Fahim, Muhammad Amir
Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...
Fahim, Muhammad Amir
Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...
Fahim, Muhammad Amir
Pakistan is confronting the problem of water scarcity which is rendering an adverse impact on food security. The study examines the impact of water scarcity on food security in an era of climate change. It further focuses on projecting the future trends of water and food stock. The research effort probes the links among water scarcity, climate change, food security, water security, food inflation, poverty and management of water resources. Data on food security was collected from the FSA (Foo...
Hertel, T. W.; Taheripour, F.; Gopalakrishnan, B. N.; Sahin, S.; Escurra, J.
annual reductions in welfare will be about 24.3 billion for 2008 to 2030. This study highlights the importance of considering the interplay between climate and water availability in assessments of food security.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of food and nutrition security in Tunisia, judges its sustainability within water scarcity conditions and free trade areas, with a specific focus on the meat sector. For such purpose, the FAO indicators and Food Balance Sheets, as well as the Global Food Security Index are all analyzed. Virtual water, owed to meat and cereals for animal feed production and trade, was estimated to expect food security sustainability. Results indicated that Tunisian food and nutrition security (FNS has been improved over the years, but its stability remains vulnerable because of the political and economic risks and the dependence of Tunisia on imported cereals for animal feed due to water scarcity. Tunisian agricultural policy, especially in both sectors of cereals and meat, should be readjusted to guarantee food and nutrition sustainability.
Full Text Available Soil health, along with water supply, is the most valuable resource for humans, as human life depends on the soil’s generosity. Soil degradation, therefore, poses a threat to food security, as it reduces yield, forces farmers to use more inputs, and may eventually lead to soil abandonment. Unfortunately, the importance of preserving soil health appears to be overlooked by policy makers. In this paper, I first briefly introduce the present situation concerning agricultural production, natural resources, soil degradation, land use and the challenge ahead, to show how these issues are strictly interwoven. Then, I define soil degradation and present a review of its typologies and estimates at a global level. I discuss the importance of preserving soil capital, and its relationship to human civilization and food security. Trends concerning the availability of arable agricultural land, different scenarios, and their limitations, are analyzed and discussed. The possible relation between an increase in a country’s GNP, population and future availability of arable land is also analyzed, using the World Bank’s database. I argue that because of the many sources of uncertainty in the data, and the high risks at stake, a precautionary approach should be adopted when drawing scenarios. The paper ends with a discussion on the key role of preserving soil organic matter, and the need to adopt more sustainable agricultural practices. I also argue that both our relation with nature and natural resources and our lifestyle need to be reconsidered.
Jabs, Jennifer; Devine, Carol M
Time scarcity, the feeling of not having enough time, has been implicated in changes in food consumption patterns such as a decrease in food preparation at home, an increase in the consumption of fast foods, a decrease in family meals, and an increase in the consumption of convenience or ready-prepared foods. These food choices are associated with less healthful diets and may contribute to obesity and chronic health problems such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer. In spite of the potential importance for health, there has been little study of how time scarcity influences people's food choices. This paper presents an overview of time issues related to food choices and discuss applications of time research for nutrition and health researchers, policy makers, and practitioners interested in food choice.
Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.
Ridder, M. de
Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no
Brown, Lester R.; Eckholm, Erik P.
The causes of the world's food shortage are enumerated and explained. Possible solutions to the shortage are described with emphasis placed upon the moral decision of the affluent countries to take more responsibility in decreasing their consumption of food and energy. (DE)
As water is an essential component of the planetary life support system, water deficiency constitutes an insecurity that has to be overcome in the process of socio-economic development. The paper analyses the origin and appearance of blue as well as green water scarcity on different scales and with particular focus on risks to food production and water supply for municipalities and industry. It analyses water scarcity originating from both climatic phenomena and water partitioning disturbances on different scales: crop field, country level and the global circulation system. The implications by 2050 of water scarcity in terms of potential country-level water deficits for food self-reliance are analysed, and the compensating dependence on trade in virtual water for almost half the world population is noted. Planetary-scale conditions for sustainability of the global water circulation system are discussed in terms of a recently proposed Planetary Freshwater Boundary, and the consumptive water use reserve left to be shared between water requirements for global food production, fuelwood production and carbon sequestration is discussed. Finally, the importance of a paradigm shift in the further conceptual development of water security is stressed, so that adequate attention is paid to water's fundamental role in both natural and socio-economic systems.
Full Text Available Present water shortage is one of the primary world issues, and according to climate change projections, it will be more critical in the future. Since water availability and accessibility are the most significant constraining factors for crop production, addressing this issue is indispensable for areas affected by water scarcity. Current and future issues related to “water scarcity” are reviewed in this paper so as to highlight the necessity of a more sustainable approach to water resource management. As a consequence of increasing water scarcity and drought, resulting from climate change, considerable water use for irrigation is expected to occur in the context of tough competition between agribusiness and other sectors of the economy. In addition, the estimated increment of the global population growth rate points out the inevitable increase of food demand in the future, with an immediate impact on farming water use. Since a noteworthy relationship exists between the water possessions of a country and the capacity for food production, assessing the irrigation needs is indispensable for water resource planning in order to meet food needs and avoid excessive water consumption.
Allen, M W; Wilson, M
The present studies examined if materialists have an elevated concern about food availability, presumably stemming from a general survival security motivation. Study 1 found that materialists set a greater life goal of food security, and reported more food insecurity during their childhood. Materialists reported less present-day food insecurity. Study 2 revealed that materialists stored/hoarded more food at home, and that obese persons endorsed materialism more than low/normal weight persons. Study 3 found that experimentally decreasing participants' feelings of survival security (via a mortality salience manipulation) led to greater endorsement of materialism, food security as goal, and using food for emotional comfort. The results imply that materialists overcame the food insecurity of their childhood by making food security a top life goal, but that materialists' current concerns about food security may not wholly stem from genuine threats to their food supply.
Achterbosch, T.J.; Dorp, van M.; Driel, van W.F.; Groot, J.J.; Lee, van der J.; Verhagen, A.; Bezlepkina, I.
This book is about the work that Wageningen University & Research centre (Wageningen UR) has been carrying out under the research programme, Global Food Security: Scarcity and Transition (also known as the Knowledge-base 1 programme). It tells a story about how multidisciplinary teams of
Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.
Food security and increasing water scarcity have a dominant place on the food policy agenda. Food security requires sufficient water of adequate quality because water is a prerequisite for plant growth. Nowadays, agriculture accounts for 70% of the worldwide human fresh water use. The expected
An overview of food security and nutrition in Mexico is presented, based on the analysis of the four pillars of food security: availability, access, utilization of food, and stability of the food supply. In addition, the two faces of malnutrition in Mexico were analyzed: obesity and undernourishment. Data were gathered from the food security indicators of the United Nations's Food and Agriculture Organization, from the Mexican Scale of Food Security, and from the National Health and Nutrition Survey. Mexico presents an index of availability of 3 145 kilocalories per person per day, one of the highest indexes in the world, including both food production and imports. In contrast, Mexico is affected by a double burden of malnutrition: whereas children under five present 14% of stunt, 30% of the adult population is obese. Also, more than 18% of the population cannot afford the basic food basket (food poverty). Using perception surveys, people reports important levels of food insecurity, which concentrates in seven states of the Mexican Federation. The production structure underlying these indicators shows a very heterogeneous landscape, which translates in to a low productivity growth across the last years. Food security being a multidimensional concept, to ensure food security for the Mexican population requires a revision and redesign of public productive and social policies, placing a particular focus on strengthening the mechanisms of institutional governance.
Full Text Available The increasing world population, the limitation of the natural availability for food production, the climate issues and the food consumption need for modification imposed a continuous updating of the food security concept. Although Romania has sufficient natural resources, which may ensure, by means of proper exploitation, the population’s food needs, the lack of a unitary approach at the government level, materialized in the dependence on imports and in fluctuations in the agro-food production, leads to a re-evaluation of national food needs. National food security may be affected by a series of risks and threats, which appeared due to an imbalance connected with the availability, the utility and the stability of the agro-food sector, interdependent elements that must be functional. The present article proposes an analysis of food security in Romania, with a short presentation of the concept in an international context.
Full Text Available Food security is now commonly seen as one of the defining global issues of the century, intertwined with population and consumption shifts, climate change, environmental degradation, water scarcity, and the geopolitics attending globalization. Some analysts suggest that food security threats are so urgent that philosophical scruples must be set aside in order to concentrate all resources on developing and implementing radical strategies to avert a looming civilizational crisis. This article suggests that definitions of food security invoke commitments and have consequences, and that continued critical and conceptual attention to the language employed in food security research and policy is warranted.
Welegtabit, Shadrack R.
This report describes and analyzes food security conditions and policies in Vanuatu. The national food security systems are dualistic in nature, and the rural and urban food security systems are weakly related. Household food security in rural areas is primarily determined by access to arable land and fishery resources, whereas in urban areas household food security is primarily determined by access to employment. Household food security has been a concern in both rural and urban areas. Both ...
Mikel M Delgado
Full Text Available Scatter hoarders must allocate time to assess items for caching, and to carry and bury each cache. Such decisions should be driven by economic variables, such as the value of the individual food items, the scarcity of these items, competition for food items and risk of pilferage by conspecifics. The fox squirrel, an obligate scatter-hoarder, assesses cacheable food items using two overt movements, head flicks and paw manipulations. These behaviors allow an examination of squirrel decision processes when storing food for winter survival. We measured wild squirrels' time allocations and frequencies of assessment and investment behaviors during periods of food scarcity (summer and abundance (fall, giving the squirrels a series of 15 items (alternating five hazelnuts and five peanuts. Assessment and investment per cache increased when resource value was higher (hazelnuts or resources were scarcer (summer, but decreased as scarcity declined (end of sessions. This is the first study to show that assessment behaviors change in response to factors that indicate daily and seasonal resource abundance, and that these factors may interact in complex ways to affect food storing decisions. Food-storing tree squirrels may be a useful and important model species to understand the complex economic decisions made under natural conditions.
Jalava, Mika; Guillaume, Joseph H. A.; Kummu, Matti; Porkka, Miina; Siebert, Stefan; Varis, Olli
There is a pressing need to improve food security and reduce environmental impacts of agricultural production globally. Two of the proposed measures are diet change from animal-based to plant-based foodstuffs and reduction of food losses and waste. These two measures are linked, as diet change affects production and consumption of foodstuffs and consequently loss processes through their different water footprints and loss percentages. This paper takes this link into account for the first time and provides an assessment of the combined potential contribution of diet change and food loss reduction for reducing water footprints and water scarcity. We apply scenarios in which we change diets to follow basic dietary recommendations, limit animal-based protein intake to 25% of total protein intake, and halve food losses to study single and combined effects of diet change and loss reduction. Dietary recommendations alone would achieve 6% and 7% reductions of blue and green water consumption, respectively, while changing diets to contain less animal products would result in savings of 11% and 18%, respectively. Halving food loss would alone achieve 12% reductions for both blue and green water. Combining the measures would reduce water consumption by 23% and 28%, respectively, lowering water scarcity in areas with a population of over 600 million. At a global scale, effects of diet change and loss reduction were synergistic with loss reductions being more effective under changed diet. This demonstrates the importance of considering the link between diet change and loss reduction in assessments of food security and resource use.
@@ In the 21st century the society got some achievements in technological,education,economic,social-political,cultural and etc.sectors.But society couldn't solve fully the food security problem yet.According to the information given by FAO if in 1970 there were 400 billion hungry people in the world,in 2008 the number of hungry people was doubled and increased to 800 billion people.
Pulwarty, Roger; Eilerts, Gary; Verdin, James
By 2080 the effects of climate change—on heat waves, floods, sea level rise, and drought—could push an additional 600 million people into malnutrition and increase the number of people facing water scarcity by 1.8 billion. The precise impacts will, however, strongly depend on socioeconomic conditions such as local markets and food import dependence. In the near term, two factors are also changing the nature of food security: (1) rapid urbanization, with the proportion of the global population living in urban areas expanding from 13 percent in 1975 to greater than 50 percent at present, and (2) trade and domestic market liberalization since 1993, which has promoted removal of import controls, deregulation of prices, and the loss of preferential markets for many small economies. Over the last two years, the worst drought in decades has devastated eastern Africa. The resulting food-security crisis has affected roughly 13 million people and has reminded us that there is still a long way to go in addressing current climate-related risks. In the face of such profound changes and uncertainties, our approaches to food security must evolve. In this article, we describe four key elements that, in our view, will be essential to the success of efforts to address the linked challenges of food security and climate change.
Dmitry S. STREBKOV
Full Text Available The major source of energy comes from fossil fuels. The current situation in the field of fuel and energy is becoming more problematic as world population continues to grow because of the limitation of fossil fuels reserve and its pressure on environment. This review aims to find economic, reliable, renewable and non-polluting energy sources to reduce high energy tariffs in Russian Federation. Biofuel is fuel derived directly from plants, or indirectly from agricultural, commercial, domestic, and/or industrial wastes. Other alternative energy sources including solar energy and electric power generation are also discussed. Over 100 Mt of biomass available for energy purposes is produced every year in Russian. One of the downsides of biomass energy is its potential threatens to food security and forage industries. An innovative approach proved that multicomponent fuel (80% diesel oil content for motor and 64% for in stove fuel can remarkably reduce the costs. This paper proposed that the most promising energy model for future is based on direct solar energy conversion and transcontinental terawatt power transmission with the use of resonant wave-guide technology.
Gregory, P.J; Ingram, J.S.I; Brklacich, M
Dynamic interactions between and within the biogeophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of food, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability (production, distribution and exchange), food access (affordability, allocation and preference) and food utilization (nutritional and societal values and safety), so that food security is, therefore, diminished when food systems are stressed. Such stresses may be induced by a range of factors in addition to climate change and/or other agents of environmental change (e.g. conflict, HIV/AIDS) and may be particularly severe when these factors act in combination. Urbanization and globalization are causing rapid changes to food systems. Climate change may affect food systems in several ways ranging from direct effects on crop production (e.g. changes in rainfall leading to drought or flooding, or warmer or cooler temperatures leading to changes in the length of growing season), to changes in markets, food prices and supply chain infrastructure. The relative importance of climate change for food security differs between regions. For example, in southern Africa, climate is among the most frequently cited drivers of food insecurity because it acts both as an underlying, ongoing issue and as a short-lived shock. The low ability to cope with shocks and to mitigate long-term stresses means that coping strategies that might be available in other regions are unavailable or inappropriate. In other regions, though, such as parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain of India, other drivers, such as labour issues and the availability and quality of ground water for irrigation, rank higher than the direct effects of climate change as factors influencing food security. Because of the multiple socio-economic and bio-physical factors affecting food systems and hence food security, the capacity to adapt food systems to reduce their
Securing Land Tenure, Improving Food Security and Reducing Poverty in Rural ... land tenure regimes as obstacles to food security, economic integration and ... its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.
Valeriy Valentinovich Patsiorkovskiy
Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the questions of further development of agricultural and food policy in the Russian Federation. The subject of in-depth consideration is the problem related to ensuring food safety. A critical review and analysis of major regulations in the field of food safety is made, including in the implementation of sanitary and epidemiological surveillance. The necessity of the expansion of measures to improve the statistics of food poisoning is grounded. The basic reasons for the spread of management practices of production and sale of food products that pose a threat to human life are revealed. The factors of unhindered penetration of local markets in the cities and the surrounding countrysides with counterfeiting, smuggling and production of global junk food manufacturers and consumer goods are defined. A systematic view is put on the problems of food production in the private farms, ways to limit direct access to the market of food and food raw materials, which production was not controlled and who have not passed state registration, are suggested. One of these problems is creation of independent industrial structures that link production and sales of small-scale sector goods.
Food and Agriculture Organization; The World Bank; IFAD
Metadata only record This is a module in the "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook" published by the World Bank, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, and International Fund for Agricultural Development. This module examines the critical role that women play in food production and agricultural development. Women consistently have less access than men to resources and opportunities throughout the production chain. By removing such inequalities and incorporating women in decision making processe...
To climatologists food security is dominated by the impacts of weather and climate on food systems. But the link between the atmosphere and food security is more complex. Extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones impact directly on agriculture, but they also impact on the logistical distribution of food and can thus disrupt the food supply chain, especially in urban areas. Drought affects human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. It represents a pending danger for vulnerable agricultural systems that depend on the rainfall, water supply and reservoirs. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Drought, especially when it results in famine, can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. A holistic approach is required to understand the phenomena, to forecast catastrophic events such as drought and famine and to predict their societal consequences. In the Food Security recommendations of the Rio+20 Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development it states that it is important "To understand fully how to measure, assess and reduce the impacts of production on the natural environment including climate change, recognizing that different measures of impact (e.g. water, land, biodiversity, carbon and other greenhouse gases, etc) may trade-off against each other..." This talk will review the historical link between weather, climate, drought and food supplies; examine the international situation; and summarise the response of the scientific community
Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Dotelli, Giovanni; Melià, Paco
Water scarcity and food security are major issues in the Gaza Strip. This area is characterized by one of the highest densities in the world and it is affected by both severe scarcity of water resources and limited trading possibilities.Given this context, the enhancement of domestic food production is considered a fundamental strategy in achieving food security in the area. For this reason, rural people play a crucial role in implementing sustainable strategies for enhancing the domestic food production while preserving water resources. In order to investigate the effectiveness of existing agricultural scenarios in achieving food security in a sustainable manner, we propose a framework to assess food production systems in terms of their contribution to the nutritional and economic conditions of rural households and their impact on water resources. In particular, the latter has been carried out through the water footprint indicator proposed by the Water Footprint Network. The case study analyzed is a sample farm located in the Gaza Strip, whose food production is based on horticulture, animal husbandry and aquaculture. The study is articulated into two main parts: first, we compare alternative scenarios of vegetal and animal food production in terms of food supply, water consumption and economic income at the household scale; then, we extend the analysis to evaluate the potential contribution of domestic food production to the food security in the whole Gaza Strip, focusing on the nutritional dimension, and providing a preliminary assessment of the environmental and economic sustainability. In particular, we evaluate water appropriation for domestic food production and compare it with the availability of water resources in the region. The outcomes highlight that the domestic food production can potentially satisfy both a basic diet and economic income for rural household, but the related appropriation of freshwater results unsustainable with respect to the fresh
Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of
Full Text Available An experience of development of forms of economy in developed countries is analysed. Ways of development of domestic agriculture are proposed. The paper proved that Ukraine needs a new model of agriculture that was based not on the dynamic growth market of export production, and the balanced development of multipurpose field, which meets the needs of the country in food and foreign exchange earnings, warned to the depletion of natural resources. The extent of devastating effects of industrial model of agriculture development, which is oriented on economic growth without social and environmental price of its growth is revealed. Retrospective analysis of entry in international practice like formal institutional status of an alternative model in which an economic function of a branch (production and income is balanced with ecological (conservation potential land and social (food security is realized. Basic principles of ecologically oriented agriculture as a factor in long-term food security are formulated.
... national food security, and prior approval of the government's National Food Security and Nutrition Policy 2006-2015. In alignment with these governmental commitments, this project will enable researchers to provide policymakers with practical and sustainable solutions that directly respond to national food security goals ...
Case analysis to identify innovative strategies for food security occurred in the Oriental Hotel, voluntarily implement food safety control. Food security strategy investigation and the reasons for their use of multiple data sources, including accommodation and catering industry to implement and document interviews with key decision makers in the hotel performed to observe the business environment were examined. This finding suggests that addressing food security, not only is the food control...
Timmer, C Peter
The empirical regularities of behavioral economics, especially loss aversion, time inconsistency, other-regarding preferences, herd behavior, and framing of decisions, present significant challenges to traditional approaches to food security. The formation of price expectations, hoarding behavior, and welfare losses from highly unstable food prices all depends on these behavioral regularities. At least when they are driven by speculative bubbles, market prices for food staples (and especially for rice, the staple food of over 2 billion people) often lose their efficiency properties and the normative implications assigned by trade theory. Theoretical objections to government efforts to stabilize food prices, thus, have reduced saliency, although operational, financing, and implementation problems remain important, even critical. The experience of many Asian governments in stabilizing their rice prices over the past half century is drawn on in this paper to illuminate both the political mandates stemming from behavioral responses of citizens and operational problems facing efforts to stabilize food prices. Despite the theoretical problems with free markets, the institutional role of markets in economic development remains. All policy instruments must operate compatibly with prices in markets. During policy design, especially for policies designed to alter market prices, incentive structures need to be compatible with respect to both government capacity (bureaucratic and budgetary) and empirical behavior on the part of market participants who will respond to planned policy changes. A new theoretical underpinning to political economy analysis is needed that incorporates this behavioral perspective, with psychology, sociology, and anthropology all likely to make significant contributions.
Fabio Alberto Pachón-Ariza¹
Full Text Available Food sovereignty and food security are not the same issue. Both are different but many people around the world confuse the two. This article explores and analyzes the issues surrounding food security and food sovereignty in order to explain the differences between them, identifies the principal statements in food sovereignty and compares some data from different countries in an attempt to highlight the fact that food security policies result in hunger, poverty and environmental damage. Food security and rural development share similar goals, both seek to improve the quality of life of peasants and rural inhabitants; however, economic ideas are unfortunately still prized more than people
Full Text Available The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialogue on the technical, behavioral and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real-time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialogue to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1 the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2 the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3 the potential of a decreased animal product consumption, and (4 the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency
Neset, Tina-Simone; Cordell, Dana; Mohr, Steve; VanRiper, Froggi; White, Stuart
The impact of global phosphorus scarcity on food security has increasingly been the focus of scientific studies over the past decade. However, systematic analyses of alternative futures for phosphorus supply and demand throughout the food system are still rare and provide limited inclusion of key stakeholders. Addressing global phosphorus scarcity requires an integrated approach exploring potential demand reduction as well as recycling opportunities. This implies recovering phosphorus from multiple sources, such as food waste, manure, and excreta, as well as exploring novel opportunities to reduce the long-term demand for phosphorus in food production such as changing diets. Presently, there is a lack of stakeholder and scientific consensus around priority measures. To therefore enable exploration of multiple pathways and facilitate a stakeholder dialog on the technical, behavioral, and institutional changes required to meet long-term future phosphorus demand, this paper introduces an interactive web-based tool, designed for visualizing global phosphorus scenarios in real time. The interactive global phosphorus scenario tool builds on several demand and supply side measures that can be selected and manipulated interactively by the user. It provides a platform to facilitate stakeholder dialog to plan for a soft landing and identify a suite of concrete priority options, such as investing in agricultural phosphorus use efficiency, or renewable fertilizers derived from phosphorus recovered from wastewater and food waste, to determine how phosphorus demand to meet future food security could be attained on a global scale in 2040 and 2070. This paper presents four example scenarios, including (1) the potential of full recovery of human excreta, (2) the challenge of a potential increase in non-food phosphorus demand, (3) the potential of decreased animal product consumption, and (4) the potential decrease in phosphorus demand from increased efficiency and yield gains in
Yin, Yuanyuan; Tang, Qiuhong; Liu, Xingcai; Zhang, Xuejun
Increasing population and socio-economic development have put great pressure on water resources of the Yellow River (YR) basin. The anticipated climate and socio-economic changes may further increase water stress. Many studies have investigated the changes in renewable water resources under various climate change scenarios, but few have considered the joint pressure from both climate change and socio-economic development. In this study, we assess water scarcity under various socio-economic pathways with emphasis on the impact of water scarcity on food production. The water demands in the 21st century are estimated based on the newly developed shared socio-economic pathways (SSPs) and renewable water supply is estimated using the climate projections under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 scenario. The assessment predicts that the renewable water resources would decrease slightly then increase. The domestic and industrial water withdrawals are projected to increase in the next a few decades and then remain at the high level or decrease slightly during the 21st century. The increase in water withdrawals will put the middle and lower reaches in a condition of severe water scarcity beginning in the next a few decades. If 40 % of the renewable water resources were used to sustain ecosystems, a portion of irrigated land would have to be converted to rain-fed agriculture, which would lead to a 2-11 % reduction in food production. This study highlights the links between water, food and ecosystems in a changing environment and suggests that trade-offs should be considered when developing regional adaptation strategies.
To fulfil the basic goal of delivering food for the tables of the citizens, modern Western agriculture is extremely dependent on supporting material flows, infrastructure, and fossil energy. According to several observers, fossil fuel production is about to peak, i.e., oil extraction is no longer capable of keeping pace with the increasing demand. This situation may trigger an unprecedented increase in fossil energy prices, which may make the current highly energy dependent food production-distribution system highly vulnerable. The paper starts with a survey of this vulnerability. Also, the supply of phosphorus, a key factor in agriculture, may be at stake under such circumstances. The paper analyses this situation and discusses settlement structures integrated with agriculture that might increase food security by reducing energy demands. In the proposed ideal societal structure, agriculture is integrated with settlements and most of the food needed by the population is produced locally, and the nutrients for food production are recycled from households and animals by means of biological processes demanding considerably less mechanical investment and fossil support energy than the conventional type of agriculture. The vulnerability of this structure would be considerably lower, than that of the current system. (author)
Food security is a multi-dimensional issue that has been difficult to measure comprehensively, given the one-dimensional focus of existing indicators. Three indicators dominate the food security measurement debate: Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS), Dietary Diversity Score (DDS) and Coping Strategies ...
Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael; Shamah-Levy, Teresa; Candel, Jeroen
In spite of major advances in recent decades, food insecurity continues to be a pressing concern to policymakers across the world. Food security governance (FSG) relates to the formal and informal rules and processes through which interests are articulated, and decisions relevant to food security
Carman, Katherine G; Zamarro, Gema
Food insecurity, not having consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members, is most common among low income households. However, income alone is not sufficient to explain who experiences food insecurity. This study investigates the relationship between financial literacy and food security. We find that low income households who exhibit financial literacy are less likely to experience food insecurity.
Swaminathan, M S; Bhavani, R V
Food and nutrition security are intimately interconnected, since only a food based approach can help in overcoming malnutrition in an economically and socially sustainable manner. Food production provides the base for food security as it is a key determinant of food availability. This paper deals with different aspects of ensuring high productivity and production without associated ecological harm for ensuring adequate food availability. By mainstreaming ecological considerations in technology development and dissemination, we can enter an era of evergreen revolution and sustainable food and nutrition security. Public policy support is crucial for enabling this.
