might suggest AL; however, because differentiating AL from IBD is often difficult, definitive diagnosis should be based on invasive diagnostic workup.

  19. Prevalence and mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia in elderly hospitalized patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salles-Montaudon, N; Parrot, F; Balas, D; Bouzigon, E; Rainfray, M; Emeriau, J-P

    2003-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine concentrations increase with age and remain an independent risk factor for vascular disease in the elderly. There are negative correlations between plasma homocysteine and serum folate and vitamin B12 concentrations. Two mechanisms, poor nutritional status, and chronic atrophic gastritis, could explain hyperhomocysteinemia. The purpose of the study was to determine prevalence and mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia in older hospitalized patients. During a 12-month period, all the consecutive hospitalized patients who underwent gastric endoscopy were recruited in this observational prospective study. Clinical, histological, and biological data concerning nutritional status, gastric analysis, homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate concentrations were collected during the study for each included patient. One hundred and ninety six patients (132 women and 64 men, mean age: 85.3 5.7 years) were included. Hyperhomocysteinemia (>or= 18 mmol/l) was diagnosed in 45.4 %, cobalamin deficiency in 13.3 %, and folate deficiency in 11.7 % patients. Hyperhomocysteinemia was significantly correlated to cobalamin deficiency (r = - 0.21; p = 0.005). In a sub group of patients without hypothyroidism, or chronic renal impairment, univariate and multivariate analysis showed a significant association between hyper homocysteinemia and low MNA (OR: 0.92; 95% CI 0.85-0.99), and low albumin (OR: 0.92; 95% IC: 0.83-0.99; p = 0.04). No correlation was found between homocysteine concentrations and chronic atrophic gastritis or Helicobacter pylori infection. Hyperhomocysteinemia seems to be frequent in the elderly and is associated with poor nutritional status rather than chronic atrophic gastritis.

  20. Safety and efficacy of allogeneic adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of dogs with inflammatory bowel disease: Clinical and laboratory outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Merino, E M; Usón-Casaús, J M; Zaragoza-Bayle, C; Duque-Carrasco, J; Mariñas-Pardo, L; Hermida-Prieto, M; Barrera-Chacón, R; Gualtieri, M

    2015-12-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have shown immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects in experimental colitis, and promising clinical results have been obtained in humans with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The aim of this study was to determine the safety and feasibility of adipose tissue-derived MSC (ASC) therapy in dogs with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Eleven dogs with confirmed IBD received one ASC intravascular (IV) infusion (2 × 10(6) cells/kg bodyweight). The outcome measures were clinical response based on percentage reduction of the validated Clinical Inflammatory Bowel Disease Activity Index (CIBDAI) and Canine Chronic Enteropathy Clinical Activity Index (CCECAI), as well as normalisation of C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, folate and cobalamin serum concentrations at day 42 post-treatment. The Wilcoxon test was used to compare variables before and after treatment. No acute reaction to ASC infusion and no side effects were reported during follow-up in any dog. Six weeks post-treatment, the CIBDAI and CCECAI decreased significantly and albumin, cobalamin and folate concentrations increased substantially. Differences in CRP concentrations pre- and post-treatment were not significant (P = 0.050). Clinical remission (defined by a reduction of initial CIBDAI and CCECAI >75%) occurred in 9/11 dogs at day 42. The two remaining dogs showed a partial response with reduction percentages of 69.2% and 71.4%. In conclusion, a single IV infusion of allogeneic ASCs was well tolerated and appeared to produce clinical benefits in dogs with severe IBD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody with specificity for holo-transcobalamin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fedosov Sergey N

