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Sample records for scarifying

  1. Engineering development of a lightweight high-pressure scarifier for tank waste retrieval

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchell, B.K.

    1997-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program (RPD ampersand E) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area to investigate existing and emerging retrieval processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste inside underground storage tanks. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, seeks to provide a technical and cost basis to support site-remediation decisions. Part of this program has involved the development of a high-pressure waterjet dislodging system and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier. Industry has used high-pressure waterjet technology for many years to mine, cut, clean, and scarify materials with a broad range of properties. The scarifier was developed as an alternate means of retrieving waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks, particularly hard, stubborn waste. Testing of the scarifier has verified its ability to retrieve a wide range of tank waste ranging from extremely hard waste that is resistant to other dislodging means to soft sludge and even supernatant fluid. Since the scarifier expends water at a low rate and recovers most of the water as it is used, the scarifier is well suited for retrieval of tanks that leak and cannot be safely sluiced or applications where significant waste dilution is not acceptable. Although the original scarifier was effective, it became evident that a lighter, more compact version that would be compatible with light weight deployment systems under development, such as the Light Duty Utility Arm, was needed. At the end of FY 95, the Light Weight Scarifier (LWS) was designed to incorporate the features of the original scarifier in a smaller, lighter end effector. During FY 96, the detailed design of the LWS was completed and two prototypes were fabricated

  2. Engineering development of a lightweight high-pressure scarifier for tank waste retrieval

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatchell, B.K.

    1997-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program (RPD&E) is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy Tanks Focus Area to investigate existing and emerging retrieval processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste inside underground storage tanks. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, seeks to provide a technical and cost basis to support site-remediation decisions. Part of this program has involved the development of a high-pressure waterjet dislodging system and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier. Industry has used high-pressure waterjet technology for many years to mine, cut, clean, and scarify materials with a broad range of properties. The scarifier was developed as an alternate means of retrieving waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks, particularly hard, stubborn waste. Testing of the scarifier has verified its ability to retrieve a wide range of tank waste ranging from extremely hard waste that is resistant to other dislodging means to soft sludge and even supernatant fluid. Since the scarifier expends water at a low rate and recovers most of the water as it is used, the scarifier is well suited for retrieval of tanks that leak and cannot be safely sluiced or applications where significant waste dilution is not acceptable. Although the original scarifier was effective, it became evident that a lighter, more compact version that would be compatible with light weight deployment systems under development, such as the Light Duty Utility Arm, was needed. At the end of FY 95, the Light Weight Scarifier (LWS) was designed to incorporate the features of the original scarifier in a smaller, lighter end effector. During FY 96, the detailed design of the LWS was completed and two prototypes were fabricated.

  3. Hazardous waste retrieval strategies using a high-pressure water jet scarifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchell, B.K.; Rinker, M.W.; Mullen, O.D.

    1995-08-01

    The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance Program is sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Technology Development to investigate waste dislodging and conveyance processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, has proposed a baseline technology of high-pressure water jet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier as a means of retrieval of waste inside Hanford single-shell tanks. A testing program has been initiated to investigate system deployment techniques to determine appropriate mining strategies, level of control, sensor requirements, and address integration issues associated with deploying the scarifier by a long robotic manipulator arm. A test facility denoted the Hydraulics Testbed (HTB) is being constructed to achieve these objectives and to allow longer-duration, multiple-pass tests on large waste fields using a versatile gantry-style manipulator. Mining strategy tests with materials simulating salt cake and sludge waste forms will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of mining strategies, forces related to scarifier and conveyance line, and retrieval rate. This paper will describe the testbed facility and testing program and present initial test results to date

  4. Developing a scarifier to retrieve radioactive waste from Hanford single-shell tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Steele, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Radioactive waste is stored in 149 3,785 m 3 (million gal) single-shell tanks on the US Department of Energy's Hanford Reservation in eastern Washington. To minimize leakage as the tanks age, the free liquid has been pumped out, leaving concentrated solidified salt cake and sludge deposits. Now methods to dislodge and remove this waste are being developed so that the waste can be retrieved and processed for permanent storage. This paper presents research and development on ultrahigh-pressure water-jet technology to fracture and dislodge the wastes in these tanks. A water-based prototype scarifier with an integral conveyance system is being developed, and its performance demonstrated in a coupled analytical and experimental investigation. This paper describes experimental objectives and approach and results of the single jet experiments. Previous testing indicates that the method can be readily applied to salt cake waste forms; retrieval and conveyance of sludge and viscous fluid waste forms may present additional challenges

  5. Colour-Based Binary Discrimination of Scarified Quercus robur Acorns under Varying Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Jabłoński

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to predict the germination ability of acorns using their shape, length, diameter and density are reported in the literature. These methods, however, are not efficient enough. As such, a visual assessment of the viability of seeds based on the appearance of cross-sections of seeds following their scarification is used. This procedure is more robust but demands significant effort from experienced employees over a short period of time. In this article an automated method of acorn scarification and assessment has been announced. This type of automation requires the specific setup of a machine vision system and application of image processing algorithms for evaluation of sections of seeds in order to predict their viability. In the stage of the analysis of pathological changes, it is important to point out image features that enable efficient classification of seeds in respect of viability. The article shows the results of the binary separation of seeds into two fractions (healthy or spoiled using average components of regular red-green-blue and perception-based hue-saturation-value colour space. Analysis of accuracy of discrimination was performed on sections of 400 scarified acorns acquired using two various setups: machine vision camera under uncontrolled varying illumination and commodity high-resolution camera under controlled illumination. The accuracy of automatic classification has been compared with predictions completed by experienced professionals. It has been shown that both automatic and manual methods reach an accuracy level of 84%, assuming that the images of the sections are properly normalised. The achieved recognition ratio was higher when referenced to predictions provided by professionals. Results of discrimination by means of Bayes classifier have been also presented as a reference.

  6. Development of a multi-functional scarifier dislodger with an integral pneumatic conveyance retrieval system for single-shell tank remediation. FY93 summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; McKinnon, M.A.; Alberts, D.A.; Steele, D.E.; Crowe, C.T.

    1994-10-01

    The Underground Storage Tank Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) is evaluating several hydraulic dislodger concepts and retrieval technologies to develop specifications for system that can retrieve wastes from single-shell tanks. Each of the dislodgers will be evaluated sequentially to determine its ability to fracture and dislodge various waste simulants such as salt cake, sludge, and viscous liquid. The retrieval methods will be evaluated to determine their ability to convey this dislodged material from the tank. This report describes on-going research that commenced in FY93 to develop specifications for a scarifier dislodger coupled with a pneumatic conveyance retrieval system. The scarifier development is described in Section 3; pneumatic conveyance development is described in Section 4. Preliminary system specifications are listed in Section 5. FY94 plans are summarized in Section 6

  7. (FORSSK.) Webb. scarified with

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hours; this duration allowed the lifting of tegumentary inhibition affecting our seeds and gave the best percentages of germination. Fig.2. The effect of the different duration of chemical scarification with sulfuric acid on the germination of R. raetam. 3.3. The influence of the thermal conditions. The germination kinetics of R.

  8. Strategy to develop and test a multi-function scarifier end effector with an integral conveyance system for waste tank remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamberger, J.A.; Bates, J.M.; Keska, J.K.; Elmore, M.R.; Lombardo, N.J.

    1993-08-01

    This strategy plan describes a coupled analytical/experimental approach to develop a multi-functional scarifier end effector coupled with a pneumatic conveyance system to retrieve wastes from underground storage tanks. The scarifier uses ultra-high-pressure water jets to rubblize and entrain waste forms such as salt cake, sludge, and viscous liquid that can be transported pneumatically. The three waste types (hard, brittle, salt cake, viscous liquid, and deformable sludge) present increasingly complex challenges for scarification and pneumatic conveyance. Salt cake is anticipated to be the easiest to retrieve because (1) a theoretical model of hydraulic rock fracture can be applied to estimate jet performance to fracture salt cake, and (2) gas-solids transport correlations can be used to predict pneumatic transport. Deformable sludge is anticipated to be the most difficult to retrieve: no theories, correlations, or data exist to predict this performance. However order-of-magnitude gas-solid correlations indicate particulate wastes of prototypic density can be transported to a height of 20 m within allowable pressure limits provided that the volume fraction of the gaseous phase is kept above 95%. Viscous liquid is anticipated to be of intermediate complexity to retrieve. Phenomena that are expected to affect system performance are ranked. Experiments and analyses necessary to evaluate the effects of these phenomena are proposed. Subsequent strategies for experiment test plans, system deployment, and operation and control will need to be developed

  9. Cancer complicating chronic ulcerative and scarifying mucocutaneous disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, R.P.

    1987-01-01

    Skin affected by a burn cancer is scarred, ulcerated, and often appears as erythema ab igne clinically in adjacent skin. The latent period in burn scar malignancy is much longer for SCC than BCC. Malignant melanoma and various sarcomas are reported to arise in burn scars, too. The other extreme on the temperature scale can less often result in enough permanent acral damage that poor wound healing may eventually result in cancer, usually SCC. About 1% of patients with chronic osteomyelitis develop cancer, usually SCC in sinus tracts. As with tumors arising in burn scars and chronic leg ulcers of varied etiology, black patients are disproportionately overrepresented in osteomyelitic malignancy. In nearly all of the patients with radiation-induced skin cancer, concomitant radiodermatitis is present. As with burn scar and osteomyelitic cancer, x-ray related cancer has a long latent period. Similar to burn scar cancer, SCC predominates in osteomyelitis and occurs on the extremities. BCC, when it arises, is more common on the face and neck in burn- and radiation-induced tumors. Multiple tumors are frequent as is recurrence in x-ray malignancy. Mortality is high: one out of three to four patients with burn scar, osteomyelitic, and radiation cancer die of dermatosis-related malignancy. Recently, radioactivity-contaminated gold rings have been implicated in causing SCC. Carcinoma tends to occur in irradiated benign dermatoses whereas sarcomas tend to complicate irradiated malignancies. Stasis ulceration and anogenital fistulae may rarely lead to cancer, SCC in the former and adenocarcinoma in the latter. SCC can rarely develop in four related conditions (acne conglobata, dissecting perifolliculitis of the scalp, hidradenitis suppurativa, and pilonidal sinus) after a lengthy latent period; prognosis is poor with a high metastatic rate. 147 references

  10. Field Performance of a Winged Scarifier as a Function of Soil Compaction and Water Content Desempeño a Campo de un Escarificador Alado en Función de la Compactación y el Contenido de Agua del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Cholaky

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Initial soil conditions, operational aspects, and tool shape affect the efficiency of soil decompaction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of a winged scarifier as a function of soil compaction and edaphic water content. The experiment was carried out in a typical Hapludoll. Treatments considered two soil compaction levels: high (HC and low compaction (LC; and three soil water contents: wet (WS, humid (HS, and dry (DS with 9, 14, and 19% gravimetric water content, respectively. A split-plot randomized block design was applied. Tractive effort, disturbed area, tillage depth, specific resistance, and power were evaluated. Results showed that tractive effort was 17% greater in HC than LC, and in both cases HS was greater than WS and DS. The specific resistance in HC was equal to 8, 9, and 11 N cm-2 in WS, HS, and DS, respectively, and 7, 8, and 7 N cm-2 in BC in similar soil water contents, respectively. Tillage depth was low and irregular only in HC-DS. Specific resistance was not an adequate indicator of overall work efficiency because it does not consider the final soil physical profile. Overall work efficiency in HC was greater under HS conditions, while in LC it was greater under HS and DS conditions.El estado inicial del suelo, aspectos operativos y de diseño de las herramientas, influyen sobre la eficiencia de una labor de descompactación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el desempeño de un escarificador alado en función de la compactación y humedad edáfica. La experiencia se realizó en un Hapludol típico. Los tratamientos abarcaron dos niveles de compactación: alta (HC y baja (LC y tres contenidos de agua del suelo, mojado (WS, húmedo (HS y seco (DS, con 9; 14 y 19% de humedad, respectivamente. El diseño experimental fue en parcelas subdivididas en bloques al azar. Se evaluó esfuerzo de tracción, área disturbada, profundidad de trabajo, resistencia específica y potencia. Los resultados

  11. Direct seeding of Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.), lodgepole pine (Pinus Contorta Dougl. v. contorta) and Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb.), on scarified seed spots in southern Iceland, using various methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petursson, J.G. [The Icelandic Forestry Association, Reykjavik (Iceland)

    1995-12-31

    Field experiments were established to study the potential of direct seeding of Sitka spruce, lodgepole pine and Siberian larch in southern Iceland. Five seeding methods were tried; control, covered with gravel, covered with pumice, pyramidal indentations and plastic cone. Spring- and autumn planting of one year old planting stock was also carried out for comparison. The results after two growing seasons are presented. Overall germination was 11,3% the first summer and 19,0% the second summer. Lodgepole pine had significantly highest germination or 41,3%. Sitka spruce, having 26.8% germination, and Siberian larch having 22,6% germination did not differ significantly from each other. The seeding method plastic cone gave the highest germination for all the species used, or 50,3%. Seedling mortality was high after the first winter, except in the plastic cone where more than 80% of the seedlings survived. The number of spots having at least one living seedling after two growth seasons was high in all seeding methods for lodgepole pine or 76,3-95,0% and for Sitka spruce or 71,3-86,3%. This result was however mainly explained by seedlings that germinated in the current growing season. For Siberian larch the number of the spots having one or more living seedlings was low for other seeding methods than plastic cone which gave 68,8%. No difference was found in seedling height between the methods control, covered with gravel, covered with pumice and pyramidal indentations. Survival of planted seedlings differed between planting times. Spring planting (28/6) was found more advantageous for Sitka spruce and lodgepole pine, but autumn planting (3/10) for Siberian larch. When the seeding methods were compared with planting after two growth seasons, it can be concluded that the method plastic cone was the only method tried which was compatible with planting. 45 refs, 9 figs, 14 tabs

  12. Environmental and functional benefits and trade-offs of hot in-place recycling treatment techniques : final project report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Surface recycling is suitable for pavements with minor cracks limited to 25-50 mm in depth. Hot-in-place recycling (HIR) process includes drying and heating the upper layers, scarifying the soft asphalt, mixing the scarified material with a rejuvenat...

  13. Lattice Boltzmann method fundamentals and engineering applications with computer codes

    CERN Document Server

    Mohamad, A A

    2014-01-01

    Introducing the Lattice Boltzmann Method in a readable manner, this book provides detailed examples with complete computer codes. It avoids the most complicated mathematics and physics without scarifying the basic fundamentals of the method.

  14. Potential effects of arboreal and terrestrial avian dispersers on seed dormancy, seed germination and seedling establishment in Ormosia (Papilionoideae) species in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Mercedes S.

    2008-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of arboreal or terrestrial birds at dispersing seeds of Ormosia macrocalyx and O. bopiensis (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae) were studied in south-eastern Peru. Seeds of both species were either scarified, to represent seed condition after dispersal by terrestrial birds, or left intact, to represent seed condition after dispersal by arboreal birds. Seeds were distributed along forest transects, and germination, seedling development and mortality were monitored to determine the successes of the two groups at producing seedlings. Scarified seeds germinated with the early rains of the dry-to-wet-season transition, when erratic rainfall was interspersed with long dry spells. Intact seeds germinated 30 d later when the rain was more plentiful and regular. Intact seeds of O. macrocalyx gave rise to significantly more seedlings (41.1% vs. 25.5%) than did scarified seeds, in part, because significantly more seedlings from scarified seeds (n = 20) than from intact seeds (n = 3) died from desiccation when their radicles failed to enter the dry ground present during the dry-to-wet-season transition. Also, seedlings from scarified seeds were neither larger nor more robust than those from intact seeds despite their longer growing period. Results are consistent with the hypothesis that dispersal effectiveness of arboreal birds, at least for O. macrocalyx, is greater than that of terrestrial birds. Screen-house experiments in which seedlings developed under different watering regimes supported this result. Numbers of seedlings developing from intact and scarified seeds of O. bopiensis did not differ significantly.

  15. Sulfuric acid and hot water treatments enhance ex vitro and in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seeds of Hibiscus dasycalyx S. F. Blake and Shiller, a federally listed candidate endangered species and native to North America and two variants of Hibiscus acetosella Welw. ex. Hiern were scarified using sulfuric acid and hot water. The effects of the scarification methods on in vitro and ex vitro germination in both ...

  16. Effect of pre-sowing treatments on seed germination and seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pre-sowing treatments were evaluated for Tetracarpidium conophorum. Mechanically scarified T. conophorum seeds soaked in indole acetic acid for 24 h yielded 90% seed germination. Smoked- and sun-dried seeds for 14 days yielded 73 and 33.3% seed germination, respectively. Poorest values were obtained from acid ...

  17. Antibiotic Treatment of Blister Rust Cankers in Eastern White Pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Phelps; Ray Weber

    1970-01-01

    Cycloheximide (Acti-dione) and Phytoactin antibiotics, applied as basal stem treatments, aerial spray treatments, and complete foliar drenches were not effective in controlling blister rust cankers in eastern white pine. Cycloheximide was effective in suppressing canker activity and growth if directly applied to scarified cankers.

  18. Soil tillage practices and crops rotations effects on yields and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methodology and Results: Three soil tillage practices in main plot (T1 = no tillage with direct sowing, T2 = minimum tillage by soil scarifying with IR12 tool and T3 = conventional tillage with animals drawn plough) were compared and combined to four crops rotation systems, in a split-plot experimental design. Soil chemical ...

  19. Language, History and Culture in Bessie Head's "a Question of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Through the interrelationship between language culture and history we have established homosexuality and other forms of perversions in Bessie Head's A Question of Power; Sethe's infanticide in Toni Morrison's Beloved, and Amoo's murder of his wife and his scarifying of his daughter in Sembéne Ousmane's Tribal Marks.

  20. Ga 3 -Mediated Dormancy Alleviation In The Reputed African Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the ex vitro experiment, intact seeds were sown and left to germinate in a potting soil mix under greenhouse conditions. Results: Highest levels of germination (36.7-60.0% in the light and 36.7-46.7% in the dark) were achieved by treating mechanically scarified seeds with GA3 at various concentrations for 24 h. This was ...

  1. Boiled, tumbled, burned, and heated: Seed scarification techniques for Munro's globemallow appropriate for large-scale application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olga A. Kildisheva; R. Kasten Dumroese; Anthony S. Davis

    2013-01-01

    Physically dormant seeds of Munro's globemallow (Sphaeralcea munroana (Douglas) Spach [Malvaceae]) were scarified by boiling, tumbling, burning, dry-heating, and burning + heating treatments in an attempt to find an effective, operational, largescale treatment for nurseries and restoration activities. Results indicate that out of the tested treatments, seed...

  2. Evaluation of thermal, chemical, and mechanical seed scarification methods for 4 Great Basin lupine species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covy D. Jones; Mikel R. Stevens; Von D. Jolley; Bryan G. Hopkins; Scott L. Jensen; Dave Turner; Jason M. Stettler

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of most Great Basin lupine (Lupinus spp. [Fabaceae]) species are physically dormant and thus, difficult to establish in uniform stands in seed production fields. We designed this study to examine 5 seed scarification techniques, each with 11 levels of application (including a non-scarified control), to reduce the physical seed dormancy of longspur lupine...

  3. SAR-aided method for rural soil evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay-Ekuakille, Aime; Dellisanti, Carmelo; Pelillo, Vincenza; Tralli, Francesco

    2003-03-01

    The principal land characteristics that can be estimated by means of airphoto interpretation are bedrock type, landform, soil texture, site drainage conditions, susceptibility to flooding, and depth of unconsolidated materials over bedrock. In addition, the slope of the land surface can be estimated by airphoto interpretation and measured by phptpgrammetric methods. The aim of this paper is to show an experimental use of satellite images in determining soil quality affected by anthropic activities as rock crushing, or scarifying. Scarifying activities began, in Murgia area, Apulia Region, Italy), as land improvement for agriculture uses. Scarifying is defined as loosening (the surface of soil) by using an agricultural tool or a machine with prongs. This kind of activity is facilitated by the availability, on the market, of scarifying machines and the objective is to get a stratum of agriculture-useful loose material on the soil surface. Apulia Region Government has permitted calcareous stone scarifying with Regional Law n.54 (August 31, 1981) according to National Law n.984 (Dicember 27,1977), that provides for encouraging to transform grazing in sown land in order to create new possibility of forage production to increase zootecnical facilities. We have used ERS-2/SAR images as contribution in the process of soil characterization.The area we have considered is in Puglia Region and is subject to soil transformation due to rocks crushed on land for agricultural facilities. European Union, through the same Apulia Region Government, has renewed funds for the improvement of meadow and grazing for an overall surface of 2000 hectares. In this way it is clear to understand the importance of qualitative and quantitative evaluation of rock crushing or scarifying by using airphoto interpretation. We have evaluated the soil quality by introducing a multicriteria, analysis by using a qualitative and quantitative methodology, so that it will be possible to prevent damages on

  4. Untitled

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation de la germination physiologique. L'évaluation de la germination physiologique a été ef- fectuée au laboratoire en plaçant les graine en prove- nance du Nicaragua et du Kenya (entières, scarifiées, décortiquées) dans les bêchers de marque pyrex, de capacité 250ml. Dans ces bêchers, le papier filtre était. 200.

  5. Impacts of Scarification and Degermination on the Expansion Characteristics of Select Quinoa Varieties during Extrusion Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwi, Nicole A; Gu, Bon-Jae; Dhumal, Gaurav S; Medina-Meza, Ilce G; Murphy, Kevin M; Ganjyal, Girish M

    2016-12-01

    Extrusion of 2 quinoa varieties, Cherry Vanilla and Black (scarified and unscarified) and a mixed quinoa variety, Bolivian Royal (scarified and degermed) were studied for their extrusion characteristics. A corotating twin-screw extruder with a 3 mm round die was used. Feed moisture contents of 15%, 20%, and 25% (wet basis) were studied. The extruder barrel temperature was kept constant at 140 °C and screw speeds were varied from 100, 150, and 200 revolutions per minutes. Process responses (specific mechanical energy, back pressure, and torque) and product responses (expansion ratio, unit density, and water absorption index/water solubility index) were evaluated. The degermed Bolivian Royal showed the highest expansion in comparison to all other varieties, attributed to its significantly low levels of fat, fiber, and protein. The scarified Cherry Vanilla resulted in the lowest expansion ratio. This was attributed to the increase in the protein content from the removal of the outer layer. The results indicate that all the varieties performed differently in the extrusion process due to their modification processes as well as the individual variety characteristics. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Germination of tropical forage seeds stored for six years in ambient and controlled temperature and humidity conditions in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D. Hare

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The germination performances of fresh seed lots were determined for 5 tropical forage species: Mulato II hybrid brachiaria [Urochloa ruziziensis (syn. Brachiaria ruziziensis x U. decumbens (syn. B. decumbens x U. brizantha (syn. B. brizantha], Mombasa guinea [Megathyrsus maximus (syn. Panicum maximum], Tanzania guinea [M. maximus (syn. P. maximum], Ubon paspalum (Paspalum atratum and Ubon stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis, stored under ambient conditions in Thailand (mean monthly temperatures 23‒34 ºC; mean monthly relative humidity 40‒92% or in a cool room (18‒20 ºC and 50% relative humidity for up to 6 years. The first paper of this study showed all seeds, except unscarified Ubon stylo seed, were dead after a single year of storage in ambient conditions. This second paper shows that cool-room storage extended seed viability, but performance varied considerably between species. Germination percentage under laboratory conditions declined to below 50%, after 3 years storage for Mombasa guinea seed and Tanzania guinea seed, 4 years for Ubon paspalum seed and 4‒5 years for Mulato II seed. Ubon stylo seed maintained high germination for 5 years, in both cool-room storage (96% and ambient-room storage (84%. Apparent embryo dormancy in acid-scarified Mulato II seed steadily increased with time in cool-storage and this seed had to be acid-scarified again each year at the time of germination testing to overcome dormancy. Physical dormancy of Mulato II seeds, imposed by the tightly bound lemma and palea in unscarified seed, was not overcome by length of time in cool-storage and these seeds had to be acid-scarified to induce germination. Hardseeded percentage in Ubon stylo seed remained high throughout the study and could be overcome only by acid-scarification. The difficulties of maintaining acceptable seed germination percentages when storing forage seeds in the humid tropics are discussed.

  7. Viabilité et vieillissement des semences d'arganier (Arganiaspinosa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Des semences de six génotypes de pieds-mères différents ont été traitées au froid (4 °C) pendant un mois, scarifiées et traitées à l'acide gibbérellique (GA3) pendant 24 heures avant leur mise en germination en présence de la lumière. La viabilité des semences a significativement diminué avec le vieillissement des ...

  8. Abrasive-waterjet cutting of thick concrete and waterjet cleaning for nuclear facility decommissioning and decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echert, D.C.; Hashish, M.; Marvin, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Two tools have been developed for use by the nuclear industry: the Deep Kerf tool and the Cleaner/Scarifier tool. The Deep Kerf tool is designed to cut through thick, reinforced concrete structures to facilitate their decommissioning. It employs the abrasive-waterjet (AWJ) cutting technology. The basis of the system is a rotary nozzle that makes a slot in the concrete wide enough to accommodate the cutting tool as it advances. In this program, concrete as thick as 1.5 m was cut through from one side. A shroud and vacuum system covers the opening of the slot during cutting to contain the spoils with greater than 99% efficiency. The Cleaner/Scarifier tool was designed for removing the surface layers of contaminated concrete and decontaminating metal surfaces. It uses ultrahigh-pressure waterjets mounted on a rotating arm to remove or clean the target surface. Spoils recovery with a shroud and vacuum system is over 99% complete for both horizontal and vertical surfaces

  9. Fate of native and introduced seeds consumed by captive white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari, Link 1795 and Pecari tajacu, Linnaeus 1758 in the Atlantic rainforest, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Lazure

    Full Text Available We studied the role of white-lipped and collared peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu as seed predators and dispersers in the Atlantic rainforest of Brazil. The Atlantic rainforest ecosystem is highly threatened and has experienced dramatic declines in its populations of large mammals. Local extinctions can disrupt essential plant-animal interactions such as seed dispersion and seed predation. We tracked seeds from time of consumption to germination to assess the direct impact peccaries have on seed survival. We offered fruits of 20 species found in the Atlantic rainforest to the peccaries. Seeds were categorised as intact, scarified, ingested or defecated, and germination tests were performed. The overall impact by both peccary species was similar. Seeds were sometime scarified by mastication, always with fatal consequences. Most seeds that were consumed were destroyed during ingestion and digestion. Only small seeds (<10 mm were found in the feces and germination tests suggest a positive effect from the passage through the guts. Peccaries clearly have a double role as both seed predators and as small seeds dispersers, which is a specialised role within the granivore/frugivore community of the Atlantic rainforest.