Milesi, C.; Samanta, A.; Hashimoto, H.; Kumar, K.; Ganguly, S.; Thenkabail, P. S.; Srivastava, A. N.; Nemani, R. R.; Myneni, R. B.
One of the major challenges we face on our planet is increasing agricultural production to meet the dietary requirements of an additional 2.5 billion people by the mid of the century while limiting cropland expansion and other damages to natural resources. This problem is even more so challenging given that nearly all the population growth will take place where the majority of the hungry live today and where ongoing and future climate changes are projected to most negatively impact agricultural production, the semi-arid tropics (SAT). The SAT contain 40% of the global irrigated and rainfed croplands in over 50 developing countries and a growing population of over a billion and half people, many of which live in absolute poverty and strongly depend on agriculture that is constrained by chronic water shortages. Rates of food grain production in many of the countries of the SAT have progressively increased since the mid 1960s aided by the Green Revolution and relatively favourable climatic conditions. However, aggregated agricultural production statistics indicate that the rate of food grain production has recently stalled or declined in several of the countries in this region, escalating the concerns over matters of food security, that is availability of food and one’s access to it, in a region where many people live in extreme poverty, depend on an agrarian economy and are expected to face increasingly worse climatic conditions in the near future. In this paper we analyze the agricultural deceleration and its drivers over the country of India, which faces the daunting challenge of needing a 50-100% increase in yields of major crops by the middle to the 21st century to feed its growing population. We analyze the long term (1982-2006) record of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) together with climate, land use, and crop production
The growth of the world population and the rapidly increasing welfare level, especially in emerging economies, will result in strongly increasing demand for raw materials, energy, food and water in the coming decades. Moreover, climate change also contributes to the pressure on the available agricultural lands and water, resulting in growing scarcity. IRIS sees new investment opportunities in raw materials, energy, food, water, air, care and health. [mk] [nl
Food security and its relationship to sustainable agricultural and rural development have ... JOURNAL OF RESEARCH IN FORESTRY, WILDLIFE AND ENVIRONMENTAL VOLUME 6, No. ... environmental degradation, rapid changes in.
Kahiluoto, H; Smith, P; Moran, D
Rewarding smallholders for sequestering carbon in agricultural land can improve food security while mitigating climate change. Verification of carbon offsets in food-insecure regions is possible and achievable through rigorously controlled monitoring......Rewarding smallholders for sequestering carbon in agricultural land can improve food security while mitigating climate change. Verification of carbon offsets in food-insecure regions is possible and achievable through rigorously controlled monitoring...
Ingrid Laukeland Djupegot
Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of ultra-processed foods has expanded rapidly over the last decades and high consumption has been positively associated with risk of e.g. overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ultra-processed foods offer convenience as they require minimal time for preparation. It is therefore reasonable to assume that such foods are consumed more often among people who experience time scarcity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between time scarcity and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents of 2-year olds in Norway. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between sociodemographic correlates, weight status and consumption of ultra-processed foods. Methods This cross-sectional study included 497 participants. Chi-square and cross tabulations were used to calculate proportions of high vs. low consumption of ultra-processed foods in relation to time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and weight status. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between independent variables and consumption of ultra-processed foods. Results Participants reporting medium and high time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of ultra-processed dinner products (OR = 3. 68, 95% CI = 2. 32–5.84 and OR = 3.10, 1.80–5.35, respectively and fast foods (OR = 2.60, 1.62–4.18 and OR = 1.90, 1.08–3.32, respectively compared to those with low time scarcity. Further, participants with medium time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of snacks and soft drinks compared to participants with low time scarcity (OR = 1.63, 1.06–2.49. Finally, gender, ethnicity, educational level, number of children in the household and weight status were identified as important factors associated with the consumption of certain types of ultra-processed foods. Conclusions Results from the present study showed that time scarcity, various sociodemographic
Djupegot, Ingrid Laukeland; Nenseth, Camilla Bengtson; Bere, Elling; Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit Torgeirsdotter; Helland, Sissel Heidi; Øverby, Nina Cecilie; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Stea, Tonje Holte
Use of ultra-processed foods has expanded rapidly over the last decades and high consumption has been positively associated with risk of e.g. overweight, obesity and type 2 diabetes. Ultra-processed foods offer convenience as they require minimal time for preparation. It is therefore reasonable to assume that such foods are consumed more often among people who experience time scarcity. The main aim of this study was to investigate the association between time scarcity and consumption of ultra-processed foods among parents of 2-year olds in Norway. A secondary aim was to investigate the association between sociodemographic correlates, weight status and consumption of ultra-processed foods. This cross-sectional study included 497 participants. Chi-square and cross tabulations were used to calculate proportions of high vs. low consumption of ultra-processed foods in relation to time scarcity, sociodemographic correlates and weight status. Binary logistic regression analyses were performed to test the relationship between independent variables and consumption of ultra-processed foods. Participants reporting medium and high time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of ultra-processed dinner products (OR = 3. 68, 95% CI = 2. 32-5.84 and OR = 3.10, 1.80-5.35, respectively) and fast foods (OR = 2.60, 1.62-4.18 and OR = 1.90, 1.08-3.32, respectively) compared to those with low time scarcity. Further, participants with medium time scarcity were more likely to have a high consumption of snacks and soft drinks compared to participants with low time scarcity (OR = 1.63, 1.06-2.49). Finally, gender, ethnicity, educational level, number of children in the household and weight status were identified as important factors associated with the consumption of certain types of ultra-processed foods. Results from the present study showed that time scarcity, various sociodemographic factors and weight status was associated with consumption of processed foods
Wakegijig, Jennifer; Osborne, Geraldine; Statham, Sara; Issaluk, Michelle Doucette
Community members, Aboriginal organizations, public servants and academics have long been describing a desperate situation of food insecurity in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. The Nunavut Food Security Coalition, a partnership of Inuit Organizations and the Government of Nunavut, is collaborating to develop a territorial food security strategy to address pervasive food insecurity in the context of poverty reduction. The Nunavut Food Security Coalition has carried out this work using a community consultation model. The research was collected through community visits, stakeholder consultation and member checking at the Nunavut Food Security Symposium. In this paper, we describe a continuous course of action, based on community engagement and collective action, that has led to sustained political interest in and public mobilization around the issue of food insecurity in Nunavut. The process described in this article is a unique collaboration between multiple organizations that has led to the development of a sustainable partnership that will inform policy development while representing the voice of Nunavummiut.
The African Journal of Food and Nutritional Security, as an international journal, is intended to act as a forum for researchers working on food and nutritional security issues in Africa and the Third World in their widest range and perspectives. We believe this journal to have ceased publishing ...
Schouten, Greetje; Vink, Martinus; Vellema, Sietze
Securing access to affordable and nutritious food is an urgent topic on the agenda for development strategies in Africa. Intervention strategies targeting food security triggered a long lasting debate whether science and technology driven interventions could be the panacea for hunger eradication.
Australian International Food Security Research Centre. Australian International Food Security Research Centre. http://aciar.gov.au/AIFSC. Cultivate Africa's Future. The Cultivate Africa's Future research partnership is designed to support applied research to combat hunger in sub-Saharan Africa by harnessing the potential ...
Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF). The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFS-RF) is a collaborative program of the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) and IDRC valued at CA $61 654 707 (CIDA: CA $50 000 000; IDRC: CA $11 654 707). The program ...
The role of governance has been receiving increasing attention from food security scholars in recent years. However, in spite of the recognition that governance matters, current knowledge of food security governance is rather fragmented. To provide some clarity in the debate about the role of
Food security is directly linked to water security for food production. Water availability for crop production will be dependent upon precipitation or irrigation, soil water holding capacity, and crop water demand. The linkages among these components in rainfed agricultural systems shows the impact ...
Francois de Wet
Full Text Available The traditional concept of security has broadened over the past decades. Food security in South Africa is an imperative for human and non-human survival. In the contemporary political economy, there is a real nexus between globalisation, exploitation, the state, scarcity of resources, the market, peoples’ need to feel secure, notions of state responsibility and food production. Political economy and human security in theoretical debates and face-to-face politics are intrinsically linked. The notion of a ‘secure community’ changed. Food security and the right to quality living became a social imperative. Understanding current agricultural economics requires the ability to link security and access to food for all. In this case study, wheat production in South Africa is addressed against the interface of the global and the local including South Africa’s transition to a democratic and constitutional state with a Bill of Rights. The current security approach represents a more comprehensive understanding of what security is meant to be and include, amongst others, housing security, medical security, service delivery and food security, as set out in the Millennium Development Goals and the subsequent Sustainable Development Goals. The issue of food security is addressed here with particular reference to wheat production, related current government policies and the market economy. The authors chose to limit their socio-economic focus to a specific sector of the agricultural market, namely wheat, rather than discuss food security in South Africa in general. Wheat was chosen as a unit of analysis because as a crop, wheat used in bread is one of the staples for the majority of South Africans and given the current negative economic developments, wheat as a staple is likely to remain integral, if not increasing its status of dependability
Kim, Kirang; Kim, Mi Kyung; Shin, Young Jeon
During the past two decades, food deprivation and hunger have been recognized to be not just the concerns of only underdeveloped or developing countries, but as problems for many affluent Western nations as well. Many countries have made numerous efforts to define and measure the extent of these problems. Based on these efforts, the theory and practice of food security studies has significantly evolved during the last decades. Thus, this study aims to provide a comprehensive review of the concept and measurement of food security. In this review, we introduce the definition and background of food security, we describe the impact of food insecurity on nutrition and health, we provide its measurements and operational instruments and we discuss its applications and implications. Some practical information for the use of the food security index in South Korea is also presented. Food security is an essential element in achieving a good nutritional and health status and it has an influence to reduce poverty. The information about the current understanding of food security can help scientists, policy makers and program practitioners conduct research and maintain outreach programs that address the issues of poverty and the promotion of food security.
Full Text Available Today, the attention to food security has grown with the awareness of resources’ scarcity, earth excessive exploitation, population growth and climate change, all factors that are associated with an impelling food emergency. A plethora of theoretical perspectives adopted in analysing food security issue reflects in diverse normative approaches. Some focus on the rapport between population demand and food supply, seeking to reduce the former or increase the latter in order to achieve food security. Applying the technological progress of scientific research will have its positive outcomes: production will increase, keeping prices low; the limited resources will be used more efficiently, decreasing the consumption of water, energy and land; the environment will benefit from a more sustainable production. However, scientific solutions, such as population control, that do not restore individuals’ entitlement to food will be ineffective in preventing food insecurity. Therefore, food security it is not achievable by the sole means of science. A greater quantity of food does not guarantee a more equal distribution of resources. Increasing food production without altering its uneven distribution will only augment this inequality, making who has access to food more secure but not helping who is currently affected by the food insecurity issues. Science can play its role, but development towards the solutions to food insecurity must be led by politics.
The study also showed that farmers in the study area are relatively food secure. Inputs such as fertilizer, processing and storage facilities, improved seedlings, tractor, access to credit loan etc. should be made available to encourage farmers to improve household food security and raise their living standard. In addition ...
Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad
The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the firs...
Katherine Grace Carman
Full Text Available Food insecurity, not having consistent access to adequate food for active, healthy lives for all household members is most common among low income households. However, income alone is not sufficient to explain who experiences food insecurity. This study investigates the relationship between financial literacy and food security. We find that low income households who exhibit financial literacy are less likely to experience food insecurity.
This article discusses the success of the Madagascar Food Security and Nutrition project in decreasing malnutrition and monitoring child health. Success has occurred in the following realms: effective collaboration between government and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), capacity building through investment in training of community workers, increased quality of services provided by community nutrition workers, community involvement, government commitment, and a flexible program design. NGOs were able to respond to community concerns by adding program inputs without losing the focus on core nutrition interventions. Community workers were selected from a group of mothers. Women were trained to monitor the growth of all children under age 5. Children who were severely malnourished were identified and referred to rehabilitation centers for treatment lasting up to 3 weeks. The program offered support and nutrition education for mothers of sick children. One drawback of the treatment program was the inability of mothers to stay for long periods of time during the duration of treatment. The program offers distribution of iodine capsules as part of a long-term salt iodization program that is supported by UNICEF and the World Bank. The program also offers microcredit. Since 1993, 28,000 children under age 5 have been weighed each month. These children came from two provinces and belonged to 300,000 families. The monitored children were 66% of the total number of children aged under 5 years. Malnutrition rates decreased from 46% to 37%.
Tang, Q.; Yin, Y. Y.; Liu, X.; Zhang, X.
Increasing population and socio-economic development have put great pressure on water resources of the Yellow River Basin. The anticipated climate and socio-economic changes may further increase water stress. In this study, we assess water scarcity under climate change and various socio-economic pathways with an emphasis on the impact of water shortages on food production. The water demands in the 21st century are projected under the new developed Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs). The renewable water supply is estimated from the climate projections under the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5. The agricultural water use is assumed to have the lowest priority of all water consumers when water shortage occurs. The results show that the water demands in domestic and industrial sectors would grow rapidly. As more water resources would be occupied by domestic and industrial sectors, a portion of irrigated land would have to be converted to rain-fed agriculture which would lead to more than a reduction in food production under various socio-economic pathways. This study highlights the links between water, food and ecosystems in a changing environment and suggests that trade-offs should be considered when developing regional adaptation strategies.
Yu, Wusheng; Elleby, Christian; Zobbe, Henrik
dependence on price-based measures causes relatively larger and more volatile fiscal burdens, thereby likely making it more vulnerable in dealing with similar events in the future. These findings have important implications for food policy and food security in the two countries in the future.......Food insecurity is a much more serious concern in India than China. In addition to income and poverty differences, we argue in this paper that differences in food policies can further explain the different food security outcomes across the two countries. First, India mostly uses price-based input...
Gurley, Emily S; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Faiz, M Abul; Islam, Nazrul; Sultana, Rebeca; Khatun, Selina; Uddin, Mohammad Zashim; Haider, M Sabbir; Islam, M Saiful; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Rahman, Muhammad Waliur; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Luby, Stephen P
An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007. We identified cases presenting to local hospitals and described their clinical signs and symptoms. We interviewed patients and their families to collect illness histories and generate hypotheses about exposures associated with disease. An epidemiological study was conducted in two outbreak villages to investigate risk factors for developing illness. 76 patients were identified from 9 villages; 25% (19/76) died. Common presenting symptoms included vomiting, elevated liver enzymes, and altered mental status. In-depth interviews with 33 cases revealed that 31 (94%) had consumed ghagra shak, an uncultivated plant, in the hours before illness onset. Ghagra shak was consumed as a main meal by villagers due to inaccessibility of other foods following destructive monsoon flooding and rises in global food prices. Persons who ate this plant were 34.2 times more likely (95% CI 10.2 to 115.8, p-valuestrumarium, or common cocklebur. The consumption of Xanthium strumarium seedlings in large quantities, due to inaccessibility of other foods, caused this outbreak. The toxic chemical in the plant, carboxyatratyloside, has been previously described and eating X. strumarium seeds and seedlings has been associated with fatalities in humans and livestock. Unless people are able to meet their nutritional requirements with safe foods, they will continue to be at risk for poor health outcomes beyond undernutrition.
Cafiero, Carlo; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo R; Ballard, Terri J; Kepple, Anne W
This paper reviews some of the existing food security indicators, discussing the validity of the underlying concept and the expected reliability of measures under reasonably feasible conditions. The main objective of the paper is to raise awareness on existing trade-offs between different qualities of possible food security measurement tools that must be taken into account when such tools are proposed for practical application, especially for use within an international monitoring framework. The hope is to provide a timely, useful contribution to the process leading to the definition of a food security goal and the associated monitoring framework within the post-2015 Development Agenda. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.
Emily S Gurley
Full Text Available An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007.We identified cases presenting to local hospitals and described their clinical signs and symptoms. We interviewed patients and their families to collect illness histories and generate hypotheses about exposures associated with disease. An epidemiological study was conducted in two outbreak villages to investigate risk factors for developing illness. 76 patients were identified from 9 villages; 25% (19/76 died. Common presenting symptoms included vomiting, elevated liver enzymes, and altered mental status. In-depth interviews with 33 cases revealed that 31 (94% had consumed ghagra shak, an uncultivated plant, in the hours before illness onset. Ghagra shak was consumed as a main meal by villagers due to inaccessibility of other foods following destructive monsoon flooding and rises in global food prices. Persons who ate this plant were 34.2 times more likely (95% CI 10.2 to 115.8, p-value<0.000 than others to develop vomiting and unconsciousness during the outbreak in our multivariate model. Ghagra shak is the local name for Xanthium strumarium, or common cocklebur.The consumption of Xanthium strumarium seedlings in large quantities, due to inaccessibility of other foods, caused this outbreak. The toxic chemical in the plant, carboxyatratyloside, has been previously described and eating X. strumarium seeds and seedlings has been associated with fatalities in humans and livestock. Unless people are able to meet their nutritional requirements with safe foods, they will continue to be at risk for poor health outcomes beyond undernutrition.
Gurley, Emily S.; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Nahar, Nazmun; Faiz, M. Abul; Islam, Nazrul; Sultana, Rebeca; Khatun, Selina; Uddin, Mohammad Zashim; Haider, M. Sabbir; Islam, M. Saiful; Ahmed, Be-Nazir; Rahman, Muhammad Waliur; Mondal, Utpal Kumar; Luby, Stephen P.
Background An outbreak characterized by vomiting and rapid progression to unconsciousness and death was reported in Sylhet Distrct in northeastern Bangladesh following destructive monsoon floods in November 2007. Methods and Findings We identified cases presenting to local hospitals and described their clinical signs and symptoms. We interviewed patients and their families to collect illness histories and generate hypotheses about exposures associated with disease. An epidemiological study was conducted in two outbreak villages to investigate risk factors for developing illness. 76 patients were identified from 9 villages; 25% (19/76) died. Common presenting symptoms included vomiting, elevated liver enzymes, and altered mental status. In-depth interviews with 33 cases revealed that 31 (94%) had consumed ghagra shak, an uncultivated plant, in the hours before illness onset. Ghagra shak was consumed as a main meal by villagers due to inaccessibility of other foods following destructive monsoon flooding and rises in global food prices. Persons who ate this plant were 34.2 times more likely (95% CI 10.2 to 115.8, p-valuepeople are able to meet their nutritional requirements with safe foods, they will continue to be at risk for poor health outcomes beyond undernutrition. PMID:20305785
Rehman Siddiqui, Azizur
Indian Arid Ecosystem is characterised by scare as well as seasonal precipitation that have led to long term stress in a fragile ecosystem. In addition to this, over the years, Indian desert has experienced varying magnitude of drought, which have considerably influenced food and fodder production and led to the depletion of surface and ground water table. All these factors mean that the production potential of land is hardly sufficient to feed human as well as livestock population of the desert and this has led to extensive rural to urban migration in Indian Desert. In the present study, satellite data from Landsat TM, AWiFS, NOAA AVHRR have been used to detect the intensity and severity of drought condition, and data collected through primary survey has been used to measure the impact of water scarcity on food insecurity and drought induced migration. Rainfall trend analysis of the study area has been done with the help of Man Kendall Method to assess the meteorological vulnerability. In addition to these, NDVI, VCI, TCI, and VHI have also been used to find out the long term vegetation health in the study area. With the help of these scientific techniques, the paper focuses on the moisture deficiency during growing period and its effect on human population and livestock population. Keywords: Arid Ecosystem, Indian Desert, Drought, Migration
Galal, Osman; Corroon, Meghan; Tirado, Cristina
The authors examine the impact of urbanization on food security and human health in the Middle East. Within-urban-population disparities in food security represent one of the most dramatic indicators of economic and health disparities. These disparities are reflected in a double burden of health outcomes: increasing levels of chronic disease as well as growing numbers of undernourished among the urban poor. These require further comprehensive solutions. Some of the factors leading to food insecurity are an overdependence on purchased food commodities, lack of sufficient livelihoods, rapid reductions in peripheral agricultural land, and adverse impacts of climate change. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) Food Security Framework is used to examine and compare 2 cities in the Middle East: Amman, Jordan, and Manama, Bahrain.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze food security in the former Yugoslav republics after they became independent nations. For that purpose we use new Food and Agriculture Organization's (FAO suite of food security that provides possibility for a more nuanced assessment of food insecurity. The results do show some clear evidence of differences among countries. Compared with other ex-Yugoslav countries Slovenia is the most food secure country. It has the highest gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity (GDP PPP as well as the highest value and growth rate of agricultural productivity. Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, Serbia, and Macedonia are more vulnerable to food insecurity.
Tjeppy D Soedjana
Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the role that livestock play in various dimensions of food security. Food security is defined as a state of affairs where all people at all times have access to safe and nutritious food to maintain a healthy and active life. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of individuals to consume food according to their respective socio-economic conditions are important dimensions. It describes the place of livestock products in human nutrition, the contribution of livestock to the national food supply and the way that livestock can affect food access, as a direct source of food and a source of income. Access to food is the most basic human right, especially for Indonesia with more than 240 million people with annual growth of 1.3%. To secure food availability, a sustainable food production growth more than 2% per year, including animal protein sources, is needed. It is necessary to strengthen food supply by maximizing available resources; improve food distribution system to guarantee a stable food supply and public access; encourage diversified food consumption; and prevent as well as resolve food scarcity. Furthermore, within the national objectives for self-sufficiency in rice, corn, soybean, and white sugar, the current annual percapita consumption of livestock products has reached 6.96 kg (meat, 7.3 kg (eggs and 16.5 kg (milk, which indicates good progress to stimulate sustainable domestic livestock production.
In recent years, many countries have developed integrated and harmonized food safety and quality control guidelines in accordance with national legislation and international standards to protect the health of consumers. But food safety standards alone are not enough. Radiation technology can complement and supplement existing technologies to ensure food security, safety and quality.
Full Text Available The article describes the concepts and factors of food security and food sovereignty of the Russian Federation. The composition of the consumer basket, the most significant of its components, and based on threshold values of self-sufficiency is calculated in the dynamics of the prevalence of food independence. The groups of products, which are in the country to be at a level below the thresholds, regulated by the food security doctrine of the Russian Federation. Identified the possible General trend of development of agricultural production in the country.
Pope, Nathaniel S; Jha, Shalene
Foraging is an essential process for mobile animals, and its optimization serves as a foundational theory in ecology and evolution; however, drivers of foraging are rarely investigated across landscapes and seasons. Using a common bumblebee species from the western United States (Bombus vosnesenskii), we ask whether seasonal decreases in food resources prompt changes in foraging behavior and space use. We employ a unique integration of population genetic tools and spatially explicit foraging models to estimate foraging distances and rates of patch visitation for wild bumblebee colonies across three study regions and two seasons. By mapping the locations of 669 wild-caught individual foragers, we find substantial variation in colony-level foraging distances, often exhibiting a 60-fold difference within a study region. Our analysis of visitation rates indicates that foragers display a preference for destination patches with high floral cover and forage significantly farther for these patches, but only in the summer, when landscape-level resources are low. Overall, these results indicate that an increasing proportion of long-distance foraging bouts take place in the summer. Because wild bees are pollinators, their foraging dynamics are of urgent concern, given the potential impacts of global change on their movement and services. The behavioral shift toward long-distance foraging with seasonal declines in food resources suggests a novel, phenologically directed approach to landscape-level pollinator conservation and greater consideration of late-season floral resources in pollinator habitat management.
BIOTECHNOLOGY CAN IMPROVE FOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA. ... and capacity to innovate and patent new materials as well as enforce biosafety requirements. In order for countries to access biotechnology products or technologies, it will ...
The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) invests in scaling up ... for farming families, and improve nutrition throughout the Global South. ... universities, civil society organizations, governments, and the private sector, ...
1MB). Funding. The Agriculture and Food Security program funds research primarily through competitive calls. Announcements and details on eligibility and thematic focus for funding opportunities will be posted on IDRC's funding page.
. The Canadian International Food Security Research Fund(CIFSRF) is a program of Canada's International Development Research. Centre (IDRC) undertaken with the financial support of the. Government of Canada provided through Foreign ...
In the 1960s and early 1970s, many countries in South and Southeast Asia were the focus of world attention due to their frequent occurrence of food shortages. These shortages were met by large amounts of food imported through food aid or similar programmes. Several pessimistic predictions were
The article highlights the benefits of adopting the practice of long-term planning with the aim of helping decision makers and politicians to include scenario thinking in the process of determining food security in Israel, 2050. This study addresses the question of food security, a step that is in contrast with agricultural planning considerations of the past that have mainly focused on maximizing profits or relied on a closed mathematical model. Two teams of experts identified production lim...
Gal, Yoav; Hadas, Efrat
The article highlights the benefits of adopting the practice of long-term planning with the aim of helping decision makers and politicians to include scenario thinking in the process of determining food security in Israel, 2050. This study addresses the question of food security, a step that is in contrast with agricultural planning considerations of the past that have mainly focused on maximizing profits or relied on a closed mathematical model. Two teams of experts identified production lim...
Carvalho, Fernando P. [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Departamento de Proteccao Radiologica e Seguranca Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10, P-2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal)]. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment.
Carvalho, Fernando P.
Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and at protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Eventually, new techniques, including genetically modified organisms (GMOs) resistant to pests, could halt the massive spread of agrochemicals in agriculture fields. Biological chemical-free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH and lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Coordinated efforts are needed to increase the production of food but with a view to enhanced food quality and safety as well as to controlling residues of persistent pesticides in the environment
A nexus refers to the core or to interconnectivity across issues. Addressing the boundary interactions of traditional sectors in an interconnected world as human activities change the physical boundaries of land and climate is an emerging academic and governance discourse. Through contrasting examples from the US and India, I shed light on the descriptive aspects of these connections and feedbacks that define potential impacts or traps for societies, and ponder whether a massive conceptual or numerical Earth System Model can help inform outcomes, or whether there are dominant links at particular scales (physical, social, economic or biological) that characterize the emergent dynamics and define critical equilibrium or transient solutions in certain places. However, the real question is what next given the definition of the nexus? Here, I argue that given the current valuation and management structure of different resource sectors and the associated information flows and sensitivities, the interlinked energy-climate issues can emerge as useful drivers of improved productivity in water-food systems, thus promoting resource and environmental sustainability while promoting economic development. Thus, levers can be found that help steer the course of these complex interacting systems towards desirable sectoral outcomes.
produce),4 which is the case for the majority of South Africans. In South Africa ... Expressed as a proportion of average monthly income, the increase in the cost of .... innovation in food, nutrition and broader agricultural policies. Mieke Faber ...