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Holotranscobalamin, cobalamin-saturated transcobalamin, is the minor fraction of circulating cobalamin (vitamin B12, which is available for cellular uptake and hence is physiologically relevant. Currently, no method allows simple, direct quantification of holotranscobalamin. We now report on the identification and characterization of a monoclonal antibody with a unique specificity for holotranscobalamin. Methods The specificity and affinity of the monoclonal antibodies were determined using surface plasmon resonance and recombinant transcobalamin as well as by immobilizing the antibodies on magnetic microspheres and using native transcobalamin in serum. The epitope of the holotranscobalamin specific antibody was identified using phage display and comparison to a de novo generated three-dimensional model of transcobalamin using the program Rosetta. A direct assay for holotrnscobalamin in the ELISA format was developed using the specific antibody and compared to the commercial assay HoloTC RIA. Results An antibody exhibiting >100-fold specificity for holotranscobalamin over apotranscobalamin was identified. The affinity but not the specificity varied inversely with ionic strength and pH, indicating importance of electrostatic interactions. The epitope was discontinuous and epitope mapping of the antibody by phage display identified two similar motifs with no direct sequence similarity to transcobalamin. A comparison of the motifs with a de novo generated three-dimensional model of transcobalamin identified two structures in the N-terminal part of transcobalamin that resembled the motif. Using this antibody an ELISA based prototype assay was developed and compared to the only available commercial assay for measuring holotranscobalamin, HoloTC RIA. Conclusion The identified antibody possesses a unique specificity for holotranscobalamin and can be used to develop a direct assay for the quantification of holotranscobalamin.

  2. Erythromycin-resistant genes in group A β-haemolytic Streptococci in Chengdu, Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, W; Jiang, Y M; Wang, H J; Kuang, L H; Hu, Z Q; Shi, H; Shu, M; Wa, C M

    2014-01-01

    The management of Group A β-haemolytic Streptococci (Streptococcus pyogenes or GAS) infection include the use of penicillins, cephalosporins or macrolides for treatment. A general increase in macrolides resistance in GAS has been observed in recent years. Differences in rates of resistance to these agents have existed according to geographical location and investigators. To investigate the antibiotic pattern and erythromycin-resistant genes of GAS isolates associated with acute tonsillitis and scarlet fever in Chengdu, southwestern China. To assess the macrolide resistance, phenotype, and genotypic characterization of GAS isolated from throat swabs of children suffering from different acute tonsillitis or scarlet fever between 2004 and 2011 in the city of Chengdu, located in the southwestern region of China. Minimal inhibitory concentration with seven antibiotics was performed on 127 GAS isolates. Resistance phenotypes of erythromycin-resistant GAS isolates were determined by the double-disk test. Their macrolide-resistant genes (mefA, ermB and ermTR) were amplified by PCR. A total of 98.4% (125/127) of the isolates exhibited resistance to erythromycin, clindamycin and tetracycline. All isolates were sensitive to penicillin G and cefotaxime. Moreover, 113 ermB-positive isolates demonstrating the cMLS phenotype of erythromycin resistance were predominant (90.4%) and these isolates showed high-level resistance to both erythromycin and clindamycin (MIC 90>256 μg/ml); 12 (9.6%) isolates demonstrating the MLS phenotype of erythromycin resistance carried the mefA gene, which showed low-level resistance to both erythromycin (MIC 90=8 μg/ml) and clindamycin (MIC 90=0.5 μg/ml); and none of the isolates exhibited the M phenotype. The main phenotype is cMLS, and the ermB gene code is the main resistance mechanism against macrolides in GAS. Penicillin is the most beneficial for treating GAS infection, and is still used as first-line treatment. And macrolide antibiotics are

  3. How to select a proper early warning threshold to detect infectious disease outbreaks based on the China infectious disease automated alert and response system (CIDARS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiping; Jiang, Yonggen; Michael, Engelgau; Zhao, Genming

