WorldWideScience

Sample records for scarcity solutions yield

  1. The end of abundance. Economic solutions to water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetland, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In a past of abundance, we had clean water to meet our demands for showers, pools, farms and rivers. Our laws and customs did not need to regulate or ration demand. Over time, our demand has grown, and scarcity has replaced abundance. We don't have as much clean water as we want. We can respond to

  2. MARSOL: Demonstrating Managed Aquifer Recharge as a Solution to Water Scarcity and Drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schueth, Christoph

    2014-05-01

    Southern Europe and the Mediterranean region are facing the challenge of managing its water resources under conditions of increasing scarcity and concerns about water quality. Already, the availability of fresh water in sufficient quality and quantity is one of the major factors limiting socio economic development. Innovative water management strategies such as the storage of reclaimed water or excess water from different sources in Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) schemes can greatly increase water availability and therefore improve water security. Main objective of the proposed project MARSOL is to demonstrate that MAR is a sound, safe and sustainable strategy that can be applied with great confidence and therefore offering a key approach for tackling water scarcity in Southern Europe. For this, eight field sites were selected that will demonstrate the applicability of MAR using various water sources, ranging from treated wastewater to desalinated seawater, and a variety of technical solutions. Targets are the alleviation of the effect of climate change on water resources, the mitigation of droughts, to countermeasure temporal and spatial misfit of water availability, to sustain agricultural water supply and rural socio-economic development, to combat agricultural related pollutants, to sustain future urban and industrial water supply and to limit seawater intrusion in coastal aquifers. Results of the demonstration sites will be used to develop guidelines for MAR site selection, technical realization, monitoring strategies, and modeling approaches, to offer stakeholders a comprehensive, state of the art and proven toolbox for MAR implementation. Further, the economic and legal aspects of MAR will be analyzed to enable and accelerate market penetration. The MARSOL consortium combines the expertise of consultancies, water suppliers, research institutions, and public authorities, ensuring high practical relevance and market intimacy.

  3. On the scarcity of solutions of the equations of magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez, Manuel [Departamento de Analisis Matematico, Universidad de Valladolid, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)], E-mail: mnjmhd@am.uva.es

    2008-06-16

    While particular analytic solutions to the equations of axisymmetric MHD equilibria with flow are known, it is not clear what possible choosing of the free parameters of the equation of the magnetic flux will yield a solution. The most important of these is the poloidal stream function. We show that for a given flow to be able to yield an equilibrium, the flow itself must satisfy an analogous equation to the generalized Grad-Shafranov one. The problem therefore turns out to be how common are solutions to this type of equations. It is shown that in a natural space of functions, the set of these solutions is contained within a manifold of infinite codimension: extremely small by any criteria. Hence the class of flows for which an equilibrium, even defined only locally and irrespective of boundary conditions, may be found, is highly constrained.

  4. Land scarcity in Northern Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura

    2015-04-01

    Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.

  5. Narrating health and scarcity: Guyanese healthcare workers, development reformers, and sacrifice as solution from socialist to neoliberal governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexis

    2017-08-01

    In oral history interviews, Guyanese healthcare workers emphasize continuity in public health governance throughout the late twentieth century, despite major shifts in broader systems of governance during this period. I argue that these healthcare workers' recollections reflect long-term scarcities and the discourses through which both socialist politicians and neoliberal reformers have narrated them. I highlight the striking similarities in discourses of responsibility and efficiency advanced by socialist politicians in 1970s Guyana and by World Bank representatives designing the country's market transition in the late 1980s, and the ways these discourses have played out in Guyana's health system. Across diverging ideologies, politicians and administrators have promoted severe cost-control as the means to a more prosperous future, presenting short-term pains as necessary to creating new, better, leaner ways of life. In the health sector this has been enacted through a focus on self-help, and on nutrition as a tool available without funds dedicated for pharmaceuticals, advanced medical technologies, or a fully staffed public health system. I argue that across these periods Guyanese citizens have been offered a very similar recipe of ongoing sacrifice. I base my analysis on oral histories with forty-six healthcare workers conducted between 2013 and 2015 in Guyana in Regions 3, 4, 5, 9, and 10, as well as written records from World Bank and Guyanese national archives; I analyze official discourses as well as recollections and experiences of public health governance by those working in Guyana's health system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scarcity in abundance. Investing in new scarcities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The growth of the world population and the rapidly increasing welfare level, especially in emerging economies, will result in strongly increasing demand for raw materials, energy, food and water in the coming decades. Moreover, climate change also contributes to the pressure on the available agricultural lands and water, resulting in growing scarcity. IRIS sees new investment opportunities in raw materials, energy, food, water, air, care and health. [mk] [nl

  7. China's water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yong

    2009-08-01

    China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.

  8. Towards Sustainable Water Management in a Country that Faces Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schyns, J.; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Mekonnen, M. M.; Schyns, M.

    2015-12-01

    Jordan faces a great variety of water-related challenges: domestic water resources are scarce and polluted; the sharing of transboundary waters has led to tensions and conflicts; and Jordan is extremely dependent of foreign water resources through trade. Therefore, sustainable water management in Jordan is a challenging task, which has not yet been accomplished. The objective of this study was to analyse Jordan's domestic water scarcity and pollution and the country's external water dependency, and subsequently review sustainable solutions that reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. We have estimated the green, blue and grey water footprint of five different sectors in Jordan: crop production, grazing, animal water supply, industrial production and domestic water supply. Next, we assessed the blue water scarcity ratio for the sum of surface- and groundwater and for groundwater separately, and calculated the water pollution level. Finally, we reviewed the sustainability of proposed solutions to Jordan's domestic water problems and external water dependency in literature, while involving the results and conclusions from our analysis. We have quantified that: even while taking into account the return flows, blue water scarcity in Jordan is severe; groundwater consumption is nearly double the sustainable yield; water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity; and Jordan's external virtual water dependency is 86%. Our review yields ten essential ingredients that a sustainable water management strategy for Jordan, that reduces the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency, should involve. With respect to these, Jordan's current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Especially, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption patterns of Jordan consumers. Moreover, exploitation of fossil groundwater should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful

  9. Water scarcity and urban forest management: introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Robert Prince

    2013-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2009 a serious drought affected much of Australia. Whether reasoned or unintentional, water policy decisions closed the tap, turning much of the urban forest’s lifeline into a trickle. Green infrastructure became brown infrastructure, exposing its standing as a low priority relative to other consumptive sources. To share new solutions to water scarcity...

  10. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue

  11. Beyond territory and scarcity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The attainment of sound and sustainable environmental management is one of humanity's greatest challenges this century, particularly in Africa, which is still heavily dependent on the exploitation of natural and agricultural resources and is faced with rapid population growth. Yet, this challenge...... alternatives to the strong natural determinism that reduces natural resource management to questions of territory and scarcity. - Presenting material and methodologies that explore the different contexts in which social and cultural values intervene, and discovering more than "rational choice" in the agency...... of individuals. - Examining the relevance of the different conceptions of territory for the ways in which people manage, or attempt to manage, natural resources. - Placing their research within the framework of the developing discussion on policy and politics in natural resource management. The studies are drawn...

  12. Calculated yields of ammonia in the radiolysis of deoxygenated solutions of glycylglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolch, W.E.; Turner, J.E.; Yoshida, H.; Jacobson, K.B.

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents detailed Monte Carlo simulations of physical and chemical interactions occurring within electron tracks in deoxygenated solutions of glycylglycine. Hydrated electrons produced within these tracks react with the solute to produce ammonia and a peptide secondary free radical. Calculated yields of ammonia are presented for a range of solute concentrations and electron energies. Excellent agreement is found between calculated and measured yields of ammonia in solutions irradiated by 250-kVp x-rays and 60 Co gamma rays. 12 refs., 5 figs

  13. Scarcity rents and airport charges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, W.

    2015-01-01

    This report addresses the responses related to scarcity rents and airport charges. The Commission has asked ITF/SEO to provide evidence on scarcity rents in the London airport system. Different reports submitted in response to the Commission’s consultation make different assumptions on the way

  14. An analytical solution describing the shape of a yield stress material subjected to an overpressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovad, Emil; Spangenberg, Jon; Larsen, P.

    2016-01-01

    as well as the spread length and height of the material when deformed in a box due to gravity. In the present work, the analytical solution is extended with the addition of an overpressure that acts over the entire body of the material. This extension enables finding the shape of a yield stress material......Many fluids and granular materials are able to withstand a limited shear stress without flowing. These materials are known as yields stress materials. Previously, an analytical solution was presented to quantify the yield stress for such materials. The yields stress is obtained based on the density...... with known density and yield stress when for instance deformed under water or subjected to a forced air pressure....

  15. Fluorescence quantum yield of thioflavin T in rigid isotropic solution and incorporated into the amyloid fibrils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna I Sulatskaya

    Full Text Available In this work, the fluorescence of thioflavin T (ThT was studied in a wide range of viscosity and temperature. It was shown that ThT fluorescence quantum yield varies from 0.0001 in water at room temperature to 0.28 in rigid isotropic solution (T/η→0. The deviation of the fluorescence quantum yield from unity in rigid isotropic solution suggests that fluorescence quantum yield depends not only on the ultra-fast oscillation of ThT fragments relative to each other in an excited state as was suggested earlier, but also depends on the molecular configuration in the ground state. This means that the fluorescence quantum yield of the dye incorporated into amyloid fibrils must depend on its conformation, which, in turn, depends on the ThT environment. Therefore, the fluorescence quantum yield of ThT incorporated into amyloid fibrils can differ from that in the rigid isotropic solution. In particular, the fluorescence quantum yield of ThT incorporated into insulin fibrils was determined to be 0.43. Consequently, the ThT fluorescence quantum yield could be used to characterize the peculiarities of the fibrillar structure, which opens some new possibilities in the ThT use for structural characterization of the amyloid fibrils.

  16. FURFURAL YIELD AND DECOMPOSITION IN SODIUM 2,4DIMETHYLBENZENESULFONATE--SULFURIC ACID--WATER SOLUTIONS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch-type microreactors (about 1/40 milliliter of reactants) were used to measure furfural yields from acidified xylose solutions containing sodium...It was found that presence of the salt did not affect the quantity of furfural produced, but greatly increased the rate of formation. The regular...increase in rate of furfural formation was directly related to the increase in the rate xylose decomposition, and furfural yields for all salt and acid

  17. Water scarcity and drought in WANA countries

    KAUST Repository

    Kharraz, Jauad El

    2012-03-20

    Water Security was a central theme of WANA Forum 2010, where regional experts warned that the wars of the 21st century will be fought over water. Climate change will only exacerbate problems in a region already stressed by lack of water, food and political and social unrest. Across the Arc of Crisis, from Somalia, Sudan and Egypt in Africa to Yemen, Iraq, Pakistan, and Afghanistan in West Asia, water scarcity in the region has already lead to drought and famine, loss of livelihood, the spread of water-borne diseases, forced migrations and open conflict. Water scarcity is closely linked to food and health security, making better water management a key stepping stone for poverty reduction and economic growth. If nothing changes, most of the WANA countries will encounter, in less than a generation, serious problems in managing inland freshwater, the availability of which, in sufficient quantity and quality, may become, as it is already the case in several of these countries, a main challenge for economic and social development. Wastage and pollution will then be such that « water stress » will affect, in a way or another, most of the populations of WANA countries and the poorest first of all. The effects of global warming will increase current trends. On the other hand, water scarcity in the WANA region is an issue of growing concern. With heavy demand from agriculture, growing populations and virtually no remaining untapped water sources, the need to establish water-management strategies in the region is of vital importance. WANA countries can be divided into three major agro-ecologies, each facing slightly different challenges. Rain-fed areas are dependent on a low and extremely variable rainfall, resulting in minimal yields, a problem exacerbated by frequent drought. Rainfall occurs in the form of intense and unpredictable storms, and as a result, the crusting soils are unable to absorb the moisture, which rapidly becomes lost through evaporation or runoff

  18. Recycling wastewater offers solution to scarcity | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... ... greywater reuse into long-term plans to combat the region's deepening water crisis. ... Network on Water Resources Development and Management. ... Social, Economic and Policy Issues: IDRC book edited by Stephen ...

  19. On the Problem of Scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pál GERVAI

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A radical change had occurred in the definitionof the economics in Central and Eastern Europeat end of the 80’s. Since then, the theoreticaleconomists focused their attention on the conceptof scarcity. This shift was strongly connected tothe theoretical turn that pointed from the politicaleconomics towards the economics in the Westernsense. In the paper, firstly, we argue that eventhe definition of the economics in the Westernsense was not always attached to the concept ofscarcity, and the scarcity was part of the economicthinking only in the 20thcentury. Secondly, weemphasize that the adaptation of the economicsin the Western sense cannot be successful inCentral and Eastern Europe based merely on theconcept of scarcity. The scarcity, and particularlyits Central and Eastern European interpretationwill not promote the adaptation of the Westernmanagerial culture, on the contrary, it preservesthe bad technical-managerial traditions whoseliquidation was the real sense of the transition.Finally, we make a suggestion for a new approachof the definition of the economics due to the abovementioned. The examination of the philosophicalbasis of the economic thinking is an indispensablepart of this approach. Our standpoint is that theeconomics - as every science - has its ownphilosophical basis, and dealing with this basis isthe integral part of the theoretical economics. Theeconomics of Central and Eastern Europe has acertain tradition that banks on it and this can be thecomparative advantage of the economic researchundertaken in this paper. The rebirth of the politicaleconomy in this sense is a perceptible tendencyin the region.

  20. Water scarcity challenges to business

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    The growing scarcity of freshwater due to rising water demands and a changing climate is increasingly seen as a major risk for the global economy. Consumer awareness, private sector initiatives, governmental regulation and targeted investments are urgently needed to move towards sustainable water

  1. Behavioural modelling of irrigation decision making under water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, T.; Brozovic, N.; Butler, A. P.

    2013-12-01

    Providing effective policy solutions to aquifer depletion caused by abstraction for irrigation is a key challenge for socio-hydrology. However, most crop production functions used in hydrological models do not capture the intraseasonal nature of irrigation planning, or the importance of well yield in land and water use decisions. Here we develop a method for determining stochastic intraseasonal water use that is based on observed farmer behaviour but is also theoretically consistent with dynamically optimal decision making. We use the model to (i) analyse the joint land and water use decision by farmers; (ii) to assess changes in behaviour and production risk in response to water scarcity; and (iii) to understand the limits of applicability of current methods in policy design. We develop a biophysical model of water-limited crop yield building on the AquaCrop model. The model is calibrated and applied to case studies of irrigated corn production in Nebraska and Texas. We run the model iteratively, using long-term climate records, to define two formulations of the crop-water production function: (i) the aggregate relationship between total seasonal irrigation and yield (typical of current approaches); and (ii) the stochastic response of yield and total seasonal irrigation to the choice of an intraseasonal soil moisture target and irrigated area. Irrigated area (the extensive margin decision) and per-area irrigation intensity (the intensive margin decision) are then calculated for different seasonal water restrictions (corresponding to regulatory policies) and well yield constraints on intraseasonal abstraction rates (corresponding to aquifer system limits). Profit- and utility-maximising decisions are determined assuming risk neutrality and varying degrees of risk aversion, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the formulation of the production function has a significant impact on the response to water scarcity. For low well yields, which are the major concern

  2. Four billion people facing severe water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Hoekstra, Arjen Y

    2016-02-01

    Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue water scarcity globally at a high spatial resolution on a monthly basis. We find that two-thirds of the global population (4.0 billion people) live under conditions of severe water scarcity at least 1 month of the year. Nearly half of those people live in India and China. Half a billion people in the world face severe water scarcity all year round. Putting caps to water consumption by river basin, increasing water-use efficiencies, and better sharing of the limited freshwater resources will be key in reducing the threat posed by water scarcity on biodiversity and human welfare.

  3. Transgenic crops coping with water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominelli, Eleonora; Tonelli, Chiara

    2010-11-30

    Water scarcity is a serious problem that will be exacerbated by global climate change. Massive quantities of water are used in agriculture, and abiotic stresses, especially drought and increased salinity, are primary causes of crop loss worldwide. Various approaches may be adopted to consume less water in agriculture, one of them being the development of plants that use less water yet maintain high yields in conditions of water scarcity. In recent years several molecular networks concerned with stress perception, signal transduction and stress responses in plants have been elucidated. Consequently, engineering some of the genes involved in these mechanisms promises to enhance plant tolerance to stresses and in particular increase their water use efficiency. Here we review the various approaches used so far to produce transgenic plants having improved tolerance to abiotic stresses, and discuss criteria for choosing which genes to work on (functional and regulatory genes) and which gene expression promoters (constitutive, inducible, and cell-specific) have been used to obtain successful results. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value–added chemical levulinic acid (LA in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg, mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  5. Yield Behavior of Solution Treated and Aged Ti-6Al-4V

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ring, Andrew J.; Baker, Eric H.; Salem, Jonathan A.; Thesken, John C.

    2014-01-01

    Post yield uniaxial tension-compression tests were run on a solution treated and aged (STA), titanium 6-percent aluminum 4-percent vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V) alloy to determine the yield behavior on load reversal. The material exhibits plastic behavior almost immediately on load reversal implying a strong Bauschinger effect. The resultant stress-strain data was compared to a 1D mechanics model and a finite element model used to design a composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV). Although the models and experimental data compare well for the initial loading and unloading in the tensile regime, agreement is lost in the compressive regime due to the Bauschinger effect and the assumption of perfect plasticity. The test data presented here are being used to develop more accurate cyclic hardening constitutive models for future finite element design analysis of COPVs.

  6. Sample-averaged biexciton quantum yield measured by solution-phase photon correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyler, Andrew P; Bischof, Thomas S; Cui, Jian; Coropceanu, Igor; Harris, Daniel K; Bawendi, Moungi G

    2014-12-10

    The brightness of nanoscale optical materials such as semiconductor nanocrystals is currently limited in high excitation flux applications by inefficient multiexciton fluorescence. We have devised a solution-phase photon correlation measurement that can conveniently and reliably measure the average biexciton-to-exciton quantum yield ratio of an entire sample without user selection bias. This technique can be used to investigate the multiexciton recombination dynamics of a broad scope of synthetically underdeveloped materials, including those with low exciton quantum yields and poor fluorescence stability. Here, we have applied this method to measure weak biexciton fluorescence in samples of visible-emitting InP/ZnS and InAs/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals, and to demonstrate that a rapid CdS shell growth procedure can markedly increase the biexciton fluorescence of CdSe nanocrystals.

  7. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stern, D.I.

    1999-01-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of u se scarcity . The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  8. Impact of scarcity on consumer behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.U. Kulakovsky

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the impact of scarcity on consumer behavior and on perception of scarce goods consumer qualities. The author examines and subjects to the critical analysis the impact of scarcity on consumer behavior within economic theory, the theory of reactance and commodity theory. The differences in explaining the impact of scarcity on consumer behavior in economic and psychological sciences is highlighted. The current researcher experimentally proves the impact of the scarcity as an isolated factor on consumer behavior and the impact of scarcity on consumer perception of product quality. According to the reactance theory, an individual perceives scarcity as the restriction of his freedom that causes resistance in response to a possible restriction of freedom of actions. This reinforces the desire to have such a scarce product. To confirm the psychological impact of scarcity on a domestic consumer the author designs and conducts the experiment that confirms the following hypotheses: scarcity affects consumer behavior and stimulates consumers to purchase scarce commodities; scarcity has impact on the perception of scarce product consumer qualities. Such consumer behavior relatively to scarce goods can be used by marketers to promote products on the market.

  9. Effects of land-applied ammonia scrubber solutions on yield, nitrogen uptake, soil test phosphorus and phosphorus runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) scrubbers reduce amounts of NH3 and dust released from animal rearing facilities, while generating nitrogen (N) rich solutions, which may be used as fertilizer. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various NH3 scrubber solutions on yields, N uptake by forage, so...

  10. Energy scarcity and economic growth reconsidered

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The analysis in this paper is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the United States. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing two measures of scarcity, unit costs and relative energy price, changes in the trend in resource scarcity for natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades are investigated. Each of the energy resources became significantly more scarce resources during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian Stock Scarcity and Malthusian Flow Scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for natural gas and crude oil but not for bituminous coal and anthracite coal. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. Natural gas, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce resources during the decade of the 1980s than they had been during the 1970s. That is, the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the decade of the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for natural gas and crude oil. Unit costs for natural gas and crude oil demonstrate analogous patterns and test results. Given that change has taken place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. (author)

  11. Solution of the spatial neutral model yields new bounds on the Amazonian species richness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shem-Tov, Yahav; Danino, Matan; Shnerb, Nadav M.

    2017-02-01

    Neutral models, in which individual agents with equal fitness undergo a birth-death-mutation process, are very popular in population genetics and community ecology. Usually these models are applied to populations and communities with spatial structure, but the analytic results presented so far are limited to well-mixed or mainland-island scenarios. Here we combine analytic results and numerics to obtain an approximate solution for the species abundance distribution and the species richness for the neutral model on continuous landscape. We show how the regional diversity increases when the recruitment length decreases and the spatial segregation of species grows. Our results are supported by extensive numerical simulations and allow one to probe the numerically inaccessible regime of large-scale systems with extremely small mutation/speciation rates. Model predictions are compared with the findings of recent large-scale surveys of tropical trees across the Amazon basin, yielding new bounds for the species richness (between 13100 and 15000) and the number of singleton species (between 455 and 690).

  12. Effects of Land-Applied Ammonia Scrubber Solutions on Yield, Nitrogen Uptake, Soil Test Phosphorus, and Phosphorus Runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jerry W; Moore, Philip A; Li, Hong; Ashworth, Amanda J; Miles, Dana M

    2018-03-01

    Ammonia (NH) scrubbers reduce amounts of NH and dust released from animal rearing facilities while generating nitrogen (N)-rich solutions, which may be used as fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various NH scrubber solutions on forage yields, N uptake, soil-test phosphorus (P), and P runoff. A small plot study was conducted using six treatments: (i) an unfertilized control, (ii) potassium bisulfate (KHSO) scrubber solution, (iii) aluminum sulfate [Al(SO) ⋅14HO, alum] scrubber solution, (iv) sodium bisulfate (NaHSO) scrubber solution, (v) sulfuric acid (HSO) scrubber solution, and (vi) ammonium nitrate (NHNO) fertilizer. The scrubber solutions were obtained from ARS Air Scrubbers attached to commercial broiler houses. All N sources were applied at a rate of 112 kg N ha. Plots were harvested approximately every 4 wk and soil-test P measurements were made, then a rainfall simulation study was conducted. Cumulative forage yields were greater ( scrubber solutions than for alum (6.7 Mg ha) or HSO (6.5 Mg ha) scrubber solutions or for NHNO (6.9 Mg ha). All N sources resulted in higher yields than the control (5.1 Mg ha). The additional potassium in the KHSO treatment likely resulted in higher yields. Although Mehlich-III-extractable P was not affected, water-extractable P in soil was lowered by the alum-based scrubber solution, which also resulted in lower P runoff. This study demonstrates that N captured using NH scrubbers is a viable N fertilizer. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  13. Growing sensitivity of maize to water scarcity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qingfeng; Chen, Xinping; Lobell, David B; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Haishun; Zhang, Fusuo

    2016-01-25

    Climate change can reduce crop yields and thereby threaten food security. The current measures used to adapt to climate change involve avoiding crops yield decrease, however, the limitations of such measures due to water and other resources scarcity have not been well understood. Here, we quantify how the sensitivity of maize to water availability has increased because of the shift toward longer-maturing varieties during last three decades in the Chinese Maize Belt (CMB). We report that modern, longer-maturing varieties have extended the growing period by an average of 8 days and have significantly offset the negative impacts of climate change on yield. However, the sensitivity of maize production to water has increased: maize yield across the CMB was 5% lower with rainfed than with irrigated maize in the 1980s and was 10% lower (and even >20% lower in some areas) in the 2000s because of both warming and the increased requirement for water by the longer-maturing varieties. Of the maize area in China, 40% now fails to receive the precipitation required to attain the full yield potential. Opportunities for water saving in maize systems exist, but water scarcity in China remains a serious problem.

  14. Food security, irrigation, climate change, and water scarcity in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, T. W.; Taheripour, F.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.; Sahin, S.; Escurra, J.

    2015-12-01

    This paper uses an advanced CGE model (Taheripour et al., 2013) coupled with hydrological projections of future water scarcity and biophysical data on likely crop yields under climate change to examine how water scarcity, climate change, and trade jointly alter land use changes across the Indian subcontinent. Climate shocks to rainfed and irrigated yields in 2030 are based on the p-DSSAT crop model, RCP 2.6, as reported under the AgMIP project (Rosenzweig et al., 2013), accessed through GEOSHARE (Villoria et al, 2014). Results show that, when water scarcity is ignored, irrigated areas grow in the wake of climate change as the returns to irrigation rise faster than for rainfed uses of land within a given agro-ecological zone. When non-agricultural competition for future water use, as well as anticipated supply side limitations are brought into play (Rosegrant et al., 2013), the opportunity cost of water rises across all river basins, with the increase ranging from 12% (Luni) to 44% (Brahmaputra). As a consequence, irrigated crop production is curtailed in most regions (Figure 1), with the largest reductions coming in the most water intensive crops, namely rice and wheat. By reducing irrigated area, which tends to have much higher yields, the combined effects of water scarcity and climate impacts require an increase in total cropped area, which rises by about 240,000 ha. The majority of this area expansion occurs in the Ganges, Indus, and Brahmari river basins. Overall crop output falls by about 2 billion, relative to the 2030 baseline, with imports rising by about 570 million. The combined effects of climate change and water scarcity for irrigation also have macro-economic consequences, resulting in a 0.28% reduction in GDP and an increase in the consumer price index by about 0.4% in 2030, compared the baseline. The national welfare impact on India amounts to roughly 3 billion (at 2007 prices) in 2030. Assuming a 3% social discount rate, the net present value of the

  15. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  16. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  17. Hydrocarbon Reserves: Abundance or Scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    impact on the growth of reserves and resources (H. Le Leuch); Additional reserves: the role of new technologies - A global perspective on EORIOR (G. Fries); - Updating reservoir models with dynamic data and uncertainty quantification: an integrated approach (F. Roggero); Seismic technology for the OAPEC countries (P. Canal); Exploration knowledge and technologies: impact of progress - Statistical results (N. Alazard); Stratigraphic modelling as a key to find new potentialities in exploration (D. Granjeon); Modelling hydrocarbon migration as a tool for reserve estimation (J-L. Rudkiewicz); The contribution of surface and near surface geology to hydrocarbon discoveries (S.M. Kumati); Contribution of the exploration activity in renewing reserves - The case of Algeria (R. Lounissi); Egypt's petroleum hydrocarbon potential (H. Hataba); Future of hydrocarbon reserves in Syria (T. Hemsh); Natural gas, the fuel of choice for decades to com (M.F. Chabrelie); The role and importance of Arab natural gas in world market (M. Al-Lababidi); LNG and GTL: two pathways for natural gas utilization (C. Cameron); Yet to find hydrocarbon potential (S. Al Menhali); Libyan context of hydrocarbon reserves: abundance or scarcity? (M. Elazi)

  18. Managing the Financial Risks of Water Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characklis, Greg; Foster, Ben; Kern, Jordan; Meyer, Eliot; Zeff, Harrison

    2015-04-01

    Environmental uncertainty poses a growing number of financial risks to society, with droughts, floods, extreme temperatures and violent storms imposing costs that approach 500 billion per year. While structural forms of mitigation (i.e. levees, dams) will certainly play a role in limiting financial impacts, these are large investments whose full value is only rarely realized. Furthermore, the value of such long-lived measures becomes increasingly uncertain in a changing climate, raising the issue of whether they will be effective 20-30 years hence. Financial instruments, such as index insurance, can provide increased flexibility by providing compensation for losses only when they occur, and limited contract periods allow terms to be periodically rewritten in response to changing conditions. Financial instruments can also be effectively combined with other economic tools and infrastructure to create integrated solutions in which infrastructure mitigates losses from moderate events, while financial products compensate for more rare, but extreme, events. There is a long history of environmentally-related insurance and hedging instruments, but to date the actuarial analyses that underlie contract structure and pricing have been based on straightforward observations, such as cumulative rainfall. More recently, simple correlations between two time series have been used to develop index-based contracts. Links between temperature and electricity demand, for example, provide a basis for contracts that are used to limit the financial exposure of power generators to low revenues during unseasonably warm winters or cool summers. Unfortunately, few environmental risks can be so quickly and easily linked to a financial impact. However, with a more advanced understanding of the environmental systems that give rise to financial losses, opportunities exist to develop innovative contracts for a range of new applications. Recent research describes the characterization and mitigation

  19. Root-induced Changes in the Rhizosphere of Extreme High Yield Tropical Rice: 2. Soil Solution Chemical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitsuru Osaki

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed that the extreme high yield tropical rice (Padi Panjang produced 3-8 t ha-1 without fertilizers. We also found that the rice yield did not correlate with some soil properties. We thought that it may be due to ability of root in affecting soil properties in the root zone. Therefore, we studied the extent of rice root in affecting the chemical properties of soil solution surrounding the root zone. A homemade rhizobox (14x10x12 cm was used in this experiment. The rhizobox was vertically segmented 2 cm interval using nylon cloth that could be penetrated neither root nor mycorrhiza, but, soil solution was freely passing the cloth. Three soils of different origins (Kuin, Bunipah and Guntung Papuyu were used. The segment in the center was sown with 20 seeds of either Padi Panjang or IR64 rice varieties. After emerging, 10 seedlings were maintained for 5 weeks. At 4 weeks after sowing, some chemical properties of the soil solution were determined. These were ammonium (NH4+, nitrate (NO3-, phosphorus (P and iron (Fe2+ concentrations and pH, electric conductivity (EC and oxidation reduction potential (ORP. In general, the plant root changed solution chemical properties both in- and outside the soil rhizosphere. The patterns of changes were affected by the properties of soil origins. The release of exudates and change in ORP may have been responsible for the changes soil solution chemical properties.

  20. Influence of a Phospho-Potassic fertilizer solution on yield and quality of Wheat Crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, C.; Tejada, M.; Gonzalez, J. L.; Benitez, C.

    2009-07-01

    There is currently interest in the use of industrial by-products to reduce the use of synthetic fertilizers. For this reason, in this paper the influence of a phospho-potassic fertilizer solution obtained from a aminoacid production process on wheat crops is studied. The positive influence on leaf potassium contents was most significant when the dosage of phospho-potassic fertilizer solution was applied to bread wheat. (Author)

  1. Water access, water scarcity, and climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukheibir, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    This article investigates the approaches of the various discourses operating in the water sector and how they address the issues of scarcity and equitable access under projected climate change impacts. Little synergy exists between the different approaches dealing with these issues. Whilst being a sustainable development and water resources management issue, a holistic view of access, scarcity and the projected impacts of climate change is not prevalent in these discourses. The climate change discourse too does not adequately bridge the gap between these issues. The projected impacts of climate change are likely to exacerbate the problems of scarcity and equitable access unless appropriate adaptation strategies are adopted and resilience is built. The successful delivery of accessible water services under projected climate change impacts therefore lies with an extension of the adaptive water management approach to include equitable access as a key driver.

  2. Yields of hydrogen peroxide from the reaction of hydroxyl radical with organic compounds in solution and ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Hullar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen peroxide (HOOH is a significant oxidant in atmospheric condensed phases (e.g., cloud and fog drops, aqueous particles, and snow that also photolyzes to form hydroxyl radical (OH. OH can react with organics in aqueous phases to form organic peroxyl radicals and ultimately reform HOOH, but the efficiency of this process in atmospheric aqueous phases, as well as snow and ice, is not well understood. We investigate HOOH formation from OH attack on 10 environmentally relevant organic compounds: formaldehyde, formate, glycine, phenylalanine, benzoic acid, octanol, octanal, octanoic acid, octanedioic acid, and 2-butoxyethanol. Liquid and ice samples with and without nitrate (as an OH source were illuminated using simulated solar light, and HOOH formation rates were measured as a function of pH and temperature. For most compounds, the formation rate of HOOH without nitrate was the same as the background formation rate in blank water (i.e., illumination of the organic species does not produce HOOH directly, while formation rates with nitrate were greater than the water control (i.e., reaction of OH with the organic species forms HOOH. Yields of HOOH, defined as the rate of HOOH production divided by the rate of OH production, ranged from essentially zero (glycine to 0.24 (octanal, with an average of 0.12 ± 0.05 (95 % CI. HOOH production rates and yields were higher at lower pH values. There was no temperature dependence of the HOOH yield for formaldehyde or octanedioic acid between −5 to 20 °C and ice samples had approximately the same HOOH yield as the aqueous solutions. In contrast, HOOH yields in formate solutions were higher at 5 and 10 °C compared to −5 and 20 °C. Yields of HOOH in ice for solutions containing nitrate and either phenylalanine, benzoate, octanal, or octanoic acid were indistinguishable from zero. Our HOOH yields were approximately

  3. Influence of a fertilizer solution on yield and quality of bread wheat in Guadalquivir Valley (Córdoba, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Benítez, M.; González, José Luis; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The use of by-products of food industries in agricultural practices has become a routine over the last few decades. The addition of beet vinasse, by-products of the two sep olive mill process and by-products of defatted sunflower flour, etc., to soils is a common agricultural practice, since sensible use has been reported to improve the physical, chemical and biological aspects of the soil and to increase harvest yield, and in many cases harvest quality Previous research carried out by the authors (Ordóñez et al., 2001) examined a process whereby a protein concentrate is obtained from defatted sunflower flour. In this process, floating liquid phosphorus, potassium contents and smaller amounts of humic substances and nitrogen are obtained. The potential application of this solution as a fertiliser has been evaluated on rye grass, confirming that its effects are comparable to those produced by a nutritional solution in terms of phosphorus and potassium foliar levels. The experiment was performed on soil classified as Typic Haploxererts located in the Middle Valley of the river Guadalquivir Cajeme wheat (Triticum aestivum var) variety was used at a dose of 180 kg seeds / ha. For both crop, four fertiliser treatments were applied in triplicate to randomly distributed 7 x 8 m plots. The greatest positive effect of applying the experimental phospho-potassic solution was found for the leaf levels of K, in maturity; this influence was most significant when the highest dosage of said solution. With reference to the levels of N, P and K in wheat grain, the levels of potassium were significantly different for all the fertilising treatments, and the plot fertilised with the highest dosage of the experimental phospho-potassic solution presented the highest values. As for the data obtained for harvest yield and quality, the addition of the experimental solution was observed to have a significantly positive influence (but only in the highest dosages) on the production levels.

  4. Dealing with uncertainty in water scarcity footprints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan

    2016-05-01

    Water scarcity adversely affects ecosystems, human well-being and the economy. It can be described by water scarcity indices (WSIs) which we calculated globally for the decades 1981-1990 and 2001-2010. Based on a model ensemble, we calculated the WSI for both decades including uncertainties. While there is a slight tendency of increased water scarcity in 2001-2010, the likelihood of the increase is rather low (53%). Climate change played only a minor role, but increased water consumption is more decisive. In the last decade, a large share of the global population already lived under highly water scarce conditions with a global average monthly WSI of 0.51 (on a scale from 0 to 1). Considering that globally there are enough water resources to satisfy all our needs, this highlights the need for regional optimization of water consumption. In addition, crop choices within a food group can help reduce humanity’s water scarcity footprint without reducing its nutritional value.

  5. Effect of cation nature of Cl2- yields in pulse radiolysis of alkali metal chloride aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabakchi, S.A.; Zansokhova, A.A.; Pikaev, A.K.

    1975-01-01

    A study is made of the amount of Cl 2 - formed during a pulsating radiolysis of potassium, rubidium and cesium chlorides in aqueous solutions saturated with air. An equation is presented relating the yield of Cl 2 - and the concentration of the starting materials. Various mechanisms describing the radiolysis of neutral aqueous solutions of the chlorides are proposed. The observed effect of the cation on the efficiency of Cl 2 - formations favours the mechanism according to which Cl 2 - forms through the reaction of Cl - ion with a ''hole''. Due to charge migration in the conductivity zone the electron transfer reaction either goes steadily by jumps. As a result of the interaction between the ''hole'' and water [H 3 O + ...OH] a complex is formed from a hydrogen ion and OH radical, which are united trhough the hydrogen bond. Disturbance of the hydrogen bond structure should increase the probability of disintegration of the complex

  6. Embedded pitch adapters: A high-yield interconnection solution for strip sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ullán, M., E-mail: miguel.ullan@imb-cnm.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Allport, P.P.; Baca, M.; Broughton, J.; Chisholm, A.; Nikolopoulos, K.; Pyatt, S.; Thomas, J.P.; Wilson, J.A. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Kierstead, J.; Kuczewski, P.; Lynn, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Physics Department and Instrumentation Division, Upton, NY 11973-5000 (United States); Hommels, L.B.A. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Fleta, C.; Fernandez-Tejero, J.; Quirion, D. [Centro Nacional de Microelectronica (IMB-CNM, CSIC), Campus UAB-Bellaterra, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Bloch, I.; Díez, S.; Gregor, I.M.; Lohwasser, K. [DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); and others

    2016-09-21

    A proposal to fabricate large area strip sensors with integrated, or embedded, pitch adapters is presented for the End-cap part of the Inner Tracker in the ATLAS experiment. To implement the embedded pitch adapters, a second metal layer is used in the sensor fabrication, for signal routing to the ASICs. Sensors with different embedded pitch adapters have been fabricated in order to optimize the design and technology. Inter-strip capacitance, noise, pick-up, cross-talk, signal efficiency, and fabrication yield have been taken into account in their design and fabrication. Inter-strip capacitance tests taking into account all channel neighbors reveal the important differences between the various designs considered. These tests have been correlated with noise figures obtained in full assembled modules, showing that the tests performed on the bare sensors are a valid tool to estimate the final noise in the full module. The full modules have been subjected to test beam experiments in order to evaluate the incidence of cross-talk, pick-up, and signal loss. The detailed analysis shows no indication of cross-talk or pick-up as no additional hits can be observed in any channel not being hit by the beam above 170 mV threshold, and the signal in those channels is always below 1% of the signal recorded in the channel being hit, above 100 mV threshold. First results on irradiated mini-sensors with embedded pitch adapters do not show any change in the interstrip capacitance measurements with only the first neighbors connected.

  7. Time scarcity and food choices: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabs, Jennifer; Devine, Carol M

    2006-09-01

    Time scarcity, the feeling of not having enough time, has been implicated in changes in food consumption patterns such as a decrease in food preparation at home, an increase in the consumption of fast foods, a decrease in family meals, and an increase in the consumption of convenience or ready-prepared foods. These food choices are associated with less healthful diets and may contribute to obesity and chronic health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. In spite of the potential importance for health, there has been little study of how time scarcity influences people's food choices. This paper presents an overview of time issues related to food choices and discuss applications of time research for nutrition and health researchers, policy makers, and practitioners interested in food choice.

  8. Resources scarcity: Cause of potential conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beriša Hatidža A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural resources are a common good and the common wealth of each country. Their use, commercial applications and economic evaluation should be planned focused and targeted controlled. In a group of natural resources include: energy resources, water, food, land, mineral resources, biological resources and others. Given that the conditions of resource exploitation variable categories, it can be said that the volume of resources also variable. Abstracting growing problem of resources scarcity of vital importance to the existence in the world, this paper aims to try to shed light on the wider and comprehensive aspects of contemporary global problems in the scarcity of natural resources with a focus on the deficit of food, water and energenata. Search for answers to questions related to the scarcity of the basic needs of some of the world's population, civilizational confrontation about the energy pie, is a research and empirical contribution to the work, which is reflected in the effort to look at global challenges that mankind faces in the second decade of the 21st century.

  9. Book Scarcity, Law Libraries and the Legal Profession in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Oluremi

    1992-01-01

    Discussion of the effect of book scarcity on law libraries and the legal profession in Nigeria addresses the country's law library collections, reasons for book scarcity, local publication of legal literature, reasons why Nigerians publish abroad, and measures already taken and suggested measures to combat book scarcity. (14 references) (MES)

  10. A Critique of Water Scarcity Discourses in Educational Policy and Textbooks in Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Hussam

    2018-01-01

    This article investigates the representation of water scarcity in Jordanian textbooks to understand its role on improving education on environmental sustainability. People's understanding of an issue guides their actions toward finding and implementing appropriate solutions to what they perceive as a problem. Discourses are key in constructing…

  11. Conformational analysis of a Chlamydia-specific disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl in aqueous solution and bound to a monoclonal antibody: Observation of intermolecular transfer NOEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokolowski, Tobias; Haselhorst, Thomas; Scheffler, Karoline [Medizinische Universitaet, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany); Weisemann, Ruediger [Bruker Analytik GmbH, Silberstreifen (Germany); Kosma, Paul [Institut fuer Chemie der Universitaet fuer Bodenkultur Wien (Austria); Brade, Helmut; Brade, Lore [Forschungszentrum Borstel, Zentrum fuer Medizin und Biowissenschaften Parkallee 22 (Germany); Peters, Thomas [Medizinische Universitaet, Institut fuer Chemie (Germany)

    1998-07-15

    The disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo (Kdo: 3-deoxy-d-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid) represents a genus-specific epitope of the lipopolysaccharide of the obligate intracellular human pathogen Chlamydia. The conformation of the synthetically derived disaccharide {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl was studied in aqueous solution, and complexed to a monoclonal antibody S25-2. Various NMR experiments based on the detection of NOEs (or transfer NOEs) and ROEs (or transfer ROEs) were performed. A major problem was the extensive overlap of almost all {sup 1}H NMR signals of {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl. To overcome this difficulty, HMQC-NOESY and HMQC-trNOESY experiments were employed. Spin diffusion effects were identified using trROESY experiments, QUIET-trNOESY experiments and MINSY experiments. It was found that protein protons contribute to the observed spin diffusion effects. At 800 MHz, intermolecular trNOEs were observed between ligand protons and aromatic protons in the antibody binding site. From NMR experiments and Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations, it was concluded that {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl in aqueous solution exists as a complex conformational mixture. Upon binding to the monoclonal antibody S25-2, only a limited range of conformations is available to {alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}8)-{alpha}-Kdo-(2{sup {yields}}O)-allyl. These possible bound conformations were derived from a distance geometry analysis using transfer NOEs as experimental constraints. It is clear that a conformation is selected which lies within a part of the conformational space that is highly populated in solution. This conformational space also includes the conformation found in the crystal structure. Our results provide a basis for modeling studies of the antibody-disaccharide complex.

  12. Recycling wastewater offers solution to scarcity | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The scheme hinged on developing a simple household treatment system that ... water to be circulated to drip irrigation systems that very sparingly irrigate fruit trees, ... construction can be approved if greywater recycling is not part of the design.

  13. Vulnerability, diversity and scarcity: on universal rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Bryan Stanley; Dumas, Alex

    2013-11-01

    This article makes a contribution to the on-going debates about universalism and cultural relativism from the perspective of sociology. We argue that bioethics has a universal range because it relates to three shared human characteristics,--human vulnerability, institutional precariousness and scarcity of resources. These three components of our argument provide support for a related notion of 'weak foundationalism' that emphasizes the universality and interrelatedness of human experience, rather than their cultural differences. After presenting a theoretical position on vulnerability and human rights, we draw on recent criticism of this approach in order to paint a more nuanced picture. We conclude that the dichotomy between universalism and cultural relativism has some conceptual merit, but it also has obvious limitations when we consider the political economy of health and its impact on social inequality.

  14. Vision on Scarcity of Transportation. Policy with regard to scarcity of transportation capacity in the electricity grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruin, K.; Fransen, M.; Kranenburg, J.

    2009-01-01

    The Dutch Competitive Authority NMa established increasing problems that are related to the (possible future) scarcity in transportation capacity in the electricity grid. This vision document aims to inform market parties about the general vision of NMa in relation to the scarcity issue. This document first addresses the problems related to scarcity in transport capacity in the electricity grid. Next policy developments in this area are discussed and NMa's vision is elaborated and explained [nl

  15. A reconsideration of effect of energy scarcity on economic growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uri, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    This analysis is concerned with the effect of energy scarcity on economic growth in the U.S. After defining the notion of scarcity and introducing measures of scarcity (unit costs and relative energy price), changes in the trend in resource scarcity for NG, bituminous coal, anthracite coal, and crude oil over the most recent three decades are investigated. Each of the energy resources became a significantly scarcer resource during the decade of the 1970s in the Malthusian Stock Scarcity and Malthusian Flow Scarcity sense. Unit costs exhibit a similar change for NG and crude oil but not for bituminous and anthracite coals. The situation reversed itself during the 1980s. NG, bituminous and anthracite coals, and crude oil all became significantly less scarce resources during the decade of the 1980s than they had been during the 1970s, i.e. the increase in scarcity as measured by relative energy prices observed during the decade of the 1970s was not reversed completely during the 1980s for NG and crude oil demonstrate similar patterns. Given that change has taken place, it has implications for future economic growth to the extent resource scarcity and economic growth are interrelated. To see whether this is a relevant concern, subsequent to the examination of changing resource scarcity trends, an objective effort is made to identify a long run equilibrium relationship between energy scarcity and economic growth. Relying on cointegration techniques, only for crude oil is there a suggestion that resource scarcity has affected economic growth in the U.S. over the period 1889-1992. (author)

  16. Mitigating the Risk of Extreme Water Scarcity and Dependency: The Case of Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joep F. Schyns

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Jordan faces great internal water scarcity and pollution, conflict over trans-boundary waters, and strong dependency on external water resources through trade. This paper analyzes these issues and subsequently reviews options to reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. Based on estimates of water footprint, water availability, and virtual water trade, we find that groundwater consumption is nearly double the groundwater availability, water pollution aggravates blue water scarcity, and Jordan’s external virtual water import dependency is 86%. The review of response options yields 10 ingredients for a strategy for Jordan to mitigate the risks of extreme water scarcity and dependency. With respect to these ingredients, Jordan’s current water policy requires a strong redirection towards water demand management. Actual implementation of the plans in the national water strategy (against existing oppositions would be a first step. However, more attention should be paid to reducing water demand by changing the consumption pattern of Jordanian consumers. Moreover, unsustainable exploitation of the fossil Disi aquifer should soon be halted and planned desalination projects require careful consideration regarding the sustainability of their energy supply.

  17. Climate change and water scarcity effects on the rural income distribution in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, Sonia; Suárez, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the effects of climate change and water scarcity on the agricultural outputs in the Mediterranean region. By now the effects of water scarcity as a response to climate change or policy restrictions has been analyzed with response functions considering the direct effects on crop productivity. Here we consider a complementary indirect effect on social distribution of incomes which is essential in the long term. We estimate crop production functions for a range of Mediterranean crops in Spain and we use a decomposition of the Gini coefficient to estimate the impact of climate change and water scarcity on yield disparities. This social aspect is important for climate change policies since it can be determinant for the public acceptation of certain adaptation measures in a context of water scarcity. We provide the empirical estimations for the marginal effects on the two considered direct and indirect impacts. In our estimates we consider both bio-physical and socio-economic aspects to conclude that there are long term implications on both competitiveness and social disparities. We find disparities in the adaptation strategies depending on the crop and the region analyzed.

  18. Hydrology, Water Scarcity and Market Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, M.

    2008-12-01

    Research scientists claim to have documented a six-fold increase in water use in the United States during the last century. It is interesting to note that the population of the United States has hardly doubled during the last century. While this indicates higher living standards, it also emphasizes an urgent need for establishing a strong, sound, sensible and sustainable management program for utilizing the available water supplies efficiently. Dr. Sandra Postel directs the independent Global Water Policy Project, as well as the Center for the Environment at Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts. Author of the 1998 book, Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity, Dr. Postel predicts big water availability problems as populations of so-called "water-stressed" countries jump perhaps six fold over the next 30 years. The United Nations declared the years 2005 - 2015 as the "Water for Life" decade. It is also interesting and important to observe that the Oil - Rich Middle - East suffers from water scarcity to the maximum extent. It is also recognized that almost three-quarters of the globe is covered with water. Regardless, this is salt-water and there is very limited supply of freshwater to meet the needs of exploding global population. In excess of 10,000 desalination plants operate around the world in more than a hundred countries, but such a process is expensive and may seem prohibitive for developing countries with limited resources. Farmers can cut water usage by adopting the method known as drip irrigation which is known to be highly efficient. Drip Irrigation was pioneered by Israel and the Israeli farmers documented their efficiency by reducing the water used for irrigation by more than 30 percent. Unfortunately the rest of the world has failed to follow the lead set by this Great Jewish Nation. Worldwide, hardly 1percent of irrigated land utilizes efficient drip irrigation techniques. The problem lies in the fact that water is considered to be a free

  19. Using Satellite Data to Identify the Causes of and Potential Solutions for Yield Gaps in India's Wheat Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, B.; Srivastava, A.; Malik, R. K.; McDonald, A.; Lobell, D. B.

    2017-12-01

    Food security will be increasingly challenged by climate change, natural resource degradation, and population growth. Wheat yields, in particular, have already stagnated in many regions and will be further affected by warming temperatures. Despite these challenges, wheat yields can be increased by improving management practices in regions with existing yield gaps. We present two studies that are using satellite data to better understand the factors contributing to yield gaps and potential interventions to close yield gaps in India's main wheat belt, the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP). To identify the magnitude and causes of current yield gaps, we produced 30 meter resolution yield maps from 2001 to 2015 using Landsat sallite data and a new method that translates satellite vegetation indices to yield estimates using crop model simulations, bypassing the need for ground calibration data. This is one of the first attempts to apply this method to a smallholder agriculture system, where ground calibration data are rarely available. We find that yields can be increased by 11% on average and up to 32% in the eastern IGP by improving management to current best practices within a given district. Additionally, if current best practices from the highest-yielding state of Punjab are implemented in the eastern IGP, yields could increase by almost 110%. Considering the factors that most influence yields, later sow dates and warmer temperatures are most associated with low yields across the IGP. This suggests that strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress, like earlier sowing and planting heat-tolerant wheat varieties, are critical to increasing wheat yields in this globally-important agricultural region. We also apply this method to high-resolution micro-satellite data (impacts of a new fertilizer spreader technology and identify whether satellite data can be used to appropriately target this intervention.

  20. Effect of mycorrhiza and phosphorus content in nutrient solution on the yield and nutritional status of tomato plants grown on rockwool or coconut coir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iwona Kowalska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of P level in nutrient solution and the colonization of roots by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on P uptake by tomato plants, their nutritional status, yield and quality of fruits were studied. Plants were grown on rockwool or coconut coir. Inoculation by a mixture of several AMF species was performed three times during the growing period. The mycorrhizal frequency in roots inoculated with AMF amounted to 35.79 – 50.82%. The highest level of mycorrhiza was found in plants receiving nutrient solution with a lower concentration of P. Among the experimental factors, only P level influenced the fruit yield, being higher from plants receiving a nutrient solution with a higher P level. A higher concentration of P in nutrient solution imposed better nutritional status of plants. Higher contents of ascorbic acid and total soluble sugars were found in fruits collected from inoculated plants, grown on rockwool.

  1. The influence of the primary solutes in the study of the yield of alpha/beta discrimination in 241 Am and 210 Po

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, L.; Grau Carles, A.

    1997-01-01

    We have studied the yields in efficiency and alpha/beta discrimination for two commercial cocktails, Ultima-Gold''TM AB and Insta-Gel and three laboratory-made mixtures made of Insta-Gel and naphthalene, pyrene or 9,10-diphenylanthracene. Also, we have tested the samples made of radioactive solutions of ''241 Am and ''210 Po in HNO 3 of different concentrations in all scintillator solutions. (Author)

  2. Using satellite data to identify the causes of and potential solutions for yield gaps in India’s Wheat Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, M.; Singh, Balwinder; Srivastava, A. A. K.; Malik, R. K.; McDonald, A. J.; Lobell, D. B.

    2017-09-01

    Food security will be increasingly challenged by climate change, natural resource degradation, and population growth. Wheat yields, in particular, have already stagnated in many regions and will be further affected by warming temperatures. Despite these challenges, wheat yields can be increased by improving management practices in regions with existing yield gaps. To identify the magnitude and causes of current yield gaps in India, one of the largest wheat producers globally, we produced 30 meter resolution yield maps from 2001 to 2015 across the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP), the nation’s main wheat belt. Yield maps were derived using a new method that translates satellite vegetation indices to yield estimates using crop model simulations, bypassing the need for ground calibration data. This is one of the first attempts to apply this method to a smallholder agriculture system, where ground calibration data are rarely available. We find that yields can be increased by 11% on average and up to 32% in the eastern IGP by improving management to current best practices within a given district. Additionally, if current best practices from the highest-yielding state of Punjab are implemented in the eastern IGP, yields could increase by almost 110%. Considering the factors that most influence yields, later sow dates and warmer temperatures are most associated with low yields across the IGP. This suggests that strategies to reduce the negative effects of heat stress, like earlier sowing and planting heat-tolerant wheat varieties, are critical to increasing wheat yields in this globally-important agricultural region.

  3. Quantum game application to spectrum scarcity problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabaleta, O. G.; Barrangú, J. P.; Arizmendi, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    Recent spectrum-sharing research has produced a strategy to address spectrum scarcity problems. This novel idea, named cognitive radio, considers that secondary users can opportunistically exploit spectrum holes left temporarily unused by primary users. This presents a competitive scenario among cognitive users, making it suitable for game theory treatment. In this work, we show that the spectrum-sharing benefits of cognitive radio can be increased by designing a medium access control based on quantum game theory. In this context, we propose a model to manage spectrum fairly and effectively, based on a multiple-users multiple-choice quantum minority game. By taking advantage of quantum entanglement and quantum interference, it is possible to reduce the probability of collision problems commonly associated with classic algorithms. Collision avoidance is an essential property for classic and quantum communications systems. In our model, two different scenarios are considered, to meet the requirements of different user strategies. The first considers sensor networks where the rational use of energy is a cornerstone; the second focuses on installations where the quality of service of the entire network is a priority.

  4. Using Probabilistic Methods in Water Scarcity Assessments: A First Step Towards a Water Scarcity Risk Assessment Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted; Wada, Yoshihide; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity -driven by climate change, climate variability, and socioeconomic developments- is recognized as one of the most important global risks, both in terms of likelihood and impact. Whilst a wide range of studies have assessed the role of long term climate change and socioeconomic trends on global water scarcity, the impact of variability is less well understood. Moreover, the interactions between different forcing mechanisms, and their combined effect on changes in water scarcity conditions, are often neglected. Therefore, we provide a first step towards a framework for global water scarcity risk assessments, applying probabilistic methods to estimate water scarcity risks for different return periods under current and future conditions while using multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios.

  5. The measurement of water scarcity: Defining a meaningful indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damkjaer, Simon; Taylor, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Metrics of water scarcity and stress have evolved over the last three decades from simple threshold indicators to holistic measures characterising human environments and freshwater sustainability. Metrics commonly estimate renewable freshwater resources using mean annual river runoff, which masks hydrological variability, and quantify subjectively socio-economic conditions characterising adaptive capacity. There is a marked absence of research evaluating whether these metrics of water scarcity are meaningful. We argue that measurement of water scarcity (1) be redefined physically in terms of the freshwater storage required to address imbalances in intra- and inter-annual fluxes of freshwater supply and demand; (2) abandons subjective quantifications of human environments and (3) be used to inform participatory decision-making processes that explore a wide range of options for addressing freshwater storage requirements beyond dams that include use of renewable groundwater, soil water and trading in virtual water. Further, we outline a conceptual framework redefining water scarcity in terms of freshwater storage.

  6. Materials in the economy; material flows, scarcity, and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Lorie A.

    2002-01-01

    The importance of materials to the economy of the United States is described, including the levels of consumption and uses of materials. The paths (or flows) that materials take from extraction, through processing, to consumer products, and then final disposition are illustrated. Scarcity and environmental issues as they relate to the flow of materials are discussed. Examples for the three main themes of the report (material flows, scarcity, and the environment) are presented.

  7. Applying Place-Based Social-Ecological Research to Address Water Scarcity: Insights for Future Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio J. Castro

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Globally, environmental and social change in water-scarce regions challenge the sustainability of social-ecological systems. WaterSES, a sponsored working group within the Program for Ecosystem Change and Society, explores and compares the social-ecological dynamics related to water scarcity across placed-based international research sites with contrasting local and regional water needs and governance, including research sites in Spain and Sweden in Europe, South Africa, China, and Alabama, Idaho, Oklahoma, and Texas in the USA. This paper aims to provide a commentary on insights into conducting future solutions-oriented research on water scarcity based on the understanding of the social-ecological dynamics of water scarce regions.

  8. Water scarcity: moving beyond indexes to innovative institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, W Todd

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity is a media darling often times described as a trigger of conflict in arid regions, a by-product of human influences ranging from desertification to climate change, or a combination of natural- and human-induced changes in the water cycle. A multitude of indexes have been developed over the past 20 years to define water scarcity to map the "problem" and guide international donor investment. Few indexes include groundwater within the metrics of "scarcity." Institutional communication contributes to the recognition of local or regional water scarcity. However, evaluations that neglect groundwater resources may incorrectly define conditions as scarce. In cases where there is a perception of scarcity, the incorporation of groundwater and related storage in aquifers, political willpower, new policy tools, and niche diplomacy often results in a revised status, either reducing or even eliminating the moniker locally. Imaginative conceptualization and innovative uses of aquifers are increasingly used to overcome water scarcity. © 2013, National Ground Water Association.