Sustainable development requires a deliberate choice in the direction of societal transition, but the options are narrowed down by the obligation to feed a growing world population. At present sufficient food is produced, but large differences exist in per capita supply. Poverty prevents many people
Achieving food security by the year 2020 is one of the Millennium. Development Goals ... Yes and No using percentages and such variables like corruption of officials, dependence on ... world population which doubled between 25 and 30 years. The growth in food ..... Analysis, Nsukka; Prize pub Ltd. Oyaide, W.J (2006) A ...
Dijk, van M.
This report looks at the African regional trade, regional integration agreements (RIAs) and the implications for food security. An overview is presented on the present state of African regional integration and the determinants of regional trade in agriculture and food commodities. In particular the
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Drought associated with climate change may lead to food and water shortage. Drought associated with climate change may lead to food and water shortage. Greater vulnerability to infectious diseases. Population displacements and mass migrations with all ...
Candel, Jeroen J.L.
The global food price crises of 2007-8 and 2010 and subsequent policy debates have led to increased recognition that the drivers of food insecurity and associated policies transcend the boundaries of traditional governmental sectors and jurisdictions. Building on this insight, many governments of
Godfray, H Charles J; Garnett, Tara
The coming decades are likely to see increasing pressures on the global food system, both on the demand side from increasing population and per capita consumption, and on the supply side from greater competition for inputs and from climate change. This paper argues that the magnitude of the challenge is such that action is needed throughout the food system, on moderating demand, reducing waste, improving governance and producing more food. It discusses in detail the last component, arguing that more food should be produced using sustainable intensification (SI) strategies, and explores the rationale behind, and meaning of, this term. It also investigates how SI may interact with other food policy agendas, in particular, land use and biodiversity, animal welfare and human nutrition.
Pangaribowo, Evita Hanie; Gerber, Nicolas; Torero, Maximo
As the problems of food and nutrition insecurity are currently more complex, identifying and choosing relevant indicators is crucial. This paper identifies the need to go beyond the state-of-the-art because current FNS indicators do not account for the short-term economic shocks which have been identified as key factors for food and nutrition security. As the nature of food and nutrition security status is different between short- term and long-term causes, there is a need to differentiate be...
Duncan, J.A.B.; Barling, D.
The food commodity price rises from 2006 to 2008 engendered a period
of political renewal and reform in the governance of global food security. The
Committee on World Food Security (CFS) was designated as the main international forum dealing with food security and nutrition in 2009 as part
Water scarcity is considered to be one of the largest threats for many parts of Africa. Under water scarce conditions reducing the consumption of water and preventing pollution of accessible water resources is essential. Combating water scarcity in both dimensions of quality and quantity is of special relevance for the LNV priority regions (including those in Water Mondiaal). Future LNV policies to address food security in Africa will affect the use, spread and fate of agrochemicals as well. ...
O. G. Stukalo
Full Text Available The solution of the problem of food security in the region plays an important role in providing the population with the necessary food. The article describes ways to achieve food security. Different opinions are presented on the causes of the problem of food security, in particular the spread of genetically modified organisms, as well as low incomes of the population, the volatility of food prices and insignificant reproduction opportunities. The analysis of production and consumption of various food products in the Russian Federation (RF in recent years has been carried out. Dynamics of consumption of the main types of food in the Voronezh region is also presented. An analysis has been made of the production and consumption of various food products in the Russian Federation (RF in recent years. Dynamics of consumption of the main types of food in the Voronezh region is also presented. A solution to the problem of food security with flour culinary products using non-traditional plant raw materials, also used as functional food products, was proposed. Examples are given of improving the quality of food products and increasing the content of dietary fiber and other useful nutrients, thanks to the use of secondary raw materials, bugs and processed products of plant origin. The food security of the region has only conditional territorial localization, since the economic relations that arise between the subjects of the food sector cover all subjects of the regional economy without exception. A special role in these relations in the conditions that have developed up to now is played by organizations related to the sphere of food production, as well as organizations that supply them with the most scarce and significant resources, i.e. organization of education, research and development. That is why, we believe that the main emphasis in the study of food security should be made on the specifics of the functioning of industrial organizations occupying a
Full Text Available Instability of a foreign policy situation and deepening of financial crisis actualize need of monitoring of food security’s condition as objective condition of economic sovereignty of Russia. Modern approaches to definition of food security of the state are considered in article. Critical evaluation of separate provisions of the Doctrine of food security of the Russian Federation is given. The analysis of a condition of food security of Russia in the directions of independence, economic and physical availability of the food is carried out on the basis of statistical data. Food security in Russia was reflected in the political decisions that defined the new economic policy of the state in the foreign market. modern import substitution program has shown its effectiveness, which is based on the absence of alternative paths of development. An important condition is the slow pace of development of the internal economy of Russia in conditions when domestic markets competition is virtually nonexistent. Food is a priority in the development of society, ensuring political and social balance, therefore, organizational solutions discussed in this material has a transdisciplinary character. The author’s conclusions can be useful to researchers who are trying to decide how macroeconomic objectives, and conducting research for innovative solutions in many sectors of the economy.
Full Text Available Background. Community members, Aboriginal organizations, public servants and academics have long been describing a desperate situation of food insecurity in the Eastern Canadian Arctic. Objective. The Nunavut Food Security Coalition, a partnership of Inuit Organizations and the Government of Nunavut, is collaborating to develop a territorial food security strategy to address pervasive food insecurity in the context of poverty reduction. Design. The Nunavut Food Security Coalition has carried out this work using a community consultation model. The research was collected through community visits, stakeholder consultation and member checking at the Nunavut Food Security Symposium. Results. In this paper, we describe a continuous course of action, based on community engagement and collective action, that has led to sustained political interest in and public mobilization around the issue of food insecurity in Nunavut. Conclusions. The process described in this article is a unique collaboration between multiple organizations that has led to the development of a sustainable partnership that will inform policy development while representing the voice of Nunavummiut.
A study was conducted to examine adherence to traditional food taboos by women in Imo State, and relate that to social status and food security. Data was collected from 72 women across the three agricultural zones of the State. It was found that age, income and education are some factors affecting adherence to these ...
Hospes, O.; Hadiprayitno, I.
With only five years left until the 2015 deadline to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, food security still is a dream rather than reality: 'a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary
Silvestri, Silvia; Douxchamps, Sabine; Kristjanson, Patti; Förch, Wiebke; Radeny, Maren; Mutie, Lanetta; Quiros, F.C.; Herrero, M.; Ndungu, Anthony; Claessens, L.F.G.
What are the key factors that contribute to household-level food security? What lessons can we learn from food secure households? What agricultural options and management strategies are likely to benefit female-headed households in particular? This paper addresses these questions
Full Text Available The issue of food is indeed a systemic problem involving fundamental aspects of the social, cultural and economic organisation of our planet. This paper focuses on the main aspects related to the concepts of food security and food safety. While the first problem mainly affects less developed countries, the second concerns diet in the developed world. They are influenced by important factors such as the structure of food distribution, the effective access to food resources, the lack of confidence about the safety of the products, and the different consumption behaviours affected by social, economic and religious factors.
Full Text Available The role of genetically modified (GM crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.
Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad
The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers’ income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15–20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy. PMID:23755155
Qaim, Matin; Kouser, Shahzad
The role of genetically modified (GM) crops for food security is the subject of public controversy. GM crops could contribute to food production increases and higher food availability. There may also be impacts on food quality and nutrient composition. Finally, growing GM crops may influence farmers' income and thus their economic access to food. Smallholder farmers make up a large proportion of the undernourished people worldwide. Our study focuses on this latter aspect and provides the first ex post analysis of food security impacts of GM crops at the micro level. We use comprehensive panel data collected over several years from farm households in India, where insect-resistant GM cotton has been widely adopted. Controlling for other factors, the adoption of GM cotton has significantly improved calorie consumption and dietary quality, resulting from increased family incomes. This technology has reduced food insecurity by 15-20% among cotton-producing households. GM crops alone will not solve the hunger problem, but they can be an important component in a broader food security strategy.
Oct 17, 2010 ... security measures used by advanced countries. Introduction. Food is ... As a result, there is shortage of food which poses a threat to food security. The heavy ... Certain factors could be responsible for this persistent problem.
Wheeler, Tim; von Braun, Joachim
Climate change could potentially interrupt progress toward a world without hunger. A robust and coherent global pattern is discernible of the impacts of climate change on crop productivity that could have consequences for food availability. The stability of whole food systems may be at risk under climate change because of short-term variability in supply. However, the potential impact is less clear at regional scales, but it is likely that climate variability and change will exacerbate food insecurity in areas currently vulnerable to hunger and undernutrition. Likewise, it can be anticipated that food access and utilization will be affected indirectly via collateral effects on household and individual incomes, and food utilization could be impaired by loss of access to drinking water and damage to health. The evidence supports the need for considerable investment in adaptation and mitigation actions toward a "climate-smart food system" that is more resilient to climate change influences on food security.
Full Text Available By food security we understand the people's access, at all time, to food, needed for a healthy and active life. It can be thought at global, regional, state or local level, but only as a strategy with relevance only to the family, to be able to buy, thanks to its own production or purchase, sufficient food to meet the needs of all its members. Diet must be quantity sufficient, variety and of good enough quality and each family member should be healthy to take full advantage of consumed foods.
In the United States and globally, producers cultivate millions of hectares of genetically modified crops. In the United States, the USDA, EPA, and FDA govern authorization of GMOs under federal laws and agency regulations. Because food produced from GMOs is not considered materially different from
Bloemertz, Lena; Dobler, Gregor; Graefe, Olivier; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.; Nghitevelekwa, Romie; Prudat, Brice; Weidmann, Laura
Land access is a major topic in the Namibian population, which can also be seen in political discourses. In North-Central Namibia, the ongoing Communal Land Reform aims at improving tenure security and thereby also hopes to promote sustainable investment in land. Within this context, it is often argued that population growth is leading to an increased scarcity of land. However, this argument falls short of actual issues determining land scarcity in Namibia. In a context, where a large part of the population is still seen as depending on agricultural production, land scarcity has to be measured by different means to assess physical scarcity (population density, farm density, proportion of cultivated areas, or yield per person) as well as the perception of these different scarcities. This paper aims to discuss the different notions of land scarcity and argues that by focusing only on the physical realities of increasing pressure on land because of population growth, important other aspects are neglected. In order to scrutinize those measures, the study will further look at the distribution of different land uses, changing land use practices as connected to changing labour availability and mobility. Special attention will thereby be given to the difference between land scarcity and fertile soil scarcity and their relation to labour availability.
Kinsey, Jean D.
This paper concludes by saying no, food safety and security reinforce each other. It combines food safety and food security into the concept of "safe food consumption." Unsafe food consumption occurs when food contains known substances that lead to short or long term illness or death (botulism) and suspect substances that are believed to lead to delayed diseases (pesticides). It also occurs when hunger or over eating contribute to long-term illness and shorter life expectancy. The costs of il...
Swaminathan, M S
In spite of several World Food Summits during the past decade, the number of people going to bed hungry is increasing and now exceeds one billion. Food security strategies should therefore be revisited. Food security systems should begin with local communities who can develop and manage community gene, seed, grain and water banks. At the national level, access to balanced diet and clean drinking water should become a basic human right. Implementation of the right to food will involve concurrent attention to production, procurement, preservation and public distribution. Higher production in perpetuity should be achieved through an ever-green revolution based on the principles of conservation and climate-resilient farming. This will call for a blend of traditional ecological prudence with frontier technologies, particularly biotechnology and information communication technologies. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.
In 2007/8 world food prices spiked and global economic crisis set in, leaving hundreds of millions of people unable to access adequate food. The international reaction was swift. In a bid for leadership, the 123 member countries of the United Nations’ Committee on World Food Security (CFS) adopted a
Dynamic interactions between bio-geophysical and human environments lead to the production, processing, distribution, preparation and consumption of foods, resulting in food systems that underpin food security. Food systems encompass food availability, utilization and access, so that food security is diminished when ...
Marketability and sustainability of food security programmes: products and productivity of agricultural projects. ... Project products are sold to community members who accounted to 79%, and few (1%) to individuals owning business, clinics and outside the community. Project members advertised their produce mainly ...
This paper gives an introduction to Bayesian networks. Networks are defined and put into a Bayesian context. Directed acyclical graphs play a crucial role here. Two simple examples from food security are addressed. Possible uses of Bayesian networks for implementation and further use in decision
Aug 7, 2013 ... research awards providing a unique opportunity to enhance research skills and gain a fresh perspecve on crucial development issues. These one‐year, paid, ... programming through a research acvity focusing on agriculture and food security, specifically on the gender and social (equity) dimensions of ...
Research shows that appropriate food security interventions can improve ... sector within the context of increased productivity and reduction of post-harvest loss, rural ... The successful candidate will allocate 50% of his/her time for a research ... with a focus on agriculture;; Business administration and/or management, with a ...
This will in turn, facilitate industrialization in other sectors of economy through provision of affordable ... bioenergy production on food security, land allocation for energy crop production can be regulated. ... bility determines the type of industries, and the cost of ...... African countries, yeast and crude enzyme production.
households in Homa Bay, Kenya. The paper argues that once patients are stable, they can effectively be engaged in farming with minimal financial and technical support, resulting in enhanced food security of the affected households. More importantly, it helps to reduce. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and improve the individual's ...
Oct 28, 2010 ... ... of IDRC continues to this day to support my breeding work,” explains Nassar, now 72 years old ... Life-saving applications in Africa ... It improved national food security, restored economic balance to agricultural communities, ...
Full Text Available The article highlights the benefits of adopting the practice of long-term planning with the aim of helping decision makers and politicians to include scenario thinking in the process of determining food security in Israel, 2050. This study addresses the question of food security, a step that is in contrast with agricultural planning considerations of the past that have mainly focused on maximizing profits or relied on a closed mathematical model. Two teams of experts identified production limitations affecting long-term planning and the ability to ensure food security under these conditions. It was found that there are five key factors important for the decision process: population, land, water, technology and international trade. The data show that today Israel imports a very large scale of virtual land and virtual water in terms of agricultural products. This means that the attention of the decision makers must be diverted from considerations of short-term profit to long-term food security.
Gorman, Kathleen S; McCurdy, Karen; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth
Household food insecurity is associated with health and behavior risk. Much less is known about how food insecurity is related to strategies that adults use in accessing food: how and where they shop, use of alternative food sources, and their ability to manage resources. To examine how maternal behaviors, including shopping, accessing alternative sources of food, and managing resources, are related to household food security status (HHFSS). Cross-sectional study collecting survey data on HHFSS, shopping behaviors, use of alternative food sources, and managing resources obtained from low-income mothers of preschool-aged children. One hundred sixty-four low-income mothers of young children (55% Hispanic) from two communities in Rhode Island. HHFSS was measured using 10 items from the 18-item Core Food Security Module to assess adult food security. Mothers were surveyed about where, when, and how often they shopped; the strategies they use when shopping; their use of alternative sources of food, including federal, state, and local assistance; and their ability to manage their resources. Analysis of variance and χ 2 analyses assessed the associations between demographic variables, shopping, accessing alternative food sources, and managing resources, and HHFSS. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the associations between HHFSS and maternal demographic variables, food shopping, strategies, alternative sources of food, and ability to manage resources. Maternal age and language spoken at home were significantly associated with HHFSS; food insecurity was 10% more likely among older mothers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.17) and 2.5 times more likely among Spanish-speaking households (compared with non-Spanish speaking [aOR 3.57, 95% CI 1.25 to 10.18]). Food insecurity was more likely among mothers reporting more informal strategies (aOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.01; P<0.05) and perceiving greater inability to manage resources (aOR 1.60, 95% CI 1
Martin Calisto Friant
Full Text Available This article examines the politics and practices of Fairtrade certification in order to assess whether this alternative trading system could contribute to innovative solutions for global food security. The analysis begins by assessing the main challenges and problems characterizing the contemporary global food system. It then explores the history, vision and certification standards of the Fairtrade label. In the third section, the results of the impact studies of Fairtrade certification on producer livelihoods are discussed, analyzing the various strengths and weaknesses. Finally the article analyzes whether, and how, the Fairtrade system could positively contribute to improving global food security. To conclude this paper argues that the greatest strength of Fairtrate is not the certification mechanism itself but rather the social and environmental principles it represents. Fairtrade standards could serve to inform broader international policies, which could lead to a sustainable transformation of the global food system.
Caporali, E.; Pacetti, T.; Rulli, M. C.
The analysis of the interactions among natural disasters and food security is particularly significant for developing countries where food availability (one of the four pillars of food security together with access, utilization and stability) can be highly jeopardize by extreme events that damage the primary access to food, i.e. the agriculture. The main objective of this study is to analyze the impact of flood events on food security for two disastrous flood events in Bangladesh on 2007 and in Pakistan on 2010, selected here as case studies based on the existing literature related to extreme floods.The adopted methodology integrates remote sensing data, agricultural statistics, and water footprint values in order to (i) evaluating the potentially affected agricultural areas; (ii) converting the affected areas into crop loss; (iii) estimating the associated calories and water footprint losses. In Bangladesh, the estimated lost rice is around 12.5% of the total potential production, which implies a 5.3% calories loss with respect to the total potential energy provided by rice and 4.4% of total WF associated to national food supply. In Pakistan, the results show a crops loss of 19% for sugarcane and 40% for rice, with a related calories loss of 8.5% and a WF loss of 13.5%.The results highlight the countries vulnerability to flood, being both countries strongly dependent on local agricultural production. The 2007 flood event reflected critically upon Bangladeshi food security, almost doubling the existing food deficit. The same happened in Pakistan where an already scarce food supply has been worsened by the 2010 flood.Method results are fully repeatable; whereas, for remote sensed data the sources of data are valid worldwide and the data regarding land use and crops characteristics are strongly site specific, which need to be carefully evaluated.These case studies stress the importance of integrating different analysis approaches to carry out an assessment of the
Acosta, Orlando; Chaparro-Giraldo, Alejandro
Soaring global food prices are threatening to push more poor people back below the poverty line; this will probably become aggravated by the serious challenge that increasing population and climate changes are posing for food security. There is growing evidence that human activities involving fossil fuel consumption and land use are contributing to greenhouse gas emissions and consequently changing the climate worldwide. The finite nature of fossil fuel reserves is causing concern about energy security and there is a growing interest in the use of renewable energy sources such as biofuels. There is growing concern regarding the fact that biofuels are currently produced from food crops, thereby leading to an undesirable competition for their use as food and feed. Nevertheless, biofuels can be produced from other feedstocks such as lingo-cellulose from perennial grasses, forestry and vegetable waste. Biofuel energy content should not be exceeded by that of the fossil fuel invested in its production to ensure that it is energetically sustainable; however, biofuels must also be economically competitive and environmentally acceptable. Climate change and biofuels are challenging FAO efforts aimed at eradicating hunger worldwide by the next decade. Given that current crops used in biofuel production have not been domesticated for this purpose, transgenic technology can offer an enormous contribution towards improving biofuel crops' environmental and economic performance. The present paper critically presents some relevant relationships between biofuels, food security and transgenic plant technology.
Radiation processing of food utilizes the controlled application of energy from ionizing radiations such as γ-rays , electrons and X-rays on food. Gamma-rays and X-rays are short wavelength radiations of the electromagnetic spectrum. The approved sources of gamma radiation for food processing are radioisotopes (Cobalt-60 and Caesium-137), electron beam (up to 10 MeV) and X-rays (up to 5 MeV) wherein the latter two are generated by machines using electricity. γ-radiation can penetrate deep into the food materials causing the desired effects. Irradiation works by disrupting the biological processes that lead to decay. While interacting with water and other biomolecules that constitute the food and living organisms, radiation energy is absorbed by these molecules. The interactions of radiation and radiolytic products of water with DNA impair the reproduction of microorganism and insects, and thus help in achieving the desired objectives pertaining to food safety and security
Walch, Amanda; Bersamin, Andrea; Loring, Philip; Johnson, Rhonda; Tholl, Melissa
Food insecurity is a public health concern. Food security includes the pillars of food access, availability and utilisation. For some indigenous peoples, this may also include traditional foods. To conduct a scoping review on traditional foods and food security in Alaska. Google Scholar and the High North Research Documents were used to search for relevant primary research using the following terms: "traditional foods", "food security", "access", "availability", "utilisation", "Alaska", "Alaska Native" and "indigenous". Twenty four articles from Google Scholar and four articles from the High North Research Documents were selected. The articles revealed three types of research approaches, those that quantified traditional food intake (n=18), those that quantified food security (n=2), and qualitative articles that addressed at least one pillar of food security (n=8). Limited primary research is available on food security in Alaskan. Few studies directly measure food security while most provide a review of food security factors. Research investigating dietary intake of traditional foods is more prevalent, though many differences exist among participant age groups and geographical areas. Future research should include direct measurements of traditional food intake and food security to provide a more complete picture of traditional food security in Alaska.
Prins, A.G.; Slingerland, S.; Manders, A.J.G.; Lucas, P.L.; Hilderink, H.B.M.; Kok, M.T.J.
Current high prices of food, oil and many other resources are indications of increasing scarcity. This scarcity, however, has little to do with stock depletion. Badly functioning markets and wrong policy reactions play a particularly important role. For most resources, global stocks will be sufficient to meet increasing demand, over the coming decades. However, these stocks are not equally distributed over the world; they tend to be located in a limited number of countries. This causes an increasing European dependency on imports, which, in turn, feeds the fear of a decrease in security of supply.
Department of Agricultural Economics And Extension, Usmanu Danfodiyo ... farmers to household food security in Patigi Local Government Area, Kwara ... They earn more revenue from rice (87%), sorghum (35%), melon (14.2%), ... the type of crops they grow on their farm .... help farmers achieve high crop yield, ability to.
Full Text Available This study was conducted at two villages, Ban Mae Kampong, Mae On, Chiang Mai and Ban Pa Miang, Muang, Lampang, Northern Thailand. This community is supported by Thai government tourism ministry to develop their skills in order to create and offer rural tourism. The study focus on community member groups who are involved with rural tourism activities; Homestay members, food preparation management members, tour guides, community leader groups, in order to assess the acceptance, collaboration and preparation of safety indigenous food menu and food security management where will support rural tourism community objectives. This study was carried out as in a participatory stage which included various seminars and workshops of rural tourism management concluded from homestay services, Thai herbs medication beneficiary, basic and applied nutrition concepts, indigenous healthy food productivity with standardized recipes, food safety handling and food security management for preparing food for themselves as well as suitable for tourism consumption. In addition of this useful vegetarian calendar information, which is highly appropriate serving as a tool for their daily meal management.
Natural Resources Management for Sustainable Food Security in the Sahel ... as well as strategies for managing the resource base with a view to improving food security. ... InnoVet-AMR grants to support development of innovative veterinary ...
May 21, 2015 ... Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya ... America, and the Caribbean with funds from the Government of Canada's fast-start financing. ... Water management and food security in vulnerable regions of China.
Lalayan G. G.
In this article we have revealed the essence of the problem of ensuring food security in detail. The components of economic safety at macroeconomic level are described, defining conditions of ensuring national food security are shown
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Poverty and Food Security Case Studies dataset consists of small area estimates of poverty, inequality, food security and related measures for subnational...
Linking smallholder agriculture and water to household food security and nutrition. ... Promoting household food security and reducing malnutrition rates of a growing population with the same amount of water is ... AJOL African Journals Online.
May 21, 2015 ... Protecting livelihoods, boosting food security in Kenya ... livestock fodder, with important outcomes for household food security. ... and all counties have since committed funding toward scaling up successful technologies.
Hendrawaty, Manise; Harisno, Harisno
Food is the main basic need of human, because of that fulfillment of human need of food has to be fulfilled. So it can fulfill that need, then government institution, Food Security Agency (BKP) is formed so it can monitor fulfillment of food need of society. The goals of this writing are to develop food security information system that provides dashboard facility based on business intelligence, to develop food security information system that can give fast, precise and real time information a...
Silvia L. Saravia-Matus
Full Text Available The present article reviews selected key challenges regarding food security from both an academic and policy-oriented angle. In the analysis of the main constraints to achieve food access and availability in low and high-income societies, a detailed distinction is made between technological and institutional aspects. In the case of low-income economies, the emphasis is placed on the socio-economic situation and performance of small-scale farmers while in high-income economies the focus is shifted towards issues of price volatility, market stability and food waste. In both scenarios, productivity and efficiency in the use of resources are also considered. The objective of this assessment is to identify the type of policy support which would be most suitable to fulfil the increasing food demand. Innovation programmes and policies which inte- grate institutional coordination and technical support are put forward as strategic tools in the achievement of food security goals at regional and global level.
Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and Kwara states of ... A simple purposive random sampling technique was used to select 100 cocoa ... from the information were analysed with Descriptive Statistics, Food Security ... taken per day (p<0.05) would improve the food security status of households ...
Informing policy through agriculture and food security research. Improving the uptake of agricultural and food security research into policy and practice is a central objective of IDRC's Agriculture and Food Security program. To maximize the impact of proven solutions, the program set out to inform and engage both Canadian ...
Identifying cost and time-efficient approaches to food security and nutrition monitoring programs is fundamental to increasing the utility and sustainability. ... In meeting these challenges, the role of continued evaluation of food security monitoring systems - for their impact on food security decision-making - cannot be ...
The study was set out to analyse the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in Abia state, Nigeria. The specific objectives are to: determine the food security status of the households and estimate the determinants of food security among the cocoa producing households in the study area.