  10. Machine site preparation improves seedling performance on a high-elevation site in southwest Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNabb, D.H.; Baker-Katz, K.; Tesch, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) seedlings planted on areas receiving one of four site-preparation treatments (scarify, scarify/till, soil removal, and soil removal/till) and on unprepared control areas were compared for 5 yr at a high-elevation, nutrient-poor site in the western Siskiyou Mountains of southwest Oregon. Fifth-year survival of seedlings was at least 85% among machine-prepared plots, compared to 42% on control plots. Cover of competing vegetation remained less than 25% during the period for all machine treatments. In contrast, vegetation cover on control plots was 30% at the time of planting and increased to nearly 75% after 5 yr. Competing vegetation clearly impeded seedling performance. The effects of unusually droughty conditions at the time of planting in 1982 were examined further by interplanting additional seedlings in the soil-removal treatment in 1985. The interplanting was followed by more normal spring precipitation, and seedlings grew better over 5 yr than those planted in 1982. The slow recovery of competing vegetation and generally poor seedling growth on all treatments during both planting years are attributed to low soil fertility

  11. Spray Lakes reclamation project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zacaruk, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    When the level of the Spray Lakes (Alberta) reservoir was lowered by four metres, 208 ha of shoreline was exposed offering little to no wildlife benefit and only limited recreation potential. A reclamation plan for 128 ha of shoreline was therefore developed. A wild life-palatable, self-sustaining vegetation cover was established. Approximately 90 ha was scarified, and/or had tree stumps removed prior to seeding, while approximately 40 ha was seeded and fertilized only. The remaining 80 ha of shoreline was not revegetated due to limited access; these areas will be allowed to re-establish naturally from the forested edge. The species were selected based on their adaptation to alkaline soils, drought tolerance, persistence in a stand and rooting characteristics, as well as palatability to wildlife. Alfalfa, white clover and fall rye were seeded. In general, all areas of the reclamation plan are successfully revegetated. Areas which were recontoured are stable and non-eroding. Success was most significant in areas which had been scarified, then seeded and trackpacked. Areas that were seeded and fertilized only were less well established at the end of the first year, but showed improvement in the second and third years. The area will be monitored to ensure the reclaimed vegetation is self-sustaining

  12. Innovative technology summary report: Confined sluicing end effector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-09-01

    A Confined Sluicing End-Effector (CSEE) was field tested during the summer of 1997 in Tank W-3, one of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). It should be noted that the specific device used at the Oak Ridge Reservation demonstration was the Sludge Retrieval End-Effector (SREE), although in common usage it is referred to as the CSEE. Deployed by the Modified Light-Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) and the Houdini remotely operated vehicle (ROV), the CSEE was used to mobilize and retrieve waste from the tank. After removing the waste, the CSEE was used to scarify the gunite walls of Tank W-3, removing approximately 0.1 in of material. The CSEE uses three rotating water-jets to direct a short-range pressurized jet of water to effectively mobilize the waste. Simultaneously, the water and dislodged tank waste, or scarified materials, are aspirated using a water-jet pump-driven conveyance system. The material is then pumped outside of the tank, where it can be stored for treatment. The technology, its performance, uses, cost, and regulatory issues are discussed

  13. Retrieval process development and enhancements: Hydraulic test bed integrated testing. Fiscal year 1995 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatchell, B.K.; Smalley, J.T.; Tucker, J.C.

    1996-02-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements Program is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology to investigate waste dislodging and conveyance processes suitable for the retrieval of high-level radioactive waste. This program, represented by industry, national laboratories, and academia, is testing the performance of a technology of high-pressure waterjet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier as a means of retrieval of waste inside waste storage tanks. Waste stimulants have been designed to challenge this retrieval process, and this technology has been shown to mobilize and convey the waste stimulants, at target retrieval rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of postulated deployment systems. The approach has been demonstrated to be versatile in dislodging and conveying a broad range of waste forms, from hard wastes to soft sludge wastes, through the use of simple and reliable in-tank components

  14. Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements FY96 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Hatchell, B.K.

    1996-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD ampersand E) activities are part of the Retrieval and Closure Program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area. The purposes of RPD ampersand E are to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on those processes, so that end users have the requisite technical basis to make retrieval decisions. Work has been initiated to support the need for multiple retrieval technologies across the DOE complex. Technologies addressed during FY96 focused on enhancements to sluicing, borehole mining, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, the lightweight scarifier, and pulsed air mixing. Furthermore, a decision tool and database have been initiated to link retrieval processes with tank closure to assist end users in making retrieval decisions

  15. Diode-Pumped Laser for Lung-Sparing Surgical Treatment of Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölükbas, Servet; Biancosino, Christian; Redwan, Bassam; Eberlein, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Surgical resection represents one of the essential cornerstones in multimodal treatment of malignant pleural mesothelioma. In cases of tumor infiltration of the lung, lung-scarifying procedures such as lobectomies or pneumonectomies might be necessary to achieve macroscopic complete resection. However, this increases the morbidity of the patients because it leads to possible delay of the planned chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Innovative surgical techniques are therefore required to enable salvage of the lung parenchyma and optimization of surgical treatment. Here we report our first experience with a diode-pumped neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser for parenchyma-sparing lung resection during surgery for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Breaking of Judas tree seed dormancy by plant hormone treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grbić Mihailo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study deals with the influence of growth regulators on the germination of Judas tree (Cercis siliquastrum L. seed which is double dormant. We simultaneously tested seeds prepared in the conventional procedure: scarification + stratification and scarified seeds treated with phytohormones from the groups of gibberellins, auxin and cytokinins. The results indicate a positive effect of gibberellic acid (GA, as well as some combinations of this phytohormone with others. Recommendations for practice are to combine the conventional procedure with GA. The procedure may shorten the duration of stratification; the application of GA should follow stratification because the temperature of 4°C does not provide growth regulators activity. The study results can serve as the base for easier generative reproduction of this valuable woody ornamental species which could have a wide use in changed climate conditions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 43007: Studying climate change and its influence on the environment: impacts, adaptation and mitigation

  17. Osmopriming on Sesbania virgata (CAV. PERS (Fabaceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of the osmopriming on germination and vigour of Sesbania virgata seeds. Seeds were chemically scarified in concentrated sulphuric acid for 40 minutes and put to germinate either directly or after being submitted to osmopriming, drying and accelerated aging. Osmopriming was carried out with polyethylene glycol solutions (PEG 8000 at the following osmotic potentials-0.2; -0.4; -0.6 and -0.8 MPa for 12, 24 and 48 hours. After osmopriming, seeds were dried in silica gel until the initial moisture content was reached, and then submitted to the accelerated aging (48 h/100% RH. The effects of osmopriming and accelerated aging were evaluated through germination test, first counting germination and germination speed index. The osmopriming, followed or not by accelerated aging, positively influenced germination and vigour of Sesbania virgata seeds.

  18. Doping and band gap control at poly(vinylidene fluoride)/graphene interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jia; Wang, Jian-Lu; Gao, Heng; Tian, Bobo; Gong, Shi-Jing; Duan, Chun-Gang; Chu, Jun-Hao

    2018-05-01

    Using the density-functional first-principles calculations, we investigate the electronic structures of poly(vinylidene fluoride) PVDF/graphene composite systems. The n- and p-doping of graphene can be flexibly switched by reversing the ferroelectric polarization of PVDF, without scarifying the intrinsic π-electron band dispersions of graphene that are usually undermined by chemical doping. The doping degree is also dependent on the thickness of PVDF layers, which will get saturated when PVDF is thick enough. In PVDF/bilayer graphene (BLG) heterostructure, the doping degree directly determines the local energy gap of the charged BLG. The sandwich structure of PVDF/BLG/PVDF can further enhance the local energy gap as well as keep the electric neutrality of BLG, which will be of great application potentials in graphene-based nanoelectronics.

  19. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeya Sharma, T

    2015-11-01

    Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE). This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar) gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine's performance within the range studied.

  20. Utilization of straw in district heating and CHP plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaisen, L.

    1993-01-01

    In Denmark 64 straw-fired district heating plants and 6 decentral CHP plants have been built since 1980 which are completely or partly straw-fired. The annual straw consumption in the district heating plants is 275,000 tons and in the decentral plants about 200,000 tons. The size of the district heating plants amounts to 0.5 MW - 10 MW and that of the CHP plants to 7 MW - 67 MW heat flow rate. Either whole bales or cut/scarified straw is used for firing. Hesston bales of about 450 kg control the market. The Centre of Biomass Technology is an activity supported 100 % by the Danish Energy Agency with the purpose of increasing the use of straw and wood in the energy supply (orig.)

  1. Enhancement of low temperature toughness of nanoprecipitates strengthened ferritic steel by delamination structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yu; Xu, Songsong; Li, Junpeng; Zhang, Jian [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, P R China (China); Sun, Liangwei; Chen, Liang; Sun, Guangai; Peng, Shuming [Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics and Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics (CAEP), Mianyang 621999 (China); Zhang, Zhongwu, E-mail: zwzhang@hrbeu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Superlight Materials and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, College of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Harbin Engineering University, Harbin 150001, P R China (China)

    2017-04-13

    This study investigated the effects of aging and thermomechanical treatments on the microstructure evolution and mechanical properties of a nanoprecipitates strengthened ferritic steel. The toughness of steel at various temperatures was measured carefully and correlated with microstructural features. Tensile tests show that aging can improve the mechanical strength without scarifying the ductility. With high yield strength of ~1000 MPa, excellent low temperature Charpy impact energy more than 300 J at −80 °C can be obtained. The ductile brittle transition temperature (DBTT) is lower than −80 °C. The high strength can be contributed by the nanocluster precipitation as determined by small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy. The excellent low temperature toughness is attributed to the delamination structure of the steel, which blunts the cracks and restrains the crack propagation.

  2. Histopathological effects of doxorubicin on kidneys in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the histolopathological effect of doxorubicin on rat kidney tissue. The drug was administrated by rats at the dose of (1, 2, 3, 4, 5 mg/kg intrapertonial every (84 hr for the three weeks and the doses of (1, 2, 3 mg/kg intrapertonial every 84 hrs for six weeks. The animals were scarified after 48 hr. of last injection. The study revealed congestion, thrombus, blood vessels hemorrhage, vaculation in the cells of glomerular tuft and tubular, tubuo-interstitial degeneration, tubular casts. The injury score revealed significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules in the animals that received 5 mg/kg of doxorubicin for three weeks and also significantly increasing in the degree of injury in glomerules of the animals that received 3 mg/kg of doxorubicin for six weeks as compared with control animals. We concluded that the doxorubicin has histopathological effect on kidney.

  3. Comparison of the effects of temperature and water potential on seed germination of Fabaceae species from desert and subalpine grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiao Wen; Fan, Yan; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Wang, Yan Rong

    2015-05-01

    Temperature and water potential for germination based on the thermal and hydrotime models have been successfully applied in predicting germination requirements of physiologically dormant seeds as well as nondormant seeds. However, comparative studies of the germination requirements of physically dormant seeds from different ecosystems have not been done. Germination of scarified seeds of four legume species collected from the Qing-Tibetan Plateau and of four collected in the Alax Desert in China was compared over a range of temperatures and water potentials based on thermal time and hydrotime models. Seeds of species from the Qing-Tibetan Plateau had a lower base temperature (T b) and optimal temperature (T o) for germination than those from the Alax Desert. Seeds of the four species from the Qing-Tibetan Plateau germinated to high percentages at 5°C, whereas none of the four desert species did so. Seeds of species from the Alax Desert germinated to a high percentage at 35°C or 40°C, while no seeds of species from the Qing-Tibetan Plateau germinated at 35°C or 40°C. The base median water potential [Ψ b(50)] differed among species but not between the two habitats. The thermal time and hydrotime models accurately predicted the germination time course of scarified seeds of most of the eight species in response to temperature and water potential; thus, they can be useful tools in comparative studies on germination of seeds with physical dormancy. Habitat temperatures but not rainfall is closely related to germination requirements of these species. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. Rheological and mechanical properties of polyamide 6 modified by electron-beam initiated mediation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Boo Young; Kim, Jae Hong

    2015-01-01

    Polyamide (PA6) has been modified by electron-beam initiated mediator process to improve drawbacks of PA6. Glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) was chosen as a reactive mediator for modification process of PA6. The mixture of the PA6 and GMA was prepared by using a twin-screw extruder, and then the mixture was exposed to electron-beam irradiation at various doses at room temperature. The modified PA6 were characterized by observing rheological and mechanical properties and compared virgin PA6. Thermal properties, water absorption, and gel fraction were also investigated. Tight gel was not found even when PA6 was irradiated at 200 kGy. Complex viscosity and storage modulus of PA6 were remarkably increased by electron-beam irradiation with medium of GMA. Maximum increase in complex viscosity was 75 times higher than virgin PA6 at 0.1 rad/s when it was irradiated at 200 kGy with the GMA. Mechanical properties were also improved without scarifying of processability. The reaction mechanisms for the mediation process with the reactive mediator of GMA were estimated to elucidate the cause of significantly enhanced rheological and mechanical properties without loss of thermoplasticity. - Highlights: • PA6 was modified by the electron-beam initiated mediation process. • Maximum increase in complex viscosity of modified PA6 was 75 times higher than virgin PA6 at 0.1 rad/s. • Mechanical properties were improved without scarifying of processability. • The GMA as a mediator played a key role in the electron-beam initiated mediation process

  5. Storage behavior and changes in concentrations of abscisic acid and gibberellins during dormancy break and germination in seeds of Phellodendron amurense var. wilsonii (Rutaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chien, Ching-Te; Baskin, Jerry M; Baskin, Carol C

    2010-02-01

    The medicinal Asian plant genus Phellodendron is known to contain several very important compounds that have biological action. The main purpose of this study was to determine whether seeds of Phellodendron amurense var. wilsonii can be stored and to characterize their dormancy. Seeds of this taxon stored at -20 and -80 degrees C and in liquid nitrogen retained their high germinability, indicating that they have orthodox storage behavior. Intact seeds from freshly collected fruits were dormant and required 12 weeks of cold stratification at 4 degrees C for complete germination. Scarifying the seed coat was partially effective in breaking seed dormancy. Exogenous gibberellins (GA(3), GA(4) and GA(4+7)) promoted germination of scarified seeds, GA(4) and GA(4+7) being more effective than GA(3). Fluridone, an abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis inhibitor, was efficient in breaking dormancy, but it was less effective than GA(4) or GA(4+7) alone. Paclobutrazol, a GA biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibited seed germination, and the inhibitory effect was reversed completely by GA(4) and by GA(4+7). ABA content of seeds subjected to cold stratification or to incubation at 35/10 degrees C, which enhanced seed germination, was reduced about four- to sixfold compared to that of fresh seeds. Higher concentrations of GA(3), GA(4) and GA(7) were detected in nondormant seeds and in seeds with an emerged radicle than in fresh seeds. Present results seem to indicate that dormancy in P. amurense var. wilsonii seeds is imposed partially by the seed coat and partially by high ABA content. ABA content decreased and GA(3), GA(4) and GA(7) content increased during germination.

  6. Specifics of fire-preventing arrangements in the forests of Baikal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Evdokimenko

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire risk in major forest types and concomitant vegetation complexes across all altitudinal belts has been analyzed. High fire risk in woodlands is determined by domination of light needle coniferous stands in their structure and specific climate with continuous spring-summer droughts. Thus, the risk of landscape wildfires is high. The most drastic situations occur in very dry years of climatic cycles during forest pyrogenic anomalies when fire spreads across the main landscapes in several nature areas. Current fire-frequency is incompatible with high biosphere status of nature complex of Lake Baikal as an object of the World nature heritage. Extensive forest exploitation is unacceptable as well. Fire-prevention measures in the area require modernization. According to the results of many years of comparative studies of fire risk in phytocenoses with different species composition and structure of tree layers, the techniques of making fire stopping barriers were developed. The scheme of dividing the managed forests into isolated cells separated by special obstacles and fire-resistant forest borders combined with commonly used fire barriers is suggested. Fire-resistant barriers should be formed on both sides of main roads, passing through the intensively exploited woodlands dominating with common pine Pinus sylvestris L., Siberian stone pine Pinus sibirica Du Tour, Siberian spruce Picea obovata Ledeb., and Siberian fir Abies sibirica Ledeb. tree species. Such barriers are intended to stop the fire front of crown fires. The barrier width is determined by the cell order. The barriers are bordered with clearings with scarified soil strips of 3–4 meters in width. Trees and shrubs damaged in the process are removed during clutter cleaning. In places where the barrier passes through coniferous tree stands longitudinal corridors with scarified soil strips every 20–30 meters should be made. Reforestation and thinning are supposed to be combined with

  7. Use of the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm to Perform Nuclear Waste Cleanup of Underground Waste Storage Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blank, J.A.; Burks, B.L.; DePew, R.E.; Falter, D.D.; Glassell, R.L.; Glover, W.H.; Killough, S.M.; Lloyd, P.D.; Love, L.J.; Randolph, J.D.; Van Hoesen, S.D.; Vesco, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    The Modified Light Duty Utility Arm (MLDUA) is a selectable seven or eight degree-of-freedom robot arm with a 16.5 ft (5.03 m) reach and a payload capacity of 200 lb. (90.72 kg). The utility arm is controlled in either joystick-based telerobotic mode or auto sequence robotics mode. The MLDUA deployment system deploys the utility arm vertically into underground radioactive waste storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These tanks are constructed of gunite material and consist of two 25 ft (7.62 m) diameter tanks in the North Tank Farm and six 50 ft (15.24 m) diameter tanks in the South Tank Farm. After deployment inside a tank, the utility arm reaches and grasps the confined sluicing end effecter (CSEE) which is attached to the hose management arm (HMA). The utility arm positions the CSEE within the tank to allow the HMA to sluice the tank's liquid and solid waste from the tank. The MLDUA is used to deploy the characterization end effecter (CEE) and gunite scarifying end effecter (GSEE) into the tank. The CEE is used to survey the tank wall's radiation levels and the physical condition of the walls. The GSEE is used to scarify the tank walls with high-pressure water to remove the wall scale buildup and a thin layer of gunite which reduces the radioactive contamination that is embedded into the gunite walls. The MLDUA is also used to support waste sampling and wall core-sampling operations. Other tools that have been developed for use by the MLDUA include a pipe-plugging end effecter, pipe-cutting end effecter, and pipe-cleaning end effecter. Washington University developed advance robotics path control algorithms for use in the tanks. The MLDUA was first deployed in June 1997 and has operated continuously since then. Operational experience in the first four tanks remediated is presented in this paper

  8. Effect of Scarification, Self-Inhibition, and Sowing Depth on Seed Germination of Lupinus campestris Efecto de la Escarificación, Autoinhibición y Profundidad de Siembra sobre la Germinación de Semillas de Lupinus campestris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gutiérrez Nava

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. grows in shallow fields and disturbed areas of Central Mexico. It has potential to improve soil fertility and as fodder. Seeds of L. campestris show dormancy, and the technology needed to increase its potential use requires information about conditions favouring seed germination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the seed germination responseof L. campestris under controlled (laboratory and natural field conditions. Under laboratory conditions, 2 yr old seeds had a maximum germination percentage (50% when they were scarified with sulphuric acid for 90 min prior to sowing and when laboratory light (0.5 µmol m-2 s-1 was maintained during the diurnal period. Without scarification, only about 3% of the seeds germinated. Light in laboratory resulted in an increased seed germination as compared to darkness condition. In the field experiment 1 yr old seeds were used testing the following treatments: (a seed scarification (seeds scarified by 30 min immersion in sulphuric acid vs. not scarified, (b presence or absence of plants of L. campestris in plots before field experiments, and (c sowing depth (on soil surface and at 3 cm deep. The scarified seeds showed a germination percentage range between 50 and 64%, whereas non-scarified seeds had 9 to 16% germination. The seeds sowed in plots with or without plants of L. campestris (before the experiment germinated similarly, indicating no evidence of self-inhibition of germination. Three conclusions come out: (1 Scarification treatment with sulphuric acid effectively breaks dormancy in L. campestris seeds; (2 Direct sowing of scarified seeds (on the soil surface or at 3 cm depth resulted in a range of 50-64% of germination under field conditions; and (3 no evidence was obtained for self-inhibition or a positive interaction between preceding vegetation and seed germination of L. campestris.Lupinus campestris Schltdl. & Cham. crece en campos en descanso y

  9. Dormancy-breaking requirements of Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa (Fabaceae seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Maria Luzia Delgado

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The physical dormancy of seeds has been poorly studied in species from tropical forests, such as the Atlantic Forest. This study aimed to examine the effect of moderate alternating temperatures on breaking the physical dormancy of seeds, the morphoanatomy and histochemistry of seed coats, and to locate the structure/region responsible for water entrance into the seed, after breaking the physical dormancy of seeds of two woody Fabaceae (subfamily Faboideae species that occur in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: Sophora tomentosa and Erythrina speciosa. To assess temperature effect, seeds were incubated in several temperature values that occur in the Atlantic Forest. For morphological and histochemical studies, sections of fixed seeds were subjected to different reagents, and were observed using light or epifluorescence microscopy, to analyze the anatomy and histochemistry of the seed coat. Treated and non-treated seeds were also analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM to observe the morphology of the seed coat. To localize the specific site of water entrance, the seeds were blocked with glue in different regions and also immersed in ink. In the present work a maximum temperature fluctuation of 15ºC was applied during a period of 20 days and these conditions did not increase the germination of S. tomentosa or E. speciosa. These results may indicate that these seeds require larger fluctuation of temperature than the applied or/and longer period of exposition to the temperature fluctuation. Blocking experiments water inlet combined with SEM analysis of the structures of seed coat for both species showed that besides the lens, the hilum and micropyle are involved in water absorption in seeds scarified with hot water. In seeds of E. speciosa the immersion of scarified seeds into an aniline aqueous solution showed that the solution first entered the seed through the hilum. Both species showed seed morphological and anatomical features for seed

  10. Overcoming seed dormancy and early growth of seedlings of Spondias tuberosa, Arr. CâmaraSuperação de dormência de sementes e crescimento inicial de plântulas de umbuzeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janete Motta da Silva Gonzaga

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Pre-germination treatments such as scarification and the use of growth regulators can provide the dormancy breaking in seeds and enhance the emergence and development of seedlings. The aim of this study was to determine appropriate treatments to overcome seed dormancy and enhance the initial growth of seedlings of Spondias tuberosa. We used a randomized design in factorial 2 x 4, with the following factors: seeds scarified or not scarified and then soaked in water or aqueous solutions of gibberellin, cytokinin and ethylene, with 4 replicates and 15 seeds. There was no significant interaction between scarification treatments and use of growth regulators. Mechanical scarification and soaking seeds in solutions containing umbuzeiro growth regulators does not increase the percentage of seedling emergence, however soaking in a solution of Ethrel at 100 ppm provides higher speed of emergence and root development. Tratamentos pré-germinativos, como a escarificação e o uso de reguladores de crescimento, podem proporcionar a superação de dormência em sementes e incrementar a emergência e o desenvolvimento de plântulas. O objetivo da presente pesquisa foi determinar tratamentos adequados para a superação da dormência de sementes e potencialização do crescimento inicial de plântulas de umbuzeiro. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em fatorial 2 x 4, sendo os fatores: sementes escarificadas ou não escarificadas e, posteriormente, imersas em água ou soluções aquosas de giberelina, citocinina ou etileno, com 4 repetições de 15 sementes. Não houve interação significativa entre os tratamentos escarificação e uso de reguladores de crescimento. A escarificação mecânica e a embebição de sementes de umbuzeiro em soluções contendo reguladores de crescimento não aumenta a percentagem de emergência de plântulas, entretanto a embebição em solução de Ethrel a 100 ppm proporciona maior velocidade de emergência e

  11. Improving crystallization and electron mobility of indium tin oxide by carbon dioxide and hydrogen dual-step plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyou; Du, Rongchi; Ren, Qianshang; Wei, Changchun; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-12-01

    Obtaining high conductivity indium tin oxide (ITO) films simultaneously with a "soft-deposited" (low temperature, low ions bombardment) and cost-efficient deposition process are critical aspect for versatile photo-electronic devices application. Usually, the low-cost "soft-deposited" process could be achieved via evaporation technique, but with scarifying the conductivity of the films. Here, we show a CO2 and H2 two-step plasma (TSP) post-treatment applied to ITO films prepared by reactive thermal evaporation (RTE), allows to meet the special trade-off between the deposition techniques and the electrical properties. Upon treatment, an increase in electron concentration and electron mobility is observed, which subsequently resulting a low sheet resistivity. The mobility reaches high values of 80.9 cm2/Vs for the TSP treated ∼100 nm thickness samples. From a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and opto-electronic measurements, it demonstrated that: during the TSP process, the first-step CO2 plasma treatment could promote the crystallinity of the RTE ITO films. While the electron traps density at grain boundaries of polycrystalline RTE ITO films could be passivated by hydrogen atom during the second-step H2 plasma treatment. These results inspired that the TSP treatment process has significant application prospects owing to the outstanding electrical properties enhancement for "soft-deposited" RTE ITO films.

  12. Protective Effect of Vitamin E against Gamma Radiation Injury in Mice Histological and Ultrastructural Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu Nour, S.M.; Abd EI Azeem, M.G.

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin E has been shown to ameliorate the effect of ionising radiation. The present study was designed to study the effect of high dose of gamma-radiation on the intestinal tissue of mice and the protective effect of the natural antioxidant vitamin E; a slow acting free radical scavenger. 24 adult albino male mice were divided into 4 groups (6 animals each). The first group represents the control group. The second experimental group received orally daily doses of vitamin E (100 mg/ kg body wt for 15 days). The third experimental group were exposed to 7 Gy gamma-rays as a single dose, while the fourth experimental group received vitamin E in the same dose before being irradiated. All animals were scarified and jejunal specimens were processed and prepared for histological and ultrastructural study after one day post irradiation. The results suggested that gamma-radiation induced different histological changes in the intestine of irradiated animals. Degeneration of the intestinal cells and microvilli were seen by light microscopic examination. SEM electron microscope (SEM) revealed haemorrhagic ulcerating tissues. In addition, the mitochondria were markedly swollen and loss of cristae, thickness of the terminal web zone was seen by transmission electron microscope. On the contrary, in animals treated with vitamin E, the intestinal tissues revealed structure almost similar to the control group. We conclude that vitamin E had protective effects against gamma-radiation induced oxidative stress

  13. Seed germination of three species of Fabaceae typical of seasonally dry forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Meira Arruda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seeds germination of Anadenanthera colubrina, Acacia polyphylla and Bauhinia cheilantha, typical species of deciduous forests. Seeds were submitted to pre-germination treatments and attack of native insects. The seeds of each species were grouped in: seeds scarified with sandpaper; seeds immersed in water heated to 70 °C, seeds with signs of attack by herbivore insects and the control group. The largest proportion of germinated seeds occurred in the first week of incubation and germination peak, ranged from first to third day. All groups of A. polyphylla and B.cheilantha showed high germination rate (> 90%, being reduced only when seeds were attacked by insects (< 25%. Mechanic scarification was efficient in A. polyphylla by enhancing germination to maximum (100% and accelerating germination. A. colubrina showed no difference among groups, and germination rate was lower (< 50%, which was attributed to infestation by fungi, commonly reported in this species and apparently independent of usual hygiene procedures. Finally, except the fungi infestation in A. colubrina, evaluated species were independent of pre-germination treatment to obtain a high rate of germination.