  9. A generic hydroeconomic model to assess future water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice

    2015-04-01

    We developed a generic hydroeconomic model able to confront future water supply and demand on a large scale, taking into account man-made reservoirs. The assessment is done at the scale of river basins, using only globally available data; the methodology can thus be generalized. On the supply side, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on water resources. The available quantity of water at each site is computed using the following information: runoff is taken from the outputs of CNRM climate model (Dubois et al., 2010), reservoirs are located using Aquastat, and the sub-basin flow-accumulation area of each reservoir is determined based on a Digital Elevation Model (HYDRO1k). On the demand side, agricultural and domestic demands are projected in terms of both quantity and economic value. For the agricultural sector, globally available data on irrigated areas and crops are combined in order to determine irrigated crops localization. Then, crops irrigation requirements are computed for the different stages of the growing season using Allen (1998) method with Hargreaves potential evapotranspiration. Irrigation water economic value is based on a yield comparison approach between rainfed and irrigated crops. Potential irrigated and rainfed yields are taken from LPJmL (Blondeau et al., 2007), or from FAOSTAT by making simple assumptions on yield ratios. For the domestic sector, we project the combined effects of demographic growth, economic development and water cost evolution on future demands. The method consists in building three-blocks inverse demand functions where volume limits of the blocks evolve with the level of GDP per capita. The value of water along the demand curve is determined from price-elasticity, price and demand data from the literature, using the point-expansion method, and from water costs data. Then projected demands are confronted to future water availability. Operating rules of the reservoirs and water allocation between demands are based on

  10. The Changing Face of Global Food Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lester R.; Eckholm, Erik P.

    1974-01-01

    The causes of the world's food shortage are enumerated and explained. Possible solutions to the shortage are described with emphasis placed upon the moral decision of the affluent countries to take more responsibility in decreasing their consumption of food and energy. (DE)

  11. Global assessment of water policy vulnerability under uncertainty in water scarcity projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Kahil, Taher; Satoh, Yusuke; Burek, Peter; Fischer, Günther; Tramberend, Sylvia; Byers, Edward; Flörke, Martina; Eisner, Stephanie; Hanasaki, Naota; Langan, Simon; Wada, Yoshihide

    2017-04-01

    Water scarcity is a critical environmental issue worldwide, which has been driven by the significant increase in water extractions during the last century. In the coming decades, climate change is projected to further exacerbate water scarcity conditions in many regions around the world. At present, one important question for policy debate is the identification of water policy interventions that could address the mounting water scarcity problems. Main interventions include investing in water storage infrastructures, water transfer canals, efficient irrigation systems, and desalination plants, among many others. This type of interventions involve long-term planning, long-lived investments and some irreversibility in choices which can shape development of countries for decades. Making decisions on these water infrastructures requires anticipating the long term environmental conditions, needs and constraints under which they will function. This brings large uncertainty in the decision-making process, for instance from demographic or economic projections. But today, climate change is bringing another layer of uncertainty that make decisions even more complex. In this study, we assess in a probabilistic approach the uncertainty in global water scarcity projections following different socioeconomic pathways (SSPs) and climate scenarios (RCPs) within the first half of the 21st century. By utilizing an ensemble of 45 future water scarcity projections based on (i) three state-of-the-art global hydrological models (PCR-GLOBWB, H08, and WaterGAP), (ii) five climate models, and (iii) three water scenarios, we have assessed changes in water scarcity and the associated uncertainty distribution worldwide. The water scenarios used here are developed by IIASA's Water Futures and Solutions (WFaS) Initiative. The main objective of this study is to improve the contribution of hydro-climatic information to effective policymaking by identifying spatial and temporal policy

  12. Water Scarcity and Water Policy in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Facchini, Gianluca

    2009-01-01

    This thesis addresses the possible solutions to control demand and supply of water for a sustainable environment in Mexico, along with a detailed analyses of economic implications related to the water sector. At the same time it focuses on the opportunities and constraints to improve the use of water and the allocation in the agricultural sector, by a system of transferable water-use permits. Actual examples are provided nationwide to the current situation in Mexico, focusing on problems rela...

  13. Integrated Supply Network Maturity Model: Water Scarcity Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Yatskovskaya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Today’s supply chains (SCs are more than ever prone to disruptions caused by natural and man-made events with water scarcity identified as one of the highest impact events among these. Leading businesses, understanding that natural resource scarcity (NRS has become a critical supply chain risk factor, extensively incorporate sustainable water management programmes into their corporate social responsibility and environmental management agenda. The question of how industries can efficiently evaluate the progress of these water scarcity mitigation practices, however, remains open. In order to address this question, the present study proposes a conceptual maturity model. The model is rooted in strategies for water scarcity mitigation using a framework developed by Yatskovskaya and Srai and develops an extensive literature review of recent publications on maturity frameworks in the fields of sustainability and operations management. In order to test the proposed proposed, model an exploratory case study with a leading pharmaceutical company was conducted. The proposed maturity model presents an evaluation tool that allows systematic assessment and visualisation of organisational routines and practices relevant to sustainable manufacturing in the context of water scarcity. This model was designed to help illustrate mitigation capabilities evolution over time, where future state desired capabilities were considered through alternative supply network (SN configurations, network structure, process flow, product architecture, and supply partnerships.

  14. Chicago's water market: Dynamics of demand, prices and scarcity rents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipe, V.C.; Bhagwat, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Chicago and its suburbs are experiencing an increasing demand for water from a growing population and economy and may experience water scarcity in the near future. The Chicago metropolitan area has nearly depleted its groundwater resources to a point where interstate conflicts with Wisconsin could accompany an increased reliance on those sources. Further, the withdrawals from Lake Michigan is limited by the Supreme Court decree. The growing demand and indications of possible scarcity suggest a need to reexamine the pricing policies and the dynamics of demand. The study analyses the demand for water and develops estimates of scarcity rents for water in Chicago. The price and income elasticities computed at the means are -0.002 and 0.0002 respectively. The estimated scarcity rents ranges from $0.98 to $1.17 per thousand gallons. The results indicate that the current prices do not fully account for the scarcity rents and suggest a current rate with in the range $1.53 to $1.72 per thousand gallons.

  15. Can a combination of the conformal thin-sandwich and puncture methods yield binary black hole solutions in quasiequilibrium?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannam, Mark D.; Evans, Charles R.; Cook, Gregory B.; Baumgarte, Thomas W.

    2003-01-01

    We consider combining two important methods for constructing quasiequilibrium initial data for binary black holes: the conformal thin-sandwich formalism and the puncture method. The former seeks to enforce stationarity in the conformal three-metric and the latter attempts to avoid internal boundaries, like minimal surfaces or apparent horizons. We show that these two methods make partially conflicting requirements on the boundary conditions that determine the time slices. In particular, it does not seem possible to construct slices that are quasistationary and that avoid physical singularities while simultaneously are connected by an everywhere positive lapse function, a condition which must be obtained if internal boundaries are to be avoided. Some relaxation of these conflicting requirements may yield a soluble system, but some of the advantages that were sought in combining these approaches will be lost

  16. Advanced water treatment as a tool in water scarcity management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoes, Poul

    2000-01-01

    of water. In the former case, the water is lost by evaporation and polluted. In the latter case, the water is not lost but heavily polluted. With increasing scarcity, the value of water and the need for controls increase. In this situation, water reuse becomes an option that has been considered exotic......The water resource is under increasing pressure, both from the increase in population and from the wish to improve the living standards of the individual. Water scarcity is defined as the situation where demand is greater than the resource. Water scarcity has two distinctly different dimensions......: water availability and water applicability. The availability is a question of quantitative demand relative to resource. The applicability is a question of quality suitability for the intended use of the water. There is a significant difference in this regard with respect to rural versus urban use...

  17. Petroleum Scarcity and Public Health: Considerations for Local Health Departments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Caine, Virginia A.; McKee, Mary; Shirley, Lillian M.; Links, Jonathan M.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of petroleum as a finite global resource has spurred increasing interest in the intersection between petroleum scarcity and public health. Local health departments represent a critical yet highly vulnerable component of the public health infrastructure. These frontline agencies currently face daunting resource constraints and rely heavily on petroleum for vital population-based health services. Against this backdrop, petroleum scarcity may necessitate reconfiguring local public health service approaches. We describe the anticipated impacts of petroleum scarcity on local health departments, recommend the use of the 10 Essential Public Health Services as a framework for examining attendant operational challenges and potential responses to them, and describe approaches that local health departments and their stakeholders could consider as part of timely planning efforts. PMID:21778471

  18. Perceptions of water scarcity: The case of Genadendal and outstations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noemdoe, S.; Jonker, L.; Swatuk, L. A.

    The water resources management regime has shifted from one focusing almost exclusively on augmenting supply to one where ensuring access, equity and sustainability are an integral part of process. It is widely recognized that South Africa will face water scarcity in the near future. But ‘scarcity’, as we show in our case study, is a relative concept. This paper interrogates perceptions of scarcity in the small South African rural community of Greater Genadendal. Using a wide variety of data, we explore the intersection between poverty alleviation and adequate water supply. The results show that notwithstanding sufficient water being available, the community experiences what Mehta [Mehta, L., 2001. The manufacture of popular perceptions of scarcity: dams and water-related narratives in Gujarat, India. World Development 29 (12), 2025-2041] calls ‘manufactured scarcity’. This is due to inadequate infrastructure, institutional incapacity and a history of political inequality. In the case of Greater Genadendal, these forms of scarcity are present simultaneously leading to a very complex situation. Overcoming these types of scarcity, however, require more than just new infrastructure. They require socio-economic and socio-political types of intervention that target the bases for manufactured scarcity: abiding poverty and socio-inequality. However, there appears to be a lack of social capital, in particular the trust that would enable government and local people to work together for improved livelihoods and sustainable water supplies. Joint resource rehabilitation activities may be one way of building social capital and moving toward IWRM in the study area.

  19. Representing Water Scarcity in Future Agricultural Assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Jonathan M.; Lopez, Jose R.; Ruane, Alexander C.; Young, Charles A.; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    Globally, irrigated agriculture is both essential for food production and the largest user of water. A major challenge for hydrologic and agricultural research communities is assessing the sustainability of irrigated croplands under climate variability and change. Simulations of irrigated croplands generally lack key interactions between water supply, water distribution, and agricultural water demand. In this article, we explore the critical interface between water resources and agriculture by motivating, developing, and illustrating the application of an integrated modeling framework to advance simulations of irrigated croplands. We motivate the framework by examining historical dynamics of irrigation water withdrawals in the United States and quantitatively reviewing previous modeling studies of irrigated croplands with a focus on representations of water supply, agricultural water demand, and impacts on crop yields when water demand exceeds water supply. We then describe the integrated modeling framework for simulating irrigated croplands, which links trends and scenarios with water supply, water allocation, and agricultural water demand. Finally, we provide examples of efforts that leverage the framework to improve simulations of irrigated croplands as well as identify opportunities for interventions that increase agricultural productivity, resiliency, and sustainability.

  20. Efficient dynamic scarcity pricing in urban water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Nicolas, Antonio; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel; Rougé, Charles; Harou, Julien J.; Escriva-Bou, Alvar

    2017-04-01

    Water pricing is a key instrument for water demand management. Despite the variety of existing strategies for urban water pricing, urban water rates are often far from reflecting the real value of the resource, which increases with water scarcity. Current water rates do not bring any incentive to reduce water use in water scarcity periods, since they do not send any signal to the users of water scarcity. In California, the recent drought has spurred the implementation of drought surcharges and penalties to reduce residential water use, although it is not a common practice yet. In Europe, the EU Water Framework Directive calls for the implementation of new pricing policies that assure the contribution of water users to the recovery of the cost of water services (financial instrument) while providing adequate incentives for an efficient use of water (economic instrument). Not only financial costs should be recovered but also environmental and resource (opportunity) costs. A dynamic pricing policy is efficient if the prices charged correspond to the marginal economic value of water, which increases with water scarcity and is determined by the value of water for all alternative uses in the basin. Therefore, in the absence of efficient water markets, measuring the opportunity costs of scarce water can only be achieved through an integrated basin-wide hydroeconomic simulation approach. The objective of this work is to design a dynamic water rate for urban water supply accounting for the seasonal marginal value of water in the basin, related to water scarcity. The dynamic pricing policy would send to the users a signal of the economic value of the resource when water is scarce, therefore promoting more efficient water use. The water rate is also designed to simultaneously meet the expected basic requirements for water tariffs: revenue sufficiency (cost recovery) and neutrality, equity and affordability, simplicity and efficiency. A dynamic increasing block rate (IBR

  1. What Nurses Do During Time Scarcity-and Why.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Terry L

    2016-09-01

    Time scarcity is a common occurrence in the nurse work environment that stimulates a decision-making process, known as clinical prioritization or implicit rationing. In implicit rationing, nurses must decide what care they will complete and what they will leave unfinished. Five mechanisms that influence this process are supported in the literature. The effects of these influential mechanisms leave patients vulnerable to unmet educational, psychological, care coordination and discharge planning needs. Potential areas for intervention by nurse leaders include redesigning care delivery models to reduce time scarcity, adding balancing measures to performance monitoring systems to promote patient-centered care, and creating work cultures that support the values of nursing.

  2. Effect of molecular weight on radiation chemical degradation yield of chain scission of γ-irradiated chitosan in solid state and in aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahtat, Djamel; Mahlous, Mohamed; Benamer, Samah; Nacer Khodja, Assia; Larbi Youcef, Souad

    2012-01-01

    Chitosan A 1 , A 2 and A 3 with molecular weight of 471, 207 and 100 kDa respectively, produced from squid pen chitin was degraded by gamma rays in the solid state and in aqueous solution with various doses in air at ambient temperature. Effect of molecular weight on radiation chemical degradation yield of chain scission and degradation rate constants of γ-irradiated chitosan in solid state and in aqueous solution was investigated. The radiation chemical degradation yield G (s) and degradation rate values were calculated. The molecular weight changes were monitored by capillary viscometry method and the chemical structure changes were followed by UV analysis. The results showed that, the degradation of chitosan was faster in solution, than in solid state. The values of G (s) in solid state and in aqueous solution were respectively 1.1×10 −8 mol/J and 0.074×10 −7 mol/J for A 1 , 4.42×10 −8 mol/J and 0.28×10 −7 mol/J for A 2 and 6.08×10 −8 mol/J and 0.38×10 −7 mol/J for A 3 . Degradation rate constants values ranged from 0.41×10 −5 to 2.1×10 −5 kGy −1 in solid state, whereas in solution they ranged from 13×10 −5 to 68×10 −5 kGy −1 . The chitosan A 3 was more sensitive to radiolysis than A 1 and A 2 . The chain scission yield, G (s) and degradation rate constants seems to be greatly influenced by the initial molecular weight of the chitosan. Structural changes in irradiated chitosan are revealed by the apparition of absorption peaks at 261 and 295 nm, which could be attributed to the formation of carbonyl groups. In both conditions the peak intensity was higher in chitosan A 3 than in A 1 and A 2 , the oxidative products decreased with increasing molecular weight of chitosan. - Highlights: ► We investigated the effects of MW on G (s) value of γ-irradiated chitosan in solid and aqueous state. ► Chitosan with low molecular weight was more sensitive to radiolysis than high molecular weight. ► G (s) value and degradation rate

  3. Scarcity in a Sea of Plenty? Global Resource Scarcities and Policies in the European Union and the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prins, A.G.; Slingerland, S.; Manders, A.J.G.; Lucas, P.L.; Hilderink, H.B.M.; Kok, M.T.J.

    2011-03-01

    Current high prices of food, oil and many other resources are indications of increasing scarcity. This scarcity, however, has little to do with stock depletion. Badly functioning markets and wrong policy reactions play a particularly important role. For most resources, global stocks will be sufficient to meet increasing demand, over the coming decades. However, these stocks are not equally distributed over the world; they tend to be located in a limited number of countries. This causes an increasing European dependency on imports, which, in turn, feeds the fear of a decrease in security of supply.

  4. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) using the ecological scarcity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After it is done, the inventory will be interpreted to the environmental impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA). Two LCIA methods identified were “midpoint and endpoint” approaches. The ecological scarcity (ecopoints) is an LCIA method using “midpoint” approach. From the analysis to both life cycle stages, analysis ...

  5. Irrigation of pistachios : strategies to confront water scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pérez-López, David; Memmi, Houssem; Gijón-López, Maria del Carmen; Moreno, Marta Maria; Couceiro, José Francisco; Centeno, Ana; Martín-Palomo, Maria J.; Corell, Mireia; Noguera-Artiaga, Luis; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Torrecillas, Arturo; Moriana, Alfonso; Tejero, Ivan Francisco Garcia; Zuazo, Victor Hugo Duran

    2017-01-01

    Pistachio trees are capable to be profitable under rain-fed conditions. They also have a good response to low amounts of irrigation water, so are a great candidate to be considered for water-scarcity scenarios. The pistachio tree has a singular way of alternate bearing, losing a percentage of its

  6. Improving agricultural production under water scarcity in Fars province, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosseini, M.R.; Haile, A.M.; McClain, M.E.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Water scarcity is one of the major limiting factor for improving agricultural production in the world, which significantly affects agricultural production and livelihood of millions of people who live in arid and semi-arid regions. This case study presents the analysis of the effectiveness

  7. Scarcity and Environmental Stress in Public Organizations: A Conjectural Essay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozeman, Barry; Slusher, E. Allen

    1979-01-01

    Assuming extreme scarcity, arguments are developed that public organizations could be expected to constrain their domain definition, allow domain selection to dictate technology, seek clientele suited to existing technologies, and, in general, take actions that will ensure that existing technologies are employed at capacity. (Author/IRT)

  8. Managing Water Scarcity: Why Water Conservation Matters to Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiwak, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    The issue of water scarcity has often hit the headlines in the past several years. Some states have gone to court over water rights and access even as others have agonized over scarce supplies. University presidents and their staff of directors understand that the days of unlimited, inexpensive water are almost over. While it remains inexpensive…

  9. On the history of a reoccurring concept: phosphorus scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Andrea E; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-08-15

    Despite evidence against imminent global phosphate rock depletion, phosphorus (P) scarcity scenarios and the subsequent consequences for global food security continue to be a matter of controversy. We provide a historicizing account to evaluate the degree and relevance of past human experiences with P scarcity. Using more than 80 literature sources, we trace the origin of the P scarcity concept and the first accounts of concerns; we report on three cases of scarcity discourse in the U.S. and revisit the concept of future resources. In addition, we present past evaluations of phosphate rock reserves and lifetime estimates for the world, the U.S., Morocco, and the Western Sahara, as well as past attempts to model phosphorus supply or collect information on phosphate rock. Our results show that current concerns have a long legacy and knowledge base to draw from and that promulgating the notion of depletion is inconsistent with past findings. We find that past depletion concerns were refuted by means of new resource appraisals, indicating that the supply was substantially larger than previously thought. Moreover, recommendations for national P conservation policies and other practices seem to have found little implementation. We demonstrate the merit of historic literacy for social learning and the weakness of the current P sustainability debate because it does not include this past knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Yields of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic, D-gluconic and other sugar acids in gamma-irradiated aqueous solutions of D-glucose. [Gamma rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Esterbauer, H; Schubert, J; Sanders, E B; Sweeley, C C [Pittsburgh Univ., Pa. (USA); Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (USA). Dept. of Biochemistry)

    1977-03-01

    The yields of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic, D-gluconic and other sugar acids from /sup 60/Co-gamma irradiated (dose-rate = 4 Krads/min) D-glucose solutions are reported. The acids produced upon radiolysis were separated from glucose and neutral products by anion exchange, assayed by gas chromatography of the trimethylsilyl derivatives, and definitive identification made by mass spectrometry. In He degassed, irradiated 0.055 M glucose G(2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid) = 0.62 and G(D-gluconic acid) = 0.20. The approximate G values for the other identified acids are: glyceric acid 0.03, 2-deoxy-tetronic acid 0.04, tetronic acid 0.03, 4-deoxypentonic acid 0.02, deoxyketogluconic acid 0.17. In N/sub 2/O saturated glucose solutions D-gluconic acid yields increased by a factor of approximately 1.9 while that of 2-deoxy-D-gluconic acid increased by a factor of only approximately 1.1.

  11. Methodology to Analyse the actual and the future effect of water scarcity on the available water resources in Meguellil watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oueslati, I.; Lili-Chabaane, Z.; Shabou, M.; Zribi, M.; Ben Issa, N.; chakroun, H.; Galafassi, D.; Rathwell, K.; Hoff, H.; Pizzigalli, C.

    2012-04-01

    Scarcity often has its roots in water shortage, and it is in the arid and semiarid regions affected by droughts and wide climate variability, combined with population growth and economic development, that the problems of water scarcity are most acute. The Merguellil watershed, situated in the center of Tunisia, represents exactly this state of fact where the agriculture is the main consumer with about 80% of the total water resources because of the continuous increase and intensification of irrigated area. The surface water can satisfy a very low portion of this demand; consequently, the groundwater is overexploited. The irrigation sector is divided into public and private. While the public irrigated areas are well known, the private ones are not sufficiently controlled mainly the water volumes pumped from the aquifer. Therefore, a sustainable management of all available water resources and meeting as much as possible all water demands, is crucial. To analyze the actual and future water balance of the Merguellil watershed, and to identify critical trends and thresholds and effective solutions, a WEAP (Water Evaluation and Planning system) application has been developed. It utilizes a constrained optimization algorithm to allocate water among competing demands in a basin. The year 2009 is considered as the reference one which represents the basic definition of the water system as it currently exists, and forms the foundation of all scenarios analysis. Three scenarios were compared to the reference one. The first combines between the reduction of 10% in precipitation, as it is forseen by the regional climate model RCA (driven by ECHAM5) that provides statistic data of precipitation until 2050, and the increase of 2% per year in irrigated area in the kairouan plain deduced from the land use maps dating from 1991/1992 to 2009/2010 obtained by multi dates remote sensing data. The second scenario is the application of a deficit irrigation that respects the yield

  12. Causes of Acute Water Scarcity in the Barind Tract, Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Bazlar Rashid

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Barind tract is an elevated landmass (about 11-48 m amsl comprised with Pleistocene terraces and is situated in the northwestern part of Bangladesh. At present, this area faces scarcity of water. The present study is an attempt to unveil the causes of water scarcity of the area. Several aspects like change in climatic condition, irrigation practice and drainage characteristics of major rivers are the prime factors for water scarcity. Interpretation of recent satellite imagery and historical records reveal that the major rivers of the area like Ganges (Padma, Tista and Kosi have remarkably migrated from Barind tract during last few hundred years. Shifting of these rivers causes great change in hydrodynamics of the Barind tract. As a result, flow of other related rivers of the area like the Mahananda, Kulic, Tangon, Punarbhaba, Atrai, Little Jamuna, Karatoya and Nagar reduces remarkably in the dry season. As a result aquifers in the area are not recharged sufficiently by river water in the dry season. India constructed Farakka barrage on the Ganges (Padma river in 1975 to divert the flow of water from Bangladesh to the other parts of India. This diversion of water also leads to the decreasing of water in the area. Climatic data interpretation of the last 50 years also reveals that annual rainfall in the area is decreasing while overall temperature is increasing. To boost up the cropping intensity (117% to 200% compared to national average of 174% and to meet present demand 74% of cultivable lands are being irrigated with 96% share of groundwater owing to unavailability or scarcity of rainfall and hence surface water. Irrigation by groundwater has dramatically been increased (250 times in the last 30 years. Due to over exploitation, water table progressively declined (av. rate 0.10 m/year which ultimately leads the area to water scarcity zone. The aquifers are confined or semi-confined and do not get appreciable vertical recharge through clay

  13. Assessment of interstate virtual water flows embedded in agriculture to mitigate water scarcity in India (1996-2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyaini, Suparana; Barua, Anamika

    2017-08-01

    India is the largest global freshwater user despite being highly water scarce. Agriculture is largest consumer of water and is most affected by water scarcity. Water scarcity is a persistent challenge in India, due to a gap in science and policy spheres. Virtual Water (VW) flows concept to mitigate water scarcity is at the science-policy interface. The paper aims to address the gap in VW research in India by first analyzing the interstate VW-flows embedded in food grains, and then linking these VW-flows with the water scarcity situation in the states, and elements of state and national water policies for the postreforms, and recovery periods of India's agriculture. There were net water savings (WS) of 207.5 PL during 1996-2014, indicating sustainable flows at the national level. WS increased from 11.2 TL/yr (1996-2005) to 25931.7 TL/yr (2005-2014), with the increase in interstate movement of food grains, and yield. However, unsustainable flows are seen at subnational scale, as VW-flows are from highly water-scarce states in North to highly water-scarce states in West and South. These flows are causing a concentration of water scarcity in water-scarce zones/states. Net VW imports were found to be driven by larger population and net VW exports by arable land. Further, the absence of state water policy cripples water management. Therefore, the paper argues that there is a need to rethink policy decisions on agriculture at the national and state level by internalizing water as a factor of production, through VW research.

  14. High-Yield and Sustainable Production of Phosphatidylserine in Purely Aqueous Solutions via Adsorption of Phosphatidylcholine on Triton-X-100-Modified Silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Li, Binglin; Wang, Jiao; Li, Huanyu; Zhao, Binxia

    2017-12-13

    Triton X-100 was covalently bound to a surface of silica and acted as an anchor molecule to facilitate the adsorption of phosphatidylcholine (PC) in a purely aqueous solution. The silica-adsorbed PC obtained was successfully used for phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated transphosphatidylation in the production of phosphatidylserine (PS). Organic solvents were completely avoided in the whole production process. The PC loading and PS yield reached 98.9 and 99.0%, respectively. Two adsorption models were studied, and the relevant parameters were calculated to help us understand the adsorption and reaction processes deeply. In addition, the silica-adsorbed PC provides a promising way to continuously biosynthesize PS. A packed-bed reactor was employed to demonstrate the process flow of the continuous production of PS. The recyclability and stability of the Triton-X-100-modified silica were excellent, as demonstrated by its use 30 times during continuous operation without any loss of the productivity.

  15. Dynamics of Individual and Collective Agricultural Adaptation to Water Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, E. K.; Gilligan, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Drought and water scarcity are challenging agricultural systems around the world. We draw on extensive field-work conducted with paddy farmers in rural Sri Lanka to study adaptations to water scarcity, including switching to less water-intensive crops, farming collectively on shared land, and turning to groundwater by digging wells. We explore how variability in climate affects agricultural decision-making at the community and individual levels using three decision-making heuristics, each characterized by an objective function: risk-averse expected utility, regret-adjusted expected utility, and prospect theory loss-aversion. We also assess how the introduction of individualized access to irrigation water with wells affects long-standing community-based drought mitigation practices. Results suggest that the growth of well-irrigation may produce sudden disruptions to community-based adaptations, but that this depends on the mental models farmers use to think about risk and make decisions under uncertainty.

  16. Drivers And Uncertainties Of Increasing Global Water Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, L.; Pfister, S.

    2015-12-01

    Water scarcity threatens ecosystems and human health and hampers economic development. It generally depends on the ratio of water consumption to availability. We calculated global, spatially explicit water stress indices (WSIs) which describe the vulnerability to additional water consumption on a scale from 0 (low) to 1 (high) and compare them for the decades 1981-1990 and 2001-2010. Input data are obtained from a multi-model ensemble at a resolution of 0.5 degrees. The variability among the models was used to run 1000 Monte Carlo simulations (latin hypercube sampling) and to subsequently estimate uncertainties of the WSIs. Globally, a trend of increasing water scarcity can be observed, however, uncertainties are large. The probability that this trend is actually occurring is as low as 53%. The increase in WSIs is rather driven by higher water use than lower water availability. Water availability is only 40% likely to decrease whereas water consumption is 67% likely to increase. Independent from the trend, we are already living under water scarce conditions, which is reflected in a consumption-weighted average of monthly WSIs of 0.51 in the recent decade. Its coefficient of variation points with 0.8 to the high uncertainties entailed, which might still hide poor model performance where all models consistently over- or underestimate water availability or use. Especially in arid areas, models generally overestimate availability. Although we do not traverse the planetary boundary of freshwater use as global water availability is sufficient, local water scarcity might be high. Therefore the regionalized assessment of WSIs under uncertainty helps to focus on specific regions to optimise water consumption. These global results can also help to raise awareness of water scarcity, and to suggest relevant measures such as more water efficient technologies to international companies, which have to deal with complex and distributed supply chains (e.g. in food production).

  17. Supply chain strategies in an era of natural resource scarcity

    OpenAIRE

    Kalaitzi, Dimitra; Matopoulos, Aristides; Bourlakis, Michael; Tate, Wendy

    2018-01-01

    Purpose – The primary objective of this research is to explore the implications of natural resource scarcity for companies’ supply chain strategies. Design/methodology/approach – Drawing on resource dependence theory, a conceptual model is developed and validated through the means of exploratory research. The empirical work includes the assessment of qualitative data collected via 22 interviews representing 6 large multinational companies from the manufacturing sector. Findings – When the res...

  18. Residential Water Scarcity in Cyprus: Impact of Climate Change and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Zachariadis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of the cost of water scarcity in Cyprus, today and in the next 20 years, taking into account the effect of projected climate change in the region. It focuses on the residential sector, accounting also for tourism and industry. Using a simple demand function, total scarcity costs in Cyprus are computed for the period 2010–2030, and three scenarios of future water demand are presented. The central estimate shows that the present value of total costs due to water shortages will amount to 72 million Euros (at 2009 prices, and, if future water demand increases a little faster, these costs may reach 200 million Euros. Using forecasts of regional climate models, costs are found to be about 20% higher in a “climate change” scenario. Compared to the loss of consumer surplus due to water shortages, desalination is found to be a costly solution, even if environmental damage costs from the operation of desalination plants are not accounted for. Finally, dynamic constrained optimization is employed and shows that efficient residential water prices should include a scarcity price of about 40 Eurocents per cubic meter at  2009 prices; this would constitute a 30–100% increase in current prices faced by residential consumers. Reductions in rainfall due to climate change would raise this price by another 2-3 Eurocents. Such a pricing policy would provide a clear long-term signal to consumers and firms and could substantially contribute to a sustainable use of water resources in the island.

  19. Multimodel assessment of water scarcity under climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Jacob; Heinke, Jens; Gerten, Dieter; Haddeland, Ingjerd; Arnell, Nigel W; Clark, Douglas B; Dankers, Rutger; Eisner, Stephanie; Fekete, Balázs M; Colón-González, Felipe J; Gosling, Simon N; Kim, Hyungjun; Liu, Xingcai; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Portmann, Felix T; Satoh, Yusuke; Stacke, Tobias; Tang, Qiuhong; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik; Albrecht, Torsten; Frieler, Katja; Piontek, Franziska; Warszawski, Lila; Kabat, Pavel

    2014-03-04

    Water scarcity severely impairs food security and economic prosperity in many countries today. Expected future population changes will, in many countries as well as globally, increase the pressure on available water resources. On the supply side, renewable water resources will be affected by projected changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and other climate variables. Here we use a large ensemble of global hydrological models (GHMs) forced by five global climate models and the latest greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways) to synthesize the current knowledge about climate change impacts on water resources. We show that climate change is likely to exacerbate regional and global water scarcity considerably. In particular, the ensemble average projects that a global warming of 2 °C above present (approximately 2.7 °C above preindustrial) will confront an additional approximate 15% of the global population with a severe decrease in water resources and will increase the number of people living under absolute water scarcity (water resources, suggesting a high potential for improved water resource projections through hydrological model development.

  20. Toward a formal definition of water scarcity in natural human systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.K. Jaeger; A.J. Plantinga; H. Chang; K. Dello; G. Grant; D. Hulse; J.J. McDonnell; S. Lancaster; H. Moradkhani; A.T. Morzillo; P. Mote; A. Nolin; M. Santlemann; J. Wu

    2013-01-01

    Water scarcity may appear to be a simple concept, but it can be difficult to apply to complex natural-human systems. While aggregate scarcity indices are straightforward to compute, they do not adequately represent the spatial and temporal variations in water scarcity that arise from complex systems interactions. The uncertain effects of future climate change on water...

  1. Endogenous technological and demographic change under increasing water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Saket; Ertsen, Maurits; Sivapalan, Murugesu

    2014-05-01

    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  2. Endogenous technological and population change under increasing water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.; Sivapalan, M.

    2013-11-01

    The ancient civilization in the Indus Valley civilization dispersed under extreme dry conditions; there are indications that the same holds for many other ancient societies. Even contemporary societies, such as the one in Murrumbidgee river basin in Australia, have started to witness a decline in overall population under increasing water scarcity. Hydroclimatic change may not be the sole predictor of the fate of contemporary societies in water scarce regions and many critics of such (perceived) hydroclimatic determinism have suggested that technological change may ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity and as such counter the effects of hydroclimatic changes. To study the role of technological change on the dynamics of coupled human-water systems, we develop a simple overlapping-generations model of endogenous technological and demographic change. We model technological change as an endogenous process that depends on factors such as the investments that are (endogenously) made in a society, the (endogenous) diversification of a society into skilled and unskilled workers, a society's patience in terms of its present consumption vs. future consumption, production technology and the (endogenous) interaction of all of these factors. In the model the population growth rate is programmed to decline once consumption per capita crosses a "survival" threshold. This means we do not treat technology as an exogenous random sequence of events, but instead assume that it results (endogenously) from societal actions. The model demonstrates that technological change may indeed ameliorate the effects of increasing water scarcity but typically it does so only to a certain extent. It is possible that technological change may allow a society to escape the effect of increasing water scarcity, leading to a (super)-exponential rise in technology and population. However, such cases require the rate of success of investment in technological advancement to be high. In other

  3. Coping with scarcity: Fishing adaptability and culture in lake Chapala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Pedroza Gutiérrez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines different adaptive responses that lakeside communities develop when faced with environmental change. The focus lies particularly on rural towns near lake Chapala, Mexico, affected by water level fluctuations. These situations require social reorganization, especially among groups whose survival is directly dependent on the lake’s integrity, such as fishermen.Using an adaptation and adaptability framework, various historical and current strategies used to confront scarcity and lake stress in La Palma, Michoacán are contrasted. Our aim is to highlight the changing social position of the fishing trade, and its most influential cultural features that have allowed its continuity.

  4. Water Scarcity and Future Challenges for Food Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi Mancosu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Present water shortage is one of the primary world issues, and according to climate change projections, it will be more critical in the future. Since water availability and accessibility are the most significant constraining factors for crop production, addressing this issue is indispensable for areas affected by water scarcity. Current and future issues related to “water scarcity” are reviewed in this paper so as to highlight the necessity of a more sustainable approach to water resource management. As a consequence of increasing water scarcity and drought, resulting from climate change, considerable water use for irrigation is expected to occur in the context of tough competition between agribusiness and other sectors of the economy. In addition, the estimated increment of the global population growth rate points out the inevitable increase of food demand in the future, with an immediate impact on farming water use. Since a noteworthy relationship exists between the water possessions of a country and the capacity for food production, assessing the irrigation needs is indispensable for water resource planning in order to meet food needs and avoid excessive water consumption.

  5. Analysis of intra-country virtual water trade strategy to alleviate water scarcity in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, M.; Yang, H.; Mousavi, J.; Schulin, R.; Binder, C. R.; Abbaspour, K. C.

    2010-08-01

    Increasing water scarcity has posed a major constraint to sustain food production in many parts of the world. To study the situation at the regional level, we took Iran as an example and analyzed how an intra-country "virtual water trade strategy" (VWTS) may help improve cereal production as well as alleviate the water scarcity problem. This strategy calls, in part, for the adjustment of the structure of cropping pattern (ASCP) and interregional food trade where crop yield and crop water productivity as well as local economic and social conditions are taken into account. We constructed a systematic framework to assess ASCP at the provincial level under various driving forces and constraints. A mixed-integer, multi-objective, linear optimization model was developed and solved by linear programming. Data from 1990-2004 were used to account for yearly fluctuations of water availability and food production. Five scenarios were designed aimed at maximizing the national cereal production while meeting certain levels of wheat self-sufficiency under various water and land constraints in individual provinces. The results show that under the baseline scenario, which assumes a continuation of the existing water use and food policy at the national level, some ASCP scenarios could produce more wheat with less water. Based on different scenarios in ASCP, we calculated that 31% to 100% of the total wheat shortage in the deficit provinces could be supplied by the wheat surplus provinces. As a result, wheat deficit provinces would receive 3.5 billion m3 to 5.5 billion m3 of virtual water by importing wheat from surplus provinces.

  6. Evaluation of the Water Scarcity Energy Cost for Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara M. Fontanazza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In systems experiencing water scarcity and consequent intermittent supply, users often adopt private tanks that collect water during service periods and supply users when the service is not available. The tank may be fed by gravity or by private pumping stations depending on the network pressure level. Once water resources are collected, the tank can supply users by gravity if it is located on the rooftop or by additional pumping if underground. Private tanks thus increase the energy cost of the water supply service for users by introducing several small pumping structures inside the network. The present paper aims to evaluate this users’ energy cost for different private tank configurations. A real case study was analysed, and the results showed that intermittent distribution causes inequalities not only in users’ access to water resource but also costs that users have to bear to have access to water.

  7. Macroecology Meets Macroeconomics: Resource Scarcity and Global Sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James H; Burger, Joseph R; Burnside, William R; Chang, Michael; Davidson, Ana D; Fristoe, Trevor S; Hamilton, Marcus J; Hammond, Sean T; Kodric-Brown, Astrid; Mercado-Silva, Norman; Nekola, Jeffrey C; Okie, Jordan G

    2014-04-01

    The current economic paradigm, which is based on increasing human population, economic development, and standard of living, is no longer compatible with the biophysical limits of the finite Earth. Failure to recover from the economic crash of 2008 is not due just to inadequate fiscal and monetary policies. The continuing global crisis is also due to scarcity of critical resources. Our macroecological studies highlight the role in the economy of energy and natural resources: oil, gas, water, arable land, metals, rare earths, fertilizers, fisheries, and wood. As the modern industrial technological-informational economy expanded in recent decades, it grew by consuming the Earth's natural resources at unsustainable rates. Correlations between per capita GDP and per capita consumption of energy and other resources across nations and over time demonstrate how economic growth and development depend on "nature's capital". Decades-long trends of decreasing per capita consumption of multiple important commodities indicate that overexploitation has created an unsustainable bubble of population and economy.

  8. Measurement uncertainties in regression analysis with scarcity of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa, J A; Ribeiro, A S; Cox, M G; Harris, P M; Sousa, J F V

    2010-01-01

    The evaluation of measurement uncertainty, in certain fields of science, faces the problem of scarcity of data. This is certainly the case in the testing of geological soils in civil engineering, where tests can take several days or weeks and where the same sample is not available for further testing, being destroyed during the experiment. In this particular study attention will be paid to triaxial compression tests used to typify particular soils. The purpose of the testing is to determine two parameters that characterize the soil, namely, cohesion and friction angle. These parameters are defined in terms of the intercept and slope of a straight line fitted to a small number of points (usually three) derived from experimental data. The use of ordinary least squares to obtain uncertainties associated with estimates of the two parameters would be unreliable if there were only three points (and no replicates) and hence only one degrees of freedom.

  9. Overexploitation of karst spring as a measure against water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkić, Dejan; Dimkić, Milan; Soro, Andjelko; Pavlović, Dusan; Jevtić, Goran; Lukić, Vladimir; Svrkota, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Water scarcity, especially in the hydrologically critical part of the year, is a problem often present in many cities and regions, particularly in arid and sub-arid areas. Climate change and human water demand compound the problem. This paper discusses a climate change adaptation measure-the possibility of karst spring overexploitation, where there is a siphon-shaped cavity inside the mountain. The pilot area is near the city of Niš, where a decreasing precipitation trend has already been observed and is expected to continue in the future. The paper also presents some basic information related to the pilot area and undertaken investigations. The project, successfully implemented in 2004, has provided the city of Niš with an additional amount of 200 l/s of spring water during the most critical part of the year.

  10. Impact of water scarcity on food security at micro level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  11. Impact of water scarcity on food security at macro level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  12. Impact of water scarcity on food security at meso level in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Fahim, Muhammad Amir

    2011-01-01

    Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...

  13. Water scarcity in the Arabian Peninsula and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odhiambo, George O.

    2017-09-01

    The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.

  14. Influence of density on radiation-chemical yield of molecular hydrogen formed at radiolysis of aqueous solution of NaOH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafarov, Y.D.; Hajiyeva, S.R.; Ramazanova, N.K.; Aliyev, S.M.; Alasgarov, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full text : In atom and nuclear energy the specialists knowledge about radiation-chemical yield of the initial products formed under the influence of ionizing rays on water is of great importance from the point of security. The radiation-chemical yields of molecular hydrogen have been defined according to the graph and the obtained results

  15. Equity yields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrugt, E.; van Binsbergen, J.H.; Koijen, R.S.J.; Hueskes, W.

    2013-01-01

    We study a new data set of dividend futures with maturities up to ten years across three world regions: the US, Europe, and Japan. We use these asset prices to construct equity yields, analogous to bond yields. We decompose the equity yields to obtain a term structure of expected dividend growth

  16. Assessment and management of water resources in Egypt to face drought and water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolters, Wouter; El Guindy, Samia; Salah El Deen, Magdy; Roest, Koen; Smit, Robert; Froebrich, Jochen

    2013-04-01

    Egypt is one of the countries hardest hit by global and climate change. Challenges include population growth; increased demands for food, water, and energy; as well as changing land use patterns and urbanization. Egypt's part of the Mediterranean is characterized by a very complex hydrological system, as it lacks rainfall (Cairo average 30 mm/year) and it is completely dependent on the Nile river flow. The growth of the Egyptian population and its economy in the near future leads to an increase in the demand for water and the overall water allocation priority basically is: first drinking water, then industry, and whatever is remaining will be available for agriculture and nature. Because the agricultural sector uses more than 80 per cent of available water, the main option available to reduce water scarcity in the priority sectors of the economy is to allocate less to the agriculture sector. Scientifically based advances in facing future drought and water scarcity through innovations increasing yields and food security by measures leading to "more crop per drop" are required. New and modern large- and medium-scale agriculture is being developed in desert areas with participation of the private sector for investments. To prepare the farming community and others elsewhere, for the future situation of water shortages, a paradigm shift is needed. New farming systems under tight water supply conditions are in development to prepare for a future with less water. Egyptian farming systems need a major transition to prevent further marginalization of agriculture, which would also have a major impact on food security. Central to this transition should be the increase of value generated per volume available water, also referred to as "more crop per drop" or "more cash per splash". There is room for the urgently required improvement: the present return on water in agriculture in Egypt is about US 0.25 /m3, where values of over US 1 /m3 are "easily" reached elsewhere. Moreover

  17. The inequality of water scarcity events: who is actually being affected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, Ted I. E.; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti; Aerts, Jeroen C. J. H.; Ward, Philip J.

    2015-04-01

    Over the past decades, changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increased regional and global water scarcity problems. In the near future, projected changes in human water use and population growth - in combination with climate change - are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions and its associated impacts on our society. Whilst a wide range of studies have modelled past and future regional and global patterns of change in population or land area impacted by water scarcity conditions, less attention is paid on who is actually affected and how vulnerable this share of the population is to water scarcity conditions. The actual impact of water scarcity events, however, not only depends on the numbers being affected, but merely on how sensitive this population is to water scarcity conditions, how quick and efficient governments can deal with the problems induced by water scarcity, and how many (financial and infrastructural) resources are available to cope with water scarce conditions. Only few studies have investigated the above mentioned interactions between societal composition and water scarcity conditions (e.g. by means of the social water scarcity index and the water poverty index) and, up to our knowledge, a comprehensive global analysis including different water scarcity indicators and multiple climate and socioeconomic scenarios is missing. To address this issue, we assess in this contribution the adaptive capacity of a society to water scarcity conditions, evaluate how this may be driven by different societal factors, and discuss how enhanced knowledge on this topic could be of interest for water managers in their design of adaptation strategies coping with water scarcity events. For that purpose, we couple spatial information on water scarcity conditions with different components from, among others, the Human Development Index and the Worldwide Governance Indicators, such as: the share of the population with an income below the poverty

  18. Climate Change and Water Scarcity: The Case of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNicola, Erica; Aburizaiza, Omar S; Siddique, Azhar; Khwaja, Haider; Carpenter, David O

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to bring increases in average global temperatures (1.4°C-5.8°C [34.52°F-42.44°F] by 2100) and precipitation levels to varying degrees around the globe. The availability and quality of water will be severely affected, and public health threats from the lack of this valuable resource will be great unless water-scarce nations are able to adapt. Saudi Arabia provides a good example of how the climate and unsustainable human activity go hand in hand in creating stress on and depleting water resources, and an example for adaptation and mitigation. A search of the English literature addressing climate change, water scarcity, human health, and related topics was conducted using online resources and databases accessed through the University at Albany, State University of New York library web page. Water scarcity, which encompasses both water availability and water quality, is an important indicator of health. Beyond drinking, water supply is intimately linked to food security, sanitation, and hygiene, which are primary contributors to the global burden of disease. Poor and disadvantaged populations are the ones who will suffer most from the negative effects of climate change on water supply and associated human health issues. Examples of adaptation and mitigation measures that can help reduce the strain on conventional water resources (surface waters and fossil aquifers or groundwater) include desalination, wastewater recycling and reuse, and outsourcing food items or "virtual water trade." These are strategies being used by Saudi Arabia, a country that is water poor primarily due to decades of irresponsible irrigation practices. The human and environmental health risks associated with these adaptation measures are examined. Finally, strategies to protect human health through international collaboration and the importance of these efforts are discussed. International, multidisciplinary cooperation and collaboration will be needed to promote

  19. When less sells more or less: The scarcity principle in wine choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van E.; Pieters, R.; Zeelenberg, M.

    2014-01-01

    When buying wine, consumers often need to infer unobservable characteristics of the wines that are available. Product scarcity in the store can signal that the quality of a wine is high, either because the product is deemed exclusive (when scarcity is supply-caused) or because the product is deemed

  20. Water scarcity under scenarios for global climate change and regional development in semiarid Northeastern Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Araújo, José Carlos; Döll, Petra; Güntner, Andreas; Krol, Martinus S.; Rodrigues Abreu, Cláudia Beghini; Hauschild, Maike; Mendiondo, Eduardo Mario

    2004-01-01

    The State of Ceará, located in semiarid Northeastern Brazil, suffers under irregularly recurring droughts that go along with water scarcity. Structural policies to control and reduce water scarcity, as water supply and demand management, should be seen as long-term planning, and thus have to

  1. When less sells more or less : The scarcity principle in wine choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Herpen, Erica; Pieters, Rik; Zeelenberg, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    When buying wine, consumers often need to infer unobservable characteristics of the wines that are available. Product scarcity in the store can signal that the quality of a wine is high, either because the product is deemed exclusive (when scarcity is supply-caused) or because the product is deemed

  2. Mitigating the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency: the case of Jordan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus; Hamaideh, A.; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Schyns, M.

    2015-01-01

    Jordan faces great internal water scarcity and pollution, conflict over trans-boundary waters, and strong dependency on external water resources through trade. This paper analyzes these issues and subsequently reviews options to reduce the risk of extreme water scarcity and dependency. Based on

  3. Global monthly water scarcity: Blue water footprints versus blue water availability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Mekonnen, Mesfin; Chapagain, Ashok; Mathews, R.E.; Richter, B.D.

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than

  4. Global Water Scarcity Assessment under Post-SRES Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanasaki, N.; Fujimori, S.

    2011-12-01

    A large number of future projections contributed to the fourth Assessment Report of IPCC were based on Special Report on Emission Scenarios (SRES). Processes toward the fifth Assessment Report are under way, and post-SRES scenarios, called Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSP) are being prepared. One of the key challenges of SSP is provision of detailed socio-economic scenarios compared to SRES for impact, adaptation and vulnerability studies. In this study, a comprehensive global water scarcity assessment was conducted, using a state of the art global water resources model H08 (Hanasaki et al., 2008a, 2008b, 2010). We used a prototype of SSP developed by National Institute for Environmental Studies, Japan. Two sets of socio economic scenarios and two sets of climate scenarios were prepared to run H08 for the period 2001-2100. Socio-economic scenarios include Business As Usual and High Mitigation Capacity. Climate scenarios include Reference and Mitigation which stabilizes green house gas concentration at a certain level. We analyzed the simulation results of four combinations, particularly focusing on the sensitivity of socio-economic scenarios to major water resources indices.

  5. Water scarcity, quality and its impact on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saqi, S.K.; Kausar, R.; Anwar, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    The scarcity of water has become an established factor now and the intensity of problem is increasing day by day. Human use of natural water, particularly of fresh water resources, has increased steadily over the centuries. It is unlikely that this trend will change given the continued growth of population and the ever-widening utilization of water for agricultural, industrial 'and recreational purposes. This situation has given rise to growing concerns over the availability of adequate water supplies to accommodate the future needs of the populations. Surface-water resources are already being used to their maximum capacity in various regions of the world (Encarta Year Book, February, 2000). One billion people lack access to safe affordable water and over two billion people lack adequate sanitation. Water related diseases are largest cause of death in the world. As the world's population grows and demands for water increases, the UN predicts that two out of three people will be living with serious water shortage by 2025. (author)

  6. Technique of radiotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer with scarcity means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez M, S.; Carrera M, F.; Bayo L, E.; Gutierrez B, L.; Gomez-Millan B, J.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this work is to show the particularities in the treatment simulation localization, in the volume selection and in the main planning strategies motive by our scarcity means during the first year of performance. It was utilized a computerized tomograph, an X-ray equipment with tele commanded table. Also it was utilized a radio opaque lattice of marked center and knowing space and also a magnetic pointer for indicating 80 cm length between focus-skin. Putting the patient on an inclined plane of self design and manufacture, it was realized three cuts at different levels over what are limited the clinical target volume (CTV) and it is optimized the isocenter through its determined localization by equations. It was employed equations for the radiobiological prediction about fibrosis and dermatitis. It was utilized another techniques or procedures for planning such as personnel wedges or the dose equilibrium in three points of the breast. It was evaluated toxicities (EORTC-RTOG). The results were as follow: Acute dermatitis (grade 1: 23 %; grade 2: 59 %; grade 3: 18 %). Acute pneumonitis (grade 1: 4.3 %); acute pharyngitis (grade 1: 11 %; grade 2: 3.7 %. In conservator treatment of breast it was obtained excellent aesthetic results in 15 %; good 72 %; moderate 11 %; and bad 3 %. The good aesthetic results by the combined use of the optimization techniques in clinical dosimetry, personnel wedges, isocenter therapy and computerized planning in the radiotherapeutic treatment of the breast cancer. (Author)

  7. Clean solutions to the incoming wafer quality impact on lithography process yield limits in a dynamic copper/low-k research and development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysaght, Patrick S.; Ybarra, Israel; Sax, Harry; Gupta, Gaurav; West, Michael; Doros, Theodore G.; Beach, James V.; Mello, Jim

    2000-06-01

    The continued growth of the semiconductor manufacturing industry has been due, in large part, to improved lithographic resolution and overlay across increasingly larger chip areas. Optical lithography continues to be the mainstream technology for the industry with extensions of optical lithography being employed to support 180 nm product and process development. While the industry momentum is behind optical extensions to 130 nm, the key challenge will be maintaining an adequate and affordable process latitude (depth of focus/exposure window) necessary for 10% post-etch critical dimension (CD) control. If the full potential of optical lithography is to be exploited, the current lithographic systems can not be compromised by incoming wafer quality. Impurity specifications of novel Low-k dielectric materials, plating solutions, chemical-mechanical planarization (CMP) slurries, and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) precursors are not well understood and more stringent control measures will be required to meet defect density targets as identified in the National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (NTRS). This paper identifies several specific poor quality wafer issues that have been effectively addressed as a result of the introduction of a set of flexible and reliable wafer back surface clean processes developed on the SEZ Spin-Processor 203 configured for processing of 200 mm diameter wafers. Patterned wafers have been back surface etched by means of a novel spin process contamination elimination (SpCE) technique with the wafer suspended by a dynamic nitrogen (N2) flow, device side down, via the Bernoulli effect. Figure 1 illustrates the wafer-chuck orientation within the process chamber during back side etch processing. This paper addresses a number of direct and immediate benefits to the MicraScan IIITM deep-ultraviolet (DUV) step-and-scan system at SEMATECH. These enhancements have resulted from the resolution of three significant problems: (1) back surface

  8. Technique of treatment of prostatic cancer with scarcity means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez M, S.; Carrera M, F.; Gomez- Millan B, J.; Gutierrez B, L.; Bayo L, E.

    1998-01-01

    To show the particularities in the treatment simulation-localization, in the volume delimitation and in the main planning strategies motive by our scarcity means during the first year of performance (absence of physical simulator, planning system 2D). It was utilized a computerized tomograph, an X-ray equipment with tele commanded table and another with ceiling telescopic suspension. Also it was utilized a radio opaque lattice of marked center and knowing space and also a magnetic pointer for indicating 80 cm length between focus-skin. In the CT it was took spaced cuts starting from the central, at coincident distances with lattice lines, contouring the clinical target volume (CTV), what subsequently it was removed to the simulation plate. The volume to be irradiated, or PTV (planning target volume), it was determined adding a margin to CTV. The irradiation to itself it was realized with a minimum of 3 fields in the first phase. From 16 patients evaluated, the 100 % normalize the PSA ciphers at 6 months. 25 % patients, rectal-intestinal toxicity grade 1 and 18.7 % grade 2. Acute vesicle toxicity grade 1 in a 31.2 % patients, grade 2 in 12.5 % and grade 3 in 6.5 %. A 25 % patients presented dermatitis grade 1 and 18 % grade 2 and grade 3. Under no case it was necessary the treatment interruption for the toxicity normalization. Maximum local control with absence of chronic toxicity. The low toxicity presented could must be to the utilization of conformations in the lateral plates. According to our experience, we believe that it is not necessary to renounce at this type of treatments if it is lacking of high energies, such as succeed in some installations if it is utilized 3 or more fields in the first phase and individualized conformations. (Author)

  9. Adaptation strategies to water scarcity in the Mediterranean induce a complexification of hydrosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Cirelli, Claudia; Larrue, Corinne; Aubin, David

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean and neighboring countries are already experiencing broad range of natural and man-made threats to water security. According to the latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change, the region is at risk due to its pronounced susceptibility to changes in the hydrological budget and extremes. Such changes are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and security from an ecological, economic and social angle. This communication asks the question of the relevance of the comparison of the solutions implemented to face water scarcity in two cases a priori not comparable: (i) the Thau coastal lagoon and its catchment in the South of France, (ii) the Rio Mannu catchment in Sardinia, the second Island in the South of Italia. The Thau coastal lagoon on the French coast is caracterised by intensive shellfish farming production in the lagoon waters and summer tourism with regard to the mediterranean coast. Its territory is also supporting industrial and commercial activities concentrated around Frontignan and Sète ports and the expansion of the small villages of the catchment as the consequence of the connexion with the city of Montpellier. The catchment of the Rio Mannu in South Sardinia is part of the Campidano plain of the Sardinia Island in Italy and is located 30 km close to the city of Cagliari, the capital of the Island. The basin is mainly covered by agricultural fields and grassland, while only a small percentage of its area is occupied by forests in the south-east of the basin. The communication aims, by presenting results of the FP7 EU CLIMB project, to think about the degree of complexity of the dynamic of the stakeholders system for water allocation in the Mediterranean Region in the context of climate change. After the presentation of the case studies and the perception of the water uses by stakeholders, a reflexion on the capacity of stakeholders to represent the new hydrosystems limits is carried out

  10. Risk of water scarcity and water policy implications for crop production in the Ebro Basin in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

    2010-08-01

    The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro River Basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  11. Preconditions for market solution to urban water scarcity: Empirical results from Hyderabad City, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleth, R. Maria; Dinar, Ariel

    2001-01-01

    Utilizing both primary and secondary information pertaining to the water sector of Hyderabad City, India, this paper (1) evaluates the economics of various technically feasible supply augmentations options; (2) estimates the group-specific water demand and consumption response functions under alternative pricing behaviors; (3) calculates the net willingness to pay (NWTP, considered to be the value of raw water at source) of different user groups as derived from their respective price elasticities; (4) shows how inadequate the NWTP is to justify most supply augmentation options including intersectoral water transfers under the existing water rate structure; (5) argues that the economic and institutional conditions internal to urban water sector cannot justify an externally imposed water transfers, whether market-based or otherwise, as long as the water rate structure is inefficient and regressive; and (6) concludes by underlining the central role that the pricing option, both the level and structure, plays not only in activating a number of nonprice options but also in generating incentives for the emergence of new and the consolidation of existing institutional conditions needed to support economically rooted water transfers and conservation initiatives.

  12. Green Chemicals from d-glucose : Systematic Studies on Catalytic Effects of Inorganic Salts on the Chemo-Selectivity and Yield in Aqueous Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasrendra, C. B.; Makertihartha, I. G. B. N.; Adisasmito, S.; Heeres, H. J.

    The use of inorganic salts as catalysts for the reactions of d-glucose in aqueous solutions in a batch reactor is reported. The type of salt and effect of reaction time were examined in detail at a fixed salt (5 mM) and d-glucose concentration (0.1 M) and at a temperature of 140 A degrees C. Al(III)

  13. End-user flexibility in periods with scarcity - efficient use of ICT; Effektiv bruk av IKT : forbrukerfleksibilitet i knapphetssituasjoner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grande, Ove S.; Saele, Hanne

    2002-07-01

    In a period with limited extension of new power production, it is important to utilize the flexibility in consumption for end users. Last winter in Norway there was a new record in demand that outweighed the available power production. In addition, the country is gradually heading towards a larger energy deficit. The problem with power scarcity is concentrated in a limited number of hours and it is important that correct and efficient initiatives arc taken towards end users so that the power problem can be solved without increasing energy consumption. About 30% of the total demand in the Norwegian power system is flexible and can be disconnected or consumption patterns can be changed for shorter periods, but this potential is utilized only to a limited amount. These challenges have been addressed in a new research project ''End-user flexibility by efficient use of ICT'' that was established at SINTEF Energy Research in 2001. The main objective is to increase end-user flexibility in periods of scarcity of both energy and power. The project will test and evaluate different means of stimulating flexibility in consumption, based on the network tariff, the power price and new market solutions such as demand-side bidding. (author)

  14. Water Scarcity as a Cause of Conflict in the Nile, Euphrates, and Jordan River Basins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Still, Douglas R

    2006-01-01

    The Euphrates, Nile, and Jordan Rivers are at center stage in the continued existence of the peoples in their basins where water scarcity serves as a source of conflict between the region's riparian...