Kharraz, Jauad El
Water Security was a central theme of WANA Forum 2010, where regional experts warned that the wars of the 21st century will be fought over water. Climate change will only exacerbate problems in a region already stressed by lack of water, food and political and social unrest. Across the Arc of Crisis, from Somalia, Sudan and Egypt in Africa to Yemen, Iraq, Pakistan, and Afghanistan in West Asia, water scarcity in the region has already lead to drought and famine, loss of livelihood, the spread of water-borne diseases, forced migrations and open conflict. Water scarcity is closely linked to food and health security, making better water management a key stepping stone for poverty reduction and economic growth. If nothing changes, most of the WANA countries will encounter, in less than a generation, serious problems in managing inland freshwater, the availability of which, in sufficient quantity and quality, may become, as it is already the case in several of these countries, a main challenge for economic and social development. Wastage and pollution will then be such that « water stress » will affect, in a way or another, most of the populations of WANA countries and the poorest first of all. The effects of global warming will increase current trends. On the other hand, water scarcity in the WANA region is an issue of growing concern. With heavy demand from agriculture, growing populations and virtually no remaining untapped water sources, the need to establish water-management strategies in the region is of vital importance. WANA countries can be divided into three major agro-ecologies, each facing slightly different challenges. Rain-fed areas are dependent on a low and extremely variable rainfall, resulting in minimal yields, a problem exacerbated by frequent drought. Rainfall occurs in the form of intense and unpredictable storms, and as a result, the crusting soils are unable to absorb the moisture, which rapidly becomes lost through evaporation or runoff
Lipper, Leslie; Thornton, Philip; Campbell, Bruce M.; Baedeker, Tobias; Braimoh, Ademola; Bwalya, Martin; Caron, Patrick; Cattaneo, Andrea; Garrity, Dennis; Henry, Kevin; Hottle, Ryan; Jackson, Louise; Jarvis, Andrew; Kossam, Fred; Mann, Wendy; McCarthy, Nancy; Meybeck, Alexandre; Neufeldt, Henry; Remington, Tom; Sen, Pham Thi; Sessa, Reuben; Shula, Reynolds; Tibu, Austin; Torquebiau, Emmanuel F.
Climate-smart agriculture (CSA) is an approach for transforming and reorienting agricultural systems to support food security under the new realities of climate change. Widespread changes in rainfall and temperature patterns threaten agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of people dependent on agriculture for their livelihoods, which includes most of the world's poor. Climate change disrupts food markets, posing population-wide risks to food supply. Threats can be reduced by increasing the adaptive capacity of farmers as well as increasing resilience and resource use efficiency in agricultural production systems. CSA promotes coordinated actions by farmers, researchers, private sector, civil society and policymakers towards climate-resilient pathways through four main action areas: (1) building evidence; (2) increasing local institutional effectiveness; (3) fostering coherence between climate and agricultural policies; and (4) linking climate and agricultural financing. CSA differs from 'business-as-usual' approaches by emphasizing the capacity to implement flexible, context-specific solutions, supported by innovative policy and financing actions.
Niragira, Sanctus; D'Haese, Marijke; D'Haese, Luc; Ndimubandi, Jean; Desiere, Sam; Buysse, Jeroen
Burundi is one of the world's poorest countries, coming last in the Global Food Index (2013). Yet, a large majority of its population depends on agriculture. Most smallholder families do not produce enough to support their own families. To estimate the optimal crop mix and resources needed to provide the family with food containing sufficient energy, fat, and protein. This study uses mathematical programming to obtain the optimal crop mix that could maximize output given the constraints on production factor endowments and the need to feed the household. The model is calibrated with household-level data collected in 2010 in Ngozi Province in northern Burundi. Four models are developed, each representing a different farm type. The typology is based on 2007 data. Model predictions are compared with data collected during a revisit of the area in 2012. By producing a smaller number of crops and concentrating on those in which they have a comparative advantage, and trading produce and input with other farms, large and medium-sized farms can improve their productivity and hire extra workers to supplement family labor. Predictions of crops to be planted coincided to a high degree with those that farmers planted 2 years after our survey on newly acquired plots. Despite land scarcity, it is still possible for households that own land to find optimal crop combinations that can meet their minimal food security requirements while generating a certain level of income. Nearly landless households would benefit from the increased off-farm employment opportunities. With only 0.05 ha of land per capita, the annotation Nearly Landless is used to highlight the limited access to land observed in this farm category. © The Author(s) 2015.
McLaughlin, Dennis; Kinzelbach, Wolfgang
The projected growth in global food demand until mid-century will challenge our ability to continue recent increases in crop yield and will have a significant impact on natural resources. The water and land requirements of current agriculture are significantly less than global reserves but local shortages are common and have serious impacts on food security. Recent increases in global trade have mitigated some of the effects of spatial and temporal variability. However, trade has a limited impact on low-income populations who remain dependent on subsistence agriculture and local resources. Potential adverse environmental impacts of increased agricultural production include unsustainable depletion of water and soil resources, major changes in the global nitrogen and phosphorous cycles, human health problems related to excessive nutrient and pesticide use, and loss of habitats that contribute to agricultural productivity. Some typical case studies from China illustrate the connections between the need for increased food production and environmental stress. Sustainable options for decreasing food demand and for increasing production include reduction of food losses on both the producer and consumer ends, elimination of unsustainable practices such as prolonged groundwater overdraft, closing of yield gaps with controlled expansions of fertilizer application, increases in crop yield and pest resistance through advances in biotechnology, and moderate expansion of rain fed and irrigated cropland. Calculations based on reasonable assumptions suggest that such measures could meet the food needs of an increasing global population while protecting the environment.
Nagy, János; Széles, Adrienn
In Hungary, plougland decreased to 52% of its area by the time of political restructuring (1989) in comparison with the 1950s. Forested areas increased significantly (18%) and lands withdrawn from agricultural production doubled (11%). For today, these proportions further changed. Ploughlands reduced to 46% and forested areas further increased (21%) in 2013. The most significat changes were observed in the proportion of lands withdrawn from agricultural production which increased to 21%. Temperature in Hungary increased by 1°C during the last century and predictions show a further 2.6 °C increase by 2050. The yearly amount of precipitation significantly decreased from 640 mm to 560 mm with a more uneven temporal distribution. The following aspects can be considered in the correlation between climate change and agriculture: a) impact of agriculture on climate, b) future impact of climate change on agriculture and food supply, c) impact of climate change on food security. The reason for the significant change of climate is the accumulation of greenhouse gases (GHG) which results from anthropological activities. Between 2008 and 2012, Hungary had to reduce its GHG emission by 6% compared to the base period between 1985-1987. At the end of 2011, Hungarian GHG emission was 43.1% lower than that of the base period. The total gross emission was 66.2 million CO2 equivalent, while the net emission which also includes land use, land use change and forestry was 62.8 million tons. The emission of agriculture was 8.8 million tons (OMSZ, 2013). The greatest opportunity to reduce agricultural GHG emission is dinitrogen oxides which can be significantly mitigated by the smaller extent and more efficient use of nitrogen-based fertilisers (precision farming) and by using biomanures produced from utilised waste materials. Plant and animal species which better adapt to extreme weather circumstances should be bred and maintained, thereby making an investment in food security. Climate
Spees, Colleen K; Clark, Jill E; Hooker, Neal H; Watowicz, Rosanna P; Taylor, Christopher A
To compare the consumption patterns and diet quality of foods and beverages obtained from various sources by food security status. Cross-sectional analysis of 2011-2012 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data. A total of 4,789 adults (aged >19 years) with dietary intake and food security data. The contribution of foods and beverages to energy, nutrients, and diet quality by locations where food was obtained was compared across food security status. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression. Almost all US adults consumed food and beverages obtained from grocery stores, regardless of food security status (about 95%), which accounted for one half to two thirds of total macronutrient intakes. The diet quality of foods from grocery stores was better in highly food-secure adults. Convenience stores are used most by very low food-secure adults; those foods had the poorest diet quality profile. Dietary patterns of marginally food-secure adults more closely resembled sources and intakes of low and very low food-secure adults. Food-insecure adults use food sources differently, resulting in diet quality differences of foods and beverages obtained. Place-based interventions in the food environment may have differential effects by food security status. Copyright © 2017 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chimaobi Valentine Okolo; Chizoba Obidigbo
As a basic physiology need, threat to sufficient food production is threat to human survival. Food security has been an issue that has gained global concern. This paper looks at the food security in Nigeria by assessing the availability of food and accessibility of the available food. The paper employed multiple linear regression technique and graphic trends of growth rates of relevant variables to show the situation of food security in Nigeria. Results of the tests revea...
Negash, Martha; Swinnen, Johan F.M.
There is considerable controversy about the impact of biofuels on food security in developing countries. A major concern is that biofuels reduce food security by increasing food prices. In this paper we use survey evidence to assess the impact of castor production on poor and food insecure rural households in Ethiopia. About 1/3 of poor farmers have allocated on average 15% of their land to the production of castor beans under contract in biofuel supply chains. Castor production significantly improves their food security: they have fewer months without food and the amount of food they consume increases. Castor cultivation is beneficial for participating households’ food security in several ways: by generating cash income from castor contracts, they can store food for the lean season; castor beans preserve well on the field which allows sales when farmers are in need of cash (or food); spillover effects of castor contracts increases the productivity of food crops. Increased food crop productivity offsets the amount of land used for castor so that the total local food supply is not affected. - Highlights: • We evaluate the impact of biofuel production contracts on farmers’ food security. • We apply endogenous switching regression method on survey data from Ethiopia. • Impact is heterogeneous across groups. • Food security significantly improved for contract participants by 25%. • Spillover effects improve food productivity that offsets the amount of land diverted to biofuel
de Haen, Hartwig; Thompson, Brian
The alleviation of poverty and the eradication of hunger and malnutrition are within reach. Considerable progress has been made over the past thirty years in reducing the numbers of the hungry, and projections over the next thirty years suggest that this progress will continue. The majority of developing countries have participated in this progress and have improved nutrition but there are significant regional differences. The current challenge is to build upon and accelerate the progress already made. Everyone is involved in this struggle against hunger and malnutrition, and to achieve these goals, global partnerships to enhance co-operation and co-ordination are being strengthened. Successful country experiences for improving food security and nutrition have demonstrated the importance of peace, political stability, and stable economic growth. There is also the need for increased foreign investment and increased ODA, particularly for African agriculture, debt relief, the better integration of LDCs in the global economy, their more secure access to markets and more equitable terms of trade, enhanced South-South co-operation, training and research and new high-yield and drought-resistant crop varieties. While all these have been commented on and recognised before, we must close the credibility gap in our political will by honouring our existing commitments for providing tangible benefits at the local level. For globalisation, the key issue is how the aggregate benefits of globalisation will be distributed and how to translate this into better nutrition. The LDCs, which are the most vulnerable and disadvantaged members of the international community, should be at the centre of this drive towards food security and take genuine ownership of policies, initiatives and activities to improve development. At the same time we need to succeed in making the developed world more aware of and responsive to the conditions of the LDCs. The most effective way to improve nutrition
López-Giraldo, Luis Alirio; Franco-Giraldo, Álvaro
Food policies have attracted special interest due to the global food crisis in 2008 and promotion of the Millennium Development Goals, leading to approaches by different fields. This thematic review aims to describe the main theoretical and methodological approaches to food security and food sovereignty policies. A search was performed in databases of scientific journals from 2000 to 2013. 320 complete articles were selected from a total of 2,699. After reading the articles to apply the inclusion criteria, 55 items were maintained for analysis. In conclusion, with the predominance of food security as a guiding policy, food sovereignty has emerged as a critical response to be included in designing and researching food policies. Food policies are essential for achieving public health goals. Public health should thus take a leading role in linking and orienting such policies.
A threat impacting on food security strongly in Africa is nutrient mining where insufficient nutrients are returned to the soil after crop production. The impacts of global change on food security and the potential impacts of global markets for food and land are also briefly discussed. Nigerian Journal of Technological Research ...
This study to investigated food security and productivity among urban farmers' in Kaduna State Two-stage sampling procedure was used to select 213 respondents for the study. Interview schedule was used to collect data. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (food security index, food insecurity/ surplus gap index ...
Agriculture development and food security policy in Eritrea - An analysis. ... per cent of its total food needs and in poor years, it produces no more than 25 per cent. ... food security by introducing modern technology, irrigation, terracing, soil and ...
... national food supply, in favour of large agro-industrial producers in the East. These changes have affected the food security of more than 70% of the rural population. ... resulting in decreased food production and increased illegal imports of food. Recently the government abandoned its policy of selling food below market ...
use of such techniques to protect plants and animals against disease and pests means many more farmers can produce enough food to feed their own families and to sell on markets. Ultimately, fewer people go hungry. The IAEA collaborates with the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) in providing support through a joint division in Vienna. ''While our profile is modest, the size of our footprint is significant,'' said Qu Liang, Director of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques. ''We are putting the benefits of tried and tested nuclear technologies into the hands of farmers, particularly small producers in poorer countries, to improve their food security and livelihood.'' ''The assistance is driven by advanced technologies,'' Liang added. ''But what we are delivering has to be appropriate to farmers' needs. That means crops that can flourish in changing and often harsher conditions, pest control without a chemical legacy and protection for livestock.'' The Scientific Forum will be opened by the IAEA Director General and ministers from Indonesia, Kenya and Vietnam. FAO Director General Graziano da Silva will deliver a video address. The Forum will address IAEA activities in the fields of food production, food protection and food safety. Each session features a panel of experts who will present and discuss the benefits of nuclear techniques in food and agriculture. A moderator will guide the discussions. (IAEA)
Kirwan, James; Maye, Damian
This paper provides a critical interpretation of food security politics in the UK. It applies the notion of food security collective action frames to assess how specific action frames are maintained and contested. The interdependency between scale and framing in food security discourse is also scrutinised. It does this through an examination of…
Qi, Xiaoxing; Liu, Liming; Liu, Yabin; Yao, Lan
Integrated food security covers three aspects: food quantity security, food quality security, and sustainable food security. Because sustainable food security requires that food security must be compatible with sustainable development, the risk assessment of sustainable food security is becoming one of the most important issues. This paper mainly focuses on the characteristics of sustainable food security problems in the major grain-producing areas in China. We establish an index system based on land resources and eco-environmental conditions and apply a dynamic assessment method based on status assessments and trend analysis models to overcome the shortcomings of the static evaluation method. Using fuzzy mathematics, the risks are categorized into four grades: negligible risk, low risk, medium risk, and high risk. A case study was conducted in one of China's major grain-producing areas: Dongting Lake area. The results predict that the status of the sustainable food security in the Dongting Lake area is unsatisfactory for the foreseeable future. The number of districts at the medium-risk range will increase from six to ten by 2015 due to increasing population pressure, a decrease in the cultivated area, and a decrease in the effective irrigation area. Therefore, appropriate policies and measures should be put forward to improve it. The results could also provide direct support for an early warning system-which could be used to monitor food security trends or nutritional status so to inform policy makers of impending food shortages-to prevent sustainable food security risk based on some classical systematic methods. This is the first research of sustainable food security in terms of risk assessment, from the perspective of resources and the environment, at the regional scale.
Waters, Dale C
.... Those providing aid to the starving are finding out that food alone is not enough. Without security -- without lasting political solutions -- food is just another weapon to sustain the conflicts and magnify the suffering...
"Upon this handful of soil our survival depends. Husband it and it will grow food, our fuel, and our shelter and surround us with beauty. Abuse it and the soil will collapse and die, taking humanity with it" Vedas Sanskrit Scripture, 1500 BC. As the world's population increases issues of food security become more pressing as does the need to sustain soil fertility and to minimize soil degradation. Soil and land are finite resources, and agricultural land is under severe competition from many other uses. Lack of adequate food and food of poor nutritional quality lead to under-nutrition of different degrees, all of which can cause ill- or suboptimal-health. The soil can affect human health directly and indirectly. Direct effects of soil or its constituents result from its ingestion, inhalation or absorption. For example, hook worms enter the body through the skin and cause anaemia, and fungi and dust can be inhaled resulting in respiratory problems. The soil is the source of actinomycetes on which our earliest antibiotics are based (actinomycin, neomycin and streptomycin). Furthermore, it is a potential reservoir of new antibiotics with methods such as functional metagenomics to identify antibiotic resistant genes. Indirect effects of soil arise from the quantity and quality of food that humans consume. Trace elements can have both beneficial and toxic effects on humans, especially where the range for optimal intake is narrow as for selenium. Deficiencies of four trace elements, iodine, iron, selenium and zinc, will be considered because of their substantial effects on human health. Relations between soil and human health are often difficult to extricate because of the many confounding factors present such as the source of food, social factors and so on. Nevertheless, recent scientific understanding of soil processes and factors that affect human health are enabling greater insight into the effects of soil on our health. Multidisciplinary research that includes soil
Rudnichenko Yevhenii M.
Full Text Available The article analyzes the existing approaches to the normative treatment of the category of «food security». An author’s own definition of the concept of «food security» has been proposed, which must be understood as the status of provision to society foods of adequate quality and sufficient quantity. An author’s own approach as to the feasibility of applying qualitative parameters for food security assessment and a critical attitude to quantitative indicators has been formulated. The Food security index and the Ukrainian rating for 2012-2016 with emphasizing the negative tendencies and developments have been provided. The article also provides a detailed characterization of the main indicators of Ukraine’s food security in 2016 by the three directions, which are: financial accessibility of foods; physical accessibility of foods; food quality and safety. Strengths and weaknesses of Ukraine’s food security and the main threats to food security were determined, the main prospects were allocated.
Yau, N J Newton
In addition to product trade, technology trade has become one of the alternatives for globalization action around the world. Although not all technologies employed on the technology trade platform are innovative technologies, the data base of international technology trade still is a good indicator for observing innovative technologies around world. The technology trade data base from Sinew Consulting Group (SCG) Ltd. was employed as an example to lead the discussion on security or safety issues that may be caused by these innovative technologies. More technologies related to processing, functional ingredients and quality control technology of food were found in the data base of international technology trade platform. The review was conducted by categorizing technologies into the following subcategories in terms of safety and security issues: (1) agricultural materials/ingredients, (2) processing/engineering, (3) additives, (4) packaging/logistics, (5) functional ingredients, (6) miscellaneous (include detection technology). The author discusses examples listed for each subcategory, including GMO technology, nanotechnology, Chinese medicine based functional ingredients, as well as several innovative technologies. Currently, generation of innovative technology advance at a greater pace due to cross-area research and development activities. At the same time, more attention needs to be placed on the employment of these innovative technologies.
Berry, Elliot M; Dernini, Sandro; Burlingame, Barbara; Meybeck, Alexandre; Conforti, Piero
To position the concept of sustainability within the context of food security. An overview of the interrelationships between food security and sustainability based on a non-systematic literature review and informed discussions based principally on a quasi-historical approach from meetings and reports. International and global food security and nutrition. The Rome Declaration on World Food Security in 1996 defined its three basic dimensions as: availability, accessibility and utilization, with a focus on nutritional well-being. It also stressed the importance of sustainable management of natural resources and the elimination of unsustainable patterns of food consumption and production. In 2009, at the World Summit on Food Security, the concept of stability/vulnerability was added as the short-term time indicator of the ability of food systems to withstand shocks, whether natural or man-made, as part of the Five Rome Principles for Sustainable Global Food Security. More recently, intergovernmental processes have emphasized the importance of sustainability to preserve the environment, natural resources and agro-ecosystems (and thus the overlying social system), as well as the importance of food security as part of sustainability and vice versa. Sustainability should be considered as part of the long-term time dimension in the assessment of food security. From such a perspective the concept of sustainable diets can play a key role as a goal and a way of maintaining nutritional well-being and health, while ensuring the sustainability for future food security. Without integrating sustainability as an explicit (fifth?) dimension of food security, today's policies and programmes could become the very cause of increased food insecurity in the future.
Shekhar Azad Kashyap, Chandra; Singh, Swati
The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health welfare of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.
Kashyap, C. A.
The supply of good quality food is a necessity for economic and social health of urban and rural population. Over the last several decades groundwater contamination in developing countries has assumed dangerous levels as a result millions of people are at risk. This is so particularly with respect to arsenic that has registered high concentration in groundwater in countries like India and Bangladesh. The arsenic content in groundwater varies from 10 to 780 µg/L, which is far above the levels for drinking water standards prescribed by World Health Organization (WHO). Currently arsenic has entered in food chain due to irrigation with arsenic contaminated water. In the present study reports the arsenic contamination in groundwater that is being used for irrigating paddy in Manipur and West Bengal. The arsenic content in irrigation water is 475 µg/L and 780 µg/L in Manipur and West Bengal, respectively. In order to assess the effect of such waters on the rice crop, we collected rice plant from Manipur and determined the arsenic content in roots, stem, and grain. The arsenic content in grain varies from 110 to 190 mg/kg while the limit of arsenic intake by humans is 10 mg/kg (WHO). This problem is not confine to the area, it spread global level, and rice being cultivated in these regions is export to the other countries like USA, Middle East and Europe and will be thread to global food security.
Tielens, J.; Candel, J.J.L.
This study is concerned with the relation between food wastage reduction and the improvement of food security. The central question of this inventory study is to what extent interventions to reduce food wastage are effective contributions for food security, in particular for local access in
Kgathi, Donald L.; Mfundisi, K.B.; Mmopelwa, G.; Mosepele, K.
Biofuel development continues to be a critical development strategy in Africa because it promises to be an important part of the emerging bio-economy. However, there is a growing concern that the pattern of biofuel development is not always consistent with the principles of sustainable development. This paper assesses the potential of the impacts of biofuel development on food security in Botswana. Drawing on informal and semi-structured interviews, the paper concludes that there is potential for the development of biofuels in Botswana without adverse effects on food security due mainly to availability of idle land which accounted for 72% of agricultural land in the eastern part of the country in 2008. It is suggested that farmers could be incentivized to produce energy crops and more food from such land. Although it is hypothesized that the implementation of biofuel development programmes in other countries had an impact on local commodity prices during the period 2005–2008 in Botswana, it is argued that local biofuel production may not necessarily lead to a substantial increase in commodity food prices because land availability is not a major issue. The paper makes policy recommendations for sustainable biofuel development in Botswana. - Highlights: ► Biofuel development in Botswana can be pursued without harming food security. ► There is plenty idle land which could be used for biofuel and food production. ► Biofuel production will not lead to significant increases in food prices. ► There is need to define land for biofuels to avoid future scarcity of land for food production.
Sewald, Craig A; Kuo, Elena S; Dansky, Hana
Food waste and food insecurity are both significant issues in communities throughout the U.S., including Boulder, Colorado. As much as 40% of the food produced in the U.S. goes uneaten and ends up in landfills. Nearly 13% of people in the Boulder region experience some level of food insecurity. Founded in 2011, Boulder Food Rescue supports community members to create their own food security through a participatory approach to an emergency food system. The organization uses a web-application "robot" to manage a schedule of volunteers. They coordinate with individuals at low-income senior housing sites, individual housing sites, family housing sites, after-school programs, and pre-schools to set up no-cost grocery programs stocked with food from local markets and grocers that would otherwise go to waste. Each site coordinator makes decisions about how, when, and where food delivery and distribution will occur. The program also conducts robust, real-time data collection and analysis. Boulder Food Rescue is a member and manager of the Food Rescue Alliance, and its model has been replicated and adapted by other cities, including Denver, Colorado Springs, Seattle, Jackson Hole, Minneapolis, Binghamton, and in the Philippines. Information for this special article was collected through key informant interviews with current and former Boulder Food Rescue staff and document review of Boulder Food Rescue materials. Boulder Food Rescue's open source software is available to other communities; to date, 40 cities have used the tool to start their own food rescue organizations. Boulder Food Rescue hopes to continue spreading this model to other cities that are considering ways to reduce food waste and increase food security. This article is part of a supplement entitled Building Thriving Communities Through Comprehensive Community Health Initiatives, which is sponsored by Kaiser Permanente, Community Health. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by
The fund was designed to finance initiatives to solve global food and ... food security and enhance nutrition in developing countries; -increase food ... In a context of rising food prices, millions of Africans in marginal areas rely on a range of ...
Abdulkadyrova, Madina A.; Dikinov, Andzor H.; Tajmashanov, Hassan È.; Shidaev, Lomali A.; Shidaeva, Eliza A.
Importance: Food problem at the present stage of development of mankind is that due to improper and overly intensive use of natural resources, increasing demand for livestock products, increasing per capita food consumption and other factors, there has been a steady rise in food prices, represents a threat to food security in the countries with…
Kuijper, T.W.M.; Struik, P.C.
The need to feed nine billion people in 2050 has given rise to widespread debate in science and policy circles. The debate is largely framed in neo-Malthusian terms, and elements of global food security (resilience of the food system, food quantity and quality, right to and access to food) demand
21 حزيران (يونيو) 2013 ... Hammou Laamrani works for IDRC as a specialist in agriculture, water, and knowledge management. He believes that ... Food security challenges are also related to the low adoption of technologies to optimize food availability and storage, reduce post-harvest losses, and improve food safety. Unless food ...
Liu, Jing; Hertel, Thomas W.; Lammers, Richard B.; Prusevich, Alexander; Baldos, Uris Lantz C.; Grogan, Danielle S.; Frolking, Steve
Unsustainable water use challenges the capacity of water resources to ensure food security and continued growth of the economy. Adaptation policies targeting future water security can easily overlook its interaction with other sustainability metrics and unanticipated local responses to the larger-scale policy interventions. Using a global partial equilibrium grid-resolving model SIMPLE-G, and coupling it with the global Water Balance Model, we simulate the consequences of reducing unsustainable irrigation for food security, land use change, and terrestrial carbon. A variety of future (2050) scenarios are considered that interact irrigation productivity with two policy interventions— inter-basin water transfers and international commodity market integration. We find that pursuing sustainable irrigation may erode other development and environmental goals due to higher food prices and cropland expansion. This results in over 800 000 more undernourished people and 0.87 GtC additional emissions. Faster total factor productivity growth in irrigated sectors will encourage more aggressive irrigation water use in the basins where irrigation vulnerability is expected to be reduced by inter-basin water transfer. By allowing for a systematic comparison of these alternative adaptations to future irrigation vulnerability, the global gridded modeling approach offers unique insights into the multiscale nature of the water scarcity challenge.