  14. MATURAÇÃO E QUALIDADE FÍSICA DE FRUTOS NA GERMINAÇÃO DOS PIRÊNIOS DE Schefflera morototoni (ARALIACEAE

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    Maristela Rosália Anastácio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the maturation stage of the fruit on the physical characteristics and germination of Schefflera morototoni pyrenes submitted to pre-germination treatments. Fruits with green and purplish green coloration were collected from 14 accesses, pulped in running water, discarding the hollow pyrenes, after counting, together with retracted and oxidized endosperm, and using the uniform pyrenes (with greenish endosperm occupying the whole cavity of the pyrene. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme (stages of fruit maturation and pre-germination treatments, with four repetitions in parcels containing 25 pyrenes. For greater capacity and germination speed of the pyrenes, fruits should be harvested when they present a purplish green coloration, while discarding those with hollow pyrenes, with retracted or oxidized endosperm. The germination capacity of the pyrenes with uniform endosperm varied between 50 and 60%, with the beginning of the process at about 40 days after planting and continuing for up to 60 days in vermiculite. Pulped pyrenes, dried and soaked in water at 60ºC for 5 minutes, followed by soaking in water at room temperature for 12 hours began the germination process in less time, in relation to those pulped, dried, scarified and soaked for 6 hours. The fruit endocarp is permeable and rigid; however, it presents a natural opening when soaked.

  15. Experimental analysis of reinforced concrete columns strengthened with self-compacting concrete and connectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Nascimento

    Full Text Available There are many problems involving cases of destruction of buildings and other structures. The columns can deteriorate for several reasons such as the evolution and changing habits of the loads. The experimental phase of this work was based on a test involving nine reinforced concrete columns under combined bending and axial compression, at an initial eccentricity of 60 mm. Two columns were used as reference, one having the original dimensions of the column and the other, monolithic, had been cast along the thickness of the strengthened piece. The remaining columns received a 35 mm thick layer of self-compacting concrete on their compressed face. For the preparation of the interface between the two materials, this surface was scarified and furrowed and connectors were inserted onto the columns' shear reinforcement in various positions and amounts.As connectors, 5 mm diameter steel bars were used (the same as for stirrups, bent in the shape of a "C" with 25 mm coatings. >As a conclusion, not only the quantity, but mainly, the location of the connectors used in the link between substrate and reinforcement is crucial to increase strength and to change failure mode.

  16. The Mitigating Effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Fruit Extract against Genotoxicity Induced by Cyclophosphamide in Mice Bone Marrow Cells

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    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Possible genoprotective effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L. (CCT fruits extract against cyclophosphamide- (CP-induced DNA damage in mice bone marrow cells was evaluated using micronucleus assay, as an index of induced chromosomal damage. Mice were preadministered with different doses of CCT via intraperitoneal injection for 7 consecutive days followed by injection with CP (70 mg/kg b.w. 1 hr after the last injection of CCT. After 24 hr, mice were scarified to evaluate the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs. In addition, the number of polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs among 1000 normochromatic erythrocytes (NCEs per animal was recorded to evaluate bone marrow. Pretreatment with CCT significantly reduced the number of MnPCEs induced by CP in bone marrow cells (P<0.0001. At 200 mg/kg, CCT had a maximum chemoprotective effect and reduced the number of MnPCEs by 6.37-fold and completely normalized the mitotic activity. CCT also led to marked proliferation and hypercellularity of immature myeloid elements after mice were treated with CP and mitigated the bone marrow suppression. Our study revealed that CCT has an antigenotoxic effect against CP-induced oxidative DNA damage in mice. Therefore, it could be used concomitantly as a supplement to protect people undergoing chemotherapy.

  17. Post-disturbance plant community dynamics following a rare natural-origin fire in a Tsuga canadensis forest.

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    Bryan D Murray

    Full Text Available Opportunities to directly study infrequent forest disturbance events often lead to valuable information about vegetation dynamics. In mesic temperate forests of North America, stand-replacing crown fire occurs infrequently, with a return interval of 2000-3000 years. Rare chance events, however, may have profound impacts on the developmental trajectories of forest ecosystems. For example, it has been postulated that stand-replacing fire may have been an important factor in the establishment of eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis stands in the northern Great Lakes region. Nevertheless, experimental evidence linking hemlock regeneration to non-anthropogenic fire is limited. To clarify this potential relationship, we monitored vegetation dynamics following a rare lightning-origin crown fire in a Wisconsin hemlock-hardwood forest. We also studied vegetation in bulldozer-created fire breaks and adjacent undisturbed forest. Our results indicate that hemlock establishment was rare in the burned area but moderately common in the scarified bulldozer lines compared to the reference area. Early-successional, non-arboreal species including Rubus spp., Vaccinium angustifolium, sedges (Carex spp., grasses, Epilobium ciliatum, and Pteridium aquilinium were the most abundant post-fire species. Collectively, our results suggest that competing vegetation and moisture stress resulting from drought may reduce the efficacy of scarification treatments as well as the usefulness of fire for preparing a suitable seedbed for hemlock. The increasing prevalence of growing-season drought suggests that silvicultural strategies based on historic disturbance regimes may need to be reevaluated for mesic species.

  18. Design optimization under uncertainty and speed variability for a piezoelectric energy harvester powering a tire pressure monitoring sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toghi Eshghi, Amin; Lee, Soobum; Kazem Sadoughi, Mohammad; Hu, Chao; Kim, Young-Cheol; Seo, Jong-Ho

    2017-10-01

    Energy harvesting (EH) technologies to power small sized electronic devices are attracting great attention. Wasted energy in a vehicle’s rotating tire has a great potential to enable self-powered tire pressure monitoring sensors (TPMS). Piezoelectric type energy harvesters can be used to collect vibrational energy and power such systems. Due to the presence of harsh acceleration in a rotating tire, a design tradeoff needs to be studied to prolong the harvester’s fatigue life as well as to ensure sufficient power generation. However, the design by traditional deterministic design optimization (DDO) does not show reliable performance due to the lack of consideration of various uncertainty factors (e.g., manufacturing tolerances, material properties, and loading conditions). In this study, we address a new EH design formulation that considers the uncertainty in car speed, dimensional tolerances and material properties, and solve this design problem using reliability-based design optimization (RBDO). The RBDO problem is formulated to maximize compactness and minimize weight of a TPMS harvester while satisfying power and durability requirements. A transient analysis has been done to measure the time varying response of EH such as power generation, dynamic strain, and stress. A conservative design formulation is proposed to consider the expected power from varied speed and stress at higher speed. When compared to the DDO, the RBDO results show that the reliability of EH is increased significantly by scarifying the objective function. Finally, experimental test has been conducted to demonstrate the merits of RBDO design over DDO.

  19. Summary review of Mound Facility's experience in decontamination of concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, A.B.; Davis, W.P.; Garner, J.M.; Geichman, J.R.

    1980-01-01

    Most of the current concrete decontamination work at Mound Facility involves surfaces that are contaminated with plutonium-238. Approximately 60,000 sq. ft. of concrete floors will have to be decontaminated in Mound's current Decontamination and Decommissioning (D and D) Project. Although most of these surfaces are partially protected by a barrier (tile or paint), contaminated water and acid have penetrated these barriers. The technique for decontaminating these floors is desribed. The initial cleaning of the floor involes standard water and detergent. Acids are not used in cleaning as they tend to drive the contamination deeper into the concrete surface. Next, the floor tile is manually removed inside a temporary enclosure under negative and filtered ventilation. Finally, layers of contaminated concrete are mechanically removed inside the ventilated enclosure. The suspected depth and surface area of contamination determines the type of mechanical tool used. In summary, several generic methods of concrete decontamination can be utilized: chemical, such as water, detergent, acids, paint remover, strippable paints, etc.; rotary using sanders, grinders, scarifiers, etc.; impact such as pressure washers (hydrolasers), particle blasters, scabblers, needlers, spallers, paving and rock breakers, ram hoes, etc. The particular method used depends on several factors: surface and area involved; depth of contamination; cost and availability of equipment; usage safety and radiological control; and waste generated

  20. Redistribution of soil nitrogen, carbon and organic matter by mechanical disturbance during whole-tree harvesting in northern hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D.F.; Huntington, T.G.; Wayne, Martin C.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate whether mechanical mixing during harvesting could account for losses observed from forest floor, we measured surface disturbance on a 22 ha watershed that was whole-tree harvested. Surface soil on each 10 cm interval along 81, randomly placed transects was classified immediately after harvesting as mineral or organic, and as undisturbed, depressed, rutted, mounded, scarified, or scalped (forest floor scraped away). We quantitatively sampled these surface categories to collect soil in which preharvest forest floor might reside after harvest. Mechanically mixed mineral and organic soil horizons were readily identified. Buried forest floor under mixed mineral soil occurred in 57% of mounds with mineral surface soil. Harvesting disturbed 65% of the watershed surface and removed forest floor from 25% of the area. Mechanically mixed soil under ruts with organic or mineral surface soil, and mounds with mineral surface soil contained organic carbon and nitrogen pools significantly greater than undisturbed forest floor. Mechanical mixing into underlying mineral soil could account for the loss of forest floor observed between the preharvest condition and the second growing season after whole-tree harvesting. ?? 1992.

  1. Gentilly 1: decontamination program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, H.; Denault, P.

    1985-01-01

    The Gentilly 1 station, a 250-MW(e) light-water-cooled and heavy-water-moderated nuclear reactor, is being decommissioned to a static state (variant of stage 1) condition by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). The scope of the decontamination program at the Gentilly 1 site includes the fuel pool and associated systems, the decontamination center, the laundry, the feedwater pumps and piping systems, the service building ventilation and drainage systems, and miscellaneous floor and wall areas. After an extensive literature review for acceptable decontamination methods, it was decided that the decontamination equipment used at Gentilly 1 during the program would include a hydrolaser, a scarifier, chipping hammers, a steam cleaner, an ultrasonic bath, and cutting tools. In addition, various foams, acids, detergents, surfactants, and abrasives are used alone and in tandem with the above equipment. This paper highlights the result of these decontaminations, their effectiveness, and the recommendation for future application. The methodology in performing these operations are also presented

  2. Performance and emission characteristics of the thermal barrier coated SI engine by adding argon inert gas to intake mixture

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    T. Karthikeya Sharma

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Dilution of the intake air of the SI engine with the inert gases is one of the emission control techniques like exhaust gas recirculation, water injection into combustion chamber and cyclic variability, without scarifying power output and/or thermal efficiency (TE. This paper investigates the effects of using argon (Ar gas to mitigate the spark ignition engine intake air to enhance the performance and cut down the emissions mainly nitrogen oxides. The input variables of this study include the compression ratio, stroke length, and engine speed and argon concentration. Output parameters like TE, volumetric efficiency, heat release rates, brake power, exhaust gas temperature and emissions of NOx, CO2 and CO were studied in a thermal barrier coated SI engine, under variable argon concentrations. Results of this study showed that the inclusion of Argon to the input air of the thermal barrier coated SI engine has significantly improved the emission characteristics and engine’s performance within the range studied.

  3. Effect of cold and scarification on seeds germination of pistacia atlantica l. for rapid multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meziou, C.; Merabet, A. [University of Boumerdes (Algeria). Dept. of Biology

    2014-03-15

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of mechanical scarification and cold treatment of seeds at + 4 degree C before sowing seed of Pistacia atlantica. In these cases, the durations at cold temperature, which have been taken into account, are successively 60, 50, 40, and 30 days. After these periods, the rate of germination and the speed of germination are calculated every 4 days. The rates of germinations concerning the not scarified seeds having undergone a cold treatment lasting 50 days are the most important that is a value of 39% from the 09-05-2010 until the 29-05-2010. The speed germination is maximum that is 89 germinated seeds /4 days. In addition this same rate reaches a maximum of 70%. Concerning the pistachio tree seeds of the atlas treated mechanically with duration of cold treatment at + 4 degree C during 30 days. For the same category of seed the speed of germination is maximum that is 214 seeds/4 days. Thus the scarification and the 30 days stay are the fastest means which allow to obtain the seedlings of pistachio tree in a rather short time. (author)

  4. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsmman Hassan, Alahmady Hamad; Abd Elhaliem Soliman, Nesreen Gamal-Eldeen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL) intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China) through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle) by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable.

  5. Use of end-to-side arterial and venous anastomosis techniques for renal transplantation in two dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Heidi; Aronson, Lillian R

    2012-02-01

    A sexually intact male Old English Sheepdog and a sexually intact female Bull Terrier were evaluated for renal dysplasia and chronic renal failure, respectively. Both dogs were anemic and had high serum concentrations of urea nitrogen and creatinine. Electrolyte abnormalities (calcium and phosphorus) were also evident. The decision was made to pursue renal transplantation, and donor dogs were identified. End-to-side anastomosis of the renal artery and vein of each donor's left kidney to the recipient's ipsilateral external iliac artery and vein, respectively, was performed. The left caudal abdominal musculature was scarified by making an incision, and nephropexy to that musculature was performed with a simple interrupted pattern of polypropylene sutures. No intraoperative or postoperative complications associated with the vascular anastomoses were encountered. Azotemia, anemia, and electrolyte imbalances resolved after transplantation. The end-to-side anastomosis technique described here, which is a preferred method in human medicine, was successful, providing an alternative to other renal transplantation techniques in dogs. Additional studies are needed to determine whether any vascular anastomosis technique is preferable for use in dogs requiring renal transplantation.

  6. Effects of eye drops of Buddleja officinalis Maxim. extract on lacrimal gland cell apoptosis in castrated rats with dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Qing-hua; Yao, Xiao-lei; Wu, Quan-long; Tan, Han-yu; Zhang, Jing-rong

    2010-03-01

    To explore the possible mechanism of eye drops of Buddleja officinalis extract in treating dry eye of castrated rats by analyzing the expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 proteins. Forty-five Wistar male rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group, untreated group and eye drops of Buddleja officinalis Maxim. extract (treatment) group. The dry eye model was established with orchiectomy in the untreated group and treatment group. Rats in the treatment group were treated with eye drops of Buddleja officinalis Maxim. extract, one drop once, three times daily. Eyes of rats in the sham-operated group and untreated group were instilled with normal saline. After one-, two-, or three-month treatment, five rats in each group were scarified respectively. Then samples were taken to detect related indices. Expressions of Bax and Bcl-2 of lacrimal gland were checked by immunohistochemical method and quantity of apoptotic cells was counted. After one-, two- or three-month treatment, the quantities of expressions of Bax in acinar epithelial cells and glandular tube cells were significantly lower, and those of Bcl-2 were significantly higher in the treatment group than in the untreated group, and the quantities of apoptotic cells of the treatment group were significantly lower than those of the untreated group (PBuddleja officinalis Maxim. are flavonoids, which can significantly inhibit cell apoptosis in lacrimal gland.

  7. VARIABILIDADE GENÉTICA DE MATRIZES DE Erythrina speciosa A PARTIR DE CARACTERES MORFOLÓGICOS

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    Renata Aparecida Monteiro

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina speciosa is specie suitable for forest recuperation programm. As its seeds coats are impermeable to water absorption, the aim of this work was to study the change of biometric characters during seed germination and analyse the physiological quality of E. speciosa seeds from different sources. Therefore, seeds were collected from Capão Bonito and Ribeirão Grande, two municipilties of São Paulo State, Brazil, and were scarified. For each replicate were used 15 seeds. The germination test was conducted at 25 °C with photoperiod of 12 hours, using vermiculite packed in seedling boxes. We evaluated the germination percentage, germination speed index, seedling stem diameter and number of leaves. The results showed that the seeds of different sources showed wide variability in biometric characteristics, external dimensions and fresh weight, but such data did not correlate with seed germination and growth of seedlings in the nursery, so it is not necessary separate the seeds for seedling production process.

  8. Germination and Seedling Development of Seeds from Different Parkia biglobosa (Jacq G. Don Trees

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    Christiana O. ADEYEMI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The effect of daylight, continuous illumination and acid scarification on the seed germination and seedling vegetative growth (epicotyl and hypocotyl lengths, and number of secondary roots of different Parkia biglobosawere investigated in the Plant Physiology Laboratory University of Ilorin, Ilorin Kwara State Nigeria. Seeds from two out of the twenty six Parkia tree samples (trees B and T germinated within 24 hours of planting in the daylight germination study while seeds from another tree (Q did not germinate until the third week after planting (3WAP. Some seeds have higher germination percentage both in the daylight (preliminary germination study and in the continuous light (illuminated study. The treatment with concentrated Sulphric acid (conc. H2SO4was effective in breaking the seed dormancy as seeds from eight (8 trees produced one hundred percent (100% germination. At p= 0.05 the length of epicotyl and hypocoty1 lengths were significantly different as seedling vegetative growth were long in the seedlings from the daylight experiment than the continuous light experiment. The vegetative growths of the seedlings from the scarified seed were longer at 15min of scarification in all except in trees F and Z. It was observed that the time of scarification affect the both seed germination and seedling development.

  9. Estresse hídrico e reguladores de crescimento na germinação de sementes de canafístula Growth regulators and water stress in canafistula seed germination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amoroso Botelho

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Sementes selecionadas escarificadas de canafístula foram submetidas a estresses hídricos simulados, sob 27°C, com ou sem a adição de poliaminas e giberelina. Os valores de porcentagem e velocidade de germinação obtidos com os testes realizados indicaram que as sementes são resistentes ao estresse hídrico, e a adição de putrescina e espermidina nas concentrações de 5 e 10mM aumenta a performance sob estresse hídrico. O uso de giberelina permite a ampliação do limite máximo de tolerância ao estresse hídrico.Scarified selected seeds of the wood tree species 'canafístula' were submitted to water stress at 27ºC, with and without addition of putrescine and spermidine at concentrations of 5 and 10mM and gibberellin 0.1mM. The values of rate and germination percentage of all the experiments indicated that the seeds are resistant to water stress. When putrescine and spermidine were added to the germination media the performance under stress increased significantly. Gibberellin extended the maximal tolerance limit to water stress.

  10. Methods for overcoming dormancy in Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum seeds

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    Adriano Gonçalves Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Seed dormancy is a phenomenon observed in several tropical species. This condition causes low and non-uniform germination. The present study was designed to identify an efficient method of breaking seed dormancy in Stryphnodendron pulcherrimum. Seeds of four mother plants were subjected to the following treatments: immersion in sulfuric acid for 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 min and scarification on 150-grit sandpaper. Seeds were sown on substrate containing sand and sawdust (1:1. It was evaluate the days to onset seedlings emergence, seedlings emergence (SE, emergence speed index (ESI, germination (G, hard seeds (HS, dead seeds (DS, dormant seeds (DMS, abnormal seedlings (AS and dry mass of aerial part (DMAP and roots (DMR. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 25 seeds for each treatment. Data were subjected to analysis of variance and means compared by Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. Significant differences among treatments were observed for ESI, SE, G, HS, DMAP and DMR. Highest HS was observed in control treatment (85%. Highest G was observed in seeds scarified with sulfuric acid for 10 min (82% and 12 min (74%. These treatments also showed highest ESI, DMAP and DMR, indicating that these scarification treatments were the most efficient in overcoming dormancy.

  11. Dormancy overcome and seedling quality of pecan in nursery

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    Tales Poletto

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study evaluated the efficiency of methods to overcome seed dormancy in different storage periods in the production of pecan seedlings. Seeds were submitted to the following treatments: T1, T4 and T7 - control treatments (seeds with no treatment, stored at room temperature for 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively, T2, T5 and T8 - stratification (seeds were distributed in boxes with wet sand maintained at a temperature of 4°C for 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively, T3, T6 and T9 - scarification + stratification (seeds scarified with sandpaper n.80 and stratified by 30, 60 and 90 days, respectively, in completely random experimental design. Plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, full emergence and emergence speed index (ESI were evaluated after 14 weeks of sowing. The best development of pecan 'plants, their emergence, and ESI were observed in the stratification treatment for 90 day as well as in the scarification + stratification treatment for 90 day. Storing seeds in uncontrolled environment reduced their viability.

  12. Commensurability effects in holographic homogeneous lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Tomas; Krikun, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    An interesting application of the gauge/gravity duality to condensed matter physics is the description of a lattice via breaking translational invariance on the gravity side. By making use of global symmetries, it is possible to do so without scarifying homogeneity of the pertinent bulk solutions, which we thus term as “homogeneous holographic lattices.' Due to their technical simplicity, these configurations have received a great deal of attention in the last few years and have been shown to correctly describe momentum relaxation and hence (finite) DC conductivities. However, it is not clear whether they are able to capture other lattice effects which are of interest in condensed matter. In this paper we investigate this question focusing our attention on the phenomenon of commensurability, which arises when the lattice scale is tuned to be equal to (an integer multiple of) another momentum scale in the system. We do so by studying the formation of spatially modulated phases in various models of homogeneous holographic lattices. Our results indicate that the onset of the instability is controlled by the near horizon geometry, which for insulating solutions does carry information about the lattice. However, we observe no sharp connection between the characteristic momentum of the broken phase and the lattice pitch, which calls into question the applicability of these models to the physics of commensurability.

  13. Contribution of wave-induced liquefaction in triggering hyperpycnal flows in Yellow River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Jia, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Hyperpycnal flows, driven mainly by the gravity of near-bed negatively buoyant layers, are one of the most important processes for moving marine sediment across the earth. The issue of hyperpycnal flows existing in marine environment has drawn increasing scholars' attention since that was observed in situ off the Yellow River estuary in the 1980s. Most researches maintain that hyperpycnal flows in the Yellow River estuary are caused by the high-concentration sediments discharged from the Yellow River into sea, however, other mechanisms have been discounted since the sediment input from the river has been significantly changed due to climate and anthropogenic change. Here we demonstrate that wave-seabed interactions can generate hyperpycnal flows, without river input, by sediment flux convergence above an originally consolidated seabed. Using physical model experiments and multi-sensor field measurements, we characterize the composition-dependent liquefaction properties of the sediment due to wave-induced pore water pressure accumulation. This allows quantification of attenuation of sediment threshold velocity and critical shear stress (predominant variables in transport mechanics) during the liquefaction under waves. Parameterising the wave-seabed interactions in a new concept model shows that high waves propagating over the seabed sediment can act as a scarifier plough remoulding the seabed sediment. This contributes to marine hyperpycnal flows as the sediment is quickly resuspended under accumulating attenuation in strength. Therefore, the development of more integrative numerical models could supply realistic predictions of marine record in response to rising magnitude and frequency of storms.

  14. Biostimulant on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedling vigor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to verify the effects of biostimulant doses, applied through seeds, on faveiro (Dimorphandra mollis Benth. seeds and seedlings vigor. Seeds were previously sulfuric acid scarified in two consecutive years experiments. On 2006 August (first experiment seeds were submitted on Stimulate®: 0; 3.5; 7.0; 10.5 and 14 mL.0.5 Kg-1 doses (first experiment; and seeds picked in August, 2007, were Stimulate:0; 15; 20 and 25 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds treated (second experiment. After the biostimulant treatment seeds were sowed in cells trays containing 1:1 (v:v distroferric red latosol + plantmax®. The effect of different Stimulate® doses on Dimorphandra mollis seeds collected in different years were evaluated on the emergency percentage, speed emergency index, root length, aerial part height and dry seedling weight. It was conducted on entirely casualized with four repetitions of 25 seeds each treatment. The 14 mL (2006 lot and 15 mL (2007 lot 0.5Kg-1 of seeds doses provided larger percentage (50% and 66%, respectively and speed emergency indexes (0.67 and 0.9 respectively. The 20 mL.0.5Kg-1 of seeds dose treatment favored the aerial part length, but it didn't influenced the other Dimorphandra mollis seedlings vigor indexes.

  15. Effect of pulsed duty cycle control on tribological and corrosion properties of AISI-316 in cathodic cage plasma nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, M.; Raza, H. A.; Shafiq, M.; Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; Iqbal, Javed; Díaz-Guillén, J. C.; Zakaullah, M.

    2017-11-01

    Austenitic stainless steels are of prime importance in many industrial sectors because of their excellent corrosion resistance; however, their poor mechanical and tribological features lead to their reduced applicability. In this regard, low-temperature cathodic cage plasma nitriding (CCPN) can be used to improve surface properties of steels without scarifying the inherent corrosion resistance. In this study, AISI-316 samples are processed in CCPN reactor at a temperature of 400 °C, for the treatment time of 4 h, at a pressure of 150 Pa and variable pulsed duty cycle (15-75%). The microstructure and mechanical features are analyzed using x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, microhardness tester and ball-on-disc wear tester. The anodic polarization test in 3.5% NaCl is conducted to examine the corrosion properties. The results show that hardness is enhanced up to 1327 HV at low duty cycle, which is considerably higher than base material (278 HV). The wear rate is found to be reduced up to 90% over base material by processing at low duty cycle. The base material exhibits severe abrasive wear, and the nitrided sample has dominant adhesive wear. The corrosion rate is found to be reduced up to 95% over base material for the sample nitrided at low duty cycle. This study shows that wear and corrosion resistance in CCPN can be significantly boosted by reducing the pulsed duty cycle.

  16. Public debt improves the stability of exchange rates in developing countries? The specific case of news European members (2004 and 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thibault Cuénoud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to speak about the current situation in Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC. The majority of them have been entering in European Union in 2004 and 2007. This step has been increasing their international attractiveness and improves their economic growth. However, they must stabilize exchange rate to sustain their foreign direct investment attraction. Two strategies are adopting about the regulation of exchange rate. Bulgarian, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania Slovenia and Slovakia are entering in Exchange Rate Mechanism 2 (ERM2 to adopt quickly euro currency (it is now the case for Slovenia in 2007, Slovakia in 2009 and Estonia in 2011. Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic and Romania prefer only to stabilize their currency for the moment. Despite the strong economic dynamic of these countries before the Subprime crisis, the impact reveals the incapacity for several of them to improve currencies stabilities. The theoretical approach about Mundell-Fleming trilemma informs the necessity to scarify monetary policy in a context of free financial market and fixed exchange rate. In a reality, the capacity to use fiscal policy appears supplementary indeed more efficient.