  15. Global monthly water scarcity: blue water footprints versus blue water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y; Mekonnen, Mesfin M; Chapagain, Ashok K; Mathews, Ruth E; Richter, Brian D

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than water withdrawals, accounting for the flows needed to sustain critical ecological functions and by considering monthly rather than annual values. We analyzed 405 river basins for the period 1996-2005. In 201 basins with 2.67 billion inhabitants there was severe water scarcity during at least one month of the year. The ecological and economic consequences of increasing degrees of water scarcity--as evidenced by the Rio Grande (Rio Bravo), Indus, and Murray-Darling River Basins--can include complete desiccation during dry seasons, decimation of aquatic biodiversity, and substantial economic disruption.

  16. Sensitivity of Water Scarcity Events to ENSO-Driven Climate Variability at the Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Eisner, S.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Globally, freshwater shortage is one of the most dangerous risks for society. Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions have aggravated water scarcity over the past decades. A wide range of studies show that water scarcity will intensify in the future, as a result of both increased consumptive water use and, in some regions, climate change. Although it is well-known that El Niño- Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects patterns of precipitation and drought at global and regional scales, little attention has yet been paid to the impacts of climate variability on water scarcity conditions, despite its importance for adaptation planning. Therefore, we present the first global-scale sensitivity assessment of water scarcity to ENSO, the most dominant signal of climate variability. We show that over the time period 1961-2010, both water availability and water scarcity conditions are significantly correlated with ENSO-driven climate variability over a large proportion of the global land area (> 28.1 %); an area inhabited by more than 31.4% of the global population. We also found, however, that climate variability alone is often not enough to trigger the actual incidence of water scarcity events. The sensitivity of a region to water scarcity events, expressed in terms of land area or population exposed, is determined by both hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Currently, the population actually impacted by water scarcity events consists of 39.6% (CTA: consumption-to-availability ratio) and 41.1% (WCI: water crowding index) of the global population, whilst only 11.4% (CTA) and 15.9% (WCI) of the global population is at the same time living in areas sensitive to ENSO-driven climate variability. These results are contrasted, however, by differences in growth rates found under changing socioeconomic conditions, which are relatively high in regions exposed to water scarcity events. Given the correlations found between ENSO and water availability and scarcity

  17. Assessment of freshwater scarcity using a model based on supply and demand law

    OpenAIRE

    Escribano Rodríguez de Robles, Beatriz; Sellarès González, Jordi; Xercavins, Josep

    2011-01-01

    The main goal of this work is to provide an analysis methodology for assessment of water scarcity problems based on supply and demand. To this end, we must first determine what can be considered as supply and demand in the water scarcity problem. Although some variables involved are physical, economical or demographical, in our approach social factors are also included. This leads us to objectify water demand standards in relation to acceptable welfare levels. Within this appro...

  18. Water scarcity assessment of steel production in national integrated steelmaking route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Burchart-Korol

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the study was the assessment of the water scarcity in steel production in integrated steelmaking route in Poland. The main goal of Water footprint (WF is quantifying and mapping of direct and indirect water use in life cycle of product or technology. In the paper Water Scarcity Indicators (WSI for steel production and unit processes in integrated steelmaking route was performed.

  19. Mapping Monthly Water Scarcity in Global Transboundary Basins at Country-Basin Mesh Based Spatial Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degefu, Dagmawi Mulugeta; Weijun, He; Zaiyi, Liao; Liang, Yuan; Zhengwei, Huang; Min, An

    2018-02-01

    Currently fresh water scarcity is an issue with huge socio-economic and environmental impacts. Transboundary river and lake basins are among the sources of fresh water facing this challenge. Previous studies measured blue water scarcity at different spatial and temporal resolutions. But there is no global water availability and footprint assessment done at country-basin mesh based spatial and monthly temporal resolutions. In this study we assessed water scarcity at these spatial and temporal resolutions. Our results showed that around 1.6 billion people living within the 328 country-basin units out of the 560 we assessed in this study endures severe water scarcity at least for a month within the year. In addition, 175 country-basin units goes through severe water scarcity for 3-12 months in the year. These sub-basins include nearly a billion people. Generally, the results of this study provide insights regarding the number of people and country-basin units experiencing low, moderate, significant and severe water scarcity at a monthly temporal resolution. These insights might help these basins' sharing countries to design and implement sustainable water management and sharing schemes.

  20. Remarkably high apparent quantum yield of the overall photocatalytic H2O splitting achieved by utilizing Zn ion added Ga2O3 prepared using dilute CaCl2 solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yoshihisa; Hayashi, Takuya; Yasunaga, Ryō; Yanaga, Nobuyuki; Imamura, Hayao

    2015-08-21

    Remarkably high photocatalytic activity for the overall H2O splitting, where the activity was 32 mmol h(-1) for H2 production and 16 mmol h(-1) for O2 production under irradiation from a 450 W high-pressure Hg lamp and the apparent quantum yield (AQY) was 71% under irradiation at 254 nm, was achieved by utilizing a Rh(0.5)Cr(1.5)O3(Rh; 0.5 wt%)/Zn(3 mol%)-Ga2O3 photocatalyst when Ga2O3 was prepared using dilute CaCl2 aqueous solution having a concentration of 0.001 mol l(-1).

  1. Pollinator scarcity drives the shift to delayed selfing in Himalayan mayapple Podophyllum hexandrum (Berberidaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Ying-Ze; Fang, Qiang; Huang, Shuang-Quan

    2013-01-01

    Recent molecular phylogenetics have indicated that American mayapple (mainly self-incompatible, SI) and Himalayan mayapple, which was considered to be self-compatible (SC), are sister species with disjunct distribution between eastern Asia and eastern North America. We test a hypothesis that the persistence of this early spring flowering herb in the Himalayan region is attributable to the transition from SI to SC, the capacity for selfing in an unpredictable pollination environment. Pollinator observations were conducted in an alpine meadow with hundreds of Himalayan mayapple (Podophyllum hexandrum Royle) individuals over 2 years. To examine autogamy, seed set under different pollination treatments was compared. To clarify whether automatic self-pollination is achieved by movement of the pistil as a previous study suggested, we measured incline angles of the pistil and observed flower movement during anthesis using video. Floral visitors to the nectarless flowers were very rare, but solitary bees and honeybees could be potential pollinators. Seed set of bagged flowers was not significantly different from that of open-pollinated, self- or cross-pollinated flowers. However, removal of petals or stamens lowered seed yield. The angles of inclination of pistils did not change during the process of pollination. Automatic self-pollination was facilitated by petals closing and stamens moving simultaneously to contact the stigma. Stigmatic pollen load increased little during the day time, in contrast to a sharp increase when the flowers closed during the night-time. These observations indicated that Himalayan mayapple was SC and delayed self-pollination was facilitated by the movement of petals rather than the pistil. Compared with SI American mayapple, no obvious inbreeding depression in SC Himalayan mayapple may contribute its existence in the uplifting zone. A scarcity of pollinators may have driven the shift to delayed selfing in P. hexandrum.

  2. An Autologous Anti-Inflammatory Protein Solution Yielded a Favorable Safety Profile and Significant Pain Relief in an Open-Label Pilot Study of Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hix

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a progressive and degenerative disease, which may result in significant pain and decreased quality of life. Recent updates in our understanding of OA have demonstrated that it is a whole joint disease that has many similarities to an unhealed wound containing inflammatory cytokines. The nSTRIDE Autologous Protein Solution (APS Kit is a medical device under development for the treatment of OA. The APS Kit processes a patient's own blood at the point of care to contain high concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines and anabolic growth factors. This study assessed the safety and treatment effects of a single intra-articular injection of APS. Eleven patients were enrolled in this study. Sufficient blood could not be drawn from one patient who was subsequently withdrawn, leaving 10 patients treated. Minor adverse events (AEs were experienced by seven subjects (63.6%. There was one serious AE (diverticulitis unrelated to the device or procedure. One subject experienced AEs that were judged “likely” to be procedure related (arthralgia/musculoskeletal discomfort and all resolved within 6 days of injection. All other AEs were unrelated to the device or procedure. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC pain scores improved significantly over time (ANOVA, p < 0.0001, 12.0 ± 1.2 preinjection, 3.3 ± 2.9 one year postinjection, and 72.5% WOMAC pain improvement. There was significant positive correlation between white blood cell concentration in APS and improvement in WOMAC pain scores.

  3. An Autologous Anti-Inflammatory Protein Solution Yielded a Favorable Safety Profile and Significant Pain Relief in an Open-Label Pilot Study of Patients with Osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hix, Jason; Klaassen, Mark; Foreman, Ryan; Cullen, Edith; Toler, Krista; King, William; Woodell-May, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is a progressive and degenerative disease, which may result in significant pain and decreased quality of life. Recent updates in our understanding of OA have demonstrated that it is a whole joint disease that has many similarities to an unhealed wound containing inflammatory cytokines. The nSTRIDE Autologous Protein Solution (APS) Kit is a medical device under development for the treatment of OA. The APS Kit processes a patient's own blood at the point of care to contain high concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines and anabolic growth factors. This study assessed the safety and treatment effects of a single intra-articular injection of APS. Eleven patients were enrolled in this study. Sufficient blood could not be drawn from one patient who was subsequently withdrawn, leaving 10 patients treated. Minor adverse events (AEs) were experienced by seven subjects (63.6%). There was one serious AE (diverticulitis) unrelated to the device or procedure. One subject experienced AEs that were judged “likely” to be procedure related (arthralgia/musculoskeletal discomfort) and all resolved within 6 days of injection. All other AEs were unrelated to the device or procedure. Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) pain scores improved significantly over time (ANOVA, p < 0.0001, 12.0 ± 1.2 preinjection, 3.3 ± 2.9 one year postinjection, and 72.5% WOMAC pain improvement). There was significant positive correlation between white blood cell concentration in APS and improvement in WOMAC pain scores. PMID:29279807

  4. Combination of Assessment Indicators for Policy Support on Water Scarcity and Pollution Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Given increasing concern about seeking solutions to water scarcity and pollution (WSP, this paper is intent on developing significant assessment indicators as decision variables for providing reference for policy proposals on the mitigation of WSP. An indicator package consisting of footprints of freshwater consumption (FC and water pollutant discharge (WPD, virtual contents of freshwater and water pollutants, and inter-sectoral linkages in terms of industrial production, FC and WPD has been newly set up based on an extended input-output model. These indicators allow to provide specific and well-structured analysis on FC, WPD and the economy as well as their implicated interrelationships. The Source Region of Liao River located in northeastern China was selected as an empirical study area to apply the indicator package. The results indicate that farming and production of electricity industries are major contributors to FC; farming and breeding industries, and households are major contributors to WPD. The study area exports a large amount of net virtual total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand (29.01 × 103 t, 4.66 × 103 t, 60.38 × 103 t, respectively. Farming and breeding industries are the sectors whose production could be constrained to contribute to mitigating WSP without excessive negative impacts on the economy. Two categories of policies have been proposed to mitigate WSP based on the analysis of the indicator package. One is to introduce direct water pollutant treatment and water-saving policies to the target sectors; the other is to adjust industrial structure. The integrated indicator package developed and the methodology presented are expected to provide policy researchers and decision makers with references for more sound water management.

  5. On the portents of peak oil (and other indicators of resource scarcity)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, James L.

    2012-01-01

    Economists have studied various indicators of resource scarcity but largely ignored the phenomenon of “peaking” due to its connection to non-economic (physical) theories of resource exhaustion. I consider peaking from the economic point of view, where economic forces determine the shape of the equilibrium extraction path. Within that framework, I ask whether the timing of peak production reveals anything useful about scarcity. I find peaking to be an ambiguous indicator. If someone announced the peak would arrive earlier than expected, and you believed them, you would not know whether the news was good or bad. However, I also show that the traditional economic indicators of resource scarcity (price, cost, and rent) fare no better, and argue that previous studies have misconstrued the connection between changes in underlying scarcity and movements in these traditional indicators. - Highlights: ► We ask whether “peak oil” provides a useful economic indicator of scarcity. ► Timing of the peak follows Hotelling's model of inter-temporal equilibrium. ► The peak provides an ambiguous signal. ► Unexpectedly early peaking could be good news or bad. ► The traditional indicators (cost, price, and rent) do not fare much better.

  6. From water use to water scarcity footprinting in environmentally extended input-output analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridoutt, Bradley George; Hadjikakou, Michalis; Nolan, Martin; Bryan, Brett A

    2018-05-18

    Environmentally extended input-output analysis (EEIOA) supports environmental policy by quantifying how demand for goods and services leads to resource use and emissions across the economy. However, some types of resource use and emissions require spatially-explicit impact assessment for meaningful interpretation, which is not possible in conventional EEIOA. For example, water use in locations of scarcity and abundance is not environmentally equivalent. Opportunities for spatially-explicit impact assessment in conventional EEIOA are limited because official input-output tables tend to be produced at the scale of political units which are not usually well aligned with environmentally relevant spatial units. In this study, spatially-explicit water scarcity factors and a spatially disaggregated Australian water use account were used to develop water scarcity extensions that were coupled with a multi-regional input-output model (MRIO). The results link demand for agricultural commodities to the problem of water scarcity in Australia and globally. Important differences were observed between the water use and water scarcity footprint results, as well as the relative importance of direct and indirect water use, with significant implications for sustainable production and consumption-related policies. The approach presented here is suggested as a feasible general approach for incorporating spatially-explicit impact assessment in EEIOA.

  7. Blue water scarcity and the economic impacts of future agricultural trade and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Christoph; Lotze-Campen, Hermann; Gerten, Dieter; Dietrich, Jan Philipp; Bodirsky, Benjamin; Biewald, Anne; Popp, Alexander

    2013-06-01

    An increasing demand for agricultural goods affects the pressure on global water resources over the coming decades. In order to quantify these effects, we have developed a new agroeconomic water scarcity indicator, considering explicitly economic processes in the agricultural system. The indicator is based on the water shadow price generated by an economic land use model linked to a global vegetation-hydrology model. Irrigation efficiency is implemented as a dynamic input depending on the level of economic development. We are able to simulate the heterogeneous distribution of water supply and agricultural water demand for irrigation through the spatially explicit representation of agricultural production. This allows in identifying regional hot spots of blue water scarcity and explicit shadow prices for water. We generate scenarios based on moderate policies regarding future trade liberalization and the control of livestock-based consumption, dependent on different population and gross domestic product (GDP) projections. Results indicate increased water scarcity in the future, especially in South Asia, the Middle East, and north Africa. In general, water shadow prices decrease with increasing liberalization, foremost in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Middle East. Policies to reduce livestock consumption in developed countries not only lower the domestic pressure on water but also alleviate water scarcity to a large extent in developing countries. It is shown that one of the two policy options would be insufficient for most regions to retain water scarcity in 2045 on levels comparable to 2005.

  8. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SCARCITY OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND THEIR REAL PRICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Toth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a long running concern about resource depletion. Some argue this concern is misplaced, while others consider it to be an urgent problem requiring immediate action. Economists suggest that long term prices, adjusted for inflation (real prices, provide a useful and effective indicator of resource scarcity. This study tests this hypothesis in consideration of the accepted theory that traditional price deflators, such as the US consumer price index, overestimate inflation-, and accordingly-, are likely to underestimate long term commodity prices. To investigate the usefulness of real prices as an indicator of scarcity, a case study of two metals considered to be expensive (platinum and rhodium and two considered to be relatively inexpensive (copper and lead was used. Real long term price indices were constructed and econometric analysis used to determine the direction and significance of long-term price trends and whether real prices were correlated with other scarcity indicators such as the Reserves-toproduction ratio. The results show, when an appropriate adjustment is made to the deflator, long-run trends in real metal prices are all upward, and there is a significant relationship between the real prices and scarcity indicators, such as the reserves-to-production ratios, for platinum and rhodium, but not for copper and lead. These findings suggest that real prices of platinum and rhodium are more affected by their scarcity, while copper and lead prices are likely to be more dependent on other factors such as high substitutability with other virgin and recycled materials.

  9. Balancing water scarcity and quality for sustainable irrigated agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assouline, Shmuel; Russo, David; Silber, Avner; Or, Dani

    2015-05-01

    The challenge of meeting the projected doubling of global demand for food by 2050 is monumental. It is further exacerbated by the limited prospects for land expansion and rapidly dwindling water resources. A promising strategy for increasing crop yields per unit land requires the expansion of irrigated agriculture and the harnessing of water sources previously considered "marginal" (saline, treated effluent, and desalinated water). Such an expansion, however, must carefully consider potential long-term risks on soil hydroecological functioning. The study provides critical analyses of use of marginal water and management approaches to map out potential risks. Long-term application of treated effluent (TE) for irrigation has shown adverse impacts on soil transport properties, and introduces certain health risks due to the persistent exposure of soil biota to anthropogenic compounds (e.g., promoting antibiotic resistance). The availability of desalinated water (DS) for irrigation expands management options and improves yields while reducing irrigation amounts and salt loading into the soil. Quantitative models are used to delineate trends associated with long-term use of TE and DS considering agricultural, hydrological, and environmental aspects. The primary challenges to the sustainability of agroecosystems lies with the hazards of saline and sodic conditions, and the unintended consequences on soil hydroecological functioning. Multidisciplinary approaches that combine new scientific knowhow with legislative, economic, and societal tools are required to ensure safe and sustainable use of water resources of different qualities. The new scientific knowhow should provide quantitative models for integrating key biophysical processes with ecological interactions at appropriate spatial and temporal scales.

  10. Benefits of economic criteria for water scarcity management under global changes: insights from a large-scale hydroeconomic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neverre, Noémie; Dumas, Patrice; Nassopoulos, Hypatia

    2016-04-01

    Global changes are expected to exacerbate water scarcity issues in the Mediterranean region in the next decades. In this work, we investigate the impacts of reservoirs operation rules based on an economic criterion. We examine whether can they help reduce the costs of water scarcity, and whether they become more relevant under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We develop an original hydroeconomic model able to compare future water supply and demand on a large scale, while representing river basin heterogeneity. On the demand side, we focus on the two main sectors of water use: the irrigation and domestic sectors. Demands are projected in terms of both quantity and economic value. Irrigation requirements are computed for 12 types of crops, at the 0.5° spatial resolution, under future climatic conditions (A1B scenario). The computation of the economic benefits of irrigation water is based on a yield comparison approach between rainfed and irrigated crops. For the domestic sector, we project the combined effects of demographic growth, economic development and water cost evolution on future demands. The economic value of domestic water is defined as the economic surplus. On the supply side, we evaluate the impacts of climate change on water inflows to the reservoirs. Operating rules of the reservoirs are set up using a parameterisation-simulation-optimisation approach. The objective is to maximise water benefits. We introduce prudential parametric rules in order to take into account spatial and temporal trade-offs. The methodology is applied to Algeria at the 2050 horizon. Overall, our results show that the supply-demand imbalance and its costs will increase in most basins under future climatic and socioeconomic conditions. Our results suggest that the benefits of operating rules based on economic criteria are not unequivocally increased with global changes: in some basins the positive impact of economic prioritisation is higher under future conditions

  11. Finding water scarcity amid abundance using human-natural system models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, William K; Amos, Adell; Bigelow, Daniel P; Chang, Heejun; Conklin, David R; Haggerty, Roy; Langpap, Christian; Moore, Kathleen; Mote, Philip W; Nolin, Anne W; Plantinga, Andrew J; Schwartz, Cynthia L; Tullos, Desiree; Turner, David P

    2017-11-07

    Water scarcity afflicts societies worldwide. Anticipating water shortages is vital because of water's indispensable role in social-ecological systems. But the challenge is daunting due to heterogeneity, feedbacks, and water's spatial-temporal sequencing throughout such systems. Regional system models with sufficient detail can help address this challenge. In our study, a detailed coupled human-natural system model of one such region identifies how climate change and socioeconomic growth will alter the availability and use of water in coming decades. Results demonstrate how water scarcity varies greatly across small distances and brief time periods, even in basins where water may be relatively abundant overall. Some of these results were unexpected and may appear counterintuitive to some observers. Key determinants of water scarcity are found to be the cost of transporting and storing water, society's institutions that circumscribe human choices, and the opportunity cost of water when alternative uses compete. Published under the PNAS license.

  12. Implications of various land use change scenarios on global water scarcity over the 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Hejazi, M. I.; Vernon, C. R.; Li, X.; Le Page, Y.; Calvin, K. V.

    2017-12-01

    While the effects of land use and land cover change (LULCC) on hydrological processes (e.g., runoff, peak flow and discharge) and water availability have been extensively researched, the impacts of LULCC on water scarcity has been rarely investigated. Water scarcity, usually defined as the ratio of water demand to available renewable water supply. The involved water demand is an important human-dimension factor, which is affected by both socio-economic conditions (e.g., population, income) as well as LULCC (e.g., the amount of land we dedicate for food, feed, and fuel crops). Recent studies have assessed the combined effects of climate change and human interventions (e.g., dams, water withdrawals and LULCC) on water scarcity, but none to date has focused on the implications of different pathways of LULCC alone on water scarcity. We establish a set of LULCC scenarios under changing climate and socioeconomic pathways using an integrated assessment model - Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), which integrates natural systems (e.g., water supply, ecosystems, climate) and human systems (e.g., water demand, land use, economy, food, energy, population). The LULCC scenarios encompass varying degrees of protected areas, different magnitudes of crop/bioenergy production and subsidies, and whether to penalize potential land use emissions from bioenergy production (e.g., loss of wood carbon stock from land conversion). Then we investigate how water scarcity responds to LULCC and how the distribution of global population under severe water stress varies in the 21st century. Preliminary results indicate that the LULCC-induced changes in water scarcity are overall small at the global scale (water stress and population being affected. Findings from this research could be used to inform strategies focused on alleviating water stress around the world.

  13. Analysis of Water Use and Water Scarcity in Arid and Semi-arid Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samayoa, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    Analysis of Water Use and Water Scarcity in Arid and Semi-arid Regions Susana Samayoa , Muhammed A. G. Chowdhury, Tushar Sinha Department of Environmental Engineering, Texas A & M University - Kingsville Freshwater sustainability in arid and semi-arid regions is highly uncertain under increasing demands due to population growth and urban development as well as limited water supply. In particular, six largest cities by population among the top twenty U.S. cities are located in Texas (TX), which also experience high variability in water availability due to frequent droughts and floods. Similarly, several regions in Arizona (AZ) are rapidly growing (e.g. Phoenix and Tucson) despite receiving scanty rainfall. Thus, the goal of this study is to analyze water use and water scarcity in watersheds within TX and AZ between 1985 and 2010. The water use data from U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is analyzed by Hydrological Unit Code (HUC) - 8 within TX and AZ. Total freshwater use by county during 1985 and 2010 were converted into water use by HUC-8 using geospatial analysis. Water availability will be estimated by using a large scale Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) hydrologic model. The VIC model will be calibrated and validated for multiple basins located in Texas and Arizona. The VIC model simulated total streamflow will be aggregated across the 1/8 degree grids that are within each HUC-8 to estimate water supply. The excess water for upstream HUC-8s (= local supply minus demands) will be routed, in addition to locally generated streamflow, to estimate water availability in downstream HUC-8s. Water Scarcity Index, defined as the ratio of total freshwater demand to supply, will be estimated during 1985 and 2010 to evaluate the effects of water availability and demands on scarcity. Finally, water scarcity and use will be analyzed by HUC-8s within TX and AZ. Such information could be useful in water resources management and planning. Keywords: Water scarcity, water use

  14. Scarcity and the future of politics. [Conceptualizing political system as resource-distribution mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, D W

    1976-06-01

    Assuming that a political system is a resource-distribution mechanism, the author examines the possible effects of the predicted new age of scarcity on the system built on the assumption of continuing abundance of both energy and resource stocks. He does this by examining generally the relationship between the carrying capacity (along a scarcity and abundance continuum) and the value system (along a steady-state and growth-oriented continuum), and showing the possible outcomes of the interaction between the two. 35 references.

  15. Quantification of resilience to water scarcity, a dynamic measure in time and space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Simonovic

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There are practical links between water resources management, climate change adaptation and sustainable development leading to reduction of water scarcity risk and re-enforcing resilience as a new development paradigm. Water scarcity, due to the global change (population growth, land use change and climate change, is of serious concern since it can cause loss of human lives and serious damage to the economy of a region. Unfortunately, in many regions of the world, water scarcity is, and will be unavoidable in the near future. As the scarcity is increasing, at the same time it erodes resilience, therefore global change has a magnifying effect on water scarcity risk. In the past, standard water resources management planning considered arrangements for prevention, mitigation, preparedness and recovery, as well as response. However, over the last ten years substantial progress has been made in establishing the role of resilience in sustainable development. Dynamic resilience is considered as a novel measure that provides for better understanding of temporal and spatial dynamics of water scarcity. In this context, a water scarcity is seen as a disturbance in a complex physical-socio-economic system. Resilience is commonly used as a measure to assess the ability of a system to respond and recover from a failure. However, the time independent static resilience without consideration of variability in space does not provide sufficient insight into system's ability to respond and recover from the failure state and was mostly used as a damage avoidance measure. This paper provides an original systems framework for quantification of resilience. The framework is based on the definition of resilience as the ability of physical and socio-economic systems to absorb disturbance while still being able to continue functioning. The disturbance depends on spatial and temporal perspectives and direct interaction between impacts of disturbance (social, health

  16. The world’s road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J. H. A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M.; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges. PMID:27934888

  17. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kummu, M; Guillaume, J H A; de Moel, H; Eisner, S; Flörke, M; Porkka, M; Siebert, S; Veldkamp, T I E; Ward, P J

    2016-12-09

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20 th century. Water scarcity is analysed using the fundamental concepts of shortage (impacts due to low availability per capita) and stress (impacts due to high consumption relative to availability) which indicate difficulties in satisfying the needs of a population and overuse of resources respectively. While water consumption increased fourfold within the study period, the population under water scarcity increased from 0.24 billion (14% of global population) in the 1900s to 3.8 billion (58%) in the 2000s. Nearly all sub-national trajectories show an increasing trend in water scarcity. The concept of scarcity trajectory archetypes and shapes is introduced to characterize the historical development of water scarcity and suggest measures for alleviating water scarcity and increasing sustainability. Linking the scarcity trajectories to other datasets may help further deepen understanding of how trajectories relate to historical and future drivers, and hence help tackle these evolving challenges.

  18. Produtividade de rúcula hidropônica cultivada em diferentes épocas e vazões de solução nutritiva Yield of hydroponic rocket cultivated in different seasons and flow rates of nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucio da C Genuncio

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A rúcula é uma das principais hortaliças produzidas no Brasil via hidroponia. Entretanto, além da aplicação de uma solução nutritiva adequada à cultura, torna-se imprescindível o conhecimento e o controle das variáveis intrínsecas ao manejo da solução nutritiva. Assim, o objetivo foi avaliar o acúmulo de biomassa fresca de parte aérea e raiz e a produtividade da rúcula cultivada em três vazões de solução nutritiva em hidroponia NFT, durante seis ciclos de cultivo. Os tratamentos consistiram de três vazões de solução nutritiva, sendo V1= 0,75, V2= 1,00 e V3= 1,50 L min-1. Foram avaliados seis ciclos de cultivo (de julho a dezembro. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso com oito repetições. Realizaram-se as colheitas aos 30 dias após o transplante para os canais de hidroponia. O acúmulo de biomassa de parte aérea e de raiz foi maior nos meses de novembro e dezembro, devido a maiores temperaturas em casa de vegetação. Foi observado menor valor de biomassa de parte aérea na menor vazão do sistema. A produtividade da parte aérea e total (parte aérea + raiz foi maior nos meses mais quentes. Observou-se um incremento na produtividade com um aumento da vazão da solução nutritiva nos canais de hidroponia.The rocket is one of the main vegetable crops produced in Brazil through hydroponics. Nevertheless, besides the application of an appropriate nutrient solution for the crop, the knowledge and control of intrinsic variables for the management of the nutrient solution is essential. The accumulation of fresh biomass of the aboveground part, roots and the yield of rocket grown in three flow rates of nutrient solution during six crop cycles was studied. The treatments consisted of three flows rates of nutrient solution, V1= 0.75, V2= 1.00 and V3= 1.50 L min-1. We also evaluated six cycles of cultivation (from July to December. The experimental design was randomized blocks with eight replications. Harvest

  19. Impact of Water Scarcity on the Fenhe River Basin and Mitigation Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Shao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study produced a drought map for the Fenhe River basin covering the period from 150 BC to 2012 using regional historical drought records. Based on meteorological and hydrological features, the characteristics and causes of water scarcity in the Fenhe River basin were examined, along with their impact on the national economy and ecological environment. The effects of water scarcity in the basin on the national economy were determined from agricultural, industrial, and domestic perspectives. The impact on aquatic ecosystems was ascertained through an evolution trend analysis of surface water systems, including rivers, wetlands, and slope ecosystems, and subterranean water systems, including groundwater and karst springs. As a result of these analyses, strategies are presented for coping with water scarcity in this basin, including engineering countermeasures, such as the construction of a water network in Shanxi, and the non-engineering approach of groundwater resource preservation. These comprehensive coping strategies are proposed with the aim of assisting the prevention and control of water scarcity in the arid and semi-arid areas of China.

  20. ECONOMIC QUESTIONS OF LAND USAGE – SCARCITY, SUSTAINABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    Magda, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic importance of land usage. This topic is important because land is the basis of industrial and agricultural production, as well as energy and environmental security. The focus of the analysis is the relationship between land usage and scarcity and sustainability.

  1. Metal scarcity and sustainability, analyzing the necessity to reduce the extraction of scarce metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henckens, M. L C M; Driessen, P. P J; Worrell, E.

    2014-01-01

    There is debate whether or not further growth of metal extraction from the earth's crust will be sustainable in connection with geologic scarcity. Will future generations possibly face a depletion of specific metals? We study whether, for which metals and to what extent the extraction rate would

  2. Waters Without Borders: Scarcity and the Future of State Interactions over Shared Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    earth’s water is fresh water , stored in rivers, lakes, reservoirs, glaciers, permanent snow, groundwater aquifers, and the atmosphere. 10 This... freshwater resources between and within countries. 13 There is significant media attention given to intra-state water sharing issues. One...intrusion into coastal ground freshwater sources, among other effects. Consequently, water scarcity brought about by climate change could drive

  3. Book Scarcity In Nigerian University Libraries:A Menace To Effective ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Book scarcity has persisted due to poor funding of education by Federal Government, frustration of authors, violation of copyright laws and committing of library crimes by library staff and users. This situation has affected educational standards such that over 100 courses offered in the universities in 2005 were refused ...

  4. Innovation and complex governance at times of scarcity of resources : A lesson from history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, D.P.; Bakker, C.A.; Diederen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Historians understand the important role that access to critical raw materials has played in the development of civilizations, however access to materials has regularly led to distrust and conflict. Near future material scarcity scenarios appear to be severe and could include a mix of price

  5. Innovation and complex governance at times of scarcity of resources – a lesson from history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peck, D.; Bakker, C.; Diederen, A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Historians understand the important role that access to critical raw materials has played in the development of civilizations, however access to materials has regularly led to distrust and conflict. Near future material scarcity scenarios appear to be severe and could include a mix of price

  6. Review and classification of indicators of green water availability and scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schyns, Joseph Franciscus; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Booij, Martijn J.

    2015-01-01

    Research on water scarcity has mainly focussed on blue water (ground- and surface water), but green water (soil moisture returning to the atmosphere through evaporation) is also scarce, because its availability is limited and there are competing demands for green water. Crop production, grazing

  7. Using participatory modelling to compensate for data scarcity in environmental planning: A case study from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ritzema, H.P.; Froebrich, J.; Raju, R.; Sreenivas, Ch.; Kselik, R.A.L.

    2010-01-01

    Participatory modelling has provided a new approach to overcome the problem of data scarcity which formerly interfered with the environmental planning for the restoration of the Kolleru-Upputeru wetland ecosystem on the east coast of Andhra Pradesh in South India. New ways had to be found to address

  8. What is Autonomous Adaption? Resource Scarcity and Smallholder Agency in Thailand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forsyth, T.; Evans, N.C.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of autonomous adaptation is widely used to describe spontaneous acts of reducing risks posed by resource scarcity and, increasingly, climate change. Critics, however, have claimed it is unproven, or simplifies the agency by which smallholders respond to risk. This paper presents

  9. Uncertainty Analysis of the Water Scarcity Footprint Based on the AWARE Model Considering Temporal Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Seok Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare the degree of uncertainty of the water scarcity footprint using the Monte Carlo statistical method and block bootstrap method. Using the hydrological data of a water drainage basin in Korea, characterization factors based on the available water remaining (AWARE model were obtained. The uncertainties of the water scarcity footprint considering temporal variations in paddy rice production in Korea were estimated. The block bootstrap method gave five-times smaller percentage uncertainty values of the model output compared to that of the two different Monte Carlo statistical method scenarios. Incorrect estimation of the probability distribution of the AWARE characterization factor model is what causes the higher uncertainty in the water scarcity footprint value calculated by the Monte Carlo statistical method in this study. This is because AWARE characterization factor values partly follows discrete distribution with extreme value on one side. Therefore, this study suggests that the block bootstrap method is a better choice in analyzing uncertainty compared to the Monte Carlo statistical method when using the AWARE model to quantify the water scarcity footprint.

  10. Fruit response to water-scarcity and biochemical changes : Water relations and biochemical changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez, P.; Galindo Egea, Alejandro; Collado-González, J.; Medina, S.; Corell, M.; Memmi, H.; Girón, I.F.; Centeno, A.; Martín-Palomo, M.J.; Cruz, Z.N.; Carbonell-Barrachina, A.A.; Hernandez, F.; Torrecillas, A.; Moriana, A.; Pérez-López, D.; Garcia Tejero, Ivan Francisco; Duran Zuazo, Victor Hugo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to give a general idea of the fruit response to water-scarcity conditions, paying special attention to fruit water relations modification and fruit composition changes, which are key for fruit quality. The strengths and weaknesses of fruit water relations measurement

  11. Effects of deficit irrigation on yield and yield components of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vegetable soybeans [Glycine max L (Merr.)] are very sensitive crops to environmental conditions during their growth stages, especially in term of water scarcity. Water scarcity is one of the major environmental factors influencing sustainable agricultural production in arid and semi-arid regions. Careful management irrigation ...

  12. Effects of water scarcity and chemical pollution in aquatic ecosystems: State of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas-Sánchez, Alba; Rico, Andreu; Vighi, Marco

    2016-12-01

    Water scarcity is an expanding climate and human related condition, which drives and interacts with other stressors in freshwater ecosystems such as chemical pollution. In this study we provide an overview of the existing knowledge regarding the chemical fate, biological dynamics and the ecological risks of chemicals under water scarcity conditions. We evaluated a total of 15 studies dealing with the combined effects of chemicals and water scarcity under laboratory conditions and in the field. The results of these studies have been elaborated in order to evaluate additive, synergistic or antagonistic responses of the studied endpoints. As a general rule, it can be concluded that, in situations of water scarcity, the impacts of extreme water fluctuations are much more relevant than those of an additional chemical stressor. Nevertheless, the presence of chemical pollution may result in exacerbated ecological risks in some particular cases. We conclude that further investigations on this topic would take advantage on the focus on some specific issues. Experimental (laboratory and model ecosystem) studies should be performed on different biota groups and life stages (diapausing eggs, immature stages), with particular attention to those including traits relevant for the adaptation to water scarcity. More knowledge on species adaptations and recovery capacity is essential to predict community responses to multiple stressors and to assess the community vulnerability. Field studies should be performed at different scales, particularly in lotic systems, in order to integrate different functional dynamics of the river ecosystem. Combining field monitoring and experimental studies would be the best option to reach more conclusive, causal relationships on the effects of co-occurring stressors. Contribution of these studies to develop ecological models and scenarios is also suggested as an improvement for the prospective aquatic risk assessment of chemicals in (semi-)arid areas

  13. Sub-seasonal predictability of water scarcity at global and local scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanders, N.; Wada, Y.; Wood, E. F.

    2016-12-01

    Forecasting the water demand and availability for agriculture and energy production has been neglected in previous research, partly due to the fact that most large-scale hydrological models lack the skill to forecast human water demands at sub-seasonal time scale. We study the potential of a sub-seasonal water scarcity forecasting system for improved water management decision making and improved estimates of water demand and availability. We have generated 32 years of global sub-seasonal multi-model water availability, demand and scarcity forecasts. The quality of the forecasts is compared to a reference forecast derived from resampling historic weather observations. The newly developed system has been evaluated for both the global scale and in a real-time local application in the Sacramento valley for the Trinity, Shasta and Oroville reservoirs, where the water demand for agriculture and hydropower is high. On the global scale we find that the reference forecast shows high initial forecast skill (up to 8 months) for water scarcity in the eastern US, Central Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Adding dynamical sub-seasonal forecasts results in a clear improvement for most regions in the world, increasing the forecasts' lead time by 2 or more months on average. The strongest improvements are found in the US, Brazil, Central Asia and Australia. For the Sacramento valley we can accurately predict anomalies in the reservoir inflow, hydropower potential and the downstream irrigation water demand 6 months in advance. This allow us to forecast potential water scarcity in the Sacramento valley and adjust the reservoir management to prevent deficits in energy or irrigation water availability. The newly developed forecast system shows that it is possible to reduce the vulnerability to upcoming water scarcity events and allows optimization of the distribution of the available water between the agricultural and energy sector half a year in advance.

  14. Water scarcity hotspots travel downstream due to human interventions in the 20th and 21st century

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldkamp, T.I.E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J.C.J.H.; Döll, P.; Gosling, S.N.; Liu, J.; Masaki, Y.; Oki, T.; Ostberg, S.; Pokhrel, Y.; Satoh, Y.; Kim, H.; Ward, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many regions. In a novel, multi-model assessment, we examine how human interventions (HI: land use and land cover change, man-made reservoirs and human water use) affected monthly river water availability and water scarcity over the period 1971–2010. Here we

  15. Global water scarcity: the monthly blue water footprint compared to blue water availability for the world's major river basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Mekonnen, Mesfin

    Conventional blue water scarcity indicators suffer from four weaknesses: they measure water withdrawal instead of consumptive water use, they compare water use with actual runoff rather than natural (undepleted) runoff, they ignore environmental flow requirements and they evaluate scarcity on an

  16. Water Scarcity Hotspots Travel Downstream Due to Human Interventions in the 20th and 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Doell, P.; Gosling, S. N.; Liu, J.; Masaki, Y.; Oki, T.; Ostberg, S.; Pokhrel, Y.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many regions. In a novel, multi-model assessment, we examine how human interventions (HI: land use and land cover change, man-made reservoirs and human water use) affected monthly river water availability and water scarcity over the period 1971 - 2010. Here we show that HI drastically change the critical dimensions of water scarcity, aggravating water scarcity for 8.8%(7.4 - 16.5 %) ) of the global population but alleviating it for another 8.3 % (6.4 -15.8 %). Positive impacts of HI mostly occur upstream, whereas HI aggravate water scarcity downstream; HI cause water scarcity to travel downstream. Attribution of water scarcity changes to HI components is complex and varies among the hydrological models. Seasonal variation in impacts and dominant HI components is also substantial. A thorough consideration of the spatially and temporally varying interactions among HI components and of uncertainties is therefore crucial for the success of water scarcity adaptation by HI.

  17. The world's road to water scarcity: shortage and stress in the 20th century and pathways towards sustainability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummu, M.; Guillaume, J.H.A.; de Moel, H.; Eisner, S.; Flörke, M; Porkka, M.; Siebert, S.; Veldkamp, T.I.E.; Ward, P.J.

    2016-01-01

    Water scarcity is a rapidly growing concern around the globe, but little is known about how it has developed over time. This study provides a first assessment of continuous sub-national trajectories of blue water consumption, renewable freshwater availability, and water scarcity for the entire 20th

  18. Water scarcity hotspots travel downstream due to human interventions in the 20th and 21st century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Döll, P.; Gosling, S. N.; Liu, J.; Masaki, Y.; Oki, T.; Ostberg, S.; Pokhrel, Y.; Satoh, Y.; Kim, H.; Ward, P. J.

    2017-06-01

    Water scarcity is rapidly increasing in many regions. In a novel, multi-model assessment, we examine how human interventions (HI: land use and land cover change, man-made reservoirs and human water use) affected monthly river water availability and water scarcity over the period 1971-2010. Here we show that HI drastically change the critical dimensions of water scarcity, aggravating water scarcity for 8.8% (7.4-16.5%) of the global population but alleviating it for another 8.3% (6.4-15.8%). Positive impacts of HI mostly occur upstream, whereas HI aggravate water scarcity downstream; HI cause water scarcity to travel downstream. Attribution of water scarcity changes to HI components is complex and varies among the hydrological models. Seasonal variation in impacts and dominant HI components is also substantial. A thorough consideration of the spatially and temporally varying interactions among HI components and of uncertainties is therefore crucial for the success of water scarcity adaptation by HI.

  19. Change of land-use patterns by planning field shelterbelts on farming Lowlands vulnerable to water scarcity: Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijulie Iuliana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity, drought, and land degradation are particularly serious environmental issues in Romania (south-western Boianu Plain and Olt meadow, part of the Vallachian Plain. We propose a possible solution for decreasing the impact of climate change and preventing land degradation by planting shelterbelts. The main research methods approached were: direct observation, investigation method (interview, numerical methods of identifying the ecological potential of the land, selection of the appropriate species to be planted, and GIS mapping. The proposed solution is to create field shelterbelts after a theoretical model of configuring, composing and setting them within a village area in the Boianu Plain. The lack of specialized cadastre and funds hampers the implementation of the project. The locals and landowners in the area must be fully aware of the importance of shelterbelts. Thus, the environmental and their living conditions would be highly improved; the effects of droughts would diminish gradually and agricultural output growth. Another pending issue is to create a methodology in order to compensate the owners who disagree with the changes in land use. The area to be planted with shelterbelts is currently the agricultural land they own.

  20. Water limits to closing yield gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kyle Frankel; Rulli, Maria Cristina; Garrassino, Francesco; Chiarelli, Davide; Seveso, Antonio; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is often seen as a suitable approach to meet the growing demand for agricultural products and improve food security. It typically entails the use of fertilizers, new cultivars, irrigation, and other modern technology. In regions of the world affected by seasonal or chronic water scarcity, yield gap closure is strongly dependent on irrigation (blue water). Global yield gap assessments have often ignored whether the water required to close the yield gap is locally available. Here we perform a gridded global analysis (10 km resolution) of the blue water consumption that is needed annually to close the yield gap worldwide and evaluate the associated pressure on renewable freshwater resources. We find that, to close the yield gap, human appropriation of freshwater resources for irrigation would have to increase at least by 146%. Most study countries would experience at least a doubling in blue water requirement, with 71% of the additional blue water being required by only four crops - maize, rice, soybeans, and wheat. Further, in some countries (e.g., Algeria, Morocco, Syria, Tunisia, and Yemen) the total volume of blue water required for yield gap closure would exceed sustainable levels of freshwater consumption (i.e., 40% of total renewable surface and groundwater resources).

  1. Contribution of Nutrient Pollution to Water Scarcity in the Water-Rich Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, R. L.; Lopez, C.; Vorosmarty, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    Most studies of water stress focus on water-scarce regions such as drylands. Yet, even water-rich regions can be water stressed due to local water withdrawals that exceed supply or due to water pollution that makes water unusable. The northeastern United States (NE) is a water-rich region relative to the rest of the country, as it concentrates about 50% of total renewable water of the country. Yes the NE features relatively high water withdrawals, ~50 km3/yr, for thermo-power generation, agriculture, and industry, as well as to support a human population of about 70 million. At the same time, rivers and streams in the NE suffer from nutrient pollution, largely from agricultural and urban land uses. We asked: to what extent is the NE water stressed, and how do water withdrawals and water quality each contribute to water scarcity across the NE? We used information on county-level water withdrawals and runoff to calculate a water scarcity index (WSI) for 200 hydrologic units across the NE from 1987 to 2002. We used data on surface water concentrations of nitrogen to calculate the additional water necessary to dilute surface water pollution to weak, moderate, and strong water quality standards derived from the literature. Only considering withdrawals, we found that approximately 10% of the NE was water stressed. Incorporating a moderate water quality standard, 25% of the NE was water stressed. We calculated a dilution burden by sectors of water users and found that public utilities faced 41% of the total dilution burden for the region, followed by irrigation users at 21%. Our results illustrate that even water rich regions can experience water stress and even scarcity, where withdrawals exceed surface water supplies. Water quality contributes to water stress and can change the spatial patterns of water stress across a region. The common approach to address scarcity has required the use of inter-basin water transfers, or in the case of water quality-caused scarcity

  2. Growth and yield of summer squash: effect of the ionic concentration of nutrient solutionCrescimento e produtividade da abobrinha italiana: efeito da concentração iônica da solução nutritiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Zanatta Aumonde

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of evaluating the effect of different ionic concentrations of the nutrient solution on growth of summer squash cultivated in raw rice husk substrate with leaching recirculation, two experiments were conducted in two crop-seasons: spring-summer of 2005 and summer-autumn of 2006, in Pelotas, RS. Four ionic concentrations of the nutrient solution (based on electrical conductivity - EC were studied: 1.3; 1.7; 2.1 and 4.2 dS m-1. Crop growth was determinated by accumulated dry mass production and partitioning among the different above-ground plant organs (leafs, stem and fruits at the end of the crop-seasons. Fruit yield was also evaluated. The obtained results indicate that ionic concentrations equal or lower than 1.7 dS m-1 were limiting for proper growth and yield of the crop. The effect of high ionic concentration of the nutrient solution (above 2.1 dS m-1 on dry mass production and partitioning varied according to the crop-season. The lower solar radiation availability of the summer-autumn crop season minimized the effects of the different concentrations of nutrient solution on dry mass production and partitioning to the fruits, as well as on the yield. The fruits comprised from 28 to 52% of the total above-ground dry mass production. Fruits represented the largest sink of assimilates of the plant only at 2.1 dS m-1 ionic concentration of the nutrient solution and in crescent solar radiation availability condition (spring-summer. According the mathematics models, the electrical conductivity that maximizes dry mass production and yield is approximately 3.0 dS m-1 for both crop-seasons.Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações iônicas da solução nutritiva sobre o crescimento e a produtividade da abobrinha italiana cultivada em substrato de casca de arroz in natura com recirculação dos lixiviados, foram realizados dois experimentos em duas épocas de cultivo: primavera-verão de 2005 e verão-outono de

  3. Expert forecasts and the emergence of water scarcity on public agendas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graffy, E.A.

    2006-01-01

    Expert forecasts of worldwide water scarcity depict conditions that call for proactive, preventive, coordinated water governance, but they have not been matched by public agendas of commensurate scope and urgency in the United States. This disconnect can not be adequately explained without some attention to attributes of forecasts themselves. I propose that the institutional fragmentation of water expertise and prevailing patterns of communication about water scarcity militate against the formulation of a common public definition of the problem and encourage reliance on unambiguous crises to stimulate social and policy agenda setting. I do not argue that expert forecasts should drive public agendas deterministically, but if their purpose is to help prevent water crises (not just predict them), then a greater effort is needed to overcome the barriers to meaningful public scrutiny of expert claims and evaluation of water strategies presently in place. Copyright ?? 2006 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  4. Male partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and media depictions of partner scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laramie D

    2013-01-18

    An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity) or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance). Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity.

  5. Male Partner Selectivity, Romantic Confidence, and Media Depictions of Partner Scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laramie D. Taylor

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to explore the effects of exposure to partner scarcity or abundance messages on men's partner selectivity, romantic confidence, and self-assessed attractiveness. Undergraduate male participants watched a soap opera narrative featuring either two men competing over one potential female partner (partner scarcity or two women competing over one potential male partner (partner abundance. Relative to control subjects, watching either narrative reduced romantic confidence. Experimental condition also affected partner selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness, though both effects were moderated by endorsement of traditional masculine ideology. Viewing the abundance narrative resulted in greater selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men high in endorsement of traditional masculinity but diminished selectivity and self-assessed attractiveness for men low in endorsement of traditional masculine identity.

  6. Scarcity, Alterity and Value: Decline of the Pangolin, the World′s Most Trafficked Mammal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Aisher

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pangolin, now recognised as the world's most trafficked mammal, is currently undergoing population collapse across South and Southeast Asia, primarily because of the medicinal value attributed to its meat and scales. This paper explores how scarcity and alterity (otherness drive the perceived value of these creatures for a range of human and more-than-human stakeholders: wildlife traffickers, Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM practitioners, Asian consumers of their meat and scales, hunters and poachers, pangolin-rearing master-spirits, and conservation organisations. Based on archival research and long-term ethnographic study with indigenous hunters in the Eastern Himalayas, the paper analyses the commodity chains linking hunters and consumers of pangolin across South, Southeast and East Asia. It shows that whilst the nonlinear interaction of scarcity, alterity and value is driving the current overexploitation of pangolins, for some indigenous hunters in the Eastern Himalayas, these same dynamics interact to preserve these animals in the forests where they dwell.

  7. FOOD SECURITY IN TUNISIA WITHIN WATER SCARCITY THE RELATIVE IMPORTANCE OF THE MEAT SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emna Ouertani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of food and nutrition security in Tunisia, judges its sustainability within water scarcity conditions and free trade areas, with a specific focus on the meat sector. For such purpose, the FAO indicators and Food Balance Sheets, as well as the Global Food Security Index are all analyzed. Virtual water, owed to meat and cereals for animal feed production and trade, was estimated to expect food security sustainability. Results indicated that Tunisian food and nutrition security (FNS has been improved over the years, but its stability remains vulnerable because of the political and economic risks and the dependence of Tunisia on imported cereals for animal feed due to water scarcity. Tunisian agricultural policy, especially in both sectors of cereals and meat, should be readjusted to guarantee food and nutrition sustainability.

  8. Adaptive livelihood strategies for coping with water scarcity in the drylands of central Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liwenga, Emma T.

    In this paper, it is argued that local knowledge for adapting to water scarcity is important for integrated resource management by taking into consideration both the natural and social constraints in a particular setting based on accumulated experience. The paper examines the relevance of local knowledge in sustaining agricultural production in the semiarid areas of central Tanzania. The paper specifically focuses on how water scarcity, as the major limiting factor, is addressed in the study area using local knowledge to sustain livelihoods of its people. The study was conducted in four villages; Mzula, Ilolo, Chanhumba and Ngahelezi, situation in Mvumi Division in Dodoma Region. The study mainly employed qualitative data collection techniques. Participatory methods provided a means of exploring perceptions and gaining deeper insights regarding natural resource utilization in terms of problems and opportunities. The main data sources drawn upon in this study were documentation, group interviews and field observations. Group interviews involved discussions with a group of 6-12 people selected on the basis of gender, age and socio-economic groups. Data analysis entailed structural and content analysis within the adaptive livelihood framework in relation to management of water scarcity using local knowledge. The findings confirm that rainfall is the main limiting factor for agricultural activities in the drylands of Central Tanzania. As such, local communities have developed, through time, indigenous knowledge to cope with such environments utilizing seasonality and diversity of landscapes. Use of this local knowledge is therefore effective in managing water scarcity by ensuring a continuous production of crops throughout the year. This practice implies increased food availability and accessibility through sales of such agricultural products. Local innovations for water management, such as cultivation in sandy rivers, appear to be very important means of accessing

  9. A global water scarcity assessment under Shared Socio-economic Pathways – Part 1: Water use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hanasaki

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel global water scarcity assessment for the 21st century is presented in a two-part paper. In this first paper, water use scenarios are presented for the latest global hydrological models. The scenarios are compatible with the socio-economic scenarios of the Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs, which are a part of the latest set of scenarios on global change developed by the integrated assessment, the IAV (climate change impact, adaptation, and vulnerability assessment, and the climate modeling community. The SSPs depict five global situations based on substantially different socio-economic conditions during the 21st century. Water use scenarios were developed to reflect not only quantitative socio-economic factors, such as population and electricity production, but also key qualitative concepts such as the degree of technological change and overall environmental consciousness. Each scenario consists of five factors: irrigated area, crop intensity, irrigation efficiency, and withdrawal-based potential industrial and municipal water demands. The first three factors are used to estimate the potential irrigation water demand. All factors were developed using simple models based on a literature review and analysis of historical records. The factors are grid-based at a spatial resolution of 0.5° × 0.5° and cover the whole 21st century in five-year intervals. Each factor shows wide variation among the different global situations depicted: the irrigated area in 2085 varies between 2.7 × 106 and 4.5 × 106 km2, withdrawal-based potential industrial water demand between 246 and 1714 km3 yr−1, and municipal water between 573 and 1280 km3 yr−1. The water use scenarios can be used for global water scarcity assessments that identify the regions vulnerable to water scarcity and analyze the timing and magnitude of scarcity conditions.

  10. Capacity adequacy in power markets facing energy transition: A comparison of scarcity pricing and capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitet, Marie; Finon, Dominique; Janssen, Tanguy

    2017-01-01

    This article analyses how a capacity mechanism can address security of supply objectives in a power market undergoing an energy transition that combines energy efficiency efforts to stabilise demand and a rapid increase in the proportion of renewables. To analyse this situation, power markets are simulated over the long term with a System Dynamics model integrating new investment and closure decisions. This last trait is relevant to studying investment in power generation in mature markets undergoing policy shocks. The energy-only market design with a price cap, with and without a capacity mechanism, is compared to scarcity pricing in two investment behaviour scenarios with and without risk aversion. The results show that the three market designs lead to different levels of risk for peaking unit investment and results thus differ according to which risk aversion hypothesis is adopted. Assuming a risk-neutral investor, the results indicate that compared to an energy-only market with a price cap at 3 000 €/MWh, an energy-only market with scarcity pricing and the market design with a capacity mechanism are two efficient options to reach similar levels of load loss. But under the hypothesis of risk aversion, the results highlight the advantage of the capacity mechanism over scarcity pricing. - Highlights: • Investment decisions in electricity markets are simulated by a System Dynamics model. • Capacity mechanism enhances capacity adequacy compared to the energy-only market. • With no risk aversion, capacity mechanism or scarcity pricing provide similar results. • With risk aversion, capacity mechanism appears to be the preferable market design.

  11. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-15

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Maldistribution or scarcity of nurses? The devil is in the detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Both-Nwabuwe, Jitske M C; Dijkstra, Maria T M; Klink, Ab; Beersma, Bianca

    2018-03-01

    The goal of this paper was to improve our understanding of nursing shortages across the variety of health care sectors and how this may affect the agenda for addressing nursing shortages. A health care sector comprises a number of health care services for one particular type of patient care, for example, the hospital care sector. Most Western countries are shifting health care services from hospital care towards community and home care, thus increasing nursing workforce challenges in home and community care. In order to implement appropriate policy responses to nursing workforce challenges, we need to know if these challenges are caused by maldistribution of nurses and/or the scarcity of nurses in general. Focusing on the Netherlands, we reviewed articles based on data of a labour market research programme and/or data from the Dutch Employed Persons' Insurance Administration Agency. The data were analysed using a data synthesis approach. Nursing shortages are unevenly distributed across the various health care sectors. Shortages of practical nurses are caused by maldistribution, with a long-term projected surplus of practical nurses in hospitals and projected shortages in nursing/convalescent homes and home care. Shortages of first-level registered nurses are caused by general scarcity in the long term, mainly in hospitals and home care. Nursing workforce challenges are caused by a maldistribution of nurses and the scarcity of nurses in general. To implement appropriate policy responses to nursing workforce challenges, integrated health care workforce planning is necessary. Integrated workforce planning models could forecast the impact of health care transformation plans and guide national policy decisions on transitioning programmes. Effective transitioning programmes are required to address nursing shortages and to diminish maldistribution. In addition, increased recruitment and retention as well as new models of care are required to address the scarcity of

  13. Managing the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity. The GLOBAQUA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Ortega, Alícia; Acuña, Vicenç; Bellin, Alberto; Burek, Peter; Cassiani, Giorgio; Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Dolédec, Sylvain; Elosegi, Arturo; Ferrari, Federico; Ginebreda, Antoni; Grathwohl, Peter; Jones, Colin; Rault, Philippe Ker; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Ludwig, Ralf Peter; Merz, Ralf; Milacic, Radmila; Muñoz, Isabel; Nikulin, Grigory; Paniconi, Claudio; Paunović, Momir; Petrovic, Mira; Sabater, Laia; Sabaterb, Sergi; Skoulikidis, Nikolaos Th.; Slob, Adriaan; Teutsch, Georg; Voulvoulis, Nikolaos; Barceló, Damià

    2015-01-01

    Water scarcity is a serious environmental problem in many European regions, and will likely increase in the near future as a consequence of increased abstraction and climate change. Water scarcity exacerbates the effects of multiple stressors, and thus results in decreased water quality. It impacts river ecosystems, threatens the services they provide, and it will force managers and policy-makers to change their current practices. The EU-FP7 project GLOBAQUA aims at identifying the prevalence, interaction and linkages between stressors, and to assess their effects on the chemical and ecological status of freshwater ecosystems in order to improve water management practice and policies. GLOBAQUA assembles a multidisciplinary team of 21 European plus 2 non-European scientific institutions, as well as water authorities and river basin managers. The project includes experts in hydrology, chemistry, biology, geomorphology, modelling, socio-economics, governance science, knowledge brokerage, and policy advocacy. GLOBAQUA studies six river basins (Ebro, Adige, Sava, Evrotas, Anglian and Souss Massa) affected by water scarcity, and aims to answer the following questions: how does water scarcity interact with other existing stressors in the study river basins? How will these interactions change according to the different scenarios of future global change? Which will be the foreseeable consequences for river ecosystems? How will these in turn affect the services the ecosystems provide? How should management and policies be adapted to minimise the ecological, economic and societal consequences? These questions will be approached by combining data-mining, field- and laboratory-based research, and modelling. Here, we outline the general structure of the project and the activities to be conducted within the fourteen work-packages of GLOBAQUA. PMID:25005236

  14. Towards a Global Water Scarcity Risk Assessment Framework: Incorporation of Probability Distributions and Hydro-Climatic Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veldkamp, T. I. E.; Wada, Y.; Aerts, J. C. J. H.; Ward, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Changing hydro-climatic and socioeconomic conditions increasingly put pressure on fresh water resources and are expected to aggravate water scarcity conditions towards the future. Despite numerous calls for risk-based water scarcity assessments, a global-scale framework that includes UNISDR's definition of risk does not yet exist. This study provides a first step towards such a risk based assessment, applying a Gamma distribution to estimate water scarcity conditions at the global scale under historic and future conditions, using multiple climate change and population growth scenarios. Our study highlights that water scarcity risk, expressed in terms of expected annual exposed population, increases given all future scenarios, up to greater than 56.2% of the global population in 2080. Looking at the drivers of risk, we find that population growth outweigh the impacts of climate change at global and regional scales. Using a risk-based method to assess water scarcity, we show the results to be less sensitive than traditional water scarcity assessments to the use of fixed threshold to represent different levels of water scarcity. This becomes especially important when moving from global to local scales, whereby deviations increase up to 50% of estimated risk levels.