    2017-06-12

    China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC) developed the China Infectious Disease Automated Alert and Response System (CIDARS) in 2005. The CIDARS was used to strengthen infectious disease surveillance and aid in the early warning of outbreak. The CIDARS has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the CDC at all levels in China. Early warning threshold is crucial for outbreak detection in the CIDARS, but CDCs at all level are currently using thresholds recommended by the China CDC, and these recommended thresholds have recognized limitations. Our study therefore seeks to explore an operational method to select the proper early warning threshold according to the epidemic features of local infectious diseases. The data used in this study were extracted from the web-based Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System (NIDRIS), and data for infectious disease cases were organized by calendar week (1-52) and year (2009-2015) in Excel format; Px was calculated using a percentile-based moving window (moving window [5 week*5 year], x), where x represents one of 12 centiles (0.40, 0.45, 0.50….0.95). Outbreak signals for the 12 Px were calculated using the moving percentile method (MPM) based on data from the CIDARS. When the outbreak signals generated by the 'mean + 2SD' gold standard were in line with a Px generated outbreak signal for each week during the year of 2014, this Px was then defined as the proper threshold for the infectious disease. Finally, the performance of new selected thresholds for each infectious disease was evaluated by simulated outbreak signals based on 2015 data. Six infectious diseases were selected in this study (chickenpox, mumps, hand foot and mouth diseases (HFMD), scarlet fever, influenza and rubella). Proper thresholds for chickenpox (P75), mumps (P80), influenza (P75), rubella (P45), HFMD (P75), and scarlet fever (P80) were identified. The selected proper thresholds for these

  4. How to select a proper early warning threshold to detect infectious disease outbreaks based on the China infectious disease automated alert and response system (CIDARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiping Wang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background China Centre for Diseases Control and Prevention (CDC developed the China Infectious Disease Automated Alert and Response System (CIDARS in 2005. The CIDARS was used to strengthen infectious disease surveillance and aid in the early warning of outbreak. The CIDARS has been integrated into the routine outbreak monitoring efforts of the CDC at all levels in China. Early warning threshold is crucial for outbreak detection in the CIDARS, but CDCs at all level are currently using thresholds recommended by the China CDC, and these recommended thresholds have recognized limitations. Our study therefore seeks to explore an operational method to select the proper early warning threshold according to the epidemic features of local infectious diseases. Methods The data used in this study were extracted from the web-based Nationwide Notifiable Infectious Diseases Reporting Information System (NIDRIS, and data for infectious disease cases were organized by calendar week (1–52 and year (2009–2015 in Excel format; Px was calculated using a percentile-based moving window (moving window [5 week*5 year], x, where x represents one of 12 centiles (0.40, 0.45, 0.50….0.95. Outbreak signals for the 12 Px were calculated using the moving percentile method (MPM based on data from the CIDARS. When the outbreak signals generated by the ‘mean + 2SD’ gold standard were in line with a Px generated outbreak signal for each week during the year of 2014, this Px was then defined as the proper threshold for the infectious disease. Finally, the performance of new selected thresholds for each infectious disease was evaluated by simulated outbreak signals based on 2015 data. Results Six infectious diseases were selected in this study (chickenpox, mumps, hand foot and mouth diseases (HFMD, scarlet fever, influenza and rubella. Proper thresholds for chickenpox (P75, mumps (P80, influenza (P75, rubella (P45, HFMD (P75, and scarlet fever (P80 were

  5. [On the development of the infectology service in Novi Sad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canak, Grozdana; Vukadinov, Jovan; Brkić, Snezana; Svarc, Daniela; Ruzić, Maja; Kovacević, Nadica; Fabri, Milotka; Jovanović, Jovana; Klasnja, Biljana; Cvjetković, Dejan; Doder, Radoslava; Sević, Sinisa; Turkulov, Vesna; Stefan-Mikić, Sandra; Knezević, Koviljka; Aleksić-Dordević, Mirjana; Preveden, Tomislav