  17. Compressive Sensing Based Bayesian Sparse Channel Estimation for OFDM Communication Systems: High Performance and Low Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Li; Shan, Lin; Adachi, Fumiyuki

    2014-01-01

    In orthogonal frequency division modulation (OFDM) communication systems, channel state information (CSI) is required at receiver due to the fact that frequency-selective fading channel leads to disgusting intersymbol interference (ISI) over data transmission. Broadband channel model is often described by very few dominant channel taps and they can be probed by compressive sensing based sparse channel estimation (SCE) methods, for example, orthogonal matching pursuit algorithm, which can take the advantage of sparse structure effectively in the channel as for prior information. However, these developed methods are vulnerable to both noise interference and column coherence of training signal matrix. In other words, the primary objective of these conventional methods is to catch the dominant channel taps without a report of posterior channel uncertainty. To improve the estimation performance, we proposed a compressive sensing based Bayesian sparse channel estimation (BSCE) method which cannot only exploit the channel sparsity but also mitigate the unexpected channel uncertainty without scarifying any computational complexity. The proposed method can reveal potential ambiguity among multiple channel estimators that are ambiguous due to observation noise or correlation interference among columns in the training matrix. Computer simulations show that proposed method can improve the estimation performance when comparing with conventional SCE methods. PMID:24983012

  18. GERMINAÇÃO E VIGOR DE SEMENTES DE Apeiba tibourbou SUBMETIDAS AO ESTRESSE HÍDRICO E DIFERENTES TEMPERATURAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Sales Guedes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Apeiba tibourbou is a forest species belonging to the family Tiliaceae, popularly known as ‘pau-dejangada’, which is widely used as ornamental, in medicine and your timber used in the manufacture of small boats. Seeds of this species were submitted to different osmotic potentials induced by polyethyleneglycol (PEG-6000 in order to verify their resistance to drought conditions. Seeds were previously scarified with sandpaper for 5 minutes and incubated at 25 and 30 ºC, at osmotic potentials of 0.0; -0.2; -0.4; -0.6; -0.8 and -1.0 MPa. The following parameters were analyzed: germination percentage, index germination speed, first count germination, length and dry matter of seedlings. A significant reduction in germination velocity and final percentage of germination from -0.2 MPa in relation to control was observed. It was foundthat water stress resistance limits ranged from -0.4 to -0.6 MPa.

  19. Concrete decontamination and demolition methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaGuardia, T.S.

    1980-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Environmental Control Technology, requested Nuclear Energy Services to prepare a handbook for the decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) of DOE-owned and commercially-owned radioactive facilities. the objective of the handbook is to provide the nuclear industry with guidance on the state-of-the-art methods and equipment available for decommissioning and to provide the means to estimate decommissioning costs and environmental impact. The methods available for concrete decontamination and demolition are summarized to provide an overview of some of the state-of-the-art techniques to be discussed at this workshop. The pertinent information on each method will include the selection factors such as the rate of performance in terms of concrete removal per unit time (cubic yards per day), manpower required by craft, unit cost (dollars per cubic yard) and the advantages and disadvantages. The methods included in this overview are those that have been routinely used in nuclear and nonnuclear applications or demonstrated in field tests. These methods include controlled blasting, wrecking ball or slab, backhoe mounted ram, flame torch, thermic lance, rock splitter, demolition compound, sawing, core stitch drilling, explosive cutting, paving breaker and power chisel, drill and spall, scarifying, water cannon and grinding

  20. Devriesea agamarum causes dermatitis in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebuyck, Tom; Martel, An; Chiers, Koen; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Pasmans, Frank

    2009-03-02

    Devriesea agamarum is frequently isolated from dermatitis in lizards, notably from cheilitis in spiny tailed lizards (genus Uromastyx). It was the aim of the present study to assess the role of this bacterium as a causative agent of dermatitis by fulfilling Koch's postulates. First, its association with diseased lizards was demonstrated. The bacterium was isolated from several, mainly desert dwelling squamate species showing symptoms of dermatitis and/or septicaemia. The affected lizards mainly belonged to the family of the Agamidae (genera Pogona, Uromastyx, Agama) and in one case to the Iguanidae (genus Crotaphytus). Secondly, the occurrence of D. agamarum in 66 clinically healthy bearded dragons, 21 clinically healthy Uromastyx species and 40 squamate eggshells was studied. The bacterium was isolated from the oral cavity of 10 bearded dragons but from none of the healthy Uromastyx species. Hence D. agamarum was found to be part of the oral microbiota in Pogona vitticeps. Finally, bearded dragons (P. vitticeps) were experimentally inoculated with D. agamarum by direct application of a bacterial suspension on intact and abraded skin. At the scarified skin of all inoculated lizards, dermatitis was induced from which D. agamarum was re-isolated. In conclusion, D. agamarum is a facultative pathogenic bacterium, able to cause dermatitis in agamid lizards when the integrity of the skin is breached.

  1. EM-50 Tanks Focus Area retrieval process development and enhancements. FY97 technology development summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, M.W.; Bamberger, J.A.; Alberts, D.G.

    1997-09-01

    The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD and E) activities are part of the US Department of Energy (DOE) EM-50 Tanks Focus Area, Retrieval and Closure program. The purpose of RPD and E is to understand retrieval processes, including emerging and existing technologies, and to gather data on these processes, so that end users have requisite technical bases to make retrieval decisions. Technologies addressed during FY97 include enhancements to sluicing, the use of pulsed air to assist mixing, mixer pumps, innovative mixing techniques, confined sluicing retrieval end effectors, borehole mining, light weight scarification, and testing of Russian-developed retrieval equipment. Furthermore, the Retrieval Analysis Tool was initiated to link retrieval processes with tank waste farms and tank geometric to assist end users by providing a consolidation of data and technical information that can be easily assessed. The main technical accomplishments are summarized under the following headings: Oak Ridge site-gunite and associated tanks treatability study; pulsed air mixing; Oak Ridge site-Old Hydrofracture Facility; hydraulic testbed relocation; cooling coil cleaning end effector; light weight scarifier; innovative tank mixing; advanced design mixer pump; enhanced sluicing; Russian retrieval equipment testing; retrieval data analysis and correlation; simulant development; and retrieval analysis tool (RAT)

  2. A young afforestation area in Iceland was a moderate sink to CO2 only a decade after scarification and establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. D. Sigurdsson

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This study reports on three years (2004–2006 of measurements of net ecosystem exchange (NEE over a young Siberian larch plantation in Iceland established on previously grazed heathland pasture that had been scarified prior to planting. The study evaluated the variation of NEE and its component fluxes, gross primary production (GPP and ecosystem respiration (Re, with the aim to clarify how climatic factors controlled the site's carbon balance. The young plantation acted as a relatively strong sink for CO2 during all of the three years, with an annual net sequestration of −102, −154, and −67 g C m−2 for 2004, 2005, and 2006, respectively. This variation was more related to variation in carbon efflux (Re than carbon uptake (GPP. The abiotic factors that showed the strongest correlation to Re were air temperature during the growing season and soil water potential. The GPP mostly followed the seasonal pattern in irradiance, except in 2005, when the plantation experienced severe spring frost damage that set the GPP back to zero. It was not expected that the rather slow-growing Siberian larch plantation would be such a strong sink for atmospheric CO2 only twelve years after site preparation and afforestation.

  3. Impact of melatonin supplementation in the rat spermatogenesis subjected to forced swimming exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moayeri, A; Mokhtari, T; Hedayatpour, A; Abbaszadeh, H-A; Mohammadpour, S; Ramezanikhah, H; Shokri, S

    2018-04-01

    Oxygen consumption increases many times during exercise, which can increase reactive oxygen species. It negatively affects fertility in male athletes. Melatonin is exerting a regulatory role at different levels of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. However, there is no evidence that the protective effects of melatonin persist after long duration exercise on the spermatogenesis. Therefore, this study was conducted to examine the impacts of melatonin on the testis following the administration of swimming exercise. Rats were separated into five different groups, including Control, sham M: received the solvent of melatonin, M: received melatonin, S: the exercise protocol, MS: received melatonin and the exercise protocol. After 8 weeks, animals were scarified and antioxidant enzymes levels of testes, spermatogenic cells apoptosis and sperm quality were measured. Swimming decreased all parameters of spermatozoa. Nevertheless, melatonin could significantly improve the progressive motility of spermatozoa in MS rats. Swimming caused an increased apoptosis of S group and decreased all antioxidant enzymes. Melatonin could drastically reduce apoptosis and increased these enzymes. Therefore, melatonin seems to induce the production of antioxidant enzymes of testicular tissues and diminish the extent of apoptotic changes caused by forced exercise on the testis, which can, in turn, ameliorate the sperm parameters. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. The Effect of Concomitant Ethanol and Opium Consumption on Lipid Profiles and Atherosclerosis in Golden Syrian Hamster's Aorta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahryari, Jahanbanoo; Poormorteza, Moein; Noori-Sorkhani, Arash; Divsalar, Kouros; Abbasi-Oshaghi, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of mortality in the world and is normally argued as the third cause of all mortalities. Opium and alcohol every day consumption can cause people to have many health problems. The present study aimed to assess the effect of ethanol and opium consumption on lipid profiles and atherosclerosis in aorta. Twenty four male golden Syrian hamsters were randomly divided into four treatment groups (n = 6): Control, addicted (40 mg/kg), alcohol (6.0 g/kg) and combination of opium and alcohol. All of the hamsters were scarified and their livers were removed immediately and fixed in formalin solution 10%. The plasma levels of the lipid profiles were measured enzymatically. Aorta sections were examined by a pathologist. The amount of the total cholesterol significantly increased in ethanol (P opium group. Serum triglyceride significantly increased in ethanol (P opium group but it was not significant. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) markedly increased in the combination group (P opium plus alcohol has harmful effects on lipid profile; however, it had no effect on aorta histology that was maybe due to the short period of the treatment.

  5. Estimation of leakage power and delay in CMOS circuits using parametric variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Verma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of deep-submicron technologies, leakage power dissipation is a major concern for scaling down portable devices that have burst-mode type integrated circuits. In this paper leakage reduction technique HTLCT (High Threshold Leakage Control Transistor is discussed. Using high threshold transistors at the place of low threshold leakage control transistors, result in more leakage power reduction as compared to LCT (leakage control transistor technique but at the scarifies of area and delay. Further, analysis of effect of parametric variation on leakage current and propagation delay in CMOS circuits is performed. It is found that the leakage power dissipation increases with increasing temperature, supply voltage and aspect ratio. However, opposite pattern is noticed for the propagation delay. Leakage power dissipation for LCT NAND gate increases up to 14.32%, 6.43% and 36.21% and delay decreases by 22.5%, 42% and 9% for variation of temperature, supply voltage and aspect ratio. Maximum peak of equivalent output noise is obtained as 127.531 nV/Sqrt(Hz at 400 mHz.

  6. Piperine Enhances the Protective Effect of Curcumin Against 3-NP Induced Neurotoxicity: Possible Neurotransmitters Modulation Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shamsher; Jamwal, Sumit; Kumar, Puneet

    2015-08-01

    3-Nitropropionic acid (3-NP) is a fungal toxin well established model used for inducing symptoms of Huntington's disease. Curcumin a natural polyphenol has been reported to possess neuroprotective activity by decreasing oxidative stress. The aim of present study was to investigate neuroprotective effect of curcumin with piperine (bioavailability enhancer) against 3-NP induced neurotoxicity in rats. Administration of 3-NP (10 mg/kg for 21 days) showed loss in body weight, declined motor function and changes in biochemical (LPO, nitrite and glutathione level), neuroinflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β level) and neurochemical (DA, NE, 5-HT, DOPAC, 5-HIAA and HVA). Chronic treatment with curcumin (25 and 50 mg/kg) and curcumin (25 mg/kg) with piperine (2.5 mg/kg) once daily for 21 days prior to 3-NP administration. All the behavioral parameters were studied at 1st, 7th, 14th, and 21st day. On 22nd day all the animals was scarified and striatum was separated. Curcumin alone and combination (25 mg/kg) with piperine (2.5 mg/kg) showed beneficial effect against 3-NP induced motor deficit, biochemical and neurochemical abnormalities in rats. Piperine (2.5 mg/kg) with curcumin (25 mg/kg) significantly enhances its protective effect as compared with curcumin alone treated group. The results of the present study indicate that protective effect of curcumin potentiated in the presence of piperine (bioavailability enhancer) against 3-NP-induced behavioral and molecular alteration.

  7. Waste dislodging and conveyance testing summary and conclusions to date

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinker, M.W.; Hatchell, B.K.; Mullen, O.D.

    1994-09-01

    This document summarizes recent work performed by the Waste Dislodging and Conveyance technology development program to provide assistance with the retrieval of wastes from the Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). This work is sponsored by the Underground Storage Tank-Integrated Demonstration (UST-ID) Office with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development. A baseline technology of high-pressure water-jet dislodging and pneumatic conveyance integrated as a scarifier is proposed as a means of retrieval. The tests and studies described were performed to demonstrate that at least one robust technology exists that could be effectively used with low water-addition arm-based systems. These results are preliminary and do not represent an optimized baseline. The Waste Dislodging and Conveyance work thus far has demonstrated that waterjet mobilization and air conveyance can mobilize and convey SST waste simulants at the target rates while operating within the space envelope and the dynamic loading constraints of deployment devices. The recommended technologies are well proven in industrial applications and are quite robust, yet lightweight and relatively benign to the retrieval environment. The baseline approach has versatility to continuously dislodge and convey a broad range of waste forms, from hard wastes to soft sludge wastes. The approach also has the major advantage of being noncontact with the waste surface under normal operation

  8. Effect of water and saline stress on germination of Atriplex nummularia (Chenopodiaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, Monica B; Parera, Carlos A

    2013-01-01

    Saline soils, characteristic of arid zones, can affect the germination of the species due to low water potential or ion toxicity. The effect of water and saline stress on germination was evaluated in atriplex nummularia a potential source of forage for arid zones. the seeds were scarified to reduce the inhibitory effect on germination and incubated in at 23 Celsius degrade on germination paper imbibed with solutions of sodium chloride (NaCl) and polyethylene glycol (peg) at three water potentials: -0,5; -1,0 and -1,5 MPA. The percentage germination and germination speed were significantly affected by the concentration of the solution and the solute used. While more negative osmotic potentials, the percentage of germination and germination speed were significantly lower. The seeds germinated in peg solution have higher germination and germination speed than the seeds germinated in NaCl, especially in -1,0 MPA. The data suggest that the seeds of a. nummularia show sensitivity to the presence of Na+ and Cl- ions affecting the germination process.

  9. Les noms propres dans le discours politique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina BELOUS

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Political speech is very important at the beginning of the 21st century. The democratization process developed in most of the European countries makes the political speech the most popular form of political “attack”. The task of the effective political speech is to persuade. The elements that con-tribute to the process of persuasion are not obviously expressed in the text, that is why we have to accept that a complete study of a political speech must include elements of the psychology, sociology and not only. Studying the political speeches shows that there is a number of words which are used the most: justice, efficiency, perspective, order, solution, unemployment and in some countries – salary. The chosen words determine the success and the effect of the speech. The proper nouns can provide connotations which allow the hidden critics: e.g. Iraq will be a second Vietnam for G. W. Bush. This is direct critic of the war in Iraq by making a parallel with the Vietnam War, the most unsuccessful war in the history of American strategy. The name “Mussolini” means more than a historical personality, it means fascism, Italy, war. Lenin, name that means a lot for ones, symbolizes at the same time rising against the church, scarifying everything for “the collectivity”, totalitarianism. By using proper nouns in the political speeches it is possible to align and compare many actual problems to the past experiences.

  10. Fabrication of dye sensitized solar cells with a double layer photoanode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pirhadi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye sensitized solar cell was fabricated from a double layer photoanode. First, TiO2 nanoparticles  were synthesized by hydrothermal method. These TiO2 NPs were deposited on FTO glasses by electrophoretic deposition  method in applied voltage of 5 V and EPD time of 2.5-10 min. Then TiO2 hollow spheres (HSs were synthesized by sacrificed template method with Carbon Spheres as template and TTIP as precursor. Then these template scarified and the hollow structures found. Since the HSs paste was prepared as same method of prepared TiO2 nano particles and this paste was deposited on last layer by Dr. Blade method. The prepared photoanodes was soaped in N-719 dye after sintering in 500 ÚC. The dye sensitized solar cells  were fabricated with the finalized double layer photoanodes. The best photovoltaic characteristics of the optimized cell were 734 mV, 13.16 mA/cm2, 62% and 5.96% for Voc, Jsc, F.F. and efficiency respectively.

  11. Assessment of Selected Parameters of the Automatic Scarification Device as an Example of a Device for Sustainable Forest Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Tadeusiewicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to technological progress in forestry, seedlings with covered root systems—especially those grown in container nurseries—have become increasingly important in forest nursery production. One the trees that is most commonly grown this way is the common oak (Quercus robur L.. For an acorn to be sown in a container, it is necessary to remove its upper part during mechanical scarification, and evaluate its sowing suitability. At present, this is mainly done manually and by visual assessment. The low effectiveness of this method of acorn preparation has encouraged a search for unconventional solutions. One of them is the use of an automated device that consists of a computer vision-based module. For economic reasons related to the cost of growing seedlings in container nurseries, it is beneficial to minimize the contribution of unhealthy seeds. The maximum accuracy, which is understood as the number of correct seed diagnoses relative to the total number of seeds being assessed, was adopted as a criterion for choosing a separation threshold. According to the method proposed, the intensity and red components of the images of scarified acorns facilitated the best results in terms of the materials examined during the experiment. On average, a 10% inaccuracy of separation was observed. A secondary outcome of the presented research is an evaluation of the ergonomic parameters of the user interface that is attached to the unit controlling the device when it is running in its autonomous operation mode.

  12. Photodynamic effect produced by HeNe radiation in Harderian glands of Wistar rats: an experimental model for PDT studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Reis, Edmyr R.; Nicola, Ester M. D.; Metze, Konradin; Nicola, Jorge H.

    2000-06-01

    In rats, the Harderian Gland secret Protoporphirin IX which is retained at acinar lumina. Since this photosensitizer is important for PDT of malignant tumors, we propose to study this gland as a model to help understanding PDT with endogenous photosensitizers. Twenty Wistar SPF adult rats were submitted to surgical exposure of both Harderian glands, revealing red fluorescence upon UV, characterizing the protoporphirin IX presence. After that, one gland of each pair (one kept as control) was irradiated with an 8 mW HeNe (6328 angstrom) for 45 minutes, delivering about 2.7 joules/mm2. After 24 hours a group of 10 animals were scarified and the glands removed for histological analysis. The remaining animals were subjected to the same procedure but the glands were removed immediately after laser treatment. Histological and fluorescence analysis immediately after laser irradiation showed cell fragmentation with loss of acinar architecture with diffusion of protoporphirin in the cytoplasm of damaged cells, as well as interstitial edema. After 24 hours these alterations were more pronounced with accentuated loss of intraluminal protoporphirin and beginning of leukocytic demarcation of necrotic areas. The innate Harderian glands of rats, exposed to HeNe laser, showed a similar behavior as tumor tissue under PDT.

  13. Fire cue effects on seed germination of six species of northwestern Patagonian grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, S. L.; Ghermandi, L.

    2012-09-01

    Postfire recruitment of seedlings has been attributed to a stimulation of germination by fire-related cues. The germination response to heat shock (80 °C - 5 min), smoke (60 min), the combination of both factors and no heat no smoke (control) was studied in six native species (two dominant grasses, two dominant shrubs and two annual fugitive herbs) of northwestern Patagonian grasslands. Seeds of the grasses Festuca pallescens and Stipa speciosa and the shrub Senecio bracteolatus (Asteraceae) germinated when they were exposed to heat shock, whereas seeds of the other shrub, Mulinum spinosum (Apiaceae), were killed by this fire cue. In grasses, probably the glume of caryopsis protected embryos from heat. Possibly, the seed size could explain the different responses of the two shrubs. Heat combined with smoke reduced seed germination for S. speciosa and S. bracteolatus. The heat could have scarified seeds and the longer exposure to smoke could have been toxic for embryos. The same treatment increased germination of the annual fugitive herb Boopis gracilis (Calyceraceae). We concluded that fire differentially affects the seedling recruitment of the studied species in the northwestern Patagonian grasslands.

  14. Engineering development of waste retrieval end effectors for the Oak Ridge gunite waste tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, O.D.

    1997-05-01

    The Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory selected the waterjet scarifying end effector, the jet pump conveyance system, and the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm and Houdini Remotely Operated Vehicle deployment and manipulator systems for evaluation. The waterjet-based retrieval end effector had been developed through several generations of test articles targeted at deployment in Hanford underground storage tanks with a large robotic arm. The basic technology had demonstrated effectiveness at retrieval of simulants bounding the foreseen range of waste properties and indicated compatibility with the planned deployment systems. The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements team was tasked with developing a version of the retrieval end effector tailored to the Oak Ridge tanks, waste and deployment platforms. The finished prototype was delivered to PNNL and subjected to a brief round of characterization and performance testing at the Hydraulic Testbed prior to shipment to Oak Ridge. It has undergone extensive operational testing in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility and performed well, as expected. A second unit has been delivered outfitted with the high pressure manifold

  15. Influence of Scarification on the Germination Capacity of Acorns Harvested from Uneven-Aged Stands of Pedunculate Oak (Quercus robur L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdzisław Kaliniewicz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Scarification involves the partial removal of the seed coat on the side of the hilum, opposite the radicle, to speed up germination in acorns. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of scarification on the germination capacity of pedunculate oak acorns, selected and prepared for sowing. The diameter, length and mass of acorns were measured before and after scarification in four batches of acorns harvested from uneven-aged trees (76, 91, 131 and 161 years. The measured parameters were used to determine the correlations between acorn dimensions and mass, and to calculate the dimensional scarification index and the mass scarification index in acorns. Individual complete and scarified acorns from every batch were germinated on sand and peat substrate for 28 days. The analyzed acorns were characterized by average size and mass. Scarification decreased acorn mass by around 22% and acorn length by around 31% on average. Scarification and the elimination of infected acorns increased germination capacity from around 64% to around 81% on average. Acorns can be divided into size groups before scarification to obtain seed material with varied germination capacity. Larger acorns with higher germination capacity can be used for sowing in container nurseries, whereas smaller acorns with lower germination capacity can be sown in open-field nurseries.

  16. Intrastromal Injection of China Painting Ink in Corneas of Male Rabbits: Clinical and Histological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alahmady Hamad Alsmman Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Many patients with corneal opacity or complicated cataract in blind eye ask for cosmoses. In this study we tried to investigate the staining of corneas of male rabbits by Rotring China painting ink and to study the histological changes. Method. 10 eyes of 10 male Baladi Egyptian rabbits were injected (0.1 mL intrastromally in the cornea by the use of China painting ink (Rotring Tinta China through insulin syringe (27-gauge needle by single injection; clinical follow-up is for 6 months and lastly the rabbits were scarified and the stained eyes were enucleated for histological analysis. Results. Clinically the stain was stable in color and distribution in corneas with no major complications. Histological results of the stained rabbit corneas showed blackish pigmentation in the corneal stroma without any inflammatory cellular infiltration. Some fibroblast cells had pigment granules in their cytoplasm in the adjacent layers. Conclusion. Corneal staining by China painting ink is effective and safe in staining of male rabbits cornea; however further study in human corneas with longer follow-up period is advisable.

  17. MADRES E HIJOS EN CONTEXTOS CARCELARIOS Y POST-CARCELARIOS. ESTUDIO DE CASO. PROVINCIA DEL NEUQUÉN (ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Kalinsky

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Children role assigned by their mothers in prison based on Argentinean law on the execution of criminal sanction where for children who are 5 five years old and were had in prison maybe because their mothers were pregnant before they were in prison or have them in pris- on the ones called children of prison, it is allowed to stay with their mothers and later they are given to other care givers; children or adult had previously are out of this law, is addressed in this paper. Children receive an ambigu- ous, intermittent and circumstantial positive and nega- tive value during and after their mothers’ time in pris- on. These children are considered as Figures of Feeling based on existential, transcendental and simultaneous or alternative sense in order to improve their conditions of confinement . Since motherhood is possible and widely accepted in prison where to have committed a crime and not to behave as mother, let us to consider them as bad woman and mother. For these women being a mother again provides a positive identity in an unfavorable social context of confinement. Based on current standards mother can be committed to parenting and supply their children needs scarifying their own ones since this duty did not have fulfilled in the past they wish to be as closer as possible to the aim called being mothers, convinced that when they get freedom can be able to get rid of that unfavorable adjectives (stigmas and improve their conditions of confinement.

  18. Pentek concrete scabbling system: Baseline report; Greenbook (chapter)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The Pentek scabbling technology was tested at Florida International University (FIU) and is being evaluated as a baseline technology. This report evaluates it for safety and health issues. It is a commercially available technology and has been used for various projects at locations throughout the country. The Pentek concrete scabbling system consisted of the MOOSE, SQUIRREL-I, and SQUIRREL-III scabblers. The scabblers are designed to scarify concrete floors and slabs using cross-section, tungsten carbide tipped bits. The bits are designed to remove concrete in 318 inch increments. The bits are either 9-tooth or demolition type. The scabblers are used with a vacuum system designed to collect and filter the concrete dust and contamination that is removed from the surface. The safety and health evaluation conducted during the testing demonstration focused on two main areas of exposure: dust and noise. Dust exposure was minimal, but noise exposure was significant. Further testing for each of these exposures is recommended. Because of the outdoor environment where the testing demonstration took place, results may be inaccurate. It is feasible that the dust and noise levels will be higher in an enclosed operating environment. Other areas of concern were arm-hand vibration, whole-body vibration, ergonomics, heat stress, tripping hazards, electrical hazards, machine guarding, and lockout/tagout

  19. Study of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel Seed Extract Effects on Serum Level of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadeghpour Nahid

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The Foeniculum vulgare (FVE, known as fennel, has a long history of herbal uses as both food and medicine. The seed of this plant has been used to promote menstruation, alleviate the symptoms of female climacteric, and increase the number of ovarian follicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate the fennel extract effects on serum level of oxidative stress in female mice. Materials and Methods: Totally, 28 virgin female albino mice were divided into four groups (n = 7. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental groups were administered FVE at 100 and at a concentration of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 5 days, interaperitoneally. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and Group 4 (positive control received normal saline. Animals were scarified at 6th day, sera were collected and the level of oxidative stress was determination of using total antioxidant status kit. Results: Data analysis revealed that there is a significant difference in the mean level of serum oxidative stress between four different groups. P value in experimental groups compared to the control group was (P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Fennel extract can decrease the serum level of oxidative factors in female mice; it can be introduced as a novel medicine for treatment of infertility

  20. Leaching of organic contaminants from storage of reclaimed asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norin, Malin; Strömvall, A M

    2004-03-01

    Recycling of asphalt has been promoted by rapid increases in both the use and price of petroleum-based bitumen. Semi-volatile organic compounds in leachates from reclaimed asphalt pavement, measured in field samples and in laboratory column test, were analysed through a GC/MS screen-test methodology. Sixteen PAH (polyaromatic hydrocarbons) were also analysed in leachates from the column study. The highest concentrations of semi-volatile compounds, approximately 400 microg l(-1), were measured in field samples from the scarified stockpile. Naphthalene, butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were the most dominant of the identified semi-volatiles. The occurrence of these compounds in urban groundwater, also indicate high emission rates and persistent structures of the compounds, making them potentially hazardous. Car exhausts, rubber tires and the asphalt material itself are all probable emission sources, determined from the organic contaminants released from the stockpiles. The major leaching mechanism indicated was dissolution of organic contaminants from the surface of the asphalt gravels. In the laboratory column test, the release of high-molecular weight and more toxic PAH was higher in the leachates after two years than at the commencement of storage. The concentrations of semi-volatiles in leachates, were also several times lower than those from the field stockpile. These results demonstrate the need to follow up laboratory column test with real field measurements.