  15. The risk of water scarcity at different levels of global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schewe, Jacob; Sharpe, Simon

    2015-04-01

    Water scarcity is a threat to human well-being and economic development in many countries today. Future climate change is expected to exacerbate the global water crisis by reducing renewable freshwater resources different world regions, many of which are already dry. Studies of future water scarcity often focus on most-likely, or highest-confidence, scenarios. However, multi-model projections of water resources reveal large uncertainty ranges, which are due to different types of processes (climate, hydrology, human) and are therefore not easy to reduce. Thus, central estimates or multi-model mean results may be insufficient to inform policy and management. Here we present an alternative, risk-based approach. We use an ensemble of multiple global climate and hydrological models to quantify the likelihood of crossing a given water scarcity threshold under different levels of global warming. This approach allows assessing the risk associated with any particular, pre-defined threshold (or magnitude of change that must be avoided), regardless of whether it lies in the center or in the tails of the uncertainty distribution. We show applications of this method on the country and river basin scale, illustrate the effects of societal processes on the resulting risk estimates, and discuss the further potential of this approach for research and stakeholder dialogue.

  16. Fox squirrels match food assessment and cache effort to value and scarcity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel M Delgado

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarders must allocate time to assess items for caching, and to carry and bury each cache. Such decisions should be driven by economic variables, such as the value of the individual food items, the scarcity of these items, competition for food items and risk of pilferage by conspecifics. The fox squirrel, an obligate scatter-hoarder, assesses cacheable food items using two overt movements, head flicks and paw manipulations. These behaviors allow an examination of squirrel decision processes when storing food for winter survival. We measured wild squirrels' time allocations and frequencies of assessment and investment behaviors during periods of food scarcity (summer and abundance (fall, giving the squirrels a series of 15 items (alternating five hazelnuts and five peanuts. Assessment and investment per cache increased when resource value was higher (hazelnuts or resources were scarcer (summer, but decreased as scarcity declined (end of sessions. This is the first study to show that assessment behaviors change in response to factors that indicate daily and seasonal resource abundance, and that these factors may interact in complex ways to affect food storing decisions. Food-storing tree squirrels may be a useful and important model species to understand the complex economic decisions made under natural conditions.

  17. Implications of Water Use and Water Scarcity Footprint for Sustainable Rice Cultivation

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    Thapat Silalertruksa

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rice cultivation is a vital economic sector of many countries in Asia, including Thailand, with the well-being of people relying significantly on selling rice commodities. Water-intensive rice cultivation is facing the challenge of water scarcity. The study assessed the volumetric freshwater use and water scarcity footprint of the major and second rice cultivation systems in the Chao Phraya, Tha Chin, Mun, and Chi watersheds of Thailand. The results revealed that a wide range of freshwater use, i.e., 0.9–3.0 m3/kg of major rice and 0.9–2.3 m3/kg of second rice, and a high water use of rice was found among the watersheds in the northeastern region, like the Mun and Chi watersheds. However, the water scarcity footprint results showed that the second rice cultivation in watersheds, like in Chao Phraya and Tha Chin in the central region, need to be focused for improving the irrigation water use efficiency. The alternate wetting and drying (AWD method was found to be a promising approach for substituting the pre-germinated seed broadcasting system to enhance the water use efficiency of second rice cultivation in the central region. Recommendations vis-à-vis the use of the water stress index as a tool for agricultural zoning policy were also discussed.

  18. Access and Resilience: Analyzing the Construction of Social Resilience to the Threat of Water Scarcity

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    Ruth Langridge

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resilience is a vital attribute that characterizes a system's capacity to cope with stress. Researchers have examined the measurement of resilience in ecosystems and in social-ecological systems, and the comparative vulnerability of social groups. Our paper refocuses attention on the processes and relations that create social resilience. Our central proposition is that the creation of social resilience is linked to a community's ability to access critical resources. We explore this proposition through an analysis of how community resilience to the stress of water scarcity is influenced by historically contingent mechanisms to gain, control, and maintain access to water. Access is defined broadly as the ability of a community to actually benefit from a resource, and includes a wider range of relations than those derived from property rights alone. We provide a framework for assessing the construction of social resilience and use it to examine, first, the different processes and relations that enabled four communities in northern California to acquire access to water, and second, how access contributed to their differential levels of resilience to potential water scarcity. Legal water rights are extremely difficult to alter, and given the variety of mechanisms that can generate access, our study suggests that strengthening and diversifying a range of structural and relational mechanisms to access water can enhance a community's resilience to water scarcity.

  19. Farmer perceptions on factors influencing water scarcity for goats in resource-limited communal farming environments.

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    Mdletshe, Zwelethu Mfanafuthi; Ndlela, Sithembile Zenith; Nsahlai, Ignatius Verla; Chimonyo, Michael

    2018-05-09

    The objective of the study was to compare factors influencing water scarcity for goats in areas where there are seasonal and perennial rivers under resource-limited communal farming environments. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire (n = 285) administered randomly to smallholder goat farmers from areas with seasonal and perennial rivers. Ceremonies was ranked as the major reason for keeping goats. Water scarcity was ranked the major constraint to goat production in areas with seasonal rivers when compared to areas with perennial rivers (P goat drinking in areas with seasonal and perennial river systems during cool dry and rainy seasons. Rivers were ranked as an important water source for goat drinking where there are seasonal and perennial river systems during the cool dry season. Households located close (≤ 3 km) to the nearest water source reported drinking water for goats a scarce resource. These results show that river systems, season and distance to the nearest water source from a household were factors perceived by farmers to influence water scarcity for goats in resource-limited communal farming environments. Farmers should explore water-saving strategies such as recycling wastewater from kitchens and bathrooms as an alternative water source. The government may assist farmers through sinking boreholes to supply water for both humans and livestock.

  20. Growing water scarcity in agriculture: future challenge to global water security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkenmark, Malin

    2013-11-13

    As water is an essential component of the planetary life support system, water deficiency constitutes an insecurity that has to be overcome in the process of socio-economic development. The paper analyses the origin and appearance of blue as well as green water scarcity on different scales and with particular focus on risks to food production and water supply for municipalities and industry. It analyses water scarcity originating from both climatic phenomena and water partitioning disturbances on different scales: crop field, country level and the global circulation system. The implications by 2050 of water scarcity in terms of potential country-level water deficits for food self-reliance are analysed, and the compensating dependence on trade in virtual water for almost half the world population is noted. Planetary-scale conditions for sustainability of the global water circulation system are discussed in terms of a recently proposed Planetary Freshwater Boundary, and the consumptive water use reserve left to be shared between water requirements for global food production, fuelwood production and carbon sequestration is discussed. Finally, the importance of a paradigm shift in the further conceptual development of water security is stressed, so that adequate attention is paid to water's fundamental role in both natural and socio-economic systems.

  1. Interrogating scarcity: how to think about ‘resource-scarce settings’

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    Schrecker, Ted

    2013-01-01

    The idea of resource scarcity permeates health ethics and health policy analysis in various contexts. However, health ethics inquiry seldom asks—as it should—why some settings are ‘resource-scarce’ and others not. In this article I describe interrogating scarcity as a strategy for inquiry into questions of resource allocation within a single political jurisdiction and, in particular, as an approach to the issue of global health justice in an interconnected world. I demonstrate its relevance to the situation of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with brief descriptions of four elements of contemporary globalization: trade agreements; the worldwide financial marketplace and capital flight; structural adjustment; imperial geopolitics and foreign policy. This demonstration involves not only health care, but also social determinants of health. Finally, I argue that interrogating scarcity provides the basis for a new, critical approach to health policy at the interface of ethics and the social sciences, with specific reference to market fundamentalism as the value system underlying contemporary globalization. PMID:22899597

  2. Resource scarcity drives lethal aggression among prehistoric hunter-gatherers in central California.

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    Allen, Mark W; Bettinger, Robert Lawrence; Codding, Brian F; Jones, Terry L; Schwitalla, Al W

    2016-10-25

    The origin of human violence and warfare is controversial, and some scholars contend that intergroup conflict was rare until the emergence of sedentary foraging and complex sociopolitical organization, whereas others assert that violence was common and of considerable antiquity among small-scale societies. Here we consider two alternative explanations for the evolution of human violence: (i) individuals resort to violence when benefits outweigh potential costs, which is likely in resource poor environments, or (ii) participation in violence increases when there is coercion from leaders in complex societies leading to group level benefits. To test these hypotheses, we evaluate the relative importance of resource scarcity vs. sociopolitical complexity by evaluating spatial variation in three macro datasets from central California: (i) an extensive bioarchaeological record dating from 1,530 to 230 cal BP recording rates of blunt and sharp force skeletal trauma on thousands of burials, (ii) quantitative scores of sociopolitical complexity recorded ethnographically, and (iii) mean net primary productivity (NPP) from a remotely sensed global dataset. Results reveal that sharp force trauma, the most common form of violence in the record, is better predicted by resource scarcity than relative sociopolitical complexity. Blunt force cranial trauma shows no correlation with NPP or political complexity and may reflect a different form of close contact violence. This study provides no support for the position that violence originated with the development of more complex hunter-gatherer adaptations in the fairly recent past. Instead, findings show that individuals are prone to violence in times and places of resource scarcity.

  3. Produção de pepino de plantas enxertadas cultivadas em soluções nutritivas com diferentes teores de potássio Growth and yield of grafted cucumber plants cultivated in hydroponic solution with different potassium levels

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    Paulo César Costa

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em estufa tipo arco de 50 m² na Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas da UNESP em Botucatu. Plantas de pepino (Cucumis sativus L. não enxertadas e enxertadas em abóbora (Cucurbita sp. foram cultivadas em sistema hidropônico para estudar o efeito de níveis de potássio (45; 90; 180 e 360 mg.L-1 de K na altura da planta e produção de número de frutos/m². A condução das plantas foi em vasos de 28 L de capacidade contendo 20% vermiculita + 80% casca de arroz + solução nutritiva fornecida a partir de galões individuais contendo 20 litros de solução. O delineamento experimental foi blocos casualizados, com oito tratamentos (fatorial 4 x 2 e três repetições. Não houve efeito da enxertia e das doses de K sobre a altura da planta, porém, os níveis de potássio independente da enxertia alteraram o início da floração. A enxertia potencializou a produção aumentando em 39% o número de frutos/m² quando fornecido na solução nutritiva 45 mg.L-1 de K e 144% com 360 mg.L-1 de K. O menor teor de potássio, 45 mg.L-1, foi suficiente para atingir alta produção.The trial was carried out at Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas in Botucatu, Brazil. Cucumber plants (Cucumis sativus L. grafted on squash (Cucumis sp. were cultivated in hydroponic solution to study the effect of three potassium levels (45; 90; 180 and 360 mg.L-1 K on growth and yield of grafted and non grafted cucumber plants. There was no effect of plant height, but grafting and potassium level altered flowering outset. Grafted plants fertilized with 45 mg.L_1 K produced 39% more fruits than non grafted ones, and produced 144% more fruits when fertilized with 360 mg.L-1 K. The lowest K level studied (45 mg.L_1 K was enough to obtain high yield.

  4. Male scarcity is associated with higher prevalence of premature gestation and low birth weight births across the United States.

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    Kruger, Daniel J; Clark, Jillian; Vanas, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Modern adverse birth outcomes may partially result from mechanisms evolved to evaluate environmental conditions and regulate maternal investment trade-offs. Male scarcity in a population is associated with a cluster of characteristics related to higher mating effort and lower paternal investment. We predicted that modern populations with male scarcity would have shorter gestational times and lower birth weights on average. We compared US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention county-aggregated year 2000 birth records with US Decennial Census data. We combined these data in a path model with the degree of male scarcity and known socio-economic predictors of birth outcomes as exogenous predictors of prematurity and low birth weight, with single mother households as a proportion of families with children as a mediator (N = 450). Male scarcity was directly associated with higher rates of low birth weight. Male scarcity made significant indirect predictions of rates of prematurity and low birth weight, as mediated by the proportion of families headed by single mothers. Aggregate socio-economic status also indirectly predicted birth outcomes, as mediated by the proportion of families headed by single mothers, whereas the proportion African American retained both direct and indirect predictions of adverse birth outcomes. Male scarcity influences life history tradeoffs, with consequences for important social and public health issues such as adverse birth outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Water scarcity and oil palm expansion: social views and environmental processes

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    Jennifer Merten

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Conversions of natural ecosystems, e.g., from rain forests to managed plantations, result in significant changes in the hydrological cycle including periodic water scarcity. In Indonesia, large areas of forest were lost and extensive oil palm plantations were established over the last decades. We conducted a combined social and environmental study in a region of recent land-use change, the Jambi Province on Sumatra. The objective was to derive complementary lines of arguments to provide balanced insights into environmental perceptions and eco-hydrological processes accompanying land-use change. Interviews with villagers highlighted concerns regarding decreasing water levels in wells during dry periods and increasing fluctuations in stream flow between rainy and dry periods. Periodic water scarcity was found to severely impact livelihoods, which increased social polarization. Sap flux measurements on forest trees and oil palms indicate that oil palm plantations use as much water as forests for transpiration. Eddy covariance analyses of evapotranspiration over oil palm point to substantial additional sources of evaporation in oil palm plantations such as the soil and epiphytes. Stream base flow from a catchment dominated by oil palms was lower than from a catchment dominated by rubber plantations; both showed high peaks after rainfall. An estimate of erosion indicated approximately 30 cm of topsoil loss after forest conversion to both oil palm and rubber plantations. Analyses of climatic variables over the last 20 years and of a standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index for the last century suggested that droughts are recurrent in the area, but have not increased in frequency or intensity. Consequently, we assume that conversions of rain forest ecosystems to oil palm plantations lead to a redistribution of precipitated water by runoff, which leads to the reported periodic water scarcity. Our combined social and environmental approach

  6. Constraints on biomass energy deployment in mitigation pathways: the case of water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Séférian, Roland; Rocher, Matthias; Guivarch, Céline; Colin, Jeanne

    2018-05-01

    To limit global warming to well below 2 ° most of the IPCC-WGIII future stringent mitigation pathways feature a massive global-scale deployment of negative emissions technologies (NETs) before the end of the century. The global-scale deployment of NETs like Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) can be hampered by climate constraints that are not taken into account by Integrated assessment models (IAMs) used to produce those pathways. Among the various climate constraints, water scarcity appears as a potential bottleneck for future land-based mitigation strategies and remains largely unexplored. Here, we assess climate constraints relative to water scarcity in response to the global deployment of BECCS. To this end, we confront results from an Earth system model (ESM) and an IAM under an array of 25 stringent mitigation pathways. These pathways are compatible with the Paris Agreement long-term temperature goal and with cumulative carbon emissions ranging from 230 Pg C and 300 Pg C from January 1st onwards. We show that all stylized mitigation pathways studied in this work limit warming below 2 °C or even 1.5 °C by 2100 but all exhibit a temperature overshoot exceeding 2 °C after 2050. According to the IAM, a subset of 17 emission pathways are feasible when evaluated in terms of socio-economic and technological constraints. The ESM however shows that water scarcity would limit the deployment of BECCS in all the mitigation pathways assessed in this work. Our findings suggest that the evolution of the water resources under climate change can exert a significant constraint on BECCS deployment before 2050. In 2100, the BECCS water needs could represent more than 30% of the total precipitation in several regions like Europe or Asia.

  7. Integrated System Dynamics Modelling for water scarcity assessment: case study of the Kairouan region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sušnik, Janez; Vamvakeridou-Lyroudia, Lydia S; Savić, Dragan A; Kapelan, Zoran

    2012-12-01

    A System Dynamics Model (SDM) assessing water scarcity and potential impacts of socio-economic policies in a complex hydrological system is developed. The model, simulating water resources deriving from numerous catchment sources and demand from four sectors (domestic, industrial, agricultural, external pumping), contains multiple feedback loops and sub-models. The SDM is applied to the Merguellil catchment, Tunisia; the first time such an integrated model has been developed for the water scarce Kairouan region. The application represents an early step in filling a critical research gap. The focus of this paper is to a) assess the applicability of SDM for assessment of the evolution of a water-scarce catchment and b) to analyse the current and future behaviour of the catchment to evaluate water scarcity, focusing on understanding trends to inform policy. Baseline results indicate aquifer over-exploitation, agreeing with observed trends. If current policy and social behaviour continue, serious aquifer depletion is possible in the not too distant future, with implications for the economy and environment. This is unlikely to occur because policies preventing depletion will be implemented. Sensitivity tests were carried out to show which parameters most impacted aquifer behaviour. Results show non-linear model behaviour. Some tests showed negligible change in behaviour. Others showed unrealistic exponential changes in demand, revenue and aquifer water volume. Policy-realistic parameters giving the greatest positive impact on model behaviour were those controlling per-capita domestic water demand and the pumped volume to coastal cities. All potentially beneficial policy options should be considered, giving the best opportunity for preservation of Kairouan aquifer water quantity/quality, ecologically important habitats and the agricultural socio-economic driver of regional development. SDM is a useful tool for assessing the potential impacts of possible policy measures

  8. Yield enhancement with DFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Seung Weon; Kang, Jae Hyun; Ha, Naya; Kim, Byung-Moo; Jang, Dae-Hyun; Jeon, Junsu; Kim, DaeWook; Chung, Kun Young; Yu, Sung-eun; Park, Joo Hyun; Bae, SangMin; Song, DongSup; Noh, WooYoung; Kim, YoungDuck; Song, HyunSeok; Choi, HungBok; Kim, Kee Sup; Choi, Kyu-Myung; Choi, Woonhyuk; Jeon, JoongWon; Lee, JinWoo; Kim, Ki-Su; Park, SeongHo; Chung, No-Young; Lee, KangDuck; Hong, YoungKi; Kim, BongSeok

    2012-03-01

    A set of design for manufacturing (DFM) techniques have been developed and applied to 45nm, 32nm and 28nm logic process technologies. A noble technology combined a number of potential confliction of DFM techniques into a comprehensive solution. These techniques work in three phases for design optimization and one phase for silicon diagnostics. In the DFM prevention phase, foundation IP such as standard cells, IO, and memory and P&R tech file are optimized. In the DFM solution phase, which happens during ECO step, auto fixing of process weak patterns and advanced RC extraction are performed. In the DFM polishing phase, post-layout tuning is done to improve manufacturability. DFM analysis enables prioritization of random and systematic failures. The DFM technique presented in this paper has been silicon-proven with three successful tape-outs in Samsung 32nm processes; about 5% improvement in yield was achieved without any notable side effects. Visual inspection of silicon also confirmed the positive effect of the DFM techniques.

  9. Produtividade e qualidade de frutos de meloeiro cultivado em substrato com três doses de solução nutritiva Yield and quality of muskmelon fruits grown in substrate under three concentrations of the nutrient solution

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    Jerônimo Luiz Andriolo

    2005-08-01

    .0 K+ ; 5.01 Ca++ ; 2.25 Mg++ ; 2.25 SO4-, with added micronutrients. For treatments T1 and T3, quantities of fertilizers from T2 were multiplied by a factor of 0.5 and 2, respectively. LAI values at the ending date were 1.99; 2.22 and 2.28 m² m-2 for T1, T2 and T3, respectively, T1 differing significantly from T2 and T3. Fruit yield reached 56.2; 65.0 and 65.9 Mg++ ha-1, for T1, T2 and T3, respectively. Maximum fruit yield was estimated by a nutrient concentration of 44.1 mmol L-1, corresponding to the following composition of the nutrient solution, in mmol L-1: 19.5 of NO3-; 1.35 of H2PO4-; 9.0 of K+; 7.51 of Ca++; 3.37 of Mg++; 3.37 of SO4-, and in mumol L-1: 50.25 of Fe; 22.5 of Mn; 3.45 of Zn; 1.5 of Cu; 22.5 of B e 0.78 of Mo. Similar results were observed for fruit quality variables.

  10. Modeling water scarcity over south Asia: Incorporating crop growth and irrigation models into the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troy, Tara J.; Ines, Amor V. M.; Lall, Upmanu; Robertson, Andrew W.

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale hydrologic models, such as the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, are used for a variety of studies, from drought monitoring to projecting the potential impact of climate change on the hydrologic cycle decades in advance. The majority of these models simulates the natural hydrological cycle and neglects the effects of human activities such as irrigation, which can result in streamflow withdrawals and increased evapotranspiration. In some parts of the world, these activities do not significantly affect the hydrologic cycle, but this is not the case in south Asia where irrigated agriculture has a large water footprint. To address this gap, we incorporate a crop growth model and irrigation model into the VIC model in order to simulate the impacts of irrigated and rainfed agriculture on the hydrologic cycle over south Asia (Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra basin and peninsular India). The crop growth model responds to climate signals, including temperature and water stress, to simulate the growth of maize, wheat, rice, and millet. For the primarily rainfed maize crop, the crop growth model shows good correlation with observed All-India yields (0.7) with lower correlations for the irrigated wheat and rice crops (0.4). The difference in correlation is because irrigation provides a buffer against climate conditions, so that rainfed crop growth is more tied to climate than irrigated crop growth. The irrigation water demands induce hydrologic water stress in significant parts of the region, particularly in the Indus, with the streamflow unable to meet the irrigation demands. Although rainfall can vary significantly in south Asia, we find that water scarcity is largely chronic due to the irrigation demands rather than being intermittent due to climate variability.

  11. Resource scarcity, effort, and performance in physically demanding jobs: An evolutionary explanation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitesa, Marko; Thau, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    Based on evolutionary theory, we predicted that cues of resource scarcity in the environment (e.g., news of droughts or food shortages) lead people to reduce their effort and performance in physically demanding work. We tested this prediction in a 2-wave field survey among employees and replicated it experimentally in the lab. In Study 1, employees who perceived resources in the environment to be scarce reported exerting less effort when their jobs involved much (but not little) physical work. In Study 2, participants who read that resources in the environment were scarce performed worse on a task demanding more (carrying books) but not less (transcribing book titles) physical work. This result was found even though better performance increased participants' chances of additional remuneration, and even though scarcity cues did not affect individuals' actual ability to meet their energy needs. We discuss implications for managing effort and performance, and the potential of evolutionary psychology to explain core organizational phenomena. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Open Source Tools for Assessment of Global Water Availability, Demands, and Scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Vernon, C. R.; Hejazi, M. I.; Link, R. P.; Liu, Y.; Feng, L.; Huang, Z.; Liu, L.

    2017-12-01

    Water availability and water demands are essential factors for estimating water scarcity conditions. To reproduce historical observations and to quantify future changes in water availability and water demand, two open source tools have been developed by the JGCRI (Joint Global Change Research Institute): Xanthos and GCAM-STWD. Xanthos is a gridded global hydrologic model, designed to quantify and analyze water availability in 235 river basins. Xanthos uses a runoff generation and a river routing modules to simulate both historical and future estimates of total runoff and streamflows on a monthly time step at a spatial resolution of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD is a spatiotemporal water disaggregation model used with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to spatially downscale global water demands for six major enduse sectors (irrigation, domestic, electricity generation, mining, and manufacturing) from the region scale to the scale of 0.5 degrees. GCAM-STWD then temporally downscales the gridded annual global water demands to monthly results. These two tools, written in Python, can be integrated to assess global, regional or basin-scale water scarcity or water stress. Both of the tools are extensible to ensure flexibility and promote contribution from researchers that utilize GCAM and study global water use and supply.

  13. Water Scarcity in England and Wales as a Failure of (metaGovernance

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    Gareth Walker

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The water crisis is often said to be a crisis of governance failure rather than of availability per se; yet the sources of this failure are poorly understood. This paper examines contemporary water scarcity in England and Wales as a failure of ecological modernity, in which technical and institutional innovation is promoted as a means of increasing economic efficiency in the allocation and use of water resources. The role of the state in fostering this innovation is explored through exploring a shift from 'government' to 'governance'. The paper employs Jessopʼs theory of meta-governance to examine governance failure. Meta-governance represents the capacity of the state to flank or support the emergence of specific forms of governance through mobilising material or symbolic resources. Three sources of governance failure are explored: (1 the nature of capitalist exchange and its resulting production of nature, (2 the political dimensions implicit in meta-governance, and (3 the nature of governance as a task of self-organisation. The model is then applied to the rise of water scarcity in England and Wales from the 1970s to the present day. The utility of the model in analysing governance failure is discussed.

  14. Petroleum product scarcity: a review of the supply and distribution of petroleum products in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akpoghomeh, Osi S.; Badejo, Dele

    2006-01-01

    Nigeria ranks high among the comity of oil producers both at the world level and among the OPEC eleven. It is, therefore, paradoxical that the supply of all petroleum products is erratic and has declined sharply in the recent past. This paper thus reviews the petroleum product supply and distribution systems in the country to ascertain the extent to which the system may have contributed to the present product scarcity in Nigeria and, by extension, identify the causes of the present regime of petroleum product scarcity. The paper observes that the network density and connectivity of petroleum product distribution pipelines are low and both indicators consequently show the inadequacy/deficiency of the network in ensuring an efficient distribution system. The supply mode, on the other hand, has, over the years, demonstrated its inability to guarantee adequate supply due to factors including sabotage, vandalism, banditry and poorly maintained infrastructure. Further, the federal government and the major and independent marketers could not sustain the importation of petroleum products because of the shortfall between the landed cost of imported products and their selling prices in Nigeria, which made the business unprofitable. Finally, the paper examines the withdrawal by the federal government of subsidies on the price of petroleum products consumed locally. All the above factors together occasioned increases in the cost of products. In conclusion, this paper supports the call for the privatization of refineries and the depot/pipeline system as a viable option to end the supply problems. (Author)

  15. Clinical Variants of New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase Are Evolving To Overcome Zinc Scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Alesha C; Bethel, Christopher R; VanPelt, Jamie; Bergstrom, Alex; Cheng, Zishuo; Miller, Callie G; Williams, Cameron; Poth, Robert; Morris, Matthew; Lahey, Olivia; Nix, Jay C; Tierney, David L; Page, Richard C; Crowder, Michael W; Bonomo, Robert A; Fast, Walter

    2017-12-08

    Use and misuse of antibiotics have driven the evolution of serine β-lactamases to better recognize new generations of β-lactam drugs, but the selective pressures driving evolution of metallo-β-lactamases are less clear. Here, we present evidence that New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase (NDM) is evolving to overcome the selective pressure of zinc(II) scarcity. Studies of NDM-1, NDM-4 (M154L), and NDM-12 (M154L, G222D) demonstrate that the point mutant M154L, contained in 50% of clinical NDM variants, selectively enhances resistance to the penam ampicillin at low zinc(II) concentrations relevant to infection sites. Each of the clinical variants is shown to be progressively more thermostable and to bind zinc(II) more tightly than NDM-1, but a selective enhancement of penam turnover at low zinc(II) concentrations indicates that most of the improvement derives from catalysis rather than stability. X-ray crystallography of NDM-4 and NDM-12, as well as bioinorganic spectroscopy of dizinc(II), zinc(II)/cobalt(II), and dicobalt(II) metalloforms probe the mechanism of enhanced resistance and reveal perturbations of the dinuclear metal cluster that underlie improved catalysis. These studies support the proposal that zinc(II) scarcity, rather than changes in antibiotic structure, is driving the evolution of new NDM variants in clinical settings.

  16. Shifting Scarcities? The Energy Intensity of Water Supply Alternatives in the Mass Tourist Resort of Benidorm, Spain

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    Hyerim Yoon

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The energy intensity of water—‘energy (electricity-for-water’—is calculated for Benidorm, a mass tourism resort in the Spanish Mediterranean coast, where the urban water cycle has evolved in response to a series of episodes of water stress. The analysis is based on primary data compiled from various actors involved in the urban water cycle encompassing water extraction, end uses, and wastewater treatment, including tertiary treatment. The results provide one of the first analyses of the relations between energy and water in a mass tourist center, which may be of potential interest for other tourist areas. It is estimated that a total of 109 GWh/year of electricity is required to operate the water cycle of Benidorm. About 4% of total energy use in Benidorm is dedicated to extracting, transporting, and treating water. The most energy-intensive stage is represented by end uses, which accounts for 20% of the total energy use in Benidorm when the energy required for water pumping and hot water use is considered. Additionally, energy intensity for water extraction was estimated for normal, wet, and two dry year scenarios. In comparison with the normal scenario, energy intensity is six times larger when desalinated water is incorporated during a dry year, whereas the emergency interbasin water transfer resulted in a more moderate increase in energy intensity. While treated wastewater and emergency water transfers appear to be a more convenient solution in energy terms, the strong impulse given to desalination in Spain is forcing local water authorities towards the use of a resource that is much more energy intensive, although, on the other hand, much less dependent on the vagaries of climate. In light of recent technological and managerial developments, the Benidorm case illuminates the challenges appearing in the analysis of the water-energy nexus, especially the fact that scarcity may be transferred from water to energy.

  17. Managing water scarcity in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia.An economic assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolivar Lobato, Martha Isabel; Schneider, Uwe A.

    2014-05-01

    Key words: global change, water scarcity, river basin In Colombia, serious water conflicts began to emerge with the economic development in the 70ies and 80ies and the term "water scarcity" became a common word in this tropical country. Despite a mean annual runoff of 1840 mm, which classifies Colombia as a water rich country, shortfalls in fresh water availability have become a frequent event in the last two decades. One reason for the manifestation of water scarcity is the long-held perception of invulnerable water abundance, which has delayed technical and political developments to use water more efficiently. The Magdalena watershed is the most important and complex area in Colombia, because of its huge anthropogenic present, economic development and increasing environmental problems. This river basin has a total area of 273,459 km2, equivalent to 24% of the territory of the country. It is home to 79% of the country's population (32.5 million of inhabitants) and approximately 85% of Gross Domestic Product of Colombia is generated in this area. Since the economic development of the 1970s and 1980s, large changes in land cover and related environmental conditions have occurred in the Magdalena basin. These changes include deforestation, agricultural land expansion, soil degradation, lower groundwater and increased water pollution. To assess the consequences of geophysical alteration and economic development, we perform an integrated analysis of water demand, water supply, land use changes and possible water management strategies. The main objective of this study is to determine how global and local changes affect the balance between water supply and demand in the Magdalena river basin in Colombia, the consequences of different water pricing schemes, and the social benefits of public or private investments into various water management infrastructures. To achieve this goal, a constrained welfare maximization model has been developed. The General Algebraic Modeling

  18. Managing urban water supplies in developing countries Climate change and water scarcity scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vairavamoorthy, Kala; Gorantiwar, Sunil D.; Pathirana, Assela

    Urban areas of developing countries are facing increasing water scarcity and it is possible that this problem may be further aggravated due to rapid changes in the hydro-environment at different scales, like those of climate and land-cover. Due to water scarcity and limitations to the development of new water resources, it is prudent to shift from the traditional 'supply based management' to a 'demand management' paradigm. Demand management focuses on measures that make better and more efficient use of limited supplies, often at a level significantly below standard service levels. This paper particularly focuses on the intermittent water supplies in the cities of developing countries. Intermittent water supplies need to be adopted due to water scarcity and if not planned properly, results in inequities in water deliveries to consumers and poor levels of service. It is therefore important to recognise these realities when designing and operating such networks. The standard tools available for design of water supply systems often assume a continuous, unlimited supply and the supplied water amount is limited only be the demand, making them unsuitable for designing intermittent supplies that are governed by severely limited water availability. This paper presents details of new guidelines developed for the design and control of intermittent water distribution systems in developing countries. These include a modified network analysis simulation coupled with an optimal design tool. The guidelines are driven by a modified set of design objectives to be met at least cost. These objectives are equity in supply and people driven levels of service (PDLS) expressed in terms of four design parameters namely, duration of the supply; timings of the supply; pressure at the outlet (or flow-rate at outlet); and others such as the type of connection required and the locations of connections (in particular for standpipes). All the four parameters are calculated using methods and

  19. Yield stress determination of a physical gel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvidt, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Pluronic F127 solutions form gels in water with high elastic moduli. Pluronic gels can, however, only withstand small deformations and stresses. Different steady shear and oscillatory methods traditionally used to determine yield stress values are compared. The results show that the yield stresses...... values of these gels depend on test type and measurement time, and no absolute yield stress value can be determined for these physical gels....

  20. Effects of scarcity, aesthetics and ecology on wildlife auction prices of large African mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalerum, Fredrik; Miranda, María; Muñiz, Cristina; Rodríguez, Plácido

    2018-02-01

    For successful integration of biological conservation into economic markets, economic processes need to capture ecological values. South African wildlife ranching is a tourist-based activity that generates unique information on the economic value of wildlife species. We used public data from South African wildlife auctions to evaluate if annual prices 1991-2012 related to species characteristics associated with scarcity, aesthetics and ecology of South African carnivores and ungulates. While none of the species characteristics influenced carnivore prices, ungulate prices were related to characteristics associated with novelty and aesthetics, which relative importance had increased over time. We raise both ecological and economic concerns for this apparent focus. Our results also suggest a potential importance of non-species-related factors, such as market and buyer characteristics. We encourage further evaluation of the relative influences of species characteristics versus factors that are intrinsically linked to economic processes on price variations in South African wildlife.

  1. Scale-ups, scarcity, and selections: the experience of doctors in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, Ronald; Oppenheimer, Gerald M

    2007-10-01

    To present the ethical and clinical experience of public sector physicians during the post-Apartheid period in South Africa, who were faced with poverty, medical scarcity and unexpected government resistance in treating individuals with HIV infection. Oral history interviews with 73 physicians from major cities, mine company clinics, and rural hospitals selected because of their long-standing commitment to treating people with AIDS. The onset of the government's 'rollout' of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2003, providing drugs to public sector patients, has not put an end to the rationing of care that characterised the pre-ART period. Subsequently, rules were established to guide such rationing in an equitable fashion. But there are occasions when doctors override their own rules, demonstrating the complex interplay between principles of equity and the claims of moral duty to patients, especially in instances of life and death.

  2. Public Health and Medicine in an Age of Energy Scarcity: The Case of Petroleum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Cindy L.; Hess, Jeremy; Frumkin, Howard

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum supplies have heretofore been abundant and inexpensive, but the world petroleum production peak is imminent, and we are entering an unprecedented era of petroleum scarcity. This fact has had little impact on policies related to climate, energy, the built environment, transportation, food, health care, public health, and global health. Rising prices are likely to spur research and drive efficiency improvements, but such innovations may be unable to address an increasing gap between supply and demand. The resulting implications for health and the environment are explored in the articles we have selected as additional contributions in this special issue. Uncertainty about the timing of the peak, the shape of the production curve, and decline rates should not delay action. The time for quick, decisive, comprehensive action is now. PMID:21778506

  3. Hydrologic Modeling and Parameter Estimation under Data Scarcity for Java Island, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanto, M.; Livneh, B.; Rajagopalan, B.; Kasprzyk, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Indonesian island of Java is routinely subjected to intense flooding, drought and related natural hazards, resulting in severe social and economic impacts. Although an improved understanding of the island's hydrology would help mitigate these risks, data scarcity issues make the modeling challenging. To this end, we developed a hydrological representation of Java using the Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) model, to simulate the hydrologic processes of several watersheds across the island. We measured the model performance using Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) at monthly time step. Data scarcity and quality issues for precipitation and streamflow warranted the application of a quality control procedure to data ensure consistency among watersheds resulting in 7 watersheds. To optimize the model performance, the calibration parameters were estimated using Borg Multi Objective Evolutionary Algorithm (Borg MOEA), which offers efficient searching of the parameter space, adaptive population sizing and local optima escape facility. The result shows that calibration performance is best (NSE ~ 0.6 - 0.9) in the eastern part of the domain and moderate (NSE ~ 0.3 - 0.5) in the western part of the island. The validation results are lower (NSE ~ 0.1 - 0.5) and (NSE ~ 0.1 - 0.4) in the east and west, respectively. We surmise that the presence of outliers and stark differences in the climate between calibration and validation periods in the western watersheds are responsible for low NSE in this region. In addition, we found that approximately 70% of total errors were contributed by less than 20% of total data. The spatial variability of model performance suggests the influence of both topographical and hydroclimatic controls on the hydrological processes. Most watersheds in eastern part perform better in wet season and vice versa for the western part. This modeling framework is one of the first attempts at comprehensively simulating the hydrology in this maritime, tropical

  4. Rainfall threshold calculation for debris flow early warning in areas with scarcity of data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua-Li; Jiang, Yuan-Jun; Wang, Jun; Ou, Guo-Qiang

    2018-05-01

    Debris flows are natural disasters that frequently occur in mountainous areas, usually accompanied by serious loss of lives and properties. One of the most commonly used approaches to mitigate the risk associated with debris flows is the implementation of early warning systems based on well-calibrated rainfall thresholds. However, many mountainous areas have little data regarding rainfall and hazards, especially in debris-flow-forming regions. Therefore, the traditional statistical analysis method that determines the empirical relationship between rainstorms and debris flow events cannot be effectively used to calculate reliable rainfall thresholds in these areas. After the severe Wenchuan earthquake, there were plenty of deposits deposited in the gullies, which resulted in several debris flow events. The triggering rainfall threshold has decreased obviously. To get a reliable and accurate rainfall threshold and improve the accuracy of debris flow early warning, this paper developed a quantitative method, which is suitable for debris flow triggering mechanisms in meizoseismal areas, to identify rainfall threshold for debris flow early warning in areas with a scarcity of data based on the initiation mechanism of hydraulic-driven debris flow. First, we studied the characteristics of the study area, including meteorology, hydrology, topography and physical characteristics of the loose solid materials. Then, the rainfall threshold was calculated by the initiation mechanism of the hydraulic debris flow. The comparison with other models and with alternate configurations demonstrates that the proposed rainfall threshold curve is a function of the antecedent precipitation index (API) and 1 h rainfall. To test the proposed method, we selected the Guojuanyan gully, a typical debris flow valley that during the 2008-2013 period experienced several debris flow events, located in the meizoseismal areas of the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study. The comparison with other

  5. Providing for transmission in times of scarcity: an ISO cannot do it all

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, E.; Ilic, M.; Younes, Z.

    1999-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to point out issues critical for establishing a good transmission strategy in an energy market. First, it is suggested that a transmission strategy must be discussed in the context of a specific market structure. Responsibilities of a transmission system provider differ fundamentally, depending on the type of energy market it is supposed to serve. To show this, a summary of information assumed to be known to an Independent System Operator (ISO) in three energy market structures is given, i.e., (1) a mandatory ISO, (2) an entirely multilateral market and (3) a voluntary ISO. The differences between these three proposals concerning an ISO's responsibility for achieving systemwide efficiency and fair charges for transmission service, particularly at times of scarcity, are analyzed. It is shown that an ISO equipped with the present types of optimization tools for both reliability and efficiency is generally 'blind' to questions of fairness with respect to the individual market participants when providing transmission system support. In order to get around this problem, much more work will have to he done by the technical and regulatory communities. The only tools at an ISO's disposal at present are used for systemwide objectives, such as systemwide reliability. While some of this work is under way, it will take some time to develop the actual ISO tools necessary for implementing the fairness criterion metrics ('standards'), whichever ones the community arrives at. (Developing metrics of fair reliability contributions for the individual market participants is a nonunique process, and it may be very difficult to actually agree upon). Meanwhile, in order to have an ISO actively help energy markets in a fair and efficient way in realistic markets, which are likely to be voluntary ISOs, a system user must become an active part of decision making, indicating how much it wishes to use the system at times of scarcity and at which price. One

  6. Human pharmaceuticals in Portuguese rivers: The impact of water scarcity in the environmental risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, André M P T; Silva, Liliana J G; Laranjeiro, Célia S M; Meisel, Leonor M; Lino, Celeste M; Pena, Angelina

    2017-12-31

    Pharmaceuticals occurrence and environmental risk assessment were assessed in Portuguese surface waters, evaluating the impact of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and river flow rates. Twenty three pharmaceuticals from 6 therapeutic groups, including metabolites and 1 transformation product, were analysed in 72 samples collected from 20 different sites, upstream and downstream the selected WWTPs, in two different seasons. Analysis was performed by solid phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectroscopy. Pharmaceuticals were detected in 27.8% of the samples. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), anti-inflammatories and antibiotics presented the highest detection frequencies (27.8, 23.6 and 23.6%, respectively) and average concentrations (37.9, 36.1 and 33.5ngL -1 , respectively). When assessing the impact of WWTPs, an increase of 21.4% in the average concentrations was observed in the samples located downstream these facilities, when compared with the upstream samples. Increased detection frequencies and concentrations were observed at lower flow rates, both when comparing summer and winter campaigns and by evaluating the different rivers. Risk quotients (RQs) higher than one were found for two pharmaceuticals, concerning two trophic levels. However, since Iberian rivers are highly influenced by water scarcity, in drought periods, the flow rates in these rivers can decrease at least ten times from the lowest value observed in the sampling campaigns. In these conditions, RQs higher than 1 would be observed for 5 pharmaceuticals, additionally, all the detected pharmaceuticals (11) would present RQs higher than 0.1. These results emphasize that the river flow rate represents an important parameter influencing pharmaceuticals concentrations, highlighting the ecotoxicological pressure, especially due to water scarcity in drought periods. This should be a priority issue in the environmental policies for minimizing its

  7. Scarcity of Fresh Water Resources in the Ganges Delta of Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murshed, S. B.; Kaluarachchi, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Ganges Delta in Bangladesh is a classical example of water insecurity in a transboundary river basin where limitations in quantity, quality and timing of available water is producing disastrous conditions. Two opposite extreme water conditions, i.e., fresh water scarcity and floods are common in this region during dry and wet seasons, respectively. The purpose of this study is to manage fresh water requirement of people and environment considering the seasonal availability of surface water (SW) and ground water (GW). SW availability was analyzed by incoming stream flow including the effects of upstream water diversion, rainfall, temperature, evapotranspiration (ET). Flow duration curves (FDC), and rainfall and temperature elasticity are used to assess the change of incoming upstream flow. Groundwater data were collected from 285 piezometers and monitoring wells established by Bangladesh water development board. Variation of groundwater depth shows major withdrawals of GW are mostly concentrated in the north part of the study area. Irrigation is the largest sector of off-stream (irrigation, industrial and domestic) water use which occupies 82% SW and 17% GW of total water consumption. Although domestic water use is entirely depend on GW but arsenic pollution is limiting the GW use. FDC depicts a substantial difference between high flow threshold (20%) and low flow threshold (70%) in the Bangladesh part of Ganges River. A large variation of around 83% is observed for instream water volume between wet and dry seasons. The reduction of upstream fresh water flow increased the extent and intensity of salinity intrusion. Presently GW is also contaminated by saline water. This fresh water scarcity is reducing the livelihood options considerably and indirectly forcing population migration from the delta region. This study provides insight to the changes in hydrology and limitations to freshwater availability enabling better formulation of water resources management in

  8. 6 Grain Yield

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    create a favourable environment for rice ... developing lines adaptable to many ... have stable, not too short crop duration with ..... Analysis of variance of the effect of site and season on maturity, grain yield and plant ..... and yield components.

  9. Hydro-economic modeling of water scarcity under global change: an application to the Gállego river basin (Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graveline, N.; Majone, B.; van Duinen, Rianne; Ansink, E.

    2014-01-01

    Integrated approaches are needed to assess the effects of global changes on the future state of water resources at regional scales. We develop a hydro-economic model of the Gállego catchment, Spain, to assess how global change and policy options affect the catchment’s water scarcity and the economic

  10. Put a limit on it: The protective effects of scarcity heuristics when self-control is low

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, T.T.L.; Kroese, F.M.; Fennis, Bob; de Ridder, D.T.D.

    2015-01-01

    Low self-control is a state in which consumers are assumed to be vulnerable to making impulsive choices that hurt long-term goals. Rather than increasing self-control, the current research exploits the tendency for heuristic-based thinking in low self-control by employing scarcity heuristics to

  11. Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kummu, M.S.; Ward, P.J.; de Moel, H.; Varis, O.

    2010-01-01

    In this letter we analyse the temporal development of physical population-driven water scarcity, i.e. water shortage, over the period 0 AD to 2005 AD. This was done using population data derived from the HYDE dataset, and water resource availability based on the WaterGAP model results for the period

  12. Weekend Warriors for Water: Combating Water Scarcity in West Africa with United States Army National Guard and Reserve Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    vulnerable to “conflict and instability from political, social, economic , and environmental challenges” (United States Africa Command 2017). The...improve regional stability , which in turn increases economic , political, and social development. RC deployments to support water scarcity missions can...Capacity DOD Department of Defense DOS Department of State ECOWAS Economic Community of West African States FHA Foreign Humanitarian Assistance

  13. Yield stress fluids slowly yield to analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonn, D.; Denn, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    We are surrounded in everyday life by yield stress fluids: materials that behave as solids under small stresses but flow like liquids beyond a critical stress. For example, paint must flow under the brush, but remain fixed in a vertical film despite the force of gravity. Food products (such as

  14. Evaluating regional water scarcity: Irrigated crop water budgets for groundwater management in the Wisconsin Central Sands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocco, M. A.; Kucharik, C. J.; Kraft, G.

    2013-12-01

    Regional water scarcity dilemmas between agricultural and aquatic land users pervade the humid northern lake states of Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Michigan, where agricultural irrigation relies on groundwater drawn from shallow aquifers. As these aquifers have strong connectivity to surface waters, irrigation lowers water levels in lakes and wetlands and reduces stream discharges. Irrigation expansion has cultivated a 60-year water scarcity dilemma in The Wisconsin Central Sands, the largest irrigated region in the humid northern lake states, dedicated to potato, maize, and processing vegetable production. Irrigation has depleted Wisconsin Central Sands surface waters, lowering levels in some lakes by over 2 m and drying some coldwater trout streams. Aquatic ecosystems, property values, and recreational uses in some surface waters have been devastated. While the causal link between pumping and surface water stress is established, understanding crop-mediated processes, such as the timing and magnitude of groundwater consumption by evapotranspiration (ET) and groundwater recharge, will be useful in management of groundwater, irrigated cropping systems, and surface water health. Previous modeling and field efforts have compared irrigated crop water use to a natural reference condition on a net annual basis. As a result, we presently understand that for irrigated potatoes and maize, the average annual ET is greater and therefore, the average annual recharge is less than rainfed row crops, grasslands, and both coniferous and deciduous forests. However, we have a limited understanding of the magnitude and timing of ET and recharge from irrigated cropping systems on shorter time scales that proceed with the annual cropping cycle (i.e. planting, full canopy, harvest, residue cover). We seek to understand the spatiotemporal variability of crop water budgets and associated water scarcity in the Wisconsin Central Sands through detailed measurements of drainage (potential

  15. Mountains in the third millennium - a decade of droughts and water scarcity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, C.; Shaban, A.; Belete, T.

    2012-04-01

    Droughts and water scarcity have touched the Alps, Mediterranean and East African mountain chains more intensively since the beginning of the third millennium and pose a major challenge for water management. The year 2011 has been no exception, with the lowest river levels on record over the past 50 years even for alpine rivers. Although considerable climate fluctuations and persistent droughts have occurred in the past, it is quite remarkable that the five hottest summers over the past 500 years in Europe and the Alps have all been concentrated after 2002, falling far outside their normal historical distribution. In most mountain chains drought phenomena are persistent over large areas and over a variety of scales. The hydrological consequences, such as decreased rain- and snowfall, drying of springs, decreased river and groundwater discharge, lowering of lake levels and excessive evaporation etc. are considerable. Seasonality has been considerably affected, with the summer extending well into the spring and autumn. Mountain-fed rivers have experienced unusually low discharge over the last 10 years, with a decreasing trend both in summer and winter discharge. These hydrological changes have multiple impacts on availability of drinking water and the energy sector, decreasing hydroelectric production and availability of cooling water for the nuclear industry and negatively effecting river navigation, irrigation agriculture as well as winter tourism in mountains. Despite these naturally-induced shortcomings, adaptation has not always been rational. In some cases, maladaptation has led to overexploitation of water resources during drought conditions, exasperating water scarcity. For example, for the tourism sector in the Alps, water demand for drinking water and artificial snow making lies far above the available resources during the winter season for numerous resorts. This has long term environmental and socio-economic impacts such as destruction of wetlands

  16. Bond yield curve construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožul Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the broadest sense, yield curve indicates the market's view of the evolution of interest rates over time. However, given that cost of borrowing it closely linked to creditworthiness (ability to repay, different yield curves will apply to different currencies, market sectors, or even individual issuers. As government borrowing is indicative of interest rate levels available to other market players in a particular country, and considering that bond issuance still remains the dominant form of sovereign debt, this paper describes yield curve construction using bonds. The relationship between zero-coupon yield, par yield and yield to maturity is given and their usage in determining curve discount factors is described. Their usage in deriving forward rates and pricing related derivative instruments is also discussed.

  17. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  18. Coyotes, Concessions and Construction Companies: Illegal Water Markets and Legally Constructed Water Scarcity in Central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Reis

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Many regions of (semiarid Mexico, such as the Valley of Toluca, face challenges due to rapid growth and the simultaneous overexploitation of groundwater. The water reform of the 1990s introduced individual water rights concessions granted through the National Water Commission (Comisión Nacional del Agua, or CONAGUA. Since then, acquiring new water rights in officially 'water-scarce' aquifers is only possible through official rights transmissions from users ceding their rights. With the law prohibiting the sale of water rights, a profitable illegal market for these rights has emerged. The key actor in the water rights allocation network is the coyote, functioning as a broker between a people wanting to cede water rights and those needing them, and b the formal and informal spheres of water rights allocation. Actors benefitting from water rights trading include the coyote and his 'working brigades', water users selling surplus rights, and (senior and lower-level staff in the water bureaucracy. The paper concludes that legally constructed water scarcity is key to the reproduction of illegal water rights trading. This has important implications regarding the current push for expanding regularisation of groundwater extraction in Mexico. Currently, regularisation does not counter overexploitation, while possibly leading to a de facto privatisation of groundwater.

  19. A multi-attribute preference model for optimal irrigated crop planning under water scarcity conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montazar, A.; Snyder, R. L.

    2012-11-01

    Water resources sustainability has a key role in the existence and durability of irrigated farming systems and strongly depends on the crop planning. The decision process is complex due to a number of constraints and the desire to secure crop diversification and the involvement of affected various parameters. The objective of the present study was to develop a comprehensive multi-criteria model for selecting adequate cropping pattern in an irrigation district under water scarcity condition. Eleven and nine attribute decisions were considered in ranking the type of crop and determination of the percentage of crop cultivation area as an optimal irrigated crop planning system, respectively. The results indicate that the proposed multi-attribute preference approach can synthesize various sets of criteria in the preference elicitation of the crop type and cultivated area. The predictive validity analysis shows that the preferences acquired by the proposed model are evidently in reasonable accordance with those of the conjunctive water use model. Consequently, the model may be used to aggregate preferences in order to obtain a group decision, improve understanding of the choice problem, accommodate multiple objectives and increase transparency and credibility in decision making by actively involving relevant criteria in the crop planning. (Author) 27 refs.

  20. Droughts and governance impacts on water scarcity: an~analysis in the Brazilian semi-arid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. S. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme events are part of climate variability. Dealing with variability is still a challenge that might be increased due to climate change. However, impacts of extreme events are not only dependent on their variability, but also on management and governance. In Brazil, its semi-arid region is vulnerable to extreme events, especially droughts, for centuries. Actually, other Brazilian regions that have been mostly concerned with floods are currently also experiencing droughts. This article evaluates how a combination between climate variability and water governance might affect water scarcity and increase the impacts of extreme events on some regions. For this evaluation, Ostrom's framework for analyzing social-ecological systems (SES was applied. Ostrom's framework is useful for understanding interactions between resource systems, governance systems and resource users. This study focuses on social-ecological systems located in a drought-prone region of Brazil. Two extreme events were selected, one in 1997–2000, when Brazil's new water policy was very young, and the other one in 2012–2015. The analysis of SES considering Ostrom's principle "Clearly defined boundaries" showed that deficiencies in water management cause the intensification of drought's impacts for the water users. The reasons are more related to water management and governance problems than to drought event magnitude or climate change. This is a problem that holdup advances in dealing with extreme events.

  1. Measuring parent time scarcity and fatigue as barriers to meal planning and preparation: quantitative scale development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storfer-Isser, Amy; Musher-Eizenman, Dara

    2013-03-01

    To examine the psychometric properties of 9 quantitative items that assess time scarcity and fatigue as parent barriers to planning and preparing meals for their children. A convenience sample of 342 parents of children aged 2-6 years completed a 20-minute online survey. Exploratory factor analysis was used to examine the factor structure and create summary scales. Internal consistency reliability and measures of construct and concurrent validity were assessed. Two scales were created based on the factor analysis: time and energy for meals and meal planning. Preliminary evidence suggests that both scales are reliable and valid. The time and energy for meals and meal planning scales can be completed quickly by busy and tired parents. As many children do not eat nutritious diets, a better understanding of the barriers that parents face is critical and may help inform interventions tailored to the needs of tired, busy parents. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Looming Scarcity of Phosphate Rock and Intensification of Soil Phosphorus Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe C. Baveye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, many researchers have claimed that world reserves of rock phosphate were getting depleted at an alarming rate, putting us on the path to scarcity of that essential resource within the next few decades. Others have claimed that such alarmist forecasts were frequent in the past and have always been proven unfounded, making it likely that the same will be true in the future. Both viewpoints are directly relevant to the level of funding devoted to research on the use of phosphate fertilizers. In this short essay, it is argued that information about future reserves of P or any other resource are impossible to predict, and therefore that the threat of a possible depletion of P reserves should not be used as a key motivation for an intensification of research on soil P. However, there are other, more compelling reasons, both geopolitical and environmental, to urgently step up our collective efforts to devise agricultural practices that make better use of P than is the case at the moment.

  3. Droughts and governance impacts on water scarcity: an~analysis in the Brazilian semi-arid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, A. C. S.; Galvão, C. O.; Silva, G. N. S.

    2015-06-01

    Extreme events are part of climate variability. Dealing with variability is still a challenge that might be increased due to climate change. However, impacts of extreme events are not only dependent on their variability, but also on management and governance. In Brazil, its semi-arid region is vulnerable to extreme events, especially droughts, for centuries. Actually, other Brazilian regions that have been mostly concerned with floods are currently also experiencing droughts. This article evaluates how a combination between climate variability and water governance might affect water scarcity and increase the impacts of extreme events on some regions. For this evaluation, Ostrom's framework for analyzing social-ecological systems (SES) was applied. Ostrom's framework is useful for understanding interactions between resource systems, governance systems and resource users. This study focuses on social-ecological systems located in a drought-prone region of Brazil. Two extreme events were selected, one in 1997-2000, when Brazil's new water policy was very young, and the other one in 2012-2015. The analysis of SES considering Ostrom's principle "Clearly defined boundaries" showed that deficiencies in water management cause the intensification of drought's impacts for the water users. The reasons are more related to water management and governance problems than to drought event magnitude or climate change. This is a problem that holdup advances in dealing with extreme events.

  4. Forward curves, scarcity and price volatility in oil and natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geman, Helyette; Ohana, Steve

    2009-01-01

    The role of inventory in explaining the shape of the forward curve and spot price volatility in commodity markets is central in the theory of storage developed by Kaldor [Kaldor, N. (1939) ''Speculation and Economic Stability'', The Review of Economic Studies 7, 1-27] and Working [Working, H. (1949) ''The theory of the price of storage'', American Economic Review, 39, 1254-1262] and has since been documented in a vast body of financial literature, including the reference paper by Fama and French [Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1987) ''Commodity futures prices: some evidence on forecast power, premiums and the theory of storage'', Journal of Business 60, 55-73] on metals. The goal of this paper is twofold: 1. validate in the case of oil and natural gas the use of the slope of the forward curve as a proxy for inventory (the slope being defined in a way that filters out seasonality); 2. analyze directly for these two major commodities the relationship between inventory and price volatility. In agreement with the theory of storage, we find that: 1. the negative correlation between price volatility and inventory is globally significant for crude oil; 2. this negative correlation prevails only during those periods of scarcity when the inventory is below the historical average and increases importantly during the winter periods for natural gas. Our results are illustrated by the analysis of a 15 year-database of US oil and natural gas prices and inventory. (author)

  5. Modeling water scarcity and droughts for policy adaptation to climate change in arid and semiarid regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahil, Mohamed Taher; Dinar, Ariel; Albiac, Jose

    2015-03-01

    Growing water extractions combined with emerging demands for environment protection increase competition for scarce water resources worldwide, especially in arid and semiarid regions. In those regions, climate change is projected to exacerbate water scarcity and increase the recurrence and intensity of droughts. These circumstances call for methodologies that can support the design of sustainable water management. This paper presents a hydro-economic model that links a reduced form hydrological component, with economic and environmental components. The model is applied to an arid and semiarid basin in Southeastern Spain to analyze the effects of droughts and to assess alternative adaptation policies. Results indicate that drought events have large impacts on social welfare, with the main adjustments sustained by irrigation and the environment. The water market policy seems to be a suitable option to overcome the negative economic effects of droughts, although the environmental effects may weaken its advantages for society. The environmental water market policy, where water is acquired for the environment, is an appealing policy to reap the private benefits of markets while protecting ecosystems. The current water management approach in Spain, based on stakeholders' cooperation, achieves almost the same economic outcomes and better environmental outcomes compared to a pure water market. These findings call for a reconsideration of the current management in arid and semiarid basins around the world. The paper illustrates the potential of hydro-economic modeling for integrating the multiple dimensions of water resources, becoming a valuable tool in the advancement of sustainable water management policies.