    2007-01-01

    Infectious diseases are a part of the history of this region. Devastating epidemics of plague, smallpox, and cholera were frequent during the 18th and the 19th centuries. Other infectious diseases were a serious problem as well: alimentary tract infections, scarlet fever, diphtheria, whooping cough. Geographic position, climate, migrations, as well as the tradition and lack of medical staff and medications, affected the frequency and outcome of infections. Patients with infectious diseases were first treated at home. Later, a hospital in Visarion street was opened as an isolation facility and a hospital for homeless patients. The development of science and the education of medical personnel exerted the greatest influence on the control and later treatment of infectious diseases. These measures resulted in the establishment of the first specialized medical institutions in Novi Sad during the cholera outbreak in 1884. After that, temporary pediatric units were organized for the treatment of scarlet fever, diphtheria and smallpox. A ward for infectious diseases was founded in the The Great City Hospital in the second half of the 19th century (1892). The 20th century was a period of control and eradication of infectious diseases in Vojvodina (smallpox, malaria, diphtheria, polio). Nowdays, major infectious deseases include respiratory, alimentary and parasitic infections. However, new diseases are being registered as well - hemorrhagic fevers, Lyme disease, HIV infection. The Infectologic Service in Novi Sad was developed from an Infectology Departement as part of the Departement of Internal Diseases in the new Provincial Hospital (1909) to the independent Departement for Infectious Diseases (1945). Today, Clinic of lnfectious Diseases is an integral part of the Clinical Center of Vojvodina. The Department of Infectious Diseases of the Faculty of Medicine in Novi Sad was founded in 1960. Undergraduate studies started in 1963/64 for students of medicine and in 1978

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family in three mosquito species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hong; Xu, Yongyu; Cui, Feng

    2016-09-01

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family functions in the ATP-dependent transportation of various substrates across biological membranes. ABC proteins participate in various biological processes and insecticide resistance in insects, and are divided into eight subfamilies (A-H). Mosquitoes are important vectors of human diseases, but the mechanism by which the ABC transporter family evolves in mosquitoes is unknown. In this study, we classified and compared the ABC transporter families of three mosquitoes, namely, Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus. The three mosquitoes have 55, 69, and 70 ABC genes, respectively. The C. p. quinquefasciatus had approximately 40% and 65% expansion in the ABCG subfamily, mainly in ABCG1/G4, compared with the two other mosquito species. The ABCB, ABCD, ABCE, and ABCF subfamilies were conserved in the three mosquito species. The C. p. quinquefasciatus transcriptomes during development showed that the ABCG and ABCC genes were mainly highly expressed at the egg and pupal stages. The pigment-transport relative brown, white, and scarlet, as well as the ABCF subfamily, were highly expressed at the egg stage. The highly expressed genes in larvae included three ABCA3 genes. The majority of the highly expressed genes in adults were ABCG1/4 genes. These results provided insights into the evolution of the ABC transporter family in mosquitoes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Aerobic decolorization, degradation and detoxification of azo dyes by a newly isolated salt-tolerant yeast Scheffersomyces spartinae TLHS-SF1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; He, Muyang; Song, Li; Fu, Xinmei; Shi, Shengnan

    2016-03-01

    Isolation, identification and characterization of a salt-tolerant yeast capable of degrading and detoxifying azo dyes were investigated in this study. Possible degradation pathway of Acid Scarlet 3R was proposed through analyzing metabolic intermediates using UV-Vis and HPLC-MS methods. Furthermore, the Microtox test was performed to evaluate the acute toxicity of the dye before and after biodegradation. The results showed that a salt-tolerant yeast named TLHS-SF1 was isolated and identified as Scheffersomyces spartinae basing on 26S rDNA analysis. The optimal decolorization and growth parameters were: sucrose 2 g L(-1), (NH4)2SO4 0.6 g L(-1), yeast extract 0.08 g L(-1), NaCl ⩽ 30 g L(-1), 160 rmin(-1), 30 °C and pH 5.0-6.0. More than 90% of 80 mg L(-1) 3R could be decolorized within 16 h under the optimal conditions. 3R was possibly degraded successively through azo-reduction, deamination and desulfonation pathways, and its acute toxicity obviously decreased by strain TLHS-SF1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Aerobic decolorization and degradation of azo dyes by growing cells of a newly isolated yeast Candida tropicalis TL-F1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liang; Ning, Shuxiang; Zhang, Xuwang; Shi, Shengnan