  1. Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goulet, France

    2000-01-01

    Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the

  2. Conservação in vitro de Cochlospermum regium (Schrank pilg.- cochlospermaceae sob regime de crescimento mínimo In vitro conservation of Cochlospermum regium (Schrank pilg.- cochlospermaceae under minimal growth storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Camillo

    2009-01-01

    conservation of "algodão-do-campo", contributing to studies on the micropropagation of this species. In vitro germination was evaluated in "algodão-do-campo" seeds subjected to scarification or not with sulfuric acid and inoculation in MS medium. For in vitro conservation, nodal segments from in vitro-germinated seedlings were evaluated for 90 days at three temperatures (10, 20 and 25ºC and three WPM medium concentrations (½, ¾ and full-strength. Scarified seeds presented 93.3% in vitro germination at 30 days of cultivation, a significantly higher value than the 13.3% observed for non-scarified seeds. The in vitro conservation of "algodão-do-campo" showed to be viable once cultures are kept in a growth chamber at 20ºC in ½ WPM medium. Under such conditions, the explants presented a minimal growth and 100% survival after three evaluation months.

  3. Frost heaving of planted tree seedlings in the boreal forest of northern Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goulet, France

    2000-07-01

    Frost heaving can be a leading cause of tree seedling mortality in many places in the boreal forest of Northern Sweden. The aim of this investigation was to improve our understanding of frost heaving of planted tree seedlings as related to snow cover, scarification, planting methods and soil types. The thesis is based on a review paper, three field experiments and one laboratory experiment. The experiments focus on different methods to control frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and on a number of factors affecting the extent of frost heaving. The review paper identifies the many aspects of frost heaving of forest tree seedlings and agricultural crops based on an intensive review of the research contributions made during the last century. Even if many investigations have been carried out with the aim to decrease the extent of frost heaving, very little quantitative results are available for tree seedlings. In a field experiment, the choice of planting positions was effective in decreasing frost heaving of planted seedlings following mounding or disc-trenching. Seedlings planted in the depressions were largely affected by frost heaving with a maximal vertical displacement of 5.4 cm while frost heaving did not occur on the top of the mound. On the other hand, the planting time and planting depth had no influence on the extent of frost heaving. In another field experiment the size of the scarified patches was strongly correlated to frost heaving which reached between 7.6 and 11.5 cm in 4 and 8-dm patches compared to between 4.4 and 5.3 in non-scarified soil and in a 1-dm patch. Ground vegetation probably decreases the diurnal temperature variation and the number of freezing-thawing cycles. The duration and magnitude of frost temperatures, the frost hour sum, increased with patch size. The difference between the 8-dm and 1-dm patch increased to 2064 hour-degrees at the end of the winter. In larger patches, the planting depth seemed to be effective in reducing the

  4. Effects of Kerack used in addict Iranian people on fertility of adult mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Amini

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Infertility is one of the most serious social problems. Illicit drug use can be an important cause of male factor infertility. Kerack which its use is rising up in Iran refers to a high purity street-level heroin (heroin Kerack. Heroin Kerack used in Iran is an opioid and has harmful effects on body organs. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of Kerack used in Iran on fertility adult mice.Methods: In this study, 25 male mice were divided into five groups (control, sham and three experimental. Experimental groups of Kerack-dependent mice (received ascend-ing dose of Kerack for seven days were divided into three categories, experimental I, II and III. Experimental I was given Kerack at a dose of 5 mg/kg, experimental II 35 mg/kg and experimental III 70 mg/kg, intraperitoneally twice a day for a period of 35 days. The sham group received normal saline and lemon juice (2.6 µl/ml whilst the control group just received water and food. Mice were then scarified and sperm removed from cauda epididymis were analyzed for sperm count, motility, morphology (normal/abnormal and viability. Testes were also removed, weighed and processed for light microscopic studies.Results: The results showed that fertility were significantly decreased in addicted mice compared with control groups (P≤0.05. Epididymal sperm parameters and thickness of seminiferous epithelium were significantly decreased in experimental groups (dose-dependent compared with sham and control groups (P≤0.05. Gonadosomatic index was significantly reduced with high dose Kerack injected (70 mg/kg in comparison with control testes (P≤0.05.Conclusion: This study has shown the deleterious effects of Kerack used in addicted Iranian people on fertility for the first time. This effect is especially on epididymal sperm parameters in adult mice.

  5. Synthesis of hapten and preparation of specific polyclonal antibody with high affinity for lenalidomide, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma

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    Darwish Ibrahim A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of lenalidomide (LND, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM, a specific antibody was required for the development of a sensitive immunoassay system for the accurate determination of LND in plasma. Results In this study, a hapten of LND (N-glutaryl-LND was synthesized by introducing the glutaryl moiety, as a spacer, into the primary aromatic amine site of the LND molecular structure. The structure of the hapten (G-LND was confirmed by mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C spectrometric techniques. G-LND was coupled to each of bovine serum albumin (BSA and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH proteins by ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide as a coupling reagent. LND-KLH conjugate was used as an immunogen. Four female 2-3 months old New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with an emulsion of LND-KLH with Freund`s adjuvant. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using LND-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and affinity to LND was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography on protein A column. The specificity of the purified antibody for LND was evaluated by indirect competitive ELISA using dexamethasone as a competitor as it is used with LND in a combination therapy. Conclusions The high affinity of the antibody (IC50 = 10 ng/mL will be useful in the development of an immunoassay system for the determination of plasma LND concentrations. Current research is going to optimize the assay conditions and validate the procedures for the routine application in clinical laboratories.

  6. Synthesis of hapten and preparation of specific polyclonal antibody with high affinity for lenalidomide, the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Ibrahim A; Alzoman, Nourh Z; Abuhejail, Reem M; El-Samani, Tilal E

    2012-10-26

    For therapeutic monitoring and pharmacokinetic studies of lenalidomide (LND), the potent drug for treatment of multiple myeloma (MM), a specific antibody was required for the development of a sensitive immunoassay system for the accurate determination of LND in plasma. In this study, a hapten of LND (N-glutaryl-LND) was synthesized by introducing the glutaryl moiety, as a spacer, into the primary aromatic amine site of the LND molecular structure. The structure of the hapten (G-LND) was confirmed by mass, 1H-NMR, and 13C spectrometric techniques. G-LND was coupled to each of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) proteins by ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide as a coupling reagent. LND-KLH conjugate was used as an immunogen. Four female 2-3 months old New Zealand white rabbits were immunized with an emulsion of LND-KLH with Freund`s adjuvant. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using LND-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and affinity to LND was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by affinity chromatography on protein A column. The specificity of the purified antibody for LND was evaluated by indirect competitive ELISA using dexamethasone as a competitor as it is used with LND in a combination therapy. The high affinity of the antibody (IC50 = 10 ng/mL) will be useful in the development of an immunoassay system for the determination of plasma LND concentrations. Current research is going to optimize the assay conditions and validate the procedures for the routine application in clinical laboratories.

  7. Ozone exposure of a weed community produces adaptive changes in seed populations of Spergula arvensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer B Landesmann

    Full Text Available Tropospheric ozone is one of the major drivers of global change. This stress factor alters plant growth and development. Ozone could act as a selection pressure on species communities composition, but also on population genetic background, thus affecting life history traits. Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of prolonged ozone exposure of a weed community on phenotypic traits of Spergulaarvensis linked to persistence. Specifically, we predicted that the selection pressure exerted by high ozone concentrations as well as the concomitant changes in the weed community would drive population adaptive changes which will be reflected on seed germination, dormancy and longevity. In order to test seed viability and dormancy level, we conducted germination experiments for which we used seeds produced by S. arvensis plants grown within a weed community exposed to three ozone treatments during four years (0, 90 and 120 ppb. We also performed a soil seed bank experiment to test seed longevity with seeds coming from both the four-year ozone exposure experiment and from a short-term treatment conducted at ambient and added ozone concentrations. We found that prolonged ozone exposure produced changes in seed germination, dormancy and longevity, resulting in three S. arvensis populations. Seeds from the 90 ppb ozone selection treatment had the highest level of germination when stored at 75% RH and 25 °C and then scarified. These seeds showed the lowest dormancy level when being subjected to 5 ºC/5% RH and 25 ºC/75% followed by 5% RH storage conditions. Furthermore, ozone exposure increased seed persistence in the soil through a maternal effect. Given that tropospheric ozone is an important pollutant in rural areas, changes in seed traits due to ozone exposure could increase weed persistence in fields, thus affecting weed-crop interactions, which could ultimately reduce crop production.

  8. North Tank Farm data report for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rule, V.A.; Burks, B.L.; Hoesen, S.D. van

    1998-05-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science and Technology, in cooperation with the Oak Ridge Environmental Management Program, has developed and demonstrated the first full-scale remotely operated system for cleaning radioactive liquid and waste from large underground storage tanks. The remotely operated waste retrieval system developed and demonstrated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is designed to accomplish both retrieval of bulk waste, including liquids, thick sludge, and scarified concrete, and final tank cleaning. This report provides a summary of the North Tank Farm (NTF) operations data and an assessment of the performance and efficiency of the waste retrieval system during NTF operations data and an assessment of the performance and efficiency of the waste retrieval system during NTF operations. The organization of this report is as follows: Section 1 provides an introduction to the report. Section 2 describes the NTF tank structures (W-3 and W-4 only) and the contents of the tanks. Section 3 outlines the objectives of the NTF testing and explains how these objectives were met. Section 4 provides a description of the various operating systems used in the NTF operations. Sections 5 and 6 present a summary of the data collected during NTF operations. Section 7 summarizes the maintenance activities performed and Section 8 summarizes the on-the-job training performed in the NTF. Section 9 summarizes the capital cost for the waste retrieval and characterization equipment and operating costs for performing the NTF work. Section 10 provides observations and lessons learned, and Section 11 provides a summary and conclusions

  9. Protective Effect of Nigella Sativa Black Seed Oil And Freshly Crushed Seeds In Rats During Tumour Induction And Radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdallah, N.M.; Eldosoky, H.M.; Mohamed, H.E.; Noaman, E.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the potency of Nigella sativa freshly crushed seeds (0.42 g/ kg body weight) or oil (2.5 ml/kg body weight) for preventing tumor induction through exposure of rats to a common pollutant (1,4- Dioxane) as a promoter under condition of the presence of an initiator (N-nitrosodiethylamine). The antitumor effect was evaluated alone or in combination with low doses of irradiation as a route of cancer treatment. Female Swiss albino rats were administrated orally twice weekly with Nigella sativa before and during exposure of rats to the carcinogenic compounds. Animals were exposed to 3 doses of radiation (3 Gy/ dose) day after day 2 weeks before the end of the experiment. The animals were scarified after one week of radiation. Homocysteine,'glutathione, lipid peroxide, GGT activity, nitric oxide, total protein, albumin and bilirubin levels were estimated in blood after 7 and 12 months from the start of the experiment. Rats injected with the carcinogenic compounds showed marked elevation in homocysteine, GGT activity, nitric oxide, bilirubin and lipid peroxide levels accompanied by a significant decrease in glutathione, total proteins and albumin levels. Pretreatment with Nigella sativa alone or combined with γ- irradiation potentially reversed the investigated parameters. Moreover, Nigella sativa significantly suppressed the growth of the tumor and efficiently produced synergistic effect with γ-irradiation. Therefore, Nigella sativa may be a good candidate to prevent tumor induction and so, it is advicable to use freshly crushed seeds during irradiation treatment in cancer patients as they gave more effective protection than the oil extract.

  10. Ash addition after whole-tree harvesting on fertile sites in southern Sweden Establishment of two field trials; Askaaterfoering efter skogsbraensleuttag paa boerdig skogsmark i soedra Sverige Anlaeggning av tvaa faeltfoersoek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikstroem, Ulf; Hoegbom, Lars; Jacobson, Staffan; Lundstroem, Hagos; Ring, Eva

    2012-02-15

    In Sweden, the Swedish Forest Agency recommend ash recycling after whole-tree harvest (WTH), i.e. the whole tree above the stump is harvested. If this recommendation is complied, ash recycling will become a quite extensive forestry practice. To gain more knowledge regarding effects of ash on tree growth, storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) in the upper soil, and soil-water chemistry, two field experiments were established. The experimental design was a randomized block design. Both experiments were installed on quite fertile sites in southern Sweden. On fertile sites (C/N less than 30), ash addition is hypothesized to increase tree growth, reduce the storage of C and N in the upper soil, and increase the concentrations of nitrate in soil water. One experiment (291 Guvarp) was established on a recently harvested clear cut. The sample plots were soil scarified by disc trenching and planted with Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) seedlings. Seedling height was measured at planting, and, two months later, seedling survival and height growth in 2011 was recorded. The other experiment (290 Bala) was located to a Norway spruce stand that was thinned by WTH. The initial registration and sampling comprised stand data and sampling of the upper soil (FH-layer). In addition, suction cups were installed at 50 cm depth for sampling of soil water. The experiments were designed for long-term monitoring, comprising several decades. For most of the variables registered, data did not show any significant differences among means for the plots representing different treatments. Pre-treatment data for individual plots showed acceptable comparability among plots within the blocks, which is a good starting point for detecting future changes caused by the treatments

  11. Effect of PVA Blending on Structural and Ion Transport Properties of CS:AgNt-Based Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujahadeen B. Aziz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the role of poly(vinyl alcohol (PVA blending on structural and electrical properties of chitosan:silver nitrate systems is studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD results show that the crystalline phase of chitosan (CS is greatly scarified by silver nitrate (AgNt salt. The crystalline domain of CS:AgNt is more broadened at 10 wt % of PVA. The spike and semicircular arcs can be separated in impedance plots. At high temperatures, the spike regions remained. The direct current (DC conductivity was calculated from the bulk resistance obtained from the impedance plots. The dielectric constant and DC conductivity versus PVA content exhibited similar behavior. The maximum DC conductivity at ambient temperature was 1.1 × 10−6 S/cm for 10 wt % of PVA. The DC ionic conductivity increased to 9.95 × 10−5 S/cm at 80 °C. Above 10 wt % of PVA, the drop in DC conductivity and dielectric constant were observed due to the increase in viscosity. Shifting of relaxation peaks towards the lower frequency revealed the increase of resistivity of the samples. The linear increase of DC conductivity versus 1000/T indicated that ion transport followed the Arrhenius model. The incomplete semicircular arc in Argand plots indicated the non-Debye type of relaxation process. The Argand plots were used to distinguish between conductivity relaxation and viscoelastic relaxation. Three regions were distinguished in the alternating current (AC spectra of the blend electrolyte samples. The plateau region in AC spectra was used to estimate the DC conductivity. The estimated DC conductivity from the AC spectra was close to those calculated from the impedance plots.

  12. Effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on non-thermal activation of the hsp27/p38MAPK stress pathway in rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Meena, Ramovatar; Nirala, Jayprakash; Kumar, Jitender; Verma, H N

    2014-03-01

    Cell phone radiation exposure and its biological interaction is the present concern of debate. Present study aimed to investigate the effect of 3G cell phone exposure with computer controlled 2-D stepper motor on 45-day-old male Wistar rat brain. Animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 60 days by using mobile phone with angular movement up to zero to 30°. The variation of the motor is restricted to 90° with respect to the horizontal plane, moving at a pre-determined rate of 2° per minute. Immediately after 60 days of exposure, animals were scarified and numbers of parameters (DNA double-strand break, micronuclei, caspase 3, apoptosis, DNA fragmentation, expression of stress-responsive genes) were performed. Result shows that microwave radiation emitted from 3G mobile phone significantly induced DNA strand breaks in brain. Meanwhile a significant increase in micronuclei, caspase 3 and apoptosis were also observed in exposed group (P 3G mobile phone exposure causes a transient increase in phosphorylation of hsp27, hsp70, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), which leads to mitochondrial dysfunction-mediated cytochrome c release and subsequent activation of caspases, involved in the process of radiation-induced apoptotic cell death. Study shows that the oxidative stress is the main factor which activates a variety of cellular signal transduction pathways, among them the hsp27/p38MAPK is the pathway of principle stress response. Results conclude that 3G mobile phone radiations affect the brain function and cause several neurological disorders.

  13. Partial debarking of energy wood stems in production of high quality fuel chips and fuel logs (DryMe); Runkopuun osittainen kuorinta metsaehakkeen ja pilkkeidentuotantoketjussa (DryMe) - PUUT58

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikanen, L.; Roeser, D.; Tahvanainen, T.; Prinz, R. [Finnish Forest Research Institute, Joensuu (Finland); Erkkilae, A.; Heikkinen, A.; Hillebrand, K. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2007-07-01

    Small wood chip fueled heating plants require high quality chips in order to achieve low service need and problem free running. Low moisture content is considered to be the most important quality factor in wood based fuels. On the other hand, drying should be efficient and handy as a part of supply chain. Rapidly growing small-scale wood energy business needs new methods to ensure availability of high quality fuel. Partial debarking of both boreal broadleaved and coniferous species is known as effective method to dry timber during storing. Anyhow, proper place for storing and convenient weather conditions are needed. Partly debarked stems could be also the raw material for wood pellets. In Finnish studies, for example, storing over one summer took moisture content down from 40% to 27% with partly debarked birch logs. Some preliminary tests have been made also in Scotland and England with baled residues and small diameter logs without debarking. Even British climate seems to be suitable for natural drying of logs. In Central Europe, natural drying is crucial in order to achieve high quality of forest chips for heating. The aims of the DryMe-project are: (1) Remodify and study harvester head which is capable to debark energy wood stems. The aim is to create modified feeding rolls and delimbing knives or extra debarking device, which remove effectively 30-50% of bark during normal harvesting work. The success of debarking will be tested by field experiments and drying trials. Method should work with Silver Birch, Scots Pine and Lodgepole Pine. (2) Test different kinds of bark scarifying patterns and methods according to their capability to evaporate water out from the logs in natural drying. (orig.)

  14. [Research on the relevance between the virulent genes differential expression and pathogenecity of Leptospira with microarray].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, De-li; Bao, Lang

    2015-01-01

    To find the change of virulent gene expression and to analyze the relevance between the virulent change and the gene expression. Grouped guinea pigs were inoculated with 1 mL Leptospira cultured in vivo, Leptospira cultured in vitro and the Leptospira culture medium through abdominal subcutaneous respectively. The survival rate, body mass and temperature change of guinea pigs in different groups were measured within 15 d after the inoculation, then the survived guinea pigs were scarified, and the organ coefficient was also measured to know the virulence of Leptospira cultured in different environment. The amplified gene segments from Leptospira were used as probes and wrote the microarray. The total RNA was extracted from Leptospira standard strain cultured in culture medium and guinea pigs. After reverse transcription to cDNA, they were labeled with Cy3 and Cy5 respectively. Labeled cDNA was mixed and hybridized with the microarray. The hybridized mircroarray was scanned and analysed. The survival rate of inoculated guinea pig was different from group to group (in vivo group: 0%; in vitro group: 88.9%; culture medium group: 100%). The guinea pigs in vivo group had a higher temperature (PLeptospira: LA1027, LA1029, LA4004, LA3050, LA3540, LA0327, LA0378, LA1650, LA3937, LA2089, LA2144, LA3576, LA0011 and gene of Loa22 were up regulation after continuously cultured in guinea pigs. The pathogenic ability of Leptospira cultured in different environment is different and the gene expression of Leptospira is different between in vivo and in vitro as well. The understanding of the meaning of this change might help to know the pathogenecity of Leptospira.

  15. Static resistivity image of a cubic saline phantom in magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byung Il; Oh, Suk Hoon; Woo, Eung Je; Lee, Soo Yeol; Cho, Min Hyeong; Kwon, Ohin; Seo, Jin Keun; Baek, Woon Sik

    2003-05-01

    In magnetic resonance electrical impedance tomography (MREIT) we inject currents through electrodes placed on the surface of a subject and try to reconstruct cross-sectional resistivity (or conductivity) images using internal magnetic flux density as well as boundary voltage measurements. In this paper we present a static resistivity image of a cubic saline phantom (50 x 50 x 50 mm3) containing a cylindrical sausage object with an average resistivity value of 123.7 ohms cm. Our current MREIT system is based on an experimental 0.3 T MRI scanner and a current injection apparatus. We captured MR phase images of the phantom while injecting currents of 28 mA through two pairs of surface electrodes. We computed current density images from magnetic flux density images that are proportional to the MR phase images. From the current density images and boundary voltage data we reconstructed a cross-sectional resistivity image within a central region of 38.5 x 38.5 mm2 at the middle of the phantom using the J-substitution algorithm. The spatial resolution of the reconstructed image was 64 x 64 and the reconstructed average resistivity of the sausage was 117.7 ohms cm. Even though the error in the reconstructed average resistivity value was small, the relative L2-error of the reconstructed image was 25.5% due to the noise in measured MR phase images. We expect improvements in the accuracy by utilizing an MRI scanner with higher SNR and increasing the size of voxels scarifying the spatial resolution.

  16. The Effects of Low LET Radiation and Aging on DNA Content in Rats Hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhtiar, A. M.

    2004-01-01

    It has been shown that the polyploidization levels in rat's hepatocytes increased with aging. The high LET ionizing radiation also induce cell polyploidization by two different means: cells and nuclei fusion, and mitosis restriction after DNA replication. The purpose of the present study was to determine the kinetic of rat's hepatocytes polyploidization with aging, and the late effects of low doses of gamma irradiation on polyploidization. Two groups of rats were used. Each group composed of 150 four weeks old animals. The first group was served as a control, and the second was irradiated with 4 Gy of gamma irradiation at the age of one month. Of each group, 7-8 animals were monthly scarified (for two years), and their liver tissues were used to obtain cell suspensions which were further fixed in gradual series concentrations of ethanol. After staining with Propidum Iodide PI (10 6 cells per ml of PI used at 10 - 5 M final concentration), the cells were analyzed on a FACS Vantage Flow Cytometer (Becton Dickinson). With the control group, the results showed: 1) A decrease of cell fraction that contained normal diploid until steady level. 2) Biphasic changes of fraction tetraploidy cells (increase until age of 4 month followed by decrease). 3) The fraction of octaploidy cells appeared at age of 3-4 month and increased continuously by the aging. In regard to life-span reductions of irradiated animals, the DNA contents were similar to those in control groups in addition to some variation due to a programmed cell death (Apoptosis) induced by irradiation and regenerations. These variations persisted till the age of 7 month. It was concluded that the level of DNA content might be used to determine the rat's age, and the low LET radiation had no effect on the phenomenon of polyploidization. (author)

  17. Generation of polyclonal antibody with high avidity to rosuvastatin and its use in development of highly sensitive ELISA for determination of rosuvastatin in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Malaq Hamoud A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, a polyclonal antibody with high avidity and specificity to the potent hypocholesterolaemic agent rosuvastatin (ROS has been prepared and used in the development of highly sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for determination of ROS in plasma. ROS was coupled to keyhole limpt hemocyanin (KLH and bovine serum albumin (BSA using carbodiimide reagent. ROS-KLH conjugate was used for immunization of female 8-weeks old New Zealand white rabbits. The immune response of the rabbits was monitored by direct ELISA using ROS-BSA immobilized onto microwell plates as a solid phase. The rabbit that showed the highest antibody titer and avidity to ROS was scarified and its sera were collected. The IgG fraction was isolated and purified by avidity chromatography on protein A column. The purified antibody showed high avidity to ROS; IC50 = 0.4 ng/ml. The specificity of the antibody for ROS was evaluated by indirect ELISA using various competitors from the ROS-structural analogues and the therapeutic agents used with ROS in a combination therapy. The proposed ELISA involved a competitive binding reaction between ROS, in plasma sample, and the immobilized ROS-BSA for the binding sites on a limited amount of the anti-ROS antibody. The bound anti-ROS antibody was quantified with horseradish peroxidase-labeled second anti-rabbit IgG antibody (HRP-IgG and 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB as a substrate for the peroxidase enzyme. The concentration of ROS in the sample was quantified by its ability to inhibit the binding of the anti-ROS antibody to the immobilized ROS-BSA and subsequently the color intensity in the assay wells. The assay enabled the determination of ROS in plasma at concentrations as low as 40 pg/ml.

  18. Prevention of Herpes Simplex Virus Induced Stromal Keratitis by a Glycoprotein B-Specific Monoclonal Antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Adalbert; Dirks, Miriam; Kasper, Maren; Buch, Anna; Dittmer, Ulf; Giebel, Bernd; Wildschütz, Lena; Busch, Martin; Goergens, Andre; Schneweis, Karl E.; Eis-Hübinger, Anna M.; Sodeik, Beate; Heiligenhaus, Arnd; Roggendorf, Michael; Bauer, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The increasing incidence of acyclovir (ACV) and multidrug-resistant strains in patients with corneal HSV-1 infections leading to Herpetic Stromal Keratitis (HSK) is a major health problem in industrialized countries and often results in blindness. To overcome this obstacle, we have previously developed an HSV-gB-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 2c) that proved to be highly protective in immunodeficient NOD/SCID-mice towards genital infections. In the present study, we examined the effectivity of mAb 2c in preventing the immunopathological disease HSK in the HSK BALB/c mouse model. Therefore, mice were inoculated with HSV-1 strain KOS on the scarified cornea to induce HSK and subsequently either systemically or topically treated with mAb 2c. Systemic treatment was performed by intravenous administration of mAb 2c 24 h prior to infection (pre-exposure prophylaxis) or 24, 40, and 56 hours after infection (post-exposure immunotherapy). Topical treatment was performed by periodical inoculations (5 times per day) of antibody-containing eye drops as control, starting at 24 h post infection. Systemic antibody treatment markedly reduced viral loads at the site of infection and completely protected mice from developing HSK. The administration of the antiviral antibody prior or post infection was equally effective. Topical treatment had no improving effect on the severity of HSK. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that mAb 2c proved to be an excellent drug for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections and for prevention of HSK and blindness. Moreover, the humanized counterpart (mAb hu2c) was equally effective in protecting mice from HSV-induced HSK when compared to the parental mouse antibody. These results warrant the future development of this antibody as a novel approach for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections in humans. PMID:25587898

  19. A Histopathological Study of Direct Pulp Capping with Adhesive Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Salhenejad

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Recently, it has been proposed that different adhesive materials can be used for direct pulp capping. Previous studies have demonstrated that multi steps dentin adhesives could form reparative dentin similar to calcium hydroxide (CH.Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological pulp response of ninety mechanically exposed cat pulps to two adhesive resins (Scotch Bond MP and Single Bond 3M were compared with a calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal, Dentsply.Materials and Methods : Class V facial cavities with similar pulpal exposures were prepared in canines. In the experimental groups phosphoric acid was used to etch the enamel and dentin and pulp exposure, and after it dentin adhesives was applied. The exposure point of the control group was capped with Dycal then the remainder of the cavities was etched and a dentin adhesive (single bond was applied. All of the cavities were restored with a composite resin (Z 100 in usual manner. The animals were scarified after 7, 30 and 60 days (n=30, and the pulp evaluated histologically, statistical analysis was carried out with Kruskal- Wallis test (a=0.05.Results: The data showed that most of the cases had mild inflammation of pulp tissue.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp by Dycal and two adhesive systems, severe inflammatory reaction of pulp was observed only in most of the 30- day Single Bond group. Soft tissue organization of dentin bridge was less than ScotchBond and Dycal groups, the differentiation of dentin bridge was less than Scotch Bond group after 7 days.Conclusion: Slight inflammatory cell infiltration was the main reaction of exposed pulp when two commercially available adhesive resins were placed directly on the exposed pulp.There was no significant difference in inflammatory reaction of pulp between Dycal and two adhesive systems after 7 days and 60 days. After 7 days most of the specimens showed an amount of predentin

  20. Evaluating nest supplementation as a recovery strategy for the endangered rodents of the Florida Keys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cove, Michael V.; Simons, Theodore R.; Gardner, Beth; Maurer, Andrew S.; O'Connell, Allan F.