  6. Environmental Education as a social mobilization strategy to face water scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Andrezza de Souza; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Assumpção, Rafaela Facchetti

    2016-03-01

    Article 225 of the Brazilian Constitution establishes that all citizens have the right to an ecologically balanced environment, as a common good that is essential for a healthy life, and that the government and society have the duty to protect and preserve the environment for present and future generations. This article outlines a methodology for promoting social mobilization to address water scarcity developed under the National Environmental Education and Social Mobilization for Sanitation Program (PEAMSS, acronym in Portuguese). The main aim of this article is to show the importance of education as a driving force for empowerment for water resources management. It outlines the main concepts of emancipatory environmental education and then goes on to describe the elaboration of a PEAMMS action plan. It concludes that the universalization of the right to safe and clean drinking water and access to sanitation is only possible through democratic and participatory water resources management. Actions are necessary to evaluate the reach of the PEAMSS and define the way ahead for the program.

  7. Potable water scarcity: options and issues in the coastal areas of Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Atikul; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Karim, Rezaul; Sekine, Masahiko

    2013-09-01

    In the coastal areas of Bangladesh, scarcity of drinking water is acute as freshwater aquifers are not available at suitable depths and surface water is highly saline. Households are mainly dependent on rainwater harvesting, pond sand filters and pond water for drinking purposes. Thus, individuals in these areas often suffer from waterborne diseases. In this paper, water consumption behaviour in two southwestern coastal districts of Bangladesh has been investigated. The data for this study were collected through a survey conducted on 750 rural households in 39 villages of the study area. The sample was selected using a random sampling technique. Households' choice of water source is complex and seasonally dependent. Water sourcing patterns, households' preference of water sourcing options and economic feasibility of options suggest that a combination of household and community-based options could be suitable for year-round water supply. Distance and time required for water collection were found to be difficult for water collection from community-based options. Both household and community-based options need regular maintenance. In addition to installation of water supply facilities, it is necessary to make the residents aware of proper operation and maintenance of the facilities.

  8. Kinship and seasonal migration among the Aymara of southern Peru: human adaptation to energy scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, J.L.

    1981-01-01

    The people of the southern Peruvian highlands have adapted to a condition of energy scarcity through seasonal migration to lowland areas. In the disrict of Sarata (a fictitious name for a real district on the northeastern shore of Lake Titicaca) people spend three to seven months of every year growing coffee in the Tambopata Valley of the eastern Andes. This migratory pattern, which is hundreds of years old, provides the context for an investigation of human adaptive processes. This study presents models of the flow of energy through high-altitude households and shows that energy is a limiting factor for the population. There are two periods when energy subsidies from lowland regions become crucial to the continued survival of highland households. These are the periods of peak growth and reproduction experienced by households early in their developmental cycles, and times of sharply lowered productivity caused by environmental crises such as drought or killing frosts. Seasonal migration provides the subsidies that households rely on during these periods.

  9. Chilean central valley beekeeping as socially inclusive conservation practice in a social water scarcity context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Eduardo Trujillo Bilbao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Through an ethnographic approach that complements conversations, tours and surveys of productive characterization is that the present study aims to approach the domestic beekeeping in the valley of Colliguay, Quilpué, fifth region of Chile. This is an activity that emerges as a result of deep transformations detonated by the neoliberalization of nature in general and water in particular. That is why it seeks to contextualize the situation of water scarcity that displaced livestock and put in place the bees. All of this through a political ecology lens. It is discussed how to achieve an anthropological reading of the ecological scenarios that denaturalize metabolic fractures in an area with a threatened presence of native forest. It is discovered that the outsider is the material and symbolic responsible of an increase in water stress and a key element in the social relations of confrontation of the valley. It is then related how bees have diverted the attention of their human counterparts to the affection and care of the forest that allows them to live, thus reinforcing the idea of a socially inclusive conservation.

  10. Female scarcity reduces women's marital ages and increases variance in men's marital ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Fitzgerald, Carey J; Peterson, Tom

    2010-08-05

    When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  11. Female Scarcity Reduces Women's Marital Ages and Increases Variance in Men's Marital Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Kruger

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available When women are scarce in a population relative to men, they have greater bargaining power in romantic relationships and thus may be able to secure male commitment at earlier ages. Male motivation for long-term relationship commitment may also be higher, in conjunction with the motivation to secure a prospective partner before another male retains her. However, men may also need to acquire greater social status and resources to be considered marriageable. This could increase the variance in male marital age, as well as the average male marital age. We calculated the Operational Sex Ratio, and means, medians, and standard deviations in marital ages for women and men for the 50 largest Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States with 2000 U.S Census data. As predicted, where women are scarce they marry earlier on average. However, there was no significant relationship with mean male marital ages. The variance in male marital age increased with higher female scarcity, contrasting with a non-significant inverse trend for female marital age variation. These findings advance the understanding of the relationship between the OSR and marital patterns. We believe that these results are best accounted for by sex specific attributes of reproductive value and associated mate selection criteria, demonstrating the power of an evolutionary framework for understanding human relationships and demographic patterns.

  12. Fission product yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valenta, V.; Hep, J.

    1978-01-01

    Data are summed up necessary for determining the yields of individual fission products from different fissionable nuclides. Fractional independent yields, cumulative and isobaric yields are presented here for the thermal fission of 235 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu and for fast fission (approximately 1 MeV) of 235 U, 238 U, 239 Pu, 241 Pu; these values are included into the 5th version of the YIELDS library, supplementing the BIBFP library. A comparison is made of experimental data and possible improvements of calculational methods are suggested. (author)

  13. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century under multiple climate change mitigation policies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hejazi, Mohamad I.; Edmonds, James A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Kyle, G. Page; Davies, Evan; Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Wise, Marshall A.; Patel, Pralit L.; Eom, Jiyong; Calvin, Katherine V.

    2014-08-01

    Water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally are assessed in the context of climate change and climate mitigation policies, by estimating both water availability and water demand within the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. To quantify changes in future water availability, a new gridded water-balance global hydrologic model – namely, the Global Water Availability Model (GWAM) – is developed and evaluated. Global water demands for six major demand sectors (irrigation, livestock, domestic, electricity generation, primary energy production, and manufacturing) are modeled in GCAM at the regional scale (14 geopolitical regions, 151 sub-regions) and then spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. Using a baseline scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) and three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W/m2 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), we investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity. Two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The baseline scenario results in more than half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Additionally, in years 2050 and 2095, 36% (28%) and 44% (39%) of the global population, respectively, is projected to live in grid cells (in basins) that will experience greater water demands than the amount of available water in a year (i.e., the water scarcity index (WSI) > 1.0). When comparing the climate policy scenarios to the baseline scenario while maintaining

  14. Cover cropping in Vitis vinifera L. cv. Manto Negro vineyards under Mediterranean conditions: effects on plant vigour, yield and grape quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alícia Pou

    2011-12-01

    Significance and impact of the study: This study showed that the use of specific cover crops in vineyards under Mediterranean climates helps to reduce vegetative vigour. Nevertheless, yield reduction and slight quality improvement suggest that cover crops should be adjusted in order to reduce competition for water and thus prevent these negative effects of water scarcity.

  15. Comparison among different downscaling approaches in building water scarcity scenarios in an Alpine basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyennon, Nicolas; Romano, Emanuele; Mariani, Davide; Bruna Petrangeli, Anna; Portoghese, Ivan

    2014-05-01

    Various downscaling techniques have been developed to bridge the scale gap between global climate models (GCMs) and finer scales required to assess hydrological impacts of climate change. Although statistical downscaling (SD) has been traditionally seen as an alternative to dynamical downscaling (DD), recent works on statistical downscaling have aimed to combine the benefits of these two approaches. The overall objective of this study is to assess whether a DD processing performed before the SD is able to provide more reliable climate forcing for crop water demand models. The case study presented here focuses on the Maggiore Lake (Alpine region), with a watershed of approximately 4750 km2 and whose waters are mainly used for irrigation purposes in the Lombardia and Piemonte regions. The fifth-generation ECHAM model from the Max-Planck-Institute for Meteorology was adopted as GCM. The DD was carried out with the Protheus system (ENEA), while the SD was performed through a monthly quantile-quantile correction of the precipitation data collected in the period 1950-2012 by the 19 rainfall gauges located in the watershed area (some of them operating not continuously during the study period). The relationship between the precipitation regime and the inflow to the reservoir is obtained through a simple multilinear regression model, validated using both precipitation data and inflow measurements to the lake in the period 1996-2012 then, the same relation has been applied to the control (20c) and scenario (a1b) simulations downscaled by means of the different downscaling approaches (DD, SD and combined DD-SD). The resulting forcing has been used as input to a daily water balance model taking into account the inflow to the lake, the demand for irrigation and the reservoir management policies. The impact of the different downscaling approaches on the water budget scenarios has been evaluated in terms of occurrence, duration and intensity of water scarcity periods.

  16. Water Management Strategy in Assessing the Water Scarcity in Northern Western Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabrouk, Badr; Arafa, Salah; Gemajl, Khaled

    2015-04-01

    Sustainable development in the Nile Delta of Egypt is retarded by serious environmental problems, where land-use and land-cover of the region are subjected to continuous changes; including shoreline changes either by erosion or accretion, subsidence of the delta, as well as by sea level rise due to climate change. The current research attempts to; (1) study the vulnerability of the northern western region of the Nile Delta coastal zone to climate change/sea level rise while setting basic challenges, review adaptation strategies based on adaptation policy framework, and highlight recommended programs for preparedness to climate change, (2) study the scarcity of water resources in the area of study with review of the socioeconomic impacts and the critical need of establishing desalination plants with new standards assessing the environmental situation and population clusters, and (3) monitor of the brine water extracted from the desalination plants and injected to subsurface strata. This monitoring process is divided into 3 main directions: 1) studying the chemical characteristics of water extracted from the water desalinations plants qualitatively and quantitatively. 2) mapping the subsurface of which that brine water will be injected to it and the flow directions and effects using resistivity data, and 3) using GIS and suitable numerical models in order to study the effect, volume, flow of the brine water and its long term environmental impacts on the area. The results indicate that the area is particularly vulnerable to the impact of SLR, salt water intrusion, the deterioration of coastal tourism and the impact of extreme dust storms. This in turn will directly affect the agricultural productivity and human settlements in coastal zones. The paper presents different scenarios for water management and recommends the most suitable scenarios in order to establish a core for water management strategy in the region according to existing socio-economic and environmental

  17. Drought is Coming: Monitoring Vegetation Response to Water Scarcity through Variable Chlorophyll a Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadagno, C. R.; Beverly, D.; Pleban, J. R.; Speckman, H. N.; Ewers, B. E.; Weinig, C.

    2017-12-01

    Aridity is one of the most pronounced environmental limits to plant survival, and understanding how plants respond to drought and recovery is crucial for predicting impacts on managed and natural ecosystems. Changes in soil moisture conditions induce a suite of physiological responses from the cell to ecosystem scale, complicating the assessment of drought effects. Characterizing early indicators of water scarcity across species can inform biophysical models with improved understanding of plant hydraulics. While indexes exist for drought monitoring across scales, many are unable to identify imminent vegetative drought. We explore a method of early diagnosis using leaf-level and kinetic imaging measures of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence. This is a fast and reliable tool capturing leaf physiological changes in advance of changes in NDVI or passive solar induced fluorescence. Both image and leaf level Pulse Amplitude Method (PAM) measurements illustrate the utility of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence for monitoring vegetative drought. Variable fluorescence was monitored across populations of crops, desert shrubs, montane conifers and riparian deciduous trees under variable water regimes. We found a strong correlation (R = 0.85) between the maximum efficiency of photosystem II measured using variable fluorescence (Fv'Fm') and leaf level electrolyte leakage, a proximal cause of drought stress induced by cellular damage in leaves. This association was confirmed in two gymnosperm species (Picea engelmannii and Pinus contorta) and for diverse varieties of the crop species Brassica rapa. The use of chlorophyll a fluorescence per image also allowed for early detection of drought in aspen (Populus tremuloides). These results provide evidence that variable chlorophyll fluorescence decreases between 25% and 70% in mild and severely droughted twigs with respect to ones collected from trees in wet soil conditions. While current systems for monitoring variable fluorescence

  18. Forward curves, scarcity and price volatility in oil and natural gas markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geman, Helyette [Birkbeck, University of London (United Kingdom); ESCP-EAP (France); Ohana, Steve [ESCP-EAP (France)

    2009-07-15

    The role of inventory in explaining the shape of the forward curve and spot price volatility in commodity markets is central in the theory of storage developed by Kaldor [Kaldor, N. (1939) ''Speculation and Economic Stability'', The Review of Economic Studies 7, 1-27] and Working [Working, H. (1949) ''The theory of the price of storage'', American Economic Review, 39, 1254-1262] and has since been documented in a vast body of financial literature, including the reference paper by Fama and French [Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1987) ''Commodity futures prices: some evidence on forecast power, premiums and the theory of storage'', Journal of Business 60, 55-73] on metals. The goal of this paper is twofold: 1. validate in the case of oil and natural gas the use of the slope of the forward curve as a proxy for inventory (the slope being defined in a way that filters out seasonality); 2. analyze directly for these two major commodities the relationship between inventory and price volatility. In agreement with the theory of storage, we find that: 1. the negative correlation between price volatility and inventory is globally significant for crude oil; 2. this negative correlation prevails only during those periods of scarcity when the inventory is below the historical average and increases importantly during the winter periods for natural gas. Our results are illustrated by the analysis of a 15 year-database of US oil and natural gas prices and inventory. (author)

  19. Energy-Water-Land Nexus: The relative contributions of climate and human systems on global water scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Chen, M.; Turner, S. W. D.; Graham, N. T.; Vernon, C. R.; Li, X.; Kim, S. H.; Link, R. P.

    2017-12-01

    There is a growing consensus that energy, water, and land systems are interconnected and should be analyzed as such. New tools are required to represent the interactions between population, economic growth, energy, land, and water resources in a dynamically evolving system. Here we use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) to investigate the relative contributions of climate and human systems on water scarcity regionally and globally under a wide range of scenarios. The model accounts for a variety of human activities, including changing demands for water for agriculture, power generation, industry, and public supply. We find that these activities exert a larger influence on water scarcity than climate in 93% of river basins globally. This work highlights the importance of accounting for human activities in hydrologic modeling applications and how they may change under different pathways of how land use and agricultural systems, energy systems, and economies may evolve in the future.

  20. Put a limit on it: The protective effects of scarcity heuristics when self-control is low

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Tracy TL; Kroese, Floor M; Fennis, Bob M; De Ridder, Denise TD

    2015-01-01

    Low self-control is a state in which consumers are assumed to be vulnerable to making impulsive choices that hurt long-term goals. Rather than increasing self-control, the current research exploits the tendency for heuristic-based thinking in low self-control by employing scarcity heuristics to promote better consumption choices. Results indicate that consumers low in self-control especially benefited and selected more healthy choices when marketed as “scarce” (Study 1), and that a demand (vs supply) scarcity heuristic was most effective in promoting utilitarian products (Study 2) suggests low self-control involves both an enhanced reward orientation and increased tendency to conform to descriptive norms. PMID:28070377

  1. Economics of technological change and the natural environment: How effective are innovations as a remedy for resource scarcity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bretschger, Lucas

    2005-01-01

    The paper aims to substantiate the importance of endogenous innovations when evaluating the compatibility of natural resource use and economic development. It explains that technological change has the potential to compensate for natural resource scarcity, diminishing returns to capital, poor input substitution, and material balance restrictions, but is limited by various restrictions like fading returns to innovative investments and rising research costs. It also shows how innovative activities are fostered by accurate price signals and research-favouring sectoral change. The simultaneous effects of increasing technical knowledge, decreasing resource inputs, and increasing world population largely determine the chances of long-run sustainable development. Consequently, future research has to be directed at a more thorough understanding of the mechanisms driving innovations in the presence of natural resource scarcity

  2. How downstream sub-basins depend on upstream inflows to avoid scarcity: typology and global analysis of transboundary rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munia, Hafsa Ahmed; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Mirumachi, Naho; Wada, Yoshihide; Kummu, Matti

    2018-05-01

    Countries sharing river basins are often dependent upon water originating outside their boundaries; meaning that without that upstream water, water scarcity may occur with flow-on implications for water use and management. We develop a formalisation of this concept drawing on ideas about the transition between regimes from resilience literature, using water stress and water shortage as indicators of water scarcity. In our analytical framework, dependency occurs if water from upstream is needed to avoid scarcity. This can be diagnosed by comparing different types of water availability on which a sub-basin relies, in particular local runoff and upstream inflows. At the same time, possible upstream water withdrawals reduce available water downstream, influencing the latter water availability. By developing a framework of scarcity and dependency, we contribute to the understanding of transitions between system regimes. We apply our analytical framework to global transboundary river basins at the scale of sub-basin areas (SBAs). Our results show that 1175 million people live under water stress (42 % of the total transboundary population). Surprisingly, the majority (1150 million) of these currently suffer from stress only due to their own excessive water use and possible water from upstream does not have impact on the stress status - i.e. they are not yet dependent on upstream water to avoid stress - but could still impact on the intensity of the stress. At the same time, 386 million people (14 %) live in SBAs that can avoid stress owing to available water from upstream and have thus upstream dependency. In the case of water shortage, 306 million people (11 %) live in SBAs dependent on upstream water to avoid possible shortage. The identification of transitions between system regimes sheds light on how SBAs may be affected in the future, potentially contributing to further refined analysis of inter- and intrabasin hydro-political power relations and strategic planning

  3. From Vienna to Frankfurt Inside Core-House Type 7: A History of Scarcity through the Modern Kitchen

    OpenAIRE

    Hochhaeusl, Sophie

    2013-01-01

    This paper traces a history of war-induced scarcity through the material and technological properties of household appliances and kitchens from 1914 to 1930. Investigating the Austrian settlement and allotment garden movement, it argues that the practices of users, self-help builders, and inhabitants who reacted to living with limited resources in the state of emergency found their way into the designs of modern homes, and into the works of canonical modern architecture, in particular the fam...

  4. Using an ensemble of regional climate models to assess climate change impacts on water scarcity in European river basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gampe, David; Nikulin, Grigory; Ludwig, Ralf

    2016-12-15

    Climate change will likely increase pressure on the water balances of Mediterranean basins due to decreasing precipitation and rising temperatures. To overcome the issue of data scarcity the hydrological relevant variables total runoff, surface evaporation, precipitation and air temperature are taken from climate model simulations. The ensemble applied in this study consists of 22 simulations, derived from different combinations of four General Circulation Models (GCMs) forcing different Regional Climate Models (RCMs) and two Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) at ~12km horizontal resolution provided through the EURO-CORDEX initiative. Four river basins (Adige, Ebro, Evrotas and Sava) are selected and climate change signals for the future period 2035-2065 as compared to the reference period 1981-2010 are investigated. Decreased runoff and evaporation indicate increased water scarcity over the Ebro and the Evrotas, as well as the southern parts of the Adige and the Sava, resulting from a temperature increase of 1-3° and precipitation decrease of up to 30%. Most severe changes are projected for the summer months indicating further pressure on the river basins already at least partly characterized by flow intermittency. The widely used Falkenmark indicator is presented and confirms this tendency and shows the necessity for spatially distributed analysis and high resolution projections. Related uncertainties are addressed by the means of a variance decomposition and model agreement to determine the robustness of the projections. The study highlights the importance of high resolution climate projections and represents a feasible approach to assess climate impacts on water scarcity also in regions that suffer from data scarcity. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Disaggregating Orders of Water Scarcity - The Politics of Nexus in the Wami-Ruvu River Basin, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mdee

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the dilemma of managing competing uses of surface water in ways that respond to social, ecological and economic needs. Current approaches to managing competing water use, such as Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM and the concept of the water-energy-food nexus do not adequately disaggregate the political nature of water allocations. This is analysed using Mehta’s (2014 framework on orders of scarcity to disaggregate narratives of water scarcity in two ethnographic case studies in the WamiRuvu River Basin in Tanzania: one of a mountain river that provides water to urban Morogoro, and another of a large donor-supported irrigation scheme on the Wami River. These case studies allow us to explore different interfaces in the food-water-energy nexus. The article makes two points: that disaggregating water scarcity is essential for analysing the nexus; and that current institutional frameworks (such as IWRM mask the political nature of the nexus, and therefore do not provide an adequate platform for adjudicating the interfaces of competing water use.

  6. Irrigation offsets wheat yield reductions from warming temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Hendricks, Nathan

    2017-11-01

    Temperature increases due to climate change are expected to cause substantial reductions in global wheat yields. However, uncertainty remains regarding the potential role for irrigation as an adaptation strategy to offset heat impacts. Here we utilize over 7000 observations spanning eleven Kansas field-trial locations, 180 varieties, and 29 years to show that irrigation significantly reduces the negative impact of warming temperatures on winter wheat yields. Dryland wheat yields are estimated to decrease about eight percent for every one-degree Celsius increase in temperature, yet irrigation completely offsets this negative impact in our sample. As in previous studies, we find that important interactions exist between heat stress and precipitation for dryland production. Here, uniquely, we observe both dryland and irrigated trials side-by-side at the same locations and find that precipitation does not provide the same reduction in heat stress as irrigation. This is likely to be because the timing, intensity, and volume of water applications influence wheat yields, so the ability to irrigate—rather than relying on rainfall alone—has a stronger influence on heat stress. We find evidence of extensive differences of water-deficit stress impacts across varieties. This provides some evidence of the potential for adapting to hotter and drier climate conditions using optimal variety selection. Overall, our results highlight the critical role of water management for future global food security. Water scarcity not only reduces crop yields through water-deficit stress, but also amplifies the negative effects of warming temperatures.

  7. Soviet test yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergino, Eileen S.

    Soviet seismologists have published descriptions of 96 nuclear explosions conducted from 1961 through 1972 at the Semipalatinsk test site, in Kazakhstan, central Asia [Bocharov et al., 1989]. With the exception of releasing news about some of their peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) the Soviets have never before published such a body of information.To estimate the seismic yield of a nuclear explosion it is necessary to obtain a calibrated magnitude-yield relationship based on events with known yields and with a consistent set of seismic magnitudes. U.S. estimation of Soviet test yields has been done through application of relationships to the Soviet sites based on the U.S. experience at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), making some correction for differences due to attenuation and near-source coupling of seismic waves.

  8. The relative impact of climate change mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity - An integrated assessment modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J. A.; Clarke, L. E.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E. G.; Chaturvedi, V.; Patel, P.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Kim, S.; Calvin, K. V.; Moss, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    We investigate the relative effects of climate emission mitigation policies and socioeconomic drivers on water scarcity conditions over the 21st century both globally and regionally, by estimating both water availability and demand within a technologically-detailed global integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, and climate change - the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). We first develop a global gridded monthly hydrologic model that reproduces historical streamflow observations and simulates the future availability of freshwater under both a changing climate and an evolving landscape, and incorporate this model into GCAM. We then develop and incorporate technologically oriented representations of water demands for the agricultural (irrigation and livestock), energy (electricity generation, primary energy production and processing), industrial (manufacturing and mining), and municipal sectors. The energy, industrial, and municipal sectors are represented in fourteen geopolitical regions, with the agricultural sector further disaggregated into as many as eighteen agro-ecological zones (AEZs) within each region. To perform the water scarcity analysis at the grid scale, the global water demands for the six demand sectors are spatially downscaled to 0.5 o x 0.5o resolution to match the scale of GWAM. The water scarcity index (WSI) compares total water demand to the total amount of renewable water available, and defines extreme water scarcity in any region as demand greater than 40% of total water availability. Using a reference scenario (i.e., no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W/m2 by 2095 and a global population of 14 billion, global annual water demand grows from about 9% of total annual renewable freshwater in 2005 to about 32% by 2095. This results in almost half of the world population living under extreme water scarcity by the end of the 21st century. Regionally, the demands for water exceed the total

  9. Bridging Mediterranean cultures in the IYS: A documentary exhibition on irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barontini, Stefano; Louki, Amina; Ben Slima, Zied; Ezzahra Ghaouch, Fatima; Labaran, Raisa; Raffelli, Giulia; Peli, Marco; Vitale, Nicola

    2015-04-01

    Brescia, an industrial city in Northern Italy, is now experiencing a crucial change in its traditional structure. In recent years in fact it has been elected as living and working seat by many foreigners and it is now one of the cities with the greatest percentage of migrants in the Country. This is an important challenge for the city and an opportunity to merge, compare and integrate different cultures to build its future. In this context some students of different Courses (engineering and medicine), belonging both to the Arabian and local community, met together and with researchers in the study team 'Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i , for culture, science and society'. The team aims at organising cultural events in which, starting from the figure of the Persian scientist Ab¯u Raih. ¯a n Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i (about 973, 1051), the contribution of the Arabian and Islamic culture to the development of the European one in the middle ages is investigated. Moving from the initial idea of the study team Al-B¯i r¯u n¯i and from the suggestions of the World Soil Day 2014 and of the International Year of Soils 2015, we built a documentary exhibition entitled 'Irrigation techniques in water scarcity conditions'. The exhibition, which stresses the importance of the irrigation techniques for the soil conservation, is focused on the idea of disseminating two main concepts, i.e. (1) the technological continuity of some water supply systems in countries, around the Mediterranean Sea, affected by similar conditions of water availability, and (2) the possibility of building environments where, due to severe or extreme climatic conditions, the sustainability is reached when the man lives in equilibrium with the nature. The exhibition, which is written in Italian and will move around in the city during all 2015, consists of about twenty posters organized into three main chapters, corresponding to three main classes of water supply systems which are common in most of the countries surrounding

  10. Solute-vacancy binding in aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolverton, C.

    2007-01-01

    Previous efforts to understand solute-vacancy binding in aluminum alloys have been hampered by a scarcity of reliable, quantitative experimental measurements. Here, we report a large database of solute-vacancy binding energies determined from first-principles density functional calculations. The calculated binding energies agree well with accurate measurements where available, and provide an accurate predictor of solute-vacancy binding in other systems. We find: (i) some common solutes in commercial Al alloys (e.g., Cu and Mg) possess either very weak (Cu), or even repulsive (Mg), binding energies. Hence, we assert that some previously reported large binding energies for these solutes are erroneous. (ii) Large binding energies are found for Sn, Cd and In, confirming the proposed mechanism for the reduced natural aging in Al-Cu alloys containing microalloying additions of these solutes. (iii) In addition, we predict that similar reduction in natural aging should occur with additions of Si, Ge and Au. (iv) Even larger binding energies are found for other solutes (e.g., Pb, Bi, Sr, Ba), but these solutes possess essentially no solubility in Al. (v) We have explored the physical effects controlling solute-vacancy binding in Al. We find that there is a strong correlation between binding energy and solute size, with larger solute atoms possessing a stronger binding with vacancies. (vi) Most transition-metal 3d solutes do not bind strongly with vacancies, and some are even energetically strongly repelled from vacancies, particularly for the early 3d solutes, Ti and V

  11. Experiment search of the electroweak symmetry breaking in the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel and of a solution of the hierarchy problem in the Atlas experiment: participation to the tests of the electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Recherche experimentale de la brisure spontanee de symetrie electrofaible dans le canal H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} et d'une solution au probleme de hierarchie dans ATLAS. Participation a la preparation de l'electronique du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalier, M

    2005-04-15

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism in the ATLAS experiment at LHC collider, by studying two complementary topics: the search for the Higgs boson in the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel, and a search for extra dimensions in the gluon sector. Tests of the electronic of the electromagnetic calorimeter allowed us to validate various cards that were under the responsibility of the LPNHE. Using full simulation data of the detector allowed us to precisely compute mass resolution of the di-photon system. Due to recent theoretical improvements, signal and background have been studied at the next order of the perturbative development, which increases cross-sections. With regards to the jet background, a study has been done using discriminating variables in order to obtain, for a 80 % photons efficiency, a rejection factor of 7000. The discovery potential benefits from this change of cross-sections and increases by 50 % in comparison with the same analysis done at the leading order. In addition to this, a new analysis using a maximum likelihood method allowed us to increase by 40 % the discovery potential in comparison with our classical analysis. In conclusion, the Higgs boson of 120 GeV/c{sup 2} can be now discovered in this channel with an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}. Furthermore, the consistency of the problem of the Higgs boson mass can be solved by introducing extra dimensions in which gluons can propagate. We have shown that it was possible to discover extra-dimensions up to a compactification scale of 15 TeV. (author)

  12. Experiment search of the electroweak symmetry breaking in the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel and of a solution of the hierarchy problem in the Atlas experiment: participation to the tests of the electronics of the electromagnetic calorimeter; Recherche experimentale de la brisure spontanee de symetrie electrofaible dans le canal H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} et d'une solution au probleme de hierarchie dans ATLAS. Participation a la preparation de l'electronique du calorimetre electromagnetique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escalier, M

    2005-04-15

    This thesis deals with the understanding of the spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking mechanism in the ATLAS experiment at LHC collider, by studying two complementary topics: the search for the Higgs boson in the H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} channel, and a search for extra dimensions in the gluon sector. Tests of the electronic of the electromagnetic calorimeter allowed us to validate various cards that were under the responsibility of the LPNHE. Using full simulation data of the detector allowed us to precisely compute mass resolution of the di-photon system. Due to recent theoretical improvements, signal and background have been studied at the next order of the perturbative development, which increases cross-sections. With regards to the jet background, a study has been done using discriminating variables in order to obtain, for a 80 % photons efficiency, a rejection factor of 7000. The discovery potential benefits from this change of cross-sections and increases by 50 % in comparison with the same analysis done at the leading order. In addition to this, a new analysis using a maximum likelihood method allowed us to increase by 40 % the discovery potential in comparison with our classical analysis. In conclusion, the Higgs boson of 120 GeV/c{sup 2} can be now discovered in this channel with an integrated luminosity of 10 fb{sup -1}. Furthermore, the consistency of the problem of the Higgs boson mass can be solved by introducing extra dimensions in which gluons can propagate. We have shown that it was possible to discover extra-dimensions up to a compactification scale of 15 TeV. (author)

  13. Enhancement of HHG yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrat, C.; Biegert, J.

    2011-01-01

    A static electric field periodically distributed in space controls and enhances the yield in high harmonic generation. The method is relatively simple to implement and allows tuning from the extreme-ultraviolet to soft X-ray. The radiation yield is selectively enhanced due to symmetry breaking induced by a static electric field on the interaction between the driving laser and the medium. The enhanced spectral region is tuned by varying the periodicity of the static electric field. Simulations predict an increase of more than two orders of magnitude for harmonics in the water window spectral range.

  14. Water scarcity management and agricultural production (What we can do to produce more with less water)

    OpenAIRE

    Girona i Gomis, Joan

    2014-01-01

    Crop seasonal sensitivity to water stress is concerned with how to control water stress levels to optimise yield or profitability. It deals with when we can reduce irrigation and impose moderate water deficits without affecting our target, and when we can apply water to avoid too much stress.

  15. Adapting irrigation management to water scarcity: constraints of plant growth, hydraulics and carbon assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water shortages are responsible for the greatest crop losses around the world and are expected to worsen. In arid areas where agriculture is dependent on irrigation, various forms of deficit irrigation management have been suggested to optimize crop yields for available soil water. The relationshi...

  16. Dose response behaviour of water scarcity towards genetical and morphological traits in spring wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noorkha, I.R.; Tabasum, S.

    2015-01-01

    Combining ability was studied in a Line * Tester mating fashion in wheat (Tricticum aestivum L.). Significant differences were observed for all the yield and yield contributing traits. GCA and SCA components of variation were found significant for most of the traits. Under water stressed conditions among lines the genotype Kohistan-97 revealed significant GCA effects for all the traits except spike length. Among testers, the genotype V08172 showed significant effects for the traits spike length, 1000-grain weight and flag leaf area. Based on desirable SCA effects and mean performance the cross combinations Kohistan-97 * V08172, Chakwal-86 * Punjab-81, Fsd-2008 * Punjab-81, Sehar-2006 * V08172 and Chakwal-86 * V08172 behaved best combiner to tolerate the water stress. Results of genetic analysis offered over dominance type of gene action that remained unchanged with the change in water provision for the traits like 1000 grain weight and economic yield. Similarly additive gene action was observed for the trait plant height under both normal irrigation and water stress conditions. However the cumulative genetic effects to control the expression of yield and yield components was shifted due to the changed environments. The study was concluded that due to presence of additive variance, selection could be practiced in early generation whereas in the presence of recessiveness the selection may be delayed up to the later generations. Plant traits associated with water stress tolerance having high heritability and with additive gene action may be used as indirect selection criteria for early selection of water stress tolerant genotypes. The information generated as a result of this study on genetic analysis of important economic traits of wheat under contrasting water availability positions will be of great value to the wheat breeders to design future breeding programmes. (author)

  17. Water scarcity under various socio-economic pathways and its potential effects on food production in the Yellow River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Liu, Xingcai; Zhang, Xuejun

    2017-02-01

    Increasing population and socio-economic development have put great pressure on water resources of the Yellow River (YR) basin. The anticipated climate and socio-economic changes may further increase water stress. Many studies have investigated the changes in renewable water resources under various climate change scenarios, but few have considered the joint pressure from both climate change and socio-economic development. In this study, we assess water scarcity under various socio-economic pathways with emphasis on the impact of water scarcity on food production. The water demands in the 21st century are estimated based on the newly developed shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and renewable water supply is estimated using the climate projections under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The assessment predicts that the renewable water resources would decrease slightly then increase. The domestic and industrial water withdrawals are projected to increase in the next a few decades and then remain at the high level or decrease slightly during the 21st century. The increase in water withdrawals will put the middle and lower reaches in a condition of severe water scarcity beginning in the next a few decades. If 40 % of the renewable water resources were used to sustain ecosystems, a portion of irrigated land would have to be converted to rain-fed agriculture, which would lead to a 2-11 % reduction in food production. This study highlights the links between water, food and ecosystems in a changing environment and suggests that trade-offs should be considered when developing regional adaptation strategies.

  18. NGO-provided free HIV treatment and services in Burkina Faso: scarcity, therapeutic rationality and unfair process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridde Valéry

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Until 2010, Burkina Faso was an exception to the international trend of abolishing user fees for antiretroviral treatment (ART. Patients were still expected to pay 1,500F CFA (2 Euros per month for ART. Nevertheless, many non-governmental organizations (NGOs exempted patients from payment. The objective of this study was to investigate how NGOs selected the beneficiaries of payment exemptions for government-provided ART and rationed out complementary medical and psychosocial services. For this qualitative study, we conducted 13 individual interviews and three focus group discussions (n = 13 persons with program staff in nine NGOs (4,000 patients, two NGO coordinating structures and one national program. These encounters were recorded and transcribed, and their content was thematically analyzed. The results were presented to the NGOs for feedback. Results indicate that there are no concrete guidelines for identifying patients warranting payment exemptions. Formerly, ART was scarce in Burkina Faso and the primary criterion for treatment selection was clinical. Our results suggest that this scarcity, mediated by an approach we call sociotherapeutic rationality (i.e. maximization of clinical success, may have led to inequities in the provision of free ART. This approach may be detrimental to assuring equity since the most impoverished lack resources to pay for services that maximize clinical success (e.g. viral load that would increase their chances of being selected for treatment. However, once selected into treatment, attempts were made to ration-out complementary services more equitably. This study demonstrates the risks entailed by medication scarcity, which presents NGOs and health professionals with impossible choices that run counter to the philosophy of equity in access to treatment. Amid growing concerns of an international funding retreat for ART, it is important to learn from the past in order to better manage the potentially

  19. Integrated assessment of global water scarcity over the 21st century - Part 2: Climate change mitigation policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazi, M. I.; Edmonds, J.; Clarke, L.; Kyle, P.; Davies, E.; Chaturvedi, V.; Eom, J.; Wise, M.; Patel, P.; Calvin, K.

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the effects of emission mitigation policies on water scarcity both globally and regionally using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), a leading community integrated assessment model of energy, agriculture, climate, and water. Three climate policy scenarios with increasing mitigation stringency of 7.7, 5.5, and 4.2 W m-2 in year 2095 (equivalent to the SRES A2, B2, and B1 emission scenarios, respectively), under two carbon tax regimes (a universal carbon tax (UCT) which includes land use change emissions, and a fossil fuel and industrial emissions carbon tax (FFICT) which excludes land use change emissions) are analyzed. The results are compared to a baseline scenario (i.e. no climate change mitigation policy) with radiative forcing reaching 8.8 W m-2 (equivalent to the SRES A1Fi emission scenario) by 2095. When compared to the baseline scenario and maintaining the same baseline socioeconomic assumptions, water scarcity declines under a UCT mitigation policy but increases with a FFICT mitigation scenario by the year 2095 particularly with more stringent climate mitigation targets. The decreasing trend with UCT policy stringency is due to substitution from more water-intensive to less water-intensive choices in food and energy production, and in land use. Under the FFICT scenario, water scarcity is projected to increase driven by higher water demands for bio-energy crops. This study implies an increasingly prominent role for water availability in future human decisions, and highlights the importance of including water in integrated assessment of global change. Future research will be directed at incorporating water shortage feedbacks in GCAM to better understand how such stresses will propagate across the various human and natural systems in GCAM.

  20. NGO-provided free HIV treatment and services in Burkina Faso: scarcity, therapeutic rationality and unfair process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridde, Valéry; Somé, Paul Andre; Pirkle, Catherine M

    2012-03-06

    Until 2010, Burkina Faso was an exception to the international trend of abolishing user fees for antiretroviral treatment (ART). Patients were still expected to pay 1,500F CFA (2 Euros) per month for ART. Nevertheless, many non-governmental organizations (NGOs) exempted patients from payment. The objective of this study was to investigate how NGOs selected the beneficiaries of payment exemptions for government-provided ART and rationed out complementary medical and psychosocial services. For this qualitative study, we conducted 13 individual interviews and three focus group discussions (n = 13 persons) with program staff in nine NGOs (4,000 patients), two NGO coordinating structures and one national program. These encounters were recorded and transcribed, and their content was thematically analyzed. The results were presented to the NGOs for feedback. Results indicate that there are no concrete guidelines for identifying patients warranting payment exemptions. Formerly, ART was scarce in Burkina Faso and the primary criterion for treatment selection was clinical. Our results suggest that this scarcity, mediated by an approach we call sociotherapeutic rationality (i.e. maximization of clinical success), may have led to inequities in the provision of free ART. This approach may be detrimental to assuring equity since the most impoverished lack resources to pay for services that maximize clinical success (e.g. viral load) that would increase their chances of being selected for treatment. However, once selected into treatment, attempts were made to ration-out complementary services more equitably.This study demonstrates the risks entailed by medication scarcity, which presents NGOs and health professionals with impossible choices that run counter to the philosophy of equity in access to treatment. Amid growing concerns of an international funding retreat for ART, it is important to learn from the past in order to better manage the potentially inequitable consequences

  1. Evaluating a novel tiered scarcity adjusted water budget and pricing structure using a holistic systems modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Oz; Bertone, Edoardo; Beal, Cara; Stewart, Rodney A

    2018-06-01

    Population growth, coupled with declining water availability and changes in climatic conditions underline the need for sustainable and responsive water management instruments. Supply augmentation and demand management are the two main strategies used by water utilities. Water demand management has long been acknowledged as a least-cost strategy to maintain water security. This can be achieved in a variety of ways, including: i) educating consumers to limit their water use; ii) imposing restrictions/penalties; iii) using smart and/or efficient technologies; and iv) pricing mechanisms. Changing water consumption behaviours through pricing or restrictions is challenging as it introduces more social and political issues into the already complex water resources management process. This paper employs a participatory systems modelling approach for: (1) evaluating various forms of a proposed tiered scarcity adjusted water budget and pricing structure, and (2) comparing scenario outcomes against the traditional restriction policy regime. System dynamics modelling was applied since it can explicitly account for the feedbacks, interdependencies, and non-linear relations that inherently characterise the water tariff (price)-demand-revenue system. A combination of empirical water use data, billing data and customer feedback on future projected water bills facilitated the assessment of the suitability and likelihood of the adoption of scarcity-driven tariff options for a medium-sized city within Queensland, Australia. Results showed that the tiered scarcity adjusted water budget and pricing structure presented was preferable to restrictions since it could maintain water security more equitably with the lowest overall long-run marginal cost. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Short overview of water scarcity in the basins of the Upper Tietê River and PCJ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Cordeiro de Souza Fernandes

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity in the region of the Alto Tietê basin and Piracicaba, Capivari and Jundiaí basins (PCJ, southeastern Brazil, it is a concrete fact that should be faced. In our view it is not a simple water crisis, but a water collapse a decade advertised, which shows an inconsistent and ineffective planning, a lack of political management and the flagrant absence of compliance with the legal grounds brought by the National Water Resources Policy Act (Federal Law n. 9433/97.

  3. Will energy crop yields meet expectations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searle, Stephanie Y.; Malins, Christopher J.

    2014-01-01

    Expectations are high for energy crops. Government policies in the United States and Europe are increasingly supporting biofuel and heat and power from cellulose, and biomass is touted as a partial solution to energy security and greenhouse gas mitigation. Here, we review the literature for yields of 5 major potential energy crops: Miscanthus spp., Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), Populus spp. (poplar), Salix spp. (willow), and Eucalyptus spp. Very high yields have been achieved for each of these types of energy crops, up to 40 t ha −1  y −1 in small, intensively managed trials. But yields are significantly lower in semi-commercial scale trials, due to biomass losses with drying, harvesting inefficiency under real world conditions, and edge effects in small plots. To avoid competition with food, energy crops should be grown on non-agricultural land, which also lowers yields. While there is potential for yield improvement for each of these crops through further research and breeding programs, for several reasons the rate of yield increase is likely to be slower than historically has been achieved for cereals; these include relatively low investment, long breeding periods, low yield response of perennial grasses to fertilizer, and inapplicability of manipulating the harvest index. Miscanthus × giganteus faces particular challenges as it is a sterile hybrid. Moderate and realistic expectations for the current and future performance of energy crops are vital to understanding the likely cost and the potential of large-scale production. - Highlights: • This review covers Miscanthus, switchgrass, poplar, willow, and Eucalyptus. • High yields of energy crops are typically from small experimental plots. • Field scale yields are lower due to real world harvesting losses and edge effects. • The potential for yield improvement of energy crops is relatively limited. • Expectations must be realistic for successful policies and commercial production

  4. Brazilian Soybean Yields and Yield Gaps Vary with Farm Size

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, G. R.; Cohn, A.; Griffin, T. S.; Bragança, A.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the farm size-specific characteristics of crop yields and yield gaps may help to improve yields by enabling better targeting of technical assistance and agricultural development programs. Linking remote sensing-based yield estimates with property boundaries provides a novel view of the relationship between farm size and yield structure (yield magnitude, gaps, and stability over time). A growing literature documents variations in yield gaps, but largely ignores the role of farm size as a factor shaping yield structure. Research on the inverse farm size-productivity relationship (IR) theory - that small farms are more productive than large ones all else equal - has documented that yield magnitude may vary by farm size, but has not considered other yield structure characteristics. We examined farm size - yield structure relationships for soybeans in Brazil for years 2001-2015. Using out-of-sample soybean yield predictions from a statistical model, we documented 1) gaps between the 95th percentile of attained yields and mean yields within counties and individual fields, and 2) yield stability defined as the standard deviation of time-detrended yields at given locations. We found a direct relationship between soy yields and farm size at the national level, while the strength and the sign of the relationship varied by region. Soybean yield gaps were found to be inversely related to farm size metrics, even when yields were only compared to farms of similar size. The relationship between farm size and yield stability was nonlinear, with mid-sized farms having the most stable yields. The work suggests that farm size is an important factor in understanding yield structure and that opportunities for improving soy yields in Brazil are greatest among smaller farms.

  5. Estimating Corporate Yield Curves

    OpenAIRE

    Antionio Diaz; Frank Skinner

    2001-01-01

    This paper represents the first study of retail deposit spreads of UK financial institutions using stochastic interest rate modelling and the market comparable approach. By replicating quoted fixed deposit rates using the Black Derman and Toy (1990) stochastic interest rate model, we find that the spread between fixed and variable rates of interest can be modeled (and priced) using an interest rate swap analogy. We also find that we can estimate an individual bank deposit yield curve as a spr...

  6. A water productive and economically profitable paddy rice production method to adapt water scarcity in the Vu Gia-Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhone Nay-Htoon

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In Vu Gia-Thu Bon river basin, Vietnam, drought during the dry season affected negatively on rice production. High and uneven rainfall distribution cause flooding in the basin during wet season and cause severe agricultural drought during dry season.This study aimed to point out a higher water productive and economically efficient rice production method to adapt water scarcity in the region. Based on available secondary data, water productivity is calculated for different water saving rice production methods, according to Pereira, et al, (2012’s irrigation water productivity and total productivity equations. The profit of technological change is calculated by partial budget analysis of rice production in that area and a sensitivity analysis supports to point out which input factor is sensitive to farmer’s benefit. Farmer’s psychological and social beliefs are used to create fuzzy logic based decision making model. Although water productivities (ranging 0.441 kg/m3/ha to 0.504 kg/m3/ha are ranked as the second after System of Rice Intensification, we demonstrated that Alternate Wetting and Drying method is a recommendable method to the farmer after considering economic profitability and technical simplicity. The System of Rice Intensification method also could be a suitable method to adopt because this method is the highest water productive method (Water Productivities are ranging from 0.77 kg/m3/ha to 1.02 kg/m3/ha coupled with highest yield of rice, subject to certain ecosystem services and payment policies should be developed to subsidize the reduced benefit resulting from this method.

  7. Agricultural adaptation to water scarcity in the Sri Lankan dry zone: A comparison of two water managment regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchfield, E. K.

    2014-12-01

    The island nation of Sri Lanka is divided into two agro-climatic zones: the southwestern wet zone and the northeastern dry zone. The dry zone is exposed to drought-like conditions for several months each year. Due to the sporadic nature of rainfall, dry zone livelihoods depend on the successful storage, capture, and distribution of water. Traditionally, water has been captured in rain-fed tanks and distributed through a system of dug canals. Recently, the Sri Lankan government has diverted the waters of the nation's largest river through a system of centrally managed reservoirs and canals and resettled farmers to cultivate this newly irrigated land. This study uses remotely sensed MODIS and LANDSAT imagery to compare vegetation health and cropping patterns in these distinct water management regimes under different conditions of water scarcity. Of particular interest are the socioeconomic, infrastructural, and institutional factors that affect cropping patterns, including field position, water storage capacity, and control of water resources. Results suggest that under known conditions of water scarcity, farmers cultivate other field crops in lieu of paddy. Cultivation changes depend to a large extent on the institutional distance between water users and water managers as well as the fragmentation of water resources within the system.

  8. The relationship between HIV and AIDS and water scarcity in Nyamakate resettlements land, north-central Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbereko, Alexio; Scott, Dianne; John Chimbari, Moses

    2016-12-01

    HIV and AIDS and water variability have been studied separately, yet, they impact on rural households simultaneously in an interactive manner. The study provide narratives on various realities from a study in the Nyamakate community that illustrates the dialectical relationship between HIV and AIDS and water scarcity. A qualitative research methodology was employed, and the following data collection tools were used: semi-structured interviews, focus group discussions (FGDs) and participant observations. The study showed that in the Nyamakate area, HIV- and AIDS-affected households utilise more water if there is a bedridden patient. Such households utilise an average of 145 litres per day and reported a water shortage of 103 litres per day. Although community rules and customs stipulate that water should be accessible to everyone, exclusion of HIV- and AIDS-affected households is underlined by cultural issues, scorn at poor levels of hygiene, infectious opportunistic infections and labour shortage, which limited access to water points by households directly affected by HIV and AIDS. In cases where women were overwhelmed with caregiving roles, men fetch water. We conclude that HIV and AIDS and water scarcity are dialectically related and hence should be considered in an interactive manner in order to understand the challenges faced by affected households.

  9. Projected climate change impacts upon dew yield in the Mediterranean basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaszkiewicz, M. [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Abou Najm, M., E-mail: majdian@aub.edu.lb [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Beysens, D. [Physique et Mecanique des Milieux Heterogenes, UMR 7636 CNRS — ESPCI, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie — Universite Paris Diderot, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75005 Paris (France); Service des Basses Temperatures, CEA-Grenoble & Universite Joseph Fourier, Grenoble (France); OPUR, 60 rue Emeriau, 75015 Paris (France); Alameddine, I. [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon); Bou Zeid, E. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); El-Fadel, M. [Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering & Architecture, American University of Beirut, Beirut (Lebanon)

    2016-10-01

    Water scarcity is increasingly raising the need for non-conventional water resources, particularly in arid and semi-arid regions. In this context, atmospheric moisture can potentially be harvested in the form of dew, which is commonly disregarded from the water budget, although its impact may be significant when compared to rainfall during the dry season. In this study, a dew atlas for the Mediterranean region is presented illustrating dew yields using the yield data collected for the 2013 dry season. The results indicate that cumulative monthly dew yield in the region can exceed 2.8 mm at the end of the dry season and 1.5 mm during the driest months, compared to < 1 mm of rainfall during the same period in some areas. Dew yields were compared with potential evapotranspiration (PET) and actual evapotranspiration (ET) during summer months thus highlighting the role of dew to many native plants in the region. Furthermore, forecasted trends in temperature and relative humidity were used to estimate dew yields under future climatic scenarios. The results showed a 27% decline in dew yield during the critical summer months at the end of the century (2080). - Highlights: • Dew atlas for Mediterranean region is presented. • Cumulative dew yields can exceed 2.8 mm at the end of the dry season. • Dew yields compared with PET and ET show the role of dew to many native plants. • Forecasted trends under future climatic scenarios show a 27% decline in dew yield.

  10. Status of fission yield measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeck, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    Fission yield measurement and yield compilation activities in the major laboratories of the world are reviewed. In addition to a general review of the effort of each laboratory, a brief summary of yield measurement activities by fissioning nuclide is presented. A new fast reactor fission yield measurement program being conducted in the US is described

  11. Excited-state kinetics of the carotenoid S//1 state in LHC II and two-photon excitation spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution Efficient Car S//1 yields Chl electronic energy transfer via hot S//1 states?

    CERN Document Server

    Walla, P J; Linden, Patricia A; Ohta, Kaoru

    2002-01-01

    The excited-state dynamics of the carotenoids (Car) in light- harvesting complex II (LHC II) of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii were studied by transient absorption measurements. The decay of the Car S //1 population ranges from similar to 200 fs to over 7 ps, depending on the excitation and detection wavelengths. In contrast, a 200 fs Car S//1 yields Chlorophyll (Chl) energy transfer component was the dominant time constant for our earlier two-photon fluorescence up- conversion measurements (Walla, P.J. ; et al. J. Phys. Chem. B 2000, 104, 4799-4806). We also present the two-photon excitation (TPE) spectra of lutein and beta-carotene in solution and compare them with the TPE spectrum of LHC II. The TPE-spectrum of LHC II has an onset much further to the blue and a width that is narrower than expected from comparison to the S//1 fluorescence of lutein and beta-carotene in solution. Different environments may affect the shape of the S//1 spectrum significantly. To explain the blue shift of the TPE spectrum and the d...

  12. Optimization of radiotherapeutic treatment with means scarcity: our two years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velazquez M, S.; Carrera M, F.; Gomez-Millan B, J.; Bayo L, E.; Gutierrez B, L.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this work are to present solutions adopted with the purpose to improve the technical quality of our treatments. It is described the ICRU-50 nomenclature employed in our department, the application of the linear quadratic radiobiological model for the non conventional division into fractions calculations and some proposals from diverse localizations. It is described some techniques for treatments planning, as the use of modulator fields and mobile gaps with hemi-fields. Also it is described some contrivances utilized, such as the shoulders tensor in head and neck tumors. The radiotherapeutic treatment with few sources it is optimized with the personnel effort and the low costs. (Author)

  13. Radiolysis of Aqueous Toluene Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, H C; Gustafson, R

    1971-04-15

    Aqueous toluene solutions have been irradiated with Co gamma-rays. In unbuffered solutions the various cresol isomers are formed in a total yield of 0.45, 0.87 and 0.94 molecules/100 eV absorbed energy in argon-, N{sub 2}O- and air - saturated solutions, respectively. The yields are reduced in acid (pH 3) solutions (G = 0.14, 0.14 and 0.52, respectively) but the reduction is compensated by the formation of 1,2-di-phenylethane in yields of 0.49 and 1.60 in argon- and N{sub 2}O-saturated solutions, respectively. Benzyl radicals are formed through an acid catalysed water elimination reaction from the initially formed hydroxymethylcyclohexadienyl radical. Phenyltolylmethanes, dimethylbiphenyls and partly reduced dimers are also formed during the radiolysis. Hydrogen is formed in the same yield as the molecular yield, g(H{sub 2}). Xylene isomers and benzene are formed in trace quantities. The most remarkable effects of the addition of Fe(III) ions to deaerated acid toluene solutions are the formation of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde and an increase in the yield of 1,2-diphenylethane

  14. Radiolysis of Aqueous Toluene Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, H.C.; Gustafson, R.

    1971-04-01

    Aqueous toluene solutions have been irradiated with Co γ-rays. In unbuffered solutions the various cresol isomers are formed in a total yield of 0.45, 0.87 and 0.94 molecules/100 eV absorbed energy in argon-, N 2 O- and air - saturated solutions, respectively. The yields are reduced in acid (pH 3) solutions (G 0.14, 0.14 and 0.52, respectively) but the reduction is compensated by the formation of 1,2-di-phenylethane in yields of 0.49 and 1.60 in argon- and N 2 O-saturated solutions, respectively. Benzyl radicals are formed through an acid catalysed water elimination reaction from the initially formed hydroxymethylcyclohexadienyl radical. Phenyltolylmethanes, dimethylbiphenyls and partly reduced dimers are also formed during the radiolysis. Hydrogen is formed in the same yield as the molecular yield, g(H 2 ). Xylene isomers and benzene are formed in trace quantities. The most remarkable effects of the addition of Fe(III) ions to deaerated acid toluene solutions are the formation of benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde and an increase in the yield of 1,2-diphenylethane

  15. Surplus, Scarcity and Soil Fertility in Pre-Industrial Austrian Agriculture—The Sustainability Costs of Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gizicki-Neundlinger

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes a Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research (LTSER perspective to integrate important aspects of social inequality into Socio-Ecological Metabolism (SEM research. SEM has dealt with biophysical features of pre-industrial agricultural systems from a largely apolitical perspective, neglecting social relations and conditions of peasant production and reproduction. One of the politically and economically most important manorial systems in Early Modern Austria (Grundherrschaft Grafenegg serves as a case study to reconstruct the unequal distribution of central resources between ruling landlords and subjected peasants. We show that peasant land use systems generated small surpluses only, whereas landlords enjoyed significant economies of scale. Furthermore, we explore what these conditions of landlord surplus and peasant scarcity implied for their respective agro-ecological sustainability. Finally, we argue that within pre-industrial agrarian systems sustainability costs of inequality were severely limiting margins for agricultural intensification and growth of peasant economies.

  16. From Vienna to Frankfurt Inside Core-House Type 7: A History of Scarcity through the Modern Kitchen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Hochhaeusl

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper traces a history of war-induced scarcity through the material and technological properties of household appliances and kitchens from 1914 to 1930. Investigating the Austrian settlement and allotment garden movement, it argues that the practices of users, self-help builders, and inhabitants who reacted to living with limited resources in the state of emergency found their way into the designs of modern homes, and into the works of canonical modern architecture, in particular the famous Frankfurt Kitchen. This paper thus investigates the design and production of the modern kitchen and its transformations, from Vienna to Frankfurt, moving from a cooperative vernacular building movement to one of the largest construction endeavors to standardize and prefabricate modern housing in Germany.

  17. The Role of Intrinsic Motivation and the Satisfaction of Basic Psychological Needs Under Conditions of Severe Resource Scarcity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Egmond, Marieke Christina; Navarrete Berges, Andrés; Omarshah, Tariq; Benton, Jennifer

    2017-06-01

    An emerging field of research is beginning to examine the ways in which socioeconomic disparities affect emotional, cognitive, and social processes. In this study, we took a two-step approach to examining the role that resource scarcity plays in the predictive power of intrinsic motivation on school attendance, as well as its influence on the precursors of intrinsic motivation: the psychological needs of relatedness, autonomy, and competence. Results revealed that intrinsic motivation predicts school attendance even under conditions of extreme adversity. The satisfaction of the basic needs is more important for participants who are exposed to severe rather than mild levels of deprivation. Our findings illustrate ecological effects on the mechanism underlying goal-directed behavior. They provide evidence in favor of self-determination theory's depiction of humans as active, growth-oriented organisms and for the potential of psychological interventions to reduce poverty.

  18. Evaluating impacts of climate change on future water scarcity in an intensively managed semi-arid region using a coupled model of biophysical processes and water rights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B.; Flores, A. N.; Benner, S. G.

    2017-12-01

    In semiarid and arid regions where water supply is intensively managed, future water scarcity is a product of complex interactions between climate change and human activities. Evaluating future water scarcity under alternative scenarios of climate change, therefore, necessitates modeling approaches that explicitly represent the coupled biophysical and social processes responsible for the redistribution of water in these regions. At regional scales a particular challenge lies in adequately capturing not only the central tendencies of change in projections of climate change, but also the associated plausible range of variability in those projections. This study develops a framework that combines a stochastic weather generator, historical climate observations, and statistically downscaled General Circulation Model (GCM) projections. The method generates a large ensemble of daily climate realizations, avoiding deficiencies of using a few or mean values of individual GCM realizations. Three climate change scenario groups reflecting the historical, RCP4.5, and RCP8.5 future projections are developed. Importantly, the model explicitly captures the spatiotemporally varying irrigation activities as constrained by local water rights in a rapidly growing, semi-arid human-environment system in southwest Idaho. We use this modeling framework to project water use and scarcity patterns under the three future climate change scenarios. The model is built using the Envision alternative futures modeling framework. Climate projections for the region show future increases in both precipitation and temperature, especially under the RCP8.5 scenario. The increase of temperature has a direct influence on the increase of the irrigation water use and water scarcity, while the influence of increased precipitation on water use is less clear. The predicted changes are potentially useful in identifying areas in the watershed particularly sensitive to water scarcity, the relative importance of

  19. Macro and Micronutrient Storage in Plants and Their Remobilization When Facing Scarcity: The Case of Drought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Etienne

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Human mineral malnutrition or hidden hunger is considered a global challenge, affecting a large proportion of the world’s population. The reduction in the mineral content of edible plant products is frequently found in cultivars bred for higher yields, and is probably increased by intensive agricultural practices. The filling of grain with macro and micronutrients is partly the result of a direct allocation from root uptake and remobilization from vegetative tissues. The aim of this bibliographic review is to focus on recent knowledge obtained from ionomic analysis of plant tissues in order to build a global appraisal of the potential remobilization of all macro and micronutrients, and especially those from leaves. Nitrogen is always remobilized from leaves of all plant species, although with different efficiencies, while nutrients such as K, S, P, Mg, Cu, Mo, Fe and Zn can be mobilized to a certain extent when plants are facing deficiencies. On the opposite, there is few evidence for leaf mobilization of Ca, Mn, Ni and B. Mechanisms related to the remobilization process (remobilization of mineral forms from vacuolar and organic compounds associated with senescence, respectively are also discussed in the context of drought, an abiotic stress that is thought to increase and known to modulate the ionic composition of grain in crops.