... relative to urban farming practices was found to influence the food security status of the respondents. This is justified from the χ2 value of 9.263 and 6.443 returned for this factor and which is significant at 0.05 level of significance. Keywords: Food security; Odds; Urban farming. Moor Journal of Agricultural Research Vol.
A review of literature was conducted in order to identify knowledge gaps in climate change and food security research in Tanzania. The review focused on published literature covering the past 20 years addressing climate change effects on various components of the food security. The review of literature reveals, among ...
Food security and its relationship to sustainable agricultural and rural development have increasingly become matters of concern for developing countries and for the international community. While there are many complex factors that influence sustainable development and food security, it is clear that education in ...
Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South. Page couverture du livre: Transforming Gender and Food Security in the Global South. Directeur(s):. Jemimah Njuki, John R. Parkins et Amy Kaler. Maison(s) d'édition: Routledge, CRDI. 29 septembre 2016. ISBN : 9781138680418. 312 pages. e-ISBN :.
Campbell, Bruce Morgan; Vermeulen, Sonja Joy; Aggarwal, Pramod
, with very little attention paid to more systems components of cropping, let alone other dimensions of food security. Given the serious threats to food security, attention should shift to an action-oriented research agenda, where we see four key challenges: (a) changing the culture of research; (b) deriving...
Oct 5, 2016 ... ... of people in developing countries lift themselves out of hunger and poverty. Through the Centre's Agriculture and Food Security program, IDRC invested more than CAD$179 million from 2009-2015 to develop, test, and scale up solutions that improve food security and nutrition in the developing world.
The study analyzed the effect of social capital on food security of rural farming households in Abia State, Nigeria with specific focus on measuring social capital dimensions among the rural farming households; determining the food security status of the households; analyzing the influence of socioeconomic characteristics of ...
17 avr. 2014 ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and empowering women are vital to meeting the challenges of improving food and nutrition security, and enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty. A central objective of the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) is ...
Together with partners, IDRC is scaling up proven food security and ... In rural Kenya and Uganda, a pre-mix for preparation of yogurt in community-based kitchens is key to ... Pre-cooked beans for improving food security, nutrition, and income.
Objectives: This study was designed to explore the interactions between food securing activities, health and gender equity from the perspective of rural east African women. The specific objectives were to document the critical interaction among these three issues—food security, gender inequity, women's health within the ...
This paper documents the determinants of household-level food security based on the data collected in 2003 from 954 randomly-selected households in major drought-prone areas of Ethiopia; namely from the West and East Haraghe zones of Oromiya and South Gonder zone of Amhara. The food security is assessed using ...
Frequency tables and charts were computed on a computer spreadsheet. The findings of this Study revealed that there are 347 food security projects in Limpopo Province with 338 declared functional. This Study will provide policy makers with policy directives on how a database of food security projects can be kept so that ...
The study looked into the current scenario of food security in Rwanda. After analysing the national level institutional and food security scenarios by using available secondary data, the researchers used primary data that have been collected from a random sample of 200 households spreading over six sectors of the Huye ...
May 5, 2016 ... There is ample evidence that addressing gender inequalities and empowering women are vital to meeting the challenges of improving food and nutrition security, and enabling poor rural people to overcome poverty. A central objective of the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF) is ...
Guha-Khasnobis, Basudeb; Hazarika, Gautam
This study examines the role of women’s intra-household status relative to men in children’s food security in Pakistan. Data from the 1991 Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (PIHS) yield a measure of evidence of a positive relation between women’s intra-household status and children’s food security.
Food Security and Productivity among Urban Farmers in Kaduna State, Nigeria https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jae.v22i1.15. Saleh, M.K. ... increase income of urban farmers in the area. Keywords: Food security, urban agricultural productivity, farming household. ..... Access to Bank loans. 8. Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial and ...
Switching to Sudan grass for livestock fodder will increase food security in Kenya Farmers learned new techniques for producing livestock fodder, with important outcomes for household food security. ... The company provided drip kits to 300 farmers in Tana River for chilli production (through loans of US$74 per kit).
Dibden, Jacqui; Gibbs, David; Cocklin, Chris
The spectre of a food security crisis has raised important questions about future directions for agriculture and given fresh impetus to a long-standing debate about the potential contribution of agricultural biotechnology to food security. This paper considers the discursive foundations for promotion of agricultural biotechnology, arguing that…
Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quiñonez, Hugo; Taylor, Christopher A; Alvarez Uribe, Martha Cecilia
The objective of this study was to explore demographic and economic characteristics associated with household food security of 2,784 low-income households with pre-school aged children receiving food supplements from the Colombian Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia - MANA (Mejoramiento Alimentario y Nutricional de Antioquia) in the Department of Antioquia, Colombia. Included in the study was a 12-item household food security survey was collected from a cross-sectional, stratified random sample of MANA participants in which households were characterized as food secure, mildly food insecure, moderately food insecure, and severely food insecure. It was hypothesized that household food security status would be strongly associated with demographic characteristics, food expenditure variables, and food supplement consumption by children in MANA. Food insecure households were characterized by more members, older parents, and lower income (p < 0.0001). Rural residence and female head of households had higher rates of food insecurity (p < 0.01). Food insecure households had the lowest monthly expenditures food (p < 0.0001). Severely food insecure households saved the highest percentage of per capita food expenditure from consuming MANA supplements (p < 0.0001), similarly, MANA food supplement intakes were greatest in households reporting the most food insecurity (p < 0.001). The results of this study are important to describe characteristics of the population benefiting from the MANA nutrition intervention by their unique level of household food security status.
Gohar, Abdelaziz A.; Ward, Frank A.; Amer, Saud A.
SummaryContinued climate variability, population growth, and rising food prices present ongoing challenges for achieving food and water security in poor countries that lack adequate water infrastructure. Undeveloped storage infrastructure presents a special challenge in northern Afghanistan, where food security is undermined by highly variable water supplies, inefficient water allocation rules, and a damaged irrigation system due three decades of war and conflict. Little peer-reviewed research to date has analyzed the economic benefits of water storage capacity expansions as a mechanism to sustain food security over long periods of variable climate and growing food demands needed to feed growing populations. This paper develops and applies an integrated water resources management framework that analyzes impacts of storage capacity expansions for sustaining farm income and food security in the face of highly fluctuating water supplies. Findings illustrate that in Afghanistan's Balkh Basin, total farm income and food security from crop irrigation increase, but at a declining rate as water storage capacity increases from zero to an amount equal to six times the basin's long term water supply. Total farm income increases by 21%, 41%, and 42% for small, medium, and large reservoir capacity, respectively, compared to the existing irrigation system unassisted by reservoir storage capacity. Results provide a framework to target water infrastructure investments that improve food security for river basins in the world's dry regions with low existing storage capacity that face ongoing climate variability and increased demands for food security for growing populations.
Power, Elaine M
Food insecurity affected over 2.3 million Canadians in 2004. To date, the food security literature has not considered the potential impact of economic abuse on food security, but there are three ways in which these two important public health issues may be related: 1) victims of economic abuse are at risk of food insecurity when they are denied access to adequate financial resources; 2) the conditions that give rise to food insecurity may also precipitate intimate partner violence in all its forms; 3) women who leave economically abusive intimate heterosexual relationships are more likely to live in poverty and thus are at risk of food insecurity. This paper presents a case of one woman who, during a qualitative research interview, spontaneously reported economic abuse and heterosexual interpersonal violence. The economic abuse suffered by this participant appears to have affected her food security and that of her children, while her husband's was apparently unaffected. There is an urgent need to better understand the nature of intra-household food distribution in food-insecure households and the impact of economic abuse on its victims' food security. Such an understanding may lead to improved food security measurement tools and social policies to reduce food insecurity.
Pollard, Christina M; Nyaradi, Anett; Lester, Matthew; Sauer, Kay
Food insecurity in remote Western Australian (WA) Indigenous communities. This study explored remote community store managers' views on issues related to improving food security in order to inform health policy. A census of all remote WA Indigenous community store managers was conducted in 2010. Telephone interviews sought managers' perceptions of community food insecurity, problems with their store, and potential policy options for improving the supply, accessibility, affordability and consumption of nutritious foods. Descriptive analyses were conducted using SPSS for Windows version 17.0. Managers stated that freight costs and irregular deliveries contributed to high prices and a limited range of foods. Poor store infrastructure, compromised cold chain logistics, and commonly occurring power outages affected food quality. Half of the managers said there was hunger in their community because people did not have enough money to buy food. The role of nutritionists beyond a clinical and educational role was not understood. Food security interventions in remote communities need to take into consideration issues such as freight costs, transport and low demand for nutritious foods. Store managers provide important local knowledge regarding the development and implementation of food security interventions. SO WHAT? Agencies acting to address the issue of food insecurity in remote WA Indigenous communities should heed the advice of community store managers that high food prices, poor quality and limited availability are mainly due to transport inefficiencies and freight costs. Improving healthy food affordability in communities where high unemployment and low household income abound is fundamental to improving food security, yet presents a significant challenge.
Md Saidul Islam
Full Text Available The issue of climate change has been gaining widespread attention and concern as it has the ability to directly/indirectly affect our standard of living and quality of life. It has often been postulated that changes in climate would have a vast effect on food production systems and that food security might be threatened due to increasing climate change. However, it seems that research on climate change and food in/security has often been one-sided; with climate change being identified as the cause of food insecurity and not how the systems in place to ensure food security have exacerbated the issue of climate change. This paper thus seeks to give a more balanced view and thus understanding of the complex relationship between climate change and food security by critically examining both systems.
Isdore Paterson Guma
Full Text Available Household food security FS is complex and requires multiple stakeholder intervention. Systemic approach aids stakeholders to understand the mechanisms and feedback between complexities in food security providing effective decision making as global resource consumption continues to grow. The study investigated food security challenges and a system dynamics model was developed for evaluating policies and intervention strategies for better livelihood at household level. Dynamic synthesis methodology questionnaires and interview guide were used to unearth food security challenges faced by households. A causal loop diagram was drawn. The model demonstrates a balance between food stock seeds preserved seeds for sale and consumption from crop harvest throughout the food cycles. This research makes contribution to the literature by evaluating dynamic synthesis methodology and FS policy discussions from a feedback point of view.
Smyth, Stuart J; Phillips, Peter W B; Kerr, William A
The announcement that the European Union (EU) had reached an agreement allowing Member States (MS) to ban genetically modified (GM) crops confirms that the EU has chosen to ignore the food security challenge issued to the world by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in 2009. The FAO suggests that agricultural biotechnology has a central role in meeting the food security challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Food insecurity persists as a social problem in the U.S., putting its victims at risk of poor nutritional and overall health. Being food insecure is defined as the limited or uncertain availability of nutritionally safe foods or the inability to access such foods in socially acceptable ways. Food insecurity research tends to focus on younger populations, particularly households with children. Food insecurity among the elderly is, therefore, poorly understood, both in prevalence and in prevention and intervention methods. Addressing this gap, the present study examined the relationships between emotional social support and food security using data from the 2007-08 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey in an effort to further the understanding of food insecurity among elders. Specifically, the effects of an emotional social support presence, number of support sources and types of support sources on food security were observed using OLS linear regression. Results indicated that emotional social support alleviated the risk of food insecurity, even when household income, marital/partnership status and health status were controlled for. However, the source of the support mattered: elders who reported a spouse as the primary source of support were more likely to report being food secure, while those who reported an “other” primary source of support were more likely to report being food insecure. Number of support sources were not significantly related to food security.
Ulrich, Andrea E; Frossard, Emmanuel
Despite evidence against imminent global phosphate rock depletion, phosphorus (P) scarcity scenarios and the subsequent consequences for global food security continue to be a matter of controversy. We provide a historicizing account to evaluate the degree and relevance of past human experiences with P scarcity. Using more than 80 literature sources, we trace the origin of the P scarcity concept and the first accounts of concerns; we report on three cases of scarcity discourse in the U.S. and revisit the concept of future resources. In addition, we present past evaluations of phosphate rock reserves and lifetime estimates for the world, the U.S., Morocco, and the Western Sahara, as well as past attempts to model phosphorus supply or collect information on phosphate rock. Our results show that current concerns have a long legacy and knowledge base to draw from and that promulgating the notion of depletion is inconsistent with past findings. We find that past depletion concerns were refuted by means of new resource appraisals, indicating that the supply was substantially larger than previously thought. Moreover, recommendations for national P conservation policies and other practices seem to have found little implementation. We demonstrate the merit of historic literacy for social learning and the weakness of the current P sustainability debate because it does not include this past knowledge. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Berryhill, Kelly; Hale, Jason; Chase, Brian; Clark, Lauren; He, Jianghua; Daley, Christine M
The purpose of this study was to determine levels of food security among American Indians (AI) living in the Midwest and possible correlations between food security levels and various health outcomes, diet, and demographic variables. This study used a cross-sectional design to determine health behaviors among AI. Participants (n = 362) were recruited by AI staff through various cultural community events in the Midwest, such as powwows and health fairs. Inclusion criteria included the following: age 18 years or older, self-identify as an AI, and willing to participate in the survey. Of all participants, 210 (58%) had either low or very low food security, with 96 in the very low category (26.5%). Participants with very low food security tended to have significantly more chronic conditions. Additional significant differences for very low food security existed by demographic variables, including having no insurance (p security levels and the consumption of fast food within the past week (p value = 0.0420), though no differences were found in fruit and vegetable consumption. AI in our sample had higher levels of food insecurity than those reported in the literature for other racial/ethnic groups. AI and non-Native health professionals should be aware of the gravity of food insecurity and the impact it has on overall health. Additional research is needed to determine specific aspects of food insecurity affecting different Native communities to develop appropriate interventions.
Zaman, M.; Shahid, Shabbir A; Pharis, Richard P.
Over the past many years, overexploitation has shrunk the soil resources to an unprecedented level and there is great concern that it may not be able to provide the needed food to mankind in future, especially the food for the growing population. This shows that we are using soil resources as they are inexhaustible, continuing withdrawing from an account but never paying in and thus jeopardizing our and our children future. Thus soil resources are at the stake of diminishing capacity for ecosystem services including food production. Increasing human population, demographic pressures, climate change, increased competition between land and water resources, water scarcity, land degradation by salinity are likely to increase vulnerability to food security. The Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO) of the United Nations jointly with International Technical Panel on Soils (ITPS) has published the first-ever comprehensive report “status of the world’s soil resources” and the overwhelming conclusion drawn is very astonishing “the majority of the world’s soil resources are in only fair, poor or very poor conditions…” and conditions are getting worse in far more cases than they are improving. It also states that further loss of productive soils will seriously damage food production and food security, amplify food price volatility, and potentially plunge millions of people into hunger and poverty. Globally 33 percent land is in the state of degradation. The report offers evidence that this loss of soil resources and functions can be avoided (FAO and ITPS 2015). The latter part of the above quote gave hope; however, the question is how this damage can be reversed.
Office 2004 Test Drive User
diversify small‐scale agriculture, improve nutritional quality, and income by ... strategies for youth engagement in agri-food value chains for improved food ... successful examples of youth in agri-food businesses and for connecting youth.
Food security is a condition whereby “all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life” (FAO World Food Summit, 1996). Globally, food production has kept
In the decade since the World Food Conference of 1974, increased attention has been directed to the problems of world food security. The emphasis on technologies of production, while important, have not sufficed. Two major shortcomings of the World Food Conference and the efforts it stimulated were (1) the failure to recognize the relationship…
Boosting food security in sub-Saharan Africa through cassava production: a case study of Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Economic History ... The paper argues that cassava which is widely grown in Sub-Saharan Africa with a lot of variety of food derivatives from it can reduce to the barest minimum the present state of food ...
Brown, Molly E.
This slide presentation reviews the issue of supplies of food, the relationship to food security, the ability of all people to attain sufficient food for an active and healthy life, and the ability to use satellite technology and remote sensing to assist with planning and act as an early warning system.
The challenge. In Colombia, food security is a national concern, and indigenous communities of Nariño are among the most food insecure in the country. Potato is the staple food crop and main source of family income for the region's smallholder farms — many of which are headed by women. One of the biggest threats to ...
Vijay Kumar Chattu
Full Text Available The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1. Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safety. Many cases of food borne diseases either acute poisoning or chronic exposure are largely under reported. In this globalized world, though the food chain extends over thousands of miles from different continents, an error or contamination in one country can affect the health of consumers on the other part of the world. To ensure full impact, these actions must build on principles of government stewardship, engagement of civil society, (2.According to UN, access to a safe and secure food supply is a basic human right. Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts which have an impact on the health outcomes and quality of human lives. As per Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, (3. Based on the definition of Food security, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time. Apart from that food security is also affected by Poverty and Climate change.Food safety is an umbrella term that encompasses many aspects like food items handling, preparation and storage of food to prevent illness and injury. The other important issues are chemical, microphysical and microbiological aspects of food safety, (4. Control of
Nadine Felicity Petersen
This paper provides an account of student teachers responses to a simulation game about food scarcity and how the game served as a conversation starter about the influence of food scarcity on educational provisioning. The simulation game was utilised as part of a suite of activities during an educational excursion for first years in primary school teacher education. In this investigation data were generated via video recordings of the simulation game itself, summary notes of the key points of...
Ma, Xiaoguang; Liese, Angela D; Bell, Bethany A; Martini, Lauren; Hibbert, James; Draper, Carrie; Burke, Michael P; Jones, Sonya J
To examine the association of both perceived and geographic neighbourhood food access with food security status among households with children. This was a cross-sectional study in which participants' perceptions of neighbourhood food access were assessed by a standard survey instrument, and geographic food access was evaluated by distance to the nearest supermarket. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. The Midlands Family Study included 544 households with children in eight counties in South Carolina, USA. Food security status among participants was classified into three categories: food secure (FS), food insecure (FI) and very low food security among children (VLFS-C). Compared with FS households, VLFS-C households had lower odds of reporting easy access to adequate food shopping. VLFS-C households also had lower odds of reporting neighbourhood access to affordable fruits and vegetables compared with FS households and reported worse selection of fruits and vegetables, quality of fruits and vegetables, and selection of low-fat products. FI households had lower odds of reporting fewer opportunities to purchase fast food. None of the geographic access measures was significantly associated with food security status. Caregivers with children who experienced hunger perceived that they had less access to healthy affordable food in their community, even though grocery stores were present. Approaches to improve perceived access to healthy affordable food should be considered as part of the overall approach to improving food security and eliminating child hunger.
Ma, Xiaoguang; Liese, Angela D.; Bell, Bethany; Martini, Lauren; Hibbert, James; Draper, Carrie; Jones, Sonya J.
Objective To examine the association of both perceived and geographic neighborhood food access with food security status among households with children. Design This was a cross-sectional study in which participants’ perceptions of neighborhood food access were assessed by a standard survey instrument, and geographic food access was evaluated by distance to the nearest supermarket. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to examine the associations. Subjects The Midlands Family Study included 544 households with children in eight counties in South Carolina. Food security status among participants was classified into three categories: food secure (FS), food insecure (FI) and very low food security among children (VLFS-C). Results Compared to FS households, VLFS-C households had lower odds of reporting easy access to adequate food shopping. VLFS-C households also had lower odds of reporting neighborhood access to affordable fruits and vegetables compared to FS households and reported worse selection of fruits and vegetables, quality of fruits and vegetables and selection of low-fat products. FI households had lower odds of reporting fewer opportunities to purchase fast food. None of the geographic access measures was significantly associated with food security status. Conclusions Caregivers with children that experienced hunger perceived that they had less access to healthy affordably food in their community, even though grocery stores were present. Approaches to improve perceived access to healthy affordable food should be considered as part of the overall approach to improving food security and eliminating child hunger. PMID:27133939
To evaluate the effects of carbon nutrition on agricultural productivity, a physiological-process-based crop simulation model, driven by the 1961-1990 monthly climate data from global FAO dataset, was developed and applied to four crops (wheat, maize, rice and soybean -WMRS) which account for 64% of the global caloric consumption of humans. Five different temperatures and CO2 scenarios (current; glacial; pre-industrial; future_1 with 560 ppmv for CO2 and +2 °C for temperature; and future_2 with 800 ppmv for CO2 and +4 °C) were investigated. The relative values of WMRS global productions for past and future scenarios were, respectively, 49% of the present-day scenario for glacial, 82% for pre-industrial, 115% for future_1 and 124% for future_2. A sensitive growth of productivity of future scenarios (respectively to 117% and 134%) was observed if the northward shift of crops was allowed, and a strong increase was obtained without water limitation (from 151% to 157% for the five scenarios) and without biotic and abiotic stresses (from 30% to 40% for WMRS subject to the current scenario). Furthermore since the beginning of the Green Revolution (roughly happened between the '30s and the '50s of the twentieth century) production losses due to sub-optimal levels of CO2 and to biotic and abiotic stresses have been masked by the strong technological innovation trend still ongoing, which, in the last century, led to a strong increase in the global crop production (+400%-600%). These results show the crucial relevance of the future choices of research and development in agriculture (genetics, land reclamation, irrigation, plant protection, and so on) to ensure global food security.
96 parliamentarians and state legislators attended a seminar on November 8 on food security, population, and development. The one-day meeting was held at the Parliament House Annex in New Delhi and organized by the Indian Association of Parliamentarians on Population and Development as part of a regional campaign to highlight the relationship between population and food security. The first session of the day focused upon the impact of population on food security and nutrition, the second session was on the strategy for food security through poverty alleviation, and the third session discussed food security through trade and self-sufficiency. The participants believe that population size is growing faster than food production. Furthermore, it is important to view both food production and the capacity of people to buy food. Poverty is rooted in unemployment and unemployment is the result of overpopulation. As such, overpopulation causes unemployment which results in the inability of the poor to buy food. A declaration was adopted at the seminar.
Member States “Food and nutrition security exists when all people at all times have physical, social and economic access to food, which is safe and consumed in sufficient quantity and quality to meet their dietary needs and food preferences, and is supported by an environment of adequate sanitation...... by increasing availability, affordability and consumption of biodiverse, safe, nutritious foods aligned with dietary recommendations and environmental sustainability. Given that the number of chronically undernourished (stunted) could double over next 15 years, the Post-2015 Agenda and its Poverty Reduction......The term “food and nutrition security” reflects the multisector collaboration needed between those working with food security and nutrition security. The term expresses an integrated development goal to help guide implementation of policy and cost-effective programmatic action: As agreed by FAO...
In October 2011, the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) recommended a ''review of biofuels policies -- where applicable and if necessary -- according to balanced science-based assessments of the opportunities and challenges that they may represent for food security so that biofuels can be produced where it is socially, economically and environmentally feasible to do so''. In line with this, the CFS requested the HLPE (High Level Panel of Experts) to ''conduct a science-based comparative literature analysis taking into consideration the work produced by the FAO and Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) of the positive and negative effects of biofuels on food security''. Recommendations from the report include the following. Food security policies and biofuel policies cannot be separated because they mutually interact. Food security and the right to food should be priority concerns in the design of any biofuel policy. Governments should adopt the principle: biofuels shall not compromise food security and therefore should be managed so that food access or the resources necessary for the production of food, principally land, biodiversity, water and labour are not put at risk. The CFS should undertake action to ensure that this principle is operable in the very varied contexts in which all countries find themselves. Given the trend to the emergence of a global biofuels market, and a context moving from policy-driven to market-driven biofuels, there is an urgent need for close and pro-active coordination of food security, biofuel/bioenergy policies and energy policies, at national and international levels, as well as rapid response mechanisms in case of crisis. There is also an urgent need to create an enabling, responsible climate for food and non-food investments compatible with food security. The HLPE recommends that governments adopt a coordinated food security and energy security strategy, which would require articulation around the following five axes
In October 2011, the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) recommended a ''review of biofuels policies -- where applicable and if necessary -- according to balanced science-based assessments of the opportunities and challenges that they may represent for food security so that biofuels can be produced where it is socially, economically and environmentally feasible to do so''. In line with this, the CFS requested the HLPE (High Level Panel of Experts) to ''conduct a science-based comparative literature analysis taking into consideration the work produced by the FAO and Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP) of the positive and negative effects of biofuels on food security''. Recommendations from the report include the following. Food security policies and biofuel policies cannot be separated because they mutually interact. Food security and the right to food should be priority concerns in the design of any biofuel policy. Governments should adopt the principle: biofuels shall not compromise food security and therefore should be managed so that food access or the resources necessary for the production of food, principally land, biodiversity, water and labour are not put at risk. The CFS should undertake action to ensure that this principle is operable in the very varied contexts in which all countries find themselves. Given the trend to the emergence of a global biofuels market, and a context moving from policy-driven to market-driven biofuels, there is an urgent need for close and pro-active coordination of food security, biofuel/bioenergy policies and energy policies, at national and international levels, as well as rapid response mechanisms in case of crisis. There is also an urgent need to create an enabling, responsible climate for food and non-food investments compatible with food security. The HLPE recommends that governments adopt a coordinated food security and energy security strategy, which would require articulation
Full Text Available The worst food crisis since 1974 broke out in 2007-08. Higher world market prices of food commodities (especially wheat, rice, soya and maize sparked an unprecedented increase in the number of hungry people. Despite moderately lower prices since the summer of 2008, the number of the hungry continued to rise in 2009. This food crisis has placed the fight against hunger on the international agenda. Since March 2008 governments UN agencies and many social movements have adopted positions on the causes of the crisis and the means to address it. Unfortunately, while these parties are trying to coordinate their activities and suggest new approaches, the old recipes for producing more food are often brought up. Contradictory proposals are made and the thought given to the causes underlying hunger and the food crisis (social, economic and political discrimination and exclusion has gone largely unheeded. The first Millennium Development Goal, which calls for cutting the percentage of hungry people by half by 2015, is clearly out of reach. But the food crisis might lead to a new world food order based on the three pillars of food assistance, food security and the right to food.
Anderson, Molly D.