    2017-01-01

    The Key Largo woodrat (Neotoma floridana smalli) and Key Largo cotton mouse (Peromyscus gossypinus allapaticola) are federally endangered subspecies endemic to the tropical hardwood hammocks of Key Largo, Florida. Woodrats are considered generalists in habitat and diet, yet a steady decline in natural stick nests and capture rates over the past several decades suggests that they are limited by the availability of nesting habitat due to habitat loss and fragmentation. The more specialized Key Largo cotton mouse appears to rely on old growth hammock, a habitat type that is rare following past land clearing. In 2004, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service started building supplemental nest structures to restore habitat quality and connectivity for these endangered rodents, but nest use requires evaluation. We used camera traps and occupancy models to evaluate the factors influencing woodrat and cotton mouse use of the supplemental nests. We detected woodrats at 65 and cotton mice at 175 of 284 sampled nest structures, with co-occurrence at 38 nests. Woodrat nest use followed a gradient from low nest use in the north to high nest use in the south, which might relate to the proximity of free-ranging domestic cat (Felis catus) colonies in residential developments. Cotton mouse nest use, however, was related positively to mature hammock and related negatively to disturbed areas (e.g. scarified lands). The two species occurred independently of each other. Stick-stacking behavior was observed at supplemental nests and, although it was correlated with detection of woodrats, it was not a strong predictor of their occurrence. We suggest that nest supplementation can be an important tool for species recovery as habitat quality continues to improve with succession.

  1. EFFECTS OF PRE-GERMINATION TREATMENTS AND STORAGE ON GERMINATION OF Astronium fraxinifolium SCHOTT (ANACARDIACEAE DIASPORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian de Lima Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509814577The goal of this study was to evaluate the germination and the storage capacity of Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores. Six pre-germination treatments were used in the experiment: control treatment (intact diaspores; diaspores immersed in water at room temperature (25º C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 70° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in water at 100° C for 5 min; diaspores immersed in sodium hypochlorite solution (1:1000 for 2 min; and diaspores mechanically scarified with sandpaper #80. To evaluate storage conditions, we tested two different types of packaging (permeable paper bag and transparent glass jar and two environmental conditions (cold chamber and room conditions, resulting in four treatments. The germination tests were performed for zero (control and 60, 120, 180, 240, 300 and 360 days after storage. The effects of different treatments on germination and storage of diaspores were evaluated by ANOVA, followed by Tukey test. Regarding to pre-germination treatments, high germination rates were observed in the hypochlorite (98.0 ± 4.22%, control (97.0 ± 4.83%, water at room temperature (96.0 ± 6.99% and water at 70º C (83.0 ± 29.08% treatments. Thus, Astronium fraxinifolium diaspores do not present dormancy. During storage, the diaspores remained viable throughout the study period with high germination rates, except for the treatment in paper bags placed in the cold chamber, in which the diaspores lost their viability in the eighth month of storage. Therefore, this is not a recommended storage method for this species.

  2. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleyheeg, Erik; Claessens, Mascha; Soons, Merel B

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12-17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds.

  3. Ozone exposure of a weed community produces adaptive changes in seed populations of Spergula arvensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landesmann, Jennifer B; Gundel, Pedro E; Martínez-Ghersa, M Alejandra; Ghersa, Claudio M

    2013-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone is one of the major drivers of global change. This stress factor alters plant growth and development. Ozone could act as a selection pressure on species communities composition, but also on population genetic background, thus affecting life history traits. Our objective was to evaluate the consequences of prolonged ozone exposure of a weed community on phenotypic traits of Spergulaarvensis linked to persistence. Specifically, we predicted that the selection pressure exerted by high ozone concentrations as well as the concomitant changes in the weed community would drive population adaptive changes which will be reflected on seed germination, dormancy and longevity. In order to test seed viability and dormancy level, we conducted germination experiments for which we used seeds produced by S. arvensis plants grown within a weed community exposed to three ozone treatments during four years (0, 90 and 120 ppb). We also performed a soil seed bank experiment to test seed longevity with seeds coming from both the four-year ozone exposure experiment and from a short-term treatment conducted at ambient and added ozone concentrations. We found that prolonged ozone exposure produced changes in seed germination, dormancy and longevity, resulting in three S. arvensis populations. Seeds from the 90 ppb ozone selection treatment had the highest level of germination when stored at 75% RH and 25 °C and then scarified. These seeds showed the lowest dormancy level when being subjected to 5 ºC/5% RH and 25 ºC/75% followed by 5% RH storage conditions. Furthermore, ozone exposure increased seed persistence in the soil through a maternal effect. Given that tropospheric ozone is an important pollutant in rural areas, changes in seed traits due to ozone exposure could increase weed persistence in fields, thus affecting weed-crop interactions, which could ultimately reduce crop production.

  4. Tracheal reconstruction by re-inforced Gore-Tex in esophageal submuscular tunneling: An experimental study

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    Hodjati Hossein

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tracheal reconstructions are aimed at rearranging or replacing parts of the tracheal tissue by different techniques. Here we introduce a new technique for tracheal reconstruction. Methods: In 10 adult dogs, after intubation with an endotracheal tube, a segment of trachea including seven tracheal rings was resected circumferentially. A submuscular tunnel was induced between mucosal and muscular layers of the adjacent esophagus lying right next to the trachea. The esophageal submuscular tunnel starts and ends exactly at the level of distal and proximal ends of tracheal resection, respectively. Inforced Gore-Tex passed through the esophageal submuscular tunnel the distal segment of trachea and end-to-end anastomosis were made between distal ends of Gore-Tex and trachea, then endotracheal tube removed and the same procedure was made for proximal ends of Gore-Tex and trachea. Afterward, the proximal and distal ends of the esophageal tunnel were approximated to proximal and distal tracheal parts over the anastomosis. Results: All dogs, except one due to anesthetic problem, survived and tolerated the operation; the first two dogs experienced postoperative fever, aspiration pneumonia, and died due to tracheoesophageal fistula. All survived animals were eating and barking well. We started to scarify dogs at least 6 and 12 weeks after operation for microscopy and pathologic examination. The Gore-Texes were patent and supported externally with fibrous connective tissue in esophageal tunneling, with in growth of respiratory epithelium on inner surfaces. Conclusion: Air tightness, good re-epithelialization, and relatively no limitation of esophageal length and no risk of luminal collapse are advantages of tracheal reconstruction by submuscular esophageal tunneling. This new method is worthy of further investigation, as it is technically feasible and easy to implement.

  5. WE-FG-BRA-02: Docetaxel Eluting Brachytherapy Spacers for Local Chemo-Radiation Therapy in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belz, J [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States); Kumar, R; Sridhar, S [Northeastern University & Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Makrigiorgos, G; Nguyen, P [Dana Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA (United States); D’Amico, A [Brigham & Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States); Cormack, R [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: We propose an innovative combinatorial treatment strategy of Local ChemoRadiation Therapy (LCRT) using a sustained drug delivery platform in the form of a spacer to locally radio-sensitize the prostate with Docetaxel (DTX) enabling a synergistic cure with the use of lower radiation doses. These biodegradable spacers are physically similar to the inert spacers routinely used in prostate brachytherapy but are now loaded with formulations of DTX. Methods: Spacers were loaded with ∼500µg Docetaxel (DTX) for prostate cancer studies. The implants were characterized in vitro using SEM and HPLC. The release kinetic studies were carried out in buffer (pH 6.0) at 37°C. Subcutaneous PC3 tumors were xenografted in nude mice. Prostate cancer studies were done with and without radiation using SARRP at 5Gy, 10Gy, and 15Gy. Drug-loaded implants were injected once intratumorally using an 18G brachytherapy needle. Results: The release study in vitro showed a highly sustained release for multiple weeks at therapeutically relevant doses. The monotherapy with local DTX spacer showed sustained tumor inhibition compared to empty implants and an equivalent DTX dose given systemically. At 40 days, 89% survival was observed for mice treated with DTX implants compared with 0% in all other treatment groups. The combined treatment with local DTX spacer and radiation (10Gy) showed the highest degree of tumor suppression (significant tumor growth inhibition by day 90). The control mice showed continuous tumor growth and were scarified by day 56. Groups of mice treated with DTX-spacer or radiation alone showed initial tumor suppression but growth continued after day 60. A larger experiment is ongoing. Conclusion: This approach provides localized delivery of the chemotherapeutic sensitizer directly to the tumor and avoids the toxicities associated with both brachytherapy and current systemic delivery of docetaxel. Sustained release of DTX is an effective chemotherapy option alone or

  6. Field performance of the waste retrieval end effectors in the Oak Ridge gunite tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, O.D.

    1997-09-01

    Waterjet-based tank waste retrieval end effectors have been developed by Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements through several generations of test articles targeted at deployment in Hanford underground storage tanks with a large robotic arm. The basic technology has demonstrated effectiveness for retrieval of simulants bounding a wide range of waste properties and compatibility with foreseen deployment systems. The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) selected the waterjet scarifying end effector, the jet pump conveyance system, and the Modified Light Duty Utility Arm and Houdini Remotely Operated Vehicle deployment and manipulator systems for evaluation in the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study (GAAT-TS). The Retrieval Process Development and Enhancements (RPD ampersand E) team was tasked with developing a version of the retrieval end effector tailored to the Oak Ridge tanks, waste, and deployment platforms. The conceptual design was done by the University of Missouri-Rolla in FY 1995-96. The university researchers conducted separate effects tests of the component concepts, scaled the basic design features, and constructed a full-scale test article incorporating their findings in early FY 1996. The test article was extensively evaluated in the Hanford Hydraulic Testbed and the design features were further refined. Detail design of the prototype item was started at Waterjet Technology, Inc. before the development testing was finished, and two of the three main subassemblies were substantially complete before final design of the waterjet manifold was determined from the Hanford hydraulic testbed (HTB) testing. The manifold on the first prototype was optimized for sludge retrieval; assembled with that manifold, the end effector is termed the Sludge Retrieval End Effector (SREE)

  7. Development of a waste dislodging and retrieval system for use in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory gunite tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randolph, J.D.; Lloyd, P.D.; Burks, B.L.

    1997-01-01

    As part of the Gunite And Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a tank waste retrieval system capable of removing wastes varying from liquids to thick sludges. This system is also capable of scarifying concrete walls and floors. The GAAT Treatability Study is being conducted by the Department of Energy Oak Ridge Environmental Restoration Program. Much of the technology developed for this project was cosponsored by the DOE Office of Science and Technology through the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) and the Robotics Technology Development Program. The waste dislodging and conveyance (WD ampersand C) system was developed jointly by ORNL and participants from the TFA. The WD ampersand C system is comprised of a four degree-of-freedom arm with back driveable motorized joints. a cutting and dislodging tool, a jet pump and hose management system for conveyance of wastes, confined sluicing end-effector, and a control system, and must be used in conjunction with a robotic arm or vehicle. Other papers have been submitted to this conference describing the development and operation of the arm and vehicle positioning systems. This paper will describe the development of the WD ampersand C system and its application for dislodging and conveyance of ORNL sludges from the GAAT tanks. The confined sluicing end-effector relies on medium pressure water jets to dislodge waste that is then pumped by the jet pump through the conveyance system out of the tank. This paper will describe the results of cold testing of the integrated system. At the conference presentation there will also be results from the field deployment. ORNL has completed fabrication of the WD ampersand C system for waste removal and is full-scale testing, including testing of the confined sluicing end-effector

  8. Prevention of herpes simplex virus induced stromal keratitis by a glycoprotein B-specific monoclonal antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalbert Krawczyk

    Full Text Available The increasing incidence of acyclovir (ACV and multidrug-resistant strains in patients with corneal HSV-1 infections leading to Herpetic Stromal Keratitis (HSK is a major health problem in industrialized countries and often results in blindness. To overcome this obstacle, we have previously developed an HSV-gB-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb 2c that proved to be highly protective in immunodeficient NOD/SCID-mice towards genital infections. In the present study, we examined the effectivity of mAb 2c in preventing the immunopathological disease HSK in the HSK BALB/c mouse model. Therefore, mice were inoculated with HSV-1 strain KOS on the scarified cornea to induce HSK and subsequently either systemically or topically treated with mAb 2c. Systemic treatment was performed by intravenous administration of mAb 2c 24 h prior to infection (pre-exposure prophylaxis or 24, 40, and 56 hours after infection (post-exposure immunotherapy. Topical treatment was performed by periodical inoculations (5 times per day of antibody-containing eye drops as control, starting at 24 h post infection. Systemic antibody treatment markedly reduced viral loads at the site of infection and completely protected mice from developing HSK. The administration of the antiviral antibody prior or post infection was equally effective. Topical treatment had no improving effect on the severity of HSK. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that mAb 2c proved to be an excellent drug for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections and for prevention of HSK and blindness. Moreover, the humanized counterpart (mAb hu2c was equally effective in protecting mice from HSV-induced HSK when compared to the parental mouse antibody. These results warrant the future development of this antibody as a novel approach for the treatment of corneal HSV-infections in humans.

  9. Role of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) in Ameliorating Radiation Induced Oxidative Stress In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darwish, M.M.; Abd El Azime, A. Sh.

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is one of the most widespread sources of environmental stress in living environment which cause oxidative stress and metabolic changes. The present study aims to evaluate the antioxidant effect of Cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum) on gamma radiation-induced oxidative damage in liver and heart tis sues. The study was conducted on forty (40) rats which were classified into four equal groups. Group1: Control group, Group. 2: rats given cardamom in basal diet.Group3: Irradiated rats, rats were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation at 6 Gy delivere d as single exposure dose. Group 4: irradiated +cardamom: rats receiving cardamom for 4 weeks and irradiated. The animals were scarified 24h after irradiation. Irradiated animals had significant increase in oxidative stress markers in liver and heart tissues expressed by significant increase of malondialdehyde (MDA) content associated to significant depletion of superoxide dismutase (SOD) , catalase (CAT) activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) content . Hepatic and cardiac changes included significant increases of serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) , total cholesterol(TC), triacylglycerol(TAG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C), and iron concentration. While, a significant decre ase in high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), manganese and copper were observed. Addition of cardamom to the basal diet prior to gamma radiation, improved the tested parameters . So it is a therapeutic alternative for oxidative stress, hyperlipidaemia and trace elements changes. . The data obtained in this study suggest that cardamom may prevent liver and heart from radiation-induced damage.

  10. Establishment of a clonal bank of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz by selection of plus trees and grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny E Nuñez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In Ecuador, plant propagation techniques are not available commercially to establish clonal banks of Caesalpinia spinosa (Mol. O. Kuntz (guarango plus trees, which limits the development of in vitro propagation protocols of this specie. The objective of the present work was to establish a clonal bank of C. spinosa by selecting plus trees and grafting. Guarango trees belonging to the province of Chimborazo, Guano canton were selected based on total height, height at the beginning of the crown, height of crown, crown surface, crown symmetry, flowering, fruit production and content of tannins in the pod. The patron plants to make the grafts were obtained from scarified seeds, soaked for 48 hours at room temperature and planted in beds of 1.0 x 3.0 m. At 40 days, the seedlings were transplanted into pockets and at 16 months the grafts were made in the patron plants. Three types of graft were used (simple slit in the patron, single slit in the spike and bud grafting. For each, 100 patron were used. Of the eight trees plus collected in the field, the ecotype CHSt03 was used to make the grafts. It was showed the highest total height (6.6m, height at the beginning of the cup (2.2m, cup surface (> 70%, cup volume (> 10%, cup symmetry (1, fruit (40kg / tree and total polyphenol content in pods (5870 μgEAGgMS-1. The graft by simple slit in the patron had the highest stuck percentage (80%. These results allowed to establish a clonal bank of 80 plants grafted of C. spinosa of the ecotype CHSt03, which establish the bases to develop protocols for in vitro propagation of this forest species, native of Ecuador.   Keywords: biodiversity, biotechnology, forestry, industry, tannins

  11. Perovskite/silicon-based heterojunction tandem solar cells with 14.8% conversion efficiency via adopting ultrathin Au contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lin; Wang, Fengyou; Liang, Junhui; Yao, Xin; Fang, Jia; Zhang, Dekun; Wei, Changchun; Zhao, Ying; Zhang, Xiaodan

    2017-01-01

    A rising candidate for upgrading the performance of an established narrow-bandgap solar technology without adding much cost is to construct the tandem solar cells from a crystalline silicon bottom cell and a high open-circuit voltage top cell. Here, we present a four-terminal tandem solar cell architecture consisting of a self-filtered planar architecture perovskite top cell and a silicon heterojunction bottom cell. A transparent ultrathin gold electrode has been used in perovskite solar cells to achieve a semi-transparent device. The transparent ultrathin gold contact could provide a better electrical conductivity and optical reflectance-scattering to maintain the performance of the top cell compared with the traditional metal oxide contact. The four-terminal tandem solar cell yields an efficiency of 14.8%, with contributions of the top (8.98%) and the bottom cell (5.82%), respectively. We also point out that in terms of optical losses, the intermediate contact of self-filtered tandem architecture is the uppermost problem, which has been addressed in this communication, and the results show that reducing the parasitic light absorption and improving the long wavelength range transmittance without scarifying the electrical properties of the intermediate hole contact layer are the key issues towards further improving the efficiency of this architecture device. Project supported by the International Cooperation Projects of the Ministry of Science and Technology (No. 2014DFE60170), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 61474065, 61674084), the Tianjin Research Key Program of Application Foundation and Advanced Technology (No. 15JCZDJC31300), the Key Project in the Science & Technology Pillar Program of Jiangsu Province (No. BE2014147-3), and the 111 Project (No. B16027).

  12. FY94 Office of Technology Development Mixed Waste Operations Robotics Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriikku, E.M.

    1994-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) develops technologies to help solve waste management and environmental problems at DOE sites. The OTD includes the Robotics Technology Development Program (RTDP) and the Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Together these programs will provide technologies for DOE mixed waste cleanup projects. Mixed waste contains both radioactive and hazardous constituents. DOE sites currently store over 240,000 cubic meters of low level mixed waste and cleanup activities will generate several hundred thousand more cubic meters. Federal and state regulations require that this waste must be processed before final disposal. The OTD RTDP Mixed Waste Operations (MWO) team held several robotic demonstrations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) during November of 1993. Over 330 representatives from DOE, Government Contractors, industry, and universities attended. The MWO team includes: Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Engineering Laboratory (ORNL), Sandia National Laboratory (SNL), and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC). SRTC is the lead site for MWO and provides the technical coordinator. The primary demonstration objective was to show that robotic technologies can make DOE waste facilities run better, faster, more cost effective, and safer. To meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste drum processing activities: non-destructive drum examination, drum transportation, drum opening, removing waste from a drum, characterize and sort waste items, scarify metal waste, and inspect stored drums. To further meet the primary objective, the demonstrations successfully showed the following remote waste box processing activities: swing free crane control, workcell modeling, and torch standoff control

  13. Seed Anatomy and Water Uptake in Relation to Seed Dormancy in Opuntia tomentosa (Cactaceae, Opuntioideae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco-Segovia, A.; Márquez-Guzmán, J.; Sánchez-Coronado, M. E.; Gamboa de Buen, A.; Baskin, J. M.; Baskin, C. C.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims There is considerable confusion in the literature concerning impermeability of seeds with ‘hard’ seed coats, because the ability to take up (imbibe) water has not been tested in most of them. Seeds of Opuntia tomentosa were reported recently to have a water-impermeable seed coat sensu lato (i.e. physical dormancy), in combination with physiological dormancy. However, physical dormancy is not known to occur in Cactaceae. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if seeds of O. tomentosa are water-permeable or water-impermeable, i.e. if they have physical dormancy. Methods The micromorphology of the seed coat and associated structures were characterized by SEM and light microscopy. Permeability of the seed-covering layers was assessed by an increase in mass of seeds on a wet substrate and by dye-tracking and uptake of tritiated water by intact versus scarified seeds. Key Results A germination valve and a water channel are formed in the hilum–micropyle region during dehydration and ageing in seeds of O. tomentosa. The funicular envelope undoubtedly plays a role in germination of Opuntia seeds via restriction of water uptake and mechanical resistance to expansion of the embryo. However, seeds do not exhibit any of three features characteristic of those with physical dormancy. Thus, they do not have a water-impermeable layer(s) of palisade cells (macrosclereids) or a water gap sensu stricto and they imbibe water without the seed coat being disrupted. Conclusions Although dormancy in seeds of this species can be broken by scarification, they have physiological dormancy only. Further, based on information in the literature, it is concluded that it is unlikely that any species of Opuntia has physical dormancy. This is the first integrative study of the anatomy, dynamics of water uptake and dormancy in seeds of Cactaceae subfamily Opuntioideae. PMID:17298989

  14. From seed production to seedling establishment: Important steps in an invasive process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreras, Ana Elisa; Galetto, Leonardo

    2010-03-01

    It is widely accepted that exotic invasive species are one of the most important ecological and economic problems. Reproductive and establishment traits are considered key features of a population expansion process, but few works have studied many of these simultaneously. This work examines how large the differences are in reproductive and establishment traits between two Fabaceae, the exotic invasive, Gleditsia triacanthos and the native, Acacia aroma. Gleditsia is a serious leguminous woody invader in various parts of the world and Acacia is a common native tree of Argentina. Both species have similar dispersal mechanisms and their reproductive phenology overlaps. We chose 17 plants of each species in a continuous forest of the Chaco Serrano Forest of Córdoba, Argentina. In each plant we measured fruit production, fruit removal (exclusion experiments), seed predation (pre- and post-dispersal), seed germination, seed bank (on each focal tree, three sampling periods during the year), and density of seedlings (around focal individuals and randomly in the study site). Gleditsia presented some traits that could favour the invasion process, such as a higher number of seeds per plant, percentage of scarified seed germination and density of seedlings around the focal individuals, than Acacia. On the other hand, Gleditsia presented a higher percentage of seed predation. The seed bank was persistent in both species and no differences were observed in fruit removal. This work highlights the importance of simultaneously studying reproductive and establishment variables involved in the spreading of an exotic invasive species. It also gives important insight into the variables to be considered when planning management strategies. The results are discussed from the perspective of some remarkable hypotheses on invasive species and may contribute to rethinking some aspects of the theory on invasive species.

  15. Interactions between seed traits and digestive processes determine the germinability of bird-dispersed seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soons, Merel B.

    2018-01-01

    Waterbirds disperse a wide range of plant seeds via their guts, promoting biotic connectivity between isolated habitat patches. However, the intensity of digestive forces encountered by seeds, and therefore their potential to survive digestive tract passage, varies within and between waterbird species. Here, we investigate under controlled conditions how the interaction between seed traits and digestive strategies affect the germinability of seeds following waterbird-mediated dispersal. We exposed seeds of 30 wetland plant species to the main digestive processes in the dabbling duck digestive system: mechanical, chemical and intestinal digestion. These were simulated by 1) a pressure test and scarification treatment, 2) incubation in simulated gastric juice, and 3) incubation in intestinal contents of culled mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). We evaluated their separate and combined effects on seed germination, and identified the role of seed size and seed coat traits in resisting the digestive forces. Seeds were generally resistant to separate digestive processes, but highly sensitive to a combination. Resistance to mechanical break-down was reduced by up to 80% by chemical pre-treatment, especially for seeds with permeable coats. Scarified seeds were 12–17% more vulnerable to chemical and intestinal digestive processes than undamaged seeds. Large seeds and seeds with thin, permeable coats were particularly sensitive to chemical and intestinal digestion. These results indicate that efficient digestion of seeds requires multiple digestive processes. The gizzard, responsible for mechanical digestion, plays a key role in seed survival. Omnivorous birds, which have relatively light gizzards compared to pure herbivores or granivores, are thus most likely to disperse seeds successfully. Regardless of digestive strategy, small seeds with tough seed coats are most resistant to digestion and may be adapted to endozoochorous dispersal by waterbirds. PMID:29614085

  16. Influence of different anode/filter combination on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Liu Peifang; Zhang Lianlian; Ma Wenjuan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effect of different anode/filter combination on radiation dose and image quality in digital mammography, so as to choose optimal anode/filter combination to reduce radiation injury without scarifying image quality. Methods: Mammography accredition phantoms with the thickness from 1.6 cm to 8.6 cm were used to simulate human breast tissue. The same exposure conditions, pressure, compression thickness. and different anode/filter combination were employed under the automatic and manual exposure modes. The image kV, mAs, pressure, filter, average glandular dose (ACD), contrast to noise ratio (CNR) were recorded and the figure of merit (FOM) was calculated. SPSS 17.0 and one-way analysis of variance were used in the statistical analysis. Results: As the phantom thickness increase, the ACD values which were acquired with Mo/Mo, Mo/Rh, and W/Ag three different anode/filter combinations were increased, but CNR and FOM values were decreased, ACD, CNR, and FOM values which were acquired in the phantom with different thickness, and three different anode/filter combinations were statistically different (P=0.000, respectively). The ACD values of Mo/Mo were lowest. For 1.6 cm-2.6 cm phantom thicknesses, the FOMs of Mo/Rh were lowest, and for 3.6 cm-8.6 cm phantom thicknesses, the FOMs of W/Ag were lowest. Conclusion: Phantom thickness in 1.6 cm-2.6 cm and 3.6 cm-8.6 cm. Mo/Rh combination and W/Ag combination respectively can achieve the highest FOM, and can provide the best imaging quality with low radiation dose. (authors)

  17. Germinação de sementes de urucu em diferentes temperaturas e substratos Germination of annatto seeds under different temperatures and substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Vianna Lima

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, analisar o comportamento germinativo das sementes de urucu cultivar Casca Verde, com e sem escarificação, sob regime de diferentes temperaturas e substratos. O trabalho foi realizado no Laboratório de Tecnologia e Análise de Sementes do Centro de Ciências Agrárias da Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (CCA-UFES. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, num esquema fatorial 2x6x4 (dois tratamentos físicos nas sementes, seis substratos e quatro temperaturas, totalizando 48 tratamentos, com quatro repetições de 50 sementes. Os tratamentos físicos foram: as sementes intactas e as sementes escarificadas; os substratos foram: a areia, a vermiculita, a fibra de coco, o pó de serra, o Plantmax e o rolo de papel Germitest ; e, as temperaturas testadas foram constantes de 20, 25 e 30ºC e alternada de 20-30ºC. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Tukey. Os resultados obtidos evidenciaram maior porcentagem de germinação das sementes de urucu, semeadas nos substratos areia, vermiculita e rolo de papel; as temperaturas de 25, 30 e 20-30ºC foram mais adequadas para testes de germinação dessas sementes.This work was carried out with the objective to verify the effect of temperature and substrate on germinative capacity of annatto seeds. This study was developed in the Laboratories of Seed Analysis of Agrarian Science Center that belongs to the Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (CCA-UFES, located in Alegre ES, Brazil. The experimental design was 2x6x4 factorial involving: (i two treatments in the seeds, (ii six substrates, and (iii four temperatures. Four replications were realized using 50 seeds at each experimental unit. Treatments refer to intact and scarified seeds. Substrates utilized were sand, vermiculite, coconut fiber, wood fiber, Plantmax and paper roll. Temperatures employed were 20, 25, 30 and 20-30ºC. Average

  18. THE EFFECT OF RICE CULTIVARS ON METHANE EMISSION FROM IRRIGATED RICE FIELD

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    P. Setyanto

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice plants have been reported to affect methane (CH4 emission from rice fields. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of rice cultivars on CH4 emission from flooded rice and to develop crop management strategies with low emitting rice cultivars while sustaining high yield. The four rice cultivars studied were Memberamo, Cisadane, IR64, and Way Apoburu. The CH4 emissions were determined in the wet season of 2001/2002 (November-February using an automated closed chamber technique in an irrigated field condition. Farmyard manure at the rate of 5 t ha-1 was given to the plots to ensure carbon was not limited. Root weight, root length, biomass, and number of tillers were determined at 17, 36, and 57 days after transplanting (DAT. The results showed that the mean CH4 emission was highest in the plot planted with Cisadane (94.8 kg CH4 ha-1, and the lowest with IR64 (37.7 kg CH4 ha-1. The plots treated with emberamo and Way Apoburu resulted an intermediate CH4 emission at the average of 61.1 and 58.9 kg CH4 ha-1, respectively. There was no significant difference in yield between the cultivars tested. The yield of Memberamo, Cisadane, IR64, and Way Apoburu were 5.882, 5.764, 5.873 and 6.065 t ha-1, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that there were no significant differences in the root weight and root length among cultivars. However, Cisadane gave the highest dry matter weight (222 g hill-1 at 57 DAT compared to the other cultivars (175-190 g hill-1. Plant tillers did not show significant differences between the cultivars. Regression analysis showed that CH4 flux was significantly related with root weight, root length, aboveground biomass, and number of plant tillers. This finding shows that the use of selected cultivars, such as IR64, can potentially lower CH4 emission without scarifying yield.