  20. Soil Degradation, Land Scarcity and Food Security: Reviewing a Complex Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziano Gomiero

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Soil health, along with water supply, is the most valuable resource for humans, as human life depends on the soil’s generosity. Soil degradation, therefore, poses a threat to food security, as it reduces yield, forces farmers to use more inputs, and may eventually lead to soil abandonment. Unfortunately, the importance of preserving soil health appears to be overlooked by policy makers. In this paper, I first briefly introduce the present situation concerning agricultural production, natural resources, soil degradation, land use and the challenge ahead, to show how these issues are strictly interwoven. Then, I define soil degradation and present a review of its typologies and estimates at a global level. I discuss the importance of preserving soil capital, and its relationship to human civilization and food security. Trends concerning the availability of arable agricultural land, different scenarios, and their limitations, are analyzed and discussed. The possible relation between an increase in a country’s GNP, population and future availability of arable land is also analyzed, using the World Bank’s database. I argue that because of the many sources of uncertainty in the data, and the high risks at stake, a precautionary approach should be adopted when drawing scenarios. The paper ends with a discussion on the key role of preserving soil organic matter, and the need to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. I also argue that both our relation with nature and natural resources and our lifestyle need to be reconsidered.

  1. Ensuring capacity adequacy during energy transition in mature power markets: a social efficiency comparison of scarcity pricing and capacity mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitet, Marie; Finon, Dominique; Janssen, Tanguy

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses how a capacity market mechanism can address security of supply objectives in the case of an energy transition scenario which combines both high energy efficiency efforts which stabilise demand in a context of mature markets and rapid increase of renewables share. The exogenous entry of variable renewables introduces a new challenge in matter of security of supply during peak hours. To analyse this situation, power markets are simulated on the long term with a model based on System Dynamics modelling which integrates both new investment and closure decisions. This last trait is an originality of the model which is very relevant to study market maturity. The addition of a capacity mechanism in a market architecture with price cap is compared to scarcity pricing in different situations. Simulations are performed for two different cases: a case without any exogenous closure of existing power plants and a case with exogenous retirements which create a need of new investments. Under the assumption of a risk-neutral investor, the results indicate that compared to an energy-only market with price cap set at euro 3,000/MWh, energy-only with scarcity pricing and capacity mechanism are two efficient market designs to reach an acceptable level of loss of load. Besides, the results highlight that the advantage of one design on the other in terms of social efficiency depends on the future scenarios which are simulated. Moreover, the results illustrates that the three market designs lead to different level of risk for peaking units, suggesting that including risk aversion is a relevant further step in the modelling. (authors)

  2. Diet change and food loss reduction: What is their combined impact on global water use and scarcity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli

    2016-03-01

    There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.

  3. Effect of Integrated Nutrient Management on Yield and Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Declining soil fertility is one of the major problems causing yield reduction of barley ... (VC) with inorganic NP on growth, yield and yield components of food barley. ... The experiments were laid out in a randomized complete block design with ...

  4. The association between time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents in Norway: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Laukeland Djupegot

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of ultra-processed foods has expanded rapidly over the last decades and high consumption has been positively associated with risk of e.g. overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ultra-processed foods offer convenience as they require minimal time for preparation. It is therefore reasonable to assume that such foods are consumed more often among people who experience time scarcity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between time scarcity and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents of 2-year olds in Norway. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between sociodemographic correlates, weight status and consumption of ultra-processed foods. Methods This cross-sectional study included 497 participants. Chi-square and cross tabulations were used to calculate proportions of high vs. low consumption of ultra-processed foods in relation to time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and weight status. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between independent variables and consumption of ultra-processed foods. Results Participants reporting medium and high time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of ultra-processed dinner products (OR = 3. 68, 95% CI = 2. 32–5.84 and OR = 3.10, 1.80–5.35, respectively and fast foods (OR = 2.60, 1.62–4.18 and OR = 1.90, 1.08–3.32, respectively compared to those with low time scarcity. Further, participants with medium time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of snacks and soft drinks compared to participants with low time scarcity (OR = 1.63, 1.06–2.49. Finally, gender, ethnicity, educational level, number of children in the household and weight status were identified as important factors associated with the consumption of certain types of ultra-processed foods. Conclusions Results from the present study showed that time scarcity, various sociodemographic

  5. The association between time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents in Norway: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djupegot, Ingrid Laukeland; Nenseth, Camilla Bengtson; Bere, Elling; Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit Torgeirsdotter; Helland, Sissel Heidi; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte

    2017-05-15

    Use of ultra-processed foods has expanded rapidly over the last decades and high consumption has been positively associated with risk of e.g. overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ultra-processed foods offer convenience as they require minimal time for preparation. It is therefore reasonable to assume that such foods are consumed more often among people who experience time scarcity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between time scarcity and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents of 2-year olds in Norway. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between sociodemographic correlates, weight status and consumption of ultra-processed foods. This cross-sectional study included 497 participants. Chi-square and cross tabulations were used to calculate proportions of high vs. low consumption of ultra-processed foods in relation to time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and weight status. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between independent variables and consumption of ultra-processed foods. Participants reporting medium and high time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of ultra-processed dinner products (OR = 3. 68, 95% CI = 2. 32-5.84 and OR = 3.10, 1.80-5.35, respectively) and fast foods (OR = 2.60, 1.62-4.18 and OR = 1.90, 1.08-3.32, respectively) compared to those with low time scarcity. Further, participants with medium time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of snacks and soft drinks compared to participants with low time scarcity (OR = 1.63, 1.06-2.49). Finally, gender, ethnicity, educational level, number of children in the household and weight status were identified as important factors associated with the consumption of certain types of ultra-processed foods. Results from the present study showed that time scarcity, various sociodemographic factors and weight status was associated with consumption of processed foods

  6. The water-energy-food-climate-economics nexus: solving hunger and resource scarcity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lall, U.

    2011-12-01

    A nexus refers to the core or to interconnectivity across issues. Addressing the boundary interactions of traditional sectors in an interconnected world as human activities change the physical boundaries of land and climate is an emerging academic and governance discourse. Through contrasting examples from the US and India, I shed light on the descriptive aspects of these connections and feedbacks that define potential impacts or traps for societies, and ponder whether a massive conceptual or numerical Earth System Model can help inform outcomes, or whether there are dominant links at particular scales (physical, social, economic or biological) that characterize the emergent dynamics and define critical equilibrium or transient solutions in certain places. However, the real question is what next given the definition of the nexus? Here, I argue that given the current valuation and management structure of different resource sectors and the associated information flows and sensitivities, the interlinked energy-climate issues can emerge as useful drivers of improved productivity in water-food systems, thus promoting resource and environmental sustainability while promoting economic development. Thus, levers can be found that help steer the course of these complex interacting systems towards desirable sectoral outcomes.

  7. Crescimento, desenvolvimento e produtividade do tomateiro cultivado em substrato com três concentrações de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva Growth, development and yield of tomato plants grown in substrate under three nitrogen concentrations of the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerônimo Luiz Andriolo

    2004-10-01

    e T3, com produtividade máxima estimada de 7,8kg m-2 na dose de 9,3mmolN L-1. Concluiu-se que a concentração de N na solução nutritiva afetou o crescimento e a produtividade da cultura do tomateiro em substrato, porém não foi observada resposta similar nos dois ciclos de cultivo.The effect of three N concentrations of the nutrient solution on growth and yield of tomato plants grown in substrate was determined in autumn and spring growing periods. Two experiments were conducted inside a polyethylene tunnel, at Departamento de Fitotecnia - UFSM, using the hybrid Monte Carlo. Sowing was made on February 8 and on July 5, 2002, and planting inside the tunnel 36 and 40 days later, in autumn and spring, respectively. Plants were grown in plastic bags filled with 5.5dm³ of commercial substrate (Plantmax®, with one plant per bag and a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. Nutrients were supplied to plants by a complete nutrient solution, with the following composition, in mmol L-1: 5.5 of KNO3; 1.3 of KH2PO4; 2.75 of Ca(NO32; 0.75 of MgSO4, with iron chelate and micronutrients. The treatment T2 was the nutrient solution described above, with 11.0mmolN L-1. For treatment T1, the N concentration of the nutrient solution was reduced to 5.5mmolN L-1, whereas for T3 it was increased to 15.16mmolN L-1. A randomised experimental design was used, with four replications and 15 plants per plot. Plants were harvested at 33, 48, 55, 62, 69, 76 and 83 days after planting (DAP in autumn, and at 55, 62, 69, 78, 85 and 92 DAP in spring, to measure plant growth and development. Crop yield was determined by fresh weight of fruits. The number of leaves was lower on T3 plants in autumn and spring, whereas the number of fruits was higher on T1 plants in spring. The dynamics of fruit dry mass accumulation did not show significant differences among treatments in autumn. In spring, the lowest value of this variable was recorded on T3 plants. Mean values of fresh fruit weight reached 5.4; 5

  8. Produção do melão rendilhado em função da concentração de potássio na solução nutritiva e do número de frutos por planta Net melon yield as affected by potassium concentration in nutrient solution and number of fruits per plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caciana C. Costa

    2004-03-01

    increase in second fruit weight. Yield and fruit weight were not influenced by potassium concentration in the nutrient solution over 66 mg L-1. The number of fruits per plant affected yield and fruit weight promoting, respectively, increase and decrease in proportion to the higher number of fruits per plant.

  9. A note on hypoplastic yielding

    OpenAIRE

    Nader, José Jorge

    2010-01-01

    This note discusses briefly the definition of yield surface in hypoplasticity in connection with the physical notion of yielding. The relation of yielding with the vanishing of the material time derivative of the stress tensor and the vanishing of the corotational stress rate is investigated.

  10. Current economic cost, the ARENH (Regulated Access to the Historic (EDF) Nuclear Energy Supplier) price, the differential rent and the scarcity rent of nuclear power: some observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percebois, J.

    2012-01-01

    This article sets out to explain the ARENH mechanism, the regulated price at which the EDF (France's historic monopoly supplier) must sell part of its production to its competitors in the framework of the Nome Act (New Organisation of the Electricity Market). This price by its nature is different from the Current Economic Cost (CEC) of nuclear power, as estimated by France's Government Accounting Office in its report submitted in January 2012. These two approaches revert to the problem of the determination of the scarcity rent of nuclear power in the context of the liberalised European market, in which nuclear power benefits from a 'cost' advantage relative to thermal electricity generated from fossil fuels. Furthermore, scarcity rent is not the same thing as differential rent. Selling a nuclear kWh at the price of a 'gas' kWh at certain times results in a differential rent enabling nuclear generated power to cover fixed costs. One can only speak of scarcity rent for nuclear power when the price at which the kWh is sold allows the recovery of more than is necessary to cover overall costs of nuclear power and it is this scarcity rent and its allocation that is the subject of debate. (author)

  11. Assessing the economic impact of North China’s water scarcity mitigation strategy : a multi - region, water - extended computable general equilibrium analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Changbo; Qin, C.; Su, Zhongbo; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Jia, Y.; Wang, H.

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a multi-region computable general equilibrium model for analyzing the effectiveness of measures and policies for mitigating North China’s water scarcity with respect to three different groups of scenarios. The findings suggest that a reduction in groundwater use would negatively

  12. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4 : An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 “Level of water stress”

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanham, D.; Hoekstra, A. Y.; Wada, Y.; Bouraoui, F.; de Roo, A.; Mekonnen, M. M.; van de Bund, W. J.; Batelaan, O.; Pavelic, P.; Bastiaanssen, Wim G M; Kummu, M.; Rockström, J.; Liu, J.; Bisselink, B.; Ronco, P.; Pistocchi, A.; Bidoglio, G.

    2018-01-01

    Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to

  13. Plugging solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharipov, A U; Yangirov, I Z

    1982-01-01

    A clay-powder, cement, and water-base plugging solution is proposed having reduced solution viscosity characteristics while maintaining tensile strength in cement stone. This solution utilizes silver graphite and its ingredients, by mass weight, are as follows: cement 51.2-54.3%; claypowder 6.06-9.1%; silver graphite 0.24-0.33%; with water making up the remainder.

  14. Trading forests for yields in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Holly

    2012-03-01

    inhabited and often have contested land tenure. We must carefully consider our consumption of these commodities in the face of growing land scarcity (Lambin and Meyfroidt 2011). If high-yield plantations displace low-yield plantations they too may follow the path of industrial agriculture and resume destruction of the forests that conservation efforts aim to protect. Without clear incentives to spare land, we could be trading forest for higher yields. References Angelsen A and Kaimowitz D 2001 Agricultural Technologies and Tropical Deforestation (New York: CABI Publishing) (www.cifor.org/publications/pdf files/books/bangelsen0101e0.pdf) Butler R and Laurance W 2010 Is oil palm the next emerging threat to the Amazon? Trop. Conserv. Sci. 2 1-10 Gibbs H K, Johnston M, Foley J A, Holloway T, Monfreda C, Ramankutty N and Zaks D 2008 Carbon payback times for crop-based biofuel expansion in the tropics: the effects of changing yield and technology Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001 Gibbs H K, Ruesch A S, Achard F, Clayton M K, Holmgren P, Ramankutty N and Foley J A 2010 Tropical forests were the primary sources of new agricultural land in the 1980s and 1990s Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 107 16732-7 Gutiérrez-Vélez V H, DeFries R, Pinedo-Vásquez M, Uriarte M, Padoch C, Baethgen W, Fernandes K and Lim Y 2011 High-yield oil palm expansion spares land at the expense of forests in the Peruvian Amazon Environ. Res. Lett. 6 044029 Koh L and Wilcove D 2008 Is oil palm agriculture really destroying tropical biodiversity? Conserv. Lett. 1 60-4 Lambin E and Meyfroidt P 2011 Inaugural article: global land use change, economic globalization, and the looming land scarcity Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. 108 93465-72 Morton D C et al 2006 Cropland expansion changes deforestation dynamics in the southern Brazilian Amazon Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 103 14637-41

  15. Systematics in delayed neutron yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohsawa, Takaaki [Kinki Univ., Higashi-Osaka, Osaka (Japan). Atomic Energy Research Inst.

    1998-03-01

    An attempt was made to reproduce the systematic trend observed in the delayed neutron yields for actinides on the basis of the five-Gaussian representation of the fission yield together with available data sets for delayed neutron emission probability. It was found that systematic decrease in DNY for heavier actinides is mainly due to decrease of fission yields of precursors in the lighter side of the light fragment region. (author)

  16. VARIABILITY OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN “EGUSI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    Estimate of expected genetic advance in seed yield plant-1 ranged between. 25.90-48.40%. ..... values in fruit and seed yield characters have been reported in culinary melon, ... and Khund, A. 2004. Extent of heterosis and heritability in some.

  17. Response of Yield and Yield Components of Tef [Eragrostis Tef ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The partial budget analysis also indicates that applications of 46 kg. N ha-1 and 10 kg P ha-1 are ..... (1994) indicated that where the grain yield response is negative, yield reduction is primarily caused by a .... An Economic Training. Manual.

  18. On yield gaps and yield gains in intercropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gou, Fang; Yin, Wen; Hong, Yu; Werf, van der Wopke; Chai, Qiang; Heerink, Nico; Ittersum, van Martin K.

    2017-01-01

    Wheat-maize relay intercropping has been widely used by farmers in northwest China, and based on field experiments agronomists report it has a higher productivity than sole crops. However, the yields from farmers’ fields have not been investigated yet. Yield gap analysis provides a framework to

  19. 7755 EFFECT OF NPK FERTILIZER ON FRUIT YIELD AND YIELD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win7Ent

    2013-06-03

    Jun 3, 2013 ... peasant farmers in Nigeria. With the increased ... did not significantly (p=0.05) increase the fruit yield nor the seed yield. Key words: NPK fertilizer, Fruit ..... SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Version 9.1. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, ...

  20. SLIFER measurement for explosive yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, R.C.; Benjamin, B.C.; Miller, H.M.; Breding, D.R.

    1976-04-01

    This report describes the shorted location indicator by frequency of electrical resonance (SLIFER) system used at Sandia Laboratories for determination of explosive yield of under ground nuclear tests

  1. Water Scarcity, Food Insecurity and Drought Induced Displacement in an Arid Ecosystem: A Case Study in Indian Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman Siddiqui, Azizur

    2017-04-01

    Indian Arid Ecosystem is characterised by scare as well as seasonal precipitation that have led to long term stress in a fragile ecosystem. In addition to this, over the years, Indian desert has experienced varying magnitude of drought, which have considerably influenced food and fodder production and led to the depletion of surface and ground water table. All these factors mean that the production potential of land is hardly sufficient to feed human as well as livestock population of the desert and this has led to extensive rural to urban migration in Indian Desert. In the present study, satellite data from Landsat TM, AWiFS, NOAA AVHRR have been used to detect the intensity and severity of drought condition, and data collected through primary survey has been used to measure the impact of water scarcity on food insecurity and drought induced migration. Rainfall trend analysis of the study area has been done with the help of Man Kendall Method to assess the meteorological vulnerability. In addition to these, NDVI, VCI, TCI, and VHI have also been used to find out the long term vegetation health in the study area. With the help of these scientific techniques, the paper focuses on the moisture deficiency during growing period and its effect on human population and livestock population. Keywords: Arid Ecosystem, Indian Desert, Drought, Migration

  2. Future Water Scarcity and Potential Effects on Food Production under Climate Change in the Yellow River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Q.; Yin, Y. Y.; Liu, X.; Zhang, X.

    2016-12-01

    Increasing population and socio-economic development have put great pressure on water resources of the Yellow River Basin. The anticipated climate and socio-economic changes may further increase water stress. In this study, we assess water scarcity under climate change and various socio-economic pathways with an emphasis on the impact of water shortages on food production. The water demands in the 21st century are projected under the new developed Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). The renewable water supply is estimated from the climate projections under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5. The agricultural water use is assumed to have the lowest priority of all water consumers when water shortage occurs. The results show that the water demands in domestic and industrial sectors would grow rapidly. As more water resources would be occupied by domestic and industrial sectors, a portion of irrigated land would have to be converted to rain-fed agriculture which would lead to more than a reduction in food production under various socio-economic pathways. This study highlights the links between water, food and ecosystems in a changing environment and suggests that trade-offs should be considered when developing regional adaptation strategies.

  3. Alleviating the water scarcity in the North China Plain: the role of virtual water and real water transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuoying; Yang, Hong; Shi, Minjun

    2016-04-01

    The North China Plain is the most water scarce region in China. Its water security is closely relevant to interregional water movement, which can be realized by real water transfers and/or virtual water transfers. This study investigates the roles of virtual water trade and real water transfer using Interregional Input-Output model. The results show that the region is receiving 19.4 billion m3/year of virtual water from the interregional trade, while exporting 16.4 billion m3/year of virtual water in the international trade. In balance, the region has a net virtual water gain of 3 billion m3/year from outside. Its virtual water inflow is dominated by agricultural products from other provinces, totalling 16.6 billion m3/year, whilst its virtual water export is dominated by manufacturing sectors to other countries, totalling 11.7 billion m3/year. Both virtual water import and real water transfer from South to North Water Diversion Project are important water supplements for the region. The results of this study provide useful scientific references for the establishment of combating strategies to deal with the water scarcity in the future.

  4. Biofuel Crops Expansion: Evaluating the Impact on the Agricultural Water Scarcity Costs and Hydropower Production with Hydro Economic Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, G.

    2015-12-01

    Biofuels such as ethanol from sugar cane remain an important element to help mitigate the impacts of fossil fuels on the atmosphere. However, meeting fuel demands with biofuels requires technological advancement for water productivity and scale of production. This may translate into increased water demands for biofuel crops and potential for conflicts with incumbent crops and other water uses including domestic, hydropower generation and environmental. It is therefore important to evaluate the effects of increased biofuel production on the verge of water scarcity costs and hydropower production. The present research applies a hydro-economic optimization model to compare different scenarios of irrigated biofuel and hydropower production, and estimates the potential tradeoffs. A case study from the Araguari watershed in Brazil is provided. These results should be useful to (i) identify improved water allocation among competing economic demands, (ii) support water management and operations decisions in watersheds where biofuels are expected to increase, and (iii) identify the impact of bio fuel production in the water availability and economic value. Under optimized conditions, adoption of sugar cane for biofuel production heavily relies on the opportunity costs of other crops and hydropower generation. Areas with a lower value crop groups seem more suitable to adopt sugar cane for biofuel when the price of ethanol is sufficiently high and the opportunity costs of hydropower productions are not conflicting. The approach also highlights the potential for insights in water management from studying regional versus larger scales bundled systems involving water use, food production and power generation.

  5. Climate-Driven or Human-Induced: Indicating Severe Water Scarcity in the Moulouya River Basin (Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Tekken

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Many agriculture-based economies are increasingly under stress from climate change and socio-economic pressures. The excessive exploitation of natural resources still represents the standard procedure to achieve socio-economic development. In the area of the Moulouya river basin, Morocco, natural water availability represents a key resource for all economic activities. Agriculture represents the most important sector, and frequently occurring water deficits are aggravated by climate change. On the basis of historical trends taken from CRU TS 2.1, this paper analyses the impact of climate change on the per capita water availability under inclusion of population trends. The Climatic Water Balance (CWB shows a significant decrease for the winter period, causing adverse effects for the main agricultural season. Further, moisture losses due to increasing evapotranspiration rates indicate problems for the annual water budget and groundwater recharge. The per capita blue water availability falls below a minimum threshold of 500 m3 per year, denoting a high regional vulnerability to increasing water scarcity assuming a no-response scenario. Regional development focusing on the water-intense sectors of agriculture and tourism appears to be at risk. Institutional capacities and policies need to address the problem, and the prompt implementation of innovative water production and efficiency measures is recommended.

  6. A decade of research in Inuit children, youth, and maternal health in Canada: areas of concentrations and scarcities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Amanda J.; Hetherington, Ross

    2012-01-01

    Inuit Canadians are on average about 20 years younger and have a 10-year lower life expectancy than other Canadians. While there have been improvements in Inuit health status over time, significant health disparities still remain. This paper will review the peer-reviewed literature related to Inuit child, youth, and maternal health between 2000 and 2010, investigate which thematic areas were examined, and determine what proportion of the research is related to each group. Establishing areas of research concentrations and scarcities may help direct future research where it is needed. We followed a systematic literature review and employed peer-reviewed research literature on child, youth, and maternal health which were selected from 3 sources, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and the Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database. The resulting references were read, and summarized according to population group and thematic area. The thematic areas that emerged by frequency were: infectious disease; environment/environmental exposures; nutrition; birth outcomes; tobacco; chronic disease; health care; policy, human resources; interventions/programming; social determinants of health; mental health and wellbeing; genetics; injury; and dental health. The 72 papers that met the inclusion criteria were not mutually exclusive with respect to group studied. Fifty-nine papers (82%) concerned child health, 24 papers (33%) youth health, and 58 papers (81%) maternal health. The review documented high incidences of illness and significant public health problems; however, in the context of these issues, opportunities to develop research that could directly enhance health outcomes are explored. PMID:22868191

  7. Water scarcity and institutional change: lessons in adaptive governance from the drought experience of Perth, Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettini, Y; Brown, R; de Haan, F J

    2013-01-01

    Urban water systems will be increasingly challenged under future climates and global pressures. Meeting challenges by reconfiguring water systems to integrate supplies and deliver multifunctional uses is technically well described. Adjusting the institutions that frame the management of these systems is not well operationalized in practice or conceptualized in theory. This study seeks to address this gap through an institutional analysis of Perth, Australia, a city where drought crisis has put under pressure both management practices and the institutional setting that underlies them. The study found that while trusted practices moderated water scarcity, the stability of the institutional setting may not facilitate a shift toward adaptable institutional configurations suited to future conditions. The results identified three key ingredients for a flexible institutional setting: (i) feedbacks in the system through better information management, (ii) reflexive dialogue and strategic use of projects to generate greater learning opportunities, and (iii) policy level support for sector-wide collaboration through progressive agendas, incentives for innovation and capacity building in stakeholder and community engagement. Further, the results suggest that a deeper understanding of institutional dynamics is needed to enable adaptive governance. The paper provides an analytical framework for diagnosing how greater adaptive capacity might be mobilized through influencing these dynamics.

  8. Measurement of the hydrogen yield in the radiolysis of water by dissolved fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Hart, E.J.; Flynn, K.F.; Gindler, J.E.

    1976-04-01

    Hydrogen from the radiolysis of water by dissolved fission products is stripped from the solution and collected by bubbling CO 2 through the solution. Quantitative measurements of the G value for hydrogen show that the yield is essentially the same as would be obtained by external gamma radiolysis of nonradioactive solutions of the same chemical composition. The hydrogen yield can be enhanced by addition of a hydrogen-atom donor, such as formic acid, to the solution. The yield of hydrogen from fission-waste solutions is discussed with respect to the question of whether it represents a significant energy source

  9. Crescimento e produtividade do almeirão em concentrações de N total contendo NH4+ na solução nutritiva Growth and yield of chicory plants under total N concentrations containing NH4+ in the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo dos Santos Godoi

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento e a produtividade do almeirão foram determinados em cultivo hidropônico fechado com cinco concentrações de N contendo NH4+ na solução nutritiva. As cultivares "Amarelo" e "Pão de Açúcar" foram semeadas diretamente em fileiras distanciadas de 0,05m, em uma camada de areia de 0,15m, distribuída sobre telhas de fibrocimento. Após a emergência, foi efetuado o desbaste, mantendo-se uma densidade de 1.600plantas m-2. Foi empregada uma solução nutritiva padrão com a composição de, em mmol L-1, 11,0 de NO3-; 1,5 de H2PO4-; 6,5 de SO4-2; 7,5 de Ca+2; 10,0 de K+ e 1,5 de Mg+2 e, em mg L-1, 0,42 de Mn; 0,26 de Zn; 0,05 de Cu; 0,50 de B; 0,04 de Mo, e 4,82 de Fe quelatizado. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por concentrações totais de N de 11,0 (T1; 16,0 (T2; 21,0 (T3; 26,0 (T4 e 31,0 (T5mmol L-1, contendo concentrações de NH4+ de, zero; 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0mmol L-1, respectivamente. O delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado foi empregado, com quatro repetições e parcelas subdivididas. Foram efetuadas colheitas aos 35, 59, 76 e 97 dias após a semeadura, mediante corte da parte aérea das plantas a 0,02m acima da superfície da areia, para determinar a matéria seca e fresca. A maior produtividade foi obtida com a solução nutritiva contendo 16mmol L-1 de N total e 2,5mmol L-1 de NH4+.Chicory plants, cv. Amarela and Pão de Açúcar, were hidroponically grown to determine growth and yield under five ammonium and nitrate N concentrations in the nutrient solution. Sowing was made in rows placed 0.05m apart, over a 0.15m deep sand growing bed supported by fibber cement tiles. After emergency, plants were thinned to a plant density of 1,600plants m-2. A standard nutrient solution was used, with the composition of, in mmol L-1, 11.0 de NO3-; 1.5 H2PO4-; 6.5 SO4-2; 7.5 Ca+2; 10.0 K+ and 1.5 Mg+2, and, in mg L-1, 0.42 Mn; 0.26 Zn; 0.05 Cu; 0.50 B; 0.04 Mo, and 4.82 chelated Fe. Treatments were total N

  10. Increasing alcohol yield in sugar fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1962-02-20

    The yield of alcohol from yeast fermentations of sugar solutions is increased 1.5 to 5% by the addition of 0.1 to 0.5 parts by volume of a monohydric saturated aliphatic alcohol of at least 6 C atoms in a straight chain such as hexanol or heptanol, or branched chain, such as 2-ethylbutanol or 2-ethylhexanol, or a mixture consisting mostly of C/sub 7/, C/sub 8/, C/sub 9/, or C/sub 10/ alcohols.

  11. Produção de melão rendilhado em sistema hidropônico com rejeito da dessalinização de água em solução nutritiva Melon yield in a hydroponic system with wastewater from desalination plant added in the nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nildo da S. Dias

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Desenvolveu-se esta pesquisa visando o aproveitamento do rejeito da dessalinização da água no cultivo hidropônico do meloeiro. O experimento foi conduzido no Departamento de Ciências Ambientais da UFERSA, localizado no município de Mossoró, RN, em vasos com substrato de fibra de coco sob condições protegidas. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso, com 3 repetições cujos tratamentos corresponderam a cinco níveis de salinidade da solução nutritiva obtidos com ou sem a necessidade de diluição do rejeito da dessalinização da água (2,1; 3,6; 4,9; 6,0 e 7,0 dS m-1. Avaliaram-se: altura de plantas, diâmetro de colo, área foliar, rendimento total e comercial de frutos por planta e, ainda, peso médio de frutos comerciais e totais. Em geral, as variáveis estudadas decresceram linearmente com o incremento da salinidade da solução nutritiva demonstrando que a salinidade da solução com água de rejeito reduz a disponibilidade de água para as plantas, devido ao efeito osmótico.To use of waster water from desalting in the hydroponic cultivation, an experiment was carried out at the Department of Environmental Science of the Universidade Federal Rural do Semi-Árido-UFERSA, in the municipal district of Mossoró-RN, in pots with substrates of coconut fiber under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was in randomized blocks, with three repetitions. Treatments were composed of five levels of salinity of the nutrient solution obtained with, and without, dilution of the waster water from desalting (2.1, 3.6, 4.9, 6.0 and 7.0 dS m-1. The variables plant height, stem diameter, leaf area, mean weight of fruit and total and marketable yield were detemined. In general, the variables decreased linearly with the increase of the salinity of the nutrient solution, showing that the salinity with waster water from desalting reduces the absorption of water by the plants due to the osmotic effect.

  12. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  13. Rivers of scarcity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelens, Rutgerd Anne

    2017-01-01

    'Utopians organized space, nature and society to perfection, including land and water governance -- rescuing society from deep-rooted crisis: “The happiest basis for a civilized community, to be universally adopted”. These days, similarly, well-intended utopian water governance regimes suggest

  14. Sanitary justice in scarcity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Kottow

    Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.

  15. Scarcity and waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremer, G.

    1986-02-01

    The author shows that the expansive energy strategy of the industrialized countries will cut deeply into the economic structure of the developing countries. For instance, a new surge in oil prices may be feared, developing countries may be forced to rely on expensive and polluting raw materials or to become increasingly dependent on imported oil, all of which may increase the danger of political crises concerning raw materials reserves. There is a practicable alternative to the expansive energy strategy, i.e. the possibility of energy conservation. For West Germany as well as for Third World countries, this way is the most favourable under ecological, social, and political aspects. (orig./HP) [de

  16. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Gan et al., 2003). Nitrogen increases yield by influencing a variety of agronomic and quality parameters. In general, there was an increase in plant height and dry matter accumulation per plant in soybean (Manral and Saxena, ...

  17. Nitrogen rate and plant population effects on yield and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... density and nitrogen rate increased plant height, lowest pod height, harvest index and seed yield. ... since some combine harvester heads are unable to pick ..... as effected by population density and plant distribution.

  18. Concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva, na produtividade e na qualidade de frutos de melão cultivado em substrato Nitrogen concentration of the nutrient solution on yield and quality of muskmelon fruits grown in substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio de Freitas Fogaça

    2007-02-01

    standard concentrations of, in mmol L-1, 0.9 H2PO4-; 2.25 SO4--; 10.0 Ca++; 6.0 K+ and 5.0 Mg++, and, in mg L-1, 0.42 Mn; 0.26 Zn; 0.05 Cu; 0.50 B; 0.04 Mo, and 4.82 of quelated Fe. The nutrient solution was delivered to plants several times a day, in order to replace volumes lost by transpiration, with a daily drainage coefficient higher than 30%. A randomized experimental design was used, with five treatments and four replications. Linear effect of treatments was observed for vegetative and fruit dry mass, leaf area, number and fruit yield. Fruit titratable acidity decreased by effect of treatments and no significant effects were observed for other fruit quality variables. The nitrogen concentration till 20mmol L-1 in the nutrient solution could be used in the fertigation of this crop grown in substrate.

  19. Effects of application boron on yields, yield component and oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of five boron (B) doses; 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 kg B ha-1 in B-deficient calcareous soils on yield and some yield components of four sunflower genotypes. Genotypes have shown variations with respect to their responses to B applications. AS-615 and Coban had the ...

  20. Technique of treatment of prostatic cancer with scarcity means; Tecnica del tratamiento del cancer de prostata con escasez de medios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez M, S.; Carrera M, F.; Gomez- Millan B, J.; Gutierrez B, L.; Bayo L, E. [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez. Ronda Norte s/n. Huelva (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    To show the particularities in the treatment simulation-localization, in the volume delimitation and in the main planning strategies motive by our scarcity means during the first year of performance (absence of physical simulator, planning system 2D). It was utilized a computerized tomograph, an X-ray equipment with tele commanded table and another with ceiling telescopic suspension. Also it was utilized a radio opaque lattice of marked center and knowing space and also a magnetic pointer for indicating 80 cm length between focus-skin. In the CT it was took spaced cuts starting from the central, at coincident distances with lattice lines, contouring the clinical target volume (CTV), what subsequently it was removed to the simulation plate. The volume to be irradiated, or PTV (planning target volume), it was determined adding a margin to CTV. The irradiation to itself it was realized with a minimum of 3 fields in the first phase. From 16 patients evaluated, the 100 % normalize the PSA ciphers at 6 months. 25 % patients, rectal-intestinal toxicity grade 1 and 18.7 % grade 2. Acute vesicle toxicity grade 1 in a 31.2 % patients, grade 2 in 12.5 % and grade 3 in 6.5 %. A 25 % patients presented dermatitis grade 1 and 18 % grade 2 and grade 3. Under no case it was necessary the treatment interruption for the toxicity normalization. Maximum local control with absence of chronic toxicity. The low toxicity presented could must be to the utilization of conformations in the lateral plates. According to our experience, we believe that it is not necessary to renounce at this type of treatments if it is lacking of high energies, such as succeed in some installations if it is utilized 3 or more fields in the first phase and individualized conformations. (Author)

  1. The Role of Political Action and Media in Increasing Public Awareness of Water Scarcity: Combined Effects on Water Use Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesnel, K.; Roby, N.; Gonzales, P.; Ajami, N.

    2016-12-01

    In the midst of California's current drought, authorities have enacted widespread initiatives aimed at coping with water scarcity, for example the first mandatory statewide urban water use reductions in 2015. But to what extent have these measures resulted in decreased water consumption? To answer this question, our research examines the impact of political actions on water use by using media as a proxy. News media outlets have heavily covered the progression of the California drought, and this outreach has played an important role in disseminating information and raising public awareness. To our knowledge, the relationship between political action/media coverage and water use has yet to be examined. In this study, we extract the number of articles related to the term "California Drought" from six widely-read national and statewide newspapers from 2005 to 2015. We study the relationship between media and monthly urban water use at the utility level using multivariate panel regression and principal components analysis to examine how media interacts with other modes of influence such as climate, price, and the state of the economy and how populations of different socio-demographics are affected by media outreach. We also use daily household-level water use readings from recently installed Automated Meter Infrastructure (AMI) in one utility to examine the relationship on a finer spatiotemporal scale. Using a policy timeline, Google search rates, and newspaper article trends confirms the relationship between political actions, public awareness, and media outreach. Preliminary modeling indicates that media plays a significant role in altering water use patterns for residential customers and in utilities with specific local characteristics.

  2. Is physical water scarcity a new phenomenon? Global assessment of water shortage over the last two millennia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kummu, Matti; Varis, Olli; Ward, Philip J; De Moel, Hans

    2010-01-01

    In this letter we analyse the temporal development of physical population-driven water scarcity, i.e. water shortage, over the period 0 AD to 2005 AD. This was done using population data derived from the HYDE dataset, and water resource availability based on the WaterGAP model results for the period 1961-90. Changes in historical water resources availability were simulated with the STREAM model, forced by climate output data of the ECBilt-CLIO-VECODE climate model. The water crowding index, i.e. Falkenmark water stress indicator, was used to identify water shortage in 284 sub-basins. Although our results show a few areas with moderate water shortage (1000-1700 m 3 /capita/yr) around the year 1800, water shortage began in earnest at around 1900, when 2% of the world population was under chronic water shortage ( 3 /capita/yr). By 1960, this percentage had risen to 9%. From then on, the number of people under water shortage increased rapidly to the year 2005, by which time 35% of the world population lived in areas with chronic water shortage. In this study, the effects of changes in population on water shortage are roughly four times more important than changes in water availability as a result of long-term climatic change. Global trends in adaptation measures to cope with reduced water resources per capita, such as irrigated area, reservoir storage, groundwater abstraction, and global trade of agricultural products, closely follow the recent increase in global water shortage.

  3. Decomposing global crop yield variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ari, Tamara; Makowski, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent food crises have highlighted the need to better understand the between-year variability of agricultural production. Although increasing future production seems necessary, the globalization of commodity markets suggests that the food system would also benefit from enhanced supplies stability through a reduction in the year-to-year variability. Here, we develop an analytical expression decomposing global crop yield interannual variability into three informative components that quantify how evenly are croplands distributed in the world, the proportion of cultivated areas allocated to regions of above or below average variability and the covariation between yields in distinct world regions. This decomposition is used to identify drivers of interannual yield variations for four major crops (i.e., maize, rice, soybean and wheat) over the period 1961-2012. We show that maize production is fairly spread but marked by one prominent region with high levels of crop yield interannual variability (which encompasses the North American corn belt in the USA, and Canada). In contrast, global rice yields have a small variability because, although spatially concentrated, much of the production is located in regions of below-average variability (i.e., South, Eastern and South Eastern Asia). Because of these contrasted land use allocations, an even cultivated land distribution across regions would reduce global maize yield variance, but increase the variance of global yield rice. Intermediate results are obtained for soybean and wheat for which croplands are mainly located in regions with close-to-average variability. At the scale of large world regions, we find that covariances of regional yields have a negligible contribution to global yield variance. The proposed decomposition could be applied at any spatial and time scales, including the yearly time step. By addressing global crop production stability (or lack thereof) our results contribute to the understanding of a key

  4. Solution preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Reviewed in this statement are methods of preparing solutions to be used in laboratory experiments to examine technical issues related to the safe disposal of nuclear waste from power generation. Each approach currently used to prepare solutions has advantages and any one approach may be preferred over the others in particular situations, depending upon the goals of the experimental program. These advantages are highlighted herein for three approaches to solution preparation that are currently used most in studies of nuclear waste disposal. Discussion of the disadvantages of each approach is presented to help a user select a preparation method for his particular studies. Also presented in this statement are general observations regarding solution preparation. These observations are used as examples of the types of concerns that need to be addressed regarding solution preparation. As shown by these examples, prior to experimentation or chemical analyses, laboratory techniques based on scientific knowledge of solutions can be applied to solutions, often resulting in great improvement in the usefulness of results

  5. The Impact of Resource Scarcity on Bonding and Bridging Social Capital: the Case of Fishers' Information-Sharing Networks in Loreto, BCS, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saudiel Ramirez-Sanchez

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Fishers often rely on their social capital to cope with resource fluctuations by sharing information on the abundance and location of fish. Drawing on research in seven coastal fishing communities in Loreto, Baja California Sur, Mexico, we examine the effect of resource scarcity on the bonding, bridging, and linking social-capital patterns of fishers' information-sharing networks. We found that: (1 fishers' information sharing is activated in response to varying ecological conditions; (2 resource scarcity is an ambiguous indicator of the extent to which fishers share information on the abundance and location of fish within and between communities; (3 information sharing is based on trust and occurs through kinship, friendship, and acquaintance social relations; (4 friendship ties play a key and flexible role in fishers' social networks within and between communities; (5 overall, the composition of fishers' social networks follows a friendship>kinship>acquaintance order of importance; and (6 the function of social ties, internal conflict, and settlement histories moderate the effects of resource scarcity on fishers' social capital. We conclude by arguing that the livelihoods of fishers from Loreto have adaptive capacity for dealing with fish fluctuations but little or no proactive resilience to address resource-management issues.

  6. Economic Context and HIV Vulnerability in Adolescents and Young Adults Living in Urban Slums in Kenya: A Qualitative Analysis Based on Scarcity Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Mathai, Muthoni; Linnemayr, Sebastian; Trujillo, Antonio; Mak'anyengo, Margaret; Montgomery, Brooke E E; Kerrigan, Deanna L

    2017-09-01

    Urban slum adolescents and young adults have disproportionately high rates of HIV compared to rural and non-slum urban youth. Yet, few studies have examined youth's perceptions of the economic drivers of HIV. Informed by traditional and behavioral economics, we applied a scarcity theoretical framework to qualitatively examine how poverty influences sexual risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Focus group discussions with one hundred twenty youth in Kenyan's urban slums were transcribed, coded, and analyzed using interpretive phenomenology. Results indicated that slum youth made many sexual decisions considered rational from a traditional economics perspective, such as acquiring more sex when resources were available, maximizing wealth through sex, being price-sensitive to costs of condoms or testing services, and taking more risks when protected from adverse sexual consequences. Youth's engagement in sexual risk behaviors was also motivated by scarcity phenomena explained by behavioral economics, such as compensating for sex lost during scarce periods (risk-seeking), valuing economic gains over HIV risks (tunneling, bandwidth tax), and transacting sex as an investment strategy (internal referencing). When scarcity was alleviated, young women additionally described reducing the number of sex partners to account for non-economic preferences (slack). Prevention strategies should address the traditional and behavioral economics of the HIV epidemic.

  7. Dimension 7 operators in the b{yields}s transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalons, G. [Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Domingo, F. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    We extend the low-energy effective field theory relevant for b{yields}s transitions up to operators of mass-dimension 7 and compute the associated anomalous-dimension matrix. We then compare our findings to the known results for dimension 6 operators and derive a solution for the renormalization group equations involving operators of dimension 7. We finally apply our analysis to a particularly simple case where the Standard Model is extended by an electroweak-magnetic operator and consider limits on this scenario from the decays B{sub s}{yields}{mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} and B{yields}K{nu} anti {nu}.

  8. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantz, M.; Al-Adili, A.; Gorelov, D.; Jokinen, A.; Kolhinen, V. S.; Mattera, A.; Moore, I.; Penttilä, H.; Pomp, S.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Rinta-Antila, S.; Simutkin, V.; Solders, A.

    2016-06-01

    The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL) technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f) and Th(p,f) have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn) reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  9. Fission yield measurements at IGISOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lantz M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The fission product yields are an important characteristic of the fission process. In fundamental physics, knowledge of the yield distributions is needed to better understand the fission process. For nuclear energy applications good knowledge of neutroninduced fission-product yields is important for the safe and efficient operation of nuclear power plants. With the Ion Guide Isotope Separator On-Line (IGISOL technique, products of nuclear reactions are stopped in a buffer gas and then extracted and separated by mass. Thanks to the high resolving power of the JYFLTRAP Penning trap, at University of Jyväskylä, fission products can be isobarically separated, making it possible to measure relative independent fission yields. In some cases it is even possible to resolve isomeric states from the ground state, permitting measurements of isomeric yield ratios. So far the reactions U(p,f and Th(p,f have been studied using the IGISOL-JYFLTRAP facility. Recently, a neutron converter target has been developed utilizing the Be(p,xn reaction. We here present the IGISOL-technique for fission yield measurements and some of the results from the measurements on proton induced fission. We also present the development of the neutron converter target, the characterization of the neutron field and the first tests with neutron-induced fission.

  10. Invited review: A commentary on predictive cheese yield formulas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, D B; Modler, H W

    2010-12-01

    Predictive cheese yield formulas have evolved from one based only on casein and fat in 1895. Refinements have included moisture and salt in cheese and whey solids as separate factors, paracasein instead of casein, and exclusion of whey solids from moisture associated with cheese protein. The General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas were tested critically using yield and composition of milk, whey, and cheese from 22 vats of Cheddar cheese. The General formula is based on the sum of cheese components: fat, protein, moisture, salt, whey solids free of fat and protein, as well as milk salts associated with paracasein. The testing yielded unexpected revelations. It was startling that the sum of components in cheese was SofC) in cheese. The apparent low estimation of SofC led to the idea of adjusting upwards, for each vat, the 5 measured components in the formula by the observed SofC, as a fraction. The mean of the adjusted predicted yields as percentages of actual yields was 99.99%. The adjusted forms of the General, Barbano, and Van Slyke formulas gave predicted yields equal to the actual yields. It was apparent that unadjusted yield formulas did not accurately predict yield; however, unadjusted PY%AY can be useful as a control tool for analyses of cheese and milk. It was unexpected that total milk protein in the adjusted General formula gave the same predicted yields as casein and paracasein, indicating that casein or paracasein may not always be necessary for successful yield prediction. The use of constants for recovery of fat and protein in the adjusted General formula gave adjusted predicted yields equal to actual yields, indicating that analyses of cheese for protein and fat may not always be necessary for yield prediction. Composition of cheese was estimated using a predictive formula; actual yield was needed for estimation of composition. Adjusted formulas are recommended for estimating target yields and cheese yield efficiency. Constants for solute exclusion

  11. Evaluation of Yield and Yield Attributes of Five Sweet Potato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0087, and TIS 2532.OP.1.13) were evaluated for yield and agronomic performance in Imo State University Farm, Owerri. The experiment was laid out in a randomised complete block design with three replications. The planting density was 33,000 ...

  12. Heterosis and combining ability for grain yield and yield component ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... ranged from 0 to -13% indicating that the hybrids tend to be earlier in maturity than the parents. The mean squares due to GCA for days to maturity, ear diameter, member of kernels per row, 1000 kernel weight and grain yield were significant, indicating the importance of additive genetic variance in controlling these traits.

  13. Rice yield prediction from yield components and limiting factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, D.; Goudriaan, J.; Catala Former, M.M.; Withagen, J.C.M.

    2002-01-01

    This article aims to quantify growth at field level in relation to crop status and soil properties in irrigated direct-seeded rice. Forty fields were selected in the Ebro Delta (Spain). Rice growth was monitored and soil properties measured. Yield was related to soil properties by a deductive

  14. Correlation Analysis of some Growth, Yield, Yield Components and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    three critical growth stages which was imposed by withholding water (at ... November, 5th December, 19th December and 2nd January) laid out in a split ... Simple correlation coefficient ® of different crop parameters and grain yield ... The husk bran and germ are rich sources of ..... heat in 2009/2010 dry season at Fadam a ...

  15. Status of fission yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    England, T.R.; Blachot, J.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we summarize the current status of the recent US evaluation for 34 fissioning nuclides at one or more neutron incident energies and for spontaneous fission. Currently there are 50 yields sets, and for each we have independent and cumulative yields and uncertainties for approximately 1100 fission products. When finalized the recommended data will become part of Version VI of the US ENDF/B. Other major evaluations in progress that are included in a recently formed IAEA Coordinated Research Program are also summarized. In a second part we review two empirical models in use to estimate independent yields. Comparison of model estimates with measured data is presented, including a comparison with some recent data obtained from Lohengrin (Cf-249 T). 18 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Farm size, land yields, and the agricultural production function: an analysis for fifteen developing countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornia, G A

    1985-04-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between factor inputs, land yields, and labor productivity for farms of different size on the basis of FAO farm management data for 15 developing countries. For all but three countries a strong negative correlation is found between farm size on the one side, and factor inputs and yields per hectare on the other. The fitting of unconstrained production functions to the above data suggests that in only few cases can the decline in yields for increasing farm size be attributed to decreasing returns to scale. The higher yields observed in small farms are mainly to be ascribed to higher factor inputs and to a more intensive use of land. Therefore, where conspicuous labor surpluses exist, the superiority of small farming provides solid arguments in favor of land redistribution. Such an agrarian reform would determine higher output, higher labor absorption and a more equitable income distribution, thus contributing in a decisive manner to the alleviation of rural poverty. The paper also provides estimates of cross-sectional production functions for the 15 countries analyzed. Empirical relations are found between the output elasticities of land, labor, and intermediate inputs and physical indicators of their scarcity. The paper concludes by proposing a simple method for deriving a long-term production function for agriculture. 23 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  17. Soil Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, C.; Voogt, W.

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of the soil solution in the root environment in the greenhouse industry differ much from those for field grown crops. This is caused firstly by the growing conditions in the greenhouse, which strongly differ from those in the field and secondly the function attributed to the soil

  18. Seeding Solutions

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Crucible Group operates on the basis of good faith –– producing best effort non-consensus texts. ..... science and technology-based solutions to agricultural production constraints, it is ...... In 1997 researchers at Case Western Reserve Medical School in Ohio (US) ...... Is there a need to update the system-wide IP audit?

  19. Circular Solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annevelink, E.; Bos, H.L.; Meesters, K.P.H.; Oever, van den M.J.A.; Haas, de W.; Kuikman, P.J.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Sikirica, N.

    2016-01-01

    The fifth part of this report on Circular Solutions is about the circular principle From Waste to Resource. The purpose of this study is to select promising options for the implementation of this circular principle and to elaborate these options further.

  20. Podcast solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Geoghegan, Michael W

    2005-01-01

    Podcasting is the art of recording radio show style audio tracks, then distributing them to listeners on the Web via podcasting software such as iPodder. From downloading podcasts to producing a track for fun or profit, ""Podcast Solutions"" covers the entire world of podcasting with insight, humor, and the unmatched wisdom of experience.

  1. Assessing potential sustainable wood yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert F. Powers

    2001-01-01

    Society is making unprecedented demands on world forests to produce and sustain many values. Chief among them is wood supply, and concerns are rising globally about the ability of forests to meet increasing needs. Assessing this is not easy. It requires a basic understanding of the principles governing forest productivity: how wood yield varies with tree and stand...

  2. NIF total neutron yield diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, Gary W.; Ruiz, Carlos L.

    2001-01-01

    We have designed a total neutron yield diagnostic for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) which is based on the activation of In and Cu samples. The particular approach that we have chosen is one in which we calibrate the entire counting system and which we call the ''F factor'' method. In this method, In and/or Cu samples are exposed to known sources of DD and DT neutrons. The activated samples are then counted with an appropriate system: a high purity Ge detector for In and a NaI coincidence system for Cu. We can then calculate a calibration factor, which relates measured activity to total neutron yield. The advantage of this approach is that specific knowledge of such quantities as cross sections and detector efficiencies is not needed. Unless the actual scattering environment of the NIF can be mocked up in the calibration experiment, the F factor will have to be modified using the results of a numerical simulation of the NIF scattering environment. In this article, the calibration factor methodology will be discussed and experimental results for the calibration factors will be presented. Total NIF neutron yields of 10 9 --10 19 can be measured with this method assuming a 50 cm stand-off distance can be employed for the lower yields

  3. GENETIC ANALYSIS OF YIELD AND YIELD COMPONENTS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2017-11-16

    Nov 16, 2017 ... used different genotypes and the environmental conditions under which their ... and Jinks (1971):. Y = m + aa + βd + a2aa + 2aβad +β2dd … .... /plant, 100-grain weight per plant and Grain yield per plant (g) of six generations in IET6279 X IR70445-146-3-. 3 cross. Traits. Generation. Mean. Standard. Range.

  4. Potato yield and yield structure depending on irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Stanko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the agroclimatic conditions of the Vojvodina Province, the application of an economic water regime and modern technology is necessary for stable and intensive potato production. A two-year experiment on calcareous chernozem was carried out to determine how irrigation and different pre-irrigation soil moisture affect potato yield and distribution of tuber fraction in the potato yield. The block-design trial had four replicates and was adapted for sprinkler irrigation conditions. It included four treatments: irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 60 % of field water capacity (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 70 % (FC, irrigation with pre-irrigation moisture levels of 80% (FC, and a non-irrigated control treatment. Irrigation significantly increased the yield of potato, which increased from 37.27 % to 75.86 %. Under irrigation, the percentage of small fractions decreased in favour of the 55 mm one, or fractions above the 45-55 mm range. On average, irrigated treatments produced significantly more tubers than the conditions of natural water supply. .

  5. Impacts on quality-induced water scarcity: drivers of nitrogen-related water pollution transfer under globalization from 1995 to 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Liyang; Cai, Wenjia; Jiang, Yongkai; Wang, Can

    2016-07-01

    Globalization enables the transfer of impacts on water availability. We argue that the threat should be evaluated not only by decrease of quantity, but more importantly by the degradation of water quality in exporting countries. Grouping the world into fourteen regions, this paper establishes a multi-region input-output framework to calculate the nitrogen-related grey water footprint and a water quality-induced scarcity index caused by pollution, for the period of 1995 to 2009. It is discovered that grey water embodied in international trade has been growing faster than total grey water footprint. China, the USA and India were the three top grey water exporters which accounted for more than half the total traded grey water. Dilemma rose when China and India were facing highest grey water scarcity. The EU and the USA were biggest grey water importers that alleviated their water stress by outsourcing water pollution. A structural decomposition analysis is conducted to study the drivers to the evolution of virtual flows of grey water under globalization during the period of 1995 to 2009. The results show that despite the technical progress that offset the growth of traded grey water, structural effects under globalization including both evolution in the globalized economic system and consumption structure, together with consumption volume made a positive contribution. It is found that the structural effect intensified the pollution-induced water scarcity of exporters as it generally increased all nations’ imported grey water while resulting in increases in only a few nations’ exported grey water, such as Brazil, China and Indonesia. At last, drawing from the ‘cap-and-trade’ and ‘boarder-tax-adjustment’ schemes, we propose policy recommendations that ensure water security and achieve environmentally sustainable trade from both the sides of production and consumption.

  6. Hard paths, soft paths or no paths? Cross-cultural perceptions of water solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, A.; White, A. C.; White, D. D.; Larson, K. L.; Brewis, A.; Roberts, C.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examine how development status and water scarcity shape people's perceptions of "hard path" and "soft path" water solutions. Based on ethnographic research conducted in four semi-rural/peri-urban sites (in Bolivia, Fiji, New Zealand, and the US), we use content analysis to conduct statistical and thematic comparisons of interview data. Our results indicate clear differences associated with development status and, to a lesser extent, water scarcity. People in the two less developed sites were more likely to suggest hard path solutions, less likely to suggest soft path solutions, and more likely to see no path to solutions than people in the more developed sites. Thematically, people in the two less developed sites envisioned solutions that involve small-scale water infrastructure and decentralized, community-based solutions, while people in the more developed sites envisioned solutions that involve large-scale infrastructure and centralized, regulatory water solutions. People in the two water-scarce sites were less likely to suggest soft path solutions and more likely to see no path to solutions (but no more likely to suggest hard path solutions) than people in the water-rich sites. Thematically, people in the two water-rich sites seemed to perceive a wider array of unrealized potential soft path solutions than those in the water-scarce sites. On balance, our findings are encouraging in that they indicate that people are receptive to soft path solutions in a range of sites, even those with limited financial or water resources. Our research points to the need for more studies that investigate the social feasibility of soft path water solutions, particularly in sites with significant financial and natural resource constraints.

  7. Solution Prototype

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efeoglu, Arkin; Møller, Charles; Serie, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper outlines an artifact building and evaluation proposal. Design Science Research (DSR) studies usually consider encapsulated artifact that have relationships with other artifacts. The solution prototype as a composed artifact demands for a more comprehensive consideration in its systematic...... environment. The solution prototype that is composed from blending product and service prototype has particular impacts on the dualism of DSR’s “Build” and “Evaluate”. Since the mix between product and service prototyping can be varied, there is a demand for a more agile and iterative framework. Van de Ven......’s research framework seems to fit this purpose. Van de Ven allows for an iterative research approach to problem solving with flexible starting point. The research activity is the result between the iteration of two dimensions. This framework focuses on the natural evaluation, particularly on ex...

  8. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    OpenAIRE

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are quantified, yield gaps evaluated by crop experts, current yield progress by breeding estimated, and different yield projections compared. Results show decreasing yield growth for wheat and rice, but ...

  9. Estimation of awareness and perception of water scarcity among farmers in the Guanzhong Plain, China, by means of a structural equation model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jianjun; Folmer, Henk; Xue, Jianhong

    2013-09-15

    This paper applies a structural equation model (SEM) to analyze the formation of awareness and perception of water scarcity, based on a cross-sectional dataset of 446 farmers in the Guanzhong Plain, Shaanxi Province, China. We find that age, percentage of time spent on farming and social network are the main determinants of awareness. Water price and drought experience are the most important explanatory variables of perception. In addition, awareness and perception strongly interact. The results obtained in this paper are relevant for policymaking, since environmental behavior, which includes efficient use of natural resources, tends to improve if supported by internalization of social norms, which in its turn, is promoted by awareness and perception. From the analysis it follows that spreading information via social networks, rather than via the media, is an important vehicle to enhance awareness and perception and thus to improve irrigation water use efficiency. Special attention should be paid to part-time farmers who are limited in directly perceiving water scarcity. Finally, more use should be made of the price mechanism to strengthen perception and awareness. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimization of Dithionite Bleaching of High Yield Bagasse Pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, E.