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the decolorization and degradation of azo dyes by growing cells of a new yeast strain TL-F1 which was isolated from the sea mud. Strain TL-F1 was identified as Candida tropicalis on the basis of 28S rDNA analysis. Various azo dyes (20mg/L) were efficiently decolorized through aerobic degradation. Meantime, the effects of different parameters on both decolorization of Acid Brilliant Scarlet GR and growth of strain TL-F1 were investigated. Furthermore, possible degradation pathway of the dye GR was proposed through analysis of metabolic products using UV-Vis spectroscopy and HPLC-MS methods. As far as it is known, it is the first systematic research on a C. tropicalis strain which is capable of efficiently decolorizing various azo dyes under aerobic condition. This work provides a potentially useful microbial strain TL-F1 for treatment of azo dye contaminated wastewater. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles with carboxymethyl cellulose for degradation of azo-dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Gang; Li, Yun; Wang, Zhengdong; Liu, Huihong, E-mail: huihongliu@126.com

    2017-02-01

    Palladium nanoparticles (PdNPs) were synthesized through friendly environmental method using PdCl{sub 2} and carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) in an aqueous solution (pH 6) at controlled water bath (80 °C) for 30 min. CMC functioned as both reducing and stabilizing agent. The characterization through high resolution-transmission electron microscopic (HRTEM) and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (XRF) inferred that the as-synthesized PdNPs were spherical in shape with a face cubic crystal (FCC) structure. The results from dynamic light scattering (DLS) suggested the PdNPs had the narrow size distribution with an average size of 2.5 nm. The negative zeta potential (−52.6 mV) kept the as-synthesized PdNPs stable more than one year. The PdNPs showed the excellent catalytic activity by reducing degradation of azo-dyes, such as p-Aminoazobenzene, acid red 66, acid orange 7, scarlet 3G and reactive yellow 179, in the present of sodium borohydride. - Highlights: • Green synthesis of palladium nanoparticles using carboxymethyl cellulose. • The synthesis of palladium nanoparticles were performed easily. • Carboxymethyl cellulose acts as both reducing and stabilization agents. • The as-synthesized palladium nanoparticles show excellent catalytic activity.

  10. EFEITO DO ESPAÇAMENTO SOBRE A PRODUÇÃO EM RABANETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MINAMI KEIGO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de diferentes espaçamentos entre linhas e entre plantas na cultura de rabanete (Raphanus sativus L., cv. Early Scarlet Globe, instalou-se este ensaio na área experimental do Departamento de Horticultura da ESALQ-USP, com semeadura em 2/9 e colheita em 10/10/94. Utilizaram-se seis tratamentos, sendo três espaçamentos entre linhas (15, 20 e 25 cm combinados com dois entre plantas (5 e 10 cm, quatro repetições, com parcelas de 1,5 m2, em um delineamento em blocos ao acaso. Avaliaram-se o número de plantas e a massa de raízes e de folhas por parcela e por planta, além da relação entre a massa fresca de raízes e de folhas. Os diferentes espaçamentos entre linhas não afetaram as variáveis avaliadas e, entre plantas, observou-se aumento na produção média de raízes por planta, redução na produção de folhas e maior produção de raízes por unidade de massa foliar, para o espaçamento maior entre plantas na linha (10 cm.

  11. Variation in carotenoid–protein interaction in bird feathers produces novel plumage coloration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes-Pinto, Maria M.; LaFountain, Amy M.; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Prum, Richard O.; Frank, Harry A.; Robert, Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Light absorption by carotenoids is known to vary substantially with the shape or conformation of the pigment molecule induced by the molecular environment, but the role of interactions between carotenoid pigments and the proteins to which they are bound, and the resulting impact on organismal coloration, remain unclear. Here, we present a spectroscopic investigation of feathers from the brilliant red scarlet ibis (Eudocimus ruber, Threskiornithidae), the orange-red summer tanager (Piranga rubra, Cardinalidae) and the violet-purple feathers of the white-browed purpletuft (Iodopleura isabellae, Tityridae). Despite their striking differences in colour, all three of these feathers contain canthaxanthin (β,β-carotene-4,4′-dione) as their primary pigment. Reflectance and resonance Raman (rR) spectroscopy were used to investigate the induced molecular structural changes and carotenoid–protein interactions responsible for the different coloration in these plumage samples. The results demonstrate a significant variation between species in the peak frequency of the strong ethylenic vibration (ν1) peak in the rR spectra, the most significant of which is found in I. isabellae feathers and is correlated with a red-shift in canthaxanthin absorption that results in violet reflectance. Neither polarizability of the protein environment nor planarization of the molecule upon binding can entirely account for the full extent of the colour shift. Therefore, we suggest that head-to-tail molecular alignment (i.e. J-aggregation) of the protein-bound carotenoid molecules is an additional factor. PMID:22832362