  19. ROBOTIC TANK INSPECTION END EFFECTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rachel Landry

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this contract between Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS) and the Department of Energy (DOE) was to provide a tool for the DOE to inspect the inside tank walls of underground radioactive waste storage tanks in their tank farms. Some of these tanks are suspected to have leaks, but the harsh nature of the environment within the tanks precludes human inspection of tank walls. As a result of these conditions only a few inspection methods can fulfill this task. Of the methods available, OSS chose to pursue Alternating Current Field Measurement (ACFM), because it does not require clean surfaces for inspection, nor any contact with the Surface being inspected, and introduces no extra by-products in the inspection process (no coupling fluids or residues are left behind). The tool produced by OSS is the Robotic Tank Inspection End Effector (RTIEE), which is initially deployed on the tip of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA). The RTEE combines ACFM with a color video camera for both electromagnetic and visual inspection The complete package consists of an end effector, its corresponding electronics and software, and a user's manual to guide the operator through an inspection. The system has both coarse and fine inspection modes and allows the user to catalog defects and suspected areas of leakage in a database for further examination, which may lead to emptying the tank for repair, decommissioning, etc.. The following is an updated report to OSS document OSS-21100-7002, which was submitted in 1995. During the course of the contract, two related sub-tasks arose, the Wall and Coating Thickness Sensor and the Vacuum Scarifying and Sampling Tool Assembly. The first of these sub-tasks was intended to evaluate the corrosion and wall thinning of 55-gallon steel drums. The second was retrieved and characterized the waste material trapped inside the annulus region of the underground tanks on the DOE's tank farms. While these sub-tasks were derived from the original intent

  20. Evaluation the virulence of Mycobacterium bovis isolated from milk samples through histopathological study in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saqur, I M; Al-Thwani, A N; Al-Attar, I M; Al-Mashhadani, M S

    2016-12-01

    Mycobacterium bovis has a broad host range, and it is the principal agent responsible for tuberculosis (TB) in bovine, domestic and wild mammals. M. bovis also infects human, causing zoonotic TB through ingestion, inhalation and, less frequently by contact with mucous membranes and broken skin. Zoonotic TB was formerly an endemic disease, usually transmitted to man by consumption of raw cow's milk. It is indistinguishable clinically or pathologically from TB caused by M. tuberculosis. The aims of this study were, to isolate and identified M. bovis from raw milk samples by different methods, and evaluate the virulence of M. bovis in laboratory animals (Rabbit). To conduct the study, ninety three cow's milk samples were collected from farms around Baghdad governorate. The decontamination of milk samples was firstly carried out, then samples were subjected to routine tests which include, direct smear for Ziehl Neelsen acid fast stain, culture, each sample was cultured on Lowenstein Jensen media with Sodium pyruvite (All cultures incubated on 37°C for 4-10weeks with continuous observation), and biochemical testes as Nitrate reduction test, Niacin paper strip test and pyrazinamidase test, were employed to diagnose and identified the bacteria. Beside molecular assay was used to confirm the identification of the isolates by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) using specific primers for M. bovis. The virulence of these isolates were investigated through inoculate it in group of laboratory animals consist of 8 rabbit in addition to other group of 4 animals as control (inoculate with Phosphate Buffer Saline). The animals were scarified after 6weeks of inoculation, post- mortem examination was carried out, smears were taken from lesions, and tissue samples were collected from lymph nodes and different organs. The results revealed five isolates of M. bovis in direct smear by acid fast Ziehl-Neelsen stain, while eight isolates observed by culture, the colonies appeared with

  1. Evaluation of protective and treatment of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oil on Toxocara vitulorum infected rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amin, M.M.; El-Kabany, H.

    2013-01-01

    Toxocara vitulorum (T.vitulorum) is a nematode parasite of the small intestine of cattle and water buffalo, particularly buffalo calves between one and three months of age, causing high morbidity and mortality. Thymus vulgaris (Thyme) oil has used in the Middle East as a traditional medicine for several complaints. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical, parasitological, histopathological and hematological changes in Toxocara vitulorum-infected rat after treatment with Thymus vulgaris oil. In the present study, 50 rats divided into 4 groups. The first group: normal control, the second group :animals given with thyme oil, the third group: rats infected with 1500 T.vitulorum eggs/rat, the fourth group: rats treated with (42.5 mg/kg body weight ) thyme oil for 7 consecutive days pre-infection with T.vitulorum eggs, the fifth group: infected with T.vitulorum and treated with thyme orally for 7 days starting 1hour from infection. Rats were scarified at 7th and 14th days after last treatment. Blood were collected for hematological and biochemical parameters. Liver, kidney and heart were removed for biochemical and histopathological investigations. Larvae of Toxocara were counted in a part of the studied organs tissues. In the present study, Toxocara infection resulted in decrease in RBCs count and Hb %, lymphocyte %, and MCHC% while a remarkable increase was observed in WBCs count and monocytes % and granulocytes %. Also, there was increase in lipid peroxidation concentration as malondialdehyde (MDA) accompanied with decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione (GSH) content in organs tissue. Serum biochemical parameters showed a significant increase in the activities, Asparta amino transferase (AST), Alanine amino transferase (ALT), urea, creatinine, albumin and globulin of untreated infected rats in untreated infected rats compared to normal control. Administration of thyme pre , or after infection ameliorate the observed changes occurred by

  2. Smoke-induced seed germination in California chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    smoke. While the mechanism behind smoke-induced germination is not known, it appears that smoke may be involved in overcoming different blocks to germination in different species. For example, in Emmenanthe penduliflora, NO2 in smoke was sufficient to induce germination, and most forms of physical or chemical scarification also induced germination. For Romneya coulteri, NO2 alone failed to induce germination, and scarified seeds required addition of gibberellic acid. In Dicentra chrysantha, none of these treatments, nor smoke alone, induced germination, but germination was triggered by a combination of soil burial followed by smoke treatment. Smoke-stimulated species differed substantially in the duration of smoke exposure required to induce germination, and this was inversely correlated with tolerance to smoke exposure. We suggest that such differences in response may affect postfire community structure.

  3. Efecto de los tratamientos de hidratación-deshidratación en la germinacion, la emergencia y el vigor de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck y Gliricidia sepium Effect of hydration-dehydration treatments on the germination, emergence and vigor of Albizia lebbeck and Gliricidia sepium seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Gonzalez

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto de los tratamientos de hidratación-deshidratación en la respuesta germinativa, la emergencia y el vigor de las plántulas de Albizia lebbeck y Gliricidia sepium, a diferentes condiciones controladas de estrés calórico del sustrato. Los tratamientos fueron: semillas no hidratadas (T1; semillas hidratadas hasta el final de la fase I (T2; semillas hidratadas hasta dos horas antes del inicio de la germinación visible (T3, y posteriormente se deshidrataron durante 48 horas. Las semillas de A. lebbeck se escarificaron con agua a 80ºC durante 2' antes de hidratar. La germinación de las semillas de ambas especies dependió significativamente de la interacción entre la temperatura del sustrato y la hidratación (PThe effect of hydration-dehydration treatments on the germinative response, emergence and vigor of Albizia lebbeck and Gliricidia sepium seedlings was studied under different controlled conditions of caloric stress of the substratum. The treatments were: non hydrated seeds (T1; seeds hydrated until the end of stage I (T2; seeds hydrated until two hours before the beginning of visible germination (T3 and they were later dehydrated for 48 hours. A. lebbeck seeds were scarified with water at 80ºC for 2' before hydrating. The seed germination of both species depended significantly on the interaction between the substratum temperature and hydration (P<0,001. In G. sepium the best results in germination were obtained with long periods (stage III, and in A. lebbeck with short periods (stage I. The emergence showed significant effects due to the positive effects of scarification-partial hydration treatments in A. lebbeck (34 vs 10% in fresh and aged seeds, respectively and without their combination in G. sepium (12 vs 8% in fresh and aged seeds, respectively. There was a significant increase in plant growth and development. The hydric treatments were concluded to revigorize the aged and fresh seeds from A. lebbeck and G

  4. Sexual life and fertility desire in long-term HIV serodiscordant couples in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a grounded theory study

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    Hailemariam Tewodros G

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions

  5. Seed germination of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, under water stress Germinação de sementes de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, sob estresse hídrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia M. de M. Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Bowdichia virgilioides (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae is a native tree species in Brazil characteristic of the savannah vegetation. Seeds of this species were submitted to different osmotic potentials induced by polyethyleneglycol (PEG-6000 in order to verify their resistance to drought conditions. Seeds were previously scarified with sulphuric acid and incubated at 25 ºC with an eight hours photoperiod, at osmotic potentials of 0.0, -0.1, -0.3, -0.5, -0.7, -0.9 and -1.1 MPa. It was found that water stress resistance limit ranged from -0.7 to -0.9 MPa. Significant reduction in germination velocity from -0.3 MPa, and final percentage of germination from -0.5 MPa in relation to control, were observed. Germination under drastic conditions of water stress was inhibited, but was restored with an increase of water availability.Bowdichia virgilioides (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae é uma espécie arbórea nativa do Brasil, característica da vegetação de cerrado, denominada principalmente de sucupira-preta. Sementes dessa espécie foram escarificadas com ácido sulfúrico e submetidas a diferentes potenciais osmóticos, induzidos por polietilenoglicol (PEG-6000, com o objetivo de avaliar a sua resistência a condições de seca. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar a 25 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de oito horas, nos potenciais osmóticos de 0,0, -0,1, -0,3, -0,5, -0,7, -0,9, e -1,1 MPa. Pelos resultados obtidos, observou-se que o limite de resistência da espécie ao estresse hídrico situa-se entre -0,7 e -0,9 MPa. A velocidade de germinação foi significativamente reduzida a partir de -0,3 MPa e a porcentagem final a partir de -0,5 MPa, em relação às sementes não submetidas ao estresse hídrico. Sob drásticas condições de estresse hídrico não houve germinação das sementes, que foi restabelecida com o aumento da disponibilidade de água.

  6. Comparison of applied dose and image quality in staging CT of neuroendocrine tumor patients using standard filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Böning, G.; Schäfer, M.; Grupp, U.; Kaul, D.; Kahn, J.; Pavel, M.; Maurer, M.; Denecke, T.; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Iterative reconstruction (IR) in staging CT provides equal objective image quality compared to filtered back projection (FBP). • IR delivers excellent subjective quality and reduces effective dose compared to FBP. • In patients with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) or may other hypervascular abdominal tumors IR can be used without scarifying diagnostic confidence. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether dose reduction via adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) affects image quality and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) staging. Methods: A total of 28 NET patients were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven NET and visible tumor in abdominal computed tomography (CT). In an intraindividual study design, the patients underwent a baseline CT (filtered back projection, FBP) and follow-up CT (ASIR 40%) using matched scan parameters. Image quality was assessed subjectively using a 5-grade scoring system and objectively by determining signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Applied volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol ) of each scan was taken from the dose report. Results: ASIR 40% significantly reduced CTDI vol (10.17 ± 3.06 mGy [FBP], 6.34 ± 2.25 mGy [ASIR] (p < 0.001) by 37.6% and significantly increased CNRs (complete tumor-to-liver, 2.76 ± 1.87 [FBP], 3.2 ± 2.32 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) (complete tumor-to-muscle, 2.74 ± 2.67 [FBP], 4.31 ± 4.61 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) compared to FBP. Subjective scoring revealed no significant changes for diagnostic confidence (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]), visibility of suspicious lesion (4.8 ± 0.5 [FBP], 4.8 ± 0.5 [ASIR]) and artifacts (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]). ASIR 40% significantly decreased scores for noise (4.3 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.0 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05), contrast (4.4 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.1 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.001) and visibility of small structures (4.5 ± 0.7 [FBP], 4.3 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0

  7. Comparison of applied dose and image quality in staging CT of neuroendocrine tumor patients using standard filtered back projection and adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Böning, G., E-mail: georg.boening@charite.de [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Schäfer, M.; Grupp, U. [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Kaul, D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Kahn, J. [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Pavel, M. [Department of Gastroenterology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany); Maurer, M.; Denecke, T.; Hamm, B.; Streitparth, F. [Department of Radiology, Charité, Humboldt-University Medical School, Charitéplatz 1, 10117 Berlin (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Iterative reconstruction (IR) in staging CT provides equal objective image quality compared to filtered back projection (FBP). • IR delivers excellent subjective quality and reduces effective dose compared to FBP. • In patients with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) or may other hypervascular abdominal tumors IR can be used without scarifying diagnostic confidence. - Abstract: Objective: To investigate whether dose reduction via adaptive statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) affects image quality and diagnostic accuracy in neuroendocrine tumor (NET) staging. Methods: A total of 28 NET patients were enrolled in the study. Inclusion criteria were histologically proven NET and visible tumor in abdominal computed tomography (CT). In an intraindividual study design, the patients underwent a baseline CT (filtered back projection, FBP) and follow-up CT (ASIR 40%) using matched scan parameters. Image quality was assessed subjectively using a 5-grade scoring system and objectively by determining signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNRs). Applied volume computed tomography dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) of each scan was taken from the dose report. Results: ASIR 40% significantly reduced CTDI{sub vol} (10.17 ± 3.06 mGy [FBP], 6.34 ± 2.25 mGy [ASIR] (p < 0.001) by 37.6% and significantly increased CNRs (complete tumor-to-liver, 2.76 ± 1.87 [FBP], 3.2 ± 2.32 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) (complete tumor-to-muscle, 2.74 ± 2.67 [FBP], 4.31 ± 4.61 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05) compared to FBP. Subjective scoring revealed no significant changes for diagnostic confidence (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]), visibility of suspicious lesion (4.8 ± 0.5 [FBP], 4.8 ± 0.5 [ASIR]) and artifacts (5.0 ± 0 [FBP], 5.0 ± 0 [ASIR]). ASIR 40% significantly decreased scores for noise (4.3 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.0 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.05), contrast (4.4 ± 0.6 [FBP], 4.1 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0.001) and visibility of small structures (4.5 ± 0.7 [FBP], 4.3 ± 0.8 [ASIR]) (p < 0

  8. Biological effects of cell-phone radiofrequency waves exposure on fertilization in mice; an in vivo and in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryoush Fatehi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing use of cell-phone is one of the most important risk factors for population health. We designed an experimental study aimed at evaluating the effects of cell-phone radiofrequency (RF waves exposure on fertilization in mice. Two hundred male and female NMRI-mice were used. One hundred males divided in five groups (n = 20 as control and exposed groups. Those irradiated with cell-phone RF in “Standby-mode” 1, 5 and 10 h daily named groups II, III and IV; respectively. Group V irradiated with cell-phone on “Active-mode” one hour daily. After 30 days irradiation, 50 males and 50 females were kept 24 h to assess their embryos. Fifty males were scarified to evaluate both in vitro and in vivo parameters, and 50 females received PMSG & HCG for both quantitative and qualitative evaluation. Comparing groups III, IV and V with control-group showed significantly decreased in the number of two-cell embryos (p = .000; however, a significant increase was found in the number of dead embryos (p = .000. Furthermore, 5 h daily irradiation significantly decreased grade-A embryos (p = .015; while, it significantly increased grade-B, C and D embryos (p-values = 0.026, 0.007, 0.006; respectively. Moreover, comparing groups IV and V to control-group, significant increase was found in pregnancy duration (p = .005, p = .009; respectively. However, in the mentioned groups a significant decrease was seen in number of newborn mice (p = .001, p = .004; respectively. In conclusion our findings showed that the cell-phone radiation can affect development of embryos as well as the number of newborn and pregnancy duration in NMRI-mouse, which might be a significant cause of reproductive failure. Keywords: Fertility, IVF, RF, Cell-phone, Embryo

  9. The effect of sub-lethal doses on the ploidy level in rats hepatocytes with aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekhtiar, A. M.

    2004-11-01

    It has been shown that the polyploidization levels in rat's hepatocytes increased with aging. The high LET ionizing radiation also induce cell polyploidization by two different means: cells and nuclei fusion, and mitosis restriction after DNA replication. The purpose of the present study was to determine the kinetic of rat's hepatocytes polyploidization with ageing, and the late effects of low doses of gamma irradiation on polyploidization. To this end, three groups of rats were used. Each group composed of 175 four weeks old animals. The first was served as a control, the second and the third groups were irradiated with 4 and 2 Gy respectively, of gamma irradiation at the age of one month. Of each group, 7-8 animals were monthly scarified (for two years), and their liver tissues were used to obtain cell suspensions which were further fixed in gradual series concentrations of ethanol. After staining with Propidum Iodide 'PI' (10 6 cells per ml of PI used at 10 - 5 M final concentration), the cells were analyzed on a FACS Vantage Flow Cytometer (Becton Dickinson). In the control, the results showed: 1) A decrease of cell fraction that contained normal diploid until steady level. 2) Biphasic changes of fraction tetraploidy cells (increase until age of 4 month followed by decrease). 3) The fraction of octaploidy cells appeared at age of 3-4 month and increased continuously with the aging. In accompanied to life-span reductions of 4 Gy irradiated animals, the DNA contents were similar to those in control groups in addition to some quantities variation due to a programmed cell death (Apoptosis) induced by irradiation and regenerations. These variations persisted till the age of 7 month, in additional to reduce the spin-life of irradiated animals. The irradiation with 2 Gy induced some quantities variation in comparison with nonirradiated group, appeared in the reduction of rate conversion from one ploidy class to another, and in shift with 2-3 months of the second pike

  10. Intensive biomass harvesting in forests - what about the carbon balance?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, Bjoern; Johansson, Maj-Britt

    1998-08-01

    The use of biofuels is considered to be CO 2 -neutral. This means that the use of forest biomass for fuel does not add more CO 2 to the atmosphere than what has been taken up over a stand age by photosynthesis. However, the biomass that may be harvested only contains part of the CO 2 immobilized through fixation during the growth of the forest stand. A fraction of the produced biomass will always decompose on and in the soil, in part producing humus and in part CO 2 . To this fraction belongs the litter formed during the period of stand growth, e.g. the annual foliar litterfall. The decomposition of both foliar litter and green needles have been shown to follow an asymptotic function, meaning that the decomposition approaches a limit value. This means that recalcitrant remains are left. The decomposition of felling residues have been assumed to follow the same function. The obvious question is how the amount of humus is affected by removal of felling residues. In an investigation of humus storage in five stands of Norway spruce in south Sweden limit values were estimated for the decomposition of local spruce needle litter giving a variation from 63 to 85 per cent. With the use of these limit values and the amount of litterfall the accumulation of humus was estimated. These calculations showed that there is a growth of the humus layer in the period of stand growth. The rate of humus accumulation varied among the stands and on the average a theoretical humus accumulation of about 42 tons per hectare was estimated for a stand age of 60 years. This amount of already accumulated humus is not affected by harvests of remains from thinnings or clearcuts. If, on the other hand the felling residues are not removed that means that the amount of humus should increase. Experiments with soil scarification showed that for litter buried under plowed-up mineral soil the decomposition went further than in soil not scarified. The estimated limit value was on the average about 40 per

  11. Germinación, dispersión y establecimiento de plántulas de Mimosa tenuiflora (Leguminosae en México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara L. Camargo-Ricalde

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. es un recurso natural importante para México debido a sus diversos usos. Sin embargo, hasta ahora no se había estudiado la germinación, la dispersión y el establecimiento de plántulas de esta especie. Se recolectaron frutos y semillas de esta planta en el estado de Chiapas, México (S. L. Camargo et al. 118, UAMIZ. Las pruebas de germinación se hicieron después de cuatro años de almacenamiento; se sembraron en total 1 935 semillas en cajas de Petri con papel filtro Wathman humedecido. Se determinaron las temperaturas óptimas usando un gradiente de 5-40°C, con luz continua, para semillas escarificadas mecánicamente y no escarificadas. Se realizaron tres pruebas de fotoperíodo: a luz continua, b oscuridad constante y c luz 12hr/oscuridad 12 hr. Se aplicaron tres tratamientos pregerminativos: a escarificación mecánica, b ácido sulfúrico concentrado, c fuego directo y d ningún tratamiento. Para cada variable y pretratamiento se hicieron tres repeticiones, cada una con 15 semillas. Se aplicaron las pruebas estadísticas correspondientes: desviación estandar (S, análisis de varianza de una vía (ANOVA y comparación de medias (Prueba de Scheffé (pMimosa tenuiflora (Willd. Poir. is an important natural resource in Mexico, due to its diverse uses. However, seed germination, dissemination and seedling establishment of this species had not been studied up to date. Fruits and seeds were collected in the State of Chiapas, Mexico (S. L. Camargo et al. 118, UAMIZ. Germination experiments were carried out after four years of seed storage; 1 935 seeds were sown in Petri dishes containing moistened Wathman filter paper. Optimum temperatures were determined in a gradient 5-40 0C, with continuous light for mechanically scarified and non scarified seeds. Three photoperiod experiments were made: a continuous light, b constant darkness and c 12 hr light/12 hr darkness. Three germinate pretreatments were applied: a

  12. PRODUTIVIDADE DO ARROZ DE TERRAS ALTAS EM FUNÇÃO DO MANEJO DO SOLO E DA ÉPOCA DE APLICAÇÃO DE NITROGÊNIO UPLAND RICE YIELD UNDER DIFFERENT SOIL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS AND NITROGEN APPLICATION TIMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarcísio Cobucci

    2011-01-01

    -height: 120%; text-decoration: none;" lang="pt-BR" align="JUSTIFY">PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Oryza sativa; plantio direto; plantio convencional; escarificação.

    Proper soil management and N application time can significantly increase upland rice yield. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the interaction between soil management and nitrogen application time on upland rice development and yield. The experimental design was randomized blocks, in a 5x2 factorial scheme, consisting of five soil management systems (moldboard plow and leveling disc harrow; harrow plow and leveling disc harrow; “matabroto”-type scarifier; no-tillage; and “Aeromix” - superficial scarification equipment and two N application times (all N in the base, being 45 kg ha-1 of N applied with the aid of a mechanical traction fertilizer machine, 1 day before rice sowing, + 45 kg ha-1 of N at sowing; and 45 kg ha-1 of N at sowing + 45 kg ha-1 at the beginning of plant tillering, with 4 repetitions. There was no interaction among factors, concerning final plants stand. For treatments where the soil was plowed by using moldboard plow and disk harrow, yield was higher when the nitrogen was parceled out. When nitrogen was all applied during the planting time, the treatment with the “matabroto”-type scarifier presented the highest yield, differing statistically from all the other treatments. Conventional tillage yield (moldboard plow or disk harrow was similar to no-tillage, when all N was applied during the planting time.

    Dormancy breaking in Mauritia flexuosa seeds by using mechanical scarification and soaking = Superação de dormência em sementes de buriti por meio da escarificação mecânica e embebição

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    Alexsander Seleguini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Arecaceae species presents difficulties to germinate, even under appropriate conditions, complicating the seedlings production process. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of seed scarification and soaking in the emergence and development of Mauritia flexuosa seedlings. The treatments consisted of a combination of seed soaking and scarification methods, in a completely randomized design, in a 2 x 3 + 1 factorial scheme, with five replications. Seeds with and without scarification, combined with soaking methods (not soaked seeds and seeds soaked for 30 days, with and without daily water renewal, plus an additional treatment, where the seeds were scarified after soaking for 30 days, were tested. The seedlingemergence up to 146 days after sowing (d.a.s. was evaluated, as well as the emergence rate index (46 and 146 d.a.s. and growth components (146 d.a.s.. The results were submitted to the variance analysis (F test and means compared by using the Tukey test, at 5%. It was possible to conclude that the Mauritia flexuosa seeds presented tegument dormancy. The seed scarification increased the germination rate, however, it contributed to increase the seeds mortality rate. The soaking of nonscarified seeds for 30 days, with daily water renewal, improved the potential for seed germination. The mechanical scarification, without or after soaking the seeds in water, increased the Mauritia flexuosa seedlings mortality rate, and it is not, therefore, a suitable method for dormancy breaking. = A maioria das espécies de Arecaceae apresenta dificuldades para germinar, mesmo sob condições adequadas, dificultando a produção de mudas. Objetivou-se, com este trabalho, avaliar a influência da escarificação e embebição de sementes na emergência e desenvolvimento de mudas de buritizeiro. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação de métodos de embebição e escarificação de sementes, adotando-se o delineamento inteiramente

  13. Maturação e secagem de sementes de Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taubert (CANAFÍSTULA Maturation and drying of Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. Taubert (HORSEBUSH seeds

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    João Nakagawa

    2010-02-01

    fruit dispersal (98 DAL, totalizing ten harvests. Fruits of five trees were harvested and evaluated separately. For each harvest, fruits were split in two lots: one lot had the seeds extracted for germination (fresh seeds and the other was dried on room temperature before seed extraction (dry seeds. Water content and dry matter weight of 100 seeds were evaluated on both fresh and dry seeds. Germination tests of fresh and dry seeds were performed with and without scarification. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized block design, considering a tree as a block. The highest seed germination capacity was reached after the maximum mass accumulation. Maximum germination, was found in scarified seeds at the beginning of seed dispersal, when hard seeds predominated. Maturation, germination, and induction of seed dormancy in immature seeds were anticipated with they dryed inside the fruits separated from the mother tree.