    2005-01-01

    High yield bagasse pulp was prepared by soaking bagasse in 10 % cold sodium hydroxide for 24 hours and then refluxing for two hours at 95 degree C. Optimization of dithionite bleaching was attained by investigation of different parameters as consistency, temperature, time and ph. Effect of additives as chelating agent (EDTA) or stabilizing of bleaching solution (Zn compound and hexamethylene tetramine) was considered. The effect of air content was also studied. One and two stages bleaching of the pulp were investigated by using sodium dithionite (D) as a sole bleaching agent or after application of one stage bleaching by hydrogen peroxide to attain high brightness for high yield pulp

  11. Continuous Passive Sampling of Solutes from Agricultural Subsurface Drainage Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindblad Vendelboe, Anders; de Jonge, Hubert; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Wollesen de Jonge, Lis

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural subsurface tube drain systems play an important role in water and solute transport. One study, focusing on lowland agricultural catchments, showed that subsurface tube drainage contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90% of the annual NO3 load from agricultural fields to the receiving water bodies. Knowledge of e.g. nutrient loads and drainage volumes, based on measurements and modelling, are important for adequate water quality management. Despite the importance of tube drain transport of solutes, monitoring data are scarce. This scarcity is a result of the existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant load from tube drains being expensive and labor-extensive. The study presented here aimed at developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor solute loads from tube drains. The method is based on the newly developed Flowcap, which can be attached to existing tube drain outlets and can measure total flow, contaminant load and flow-averaged concentrations of solutes in the drainage. The Flowcap builds on the existing Sorbicell principle, a passive sampling system that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various compounds. The Sorbicell consists of two compartments permeable to water. One compartment contains an adsorbent and one contains a tracer. When water passes through the Sorbicell the compound of interest is absorbed while a tracer is released. Using the tracer loss to calculate the volume of water that has passed the Sorbicell it is possible to calculate the average concentration of the compound. When mounting Sorbicells in the Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drainage is sampled from the main stream. To accommodate the wide range of drainage flow rates two Flowcaps with different capacities were tested in the laboratory: one with a capacity of 25 L min-1 (Q25) and one with a capacity of 256 L min-1 (Q256). In addition, Sorbicells with two different hydraulic

  12. Effect of Foliar Application of Iron, Zinc and Manganese Micronutrients on Yield and Yield Components and Seed Oil of Pot Marigold Calendula officinalis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Rezaei Chiyaneh

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Although micronutrients effect on growth and yield of different plants has been intensively investigated, but there is limited information on its effect on grain yield and seed oil content of pot marigold Calendula officinalis L.. In order to investigate the effects of micronutrients (Fe, Zn and Mn spraying on yield and yield components and seed oil of pot marigold, a field experiment was conducted based on randomized complete block design with three replications at the Research Farm of Payame Noor University of Nagadeh in 2010. Treatments included Fe, Zn, Mn, mixed solutions of these elements (Fe+Zn, Fe+Mn, Zn+Mn, Fe+Zn+Mn and control (water. Treatments were applied in 2 g/litter twice at stem elongation and early flowering stages. Different traits such as plant height, number of capitol per plant, number seed per capitol, thousand seed weight, biological yield, seed yield, seed oil percentage and oil Yield were recorded. The results showed that foliar application of micronutrients had significant effects on all of these traits. Yield components, seed yield, oil percentage and yield were enhanced by foliar application, compared with control (untreated plants. The maximum number seed per capitol, thousand seed weight and biological yield were relevant to Fe treatment. The highest numbers of capitol per plant and seed yield (643.33 kg.ha-1 were relevant to Zn+Fe treatment and the maximum oil yield (124.20 kg.ha-1 was produced by Zn+ Fe+ Mn treatment. Seed yield and oil yield increased by 31.27% and 44.18% yields more than control, respectively. It can be concluded that, foliar application of micronutrients had positive effects to obtain high yield and oil of pot marigold.

  13. Yields of historical exploration programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huslende, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper relates to an method of evaluation developed for analysing the yield of historical exploration programs by computerized simulation. The most important elements show in coarse features how the results can be used in the different analyses. The evaluation is to be executed annually for the comparison and sorting of data from different offshore sites. Topics are exploration evaluation study, evaluation process, handling of exploration costs, discovered reserves, development projects, cash flow analysis, analysis of results, finding cost, international comparison. 1 ref., 11 figs

  14. Anodizing And Sealing Aluminum In Nonchromated Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, John R.; Kallenborn, Kelli J.

    1995-01-01

    Improved process for anodizing and sealing aluminum involves use of 5 volume percent sulfuric acid in water as anodizing solution, and 1.5 to 2.0 volume percent nickel acetate in water as sealing solution. Replaces process in which sulfuric acid used at concentrations of 10 to 20 percent. Improved process yields thinner coats offering resistance to corrosion, fatigue life, and alloy-to-alloy consistency equal to or superior to those of anodized coats produced with chromated solutions.

  15. Crop diversity for yield increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengyun Li

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditional farming practices suggest that cultivation of a mixture of crop species in the same field through temporal and spatial management may be advantageous in boosting yields and preventing disease, but evidence from large-scale field testing is limited. Increasing crop diversity through intercropping addresses the problem of increasing land utilization and crop productivity. In collaboration with farmers and extension personnel, we tested intercropping of tobacco, maize, sugarcane, potato, wheat and broad bean--either by relay cropping or by mixing crop species based on differences in their heights, and practiced these patterns on 15,302 hectares in ten counties in Yunnan Province, China. The results of observation plots within these areas showed that some combinations increased crop yields for the same season between 33.2 and 84.7% and reached a land equivalent ratio (LER of between 1.31 and 1.84. This approach can be easily applied in developing countries, which is crucial in face of dwindling arable land and increasing food demand.

  16. The minimum yield in channeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uguzzoni, A.; Gaertner, K.; Lulli, G.; Andersen, J.U.

    2000-01-01

    A first estimate of the minimum yield was obtained from Lindhard's theory, with the assumption of a statistical equilibrium in the transverse phase-space of channeled particles guided by a continuum axial potential. However, computer simulations have shown that this estimate should be corrected by a fairly large factor, C (approximately equal to 2.5), called the Barrett factor. We have shown earlier that the concept of a statistical equilibrium can be applied to understand this result, with the introduction of a constraint in phase-space due to planar channeling of axially channeled particles. Here we present an extended test of these ideas on the basis of computer simulation of the trajectories of 2 MeV α particles in Si. In particular, the gradual trend towards a full statistical equilibrium is studied. We also discuss the introduction of this modification of standard channeling theory into descriptions of the multiple scattering of channeled particles (dechanneling) by a master equation and show that the calculated minimum yields are in very good agreement with the results of a full computer simulation

  17. Axisymmetric Compression of a Mohr-Coulomb Medium with Arbitrary Dilatancy, Including Free-Field Yielding

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kendall, David

    1997-01-01

    .... It also extends the solution to include cases where particular combinations of friction angle, elastic properties, and free-field pressure cause the free field to yield before significant deformation...

  18. Evaluation of Relationship Between Auxin and Cytokinine Hormones on Yield and Yield Components of Maize under Drought Stress Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Mahrokh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Drought is one of the major environmental conditions that adversely affects plant growth and crop yield. In the face of a global scarcity of water resources, water stress has already become a primary factor in limiting crop production worldwide. Drought is the major restriction in maize production. The plant growth reduction under drought stress conditions could be an outcome of altered hormonal balance and hence the exogenous application of growth regulators under stress conditions could be the possible means for reversing the effects of abiotic stress. Phytohormones such as auxine and cytokinine are known to be involved in the regulation of plant response to the adverse effects of stress conditions. Previous studies have shown that endogenous hormones are essential regulators for translocation and partitioning of photoassimilates for grain filling in cereal crops, and therefore could be involved in the regulation of grain weight and yield. Materials and Methods The experiment was carried out in three separately environments included non-drought stress environment (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity, drought stress in vegetative stage (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 50% field capacity in V4 to tasseling stage, but irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity in pollination to physiological maturity stage and drought stress in reproductive stage (irrigation after soil moisture reached to 75% field capacity in V4 to tasseling stage and irrigation after soil moisture reached to 50% field capacity in pollination to physiological maturity stage. Cytokinin hormone in three levels (control, spraying in V5 –V6 and V8-V10 stages and auxin hormone in three levels (control, spraying in silk emergence stage and 15 days after that were laid out as a factorial design based on randomized complete block with three replications in each environment at Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII

  19. ROI on yield data analysis systems through a business process management strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehani, Manu; Strader, Nathan; Hanson, Jeff

    2005-05-01

    The overriding motivation for yield engineering is profitability. This is achieved through application of yield management. The first application is to continually reduce waste in the form of yield loss. New products, new technologies and the dynamic state of the process and equipment keep introducing new ways to cause yield loss. In response, the yield management efforts have to continually come up with new solutions to minimize it. The second application of yield engineering is to aid in accurate product pricing. This is achieved through predicting future results of the yield engineering effort. The more accurate the yield prediction, the more accurate the wafer start volume, the more accurate the wafer pricing. Another aspect of yield prediction pertains to gauging the impact of a yield problem and predicting how long that will last. The ability to predict such impacts again feeds into wafer start calculations and wafer pricing. The question then is that if the stakes on yield management are so high why is it that most yield management efforts are run like science and engineering projects and less like manufacturing? In the eighties manufacturing put the theory of constraints1 into practice and put a premium on stability and predictability in manufacturing activities, why can't the same be done for yield management activities? This line of introspection led us to define and implement a business process to manage the yield engineering activities. We analyzed the best known methods (BKM) and deployed a workflow tool to make them the standard operating procedure (SOP) for yield managment. We present a case study in deploying a Business Process Management solution for Semiconductor Yield Engineering in a high-mix ASIC environment. We will present a description of the situation prior to deployment, a window into the development process and a valuation of the benefits.

  20. Influence of electric conductivity management on greenhouse tomato yield and fruit quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dorai , Martine; Papadopoulos , Athanasios; Gosselin , André

    2001-01-01

    International audience; The osmotic and ionic effects of the electrical conductivity (EC) of the nutrient solution and its interactions with climatic factors and cultural practices on tomato yield and fruit quality are reviewed. Adjusting the salinity of the nutrient solution allows growers to modify water availability to the crop and hence improve fruit quality. At some point, however, increases in salinity limit marketable yield. Under high ECs, fruit size is inversely related to EC while t...

  1. Development of a stream–aquifer numerical flow model to assess river water management under water scarcity in a Mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mas-Pla, Josep; Font, Eva; Astui, Oihane; Menció, Anna; Rodríguez-Florit, Agustí; Folch, Albert; Brusi, David; Pérez-Paricio, Alfredo

    2012-01-01

    Stream flow, as a part of a basin hydrological cycle, will be sensible to water scarcity as a result of climate change. Stream vulnerability should then be evaluated as a key component of the basin water budget. Numerical flow modeling has been applied to an alluvial formation in a small mountain basin to evaluate the stream–aquifer relationship under these future scenarios. The Arbúcies River basin (116 km 2 ) is located in the Catalan Inner Basins (NE Spain) and its lower reach, which is related to an alluvial aquifer, usually becomes dry during the summer period. This study seeks to determine the origin of such discharge losses whether from natural stream leakage and/or induced capture due to groundwater withdrawal. Our goal is also investigating how discharge variations from the basin headwaters, representing potential effects of climate change, may affect stream flow, aquifer recharge, and finally environmental preservation and human supply. A numerical flow model of the alluvial aquifer, based on MODFLOW and especially in the STREAM routine, reproduced the flow system after the usual calibration. Results indicate that, in the average, stream flow provides more than 50% of the water inputs to the alluvial aquifer, being responsible for the amount of stored water resources and for satisfying groundwater exploitation for human needs. Detailed simulations using daily time-steps permit setting threshold values for the stream flow entering at the beginning of the studied area so surface discharge is maintained along the whole watercourse and ecological flow requirements are satisfied as well. The effects of predicted rainfall and temperature variations on the Arbúcies River alluvial aquifer water balance are also discussed from the outcomes of the simulations. Finally, model results indicate the relevance of headwater discharge management under future climate scenarios to preserve downstream hydrological processes. They also point out that small mountain basins

  2. Effect of Different Tillage Methods and Cover Crop Types on Yield and Yield Components of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Sharefee

    2018-05-01

    influence on crop yield and yield components were observed where chickling pea and rocket salad were sown before wheat cultivation. Thus, cover crops and conservation tillage systems can be used as a promising solution for the development of sustainable agriculture and protecting the health of ecosystems.

  3. Crop yields response to water pressures in the Ebro basin in Spain: risk and water policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroga, S.; Fernández-Haddad, Z.; Iglesias, A.

    2011-02-01

    The increasing pressure on water systems in the Mediterranean enhances existing water conflicts and threatens water supply for agriculture. In this context, one of the main priorities for agricultural research and public policy is the adaptation of crop yields to water pressures. This paper focuses on the evaluation of hydrological risk and water policy implications for food production. Our methodological approach includes four steps. For the first step, we estimate the impacts of rainfall and irrigation water on crop yields. However, this study is not limited to general crop production functions since it also considers the linkages between those economic and biophysical aspects which may have an important effect on crop productivity. We use statistical models of yield response to address how hydrological variables affect the yield of the main Mediterranean crops in the Ebro river basin. In the second step, this study takes into consideration the effects of those interactions and analyzes gross value added sensitivity to crop production changes. We then use Montecarlo simulations to characterize crop yield risk to water variability. Finally we evaluate some policy scenarios with irrigated area adjustments that could cope in a context of increased water scarcity. A substantial decrease in irrigated land, of up to 30% of total, results in only moderate losses of crop productivity. The response is crop and region specific and may serve to prioritise adaptation strategies.

  4. Managing woodwaste: Yield from residue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, E. [LNS Services, Inc., North Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Rayner, S. [Pacific Waste Energy Inc., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Historically, the majority of sawmill waste has been burned or buried for the sole purpose of disposal. In most jurisdictions, environmental legislation will prohibit, or render uneconomic, these practices. Many reports have been prepared to describe the forest industry`s residue and its environmental effect; although these help those looking for industry-wide or regional solutions, such as electricity generation, they have limited value for the mill manager, who has the on-hands responsibility for generation and disposal of the waste. If the mill manager can evaluate waste streams and break them down into their usable components, he can find niche market solutions for portions of the plant residue and redirect waste to poor/no-return, rather than disposal-cost, end uses. In the modern mill, residue is collected at the individual machine centre by waste conveyors that combine and mix sawdust, shavings, bark, etc. and send the result to the hog-fuel pile. The mill waste system should be analyzed to determine the measures that can improve the quality of residues and determine the volumes of any particular category before the mixing, mentioned above, occurs. After this analysis, the mill may find a niche market for a portion of its woodwaste.

  5. RADIOCHEMICAL YIELDS OF GRAFT POLYMERIZATION REACTIONS OF CELLULOSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, Jr, J C; Blouin, F A

    1963-12-15

    The preparation of radioinduced graft polymers of cotton cellulose, while retaining the fibrous nature and high molecular weight of the cellulose, depended primarily on the radiochemical yields of cellulose reactions and of graft polymerization reactions. Yields of the initial major molecular changes in cellulosic polymer indicated that, in the case of scission of the molecule and carboxyl group formation, chain reactions were not initiated by radiation; however, in the case of carbonyl group formation chain reactions were initiated but quickly terminated. Generally, experimental procedures, used in graft polymerization reactions, were: simultaneous irradiation reactions, that is, application of monomers or solutions of monomers to cellulose or chemically modified celluloses, then irradiation; and post-irradiation reactions, that is, irradiation of cellulose or chemically modified celluloses, then after removal from the field of radiation, contacting the irradiated cellulose with monomer. Some of the most important factors influencing the radiochemical yields of graft polymerization reactions, of styrene and acrylonitrile onto cellulose were: concentration of monomer in treating solution; solvent; ratio of monomer solution to cellulose; prior chemical modification of cellulose; and absence of oxygen, particularly in post-irradiation reactions. Experimental data are presented, and the direct and indirect effects of Co/sup 60/ gamma radiation on these reactions are discussed. (auth)

  6. Radiolysis of Aqueous Benzene Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, H

    1964-05-15

    Aerated and deaerated aqueous solutions of benzene have been irradiated with {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. The products of radiolysis in deaerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were phenol, biphenyl, hydrogen and in acid solutions also hydrogen peroxide with the following yields: G(phenol) = 0. 37 (0. 37), G(biphenyl) = 1.3 (1.7), G(H{sub 2}) = 0.44 (0. 43) and G(H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) = 0 (0.60), the figures in brackets giving the results for acid solutions. The results are shown to agree with the conclusion that k(e{sup -}{sub aq} + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) >> k(H + H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Furthermore, the results indicate that a competition takes place between the reactions: 2 C{sub 6}H{sub 6}OH {center_dot} -> dimer -> biphenyl. C{sub 6}H{sub 7} {center_dot} + C{sub 6}H{sub 6}OH {center_dot} -> dimer -> biphenyl. The yields in aerated, unbuffered or acid, solutions were: G(phenol) = 2.1 (2.3), G(biphenyl) = 0 (0), and G(H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) = 2.2 (3.1), the figures in brackets being valid for acid solutions. The ratio k(H + C{sub 6}H{sub 6})/k(H + O{sub 2}) was 1.4x10{sup -2}. The results indicate that peroxides, or more probably hydroperoxides, take part in the reactions. After the addition of Fe{sup 2+} or Fe{sup 3+} to aerated acid solutions G(phenol) was increased to 6.6 and 3.4 respectively. Oxygen was consumed more rapidly in the presence of Fe. Reaction mechanisms are discussed.

  7. Physical water scarcity metrics for monitoring progress towards SDG target 6.4: An evaluation of indicator 6.4.2 "Level of water stress".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanham, D; Hoekstra, A Y; Wada, Y; Bouraoui, F; de Roo, A; Mekonnen, M M; van de Bund, W J; Batelaan, O; Pavelic, P; Bastiaanssen, W G M; Kummu, M; Rockström, J; Liu, J; Bisselink, B; Ronco, P; Pistocchi, A; Bidoglio, G

    2018-02-01

    Target 6.4 of the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) deals with the reduction of water scarcity. To monitor progress towards this target, two indicators are used: Indicator 6.4.1 measuring water use efficiency and 6.4.2 measuring the level of water stress (WS). This paper aims to identify whether the currently proposed indicator 6.4.2 considers the different elements that need to be accounted for in a WS indicator. WS indicators compare water use with water availability. We identify seven essential elements: 1) both gross and net water abstraction (or withdrawal) provide important information to understand WS; 2) WS indicators need to incorporate environmental flow requirements (EFR); 3) temporal and 4) spatial disaggregation is required in a WS assessment; 5) both renewable surface water and groundwater resources, including their interaction, need to be accounted for as renewable water availability; 6) alternative available water resources need to be accounted for as well, like fossil groundwater and desalinated water; 7) WS indicators need to account for water storage in reservoirs, water recycling and managed aquifer recharge. Indicator 6.4.2 considers many of these elements, but there is need for improvement. It is recommended that WS is measured based on net abstraction as well, in addition to currently only measuring WS based on gross abstraction. It does incorporate EFR. Temporal and spatial disaggregation is indeed defined as a goal in more advanced monitoring levels, in which it is also called for a differentiation between surface and groundwater resources. However, regarding element 6 and 7 there are some shortcomings for which we provide recommendations. In addition, indicator 6.4.2 is only one indicator, which monitors blue WS, but does not give information on green or green-blue water scarcity or on water quality. Within the SDG indicator framework, some of these topics are covered with other indicators. Copyright © 2017 The Authors

  8. Yield trends and yield gap analysis of major crops in the world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hengsdijk, H.; Langeveld, J.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to quantify the gap between current and potential yields of major crops in the world, and the production constraints that contribute to this yield gap. Using an expert-based evaluation of yield gaps and the literature, global and regional yields and yield trends of major crops are

  9. Real-time yield estimation based on deep learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnemoonfar, Maryam; Sheppard, Clay

    2017-05-01

    Crop yield estimation is an important task in product management and marketing. Accurate yield prediction helps farmers to make better decision on cultivation practices, plant disease prevention, and the size of harvest labor force. The current practice of yield estimation based on the manual counting of fruits is very time consuming and expensive process and it is not practical for big fields. Robotic systems including Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) and Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGV), provide an efficient, cost-effective, flexible, and scalable solution for product management and yield prediction. Recently huge data has been gathered from agricultural field, however efficient analysis of those data is still a challenging task. Computer vision approaches currently face diffident challenges in automatic counting of fruits or flowers including occlusion caused by leaves, branches or other fruits, variance in natural illumination, and scale. In this paper a novel deep convolutional network algorithm was developed to facilitate the accurate yield prediction and automatic counting of fruits and vegetables on the images. Our method is robust to occlusion, shadow, uneven illumination and scale. Experimental results in comparison to the state-of-the art show the effectiveness of our algorithm.

  10. GDP growth and the yield curvature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Stig Vinther

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....

  11. Reuse of hydroponic waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ramasamy Rajesh; Cho, Jae Young

    2014-01-01

    Attaining sustainable agriculture is a key goal in many parts of the world. The increased environmental awareness and the ongoing attempts to execute agricultural practices that are economically feasible and environmentally safe promote the use of hydroponic cultivation. Hydroponics is a technology for growing plants in nutrient solutions with or without the use of artificial medium to provide mechanical support. Major problems for hydroponic cultivation are higher operational cost and the causing of pollution due to discharge of waste nutrient solution. The nutrient effluent released into the environment can have negative impacts on the surrounding ecosystems as well as the potential to contaminate the groundwater utilized by humans for drinking purposes. The reuse of non-recycled, nutrient-rich hydroponic waste solution for growing plants in greenhouses is the possible way to control environmental pollution. Many researchers have successfully grown several plant species in hydroponic waste solution with high yield. Hence, this review addresses the problems associated with the release of hydroponic waste solution into the environment and possible reuse of hydroponic waste solution as an alternative resource for agriculture development and to control environmental pollution.

  12. Analysis of yield advantage in mixed cropping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ranganathan, R.

    1993-01-01

    It has long been recognized that mixed cropping can give yield advantages over sole cropping, but methods that can identify such yield benefits are still being developed. This thesis presents a method that combines physiological and economic principles in the evaluation of yield advantage.

  13. Fission yield data evaluation system FYDES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingjin

    1998-01-01

    Taking account of some features of fission yield data, to do the fission yield data evaluation conveniently, a fission yield data evaluation system FYDES has been developed for last two years. Outline of the system, data retrieval and data table standardization, data correction codes, data averaging code, simultaneous evaluation code and data fit programs were introduced

  14. modelling relationship between rainfall variability and yields

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , S. and ... factors to rice yield. Adebayo and Adebayo (1997) developed double log multiple regression model to predict rice yield in Adamawa State, Nigeria. The general form of .... the second are the crop yield/values for millet and sorghum ...

  15. Effect of phosphorus level on nitrogen accumulation and yield in soybean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You Yubo; Wu Dongmei; Gong Zhenping; Ma Chunmei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the 15 N labeling with sand culture was conducted to study effects of phosphorus level on nitrogen accumulation, nodule nitrogen fixation and yield of soybean plants. Results showed that nitrogen accumulation, fixation and yield of soybean plants all presented a single peak curve with improvement of phosphorus nutrition level, with the peak value of phosphorus concentration in nutrient solution of 31 mg/L. When phosphorus concentration of nutrient solution was 11 mg/L, no obvious promotion was found on the ratio of nodule nitrogen fixation when increasing phosphorus concentration again, However, when phosphorus concentration of nutrient solution was 21 mg/L, increasing phosphorus concentration again had no obvious promotion on soybean plant nitrogen accumulation, nodule nitrogen fixation accumulation and yield, indicating that effect of phosphorus nutrition level on nitrogen fixation was lower than that on yield formation level. (authors)

  16. Forward and pressure retarded osmosis: potential solutions for global challenges in energy and water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaysom, Chalida; Cath, Tazhi Y; Depuydt, Tom; Vankelecom, Ivo F J

    2013-08-21

    Osmotically driven membrane processes (ODMP) have gained renewed interest in recent years and they might become a potential solution for the world's most challenging problems of water and energy scarcity. Though the concept of utilizing osmotic pressure difference between high and low salinity streams across semipermeable membranes has been explored for several decades, lack of optimal membranes and draw solutions hindered competition between forward osmosis (FO) and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO) with existing water purification and power generation technologies, respectively. Driven by growing global water scarcity and by energy cost and negative environmental impacts, novel membranes and draw solutions are being developed for ODMPs, mass and heat transfer in osmotic process are becoming better understood, and new applications of ODMPs are emerging. Therefore, OMDPs might become promising green technologies to provide clean water and clean energy from abundantly available renewable resources. This review focuses primarily on new insights into osmotic membrane transport mechanisms and on novel membranes and draw solutions that are currently being developed. Furthermore, the effects of operating conditions on the overall performance of osmotic membranes will be highlighted and future perspectives will be presented.

  17. Redefining yield gaps at various spatial scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, K.; Fishman, R.; Norstrom, A. V.; Diekert, F. K.; Engstrom, G.; Gars, J.; McCarney, G. R.; Sjostedt, M.

    2013-12-01

    Recent research has highlighted the prevalence of 'yield gaps' around the world and the importance of closing them for global food security. However, the traditional concept of yield gap -defined as the difference between observed and optimal yield under biophysical conditions - omit relevant socio-economic and ecological constraints and thus offer limited guidance on potential policy interventions. This paper proposes alternative definitions of yield gaps by incorporating rich, high resolution, national and sub-national agricultural datasets. We examine feasible efforts to 'close yield gaps' at various spatial scales and across different socio-economic and ecological domains.

  18. Yield surface evolution for columnar ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Shujuan; Mu, Yanhu; Zhao, Shunpin; Li, Guoyu

    A series of triaxial compression tests, which has capable of measuring the volumetric strain of the sample, were conducted on columnar ice. A new testing approach of probing the experimental yield surface was performed from a single sample in order to investigate yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice under complex stress states. Based on the characteristic of the volumetric strain, a new method of defined the multiaxial yield strengths of the columnar ice is proposed. The experimental yield surface remains elliptical shape in the stress space of effective stress versus mean stress. The effect of temperature, loading rate and loading path in the initial yield surface and deformation properties of the columnar ice were also studied. Subsequent yield surfaces of the columnar ice have been explored by using uniaxial and hydrostatic paths. The evolution of the subsequent yield surface exhibits significant path-dependent characteristics. The multiaxial hardening law of the columnar ice was established experimentally. A phenomenological yield criterion was presented for multiaxial yield and hardening behaviors of the columnar ice. The comparisons between the theoretical and measured results indicate that this current model is capable of giving a reasonable prediction for the multiaxial yield and post-yield properties of the columnar ice subjected to different temperature, loading rate and path conditions.

  19. Measurements of beryllium sputtering yields at JET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jet-Efda Contributors Stamp, M. F.; Krieger, K.; Brezinsek, S.

    2011-08-01

    The lifetime of the beryllium first wall in ITER will depend on erosion and redeposition processes. The physical sputtering yields for beryllium (both deuterium on beryllium (Be) and Be on Be) are of crucial importance since they drive the erosion process. Literature values of experimental sputtering yields show an order of magnitude variation so predictive modelling of ITER wall lifetimes has large uncertainty. We have reviewed the old beryllium yield experiments on JET and used current beryllium atomic data to produce revised beryllium sputtering yields. These experimental measurements have been compared with a simple physical sputtering model based on TRIM.SP beryllium yield data. Fair agreement is seen for beryllium yields from a clean beryllium limiter. However the yield on a beryllium divertor tile (with C/Be co-deposits) shows poor agreement at low electron temperatures indicating that the effect of the higher sputtering threshold for beryllium carbide is important.

  20. Effects of Water Management, Arsenic and Phosphorus Levels on Rice Yield in High-Arsenic Soil-Water System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A. S. M. H. M. TALUKDER; C. A. MEISNER; M. A. R. SARKAR; M. S. ISLAM; K. D. SAYRE

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivation is considered an alternative production system to combat increased water scarcity and arsenic (As) contamination in the food chain. Pot experiments were conducted at the Wheat Research Centre, Dinajpur, Bangladesh to examine the role of water management (WM), As and phosphorus (P) on yield and yield attributes of boro (variety BRRI dhan 29) and aman (variety BRRI dhan 32) rice. A total of 18 treatment combinations of the three levels of As (0, 20 and 40 mg/kg) and P (0, 12.5 and 25.0 mg/kg) and two WM strategies (aerobic and anaerobic) were investigated. Yield attributes were significantly affected by increasing As levels. Grain yields of BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 were reduced from 63.0 to 7.7 and 35.0 to 16.5 g/pot with increasing As application, respectively, indicating a greater sensitivity of BRRI dhan 29 than BRRI dhan 32. Moreover, As toxicity was reduced with aerobic compared to anaerobic WM for all P levels. During early growth stages, phytotoxic symptoms appeared on BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 rice stems with increasing As levels without applying P under anaerobic WM. Under anaerobic and As-contaminated conditions, BRRI dhan 29 was highly susceptible to straighthead, which dramatically reduced grain yields. There were significant relationships between the number of effective tillers per pot and root dry weight, grain yield, and number of fertile and unfertile grains per pot for both BRRI dhan 29 and BRRI dhan 32 (P<0.001). Our findings indicate that rice could be grown aerobically in As-contaminated areas with a reduced risk of As toxicity and yield loss.

  1. Increasing the yeast yield in alcohol fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelc, A; Vamos, E; Varga, L; Gavalya, S; Dolanszky, F

    1964-02-01

    The yeast and ethanol yields (the latter being based on the substrate) are enhanced by adding the substrate (molasses) gradually to the suspension of inoculating yeast during the main fermentation period, passing air through the mash, ceasing both substrate addition and aeration at the end of the main period, and allowing the process to come to an end. This way 12 to 14 kg yeast (dry weight)/100 l ethanol could be obtained within 16 to 24 hours and the yeast obtained could be used as the inoculum for the next charge. For example: 11 to 16 kg yeast (or 18 to 25 l yeast suspension from the preceding charge, containing 18 to 20% dry matter) is kept in 30 to 35 l H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (0.74 g/100 ml) for 1 hour, diluted with H/sub 2/O and 30 kg sterile molasses to 300 l, kept at 30 to 32/sup 0/ with mild aeration for 2 hours, 1900 l 30/sup 0/ H/sub 2/O added, then 1 m/sup 3/ air/m/sup 2//hour is passed through the mixture, with the addition of 270 kg sterile molasses, and a solution of 8 kg superphosphate and 5 kg (NH/sub 4/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ in 100 l H/sub 2/O, the latter being added in 5 portions over 2 hours. Molasses (600 kg) is added during the main period, maintaining the pH at 5 (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/), and the temperature at 30/sup 0/, then aeration is ceased and the mixture kept until fermentation proceeds. The 3000 l medium contains 9.6% ethanol and 1.38% yeast, respectively.

  2. Implications of changing water cycle for the performance and yield characteristics of the multi-purpose Beas Reservoir in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeloye, A. J.; Ojha, C. S.; Soundharajan, B.; Remesan, R.

    2013-12-01

    There is considerable change in both the spatial and temporal patterns of monsoon rainfall in India, with implications for water resources availability and security. 'Mitigating the Impacts of Climate Change on India Agriculture' (MICCI) is one of five on-going scientific efforts being sponsored as part of the UK-NERC/India-MOES Changing Water Cycle (South Asia) initiative to further the understanding of the problem and proffer solutions that are robust and effective. This paper focuses on assessing the implications of projected climate change on the yield and performance characteristics of the Pong Reservoir on the Beas River, Himachal Pradesh, India. The Pong serves both hydropower and irrigation needs and is therefore strategic for the socio-economic well-being of the region as well as sustaining the livelihoods of millions of farmers that rely on it for irrigation. Simulated baseline and climate-change perturbed hydro-climate scenarios developed as part of a companion Work Package of MICCI formed the basis of the analysis. For both of these scenarios, reservoir analyses were carried out using the Sequent Peak Algorithm (SPA) and Pong's existing level of releases to derive rule curves for the reservoir. These rule curves then formed the basis of further reservoir behaviour simulations in WEAP and the resulting performance of the reservoir was summarised in terms of reliability, resilience, vulnerability and sustainability. The whole exercise was implemented within a Monte Carlo framework for the benefit of characterising the variability in the assessments. The results show that the rule curves developed using future hydro-climate are significantly changed from the baseline in that higher storages will be required to be maintained in the Pong in the future to achieve reliable performance. As far as the overall performance of the reservoir is concerned, future reliability (both time-based and volume-based) is not significantly different from the baseline, provided

  3. Development of a stream-aquifer numerical flow model to assess river water management under water scarcity in a Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Pla, Josep; Font, Eva; Astui, Oihane; Menció, Anna; Rodríguez-Florit, Agustí; Folch, Albert; Brusi, David; Pérez-Paricio, Alfredo

    2012-12-01

    Stream flow, as a part of a basin hydrological cycle, will be sensible to water scarcity as a result of climate change. Stream vulnerability should then be evaluated as a key component of the basin water budget. Numerical flow modeling has been applied to an alluvial formation in a small mountain basin to evaluate the stream-aquifer relationship under these future scenarios. The Arbúcies River basin (116 km(2)) is located in the Catalan Inner Basins (NE Spain) and its lower reach, which is related to an alluvial aquifer, usually becomes dry during the summer period. This study seeks to determine the origin of such discharge losses whether from natural stream leakage and/or induced capture due to groundwater withdrawal. Our goal is also investigating how discharge variations from the basin headwaters, representing potential effects of climate change, may affect stream flow, aquifer recharge, and finally environmental preservation and human supply. A numerical flow model of the alluvial aquifer, based on MODFLOW and especially in the STREAM routine, reproduced the flow system after the usual calibration. Results indicate that, in the average, stream flow provides more than 50% of the water inputs to the alluvial aquifer, being responsible for the amount of stored water resources and for satisfying groundwater exploitation for human needs. Detailed simulations using daily time-steps permit setting threshold values for the stream flow entering at the beginning of the studied area so surface discharge is maintained along the whole watercourse and ecological flow requirements are satisfied as well. The effects of predicted rainfall and temperature variations on the Arbúcies River alluvial aquifer water balance are also discussed from the outcomes of the simulations. Finally, model results indicate the relevance of headwater discharge management under future climate scenarios to preserve downstream hydrological processes. They also point out that small mountain basins

  4. Efeito da concentração de nitrogênio na solução nutritiva e do número de frutos por planta sobre a produção do meloeiro Effect of nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution and number of fruits per plant on yield of melon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe V. Purquerio

    2003-06-01

    fruit weight and lower yield per plant. The highest yield per plant (2,474 g/plant was obtained with 80 mg L-1 of nitrogen.

  5. Improving yield of PZT piezoelectric devices on glass substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-Wilke, Raegan L.; Wilke, Rudeger H. T.; Cotroneo, Vincenzo; Davis, William N.; Reid, Paul B.; Schwartz, Daniel A.; Trolier-McKinstry, Susan

    2012-10-01

    The proposed SMART-X telescope includes adaptive optics systems that use piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) films deposited on flexible glass substrates. Several processing constraints are imposed by current designs: the crystallization temperature must be kept below 550 °C, the total stress in the film must be minimized, and the yield on 1 cm2 actuator elements should be work, RF magnetron sputtering was used to deposit films since chemical solution deposition (CSD) led to warping of large area flexible glass substrates. A PZT 52/48 film that wasdeposited at 4 mTorr and annealed at 550 °C for 24 hours showed no detectable levels of either PbO or pyrochlore second phases. Large area electrodes (1cm x 1 cm) were deposited on 4" glass substrates. Initially, the yield of the devices was low, however, two methods were employed to increase the yield to near 100 %. The first method included a more rigorous cleaning to improve the continuity of the Pt bottom electrode. The second method was to apply 3 V DC across the capacitor structure to burn out regions of defective PZT. The result of this latter method essentially removed conducting filaments in the PZT but left the bulk of the material undamaged. By combining these two methods, the yield on the large area electrodes improved from < 10% to nearly 100%.

  6. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahl, A.C.

    2002-01-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z F = 90 thru 98, mass number A F = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru ∼200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from ∼ 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron (∼ fission spectrum) induced fission reactions

  7. Systematics of Fission-Product Yields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.C. Wahl

    2002-05-01

    Empirical equations representing systematics of fission-product yields have been derived from experimental data. The systematics give some insight into nuclear-structure effects on yields, and the equations allow estimation of yields from fission of any nuclide with atomic number Z{sub F} = 90 thru 98, mass number A{sub F} = 230 thru 252, and precursor excitation energy (projectile kinetic plus binding energies) PE = 0 thru {approx}200 MeV--the ranges of these quantities for the fissioning nuclei investigated. Calculations can be made with the computer program CYFP. Estimates of uncertainties in the yield estimates are given by equations, also in CYFP, and range from {approx} 15% for the highest yield values to several orders of magnitude for very small yield values. A summation method is used to calculate weighted average parameter values for fast-neutron ({approx} fission spectrum) induced fission reactions.

  8. Alumina Yield in the Bayer Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hond, R.

    The alumina industry has historically been able to reduce alumina production costs, by increasing the liquor alumina yield. To know the potential for further yield increases, the phase diagram of the ternary system Na2O-Al2O -H2O at various temperature levels was analysed. It was found that the maximum theorical precipitation alumina yield is 160 g/l, while that for digestion was calculated to be 675 g/l.

  9. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    John Y. Campbell; Glen B. Taksler

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  10. Status of fission product yield data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuninghame, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    The topics covered in this paper are: (a) cumulative yields in thermal neutron fission and in fast fission up to 14 MeV incident neutron energy, (b) dependence of the yields on incident neutron energy and spectrum, (c) independent yields, (d) charge dispersion and distribution, and (e) yields of light particles from ternary fission. The paper reviews information on these subjects for fission of actinides from 232 Th upwards with special emphasis on data published since the 1973 Bologna FPND Panel, compares data sets, and discusses the gaps still to be found in them. (author)

  11. Food for thought: pretty good multispecies yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindorf, Anna; Dichmont, C. M.; Levin, P.S.

    2017-01-01

    good multidimensional yield to accommodate situations where the yield from a stock affects the ecosystem, economic and social benefits, or sustainability. We demonstrate in a European example that PGMY is a practical concept. As PGMY provides a safe operating space for management that adheres...... that broader ecosystem, economic, and social objectives are addressed. We investigate how the principles of a “pretty good yield” range of fishing mortalities assumed to provide >95% of the average yield for a single stock can be expanded to a pretty good multispecies yield (PGMY) space and further to pretty...

  12. Yield Mapping in Salix; Skoerdekartering av salix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Christoffer; Gilbertsson, Mikael; Rogstrand, Gustav; Thylen, Lars

    2004-09-01

    The most common species for energy forest production is willow. Willow is able to produce a large amount of biomass in a short period of time. Growing willow has a potential to render a good financial result for the farmer if cultivated on fields with the right conditions and plenty of water. Under the right conditions growing willow can give the farmer a net income of 3,000 SEK (about 430 USD) per hectare and year, which is something that common cereal crops cannot compete with. However, this is not the common case since willow is often grown as a substitute crop on fields where cereal crop yield is low. The aim of this study was to reveal if it is possible to measure yield variability in willow, and if it is possible to describe the reasons for yield variation both within the field but also between different fields. Yield mapping has been used in conventional farming for about a decade. The principles for yield mapping are to continuously measure the yield while registering location by the use of GPS when harvesting the field. The collected data is then used to search for spatial variations within the field, and to try to understand the reasons for this variation. Since there is currently no commercial equipment for yield mapping in willow, a yield mapping system had to be developed within this project. The new system was installed on a Claas Jaguar harvester. The principle for yield mapping on the Claas Jaguar harvester is to measure the distance between the feeding rollers. This distance is correlated to the flow through the harvester. The speed and position of the machine was registered using GPS. Knowing the working width of the harvester this information was used to calculate the yield. All collected data was stored on a PDA computer. Soil samples were also collected from the yield mapped fields. This was to be able to test yield against both physical and chemical soil parameters. The result shows that it is possible to measure spatial variations of yield in

  13. Improving the yield from fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Jeremy T; Bagley, David M

    2007-05-01

    Efforts to increase H(2) yields from fermentative H(2) production include heat treatment of the inoculum, dissolved gas removal, and varying the organic loading rate. Although heat treatment kills methanogens and selects for spore-forming bacteria, the available evidence indicates H(2) yields are not maximized compared to bromoethanesulfonate, iodopropane, or perchloric acid pre-treatments and spore-forming acetogens are not killed. Operational controls (low pH, short solids retention time) can replace heat treatment. Gas sparging increases H(2) yields compared to un-sparged reactors, but no relationship exists between the sparging rate and H(2) yield. Lower sparging rates may improve the H(2) yield with less energy input and product dilution. The reasons why sparging improves H(2) yields are unknown, but recent measurements of dissolved H(2) concentrations during sparging suggest the assumption of decreased inhibition of the H(2)-producing enzymes is unlikely. Significant disagreement exists over the effect of organic loading rate (OLR); some studies show relatively higher OLRs improve H(2) yield while others show the opposite. Discovering the reasons for higher H(2) yields during dissolved gas removal and changes in OLR will help improve H(2) yields.

  14. A mathematical framework for yield (vs. rate) optimization in constraint-based modeling and applications in metabolic engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamt, Steffen; Müller, Stefan; Regensburger, Georg; Zanghellini, Jürgen

    2018-02-07

    The optimization of metabolic rates (as linear objective functions) represents the methodical core of flux-balance analysis techniques which have become a standard tool for the study of genome-scale metabolic models. Besides (growth and synthesis) rates, metabolic yields are key parameters for the characterization of biochemical transformation processes, especially in the context of biotechnological applications. However, yields are ratios of rates, and hence the optimization of yields (as nonlinear objective functions) under arbitrary linear constraints is not possible with current flux-balance analysis techniques. Despite the fundamental importance of yields in constraint-based modeling, a comprehensive mathematical framework for yield optimization is still missing. We present a mathematical theory that allows one to systematically compute and analyze yield-optimal solutions of metabolic models under arbitrary linear constraints. In particular, we formulate yield optimization as a linear-fractional program. For practical computations, we transform the linear-fractional yield optimization problem to a (higher-dimensional) linear problem. Its solutions determine the solutions of the original problem and can be used to predict yield-optimal flux distributions in genome-scale metabolic models. For the theoretical analysis, we consider the linear-fractional problem directly. Most importantly, we show that the yield-optimal solution set (like the rate-optimal solution set) is determined by (yield-optimal) elementary flux vectors of the underlying metabolic model. However, yield- and rate-optimal solutions may differ from each other, and hence optimal (biomass or product) yields are not necessarily obtained at solutions with optimal (growth or synthesis) rates. Moreover, we discuss phase planes/production envelopes and yield spaces, in particular, we prove that yield spaces are convex and provide algorithms for their computation. We illustrate our findings by a small

  15. The Effects of Different Nitrogen Sources on Yield and Yield Components of Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali mojab ghasroddashti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Sweet corn (Zea mays L. saccharata is one of the tropical cereals of graminae which is cultivated in order to use for ear. Nitrogen is one of the most important nutrients and key factors to achieve desirable yield. Fertilizers play a major role in crop productivity. However, nowadays, excessive use of fertilizers have been found to have a negative impact on yield and environment. Introducing new management methods based on nitrogen and water use efficiency showed some improvements in the quality and quantity of crop production in association with the health of the community. In fact, soil organic matter content should be maintained in the appropriate level to improve fertility. Using municipal solid waste compost and poultry manure are appropriate solutions. They can increase soil organic matter, modify physicochemical properties and improve crop production. Moreover, they are able to solve problems caused by the accumulation of municipal solid waste compost and poultry manure. Material and Methods In order to investigate the impact of different sources of nitrogen on yield and yield components of sweet corn, a field experiment was conducted as a randomized complete block design with three replications in Marvdasht in 2013. Treatments included different resources of fertilizer: 200 kg.ha-1 net nitrogen (T1, 300 kg.ha-1 net nitrogen (T2, 8 ton.ha-1 poultry manure (T3, 24 ton.ha-1 municipal solid waste compost (T4, 150 kg net nitrogen + 2 ton municipal solid waste compost (T5, 100 kg net nitrogen + 4 ton poultry manure (T6, 150 kg net nitrogen + 6 ton municipal solid waste compost (T7, 100 kg.ha-1 net nitrogen + 12 ton municipal solid waste compost (T8 and fertilizer free (control (T9. At the time of crop maturity, two square meters from middle of each plot were harvested to measure yield and yield components. Statistical analysis was performed using the SAS statistical software. Least significant difference (LSD test at the five

  16. Development of integrated scenarios to assess future conditions of aquatic ecosystems under water scarcity in the Mediterranean - perspectives from the GLOBAQUA project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber-Garcia, Verena; Akinsete, Ebun; Gampe, David; Ker Rault, Philippe; Kok, Kasper; Koundouri, Phoebe; Luttik, Joke; Nikulin, Grigory; Pistocchi, Alberto; Souliotis, Ioannis; Ludwig, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Water and water-related services are major components of the human wellbeing, and as such are major factors of socio-economic development; yet freshwater systems are under threat by a variety of stressors (organic and inorganic pollution, geomorphological alterations, land cover change, water abstraction, invasive species and pathogens). Water scarcity is most commonly associated with inappropriate water management and resulting river flow reductions. It has become one of the most important drivers of change in freshwater ecosystems. Conjoint occurrence of a myriad of stressors (chemical, geomorphological, biological) under water scarcity will produce novel and unfamiliar synergies and most likely very pronounced effects. Stressors are hierarchically arranged in terms of intensity, frequency and scale, and their effects can be predicted to be from transient to irreversible. Most ecosystems are simulta¬neously exposed to multiple-stress situations. Within the scope of the GLOBAQUA project the effects of multiple stressors on aquatic ecosystems in selected river basins across Europe with a focus on areas suffering from water scarcity are analyzed. In addition, management strategies are improved and adapted with the aim of inhibiting adverse effects on aquatic ecosystems and ensuring the supply with water for all purposes in the study areas also in the future. Policy relevant implications will be given to ensure a best possible status of these aquatic ecosystems also under future conditions. In this context, land use and land cover as well as the meteorological conditions can be seen as two main stressors for the quality and quantity of surface and subsurface water. These factors considerably affect the use and availability of water, especially in regions which already experience water scarcity. If the problem is not addressed correctly, negative effects on biodiversity, water supply as well as important economic consequences may arise. In Europe, many fresh water

  17. Technique of radiotherapeutic treatment of breast cancer with scarcity means; Tecnica de tratamiento radioterapico del cancer de mama con escasez de medios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velazquez M, S.; Carrera M, F.; Bayo L, E.; Gutierrez B, L.; Gomez-Millan B, J. [Hospital Juan Ramon Jimenez, Ronda Norte s/n, 21005 Huelva (Spain)

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this work is to show the particularities in the treatment simulation localization, in the volume selection and in the main planning strategies motive by our scarcity means during the first year of performance. It was utilized a computerized tomograph, an X-ray equipment with tele commanded table. Also it was utilized a radio opaque lattice of marked center and knowing space and also a magnetic pointer for indicating 80 cm length between focus-skin. Putting the patient on an inclined plane of self design and manufacture, it was realized three cuts at different levels over what are limited the clinical target volume (CTV) and it is optimized the isocenter through its determined localization by equations. It was employed equations for the radiobiological prediction about fibrosis and dermatitis. It was utilized another techniques or procedures for planning such as personnel wedges or the dose equilibrium in three points of the breast. It was evaluated toxicities (EORTC-RTOG). The results were as follow: Acute dermatitis (grade 1: 23 %; grade 2: 59 %; grade 3: 18 %). Acute pneumonitis (grade 1: 4.3 %); acute pharyngitis (grade 1: 11 %; grade 2: 3.7 %. In conservator treatment of breast it was obtained excellent aesthetic results in 15 %; good 72 %; moderate 11 %; and bad 3 %. The good aesthetic results by the combined use of the optimization techniques in clinical dosimetry, personnel wedges, isocenter therapy and computerized planning in the radiotherapeutic treatment of the breast cancer. (Author)

  18. Frequency and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, and Entamoeba hartmanni in the context of water scarcity in northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calegar, Deiviane Aparecida; Nunes, Beatriz Coronato; Monteiro, Kerla Joeline Lima; Santos, Jéssica Pereira Dos; Toma, Helena Keiko; Gomes, Tais Ferreira; Lima, Marli Maria; Bóia, Márcio Neves; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe Anibal

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to estimate the frequency, associated factors, and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, andEntamoeba hartmanni infections. We performed a survey (n = 213 subjects) to obtain parasitological, sanitation, and sociodemographic data. Faecal samples were processed through flotation and centrifugation methods.E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. hartmanni were identified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The overall prevalence of infection was 22/213 (10.3%). The infection rate among subjects who drink rainwater collected from roofs in tanks was higher than the rate in subjects who drink desalinated water pumped from wells; similarly, the infection rate among subjects who practice open defecation was significantly higher than that of subjects with latrines. Out of the 22 samples positive for morphologically indistinguishableEntamoeba species, the differentiation by PCR was successful for 21. The species distribution was as follows: 57.1% to E. dispar, 23.8% to E. histolytica, 14.3% toE. histolytica and E. dispar, and 4.8% E. dispar and E. hartmanni. These data suggest a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection by the group of morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskiicomplex and E. hartmanni species. In this context of water scarcity, the sanitary and socioenvironmental characteristics of the region appear to favour transmission.

  19. Frequency and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, and Entamoeba hartmanni in the context of water scarcity in northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deiviane Aparecida Calegar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the frequency, associated factors, and molecular characterisation of Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar, Entamoeba moshkovskii, andEntamoeba hartmanni infections. We performed a survey (n = 213 subjects to obtain parasitological, sanitation, and sociodemographic data. Faecal samples were processed through flotation and centrifugation methods.E. histolytica, E. dispar, E. moshkovskii, and E. hartmanni were identified by nested-polymerase chain reaction (PCR. The overall prevalence of infection was 22/213 (10.3%. The infection rate among subjects who drink rainwater collected from roofs in tanks was higher than the rate in subjects who drink desalinated water pumped from wells; similarly, the infection rate among subjects who practice open defecation was significantly higher than that of subjects with latrines. Out of the 22 samples positive for morphologically indistinguishableEntamoeba species, the differentiation by PCR was successful for 21. The species distribution was as follows: 57.1% to E. dispar, 23.8% to E. histolytica, 14.3% toE. histolytica and E. dispar, and 4.8% E. dispar and E. hartmanni. These data suggest a high prevalence of asymptomatic infection by the group of morphologically indistinguishable Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkovskiicomplex and E. hartmanni species. In this context of water scarcity, the sanitary and socioenvironmental characteristics of the region appear to favour transmission.

  20. A Dual Egalitarian Solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, F.; Slikker, M.; Tijs, S.H.

    2000-01-01

    In this note we introduce an egalitarian solution, called the dual egalitarian solution, that is the natural counterpart of the egalitarian solution of Dutta and Ray (1989).We prove, among others, that for a convex game the egalitarian solution coincides with the dual egalitarian solution for its

  1. Runoff and Sediment Yield Variations in Response to Precipitation Changes: A Case Study of Xichuan Watershed in the Loess Plateau, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianhong Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change on hydrological cycles and water resource distribution is particularly concerned with environmentally vulnerable areas, such as the Loess Plateau, where precipitation scarcity leads to or intensifies serious water related problems including water resource shortages, land degradation, and serious soil erosion. Based on a geographical information system (GIS, and using gauged hydrological data from 2001 to 2010, digital land-use and soil maps from 2005, a Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Xichuan Watershed, a typical hilly-gullied area in the Loess Plateau, China. The relative error, coefficient of determination, and Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient were used to analyze the accuracy of runoffs and sediment yields simulated by the model. Runoff and sediment yield variations were analyzed under different precipitation scenarios. The increases in runoff and sediment with increased precipitation were greater than their decreases with reduced precipitation, and runoff was more sensitive to the variations of precipitation than was sediment yield. The coefficients of variation (CVs of the runoff and sediment yield increased with increasing precipitation, and the CV of the sediment yield was more sensitive to small rainfall. The annual runoff and sediment yield fluctuated greatly, and their variation ranges and CVs were large when precipitation increased by 20%. The results provide local decision makers with scientific references for water resource utilization and soil and water conservation.

  2. Improving yield and water productivity of maize grown under deficit-irrigated in dry area conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Abd el-wahed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of water is the most severe constraint for development of maize in arid and semi-arid areas. Based on the actual crop need, the irrigation management has to be improved so that the water supply to the crop can be reduced while still achieving high yield. Therefore, the current study has been organized to evaluate the effects of deficit sprinkler irrigation (DSI and farmyard manure (FYM on Grain yield (GY and crop water productivity (CWP of corn, a 2-year experiment was conducted in arid region of Libya. The DSI treatments were (I100 = 100%, I85 = 85% or I70 = 70% of the crop evapotranspiration. FYM treatments were (0, 10 ton ha−1 spread either on the soil surface, incorporated with surface or subsurface layer (FYM10s, FYM10m or FYM10ss, respectively and 20 ton ha−1 spread as before (FYM20s, FYM20m or FYM20ss, respectively. Results indicated that the highest values of grain yield (GY were obtained from I100 treatment, while the lowest were observed in I70. FYM20ss enhanced GY than other FYM treatments in both seasons. The highest GY and CWP were recorded with I100 and received FYM20ss. It could be considered as a suitable under arid environmental conditions and similar regions, the treatment (I100 × FYM20ss is the most suitable for producing high GY and CWP. Under limited irrigation water, application of (I85 ×FYM20ss treatment was found to be favorable to save 15% of the applied irrigation water, at the time in which produced the same GY.

  3. Management of textile wastewater for improving growth and yield of field mustard (Brassica campestris L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Muhammad; Aziz, Muhammad Zahir; Komal, Aqleema; Naveed, Muhammad

    2017-09-02

    Disposal of industrial wastewater is a current issue of urbanization. However, this problem can be sorted out by using wastewater as an alternate source of irrigation after the addition of some amendment. In this way, the problem of disposal of wastewater not only will be resolved but also scarcity of irrigation water can be kept off in the future. The current research study was performed to evaluate the influence of different concentrations of wastewater along with canal water for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard. Plants were irrigated with different mixtures of canal water and wastewater (75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 00:100) in addition to canal water as control. The results revealed that application of 50:50% waste and canal water improved plant height, the number of pods plant -1 , pod length, root length, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, 100 grain weight, grain and biomass yield plant -1 , and nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium concentration in grain and straw up to 16%, 15%, 17%, 29%, 15%, 56%, 25%, 41%, 35%, 20%, 52%, 45%, 20%, 44%, and 42%, respectively, over positive control treatment. While, nutrient uptakes and agronomic efficiency of fertilizers also improved by the application of 50:50% canal and wastewater compared to positive control treatment. Furthermore, the concentration of heavy metals, predominantly Cr, Cu, Cd, and Pb, was reduced in grains by application of 50% canal water and 50% wastewater. The outcomes suggest that wastewater utilization along with canal water mixing might be an effective approach for enhancing growth and yield of field mustard.

  4. Integrated solution for field operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois [EDF, Chatou (France)

    2014-08-15

    This document presents our approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies yield to the fact that the value added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted.

  5. Integrated solution for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This document presents our approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies yield to the fact that the value added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted

  6. Integrated solution for field operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubin, Renaud; Dionis, Francois

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the authors' approach to design and to implement mobile applications for field operations. Internal on-field studies can yield the fact that the value-added by mobile solutions is correlated with the easiness of their integration with each other and with the underlying information systems. Moreover, the fast-growing mobile market brings new concepts to the mass and industrial applications design can benefit from these. As a consequence, a simple components-based approach has been applied to design and develop mobile applications for field operations and on-site experiments of the resulting applications have been conducted. (author)

  7. High-yield synthesis and optical response of gold nanostars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Pandian Senthil [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Unidad Asociada CSIC-Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Unidad Asociada CSIC-Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); RodrIguez-Gonzalez, Benito [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Unidad Asociada CSIC-Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Abajo, F Javier GarcIa de [Instituto de Optica-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006 Madrid (Spain); Liz-Marzan, Luis M [Departamento de Quimica Fisica and Unidad Asociada CSIC-Universidade de Vigo, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2008-01-09

    Multipod Au nanoparticles (nanostars) with single crystalline tips were synthesized in extremely high yield through the reduction of HAuCl{sub 4} in a concentrated solution of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), in the presence of preformed Au nanoparticle seeds, but with no need for external energy sources. Nanostar dispersions display a well-defined optical response, which was found (through theoretical modeling) to comprise a main mode confined within the tips and a secondary mode confined in the central body. Calculations of the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response additionally show that this morphology will be relevant for sensing applications.

  8. High-yield synthesis and optical response of gold nanostars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthil Kumar, Pandian; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; Rodríguez-González, Benito; García de Abajo, F. Javier; Liz-Marzán, Luis M.

    2008-01-01

    Multipod Au nanoparticles (nanostars) with single crystalline tips were synthesized in extremely high yield through the reduction of HAuCl4 in a concentrated solution of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), in the presence of preformed Au nanoparticle seeds, but with no need for external energy sources. Nanostar dispersions display a well-defined optical response, which was found (through theoretical modeling) to comprise a main mode confined within the tips and a secondary mode confined in the central body. Calculations of the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response additionally show that this morphology will be relevant for sensing applications.