  12. Highly sensitive optical sensor that detects Hg2+ and Cu2+ by immobilizing dicarboxylate 1,5-diphenyl-3-thiocarbazone on surface functionalized PVA microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xue; Gu, Haixin; Hua, Zulin; Dai, Zhangyan; Yang, Bei; Li, Yulong

    2015-11-01

    A novel optical sensor to detect Hg2+ and Cu2+ is prepared by immobilizing a synthesized dicarboxylate 1,5-diphenyl-3-thiocarbazone (DDT) group on functionalized polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) microspheres. This optical sensor is successfully fabricated by extensive characterization with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Its colorimetric properties, selectivity, sensitivity, and reversibility are investigated as well. In this sensing system, DDT-PVA selectively recognized multiple heavy metal ions, as indicated by the changes in color from orange to scarlet for Hg2+ and from orange to gray for Cu2+. In particular, this optical sensor exhibits the most apparent color changes at pH levels of 12 and 2. Hence, Hg2+ and Cu2+ can be detected in aqueous solution at minimum detection limits of 0.053 and 0.132 μM, respectively, with a UV-vis spectrometer. Furthermore, the sensor can be regenerated by ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid and reused several times. Therefore, the optical sensor can detect Hg2+ because of its selectivity, sensitivity, and reversibility.

  13. American Medical Literary Firsts, 1700-1820, in the Countway Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Jane Q.

    1966-01-01

    A combination of two major collections, those of the Harvard Medical and the Boston Medical Libraries, took place at a formal dedication of the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine in May of 1965. As a result of this unification the historian may now consult many significant primary source materials in one research collection in Boston. Many of these works are early imprints of medical Americana. This paper discusses twenty-four imprints, from 1700 to 1820, which were firsts of their kind in American medical literature. Presented are the first American medical publication, book, pharmacopeia, mortality statistics, anatomical illustrations, transactions of a medical society, medical journal, textbook of obstetrics, medical dictionary, textbook of medicine, and official pharmacopeia. Also discussed are the first works in this country on smallpox inoculation, scarlet fever, pleurisy, public health, medical education, medical ethics, the history of medicine, surgery, epidemiology, smallpox vaccination, dentistry, meningitis, and psychiatry. An exhibit of these items in the Countway Library is planned for the spring and summer of 1966. PMID:5901363

  14. American medical literary firsts, 1700--1820, in the Countway Library.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, J Q

    1966-01-01

    A combination of two major collections, those of the Harvard Medical and the Boston Medical Libraries, took place at a formal dedication of the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine in May of 1965. As a result of this unification the historian may now consult many significant primary source materials in one research collection in Boston. Many of these works are early imprints of medical Americana. This paper discusses twenty-four imprints, from 1700 to 1820, which were firsts of their kind in American medical literature. Presented are the first American medical publication, book, pharmacopeia, mortality statistics, anatomical illustrations, transactions of a medical society, medical journal, textbook of obstetrics, medical dictionary, textbook of medicine, and official pharmacopeia. Also discussed are the first works in this country on smallpox inoculation, scarlet fever, pleurisy, public health, medical education, medical ethics, the history of medicine, surgery, epidemiology, smallpox vaccination, dentistry, meningitis, and psychiatry. An exhibit of these items in the Countway Library is planned for the spring and summer of 1966.