  14. Scarification with sulphuric acid of Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke seeds - FABACEAE Escarificação com ácido sulfúrico de sementes de Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke - FABACEAE

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    Eniel David Cruz

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Seed coat impermeability to water occurs in many species, including Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. To promote germination in seeds with coat impermeability the use of sulphuric acid (H2SO4 is recommended. The objective of this study was to identify a better time for the scarification with sulphuric acid for S. amazonicum seeds. The effect of scarification with sulphuric acid for 20, 40 and 60 min on germination and speed germination was studied for seeds that were either sowed immediately after scarification or after a 24-hour period of immersion in water. Seeds were sown on a mix of sand and sawdust (1:1. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 50 seeds. The statistical analysis of germination was carried out at six, nine, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 days after sowing, in a factorial scheme. For speed germination the means were compared by the Tukey test. There was an interaction between treatments to overcome dormancy and immersion time after scarification in most evaluations. Immersion in water accelerated the beginning of germination. All treatments to overcome dormancy promoted seed germination. However, scarification for 60 min, showed better germination, 92% when immediately sown and 86.5% when sown after 24 hours. Speed germination index was highest for scarified seeds for 60 min followed by immersion in water. Scarification for 60 min was the most efficient treatment to promote germination in S. amazonicum seeds.Impermeabilidade do tegumento da semente à água ocorre em muitas espécies, inclusive em Schizolobium amazonicum Huber ex Ducke. Para promover a germinação de sementes com tegumento impermeável um dos métodos recomendados é o uso de ácido sulfúrico (H2SO4. O objetivo desse estudo foi identificar o melhor tempo de escarificação com ácido sulfúrico na superação da dormência em sementes de S. amazonicum, escarificadas durante 20, 40 e 60 minutos. Parte das sementes foi semeada

  15. Madres e hijos en contextos carcelarios y post-carcelarios. Estudio de caso. Provincia del Neuquén (Argentina

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    Beatriz Kalinsky

    2015-01-01

    the execution of criminal sanction where for children who are 5 five years old and were had in prison maybe because their mothers were pregnant before they were in prison or have them in pris- on the ones called children of prison, it is allowed to stay with their mothers and later they are given to other care givers; children or adult had previously are out of this law, is addressed in this paper. Children receive an ambigu- ous, intermittent and circumstantial positive and nega- tive value during and after their mothers’ time in pris- on. These children are considered as Figures of Feeling based on existential, transcendental and simultaneous or alternative sense in order to improve their conditions of confinement . Since motherhood is possible and widely accepted in prison where to have committed a crime and not to behave as mother, let us to consider them as bad woman and mother. For these women being a mother again provides a positive identity in an unfavorable so- cial context of confinement. Based on current standards mother can be committed to parenting and supply their children needs scarifying their own ones since this duty did not have fulfilled in the past they wish to be as closer as possible to the aim called being mothers, convinced that when they get freedom can be able to get rid of that unfavorable adjectives (stigmas and improve their con- ditions of confinement. 

  16. Desempenho germinativo da invasora Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. e comparação com Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. e Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae Germination performance of the invader Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. de Wit. compared to Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. ex Tul. and C. pulcherrima (L. Sw. (Fabaceae

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    Nilson Gonçalves da Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available O sucesso das plantas na colonização de novas áreas está fortemente relacionado ao comportamento germinativo das sementes nas condições ambientais locais. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o desempenho germinativo da exótica invasora Leucaena leucocephala ao das leguminosas (Caesalpinia ferrea, nativa e C. pulcherrima, exótica não consideradas invasoras. Sementes não escarificadas foram expostas às temperaturas de 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 e 40 °C, sob um fotoperíodo de 12 horas, durante 100 dias. Tanto a porcentagem final quanto a velocidade de germinação apresentaram diferenças significativas entre as três espécies. C. ferrea teve baixo desempenho, com temperatura ótima para a germinação a 25°C, porcentagem de germinação de 59% e IVG de 0,68 sementes d-1. Já C. pulcherrima, apresentou altas porcentagens de germinação em todas as temperaturas testadas, com faixa ótima entre 20-40 °C. As sementes de L. leucocephala apresentaram as menores porcentagens de germinação e temperatura ótima de 35 °C. O desempenho germinativo desta exótica não se sobressai ao das demais espécies estudadas e fatores como a pressão de propágulos, escarificação natural e bom desempenho em outras fases da vida devem contribuir para seu perfil de invasora.Success in establishing and colonizing new areas is directly related to germination behaviour of seeds under local environmental conditions. This work aimed to compare germination performance of the exotic invader Leucaena leucocephala to two legumes (Caesalpinia ferrea, native, and C. pulcherrima, exotic which are not considered invasive. Non-scarified seeds were exposed to constant temperatures of 15, 20, 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC, within a photoperiod of 12 hours, for 100 days. Both final germination percentage and germination speed showed significant differences among the three species. C. ferrea had low germination percentage, with optimal germination temperature at 25ºC, reaching

  17. Protective effects of heat shock protein 70 on the acute lung injury of rats with heat stroke and its mechanism

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    Yan GENG

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the protective effect of heat shock protein (HSP 70 on the acute lung injury (ALI of rats with heat stroke. Methods Sixty four rats were randomly (by employing a random number table assigned into a sham-heated group (Sham group, heat stress group (HS group, and HS plus gluttamine treatment group (HS+GLN group and HS plus quercet in treatment group (HS+QU group, 16 each. All rats were housed in a artificial climate chamber, with the rats in the sham groups exposed to a temperature of 23℃ and humidity of 55%±5%, while the rats of HS, HS+GLN and HS+QU groups to an ambient temperature of 39℃ and humidity of 65%. During heat stress or sham heating, rectal temperature (Tr, systolic blood pressure (SBP and pulse rate (PR were monitored to observe the difference in heat stress response among the groups. The time point at which the SBP started to drop from the peak level was taken as the point of HS onset. At the onset of HS, heat exposure was terminated, then the rats were immediately removed from the chamber, and returned to room temperature. The rats were scarified 0h and 6h after HS onset respectively. After bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF was collected, the lungs of all animals were harvested for pathological examination of lung injury. The concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 in BALF and HSP70 in lung homogenate were measured by using an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kit. Results Compared with HS and HS+QU groups, the rats in HS+GLN group required significantly greater heat load to induce HS (P<0.001, and had longer survival time span after HS onset. Compared with Sham group, the concentration of HSP70 in lung homogenate in HS group increased in a time-dependent manner (P<0.001. In comparison with HS group, the concentration of HSP70 in lung homogenate from HS+GLN group was significantly elevated at each time point (P<0.001, while the treatment with QU significantly inhibited the expression of HSP70 (P<0

  18. Soil chemical atributtes on brachiaria spp in integrated crop livestock system

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    Valdinei Tadeu Paulino

    2013-12-01

    surface and incorporate with soil scarifier. Maize was sown in November; fertilized rates were 28-39-46 kg ha-1 of N-P-K and broadcast fertilization with 18-31-60 kg ha-1 of N-P-K at 20 days of age. Harvesting maize for silage was in March. The management system adopted was maize in summer in no-till established and the pastures used for grazing in winter. An untreated control group (control - without liming and fertilization was allocated to experimental units according to a complete randomised block design, with five replications. Soil sampling, one year after the liming and gypsum application was conducted at the layers of 0-5, 5-10, 10-20, 20-30 and 30-40 cm deep in pastures. The samples were analysed for pH, H+ + Al3+, total organic carbon (TOC, P, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, exchangeable and calculated exchangeable cations (CEC = Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, BS% (base saturation and aluminium saturation. Data were analyzed by the method of least squares, using the Proc GLM of SAS program. Correcting acidity with lime topdressing and gypsum on the pasture increased the pH, Ca, Mg, BS and CEC levels and reduced the potential acidity and aluminium saturation of the soil compared with control. Results showed that the crop-livestock integration system has shown a great potential to increase TOC (0-10cm. It is interesting to highlight that the grasses used during the remain period in the pasture can influence the soil accumulation rates of C and N. In our study, higher accumulation rates were found with Marandu and B. ruziziensis grasses.

  19. Efectos combinados de escarificación y de hidratación parcial en la germinación de semillas frescas de leguminosas Combined effects of scarification and partial hydration on the germination of fresh legume seeds

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    Yolanda González

    2008-12-01

    SO4 at 96% during 10' (in seeds from Indigofera sp., Desmanthus virgatus and Centrosema pubescens, which were combined with a treatment of partial hydration in water at alternate temperature of 25/30ºC (optimum germination thermoperiod. The partial hydration was carried out until two hours before the beginning of visible germination; in the scarified seeds of Indigofera sp., D. virgatus, Crotalaria sp. and C. pubescens, this moment was reached at 15, 16, 16 and 19 hours, respectively. Air-dehydration took place for 48 hours, until reaching approximately the initial moisture content of the seeds (7-12% on fresh matter base. In all the species, except in D. virgatus, the partial hydration treatments increased the germination percentage, although they caused a higher germination rate. The partial hydration treatments in water are concluded to be adequate for increasing germination of the studied species, except in D. virgatus, under controlled conditions of caloric stress.

  1. Temperaturas cardeais e efeito da luz na germinação de sementes de mutamba Cardinal temperatures and effect of light on Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. seed germination

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    João C. de Araújo Neto

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Guazuma ulmifolia Lam., conhecida como mutamba, é uma espécie arbórea característica dos estádios iniciais da sucessão secundária, com ampla ocorrência natural no Brasil. Possui grande potencial para recuperação ambiental de áreas degradadas. Neste trabalho, conduziram-se dois experimentos, nos quais as sementes foram extraídas e escarificadas antes da instalação dos testes de germinação. O primeiro experimento foi desenvolvido com sementes colhidas em outubro de 1995 e teve por objetivo definir as temperaturas cardeais para a germinação das sementes. Foram testadas as temperaturas de 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 e 45 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de oito horas. Os resultados mostraram que a temperatura mínima é próxima de 10 ºC, a máxima se situa entre 35 e 40 ºC e as temperaturas de 25 e 30 ºC encontram-se dentro da faixa ótima. No segundo experimento, visou-se avaliar o requerimento fotoblástico de sementes recém-colhidas (colheita de outubro de 1996 e armazenadas em câmara seca por um ano (colheita de outubro de 1995. Os testes de germinação foram conduzidos a 30 ºC e as sementes recém-colhidas tiveram a germinação promovida pelas luzes branca e vermelha, mas inibida pela luz vermelha-extrema e ausência de luz. As sementes armazenadas, entretanto, revelaram-se insensíveis à luz.Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae is a typical tree species of the initial stages of secondary succession in Brazil, with potential for use in restoring degraded areas. Two experiments were carried out in this work, in which seeds were extracted and scarified before conducting the germination tests. The first experiment was conducted with seeds harvested in October 1995 and aimed to determine the cardinal temperatures for seed germination. Constant temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40 and 45 ºC were tested under an eight hour photoperiod. The results showed that the minimum temperature is around 10 ºC, the maximum between 35 and

  2. Urethral injection of poly (lactic-co-glycolic add) microspheres as a potential cell scaffold and bulking agent in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence%尿道注射聚(乳酸-羟基乙酸)共聚物微球治疗压力性尿失禁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾晓勇; 袁启龙; 李平; 彭鄂军; 庄乾元; 叶章群

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the biocompatibility of poly(lactic-co-glycolie acid) micro-spheres (PLGA-MS) in the urethral tissue and the possibility of PLGA-MS in the treatment of urinary incon-tinence of a rat model. Methods PLGA-MS were fabricated by a method of double emulsion. Scanning e-lectrical microcopy (SME) and computed-ald image analysis system were employed to analyze the morpholo-gy of those microspberes. Forty Sprague Dawley rats (female, adult) were divided into 2 groups randomly and equally:Group A,incontinence surgery (IS) pins PLGA-MS injection;Group B, IS plns normal saline injection. Abdominal leaking point pressures (ALPP) were measured on beth groups via an urodynamics machine to test urethral resistance before IS,one week after IS, and 2,4 and 8 weeks after injection. Animals were subjected to urethralysis (IS) to produce incontinence models,and the urethral injections were made in the proximal urethra. Three rats per group were scarified at above post-injection time points and their ure-thral tissue was harvested. HE staining was employed to study the evolution of morphology of PLGA-MS in-jected in the urethra tissue. CD68 ,a specific maker for macrophage,was detected by using immunochemical staining to evaluate the intensity and type of inflammation induced by PLGA-MS. Results Injected PLGA-MS were located in the muscular layers under mucosa. Foreign body reaction (FBR) presented in hyperpla-sia-type inflammation was seen in the tissue around the PLGA-MS, which was confirmed further by CD68.FBR was presented most intensely at week 2 after injection, and then relieved over time. There was no de-generation and/or necrosis seen in any time POint;ALPP in group A at week 2 post-injection was in average and higher significantly than pre-injection and this improvement was kept until week 8 post-injection at least. There was no any significant change observed in group B. Conclusion It was suggested that PLGA MS were safe to urethral tissue. Bulking

  3. Growth effects after whole-tree harvest in final cut of Scots pine and Norway spruce forest. Final report; Tillvaexteffekternas storlek och uthaallighet efter skogsbraensleuttag i slutavverkning av tall och gran. Slutrapport

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    Valinger, E. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Silviculture

    2001-12-01

    A great concern in forestry today is whether whole-tree harvesting influence site productivity and whether it is consistent with the principle of sustainable use of forest resources. To evaluate this a randomised field experiment established 24 years ago in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Southern Sweden was used. The field experiment was established in fall 1975 as a naturally regenerated mixed forest with Scots pine and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) with a growing stock of 305 m{sup 3}/ha was clear-cut near Kosta (56 deg 52' N, 15 deg 50' E, 240 m.a.s.l.). The site was a mesic dwarf-shrub type of medium fertility, with an average precipitation of 600 mm yr-1 and the soil was an orthic podzol. Treatments were conventional stem harvest (CH), whole-tree harvest (WTH), and branch and stem harvest (BSH). Scots pine seedlings of local provenance were planted in spring 1977 at the beginning of the second growing season following the harvest. The seedlings were planted in exposed mineral soil in manually scarified patches (40 x 40 cm) at 1.7 m spacing (144 seedlings per assessment plot, i.e. 3 600 seedlings/ha). Based on calliper data, the diameter for the mean basal area per tree (db) was calculated for each plot after 24 years using the formula: db = ({sigma} b{sup 3}/{sigma} b{sup 2}), where b is basal area at breast height for each tree. Three undamaged sample trees with a diameter equal or close to the diameter of the mean basal area per tree were selected on each plot giving 36 stems that were felled for destructive measurements in 2000. Total tree height ({+-} 0.01 m) was measured on every tree felled. Stem biomass was estimated by sampling of stem discs, 2 cm thick, at stump height (1 % of tree height), breast height (1.3 m), and at every meter along the bole. Crown biomass was estimated by sampling live and dead branches on the felled trees. From every whorl of branches one living branch was sampled and all branches were counted. Stem

  4. Germinação e crescimento inicial da muda de orelha-de-macaco (Enterolobium contortisiliqunn (Vell. Morong: efeito de tratamentos químicos e luminosidade Germination and initial growth of 'orelha de macaco" (Enterolobium contortisiliqunn (vell. morong seedlings: effect of chemical treatments and light

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    Silvana de Paula Quintão Scalon

    2006-08-01

    sowing. There was no germination in the control and for imbibition only in water. Emergence, LR, DMR and DMAP did not vary between scarification treatments (89% mean, 6.55cm, 0.08 g and 1.8g, LR in H2SO4/10 minutes + KNO3 (13.73. Based on these results, seeds can be scarified for 10 minutes with H2SO4. Seedlings in full sun showed the highest height (51.94 cm, DML (3.6g, DMAP 97.21g, DMR (4.27g and TDM (11.59g. ALR, LAR and RGR did not vary between light intensity and GA treatments. The studied doses of gibberellin did not alter seedling growth.

  5. Germinação e sanidade de sementes de Bauhinia variegata Germination and sanity of seeds of Bauhinia variegata

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    Adriana Martinelli-Seneme

    2006-10-01

    tratamento com ácido sulfúrico (20 min prejudicou o índice de velocidade de emergência em bandejas; os fungos detectados nas sementes foram Trichothecium sp, Aspergillus sp, Cladosporium sp, Colletotrichum sp, Fusarium sp., Penicillium sp e Rhizopus sp, mas não exerceram efeito na germinação e vigor das sementes.Bauhinia trees are considered late pioneers in plant succession, since they grow moderately fast. They can be used as grazing plants, ornamental, paper and cellulose, round log or sawn wood and also for recovery of degraded areas. Seeking alternatives for a faster and more uniform germination by means of scarification methods, Bauhinia variegata seeds were subjected to the following pre-germination treatments: mechanical scarification (sandpaper 220; immersion in hot water at 80ºC; immersion in cold water (10ºC for 2 hours; scissors cuttings (area opposed to the micropyle; immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid for five minutes followed by washing in running water; immersion in concentrated sulfuric acid for 20 minutes followed by washing in running water. Seeds were then placed in plastic gerbox boxes with vermiculite substratum to germinate at 30ºC, evaluations were carried out on the 7th and 14th days. Seeds were also sown in trays containing sand in the greenhouse. The parameters index of emergence speed and percent final emergence at 32 days after sowing were evaluated in greenhouse. Seed sanity was evaluated with 400 seeds using the Blotter test. Five sub-samples of 30 seeds from each treatment were used for the germination test and emergence speed index; the experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design and means were compared by the Tukey's Test (P>0.05. Seed germination with mechanical scarification (with sandpaper and scissors cuttings and immersion in cold water was no significantly different from the control; the germination speed in laboratory was higher when seeds were scarified with sandpaper or immerged in cold water for two hours

  6. Escarificação de sementes para desenvolvimento em plântulas de açaizeiro = Seed scarification for development on seedling of acaí palm

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    Lucinete Lima da Silva

    2015-03-01

    development of açaí palm seedlings. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments, five replications with 50 seeds per plot. The treatments corresponded to the use of four methods for breaking seed dormancy. In the control treatment (T1, the seeds were not scarified; (T2 thermal scarification at 80ºC from two hours; (T3 thermal scarification in water at the temperature of 100ºC for two hours; (T4 the seeds were submitted to mechanical scarification in aluminum can previously pierced with circular movements for four minutes for 250-seed samples, (T5 the seeds wee submersed in 20 L of water containing 500 g of caustic soda for two hours. The number of emerged seedlings (NPE, %, the length of the seedlings’ shoot (CPA, cm, the leaf length (CF, cm, the root length (CR, cm and dry matter (DM, g were evaluated. The previous cooling of açaí fruits is not indicated because it reduces the percentage of seed emergence and initial seedling development. Higher emergence of percentage and initial seedling development of açaí are obtained with mechanical scarification of the seeds.

  7. Assessment of the Allelopathic Potential of Extracts of Lavendula officinalis

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    A. H. Nazemi

    2017-01-01

    indices of six plant species. Materials and Methods: This study was separately and simultaneously carried out in 6 experiments based on a completely randomized design with four replications, which each one involved with one plant species. In each experiment, the influence of eight concentrations of coumarin including zero (control, 4, 20, 40, 100, 200, 300, and 400 ppm extract were assessed on germination and seedling growth of one plant species. There was 245 ppm coumarin from 100 g leaf of lavender. Weed species included redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., barnyard grass (Echinochloa cruss-gali (L. Moench, johnson grass (Sorghum halepense (L. Pers., common purslane (Portulaca oleracea L.; and corn crop (Zea mays L. cv. Sc 704. The seeds of all weeds were collected from weeds which were around fields located near Mashhad, Iran. The seeds of maize were obtained from the Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Mashhad, Iran. Before the start of experiment, the seed dormancy-breaking treatments were conducted to increase the seed coat permeability of weed species. Hence, the seeds of A. retroflexus, C. album, E. cruss-gali, S. halepnse, and P. oleracea were acid-scarified in concentrated sulfuric acid (98% for 5, 1, 3, 4 and 1 min, respectively; and then rinsed with distilled water. Twenty seeds of each plant species were placed in Petri dish on two layer of filter paper. Petri dishes were transferred into incubator after 10 ml of treatment solutions were added into them. Daily observations were made on the number of seeds germinated in each dish. After 12 days, root and shoot length was measured. Then, they were harvested and oven-dried at 75ºC for a period of 48 h and the dry weight was determined. The data were changed to individual plant and subjected to analyze by both the variance analysis using PROC GLM in SAS software. Results and Discussion: Despite the differences between studied plants, the

  8. Temperatura óptima de germinación y patrones de imbibición de las semillas de Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium y Bauhinia purpurea Optimum germination temperature and imbibition patterns of the seeds from Albizia lebbeck, Gliricidia sepium and Bauhinia purpurea

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    J Reino

    2008-09-01

    substratum (constant 25ºC and three alternate ones: 25/30ºC, 25/35ºC and 25/40ºC. Before seeding the seeds of A. lebbeck were scarified (water at 80ºC/2'. For the imbibition pattern the seeds were put on filter paper moist with purified water according to the optimum germination temperature, under white fluorescent light and at different imbibition times. In the fresh seeds of all the species the highest percentages of final germination were obtained at alternate temperature of 25/35ºC and in the aged ones at 25/30ºC. With regards to the imbibition pattern they all followed a three-phase pattern of water absorption. The fresh and aged seeds of G. sepium showed a very similar imbibition pattern, however the fresh seeds of the other species presented higher hydration rate than the aged ones and consequently they reached faster the start of phase III of the imbibition pattern (i.e. visible germination. The range of optimum temperature for the germination of aged seeds was concluded to be 25/30 ºC and for the fresh ones it was 25/35 ºC and both showed a three-phase pattern of water absorption when the seeding was carried out at optimum germination temperature.

  9. Latencia y banco de semillas en plantas de la región mediterránea de Chile central Seed bank and dormancy in plants of the Mediterranean region of central Chile

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    JAVIER A. FIGUEROA

    2004-03-01

    un modelo estructural y funcional del banco de semillas para el matorral de Chile central, que debería ser enriquecido con futuras investigacionesSeed banks on Mediterranean regions display characteristics that distinguish them from the seed banks of other regions. A seed bank is the concentration of viable propagules buried in the soil for variable periods of time. Seed banks in the Chilean matorral are chiefly transient and functionally similar to seed banks in other Mediterranean ecosystems not disturbed by fire, except for those of Australia. A transient seed bank is that composed of seeds that cannot survive in the upper levels of the soil for more than 1 year. The density of herb seeds in the Chilean matorral soil is one of the highest among Mediterranean ecosystems anywhere in the world, and a large proportion of these seeds is made up of seeds without dormancy that germinate easily, particularly annual grasses. With respect to the dormancy mechanisms that may be responsible for the behavior of these seeds stored in the transient bank, our analysis revealed the following germination syndromes: (1 species whose seeds must be stratified in cold due to the presence of physiological dormancy (particularly introduced herbs, (2 species whose seeds must be scarified with acids or mechanical means due to the presence of physical dormancy (mainly native woody species and, (3 species that present physiological dormancy and need heat stratification to activate germination (both native and introduced species. These syndromes determine that the timing of germination in central Chile has an autumn and an early spring phase. Besides, there is absence of sporadic germination syndromes for the components of a persistent seed bank. We propose a structural and functional model of the seed bank for the matorral of central Chile that should be enriched with future research

  10. ETIOLOGY OF OROYA FEVER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Hideyo

    1926-01-01

    3 months, in one instance, with a remittence during the 3rd to 5th weeks, to the acute high fever (106°F.) of 1 day's duration in the fatally infected monkey, No. 25. The more usual reaction, however, is an irregular course of moderate fever with one or more periods of high temperature (105°). Bartonella bacilliformis was constantly demonstrated, both microscopically and by culture tests, in the lymph glands of animals sacrificed 2 to 3 months after inoculation, and in two of three instances it was present also in the spleen, bone marrow, and heart blood. In the case of M. rhesus 6, which died 26 days after inoculation, the microorganism was obtained also in culture from the lymph glands, spleen, and heart blood taken at autopsy. In the other animal which died, a terminal bactelial infection, while not obscuring the effects of the Bartonella infection, made it impossible to isolate the parasite from either blood or tissues. The skin lesions, whether of the nodular type, induced by introduction of the virus intradermally or by application to the scarified skin, or of the miliary character occurring spontaneously as a result of systemic infection, always yielded cultures of Bartonella bacilliformis, and stained sections of such lesions revealed the parasites in large numbers in their characteristic situation in the endothelial cells. A chronic, systemic infection, in which the lymph glands are enlarged and Bartonella bacilliformis is present in the blood in high titer, may be induced by local inoculation, as shown in the case of M. rhesus 5. The local lesions induced in one instance by introduction of a passage strain, both intradermally and by scarification, attained within 2 months extraordinary size, the nodules arising at adjacent sites of inoculation on the right eyebrow having coalesced into a large pedunculated mass which overhung the eye. This type of reaction had not been observed hitherto in the course of the present study but has been described by earlier

  11. Phytoremediation of some tropical soils contaminated with petroleum crude oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyibo, Charles

    2013-12-01

    This study was undertaken in three phases to identify (phase 1), screen (phase 11) and evaluate (phase 111) plants for their phytoremediation potential. In Phase 1, 15 plant species made up of grasses and legumes namely: Paspalum. vaginatum, Cynodon.dactylon, Pueraria. phaseoloides, Centrosema. pubescens, Panicum. maximum, Schrankia. leptocarpa, Eclipta. alba (Linn.), Cyperus. haspen (Linn.), Melastromastrum. capitatum, Acreceras. zizanoides Dandy, Pteridum aquilinum (Linn), Ludwigia.decurrens Walt,Setaria longiseta P.Beauv., Physalis angulata (Linn.), and Desmodium scorpiurus Desv.were identified on sites previously polluted by crude oil spills in the Niger Delta Area of Nigeria. The first 6 species were used in phase 11 while the first four species were earmarked (rolled over) for phase 111. Responses to Questionnaire indicated that majority of residents in the selected sites/communities had lived in these areas for 10 or more years had mainly JHS/SHS education; were self employed – mainly farmers and fishers although most were unemployed in the public sector. Adverse effects of the operations of oil companies particularly oil spillage on the environment and local residents include: loss of vegetation and farmlands, soil and water body contamination, weak social and cultural institutions (disrespect by youth for elders and institutions), militancy and hostage taking among youth from the area. In phase 11, seeds of legumes among the six selected species were collected from Accra, Aburi environs and Kusi in the Eastern region of Ghana; they were scarified, cultured in growth medium and the seedlings which emerged from them were transplanted into experimental pots, each containing 2000g of either Alajo or Toje soil series. One week after transplanting, each pot was simulated with a corresponding serial crude oil concentration of 0% (control) 1 % (24ml), 3% (83ml), 5.5% (130ml) and 8% (189ml) or 10% (237ml) in three replicates. These concentrations were arrived at