  9. High-yield synthesis and optical response of gold nanostars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pandian Senthil; Pastoriza-Santos, Isabel; RodrIguez-Gonzalez, Benito; Abajo, F Javier GarcIa de; Liz-Marzan, Luis M

    2008-01-01

    Multipod Au nanoparticles (nanostars) with single crystalline tips were synthesized in extremely high yield through the reduction of HAuCl 4 in a concentrated solution of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), in the presence of preformed Au nanoparticle seeds, but with no need for external energy sources. Nanostar dispersions display a well-defined optical response, which was found (through theoretical modeling) to comprise a main mode confined within the tips and a secondary mode confined in the central body. Calculations of the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response additionally show that this morphology will be relevant for sensing applications

  10. Soil erosion and sediment yield, a double barrel problem in South Africa's only large river network without a dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Roux, Jay

    2016-04-01

    Soil erosion not only involves the loss of fertile topsoil but is also coupled with sedimentation of dams, a double barrel problem in semi-arid regions where water scarcity is frequent. Due to increasing water requirements in South Africa, the Department of Water and Sanitation is planning water resource development in the Mzimvubu River Catchment, which is the only large river network in the country without a dam. Two dams are planned including a large irrigation dam and a hydropower dam. However, previous soil erosion studies indicate that large parts of the catchment is severely eroded. Previous studies, nonetheless, used mapping and modelling techniques that represent only a selection of erosion processes and provide insufficient information about the sediment yield. This study maps and models the sediment yield comprehensively by means of two approaches over a five-year timeframe between 2007 and 2012. Sediment yield contribution from sheet-rill erosion was modelled with ArcSWAT (a graphical user interface for SWAT in a GIS), whereas gully erosion contributions were estimated using time-series mapping with SPOT 5 imagery followed by gully-derived sediment yield modelling in a GIS. Integration of the sheet-rill and gully results produced a total sediment yield map, with an average of 5 300 t km-2 y-1. Importantly, the annual average sediment yield of the areas where the irrigation dam and hydropower dam will be built is around 20 000 t km-2 y-1. Without catchment rehabilitation, the life expectancy of the irrigation dam and hydropower dam could be 50 and 40 years respectively.

  11. Classical solutions of the p-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoyanov, D.T.

    1988-11-01

    An appropriate subsidiary condition is introduced in the classical actions of the p-branes (p arbitrary). A general class of exact solutions of the resulting nonlinear equations of motion are obtained which yield a broad class of characteristics for the original covariant equations of the p-branes. (author). 11 refs

  12. Fluctuation Solution Theory Properties from Molecular Simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abildskov, Jens; Wedberg, R.; O’Connell, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The thermodynamic properties obtained in the Fluctuation Solution Theory are based on spatial integrals of molecular TCFs between component pairs in the mixture. Molecular simulation, via either MD or MC calculations, can yield these correlation functions for model inter- and intramolecular...

  13. Solution to random differential equations with boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairouz Tchier

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We study a family of random differential equations with boundary conditions. Using a random fixed point theorem, we prove an existence theorem that yields a unique random solution.

  14. Influence of sowing dates on phenological development and yield of dual purpose wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munsif, F.; Arif, M.; Ali, K.

    2015-01-01

    wheat can be used as dual purpose crop having valuable additional fodder supply costing no or least reduction in grain yield to fill the fodder gap in the scarcity fodder months on irrigated tracts of Pakistan. (author)

  15. Fissile solution dynamics: Student research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hetrick, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    There are two research projects in criticality safety at the University of Arizona: one in dynamic simulation of hypothetical criticality accidents in fissile solutions, and one in criticality benchmarks using transport theory. We have used the data from nuclear excursions in KEWB, CRAC, and SILENE to help in building models for solution excursions. An equation of state for liquids containing gas bubbles has been developed and coupled to point-reactor dynamics in an attempt to predict fission rate, yield, pressure, and kinetic energy. It appears that radiolytic gas is unimportant until after the first peak, but that it does strongly affect the shape of the subsequent power decrease and also the dynamic pressure.

  16. Dynamic viscosity of polymer solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterlin, A

    1982-03-01

    The dynamic viscosity investigation of solutions of long chain polymers in very viscous solvents has definitely shown the existence of the low and high frequency plateau with the gradual transition between them. In both extreme cases the extrapolation of the measured Newtonian viscosities of the plateaus to the infinite dilution yields the limiting intrinsic viscosities. Such a behavior is expected from the dynamic intrinsic viscosity of the necklace model of the linear polymer with finite internal viscosity. The plateau at low frequency shows up in any model of polymer solution. This work shows the constant dynamic intrinsic viscosity in both extreme cases is well reproducible by the necklace model with the internal viscosity acting only between the beads on the same link. 20 references.

  17. Crop yield response to increasing biochar rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The benefit or detriment to crop yield from biochar application varies with biochar type/rate, soil, crop, or climate. The objective of this research was to identify yield response of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), corn (Zea mayes L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) to hardwood biochar applied at...

  18. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    communication shocks have a significant impact, with intermediate maturities being affected the most; (ii) positive (negative) communication shocks significantly lower (raise) the yield spread between the peripheral and core countries; (iii) this cross-sectional difference arises after the 2008 financial crises......-for-yield investors....

  19. FEM growth and yield data monocultures - Poplar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohren, G.M.J.; Goudzwaard, L.; Jansen, J.J.; Oosterbaan, A.; Oldenburger, J.F.; Ouden, den J.

    2016-01-01

    The current database is part of the FEM growth and yield database, a collection of growth and yield data from even-aged monocultures (douglas fir, common oak, poplar, Japanese Larch, Norway spruce, Scots pine, Corsican pine, Austrian pine, red oak and several other species, with only a few plots,

  20. Yield stress of alumina-zirconia suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramakrishnan, V.; Pradip; Malghan, S.G.

    1996-01-01

    The yield stress of concentrated suspensions of alumina, zirconia, and mixed alumina-zirconia powders was measured by the vane technique as a function of solids loading, relative amounts of alumina and zirconia, and pH. At the isoelectric point (IEP), the yield stress varied as the fourth power of the solids loading. The relative ratio of alumina and zirconia particles was important in determining the yield stress of the suspension at the IEP. The yield stress of single and mixed suspensions showed a marked variation with pH. The maximum value occurred at or near the IEP of the suspension. The effect of electrical double-layer forces on the yield stress can be described on the basis of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory. A normalized yield stress--that is, the ratio of the yield stress at a given pH to the yield stress at the IEP predicted by this model--showed good correlation with experimental data

  1. Examining the roles that changing harvested areas, closing yield-gaps, and increasing yield ceilings have had on crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M.; Ray, D. K.; Mueller, N. D.; Foley, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    With an increasing and increasingly affluent population, there has been tremendous effort to examine strategies for sustainably increasing agricultural production to meet this surging global demand. Before developing new solutions from scratch, though, we believe it is important to consult our recent agricultural history to see where and how agricultural production changes have already taken place. By utilizing the newly created temporal M3 cropland datasets, we can for the first time examine gridded agricultural yields and area, both spatially and temporally. This research explores the historical drivers of agricultural production changes, from 1965-2005. The results will be presented spatially at the global-level (5-min resolution), as well as at the individual country-level. The primary research components of this study are presented below, including the general methodology utilized in each phase and preliminary results for soybean where available. The complete assessment will cover maize, wheat, rice, soybean, and sugarcane, and will include country-specific analysis for over 200 countries, states, territories and protectorates. Phase 1: The first component of our research isolates changes in agricultural production due to variation in planting decisions (harvested area) from changes in production due to intensification efforts (yield). We examine area/yield changes at the pixel-level over 5-year time-steps to determine how much each component has contributed to overall changes in production. Our results include both spatial patterns of changes in production, as well as spatial maps illustrating to what degree the production change is attributed to area and/or yield. Together, these maps illustrate where, why, and by how much agricultural production has changed over time. Phase 2: In the second phase of our research we attempt to determine the impact that area and yield changes have had on agricultural production at the country-level. We calculate a production

  2. Wheat yield dynamics: a structural econometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Afsin; Akdi, Yilmaz; Arslan, Fahrettin

    2007-10-15

    In this study we initially have tried to explore the wheat situation in Turkey, which has a small-open economy and in the member countries of European Union (EU). We have observed that increasing the wheat yield is fundamental to obtain comparative advantage among countries by depressing domestic prices. Also the changing structure of supporting schemes in Turkey makes it necessary to increase its wheat yield level. For this purpose, we have used available data to determine the dynamics of wheat yield by Ordinary Least Square Regression methods. In order to find out whether there is a linear relationship among these series we have checked each series whether they are integrated at the same order or not. Consequently, we have pointed out that fertilizer usage and precipitation level are substantial inputs for producing high wheat yield. Furthermore, in respect for our model, fertilizer usage affects wheat yield more than precipitation level.

  3. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  4. Improving yield and water use efficiency of sugarcane under drip irrigation in the Gharb region of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AABAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the most limiting factors for agricultural development in Morocco is water scarcity linked to climate change. Since 2008, an important program promoting drip irrigation was undertaken by the state to achieve water saving and productivity. An experiment on sugarcane was conducted in the Gharb region under Mediterranean climate with a silty clay soil during two cropping seasons. The objectives were to assess the sugarcane water requirements, optimize WUE and test the crop response to variable irrigation water supplies under drip irrigation. The experiment was conducted using ‘’CP70-321’’ sugarcane cultivar in an experimental station using a randomized block design with four replications and five water regimes. The results showed a highly significant effect of the water regime on sugar and stems yields and also on height of stems. Water requirements for sugarcane were estimated at 7500 m³.ha-1, but 5000 m³.ha-1 equivalent to 67%ETc, was sufficient to optimize WUE (132 to 157 kg of stems ha-1.mm-1 and 22.2 to 24.2 kg of sugar ha-1.mm-1. This means that drip irrigation on sugarcane could potentially i save about 50% of the irrigation volume, comparatively to sprinkler irrigation, ii almost double the stem yields and iii increase the sugar yields from 8 to 23 tons/ha.

  5. Photophysics of the variable quantum yield of asymmetric bilirubin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Troup, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Bilirubin (BR), responsible for neonatal jaundice, is a molecule containing two pyrromethenone chromophores conjoined by a 'saturated' carbon CH 2 group. Because this disease is cured by phototherapy, BR has been extensively studied by laser means. When the chromophores in each half of the molecule are identical, we have symmetrical BR (SBR); when they are not, we have asymmetric BR (ASBR). The quantum yield of the photoproducts in simple organic solution from SBR is not wavelength-dependent, while that from ASBR is. Because of the proximity of the two chromophores, both the SBR and ASBR systems are subject to Davidoff (dynamic electric dipole) splitting of the chromophore excited states. A quantum mechanical calculation shows that when the two (ASBR) chromophore states are not degenerate, the higher Davidoff state is preferentially occupied by the chromophore with the 'original' higher energy, and the lower Davidoff state by the chromophore of 'original' lower energy. This is just what is required for the quantum yield to vary with wavelength. If the variation of the quantum yield of ASBR in the presence of human serum albumen is approximated by a square-wave (narrow line approximation), the deduced ratio of the short wavelength photoproduct yield with the long wavelength one is in agreement with accepted values for the 'original' energy difference of the chromophores, and the Davidoff splitting parameter. A previous explanation has involved variation of relaxation processes with wavelength, but only qualitatively. The quantum yields for SBRs bonded to HSA are not yet published, but show wavelength variation, possibly from asymmetric bonding. In 0.1% ammonia/methanol however, there is no such variation for the SBRs, while for ASBR, there is, and the photoproduct ratios for long and short wavelength are reciprocals of one another, as predicted by our theory

  6. An additive to well injection water for increasing the oil yield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Absov, M.T.; Abutalybov, M.G.; Aslanov, S.M.; Movruzov, E.N.; Musaev, R.A.; Tairov, N.D.

    1979-03-05

    This invention relates to oil production using flooding. The goal of this invention is to increase the oil yield of a producing formation. This is achieved by using a saponin solution as an additive to the water injected into the formation (with related organic substances which are complex organic nitrogen-free compounds from the glycoside group; these substances yield solution that foam easily with an agitation). The use of saponin facilitates good solubility in fresh, sea and formation (alkaline and hard) waters, as well as the absence of sediment formation during dissolution, low solid adsorption, and a significant decrease in the surface water tension on the oil-water boundary. The aqueous saponin solution makes it possible to decrease the production cost of oil, as well as to decrease the development time of the fields and the volume of water injected into the formation and to significantly increase the oil yield.

  7. Climate Variability and Sugarcane Yield in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, David

    2005-11-01

    This paper seeks to understand the role that climate variability has on annual yield of sugarcane in Louisiana. Unique features of sugarcane growth in Louisiana and nonclimatic, yield-influencing factors make this goal an interesting and challenging one. Several methods of seeking and establishing the relations between yield and climate variables are employed. First, yield climate relations were investigated at a single research station where crop variety and growing conditions could be held constant and yield relations could be established between a predominant older crop variety and a newer one. Interviews with crop experts and a literature survey were used to identify potential climatic factors that control yield. A statistical analysis was performed using statewide yield data from the American Sugar Cane League from 1963 to 2002 and a climate database. Yield values for later years were adjusted downward to form an adjusted yield dataset. The climate database was principally constructed from daily and monthly values of maximum and minimum temperature and daily and monthly total precipitation for six cooperative weather-reporting stations representative of the area of sugarcane production. The influence of 74 different, though not independent, climate-related variables on sugarcane yield was investigated. The fact that a climate signal exists is demonstrated by comparing mean values of the climate variables corresponding to the upper and lower third of adjusted yield values. Most of these mean-value differences show an intuitively plausible difference between the high- and low-yield years. The difference between means of the climate variables for years corresponding to the upper and lower third of annual yield values for 13 of the variables is statistically significant at or above the 90% level. A correlation matrix was used to identify the variables that had the largest influence on annual yield. Four variables [called here critical climatic variables (CCV

  8. Extraction of thorium from solution using tribenzylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitehead, N.E.; Ditchburn, R.G.

    1975-01-01

    A method is described for isolating thorium from solutions in a state sufficiently pure for alpha spectroscopy. It parallels the method described by Moore and Thern (Radiochemical Radioanalytical Letters 19(2), 117-125, 1974), but uses tribenzylamine instead of Adogen 364. The method involves extracting thorium from a solution in 8M nitric acid, into a 6% w/v solution of tribenzylamine in toluene. The thorium is concentrated in a third, interfacial layer which forms. This layer is isolated, diluted with chloroform, and back extracted with 10M HC1. Overall yields range between 83 and 90% for one extraction. The acidic solution is taken down to near dryness, diluted until the pH is 2 and extracted into 1.2 ml of thenoyltrifluoroacetone in toluene. This solution is evaporated onto a stainless steel disk, flamed, and the disk may be used for alpha spectroscopy of thorium isotopes. (auth.)

  9. Radiolysis of concentrated nitric acid solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagaishi, R.; Jiang, P.Y.; Katsumura, Y.; Domae, M.; Ishigure, K.

    1995-01-01

    A study on electron pulse- and 60 Co γ-radiolysis of concentrated nitric acid and nitrate solutions has been carried out to elucidate the radiation induced reactions taking place in the solutions. Dissociation into NO 2 - and O( 3 P) was proposed as a direct action of the radiation on nitrate and gave the G-values were dependent on the chemical forms of nitrate: g s2 (-NO 3 - )=1.6 and g s2 (-HNO 3 )=2.2 (molecules/100eV). Based on the experimental yields of HNO 2 and reduced Ce IV , the primary yields of radiolysis products of water, g w , were evaluated to clarify the effects of nitrate on spur reactions of water in various nitrate solutions. (author)

  10. Water conservation under scarcity conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zietlow, Kim J.; Michalscheck, Mirja; Weltin, Meike

    2016-01-01

    This study measures the long-run effect of the Abu Tawfeer media campaign in Jordan. Based on a representative sample (N = 367) conducted five years after the end of the campaign, a multivariate instrumental variable regression analysis shows that the campaign only marginally changed people’s

  11. Time scarcity: another health inequality?

    OpenAIRE

    Lyndall Strazdins; Amy L Griffin; Dorothy H Broom; Cathy Banwell; Rosemary Korda; Jane Dixon; Francesco Paolucci; John Glover

    2011-01-01

    Considerable policy action has focused on the social patterning of health, especially the health risks associated with low income. More recent attention has turned to transport, food systems, workplaces, and location, and the way their intersections with social position and income create health inequalities. Time is another dimension that structures what people do; yet the way in which time contours health has been neglected. This paper explores (a) how time might influence health, and (b) th...

  12. Medical Scarcity : Quick Topic Report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2012-01-01

    Over the past five years, the pharmaceutical supply chain has grown increasingly unreliable. According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the figure of drug shortages has tripled between 2006 and 2010 (see Figure 1 and Figure 21). In 2010 alone 211 cases were recorded, while in 2011 up to

  13. Effects of phosphorus and zinc applications on the yields and yields ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of phosphorus and zinc applications on the yields and yields components of sole early maturing maize ( Zea mays ) and bambaranut ( Vigna subterranean Thour. ) and in intercrop under southern guinea savannah ecology zone.

  14. Yield and competition in barley variety mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Jokinen

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available Competition between spring barley varieties and yield performance of two-, three and four-variety mixtures were studied in two replacement series field experiments. In the first experiment, repeated in three successive years (1983 —85 the components were the six-row varieties Agneta, Arra, Hja-673 and Porno. In the second experiment (1984, including two nitrogen doses (50 and 100 kgN/ha, both six-row (Agneta, Pomo and two-row (Ida, Kustaa varieties were used. Arra in the first and Agneta in the second experiment were the most competitive varieties. The results suggested that the fast growth of Arra at the beginning promoted its competitive ability. Increase in available nitrogen usually strengthened the competitiveness of Agneta. The observed competitive differences between varieties were not related to the earliness of a variety, neither to the morphological characters (two- and six-row varieties nor to the grain yield of a variety grown alone. The competitive ability was not always a stable character, the dominant suppression relationship varying from one environment to another (e.g. growing season, nitrogen dose. The observed overyielding was not statistically significant. The ratio of actual to expected yield and the relative yield total of several mixtures exceeded slightly one. As a conclusion, the yield advantage of mixtures was marginal. As a rule, the mixtures were not more stable than monocultures as determined by the coefficient of variation. However, the yield of some mixtures varied less than the yield of the most stable monoculture.

  15. The assessment and the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources and coping strategies with feed scarcity in smallholder dairy farming in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duguma, Belay; Dermauw, Veronique; Janssens, Geert

    2017-06-01

    Inadequate quantity and quality of feed resources are major constraints limiting milk production and reproductive performance of dairy cattle in Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to assess dairy cattle feed resources, feeding practices, the farmers' perceived ranking of feed resources, causes of feed shortage, and coping strategies to feed scarcity in smallholder dairy system in selected district towns of Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Data were obtained by interviewing 52 randomly selected smallholder dairy farmers using structured questionnaires and through direct observations. Results showed that 20 main feed types used by dairy farmers were identified and categorized into natural pastures, crop residues, green feeds, hay, agro-industrial by-products, concentrate mix, and non-conventional feeds. Overall, natural pasture (mean rank = 0.453), non-conventional feeds (0.307), cut green feeds (0.086), conserved hay (0.076), crop residues (0.049), and concentrate feeds (0.029) were ranked as the main feed resources in decreasing order of importance. Natural pasture grazing (92.2% of the respondents), hay (35.6%), and green feeds (29.4%) were the most important conventional basal feeds used. Wheat bran (11.7% of the respondents) followed by commercial concentrate mix (9.4%), Noug seedcake (8.3%), grain (7.8%), and molasses (6.1%) were the concentrate supplements used. Overall, bulule-flour mill leftovers (67.2% of the farmers), bean and pea hulls (57.2%) and atella-local brew by-product (37.2%), enset (Ensete ventricosum, 34.4%), and sugarcane top (32.2%) were the non-conventional feeds available and used during feed scarcity. Barley and teff (Eragrostis teff) straws and maize and sorghum stovers were the main crop residues used in the dry seasons. Overall, 73.9, 12.2, 12.2, and 1.7% of the respondents practiced free grazing, zero grazing, semi-zero, and a combination of zero- and free-grazing systems, respectively. Over 84% of the respondents in the dry season and 50% in

  16. Benefits of seasonal forecasts of crop yields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, G.; Okada, M.; Nishimori, M.; Yokozawa, M.

    2017-12-01

    Major factors behind recent fluctuations in food prices include increased biofuel production and oil price fluctuations. In addition, several extreme climate events that reduced worldwide food production coincided with upward spikes in food prices. The stabilization of crop yields is one of the most important tasks to stabilize food prices and thereby enhance food security. Recent development of technologies related to crop modeling and seasonal weather forecasting has made it possible to forecast future crop yields for maize and soybean. However, the effective use of these technologies remains limited. Here we present the potential benefits of seasonal crop-yield forecasts on a global scale for choice of planting day. For this purpose, we used a model (PRYSBI-2) that can well replicate past crop yields both for maize and soybean. This model system uses a Bayesian statistical approach to estimate the parameters of a basic process-based model of crop growth. The spatial variability of model parameters was considered by estimating the posterior distribution of the parameters from historical yield data by using the Markov-chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method with a resolution of 1.125° × 1.125°. The posterior distributions of model parameters were estimated for each spatial grid with 30 000 MCMC steps of 10 chains each. By using this model and the estimated parameter distributions, we were able to estimate not only crop yield but also levels of associated uncertainty. We found that the global average crop yield increased about 30% as the result of the optimal selection of planting day and that the seasonal forecast of crop yield had a large benefit in and near the eastern part of Brazil and India for maize and the northern area of China for soybean. In these countries, the effects of El Niño and Indian Ocean dipole are large. The results highlight the importance of developing a system to forecast global crop yields.

  17. Generation of high-yield insulin producing cells from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian, Arefeh; Taghikhani, Mohammad; Abroun, Saeid; Pourpak, Zahra; Allahverdi, Amir; Soleimani, Masoud

    2014-07-01

    Allogenic islet transplantation is a most efficient approach for treatment of diabetes mellitus. However, the scarcity of islets and long term need for an immunosuppressant limits its application. Recently, cell replacement therapies that generate of unlimited sources of β cells have been developed to overcome these limitations. In this study we have described a stage specific differentiation protocol for the generation of insulin producing islet-like clusters from human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs). This specific stepwise protocol induced differentiation of hMSCs into definitive endoderm, pancreatic endoderm and pancreatic endocrine cells that expressed of sox17, foxa2, pdx1, ngn3, nkx2.2, insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide, and glut2 transcripts respectively. In addition, immunocytochemical analysis confirmed protein expression of the above mentioned genes. Western blot analysis discriminated insulin from proinsulin in the final differentiated cells. In derived insulin producing cells (IPCs), secreted insulin and C-peptide was in a glucose dependent manner. We have developed a protocol that generates effective high-yield human IPCs from hBM-MSCs in vitro. These finding suggest that functional IPCs generated by this procedure can be used as a cell-based approach for insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  18. Effect of fuelwood scarcity and socio-economic factors on household bio-based energy use and energy substitution in rural Ethiopia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guta, Dawit Diriba

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia biomass is predominantly utilized for household energy needs often using inefficient rudimentary stoves which cause adverse environmental and welfare effects. This paper examined the contribution of biomass resources to rural household energy use and energy substitution. The analysis applied the ordinary least square in the final stage estimation of fuelwood and overall biomass energy consumption by using predicted shadow prices. The paper used Tobit model to estimate charcoal and agricultural fuel consumption due to the presence of censoring. An increase in fuelwood shadow price was associated with reduced household fuelwood consumption with price elasticity of −0.38. The cross price elasticity between fuelwood and agricultural fuels revealed no evidence of energy substitution, which conforms to the findings of previous studies. Household access to electricity was associated with lower household biomass energy utilization but kerosene was not fuelwood substitute. Household energy use conformed to the ‘fuel stacking’ or ‘multiple fuel use’ concept, but households preferred modern energy options as welfare increased in areas where modern energy is available. This suggests that there is a promising prospect for fuel-transition, but access to modern energy and economic growth have key roles. The findings suggest that a concerted policy effort is required that would help diversify rural livelihoods, improve living standards and encourage economic growth, encourage inter-fuel substitution through improved modern energy access and afforestation to increase biomass supply. - Highlights: • The paper examined household biomass energy use and energy substitution. • Fuelwood use declined with increases in fuelwood scarcity or its shadow price. • Fuelwood and charcoal use increased with increase in household wealth. • Biomass energy consumption declined with an increase in household electricity use. • The result indicated agricultural fuel and

  19. Slope Controls Grain Yield and Climatic Yield in Mountainous Yunnan province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, X.; Rong, L.; Gu, Z.; Feng, D.

    2017-12-01

    Mountainous regions are increasingly vulnerable to food insecurity because of limited arable land, growing population pressure, and climate change. Development of sustainable mountain agriculture will require an increased understanding of the effects of environmental factors on grain and climatic yields. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between actual grain yield, climatic yield, and environmental factors in a mountainous region in China. We collected data on the average grain yield per unit area in 119 counties in Yunnan province from 1985 to 2012, and chose 17 environmental factors for the same period. Our results showed that actual grain yield ranged from 1.43 to 6.92 t·ha-1, and the climatic yield ranged from -0.15 to -0.01 t·ha-1. Lower climatic yield but higher grain yield was generally found in central areas and at lower slopes and elevations in the western and southwestern counties of Yunnan province. Higher climatic yield but lower grain yield were found in northwestern parts of Yunnan province on steep slopes. Annual precipation and temperature had a weak influence on the climatic yield. Slope explained 44.62 and 26.29% of the variation in grain yield and climatic yield. The effects of topography on grain and climatic yields were greater than climatic factors. Slope was the most important environmental variable for the variability in climatic and grain yields in the mountainous Yunnan province due to the highly heterogeneous topographic conditions. Conversion of slopes to terraces in areas with higher climatic yields is an effective way to maintain grain production in response to climate variability. Additionally, soil amendments and soil and water conservation measures should be considered to maintain soil fertility and aid in sustainable development in central areas, and in counties at lower slopes and elevations in western and southwestern Yunnan province.

  20. Optimizing rice yields while minimizing yield-scaled global warming potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittelkow, Cameron M; Adviento-Borbe, Maria A; van Kessel, Chris; Hill, James E; Linquist, Bruce A

    2014-05-01

    To meet growing global food demand with limited land and reduced environmental impact, agricultural greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are increasingly evaluated with respect to crop productivity, i.e., on a yield-scaled as opposed to area basis. Here, we compiled available field data on CH4 and N2 O emissions from rice production systems to test the hypothesis that in response to fertilizer nitrogen (N) addition, yield-scaled global warming potential (GWP) will be minimized at N rates that maximize yields. Within each study, yield N surplus was calculated to estimate deficit or excess N application rates with respect to the optimal N rate (defined as the N rate at which maximum yield was achieved). Relationships between yield N surplus and GHG emissions were assessed using linear and nonlinear mixed-effects models. Results indicate that yields increased in response to increasing N surplus when moving from deficit to optimal N rates. At N rates contributing to a yield N surplus, N2 O and yield-scaled N2 O emissions increased exponentially. In contrast, CH4 emissions were not impacted by N inputs. Accordingly, yield-scaled CH4 emissions decreased with N addition. Overall, yield-scaled GWP was minimized at optimal N rates, decreasing by 21% compared to treatments without N addition. These results are unique compared to aerobic cropping systems in which N2 O emissions are the primary contributor to GWP, meaning yield-scaled GWP may not necessarily decrease for aerobic crops when yields are optimized by N fertilizer addition. Balancing gains in agricultural productivity with climate change concerns, this work supports the concept that high rice yields can be achieved with minimal yield-scaled GWP through optimal N application rates. Moreover, additional improvements in N use efficiency may further reduce yield-scaled GWP, thereby strengthening the economic and environmental sustainability of rice systems. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Exclusive nonleptonic B{yields}VV decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N [Department of Physics, Utkal University, Bhubaneswar-751004 (India); Naimuddin, Sk [Department of Physics, Maharishi College of Natural Law, Bhubaneswar-751007 (India); Dash, P C [Department of Physics, Prananath Autonomous College, Khurda-752057 (India); Kar, Susmita [Department of Physics, North Orissa University, Baripada-757003 (India)

    2009-07-01

    The exclusive two-body nonleptonic B{yields}VV decays are investigated, within the factorization approximation, in the relativistic independent quark model based on a confining potential in the scalar-vector harmonic form. The branching ratios and the longitudinal polarization fraction (R{sub L}) are calculated yielding the model predictions in agreement with experiment. Our predicted CP-odd fraction (R{sub perpendicular}) for B{yields}D*D{sub (s)}* decays are in general agreement with other model predictions and within the existing experimental limit.

  2. The influence of aging stress on the yield point phenomenon in the zirconium alloy, ozhennite 0.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, J.I.; Sayar, A.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of aging stress on the occurrence of yield points during interrupted tensile tests was studied in the temperature range 423 to 623 K for aging times of 2 to 10 min. The results indicate that at the lower temperatures the yield points are produced by dislocation rearrangements, with a minimum yield drop resulting from an aging close to the internal stress estimated by an unloading to zero stress relaxation technique. Above approximately 458 K, solute atoms can play an important role in the formation of the yield points. When this solute strain-aging occurs strongly, a maximum yield drop is at times obtained by aging at a stress close to the measured internal stress. At the higher deformation temperatures, the yield drop decreases more rapidly with increasing plastic strain, which result appears related to the greater amount of tangling of dislocations produced at the higher temperatures. (Auth.)

  3. yield and yield componemts of extra early maize (zea mays l.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SHARIFAI

    maize crop and improve the soil structures and chemical nutrients of the soil. The significant interaction between intra-row spacing and poultry manure on cob diameter, 100 grain weight and grain yield showed the importance of poultry manure on yield and yield components of maize crop. Poultry manure increases both ...

  4. Using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to estimate sugarcane yield and yield components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) yield and yield components are important traits for growers and scientists to evaluate and select cultivars. Collection of these yield data would be labor intensive and time consuming in the early selection stages of sugarcane breeding cultivar development programs with a ...

  5. Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of cutting frequency on alfalfa yield and yield components in Songnen Plain, Northeast China. J Chen, F Tang, R Zhu, C Gao, G Di, Y Zhang. Abstract. The productivity and quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is strongly influenced by cutting frequency (F). To clarify that the yield and quality of alfalfa if affected by F, ...

  6. Inheritance of grain yield and its correlation with yield components in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-03-19

    Mar 19, 2014 ... 7 × 7 incomplete diallel cross of seven wheat parents during the crop season of 2009 to 2010. Mean square of general ... Genetic background and yield traits of the seven parents. Parent. Pedigree. Released year ..... Correlation and path analysis for yield and yield contributing characters in wheat (Triticum ...

  7. Kerr generalized solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papoyan, V.V.

    1989-01-01

    A Kerr generalized solution for a stationary axially-symmetric gravitational field of rotating self-gravitational objects is given. For solving the problem Einstein equations and their combinations are used. The particular cases: internal and external Schwarzschild solutions are considered. The external solution of the stationary problem is a Kerr solution generalization. 3 refs

  8. Translocação orgânica, produtividade e rendimento de óleo essencial de Mentha piperita L. cultivada em solução nutritiva com variação dos níveis de N, P, K e Mg Organic translocation, productivity and essential oil yield of Mentha piperita L. cultivated in nutrient solution with varying N, P, K and Mg levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.F.S. David

    2009-01-01

    relação às demais plantas. Todos esses índices indicam melhor produtividade das plantas submetidas ao tratamento 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg, que também apresentaram rendimento de óleo essencial, em média, maior durante o ciclo. Conclui-se que a redução de 35% de N, 50% de P, 75% de K (65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg é indicada para o cultivo e extração de óleo essencial de M. piperita.This study aimed to evaluate organic translocation, physiologic indexes of growth analysis and essential oil yield of Mentha piperita L. cultivated in nutrient solution with varying levels of N, P, K and Mg. Thus, four treatments were evaluated: 50% N, P, K, 25% Mg; 50% N, P, K, Mg; 65% N, 50% P, 25% K, 100% Mg; and 100% N, P, K, Mg. Organic translocation was assessed through leaf mass ratio (LMR and dry matter distribution to the different organs. The physiologic indexes leaf area ratio (LAR, specific leaf area (SLA, net assimilation rate (NAR and relative growth rate (RGR, derived from growth analysis, were estimated using the software ANACRES, following the quadratic exponential fitting of leaf area and dry mass of leaves and total plant, relative to time. Essential oil yield was calculated as percentage after extraction from shoot using hydrodistillation. Plants subjected to the treatment with complete level of nutrients (100%N/P/K/Mg less efficiently exported organic material from the leaf and LMR showed slower decrease due to the longer retention of such material in its production site. Besides, those plants did not present higher productivity and NAR and RGR curves showed slower decrease. Plants subjected to the treatment with 65%N/50%P/25%K/100%Mg had adequate organic matter exportation from the leaves to the stem and petioles, as demonstrated by LMR and dry matter distribution to these organs. Also in these plants, LAR was higher at the initial development and lower at 94 DAT, indicating leaf shading as a result of growth, and SLA showed less variation during the cycle, reflecting

  9. Radiochromic liquid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noakes, J.E.; Culp, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    A radiochromic solution which is sensitive to small dosages of ionizing and ultraviolet radiation is described. It consists of a solution of a leucocyanide dye in a clear polar solvent with enough organic acid added to make the solution at least slightly acidic and responds to radiation by permanently changing color. Up to one half of the solution by weight can be replaced by a second solution of an aromatic solvent and an organic fluor. Another modification of the invention is a solution of a leucocyanide dye in a clear polar solvent having an aromatic group, an organic fluor, and enough organic acid to make the solution at least slightly acidic. (author)

  10. Chemical intervention in plant sugar signalling increases yield and resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Cara A.; Sagar, Ram; Geng, Yiqun; Primavesi, Lucia F.; Patel, Mitul K.; Passarelli, Melissa K.; Gilmore, Ian S.; Steven, Rory T.; Bunch, Josephine; Paul, Matthew J.; Davis, Benjamin G.

    2016-12-01

    The pressing global issue of food insecurity due to population growth, diminishing land and variable climate can only be addressed in agriculture by improving both maximum crop yield potential and resilience. Genetic modification is one potential solution, but has yet to achieve worldwide acceptance, particularly for crops such as wheat. Trehalose-6-phosphate (T6P), a central sugar signal in plants, regulates sucrose use and allocation, underpinning crop growth and development. Here we show that application of a chemical intervention strategy directly modulates T6P levels in planta. Plant-permeable analogues of T6P were designed and constructed based on a ‘signalling-precursor’ concept for permeability, ready uptake and sunlight-triggered release of T6P in planta. We show that chemical intervention in a potent sugar signal increases grain yield, whereas application to vegetative tissue improves recovery and resurrection from drought. This technology offers a means to combine increases in yield with crop stress resilience. Given the generality of the T6P pathway in plants and other small-molecule signals in biology, these studies suggest that suitable synthetic exogenous small-molecule signal precursors can be used to directly enhance plant performance and perhaps other organism function.

  11. Increasing Crop Yields in Water Stressed Countries by Combining Operations of Freshwater Reservoir and Wastewater Reclamation Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, R.; Ng, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    Freshwater resources around the world are increasing in scarcity due to population growth, industrialization and climate change. This is a serious concern for water stressed countries, including those in Asia and North Africa where future food production is expected to be negatively affected by this. To address this problem, we investigate the potential of combining freshwater reservoir and wastewater reclamation operations. Reservoir water is the cheaper source of irrigation, but is often limited and climate sensitive. Treated wastewater is a more reliable alternative for irrigation, but often requires extensive further treatment which can be expensive. We propose combining the operations of a reservoir and a wastewater reclamation plant (WWRP) to augment the supply from the reservoir with reclaimed water for increasing crop yields in water stressed regions. The joint system of reservoir and WWRP is modeled as a multi-objective optimization problem with the double objective of maximizing the crop yield and minimizing total cost, subject to constraints on reservoir storage, spill and release, and capacity of the WWRP. We use the crop growth model Aquacrop, supported by The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), to model crop growth in response to water use. Aquacrop considers the effects of water deficit on crop growth stages, and from there estimates crop yield. We generate results comparing total crop yield under irrigation with water from just the reservoir (which is limited and often interrupted), and yield with water from the joint system (which has the potential of higher supply and greater reliability). We will present results for locations in India and Africa to evaluate the potential of the joint operations for improving food security in those areas for different budgets.

  12. Laser-based secondary neutral mass spectroscopy: Useful yield and sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, C.E.; Pellin, M.J.; Calaway, W.F.; Joergensen, B.; Schweitzer, E.L.; Gruen, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    A variety of problems exist in order to optimally apply resonance ionization spectroscopy (RIS) to the detection of sputtered neutral atoms, however. Several of these problems and their solutions are examined in this paper. First, the possible useful yields obtainable and the dependence of useful yield on various laser parameters for this type of sputtered neutral mass spectrometer (SNMS) are considered. Second, the choice of a mass spectrometer and its effect on the instrumental useful yield is explored in light of the unique ionization region for laser based SNMS. Finally a brief description of noise sources and their effect on the instrumental sensitivity is discussed. 33 refs., 12 figs

  13. On the yield stress of complex materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderas, F.; Herrera-Valencia, E. E.; Sanchez-Solis, A.; Manero, O.; Medina-Torres, L.; Renteria, A.; Sanchez-Olivares, G.

    2013-11-01

    In the present work, the yield stress of complex materials is analyzed and modeled using the Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) constitutive equation, consisting of the upper-convected Maxwell equation coupled to a kinetic equation to account for the breakdown and reformation of the fluid structure. BMP model predictions for a complex fluid in different flow situations are analyzed and compared with yield stress predictions of other rheological models, and with experiments on fluids that exhibit yield stresses. It is shown that one of the main features of the BMP model is that it predicts a real yield stress (elastic solid or Hookean behavior) as one of the material parameters, the zero shear-rate fluidity, is zero. In addition, the transition to fluid-like behavior is continuous, as opposed to predictions of more empirical models.

  14. Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrogeological Characteristics of Groundwater Yield in Shallow Wells of the ... of Water Resources and Lower Niger River Basin Development Authority in Ilorin. ... moment correlation, multiple and stepwise multiple regression analysis.

  15. Accelerated yield learning in agressive lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monahan, Kevin M.; Ashkenaz, Scott M.; Chen, Xing; Lord, Patrick J.; Merrill, Mark A.; Quattrini, Rich; Wiley, James N.

    2000-06-01

    As exposure wavelengths decrease from 248 nm to 193, 157, and even 13 nm (EUV), small process defects can cause collapse of the lithographic process window near the limits of resolution, particularly for the gate and contact structures in high- performance devices. Such sensitivity poses a challenge for lithography process module control. In this work, we show that yield loss can be caused by a combination of macro, micro, CD, and overlay defects. A defect is defined as any yield- affecting process variation. Each defect, regardless of cause, is assumed to have a specific 'kill potential.' The accuracy of the lithographic yield model can be improved by identifying those defects with the highest kill potential or, more importantly, those that pose the highest economic risk. Such economic considerations have led us to develop a simple heuristic model for understanding sampling strategies in defect metrology and for linking metrology capability to yield and profitability.

  16. Agricultural yields of irradiated sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnavacca, Cecilia; Miranda, E.; Sanchez, M.

    1999-01-01

    Lettuce, radish and ryegrass have been used to study the nitrogen fertilization of soil by sewage sludge. The results show that the irradiated sludge improve by 15 - 30 % the production yield, compared to the non-irradiated sludge. (author)

  17. Enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    Much has been learned about muon-catalyzed fusion since the last conference on emerging nuclear energy systems. Here the authors consider what they have learned about enhancing the muon-catalyzed fusion energy yield

  18. Independent isomer yield ratio of 90Rb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeder, P.L.; Warner, R.A.; Ford, G.P.; Willmes, H.

    1985-05-01

    The independent isomer yield ratio for 90 Rb from thermal neutron fission of 235 U has been measured by use of a new technique involving a pulsed reactor and an on-line mass spectrometer facility. The apparent isomer yield ratio was measured for different ion collection time intervals and extrapolated to zero collection time to eliminate interference from 90 Kr decay. The observed isomer yield ratio of 8.7 +- 1.0 is one of the largest ratios measured for a low energy fission process. However, a statistical model analysis shows that the average angular momentum ( = 4.5) deduced from this isomer yield ratio is consistent with average angular momentum for other products from low energy fission. 7 refs

  19. Liquid scintillation solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, E.C.

    1976-01-01

    The liquid scintillation solution described includes a mixture of: a liquid scintillation solvent, a primary scintillation solute, a secondary scintillation solute, a variety of appreciably different surfactants, and a dissolving and transparency agent. The dissolving and transparency agent is tetrahydrofuran, a cyclic ether. The scintillation solvent is toluene. The primary scintillation solute is PPO, and the secondary scintillation solute is dimethyl POPOP. The variety of appreciably different surfactants is composed of isooctylphenol-polyethoxyethanol and sodium dihexyl sulphosuccinate [fr

  20. Optimization of components in high-yield synthesis of block copolymer-mediated gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Debes; Aswal, Vinod Kumar

    2012-01-01

    The optimization to achieve stable and high-yield gold nanoparticles in block copolymer-mediated synthesis has been examined. Gold nanoparticles are synthesized using block copolymer P85 in gold salt HAuCl 4 ·3H 2 O solution. This method usually has a very limited yield which does not simply increase with the increase in the gold salt concentration. We show that the yield can be enhanced by increasing the block copolymer concentration but is limited to the factor by which the concentration is increased. On the other hand, the presence of an additional reductant (trisodium citrate) in 1:1 molar ratio with gold salt enhances the yield by manyfold. In this case (with additional reductant), the stable and high-yield nanoparticles having size about 14 nm can be synthesized at very low block copolymer concentrations. These nanoparticles thus can be efficiently used for their application such as for adsorption of proteins.

  1. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    countries. We study two explanations for this finding, revelation of the ECB’s private information and credit risk, and argue that neither channel can explain the effect on yield spreads. Motivated by this, we consider an alternative explanation in which central bank communication affects the aggregate...... demand due to the presence of reaching-for-yield investors. We show that a resulting risk premium channel helps to rationalize our findings....

  2. Central Bank Communication and the Yield Curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leombroni, Matteo; Vedolin, Andrea; Venter, Gyuri

    versus peripheral countries. We study two explanations for this finding, revelation of the ECB's private information and credit risk, and argue that neither channel can explain the effect on yield spreads. Motivated by this, we consider an alternative explanation in which central bank communication can...... induce demand shocks for bonds due to the presence of reaching-for-yield investors. We show that a resulting risk premium channel helps to rationalize our findings....

  3. Interactive effects of pests increase seed yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagic, Vesna; Riggi, Laura Ga; Ekbom, Barbara; Malsher, Gerard; Rusch, Adrien; Bommarco, Riccardo

    2016-04-01

    Loss in seed yield and therefore decrease in plant fitness due to simultaneous attacks by multiple herbivores is not necessarily additive, as demonstrated in evolutionary studies on wild plants. However, it is not clear how this transfers to crop plants that grow in very different conditions compared to wild plants. Nevertheless, loss in crop seed yield caused by any single pest is most often studied in isolation although crop plants are attacked by many pests that can cause substantial yield losses. This is especially important for crops able to compensate and even overcompensate for the damage. We investigated the interactive impacts on crop yield of four insect pests attacking different plant parts at different times during the cropping season. In 15 oilseed rape fields in Sweden, we estimated the damage caused by seed and stem weevils, pollen beetles, and pod midges. Pest pressure varied drastically among fields with very low correlation among pests, allowing us to explore interactive impacts on yield from attacks by multiple species. The plant damage caused by each pest species individually had, as expected, either no, or a negative impact on seed yield and the strongest negative effect was caused by pollen beetles. However, seed yield increased when plant damage caused by both seed and stem weevils was high, presumably due to the joint plant compensatory reaction to insect attack leading to overcompensation. Hence, attacks by several pests can change the impact on yield of individual pest species. Economic thresholds based on single species, on which pest management decisions currently rely, may therefore result in economically suboptimal choices being made and unnecessary excessive use of insecticides.

  4. Expectations, Bond Yields and Monetary Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chun, Albert Lee

    2011-01-01

    expectations about inflation, output growth, and the anticipated path of monetary policy actions contain important information for explaining movements in bond yields. Estimates from a forward-looking monetary policy rule suggest that the central bank exhibits a preemptive response to inflationary expectations...... of this type may provide traders and policymakers with a new set of tools for formally assessing the reaction of bond yields to shifts in market expectations...

  5. N-acetylcysteine increased rice yield

    OpenAIRE

    NOZULAIDI, MOHD; JAHAN, MD SARWAR; KHAIRI, MOHD; KHANDAKER, MOHAMMAD MONERUZZAMAN; NASHRIYAH, MAT; KHANIF, YUSOP MOHD

    2015-01-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC) biosynthesized reduced glutathione (GSH), which maintains redox homeostasis in plants under normal and stressful conditions. To justify the effects of NAC on rice production, we measured yield parameters, chlorophyll (Chl) content, minimum Chl fluorescence (Fo), maximum Chl fluorescence (Fm), quantum yield (Fv/Fm), net photosynthesis rate (Pn), photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), and relative water content (RWC). Four treatments, N1G0 (nitrogen (N) with no NAC), ...

  6. Development of high yielding mutants in lentil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.A.; Sarwar, G.; Siddiqui, K.A.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.) locally known as Masoor, is the second most important rabi pulse crop, after chickpea, in Pakistan. It is cultivated on an area of over 63,400 ha, which constitutes about 4.83% of the total area under pulses. The annual production of the crop is 28,200 tones with an average yield of 445 kg/ha. Yield at the national level is very low, about one-half of the world's yield, which is mainly due to non-availability of high yield potential genotypes. Keeping in view the importance of mutants in developing a large number of new varieties, an induced mutations programme was initiated at AEARC, Tandojam during 1987-88, to develop high yielding varieties in lentil. For this, seeds of two lentil varieties, 'Masoor-85' and 'ICARDA-8' had been irradiated with gamma-rays ranging from 100-600 Gy in NIAB, Faisalabad during 1990. Selections were made in M2 on the basis of earliness, plant height, branches/plant and 100 grain weight. After confirming these mutants in M3 they were promoted in station yield trials and studied continuously for three consecutive years (1993- 1995). Overall results revealed that these mutants have consistent improvement of earliness in flowering and maturity. Plant height also increased in all mutant lines except AEL 23/40/91 where reduction in this attribute was observed as compared to parent variety. Mutant lines AEL 49/20/91 and AEL 13/30/91 showed improvement in 100 grain weight. The improvement of some agronomic characters enhanced the yield of mutant lines in comparison to parent varieties (Masoor-85 and ICARDA-8). The diversity in yield over the respective parents was computed from 6.94 to 60.12%. From these encouraging results it is hoped that mutant lines like AEL 12/30/91 and AEL 49/20/91 may serve as potential lentil genotypes in future. (author)

  7. Effects of solution volume on hydrogen production by pulsed spark discharge in ethanol solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Y. B.; Sun, B., E-mail: sunb88@dlmu.edu.cn; Zhu, X. M.; Yan, Z. Y.; Liu, H.; Liu, Y. J. [College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian 116026 (China)

    2016-07-15

    Hydrogen production from ethanol solution (ethanol/water) by pulsed spark discharge was optimized by varying the volume of ethanol solution (liquid volume). Hydrogen yield was initially increased and then decreased with the increase in solution volume, which achieved 1.5 l/min with a solution volume of 500 ml. The characteristics of pulsed spark discharge were studied in this work; the results showed that the intensity of peak current, the rate of current rise, and energy efficiency of hydrogen production can be changed by varying the volume of ethanol solution. Meanwhile, the mechanism analysis of hydrogen production was accomplished by monitoring the process of hydrogen production and the state of free radicals. The analysis showed that decreasing the retention time of gas production and properly increasing the volume of ethanol solution can enhance the hydrogen yield. Through this research, a high-yield and large-scale method of hydrogen production can be achieved, which is more suitable for industrial application.

  8. Genotype x environment interaction and stability analysis for yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    etc

    2015-05-06

    . Combined analysis of variance (ANOVA) for yield and yield components revealed highly significant .... yield stability among varieties, multi-location trials with ... Mean grain yield (kg/ha) of 17 Kabuli-type chickpea genotypes ...

  9. Modified stress intensity factor as a crack growth parameter applicable under large scale yielding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasuoka, Tetsuo; Mizutani, Yoshihiro; Todoroki, Akira

    2014-01-01

    High-temperature water stress corrosion cracking has high tensile stress sensitivity, and its growth rate has been evaluated using the stress intensity factor, which is a linear fracture mechanics parameter. Stress corrosion cracking mainly occurs and propagates around welded metals or heat-affected zones. These regions have complex residual stress distributions and yield strength distributions because of input heat effects. The authors previously reported that the stress intensity factor becomes inapplicable when steep residual stress distributions or yield strength distributions occur along the crack propagation path, because small-scale yielding conditions deviate around those distributions. Here, when the stress intensity factor is modified by considering these distributions, the modified stress intensity factor may be used for crack growth evaluation for large-scale yielding. The authors previously proposed a modified stress intensity factor incorporating the stress distribution or yield strength distribution in front of the crack using the rate of change of stress intensity factor and yield strength. However, the applicable range of modified stress intensity factor for large-scale yielding was not clarified. In this study, the range was analytically investigated by comparison with the J-integral solution. A three-point bending specimen with parallel surface crack was adopted as the analytical model and the stress intensity factor, modified stress intensity factor and equivalent stress intensity factor derived from the J-integral were calculated and compared under large-scale yielding conditions. The modified stress intensity was closer to the equivalent stress intensity factor when compared with the stress intensity factor. If deviation from the J-integral solution is acceptable up to 2%, the modified stress intensity factor is applicable up to 30% of the J-integral limit, while the stress intensity factor is applicable up to 10%. These results showed that

  10. Fission product yield data for the transmutation of minor actinide nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-04-01

    A report issued by an international study group for the transmutation of nuclear waste using accelerator driven systems has highlighted the need for specific sets of nuclear data. These authoritative requirements include fission product yields at an intermediate incident neutron energy of up to 150 MeV. Before the start of the present CRP on fission product yield data for the transmutation of nuclear waste, only four types of evaluated fission yield data sets existed, namely for spontaneous fission, and for fission induced by thermal, fast (or fission) spectrum, and by 'high energy' (14-15 MeV) neutrons. A new type of evaluation for energy dependent neutron induced fission yields was required for this project. In view of the scarcity of experimental data, such an evaluation has to be based on systematics and theoretical model calculations. Unlike fission cross-sections, where nuclear models are being used successfully for the calculation of unmeasured cross-section ranges, such models or theories existed only for low energy fission yields. Hence the CRP participants entered a completely new field of research for which the progress and outcome were unpredictable. Clearly the ultimate goal of such an effort, namely an evaluation of energy dependent fission yields, could not be realized within the perceived lifetime of a CRP. The main emphasis of the CRP was on the development of adequate systematics and models for the calculation of energy dependent fission yields up to 150 MeV incident neutron energy. Several problems had to be solved, such as the correct choice of model parameters and multiplicity distributions of emitted neutrons, and the effect of multi-chance fission. Models and systematics have been tested for lower energy yields, but they failed to reproduce recent experimental data, particularly at higher energies, and the parameters had to be modified. Other models have been developed from the analysis of experimental data in order to derive systematic

  11. Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ershov, B.G.; Gordeev, A.V.; Bykov, G.L.

    2009-01-01

    Radiation-induced nitration of organic compounds in aqueous solutions was studied. It was found that γ-irradiation of solutions containing acetic and nitric acid and/or their salts gives nitromethane. Dependences of the product yield on the absorbed dose and the contents of components were established. The mechanism of radiation nitration involving radicals is discussed. (author)

  12. Regularities of radium coprecipitation with barium sulfate from salt solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavskij, Yu.P.; Rakhimova, O.V.

    2007-01-01

    Coprecipitation of radium with barium sulfate from highly concentrated NaCl solutions is studied, including the effects of the initial solution composition, alkaline reagent (CaO, NaOH), supporting electrolyte (NaCl) concentration, and pH. The process is promoted by high NaCl concentration in the initial solution, which is due to structural transformation and change in the sorption activity of the BaSO 4 precipitate in salt solutions. The results obtained were applied to recovery of radium from process solutions during the development and introduction of improved procedure for disinfection and decontamination of waste yielded by chlorination of loparite concentrates [ru

  13. Designing monitoring for conservation impact assessment in water funds in Latin America: an approach to address water-data scarcity (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, J. L.; Chaplin-Kramer, R.; Ziv, G.; Wolny, S.; Vogl, A. L.; Tallis, H.; Bremer, L.

    2013-12-01

    The risk of water scarcity is a rising threat in a rapidly changing world. Communities and investors are using the new institution of water funds to enact conservation practices in watersheds to bolster a clean, predictable water supply for multiple stakeholders. Water funds finance conservation activities to support water-related ecosystem services, and here we relate our work to develop innovative approaches to experimental design of monitoring programs to track the effectiveness of water funds throughout Latin America. We highlight two examples: the Fund for the Protection of Water (FONAG), in Quito, Ecuador, and Water for Life, Agua por la Vida, in Cali, Colombia. Our approach is meant to test whether a) water funds' restoration and protection actions result in changes in water quality and/or quantity at the site scale and the subwatershed scale, and b) the suite of investments for the whole water fund reach established goals for improving water quality and/or quantity at the basin scale or point of use. Our goal is to create monitoring standards for ecosystem-service assessment and clearly demonstrate translating those standards to field implementation in a statistically robust and cost-effective way. In the gap between data-intensive methods requiring historic, long-term water sampling and more subjective, ad hoc assessments, we have created a quantitative, land-cover-based approach to pairing conservation activity with appropriate controls in order to determine the impact of water-fund actions. To do so, we use a statistical approach in combination with open-source tools developed by the Natural Capital Project to optimize water funds' investments in nature and assess ecosystem-service provision (Resource Investment Optimization System, RIOS, and InVEST). We report on the process of identifying micro-, subwatershed or watershed matches to serve as controls for conservation 'impact' sites, based on globally-available land cover, precipitation, and soil data

  14. Prediction in Ungauged Basins (PUB) for estimating water availability during water scarcity conditions: rainfall-runoff modelling of the ungauged diversion inflows to the Ridracoli water supply reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toth, Elena

    2013-04-01

    approach is then applied for modelling the streamflow originated in the fourth, ungauged, diversion watershed. Finally, the potential reservoir water availability is estimated, hypothesising to take from the diversion catchments all the streamflow exceeding the minimum flow requirements. The results indicate that modifying the water intake structures might allow a consistent increase in the storage volumes in the reservoir during the water scarcity periods: the water available to the reservoir would in fact - on average - increase of around the 13% of the abstracted annual volume.

  15. Soybean growth and yield under cover crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila de Oliveira

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of cover crops in no-tillage systems can provide better conditions for the development of soybean plants with positive effects on grain yield and growth analysis techniques allow researchers to characterize and understand the behavior of soybean plants under different straw covers. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize, using growth analysis, yield components and agronomic performance of soybean under common bean, Brachiaria brizantha and pearl millet straws. The experiment was performed on a soil under cerrado in the municipality of Santo Antônio de Goiás, GO. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design with three treatments (cover crops and five replications. Soybean grain yield was lower in the B. brizantha straw treatment (3,708 kg ha-1 than both in the pearl millet (4.772 kg ha-1 and common bean straw treatments (5,200 kg ha-1. The soybean growth analysis in B. brizantha, pearl millet and common bean allowed characterizing the variation in the production of dry matter of leaves, stems, pods and total and leaf area index that provided different grain yields. The cover crop directly affects the soybean grain yield.

  16. Radiolysis of aqueous solutions of insulin. [. gamma. rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foitik, A [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Ustav Fyzikalni Chemie a Elektrochemie J. Heyrovskeho; Kopoldova, J [Ceskoslovenska Akademie Ved, Prague. Isotopova Laborator Biologickych Ustavu

    1976-08-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on diluted aqueous solutions of insulin is analyzed. The rate of decrease in its level (the loss of polarographic activity) is described by a first-order kinetic equation. The results lead to the concept of a direct effect on macromolecules in 'excited volumes'. The amount of inactivated molecules (i.e., the yield) in this volume is proportional to the solute concentration. In diluted aqueous solutions indirect radiation effects also take place. The paper evaluates these effects.

  17. Colliding black hole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Mainuddin

    2005-01-01

    A new solution of Einstein equation in general relativity is found. This solution solves an outstanding problem of thermodynamics and black hole physics. Also this work appears to conclude the interpretation of NUT spacetime. (author)

  18. Yield stress independent column buckling curves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stan, Tudor‐Cristian; Jönsson, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    of the yield stress is to some inadequate degree taken into account in the Eurocode by specifying that steel grades of S460 and higher all belong to a common set of “raised” buckling curves. This is not satisfying as it can be shown theoretically that the current Eurocode formulation misses an epsilon factor......Using GMNIA and shell finite element modelling of steel columns it is ascertained that the buckling curves for given imperfections and residual stresses are not only dependent on the relative slenderness ratio and the cross section shape but also on the magnitude of the yield stress. The influence...... in the definition of the normalised imperfection magnitudes. By introducing this factor it seems that the GMNIA analysis and knowledge of the independency of residual stress levels on the yield stress can be brought together and give results showing consistency between numerical modelling and a simple modified...

  19. Principal component regression for crop yield estimation

    CERN Document Server

    Suryanarayana, T M V

    2016-01-01

    This book highlights the estimation of crop yield in Central Gujarat, especially with regard to the development of Multiple Regression Models and Principal Component Regression (PCR) models using climatological parameters as independent variables and crop yield as a dependent variable. It subsequently compares the multiple linear regression (MLR) and PCR results, and discusses the significance of PCR for crop yield estimation. In this context, the book also covers Principal Component Analysis (PCA), a statistical procedure used to reduce a number of correlated variables into a smaller number of uncorrelated variables called principal components (PC). This book will be helpful to the students and researchers, starting their works on climate and agriculture, mainly focussing on estimation models. The flow of chapters takes the readers in a smooth path, in understanding climate and weather and impact of climate change, and gradually proceeds towards downscaling techniques and then finally towards development of ...

  20. Particle debonding using different yield criteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legarth, Brian Nyvang; Kuroda, Mitsutoshi

    2004-01-01

    Effects of plastic anisotropy in relation to debonding of rigid inclusions embedded in an elastic-viscoplastic metal are studied. Full finite strain analyses are carried out for plane cells assuming plane stress or plane strain. The overall stress strain response is calculated, when the cell......-matrix debonding. Keeping all material parameters fixed, the material response of the plane strain cell is considerably affected, due to debonding at a much reduced overall plastic strain compared to the corresponding plane stress cell. (C) 2004 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved....... extent and shape of the particular yield function considered. The required overall straining of the cell for debonding initiation is related to the extent of the yield surfaces, since a high yield stress promotes debonding. Additionally, the maximum overall stress level for the cell is lower for the Hill...