  15. Composition and diversity patterns of megafauna discards in the deep-water shrimp trawl fishery off Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, J A A; Pereira, B N; Pereira, D A; Schroeder, R

    2013-10-01

    Composition and spatial diversity patterns of retained and discarded catches in the deep-water shrimp (family Aristeidae) trawling fishery off Brazil were assessed by observers on-board commercial operations in 2005 and 2006. These trawls caught 19,440 kg and 180,076 individuals of which 76·0 and 65·2%, respectively, were discarded at sea. Finfishes represented 54% of the numerical catch but were almost fully discarded (98%). Crustaceans represented 40% of the numerical catch and were mostly retained (80%). The scarlet shrimp Aristaeopsis edwardsiana comprised approximately half of the retained catch. The remainder of the retained proportion comprised mainly the red giant shrimp Aristaeomorpha foliacea, the alistado shrimp Aristeus antillensis and small quantities of Argentine hake Merluccius hubbsi and gulf hake Urophycis mystacea. Discards comprised 108 species including 72 fish species, 19 crustaceans and 10 cephalopods. The large-scaled lanternfish Neoscopelus macrolepidotus was dominant in the discards, followed by the benthopelagic fishes Monomitopus agassizii, Synagrops bellus, Dibranchus atlanticus and Gadella imberbis and various macrurid species. This fishery was restricted to a limited bathymetric range (700-800 m), where discrete megafauna assemblages exist and may have been significantly affected. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2013 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. THE REGISTERING SYSTEMS FOR THE RADIATION NONDESTRUCTIVE CONTROL ON THE BASIS OF THE THREE-COMPONENT ORGANIC DYES SOLUTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Papechyts

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spectral properties of a number of three-component organic dyes of various classes solutions subjected to radiation by gamma and x-ray radiation are investigated. Based on the criteria for the selection of multi-component dye solutions for radiation defectoscopy (presence of dyes intense absorption bands in the visible region of the spectrum, good solubility in the selected solvent, no chemical interaction with each other and with the product of dyes radiation degradation, a significant difference in the rates of radiation degradation of dyes, low feding, it shows that the most promising solutions of the following pairs of dyes (one of which absorbs short-wave, the other – in the longer wavelengths of the visible spectrum: acid yellow fast light + acid green anthraquinone N2B, acid yellow fast light + acid bright blue G, trypaflavine + methylene blue, acid scarlet + methylene blue, uraninite + methylene blue, rhodamine 6G + acid bright blue G, eosin sodium + acid bright blue G, eosin sodium + acid green anthraquinone N2B, lanazol orange + acid bright blue G , lanazol orange + acid green anthraquinone N2B. 

  17. Cloning of the cDNA for a human homologue of the Drosophila white gene and mapping to chromosome 21q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haiming Chen; Lalioti, M.D.; Perrin, G.; Antonarakis, S.E. [Univ. of Geneva Medical School (Switzerland)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    In an effort to contribute to the transcript map of human chromosome 21 and the understanding of the pathophysiology of trisomy 21, we have used exon trapping to identify fragments of chromosome 21 genes. Two trapped exons, from pools of chromosome 21-specific cosmids, showed homology to the Drosophila white (w) gene. We subsequently cloned the corresponding cDNA for a human homologue of the Drosophila w gene (hW) from human retina and fetal brain cDNA libraries. The gene belongs to the ATP-binding cassette transporter gene family and is homologous to Drosophila w (and to 2 genes from other species) and to a lesser extent to Drosophila brown (bw) and scarlet (st) genes that are all involved in the transport of eye pigment precursor molecules. A DNA polymorphism with 62% heterozygosity due to variation of a poly (T) region in the 3{prime} UTR of the hW has been identified and used for the incorporation of this gene to the genetic map of chromosome 21. The hW is located at 21q22.3 between DNA markers D21S212 and D21S49 in a P1 clone that also contains marker BCEI. The gene is expressed at various levels in many human tissues. The contributions of this gene to the Down syndrome phenotypes, to human eye color, and to the resulting phenotypes of null or missense mutations are presently unknown. 56 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Histologic features of acute thrombi retrieved from stroke patients during mechanical reperfusion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Seong Hwan; Hong, Ran; Choo, In Sung; Heo, Ji Hoe; Nam, Hyo Suk; Kang, Hyun Goo; Kim, Hoo Won; Kim, Jin Ho