The right to food is widely accepted by nations, with the notable exception of the United States (US) and four other countries. The US government deals with domestic food insecurity through an array of needs-based food assistance programs instead of rights-based approaches; and administration officials have resisted the right to food for several…
Food and Livelihood Security in Punjab through Water, Energy and Agricultural Management ... management and facilitating access to resources by low-income farmers. ... Sharing opportunities for innovation in climate change adaptation.
The AFS program works with organizations to intensify and diversify small‐scale ... and social) without adversely impacting societies and the environment. ... loss, rural economic development, improved food and nutrition security, and the ...
Oct 28, 2010 ... ... in 1970, IDRC has contributed to increased food security and better nutrition. ... made farming practices more efficient, preserved environments, and brought ... the developing world has always been central to IDRC's work.
Sep 12, 2012 ... HEAD OFFICE / SIÈGE : 150 Kent Street / 150, rue Kent PO Box ... to pursue their research goals in a dynamic team environment in ... You should have an interest in agriculture, food security, nutrition, rural livelihoods, and.
Sep 29, 2016 ... It investigates how food security and gender inequity are conceptualized within ... underlying social, cultural, and economic causes of gender inequality. Taken together, these combined approaches enable women and men to ...
Oct 6, 2016 ... In Canada, the 2012 federal budget highlighted CIFSRF's success, noting how the ... New animal vaccines could keep more African farmers in business ... Research on food security makes a difference for African women.
This paper focuses on how men and women farmers perceive climatic variability in Idanre ... Poor women and their ... Climate Change, Food Security and Poverty ..... 50. 8.3. Total. 180. 100. Marital status. Single. Married. Divorced. Widowed.
Agricultural Production, Food and Nutrition Security in Rural Benin, Nigeria. ... that rural-urban migration results in shortage of manpower for agricultural activities. ... to support education, health care, sanitation and safe drinking water supply.
Climate Change Adaptation, Water, and Food Security in Pakistan ... those living in the Indus floodplains or on the edges of its deserts - received little attention. ... farmers' decision-making in water stressed regions, and the wider political and ...
Apr 26, 2016 ... Healthier, more nutritious potatoes improve food security in Colombia ... farmers, have high commercial potential, and are popular with consumers. ... children and adolescents is an alarming trend throughout the Caribbean.
Food Security Status of People with Disabilities in Selassie Kebele , Hawassa Town, Southern Ethiopia. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Individuals with physical type of disabilities accounted for the largest proportion of ...
... on the world grain market has social implications for Tunisia's small farmers and ... Thus, when a country exports an agricultural product, in effect it also exports ... Tunisia that incorporates the virtual water concept in a food security strategy.
Food Security and Climate Change in Cambodia ... Eleven world-class research teams set to improve livestock vaccine development and production to benefit farmers across the ... Building resilience through socially equitable climate action.
... Agricultural Research Organisation and the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research ... New bean products to improve food security. April 21, 2016. Image ... more lucrative market for smallholder bean farmers, most of whom are women.
The six regional decision support systems in this model is a comprehensive database ... from research findings and innovations, inputs from agricultural extension officers, ... Keywords: Food Security, Interactive websites, National Internet host, ...
Improving food and nutrition security in the Philippines through school ... Implementation of the Community Health Assessment Program in the Philippines ... This project will address the effects of fast-paced economic growth in the Greater ...
Food is crucial to an adequate standard of living. The acknowledgement of the right to food in government policies is fundamental to the protection of human dignity, particularly in relation to food insecurity. It allows the right-holder to seek redress and hold government accountable for
Walsh, M. K.; Brown, M. E.; Backlund, P. W.; Antle, J. M.; Carr, E. R.; Easterling, W. E.; Funk, C. C.; Murray, A.; Ngugi, M.; Barrett, C. B.; Ingram, J. S. I.; Dancheck, V.; O'Neill, B. C.; Tebaldi, C.; Mata, T.; Ojima, D. S.; Grace, K.; Jiang, H.; Bellemare, M.; Attavanich, W.; Ammann, C. M.; Maletta, H.
Global food security is an elusive challenge and important policy focus from the community to the globe. Food is provisioned through food systems that may be simple or labyrinthine, yet each has vulnerabilities to climate change through its effects on food production, transportation, storage, and other integral food system activities. At the same time, the future of food systems is sensitive to socioeconomic trajectories determined by choices made outside of the food system, itself. Constrictions for any reason can lead to decreased food availability, access, utilization, or stability - that is, to diminished food security. Possible changes in trade and other U.S. relationships to the rest of the world under changing conditions to the end of the century are considered through integrated assessment modelling under a range of emissions scenarios. Climate change is likely to diminish continued progress on global food security through production disruptions leading to local availability limitations and price increases, interrupted transport conduits, and diminished food safety, among other causes. In the near term, some high-latitude production export regions may benefit from changes in climate. The types and price of food imports is likely to change, as are export demands, affecting U.S. consumers and producers. Demands placed on foreign assistance programs may increase, as may demand for advanced technologies. Adaptation across the food system has great potential to manage climate change effects on food security, and the complexity of the food system offers multiple potential points of intervention for decision makers at every level. However, effective adaptation is subject to highly localized conditions and socioeconomic factors, and the technical feasibility of an adaptive intervention is not necessarily a guarantee of its application if it is unaffordable or does not provide benefits within a relatively short time frame.
Midtvåge, Runa; Hiranandani, Vanmala Sunder; Nambuanyi, Lekunze Ransom
• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014.......• Midtvåge, R., Hiranandani, V. S., & Lekunze, R. (2014). Promoting food security of low income women in central Uganda. Poster presentation, Sustainability Science Congress, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, October 22-24, 2014....
Vijay Kumar Chattu
Microphysical particles such as glass and metal can be hazardous and cause serious injury to consumers. Pathogenic bacteria, viruses and toxins produced by microorganisms are all possible contaminants of food and impact food safety. Like food security, food safety is also effected by poverty and climate change. Hence Foo
The purpose of this article is to ensure the safety of food and through the development of innovative food industry and learning to increase the production of food. Work to ensure food security of the Republic of Uzbekistan has its own characteristics and analysis of trends and problems identified in this area. As well as ensuring the safety of food and food industry offer based on the priority directions of scientific and practical recommendations developed.
Brown, Molly E.; Hintermann, Beat; Higgins, Nathaniel
West Africa is one of the most food insecure regions of the world. Sharply increased food and energy prices in 2008 brought the role of markets in food access and availability around the world into the spotlight, particularly in urban areas. The period of high prices had the immediate consequence of sharply increasing the number of hungry people in the region without boosting farmer incomes significantly. In this article, the interaction between markets, food prices, agricultural technology and development is explored in the context of West Africa. To improve food security in West Africa, sustained commitment to investment in the agriculture sector will be needed to provide some protection against global swings in both production and world markets. Climate change mitigation programs are likely to force global energy and commodity price increases in the coming decades, putting pressure on regions like West Africa to produce more food locally to ensure stability in food security for the most vulnerable.
In many parts of the world, the food security of households and the nutrition security of individual household members, in particular that of children, are still at risk, in spite of the progress made in combatting hunger at the global level. The prevailing opinion among scientists and development
Partyka, Brendine; Whiting, Susan; Grunerud, Deanna; Archibald, Karen; Quennell, Kara
We explored infant nutrition in Saskatoon by assessing current accessibility to all forms of infant nourishment, investigating challenges in terms of access to infant nutrition, and determining the use and effectiveness of infant nutrition programs and services. We also examined recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Semi-structured community focus groups and stakeholder interviews were conducted between June 2006 and August 2006. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes related to infant feeding practices and barriers, as well as recommendations to improve infant food security in Saskatoon. Our study showed that infant food security is a concern among lower-income families in Saskatoon. Barriers that limited breastfeeding sustainability or nourishing infants through other means included knowledge of feeding practices, lack of breastfeeding support, access and affordability of infant formula, transportation, and poverty. Infant nutrition and food security should be improved by expanding education and programming opportunities, increasing breastfeeding support, and identifying acceptable ways to provide emergency formula. If infant food security is to be addressed successfully, discussion and change must occur in social policy and family food security contexts.
Full Text Available The overall goal of this paper is analysis of Serbian food security system across a set of indicators, with special emphasis to 2012 Global Food Security Index (GFSI. The results generally provided two major weakness of the Serbian food system: Gross domestic product (GDP per capita based on purchasing power parity and Corruption. Paper points out the need to improve the current food security system and proposed a number of measures for its improvement. Among other things appropriate nutritional standards and strategies will have to be adopted; investors' confidence must be strengthened and must be dealt with in a serious fight against corruption in the agriculture and food sector. The development of rural areas, reducing regional disparities and stabilization of agricultural production will certainly contribute to the tough battle against poverty.
China has been facing increasingly severe water scarcity, especially in the northern part of the country. China's water scarcity is characterized by insufficient local water resources as well as reduced water quality due to increasing pollution, both of which have caused serious impacts on society and the environment. Three factors contribute to China's water scarcity: uneven spatial distribution of water resources; rapid economic development and urbanization with a large and growing population; and poor water resource management. While it is nearly impossible to adjust the first two factors, improving water resource management represents a cost-effective option that can alleviate China's vulnerability to the issue. Improving water resource management is a long-term task requiring a holistic approach with constant effort. Water right institutions, market-based approaches, and capacity building should be the government's top priority to address the water scarcity issue.
Owais, Aatekah; Kleinbaum, David G; Suchdev, Parminder S; Faruque, Asg; Das, Sumon K; Schwartz, Benjamin; Stein, Aryeh D
To determine the association between household food security and infant complementary feeding practices in rural Bangladesh. Prospective, cohort study using structured home interviews during pregnancy and 3 and 9 months after delivery. We used two indicators of household food security at 3-months' follow-up: maternal Food Composition Score (FCS), calculated via the World Food Programme method, and an HHFS index created from an eleven-item food security questionnaire. Infant feeding practices were characterized using WHO definitions. Two rural sub-districts of Kishoreganj, Bangladesh. Mother-child dyads (n 2073) who completed the 9-months' follow-up. Complementary feeding was initiated at age ≤4 months for 7 %, at 5-6 months for 49 % and at ≥7 months for 44 % of infants. Based on 24 h dietary recall, 98 % of infants were still breast-feeding at age 9 months, and 16 % received ≥4 food groups and ≥4 meals (minimally acceptable diet) in addition to breast milk. Mothers' diet was more diverse than infants'. The odds of receiving a minimally acceptable diet for infants living in most food-secure households were three times those for infants living in least food-secure households (adjusted OR=3·0; 95 % CI 2·1, 4·3). Socio-economic status, maternal age, literacy, parity and infant sex were not associated with infant diet. HHFS and maternal FCS were significant predictors of subsequent infant feeding practices. Nevertheless, even the more food-secure households had poor infant diet. Interventions aimed at improving infant nutritional status need to focus on both complementary food provision and education.
Full Text Available Background and Purpose. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL is a biomarker of biologic age. Whether food security status modulates LTL is still unknown. We investigated the association between food security and LTL in participants of the 1999–2002 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES. Methods. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to evaluate the association between food security categories and LTL controlling for sex, race, and education and accounting for the survey design and sample weights. Results. We included 10,888 participants with 5228 (48.0% being men. They were aged on average 44.1 years. In all, 2362 (21.7% had less than high school, 2787 (25.6% had achieved high school, while 5705 (52.5% had done more than high school. In sex-, race-, and education-adjusted ANCOVA, average LTL (T/S ratio for participants with high food security versus those with marginal, low, or very low food security was 1.32 versus 1.20 for the age group 25–35 years and 1.26 versus 1.11 for the 35–45 years, (p<0.001. Conclusion. The association between food insecurity and LTL shortening in young adults suggest that some of the future effects of food insecurity on chronic disease risk in this population could be mediated by telomere shortening.
Sixteen million US children (21%) live in households without consistent access to adequate food. After multiple risk factors are considered, children who live in households that are food insecure, even at the lowest levels, are likely to be sick more often, recover from illness more slowly, and be hospitalized more frequently. Lack of adequate healthy food can impair a child's ability to concentrate and perform well in school and is linked to higher levels of behavioral and emotional problems from preschool through adolescence. Food insecurity can affect children in any community, not only traditionally underserved ones. Pediatricians can play a central role in screening and identifying children at risk for food insecurity and in connecting families with needed community resources. Pediatricians should also advocate for federal and local policies that support access to adequate healthy food for an active and healthy life for all children and their families. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Brown, Molly Elizabeth; Walsh, Margaret; Hauser, Rachel; Murray, Anthony; Jadin, Jenna; Baklund, Peter; Robinson, Paula
Climate change influences on the major pillars of food security. Each of the four elements of food security (availability,access,utilization,andstability) is vulnerable to changes in climate. For example,reductions in production related to regional drought influence food availability at multiple scales. Changes in price influences the ability of certain populations to purchase food (access). Utilization maybe affected when production zones shift, reducing the availability of preferred or culturally appropriate types of food within a region. Stability of the food supply may be highly uncertain given an increased incidence of extreme climatic events and their influence on production patterns.
Food is an important basic human need for survival, growth, and good health. Most rural households in Tanzania, Kahama district inclusive produce the food they consume. Despite this reality, a number of households in the district suffer from food insecurity. However, there are inequalities across the districtfs ecological ...
Rasul, Golam; Hussain, Abid; Mahapatra, Bidhubhusan; Dangol, Narendra
The status of food and nutrition security and its underlying factors in the Hindu-Kush Himalayan (HKH) region is investigated. In this region, one third to a half of children (security in the HKH region. To achieve sustainable food and nutrition security in the mountains, this study suggests a multi-sectoral integrated approach with consideration of nutritional aspects in all development processes dealing with economic, social, agricultural and public health issues. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Caroline Vargas Barbosa
Full Text Available The article discusses agrofuels production as a reason for increasing the dissociation between the human being, the land and the environment, considering the issues involving food security and food sovereignty. By using the deductive method, it aims to demonstrate that the growing distance between men and land is one of the results determined by capitalism, which is based on exploitation and maximized land production in order to obtain profit, interfering thereas in national food security and food sovereignty. Thus, it first deals with the relation between the human being, land, the environment, economy, State and politics, focusing on environmental human rights protagonism such as side for recognizing and developing /enveloping fundamental rights material. Secondly, it brings agrofuels production scenario and its relation with food security and sovereignty. Finally, it concepts food security and food sovereignty, establishing its differences in order to permit the build up a solid reality that is also able to secure their implement in an economy of family polycultural basis even if there is an opposite side oriented by capitalism and protected by State, specially in which concerns to productions and environmental excessive exploitation. The article concludes that to secure fundamental rights the being needs to recognize oneself as part of the environment in order to develop a significant State behavior which will reflect on economical politics that favors food security and food sovereignty.
Fertility pattern and reproductive behaviours affect infant death in Nigeria. ... Keywords: Family size, food insecurity, stunting, breastfeeding, U5 children ... for young children and women in their childbearing years. Food security ... Two in five children are short for their ages; half of .... At the time of data analysis, the child's.
Food security and sustainable agriculture have become a burning issues in the national discuss at all levels of government as plans are being made for a changing global climate and increasing global population. One of the most important environmental challenges facing the developing world is how to meet current food ...
B. McKay (Ben)
markdownabstract__Introduction__ With roughly 1 billion people unable to meet their minimum daily caloric intake, the issue of food security is imperative to overcoming rural poverty. The way in which we produce food plays an extremely important role in solving the hunger epidemic and reaching
Farrell, Kenneth R.
Effective economic demand, rather than resource constraints, will continue to be the dominant limiting factor in improving the security of world food supplies between now and the year 2000. The global demand for food will continue to grow but the rate of growth is declining in virtually all regions, easing the pressure on agricultural resources.…
Background: Food insecurity is a growing public health concern in Nigeria especially where all efforts towards achieving the Millennium Development Goal (MDG 1) of eradicating extreme hunger and poverty by 2015 is yet to be realized. This cross sectional study was designed to assess food security status of rural ...
Household food security and HIV status in rural and urban communities in the Free State ... SAHARA-J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS ... In all areas, a high percentage of HIV-infected respondents relied on a limited number of foods to ...
Indigenous communities involved in fisheries and aquaculture are among the most food insecure in the Bolivian Amazon. Although fish could be the main source of protein, it is often not part of the local diet. This project - supported by the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund (CIFSRF), a joint program of ...
they are often neglected and deprived of services and amenities which leads to their vulnerability to poverty, food insecurity, gender bias and effects of environmental change. Accordingly, the principal objective of this study is to assess the food security situation and the type of coping strategies pursued by female and male- ...
In Nigeria, food insecurity at the household level can partly be attributed to poor preservation of post-harvest surpluses. This study sought to demonstrate a relationship (if any) between preservation of post harvest surpluses and food security at rural household level. Eha-Alumona and Opi-Uno, in Nsukka, Enugu State were ...
Nonhebel, Sanderine; Barbir, F; Ulgiati, S
In climate policies in the developed world the use of biomass as an energy source plays an important role Indications exist that these policies are affecting global food security In this chapter we compare the global demands for food, feed and energy in the near future We distinguish between
Pillai, Suresh D.
Full text: There are virtually millions of people -who die needlessly every year due to contaminated water and food. There are virtually many millions more who are starving due to an inadequate supply of food. Billions of pounds of food are unnecessarily wasted due to insect and other damage. Deaths and illness due to contaminated food or inadequate food are at catastrophic levels in many regions of the world. A majority of the food and water borne illnesses and deaths are preventable. It can be prevented by improved food production methods, improved food processing technologies, improved food distribution systems and improved personal hygiene. Food irradiation technology is over 100 years old. Yet, this technology is poorly understood by governments and corporate decision makers all around the world. Many consumers also are unfortunately misinformed of this technology. There is an urgent need for nations and people around the world to empower themselves with the knowledge and the expertise to harness this powerful technology. Widespread and sensible adoption of this technology can empower billions around the world with clean and abundant food supplies. It is unconscionable in the 21st century for governments to allow people to die or go hungry when the technology to prevent them is readily available
Pedreschi Plasencia, R.P.; Lurie, S.; Hertog, W.; Nicolai, B.; Mes, J.J.; Woltering, E.J.
To guarantee sufficient food supply for a growing world population, efforts towards improving crop yield and plant resistance should be complemented with efforts to reduce postharvest losses. Post-harvest losses are substantial and occur at different stages of the food chain in developed and
Godfray, H Charles J; Beddington, John R; Crute, Ian R; Haddad, Lawrence; Lawrence, David; Muir, James F; Pretty, Jules; Robinson, Sherman; Thomas, Sandy M; Toulmin, Camilla
Continuing population and consumption growth will mean that the global demand for food will increase for at least another 40 years. Growing competition for land, water, and energy, in addition to the overexploitation of fisheries, will affect our ability to produce food, as will the urgent requirement to reduce the impact of the food system on the environment. The effects of climate change are a further threat. But the world can produce more food and can ensure that it is used more efficiently and equitably. A multifaceted and linked global strategy is needed to ensure sustainable and equitable food security, different components of which are explored here.
Food barn has function as food stock which managed by households both individually and collectively. It has important role in food security. This study aims to determine the factors that influence the development of food barns, and formulate alternative strategies in the development of food barns in Wonogiri regency. The samples of this research were determined by random sampling. The data collection technique was done by interview, field observation and focus group discussion (FGD). The data analysis was done quantitatively with multiple regression, and qualitative information. The results showed that the age of respondents included in the category of middle age, their level of education was mostly from elementary school, most of their occupation were farmers, they had narrow knowledge of land management, and their income was around 1-2 million rupiah/month. In fact, the perception of food barns, institutional regulation of food barns, and the Economic institutions of food barn have a positive significant influence toward food barn development, filling the food barn and institutional capacity of food barn groups in realizing the food security of poor household in Wonogiri Regency. In food barn development, there are positive and clear perceptions of the food barn, institutional regulations. It indicates that significant as well as the economic institution of food barn are needed so that the food security can be realized.
Full Text Available Cash transfer (CTs is an increasingly popular social protection mechanism used by many developing countries to improve the food security and nutritional status of lower socio-economic groups. This paper is a review of the literature regarding the impact of CT programs on the food security of recipient households in the developing countries, including Iran. We looked for all original studies, performed in the developing countries and published in any language, containing at least one outcome related to food and nutritional security of the beneficiary population using Pub Med, Iran Medex, SID (Scientific Information Database, ISI (Information Sciences Institute database, INP (Iran’s Nutrition Publication Abstracts, IRANDOC and Magiran. Searches used the following terms or keywords: “household food security”, “household food insecurity” and “cash transfer” on any publication published within 1990-2015. A total of 12 studies evaluating the influence of CT programs on the recipients’ food and nutrition security were identified. CT programs have the potential to deliver a range of benefits not only through reducing extreme poverty but also by providing effective support for broader human development objectives, including better nutrition, as well as health and education outputs and outcomes. The extent to which programs can have these different impacts will depend critically on the availability of complementary services, the local context, and the specifics of program design, including the transfer value. However, findings in Iran suggest that the replacement of staple food subsidies by CT has led to a significant increase in household food insecurity (especially marginal or mild food insecurity. Keywords: Household food security, Cash transfer, Developing countries
Full Text Available Land dry farmers have not enrolled in supporting food security. Most of the farmer are the peasants with low capacity to produce food. The purpose of the research is to formulate policy recommendation to increase capacity of the peasants for support food security. The data were collected using following techniques: questionnaire, interview and focus group discussion. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and structural equation modelling (SEM. The research results showed that the peasant characteristics and the peasants capacity are within low category, influencing the level of food security. The Government are expected actively to increase the peasant’s capacity by optimizing efforts: providing extension and training in participatory ways; increasing role of facilitator and researcher in empowerment process, increasing the peasants’ access to production input, credit facilities and wider markets, give incentive to the peasants so that they can do double working, as well as increasing coordination between government institutions and stakeholder.
Hargrove, D; Dewolfe, J A; Thompson, L
We used focus groups to learn the range of issues threatening food security of low income residents in our community. Five major themes emerged from the discussions: literacy, money, time, mental health and self-esteem, suggesting several approaches that could help ensure food security: 1) education, 2) sharing of resources, 3) coalition building, and 4) advocacy. Education programs have to be practical, allowing for demonstrations and hands-on learning while emphasizing skill building and problem solving. Incorporating a social aspect into learning may compensate for the social isolation and would capitalize on the impressive mutual support we witnessed. Strategies based on self-help and peer assistance may counteract low self-esteem and overcome suspicion of health professionals. A community-wide effort is needed to address the factors contributing to food insecurity. We envision the formation of a coalition of professionals, agencies, and low income people to develop a comprehensive strategy for achieving food security.
Full Text Available The World Food Summit in 1996 provided a comprehensive definition for food security which brings into focus the linkage between food, nutrition and health. India has been self sufficient in food production since seventies and low household hunger rates. India compares well with developing countries with similar health profile in terms of infant mortality rate (IMR and under five mortality rate (U5 MR. India fares poorly when underweight in under five children is used as an indicator for food insecurity with rates comparable to that of Subsaharan Africa. If wasting [low body mass index (BMI for age in children and low BMI in adults] which is closely related to adequacy of current food intake is used as an indictor for the assessment of household food security, India fares better. The nineties witnessed the emergence of dual nutrition burden with persistent inadequate dietary intake and undernutrition on one side and low physical activity / food intake above requirements and overnutrition on the other side. Body size and physical activity levels are two major determinants of human nutrient requirements. The revised recommended dietary allowances (RDA for Indians takes cognisance of the current body weight and physical activity while computing the energy and nutrient requirements. As both under- and overnutrition are associated with health hazards, perhaps time has come for use of normal BMI as an indicator for food security.
Apr 5, 2013 ... CIDA's aim is to i) manage Canada's support and ... Food and nutritional insecurity, climate change, new and emerging diseases, and the .... groups). All projects require the sound assessment of environmental impact and the.
Full Text Available Adequate diet is of crucial importance for healthy child development. In food insecure areas of the world, the provision of adequate child diet is threatened in the many households that sometimes experience having no food at all to eat (household food insecurity. In the context of food insecure northern Ghana, this study investigated the relationship between level of household food security and achievement of recommended child diet as measured by WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding Indicators.Using data from households and 6-23 month old children in the 2012 Feed the Future baseline survey (n = 871, descriptive analyses assessed the prevalence of minimum meal frequency; minimum dietary diversity, and minimum acceptable diet. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association of minimum acceptable diet with household food security, while accounting for the effects of child sex and age, maternal -age, -dietary diversity, -literacy and -education, household size, region, and urban-rural setting. Household food security was assessed with the Household Hunger Scale developed by USAID's Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project.Forty-nine percent of children received minimum recommended meal frequency, 31% received minimum dietary diversity, and 17% of the children received minimum acceptable diet. Sixty-four percent of the children lived in food secure households, and they were significantly more likely than children in food insecure households to receive recommended minimum acceptable diet [O.R = 0.53; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.82]. However, in 80% of food secure households, children did not receive a minimal acceptable diet by WHO standards.Children living in food secure households were more likely than others to receive a minimum acceptable diet. Yet living in a food secure household was no guarantee of child dietary adequacy, since eight of 10 children in food secure households received less than a minimum acceptable diet. The results
Nguyen, Binh T; Ford, Christopher N; Yaroch, Amy L; Shuval, Kerem; Drope, Jeffrey
It is unclear whether Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) or National School Lunch Program (NSLP) participation modifies the relationship between food insecurity and obesity in children. Data were included for 4,719 children aged 9-17 years who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Survey between 2003-2004 and 2011-2012. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between household food security (full, marginal, low, and very low) and BMI percentile. Adjusted models were also stratified by SNAP and NSLP participation. There was no significant overall relationship between household food security and BMI percentile. In SNAP non-participants, there was no apparent overall relationship between BMI percentile and household food security. However, BMI percentile in children from households with low food security was significantly higher than that of children from fully food-secure households (risk difference [RD]=5.95, 95% CI=1.11, 10.80). Among SNAP participants, there was no significant relationship between household food security and BMI percentile. By NSLP participation category, there was a non-significant trend toward increasing BMI percentile with decreasing household food security in those reporting two or fewer (RD=1.75, 95% CI= -0.79, 4.29) and two to three (RD=1.07; 95% CI= -1.74, 3.89) lunches/week. There was no apparent relationship between household food security and BMI percentile in those reporting four or more lunches/week. Although the overall relationship between household food security and weight status in school-aged children was not statistically significant, there was some evidence that the relationship may differ by SNAP or NSLP participation, suggesting the need for more research. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sarah Ayu Mutiah
Full Text Available Food security at household level is a very important precondition to foster the national and regional food security. Many people migrate to urban areas in the hope of improving their welfare. Generally people think that in the city there are more opportunities, but the opposite is true. The problem is more complex in the city especially for people who do not have adequate skills and education. This study aims to address whether age of household head, household size, education level of household head, income, and distribution of subsidized rice policy affect the food security of urban poor households in Purbalingga district. A hundred respondents were selected from four top villages in urban areas of Purbalingga with the highest level of poverty. Using binary logistic regression, this study finds significant positive effect of education of household head and household income and significant negative effect of household size and raskin on household food security, while age of household head has no significant effect on household food security. The results imply the need for increased awareness of family planning, education, improved skills, and increased control of the implementation of subsidized rice for the poor.
James J Elser
Full Text Available Recent human population increase has been enabled by a massive expansion of global agricultural production. A key component of this "Green Revolution" has been application of inorganic fertilizers to produce and maintain high crop yields. However, the long-term sustainability of these practices is unclear given the eutrophying effects of fertilizer runoff as well as the reliance of fertilizer production on finite non-renewable resources such as mined phosphate- and potassium-bearing rocks. Indeed, recent volatility in food and agricultural commodity prices, especially phosphate fertilizer, has raised concerns about emerging constraints on fertilizer production with consequences for its affordability in the developing world. We examined 30 years of monthly prices of fertilizer commodities (phosphate rock, urea, and potassium for comparison with three food commodities (maize, wheat, and rice and three non-agricultural commodities (gold, nickel, and petroleum. Here we show that all commodity prices, except gold, had significant change points between 2007-2009, but the fertilizer commodities, and especially phosphate rock, showed multiple symptoms of nonlinear critical transitions. In contrast to fertilizers and to rice, maize and wheat prices did not show significant signs of nonlinear dynamics. From these results we infer a recent emergence of a scarcity price in global fertilizer markets, a result signaling a new high price regime for these essential agricultural inputs. Such a regime will challenge on-going efforts to establish global food security but may also prompt fertilizer use practices and nutrient recovery strategies that reduce eutrophication.
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... The study examined the prices of food products and its implications for food security in Nigeria. Data was ... The study show that food price inflation is caused by frequent hike in the prices of ...
Karam soltani Z
Full Text Available Background: Food security is defined as access, for all people at all times, to enough food for an active and healthy life. Food security includes: 1 the ready availability of nutritionally-adequate and safe food, and 2 an assured ability to acquire acceptable foods in socially acceptable ways. The increase in childhood as well as adulthood obesity and food insecurity has caused many recent investigations on obesity, food insecurity and some associated factors. However, there appears to be a lack of published information regarding some factors affecting obesity and food insecurity. This study aimed to determine the prevalence obesity and food insecurity and some associated factors among Yazd province primary school students in Iran.Methods: Using two-stage cluster sampling, a total of 3245 students (1587 boys and 1658 girls, aged 9-11 years, were randomly selected from primary school pupils in Yazd, Iran. From these, 187 students having BMIs ≥95th percentile, as defined by Hosseini et al. (1999, were identified as obese and 187 pupils of the same age and gender having BMIs between the 15th and 85th percentiles were selected as controls. Data were collected using 24-hour food-recall and USDA food insecurity questionnaires.Results: We found that the prevalence of obesity among students aged 9-11 years was 13.3%, and the prevalence of food insecurity was 30.5%. Daily energy intakes, compared to those recommended by the RDA, carbohydrate intake and energy percentages from proteins and carbohydrates were higher in obese children, and all macronutrient intakes per kilogram of body weight were significantly higher. An association between obesity and food insecurity was observed with adjusted fat intake.Conclusion: In conclusion, the prevalence of obesity and food insecurity is high among Yazd primary school students, and high-level intakes of energy, protein, carbohydrate are associated with obesity. Furthermore, variation in the rate of fat intake
Huang, Chen-Te; Fu, Tzu-Yu Richard; Chang, Su-San
Food security is an important issue that is of concern for all countries around the world. There are many factors which may cause food insecurity including increasing demand, shortage of supply, trade condition, another countries' food policy, lack of money, high food and oil prices, decelerating productivity, speculation, etc. The food self-sufficiency ratio of Taiwan is only 30.6% weighted by energy in 2007. Total agriculture imports and cereals have increased significantly due to the expansion of livestock and fishery industries and improve living standard. The agriculture sector of Taiwan is facing many challenges, such as: low level of food self-sufficiency, aging farmers, large acreage of set-aside farmlands, small scale farming, soaring price of fertilizers, natural disasters accelerated by climate change, and rapid changes in the world food economy. To cope with these challenges, the present agricultural policy is based on three guidelines: "Healthfulness, Efficiency, and Sustainability." A program entitled "Turning Small Landlords into Large Tenants" was launched to make effective use of idle lands. Facing globalization and the food crisis, Taiwan will secure stable food supply through revitalization of its set-aside farmlands and international markets, and provide technical assistance to developing countries, in particular for staple food crops.
Yator, J. J.
This study sought to address the existing gap on the impact of climate change on food security in support of policy measures to avert famine catastrophes. Fixed and random effects regressions for crop food security were estimated. The study simulated the expected impact of future climate change on food insecurity based on the Representative Concentration Pathways scenario (RCPs). The study makes use of county-level yields estimates (beans, maize, millet and sorghum) and daily climate data (1971 to 2010). Climate variability affects food security irrespective of how food security is defined. Rainfall during October-November-December (OND), as well as during March-April-May (MAM) exhibit an inverted U-shaped relationship with most food crops; the effects are most pronounced for maize and sorghum. Beans and Millet are found to be largely unresponsive to climate variability and also to time-invariant factors. OND rains and fall and summer temperature exhibit a U-shaped relationship with yields for most crops, while MAM rains temperature exhibits an inverted U-shaped relationship. However, winter temperatures exhibit a hill-shaped relationship with most crops. Project future climate change scenarios on crop productivity show that climate change will adversely affect food security, with up to 69% decline in yields by the year 2100. Climate variables have a non-linear relationship with food insecurity. Temperature exhibits an inverted U-shaped relationship with food insecurity, suggesting that increased temperatures will increase crop food insecurity. However, maize and millet, benefit from increased summer and winter temperatures. The simulated effects of different climate change scenarios on food insecurity suggest that adverse climate change will increase food insecurity in Kenya. The largest increases in food insecurity are predicted for the RCP 8.5Wm2, compared to RCP 4.5Wm2. Climate change is likely to have the greatest effects on maize insecurity, which is likely
Full Text Available The objective of present work is to substantiate the use of tools for strategic analysis in order to develop a strategy for the country’s food security under current conditions and to devise the author’s original technique to perform strategic analysis of food security using a SWOT-analysis. The methodology of the study. The article substantiates the need for strategic planning of food security. The author considers stages in strategic planning and explains the importance of the stage of strategic analysis of the country’s food security. It is proposed to apply a SWOT-analysis when running a strategic analysis of food security. The study is based on the system of indicators and characteristics of the country’s economy, agricultural sector, market trends, material-technical, financial, human resources, which are essential to obtain an objective assessment of the impact of trends and factors on food security, and in order to further develop the procedure for conducting a strategic analysis of the country’s food security. Results of the study. The procedure for strategic analysis of food security is developed based on the tool of a SWOT-analysis, which implies three stages: a strategic analysis of weaknesses and strengths, opportunities and threats; construction of the matrix of weaknesses and strengths, opportunities, and threats (SWOT-analysis matrix; formation of the food security strategy based on the SWOT-analysis matrix. A list of characteristics was compiled in order to conduct a strategic analysis of food security and to categorize them as strengths or weaknesses, threats, and opportunities. The characteristics are systemized into strategic groups: production, market; resources; consumption: this is necessary for the objective establishing of strategic directions, responsible performers, allocation of resources, and effective control, for the purpose of further development and implementation of the strategy. A strategic analysis
This research work reports on the food security status of rural farming households in ... in the study area and determine factors that affect household food security. ... in this research were Head Count Method, Food Insecurity Gap and Squared ...
Schewe, Jacob; Heinke, Jens; Gerten, Dieter; Haddeland, Ingjerd; Arnell, Nigel W; Clark, Douglas B; Dankers, Rutger; Eisner, Stephanie; Fekete, Balázs M; Colón-González, Felipe J; Gosling, Simon N; Kim, Hyungjun; Liu, Xingcai; Masaki, Yoshimitsu; Portmann, Felix T; Satoh, Yusuke; Stacke, Tobias; Tang, Qiuhong; Wada, Yoshihide; Wisser, Dominik; Albrecht, Torsten; Frieler, Katja; Piontek, Franziska; Warszawski, Lila; Kabat, Pavel
Water scarcity severely impairs food security and economic prosperity in many countries today. Expected future population changes will, in many countries as well as globally, increase the pressure on available water resources. On the supply side, renewable water resources will be affected by projected changes in precipitation patterns, temperature, and other climate variables. Here we use a large ensemble of global hydrological models (GHMs) forced by five global climate models and the latest greenhouse-gas concentration scenarios (Representative Concentration Pathways) to synthesize the current knowledge about climate change impacts on water resources. We show that climate change is likely to exacerbate regional and global water scarcity considerably. In particular, the ensemble average projects that a global warming of 2 °C above present (approximately 2.7 °C above preindustrial) will confront an additional approximate 15% of the global population with a severe decrease in water resources and will increase the number of people living under absolute water scarcity (water resources, suggesting a high potential for improved water resource projections through hydrological model development.
Of more than 50,000 edible plant species in the world, only a few hundred contribute significantly to our food supplies. Almost all of the world’s food energy intake is satisfied by just a few crop plants. Rice, maize and wheat make up two-thirds of this already small group of foods. These three grains are the staple foods for more than four billion people both as a source of nutrition and income. A staple crop, by definition, dominates the major part of our diet and supplies a major proportion of our energy and nutrient needs. If staple crops are threatened by drought, pests or nutrient-poor soils, hunger and poverty can rise dramatically.
insecurity existed among households in the study areas based on the recommended average DEC/AE, of 2200 kcal and ... An International Journal of Basic and Applied Research. 41 ... population, for example, eating of less preferred foods.
N. V. Galistcheva
Full Text Available The subject of the study is analysis of the state of food security of the South Asian countries at the present time. The methodological basis of the study is such methods as induction and deduction, analysis and synthesis. The systematic approach to the overall study of the South Asian countries’ economy and the state of its food security in particular has become the base of this research. Historical and statistical method were used to solve the main task of the research to reveal the conditions of the region’s agricultural development and food availability and food accessibility in the region as well as to carry out an assessment of the ability of households to obtain nutritious food all year round. The author also used the comparative method to analyze the South Asian countries’ approaches to realization of food policy that has allowed to reveal the specific tools used by certain countries of the region and the common characteristics of all countries of South Asia. While selecting the research topics the author proceeded from the idea that the problem of the state of food security of the South Asian countries has not been studied for the last two decades. The research required to attract and summarize a large amount of statistical data that has been drawn from many sources including official-sites of international organizations and South Asian countries. The author also used Russian and Indian scientific journals and monographs. The article highlights the state of food security in the region in accordance with criteria offered by the FAO. The author examines the situation in the South Asian countries’ agriculture sector, its productivity, the volume of production, food waste as well as the countries’ dependency on food imports. The article also presents some information on food accessibility which is generally considered within the context of household income, food distribution systems and ability of the household to obtain food
Papkovsky, Dmitri B.
Active packaging of food products is aimed at extending shelf life, preserving and improving quality, taste characteristics and appearance of a product. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) have become widely used with oxygen sensitive foods, as it enables to inhibit or delay undesirable processes inside packs such as oxidation of lipids and hemecontaining pigments, enzymatic degradation, microbial spoilage, etc. In MAP process, the package container with food is flushed with a mixture of CO2, N2, and O2 gases to replace air, and then sealed. The function of CO2 is to decrease the growth rate of micro-organisms, N2 displaces O2 and also prevents the packaging from collapsing when some of the CO2 is absorbed by moisture in the product1. The majority of MAP foods are packed under the atmosphere with considerably reduced oxygen levels, while products such as raw meat, fruit and vegetables require high concentration of oxygen to keep their appearance and/or shelf life.
Oct 13, 2010 ... Water enters the food system at various points along the path “from farm to fork. ... The findings will help to influence future WHO recommendations and government health policies – and to stop a valuable ... Related articles ...
Oct 4, 2013 ... Including women in the crusade against hunger ... The knowledge, production practices, and defining of food conservation, preparation, and consumption ... and international leadership in vaccine development and research on human and ... Given equal treatment, farmers will fulfill their potential as worthy ...
Mortada, Sarah; Abou Najm, Majdi; Yassine, Ali; Alameddine, Ibrahim; El-Fadel, Mutasem
Water and food security is facing increased challenges with population increase, climate and land use change, as well as resource depletion coupled with pollution and unsustainable practices. Coordinated and effective management of limited natural resources have become an imperative to meet these challenges by optimizing the usage of resources under various constraints. In this study, an optimization model is developed for optimal resource allocation towards sustainable water and food security under nutritional, socio-economic, agricultural, environmental, and natural resources constraints. The core objective of this model is to maximize the composite water-food security status by recommending an optimal water and agricultural strategy. The model balances between the healthy nutritional demand side and the constrained supply side while considering the supply chain in between. It equally ensures that the population achieves recommended nutritional guidelines and population food-preferences by quantifying an optimum agricultural and water policy through transforming optimum food demands into optimum cropping policy given the water and land footprints of each crop or agricultural product. Through this process, water and food security are optimized considering factors that include crop-food transformation (food processing), water footprints, crop yields, climate, blue and green water resources, irrigation efficiency, arable land resources, soil texture, and economic policies. The model performance regarding agricultural practices and sustainable food and water security was successfully tested and verified both at a hypothetical and pilot scale levels.
Bach, Heike; Mauser, Wolfram; Gernot, Klepper
The global and regional potentials of Earth Observation (EO) to contribute to food security and sustainable agriculture in the 2050-timeframe were analysed in the ESA study EO4Food, whose outcome will be presented (www.EO4Food.org). Emphasis was put on the global societal, economic, environmental and technological megatrends that will create demand for food and shape the future societies. They will also constitute the background for developments in EO for food security and sustainable agriculture. The capabilities of EO in this respect were critically reviewed with three perspectives 1) the role of EO science for society, 2) observables from space and 3) development of future science missions.It was concluded that EO can be pivotal for the further development of food security and sustainable agriculture. EO allows to support the whole economic and societal value chain from farmers through food industry to insurance and financial industry in satisfying demands and at the same time to support society in governing sustainable agriculture through verifyable rules and regulations. It has the potential to become the global source of environmental information that is assimilated into sophisticated environmental management models and is used to make agriculture sustainable.
Riptanti, E. W.; Qonita, A.; Suprapti
Rice barns have been developed in some areas in Central Java, but several problems seem to appear, leading to nonoptimal functions of nonactive food barns. The present article aims to examine revitalization of food barns through systematic, integrated, and sustainable empowerment. The research design is exploratory research to generate data that are in-depth qualitative and quantitative. Survey was applied in four regencies including Wonogiri, Purworejo, Temanggung, and Batang. Key informants comprise caretakers of food barns, village apparatus, public figures, and Food Security Office apparatus. The research results revealed that the food barns have not been managed in professional manners. Active roles of all members and caretakers, village government, and Food Security Agency are, therefore, required in revitalizing the food barns. In order to perform social functions well, the food barns should be profit-oriented to achieve sustainability.
Borch, Anita; Kjærnes, Unni
In this paper we address the academic discourse on food insecurity and food security in Europe as expressed in articles published in scientific journals in the period 1975 to 2013. The analysis indicates that little knowledge has been produced on this subject, and that the limited research that has been produced tends to focus on the production of food rather than on people's access to food. The lack of knowledge about European food insecurity is particularly alarming in these times, which are characterised by increasing social inequalities and poverty, as well as shifting policy regimes. More empirical, comparative and longitudinal research is needed to survey the extent of food security problems across European countries over time. There is also a need to identify groups at risk of food insecurity as well as legal, economic, practical, social, and psychological constraints hindering access to appropriate and sufficient food. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The food security belongs to the group of needs which are perceptible by the man. It can be analyzed at the household, national, regional and global levels. In our times it is contending with different threats resulting among others from the population increase in the world, demand for the food, reducing aquatic resources, climate change, soaring prices and wasting food products. According to the FAO about 805 million people are undernourished. The study focused on determining the physical, economic availability and appropriate food quality on the Polish market from 2011 to 2013. The conducted examinations shows that Poland was self‑sufficient in supplying agri-food commodity, food expenditure of households remained stable and least failings stated in national and EU food available on our territory. The value engineering of the Global Index Food Security in 2014 was allowed to say that Poland is among a thirty of the best states ensuring the appropriate availability, the accessibility and the food quality in the country.
Arndt, Channing; Farmer, William; Strzepek, Kenneth
Due to their reliance on rain-fed agriculture, both as a source of income and consumption, many low-income countries are considered to be the most vulnerable to climate change. Here, we estimate the impact of climate change on food security in Tanzania. Representative climate projections are used...... as the channel of impact, food security in Tanzania appears likely to deteriorate as a consequence of climate change. The analysis points to a high degree of diversity of outcomes (including some favorable outcomes) across climate scenarios, sectors, and regions. Noteworthy differences in impacts across...
Angnaboogok, V.; Behe, C.; Daniel, R. G.
Rapid changes occurring within the Arctic heighten the need to understand the multiple drivers pushing change and their cumulative impacts. Most importantly to better understand Arctic change a holistic view is needed that can only be achieved through bringing together multiple knowledge systems and scientific disciplines. Inuit have called the Arctic home from time immemorial acquiring a knowledge system. The Inuit knowledge system continues to grow, and holds methodologies and assessment processes that provide a pathway for holistically understanding the Arctic. This holistic view is largely attributed to a focus on relationships between system components, close attention to food webs, and a unique understanding of interconnecting systems. The Alaskan Inuit understanding of food security represents an Indigenous way of viewing the world - where food security encompasses complex and interlinked cultural and environmental systems. These systems are comprised of connections among the health of people, animals, and plants; the different states of land, sea, and air; and the cultural fabric held together by language, cultural expression, and social integrity. Within the Inuit knowledge system, it is impossible to disentangle some of these relationships; when we discuss an Inuit food security perspective, it is this interconnectivity and these relationships that we refer to. This presentation will offer an introduction to what it means to adopt a food security lens approach - a view needed to build our knowledge of the changes that are occurring and further our understanding of cumulative impacts while illuminating the nexus between all pieces that make up Arctic ecosystems.
Zhang, Qi; Jones, Sonya; Ruhm, Christopher J; Andrews, Margaret
Children in food-insecure households are more likely to experience poorer health function and worse academic achievement. To investigate the relation between economic environmental factors and food insecurity among children, we examined the relation between general and specific food prices (fast food, fruits and vegetables, beverages) and risk of low (LFS) and very low food security (VLFS) status among low-income American households with children. Using information for 27,900 child-year observations from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Class of 1998-1999 linked with food prices obtained from the Cost of Living Data of the Council for Community and Economic Research, formerly known as the American Chamber of Commerce Researchers' Association, fixed effects models were estimated within stratified income groups. Higher overall food prices were associated with increased risk of LFS and VLFS (coefficient = 0.617; P security status, even when controlling for general food prices. Thus, although food price changes were strongly related to food security status among low-income American households with children, the effects were not uniform across types of food. These relations should be accounted for when implementing policies that change specific food prices.
markdownabstract__Introduction__ With roughly 1 billion people unable to meet their minimum daily caloric intake, the issue of food security is imperative to overcoming rural poverty. The way in which we produce food plays an extremely important role in solving the hunger epidemic and reaching the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of eradicating extreme hunger and poverty. The dominant model of agricultural development practised by many countries today is based on chemical-intensive agr...
Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Stringer, Bernadette; Haines, Ted
This study was conducted to explore whether preparing more complex meals was associated with higher food security status. This mixed-methods, community-based study involved the use of semistructured interviews to examine the cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal. Fifty participants aged 18 to 35 were recruited at 10 locations in five low-income neighbourhoods. Food security status was the main outcome measure and the main exposure variable, "complex food preparation," combined the preparation of three specific food types (soups, sauces, and baked goods) using basic ingredients. Low-income women preparing a variety of meals using basic ingredients at least three times a week were more than twice as likely to be food secure as were women preparing more complex meals less frequently. Women who prepared more complex meals more frequently had higher food security. Whether this means that preparing more complex foods results in greater food security remains unclear, as this was an exploratory study.
Huilong LIN,Ruichao LI,Cangyu JIN,Chong WANG,Maohong WEI,Jizhou REN
Full Text Available China's food security has a great influence on the world, and has always been the top priority in China. In recent years, as the concept of food security is evolving into one of nutrition security and the importance of food diversity is increasing, research based on nutrition security and broad food systems are increasingly needed in today's China. Thus, not only grain for human consumption, but also animal foods have been integrated into the Food Equivalent, which is used to analyze China's current agriculture system and reveal the water resource distribution. The results indicated that the average animal food consumption has risen by 78.6%, and now China's daily supply of animal food per capita has reached about 50% of that in the USA and 80% of that in the South Korea. So there exist an obvious disparity in animal food supply between China and these two countries. It is impossible for the China's current agricultural system to achieve the level in the USA. Under China's current agricultural system, the consumption proportion of feed grain had surpassed the consumption of food grain, increased sharply from 33% in 1992 to 67% in 2011. However, the growth potential of total grain output is approaching an upper limit, so the continued growth of feed grain demand exerts great pressure on the China's food supply. The discordance of the spatial distribution of water resource and virtual water revealed that China's current agriculture system had a low efficiency in being able to achieve food and nutrition security. China's current "grain farming" cannot meet the demand of increasing nutrition and appropriate resource utilization. The implementation of grassland agriculture appears feasible and necessary for saving feed grain, providing a large number of high-quality animal foods and appropriate water resource utilization.
McMichael, Philip; Schneider, Mindi
This article reviews proposals regarding the recent food crisis in the context of a broader, threshold debate on the future of agriculture and food security. While the MDGs have focused on eradicating extreme poverty and hunger, the food crisis pushed the hungry over the one billion mark. There is thus a renewed focus on agricultural development, which pivots on the salience of industrial agriculture (as a supply source) in addressing food security. The World Bank's new 'agriculture for development' initiative seeks to improve small-farmer productivity with new inputs, and their incorporation into global markets via value-chains originating in industrial agriculture. An alternative claim, originating in 'food sovereignty' politics, demanding small-farmer rights to develop bio-regionally specific agro-ecological methods and provision for local, rather than global, markets, resonates in the IAASTD report, which implies agribusiness as usual ''is no longer an option'. The basic divide is over whether agriculture is a servant of economic growth, or should be developed as a foundational source of social and ecological sustainability. We review and compare these different paradigmatic approaches to food security, and their political and ecological implications.
Yanni Li; Dan Cui; Wenxuan Zhao; Jiayin Li; Fuguang Zhao
Food security has become a big issue in China for some big incidents occurred in recent years. happened. This study has a survey on these cases and analyzes the reasons from the aspect of enterprises and government. Some solutions are put forward to solve the problems about food security and business credit crisis in China currently. The purpose is to guide enterprises to set up a sound operation system and gain long-term profits.
Lake, Iain R; Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Bentham, Graham; Boxall, Alistair B A; Draper, Alizon; Fairweather-Tait, Susan; Hulme, Mike; Hunter, Paul R; Nichols, Gordon; Waldron, Keith W
Anthropogenic climate change will affect global food production, with uncertain consequences for human health in developed countries. We investigated the potential impact of climate change on food security (nutrition and food safety) and the implications for human health in developed countries. Expert input and structured literature searches were conducted and synthesized to produce overall assessments of the likely impacts of climate change on global food production and recommendations for future research and policy changes. Increasing food prices may lower the nutritional quality of dietary intakes, exacerbate obesity, and amplify health inequalities. Altered conditions for food production may result in emerging pathogens, new crop and livestock species, and altered use of pesticides and veterinary medicines, and affect the main transfer mechanisms through which contaminants move from the environment into food. All these have implications for food safety and the nutritional content of food. Climate change mitigation may increase consumption of foods whose production reduces greenhouse gas emissions. Impacts may include reduced red meat consumption (with positive effects on saturated fat, but negative impacts on zinc and iron intake) and reduced winter fruit and vegetable consumption. Developed countries have complex structures in place that may be used to adapt to the food safety consequences of climate change, although their effectiveness will vary between countries, and the ability to respond to nutritional challenges is less certain. Climate change will have notable impacts upon nutrition and food safety in developed countries, but further research is necessary to accurately quantify these impacts. Uncertainty about future impacts, coupled with evidence that climate change may lead to more variable food quality, emphasizes the need to maintain and strengthen existing structures and policies to regulate food production, monitor food quality and safety, and
Jun 23, 2014 ... Information and technology: Improving food security in Uganda ... knowledge to make decisions about planting, harvesting, and managing livestock, but ... to be effective for minimizing risks and increasing agricultural productivity. ... In time, this network of information – made possible by digital technology ...
Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and poverty reduction in ... “Drivers of development” is an old concept and it goes back to a generation of ... process of positive cumulative changes in the economy and in people's ... in general and how they relate to rice production and marketing are addressed.
Dec 1, 2009 ... among rural dwellers: Case of women pastoralists in ... The study of the pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural ... production, storage or trade but also and perhaps more ... overall rural development and poverty eradication, ... panying pressures to raise productivity and efficiency and.
Markets and institutions for promoting rice for food security and poverty reduction in Sub-Sahara Africa. ... the popular conception of the 1950s with labour, surplus models (“development with unlimited supplies of labour”) with agriculture as an unlimited pool of costless labour, waiting to be transferred to the industrial sector.