    2016-12-01

    The histologic features of thrombus may differ according to the stroke subtypes. However, in acute reperfusion therapy, fibrin-specific thrombolytics are used based on the assumption that all thrombi are alike. The histologic characteristics of thrombi were compared between patients with different stroke etiologies. Between April 2010 and March 2012, we analyzed thrombi retrieved from acute stroke patients during mechanical thrombectomy. All thrombi were analyzed using component-specific stains such as Martius scarlet blue for fibrins and immunostaining with CD42b antibody for platelets. The stroke subtypes were determined based on the Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. Among 36 patients, 22 were diagnosed with cardioembolism, 8 with atherothrombosis, and 6 with undetermined etiology. In arteriogenic thrombi, red blood cells were most abundant (56.9 ± 12.2%), and the platelets covered the fibrin layers or were localized at the edge or periphery of the thrombus. In cardiogenic thrombi, fibrin was most abundant (39.5 ± 13.5%), and platelets were clustered within the rich fibrin. Red blood cells proportion was greater in arteriogenic thrombi than in cardiogenic thrombi (p thrombi than in arteriogenic thrombi (p = 0.003). Of six patients with undetermined etiology, the thrombi in five showed histologic features and composition similar to that of cardiogenic thrombi. Acute thrombi showed different histologic features according to the stroke etiology. The distribution of platelets and proportion of red blood cells and fibrin were major distinguishing factors between stroke subtypes. © 2016 World Stroke Organization.

  19. Application of the laser spectroscopy techniques for analysis of pigments on paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komar, Katarzyna; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2005-09-01

    Techniques of laser emission spectroscopy such as LIPS and LIF are applied to identify pastels and pigments composition for the use in conservation of historical documents. The question of data reliable for pigment identification by these techniques is considered. For model samples made of the cotton paper of chemical composition corresponding to the historical ones, and coated with pastels of different colors the LIPS and LIF spectra are recorded. Samples are excited by the pulsed Nd:YAG laser operating at 355 or 266 nm. The reference Raman spectra are collected, too. Bands characteristic for the blue pigments: PB15, PB29; violet one PV16, and yellow PY 184 are identified exclusively by LIPS in agreement with literature. Also additives such as the barium white found in the Scarlet pastel, and ultramarine (Na8-10[Al6Si6O24]S2-4) with titanium white (TiO2) in the Phthalo Blue are identified, and confirmed by the Raman technique as well. The pigments anthraquinone (PR 168), isoindolinone (PY 110) and monoazo (PY 74) are not revealed. In the LIF spectra only a broad band centered at 612 nm and corresponding to anthraquinone (red pastel) can be clearly assigned.

  20. [Epidemiological situation of infectious diseases in Lvov and Cracow during and after World War I (until the year 1922)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Włodzimierz

    2009-01-01

    In Lvov and Cracow at the times of World War I, the infectious diseases such as tuberculosis followed by typhus fever, typhoid fever, dysentery, as well as scarlet fever, diphtheria, measles, whooping cough, smallpox, cholera and venereal diseases (particularly syphilis) posed one of the most significant and dangerous problems for inhabitants. Their increased prevalence was the result of deteriorating sanitary and living conditions of the city population. The spread of epidemic infectious diseases was enhanced by marching troops, migration of civilians and war prisoners, return of large groups of displaced people and demobilized soldiers after regaining independence in November 1918. Additionally, unfavorable epidemiological situation in Lvov deteriorated at the time of the war with Ukrainians (November 1918-April 1919) and Bolsheviks (July-August 1920). The control of infectious diseases was in the hands of regional local physicians who referred patients to hospitals, isolated homes, bath and disinfection institutions, and conducted vaccinations against smallpox. A decrease in infectious diseases prevalence and deaths to the prewar levels occurred in 1922.