The research followed purposive sampling technique in order to select the study area. As it contains the largest number of individual formers practising urban ... to play a sign!ficant role in improving the households 'food security and income. It ...
Small-scale Aquaculture to Strengthen Food Security in Cambodia (CIFSRF) ... for their families' consumption in the same ponds as large fish, which can be sold for income. ... The project also studies opportunities to scale up the model for broader use ... Assessing improvements in nutrition outcomes following agricultural ...
Researchers will determine the food security status of households adjacent to wetlands and the part that wetlands resources contribute to it. They will analyze the tradeoffs in using wetlands for crop production. And, they will test, adapt and promote agricultural technologies that enhance productivity while minimizing ...
Kavallari, A.; Fellmann, T.; Hubertus Gay, H.
The recent economic and financial turmoil raises the question on how global economic growth affects agricultural commodity markets and, hence, food security. To address this question, this paper assesses the potential impacts of faster economic growth in developed and emerging economies on the one
This study analyzed the relationship between poverty and food security among rural faming households in Bauchi State, Nigeria. Multi stage sampling was used to select respondents for the study. Questionnaire was administered to one hundred and eighty households who were randomly selected from three different Local ...
Hence the aim of this article is to create a historical review of the land and agrarian issues in developing countries in general, and in Africa in particular, as well as map up a landscape of the political economy of land and agrarian reform in the current millennium, and demonstrate how these relate to the issue of food security ...
Climate change has a profound impact on agriculture and on food security. At the same time agriculture contributes to climate change to a considerable extent. Fortunately there is also much to gain since the agricultural sector holds significant climate change mitigation potential through reductions
Full Text Available Food security research and policy have focused more on the rural poor where the incidence and depth of poverty is more pronounced. Urban livelihoods are based on cash income and many people in urban areas are employed in the informal sector which...
However, little is known about the contribution of wetland resources to household food security or the environmental impact of using wetlands for agriculture or other purposes. Researchers will ... IDRC is pleased to announce the results of its 2017 call for proposals to establish Cyber Policy Centres in the Global South.
Household food security status and coping strategies of rural dwellers in Irewole local government areas of Osun State. CG Ajala. Abstract. No Abstract. Bowen Journal of Agriculture Vol. 3 (2) 2006: pp. 192-199. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.
Weikard, Hans Peter
Food security for all is a global political goal and an outstanding moral concern. The common response to this concern is agricultural intensification, which includes among other things increasing inputs of fertilisers. The paper addresses the fact that phosphorus (P) is essential for
The study of the pattern of livelihood and household food security among rural dwellers case of women pastoralist was carried out in Oyo state, Nigeria. Data were obtained from 100 women. The women are purposively sampled such that their husbands were pastoralists or that they are involved in pastoral farming.
Despite South Africa's economic growth having been accelerated considerably in the country, poverty levels have not decreased as one would have experienced. Food Security Projects initiated by the government of South Africa in order to help alleviate poverty within Limpopo Province have proved unsustainable and ...
Given the country's dependence on agriculture and natural resources, tackling climate change and food security together is essential. ... L'honorable Chrystia Freeland, ministre du Commerce international, a annoncé le lancement d'un nouveau projet financé par le Centre de recherches pour le développement international ...
Food security is researched and dealt with on local, regional, national, and global levels with solutions ranging from local farmers' market initiatives to increasing crop yields through genetically modified plants to streamlining global supply chains. Because of its broad, interdisciplinary nature, it is necessary to narrow the focus of this…
Impact of the national special programme for food security on poverty alleviation among women in Oyo State, Nigeria. ... In addition, majority (60.2%) of the participants were literate and participated more in cassava and maize production, while insufficient loan ranked first among the problems encountered by the ...
Counselling implications were raised to ensure food security in the two States, Cross River and Akwa Ibom and the nation at large such as reversing rural-urban migration to urban-rural migration, providing more social amenities in the rural areas, giving interest free loans and giving the youths adequate political education ...
Agricultural pest management control strategies are primarily concerned with food security and safety. Popular pest control methods include application of synthetic pesticides, biopesticides (plant extracts), non-chemical pest management and integrated pest management (IPM). The resistance of some of the pests to the ...
Balaghi, R.; Badjeck, M.C.; Bakari, D.; Pauw, de E.D.; Wit, de A.J.W.; Defourny, P.; Donato, S.; Gommes, R.; Jlibene, M.; Ravelo, A.C.; Sivakumar, M.V.K.; Telahigue, N.; Tychon, B.
Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational
This ineffectiveness extends to promoting household food security within the context of encouraging biodiversity conservation on farm lands. To examine this, this paper draws on recently conducted research to sketch the current model within which extension pursues these seemingly dichotomous objectives and identifies ...
Food Security Problems in Borabu Division, Nyamira District. ... Finally, the paper highlights some of the major problems associated with land use for instance, labour shortages, lack of credit facilities, type of farm implements used, overutilization of land, limited extension services, and extinction of indigenous crops. Last but ...
29 sept. 2016 ... Jemimah Njuki is a senior program officer in the Agriculture and Food Security program at the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), based in Nairobi, Kenya. John R. Parkins is a professor in the Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology, University of Alberta, Canada ...
Thainara Araujo Franklin
Full Text Available Healthy eating is one of the factors that may influence the establishment of the health of an individual and the health quality of food consumed. Faced with the daily rush, with long days of activities, a large number of the population uses University restaurants for food. Thus, these sites should pay attention to the variables involved in the process of food production through the use of safe food and adequate nutrition for consumers. For this reason, knowledge of food security and sustainable development condition are relevant for discussion and information about employee training for food handling and conservation of these. Thus, the sanitary conditions and knowledge of restaurant employees on this topic were collected through a questionnaire composed of 18 questions containing information on sociodemographic, food security, nutrition and sustainability. We used the Packcage The Statistical Software for Social Sciences for Windows (SPSS version 21.0 for tabulation and analysis of data. It was found that most employees responded correctly to questions relating to hygiene and sanitary practices and have knowledge about the sustainable development of the restaurant.
Sirisai, Solot; Chotiboriboon, Sinee; Sapsuwan, Charana; Tantivatanasathien, Praiwan; Setapun, Nuchjaree; Duangnosan, Prangtong; Thongkam, Nattapach; Chuangyanyong, Sasiwimon
Sanephong is a matriarchal Karen community located in western Thailand. The community benefits greatly from the availability of local foods, such as cereals, tubers, wild vegetables, mushrooms, fruits, and animals. In the first phase of this project, 387 distinct local foods were identified, which were shown to be good sources of energy, protein, and vitamins. Despite the availability of a variety of nutritious local foods, the majority of households surveyed expressed concern over a decline in local foods due to changing socio-economic and environmental conditions. This study used a qualitative research approach to look at the dual influences of matriarchy and Buddhism on food security in the community. Through this approach, matriarchal values central to the community were adopted as a framework; these included care, consensus, collaboration, and cosmological respect. In Sanephong, women are central to life in the community, and matriarchal cultural practices reflect a nurturing spirit-for both the earth and family. The community practices Buddhism, which is very complementary to the matriarchal system. A type of gift economy within the Buddhist context, known as dhana, transfers food from the wealthy to the poor with no expectation of reciprocity. Consequently, matriarchy and Buddhism jointly promote food security in the community. Studies of matriarchal societies help society-at-large to understand the potential benefits of systems that contrast the current patriarchal paradigm. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H.; Rounsevell, Mark D.
The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels. PMID:25437010
Brown, Calum; Murray-Rust, Dave; van Vliet, Jasper; Alam, Shah Jamal; Verburg, Peter H; Rounsevell, Mark D
The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically) irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels.
Full Text Available The globalisation of trade affects land use, food production and environments around the world. In principle, globalisation can maximise productivity and efficiency if competition prompts specialisation on the basis of productive capacity. In reality, however, such specialisation is often constrained by practical or political barriers, including those intended to ensure national or regional food security. These are likely to produce globally sub-optimal distributions of land uses. Both outcomes are subject to the responses of individual land managers to economic and environmental stimuli, and these responses are known to be variable and often (economically irrational. We investigate the consequences of stylised food security policies and globalisation of agricultural markets on land use patterns under a variety of modelled forms of land manager behaviour, including variation in production levels, tenacity, land use intensity and multi-functionality. We find that a system entirely dedicated to regional food security is inferior to an entirely globalised system in terms of overall production levels, but that several forms of behaviour limit the difference between the two, and that variations in land use intensity and functionality can substantially increase the provision of food and other ecosystem services in both cases. We also find emergent behaviour that results in the abandonment of productive land, the slowing of rates of land use change and the fragmentation or, conversely, concentration of land uses following changes in demand levels.
Field, C. B.
Observed and projected impacts of climate change for ecosystem and food security tend to appear as changes in the risk of both desirable and undesirable outcomes. As a consequence, it is useful to frame the challenge of adaptation to a changing climate as a problem in risk management. For some kinds of impacts, the risks are relatively well characterized. For others, they are poorly known. Especially for the cases where the risks are poorly known, effective adaptation will need to consider approaches that build dynamic portfolios of options, based on learning from experience. Effective adaptation approaches also need to consider the risks of threshold-type responses, where opportunities for gradual adaptation based on learning may be limited. Finally, effective adaptation should build on the understanding that negative impacts on ecosystems and food security often result from extreme events, where a link to climate change may be unclear now and far into the future. Ecosystem and food security impacts that potentially require adaptation to a changing climate vary from region to region and interact strongly with actions not related to climate. In many ecosystems, climate change shifts the risk profile to increase risks of wildfire and biological invasions. Higher order risks from factors like pests and pathogens remain difficult to quantify. For food security, observational evidence highlights threshold-like behavior to high temperature in yields of a number of crops. But the risks to food security may be much broader, encompassing risks to availability of irrigation, degradation of topsoil, and challenges of storage and distribution. A risk management approach facilitates consideration of all these challenges with a unified framework.
The incorporation of science and technology into agriculture has led to enormous growth in crop yields, providing food security in many countries. From the 1950s onwards there has been increasing interference in agricultural policy by a few scientists who are marginal to agriculture and from a variety of unqualified groups. These groups and individuals have used fear and anxiety and have greatly exaggerated minor problems to persuade an unqualified public of supposed dangers in food and to try and change agricultural policy. Fear and emotion do not lead to good policy, and the cult of the amateur that has developed could have serious repercussions on vital food security and future agriculture in developing countries; it must be soundly rejected.
Anderson, Jennifer A; Gipmans, Martijn; Hurst, Susan; Layton, Raymond; Nehra, Narender; Pickett, John; Shah, Dilip M; Souza, Thiago Lívio P O; Tripathi, Leena
As global populations continue to increase, agricultural productivity will be challenged to keep pace without overtaxing important environmental resources. A dynamic and integrated approach will be required to solve global food insecurity and position agriculture on a trajectory toward sustainability. Genetically modified (GM) crops enhanced through modern biotechnology represent an important set of tools that can promote sustainable agriculture and improve food security. Several emerging biotechnology approaches were discussed in a recent symposium organized at the 13th IUPAC International Congress of Pesticide Chemistry meeting in San Francisco, CA, USA. This paper summarizes the innovative research and several of the new and emerging technologies within the field of agricultural biotechnology that were presented during the symposium. This discussion highlights how agricultural biotechnology fits within the context of sustainable agriculture and improved food security and can be used in support of further development and adoption of beneficial GM crops.
Khoury, C.K.; Bjorkman, A.D.; Dempewolf, H.; Ramirez-Villegas, J.; Guarino, L.; Jarvis, A.; Rieseberg, L.H.; Struik, P.C.
The narrowing of diversity in crop species contributing to the world’s food supplies has been considered a potential threat to food security. However, changes in this diversity have not been quantified globally. We assess trends over the past 50 y in the richness, abundance, and composition of crop
Conventional approaches used to improve farming practices and access to food in developing communities are underpinned by policy, technology, and the science of modernization. The focus has been on securing a sufficient quantity of food derived from extensive monocultures. This quantity focus is
Mikhail Vasil'evich Fyodorov
Full Text Available This paper deals with food safety as one of the areas of food security and food sovereignty. A review of concepts, models, acts on the power of international and national levels is made. The authors formulate a conclusion about the need for a measure of «food quality» with the release of the functional components of fitness (the ability to perform specified functions with the purpose and safety (restrictions on the content of harmful substances in the products. The analysis of the competitiveness of local products is made on the quality characteristics based on the proportion of output indicator of inadequate quality or dangerous to health in the total volume of products placed on the market. The paper identifies key areas of federal and regional levels to comply with the quality of food.
Escobar, Jose C.; Lora, Electo S.; Venturini, Osvaldo J.; Yanez, Edgar E.; Castillo, Edgar F.; Almazan, Oscar
The imminent decline of the world's oil production, its high market prices and environmental impacts have made the production of biofuels to reach unprecedent volumes over the last 10 years. This is why there have been intense debates among international organizations and political leaders in order to discuss the impacts of the biofuel use intensification. Besides assessing the causes of the rise in the demand and production of biofuels, this paper also shows the state of the art of their world's current production. It is also discussed different vegetable raw materials sources and technological paths to produce biofuels, as well as issues regarding production cost and the relation of their economic feasibility with oil international prices. The environmental impacts of programs that encourage biofuel production, farmland land requirements and the impacts on food production are also discussed, considering the life cycle analysis (LCA) as a tool. It is concluded that the rise in the use of biofuels is inevitable and that international cooperation, regulations and certification mechanisms must be established regarding the use of land, the mitigation of environmental and social impacts caused by biofuel production. It is also mandatory to establish appropriate working conditions and decent remuneration for workers of the biofuels production chain. (author)
Weiler, Anelyse M; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M
There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity--i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced--and food systems, where the concepts of 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a 'meta-narrative synthesis' on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1--Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2--Occupational Exposures; 3--Environmental Change; 4--Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5--Intake of Contaminants; 6--Nutrition; 7--Social Determinants of Health and 8--Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms 'food security' and 'food sovereignty' were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to strengthen both food
Rankoana, Sejabaledi A
Food security is a prerequisite for health. Availability and accessibility of food in rural areas is mainly achieved through subsistence production in which community members use local practices to produce and preserve food. Subsistence food production ensures self-sufficiency and reduction of poverty and hunger. The main emphasis with the present study is examining subsistence farming and collection of edible plant materials to fulfill dietary requirements, thereby ensuring food security and good health. Data collected from a purposive sample show that subsistence crops produced in the home-gardens and fields, and those collected from the wild, are sources of grain, vegetables and legumes. Sources of grain and legumes are produced in the home-gardens and fields, whereas vegetables sources are mostly collected in the wild and fewer in the home-gardens. These food sources have perceived health potential in child and maternal care of primary health care.
Ma, Xiaonan; Liese, Angela D; Hibbert, James; Bell, Bethany A; Wilcox, Sara; Sharpe, Patricia A
Food security is a severe problem in the United States. Few studies have examined its relationship with food shopping behaviors. This study aimed to examine the association between food security and store-specific and overall food shopping among residents of low-income neighborhoods. We conducted a cross-sectional study. Five hundred twenty-seven households were recruited from two counties in South Carolina from November 2013 to May 2014, and 474 households were included in the final analysis. Food security was assessed using the 18-item US-Household Food Security Module questionnaire, and classified into three categories: high or marginal food security (FS), low food security (LFS), and very low food security (VLFS). Store-specific shopping behaviors including frequency, store type, and transportation were queried via in-person interview for the three most-frequented grocery stores. Distance from participants' homes to their reported stores was calculated using Geographic Information Systems. Multivariate linear regression for analyses of distance and frequency and multinomial/ordinary logistic regression for analyses of store type and transportation were used. Compared to FS participants, a significantly higher proportion of VLFS participants reported a convenience/dollar store as their most-frequented store (odds ratio [OR] 2.31, 95% CI 1.08 to 4.95) or a lack of transportation (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.33). They also shopped less frequently (b=-.31, P=0.03) at their third most-frequented store and traveled fewer total miles for shopping (b=-4.71, P=0.04). In analyses considering all stores jointly, LFS participants had lower odds of shopping at both supermarkets and convenience/dollar stores (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.91) compared to food-secure residents. The current findings suggest that households with VLFS tend to shop more frequently in stores that have less-healthful options, such as convenience/dollar stores. These findings lend support to ongoing
Otto, C.; Schewe, J.; Puma, M. J.; Frieler, K.
Highly volatile food prices on global markets challenge food security. Only in the last decade, two pronounced food price spikes severely affected vulnerable populations worldwide by increasing malnutrition and hunger. This has stirred up the debate upon the usefulness of an international grain reserve. Whereas advocates argue that it could damp damaging price extremes, opponents question its effectiveness and are concerned about associated market distortions and costs. However, to our knowledge, a comprehensive quantitative assessment is still missing. For this purpose, we introduce an agent-based dynamic multi-regional model that consistently accounts for intra-annual strategic as well as commercial storage holding. For the case of wheat, we first show that the model is able to reproduce historical world market prices (see Fig. 1(a)) and regional ending stocks (stocks see Fig.1(b) for global ending stocks) from 1980 to the present. Having a bi-annual timestep, the model enables us to single out the main drivers of past short-term price volatility: regional, mainly weather induced, production variations followed by trade policies as the second most important driver. The latter include, both, long-term stockholding management decisions as well as short-term regional political responses to scarcity situations such as export restrictions and restocking attempts. We then quantitatively model a strategic wheat reserve managed by an international body such as the UN. We discuss a management scheme for the reserve that aims at stabilizing prices within a price band by buying at low and selling at high prices (cf. Fig. 1). Importantly, in order to minimize market distortions, this scheme is not designed to damp out price volatility completely, but to merely avoid damaging price extremes. Thus, it preserves the incentive for producers to invest in agricultural development and it can only complement and not replace local efforts to increase the food system's resilience
Naylor, R. L.
Global demand for food, feed, and fuel will continue to rise in a more populous and affluent world. Meeting this demand in the future will become increasingly challenging with global climate change; when production shocks stemming from climate variability are added to the new mean climate state, food markets could become more volatile. This talk will focus on the interacting market effects of demand and supply for major food commodities, with an eye on climate-related supply trends and shocks. Lessons from historical patterns of climate variability (e.g., ENSO and its global teleconnections) will be used to infer potential food security outcomes in the event of abrupt changes in the mean climate state. Domestic food and trade policy responses to crop output and price volatility in key producing and consuming nations, such as export bans and import tariffs, will be discussed as a potentially major destabilizing force, underscoring the important influence of uncertainty in achieving--or failing to achieve--food security.
Harini, R.; Handayani, H. N.; Ramdani, F. R.
Food security is an issue of national and global level. Food is a basic human need to live. Without food will threaten human life. This research was conducted in coastal area of Demak Regency. This research is to understand the potential of human resources, natural resources and assess the level of food security of coastal communities. The data used are primary data through interviews with the local community. Also used Secondary data from government agencies. Data analysis used qualitative and quantitative descriptive methods through graphs, tables and maps. The results showed that potential of human resources in Demak coastal area (Wedung, Purworejo, and Sidogemah villages) is low. It can be indicated from education level of respondents in Demak are elementary school and junior high school. Beside, total households income are about 2-4 million. This study found that the households sampled are 90% is food insecured households. The most of households in Demak coastal area are about 90% households include on insecurity food category.
Dhankher, Om Parkash; Foyer, Christine H
Food security and the protection of the environment are urgent issues for global society, particularly with the uncertainties of climate change. Changing climate is predicted to have a wide range of negative impacts on plant physiology metabolism, soil fertility and carbon sequestration, microbial activity and diversity that will limit plant growth and productivity, and ultimately food production. Ensuring global food security and food safety will require an intensive research effort across the food chain, starting with crop production and the nutritional quality of the food products. Much uncertainty remains concerning the resilience of plants, soils, and associated microbes to climate change. Intensive efforts are currently underway to improve crop yields with lower input requirements and enhance the sustainability of yield through improved biotic and abiotic stress tolerance traits. In addition, significant efforts are focused on gaining a better understanding of the root/soil interface and associated microbiomes, as well as enhancing soil properties. © 2018 The Authors Plant, Cell & Environment Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Dewi, G. D. P.; Yustikaningrum, R. V.
Post Referendum 1999, Indonesia and Timor Leste have a strategic challenge to provide food consistently around the border. This research intended to discover an appropriate strategy to tackle fragility of food security in the land border of Indonesia-Timor Leste, to improve collaborative actions between parties, as well as, opportunity to actualize food cross-border trading between local farmers and factories. For the result, there are two approaches will be applied. First, the empowerment term refers to the strategy of empowerment in strengthening the capability and capacity of human capital as one of the determinant factors of the resilience and self-sufficiency achievement. Second, the gender approach looks at the women and men build confidence, resilience, and independence which one of them through an educational intervention that enable the local people to manage food chain. Atambua is a region count as relatively as high poverty, poor human capital, weak quality and competitiveness of agriculture products, livestock and fishery, SMEs, and infrastructure. Thus, field study research is applied to find the actual and strategic effort aim to lead the achievement of food security and to engage Atambua over food trade to Timor Leste.
The concept of food insecurity is complex and goes beyond the simplistic idea of a country's inability to feed its population. The global food situation is redefined by many driving forces such as population growth, availability of arable lands, water resources, climate change and food availability, accessibility and loss. The combined effect of these factors has undeniably impacted global food production and security. This article reviews the key factors influencing global food insecurity and emphasises the need to adapt science-based technological innovations to address the issue. Although anticipated benefits of modern technologies suggest a level of food production that will sustain the global population, both political will and sufficient investments in modern agriculture are needed to alleviate the food crisis in developing countries. In this globalised era of the 21st century, many determinants of food security are trans-boundary and require multilateral agreements and actions for an effective solution. Food security and hunger alleviation on a global scale are within reach provided that technological innovations are accepted and implemented at all levels. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.
Gustafson, Daniel J.
Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers’ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all. PMID:24135190
Daniel J Gustafson
Full Text Available Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers′ incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country′s reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.
Gustafson, Daniel J
Rising food costs can have major impact on vulnerable households, pushing those least able to cope further into poverty and hunger. On the other hand, provided appropriate policies and infrastructure are in place, higher agricultural prices can also raise farmers' incomes and rural wages, improve rural economies and stimulate investment for longer-term economic growth. High food prices since 2007 have had both short-term impacts and long-term consequences, both good and bad. This article reviews the evidence of how rising costs have affected global food security since the food price crisis of 2007-2008, and their impact on different categories of households and countries. In light of recent studies, we know more about how households, and countries, cope or not with food price shocks but a number of contentious issues remain. These include the adequacy of current estimates and the interpretation of national and household food and nutrition security indicators. India is a particularly important country in this regard, given the high number of food insecure, the relative weight of India in global estimates of food and nutrition insecurity, and the puzzles that remain concerning the country's reported declining per capita calorie consumption. Competing explanations for what is behind it are not in agreement, but these all point to the importance of policy and programme innovation and greater investment necessary to reach the achievable goal of food and nutrition security for all.
He, Ling; Jia, Qi-jian; Li, Chao; Xu, Hao
The rapid development of coastal economy in Hebei Province caused rapid transition of coastal land use structure, which has threatened land ecological security. Therefore, calculating ecosystem service value of land use and exploring ecological security baseline can provide the basis for regional ecological protection and rehabilitation. Taking Huanghua, a city in the southeast of Hebei Province, as an example, this study explored the joint point, joint path and joint method between ecological security and food security, and then calculated the ecological security baseline of Huanghua City based on the ecosystem service value and the food safety standard. The results showed that ecosystem service value of per unit area from maximum to minimum were in this order: wetland, water, garden, cultivated land, meadow, other land, salt pans, saline and alkaline land, constructive land. The order of contribution rates of each ecological function value from high to low was nutrient recycling, water conservation, entertainment and culture, material production, biodiversity maintenance, gas regulation, climate regulation and environmental purification. The security baseline of grain production was 0.21 kg · m⁻², the security baseline of grain output value was 0.41 yuan · m⁻², the baseline of ecosystem service value was 21.58 yuan · m⁻², and the total of ecosystem service value in the research area was 4.244 billion yuan. In 2081 the ecological security will reach the bottom line and the ecological system, in which human is the subject, will be on the verge of collapse. According to the ecological security status, Huanghua can be divided into 4 zones, i.e., ecological core protection zone, ecological buffer zone, ecological restoration zone and human activity core zone.
Beatty, Timothy K M; Nanney, M Susie; Tuttle, Charlotte
In the present analysis, we seek to establish a relationship between time spent on food-related activities and food security status as well as between time spent on these activities and Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP, formerly called the Food Stamp Program) participation and benefit level. After matching similar households using Coarsened Exact Matching, we estimate the relationship between food-related time, food insecurity and SNAP participation and benefit level using a comprehensive data set that combines two subsets of the Current Population Survey from years 2004-2010: the Food Security Supplement and the American Time Use Survey. City, suburban and rural areas of the USA. Non-institutionalized US population over the age of 15 years. Total sample size is 10 247 households. In single households, food insecurity and SNAP participation are associated with 20% more time in meal preparation and 13% less time eating. Similarly, in married households, SNAP participation and benefit level are associated with 32% less time in meal preparation while food insecurity is associated with 17% less time eating and 14% less time in grocery shopping. A significant relationship exists between time spent on food-related activities and food insecurity and SNAP. This implies that federal and state government may need to consider the time constraints many low-income households face when reforming food assistance programmes.
Sergey A. Kravchenko
Full Text Available The paper examines the role of food factor in the liberal biopolitics from its birth to the present day. According to the author, the consequences of this policy of food administration are ambivalent in character. On the one hand, there are real gains in mass production of food, its delivery to the consumer, medical supervision of the implementation of its quality. However, on the other hand, the basic principles of this biopolitics - scientism, formal rationalism, pragmatism and commercialism have not allowed to solve the problems of social inequality in the access to healthy food and of illuminating the hunger. In the end of the last century the liberal biopolitics acquired globo-networked and neo-liberal character but the corresponding transition from the national to the global scale administration of food production only intensified risks and challenges of modern human nutrition. In a number of countries including Russia there appeared the problems of food security. The adopted national programs to address these challenges in a "world risk society" (U. Beck will not solve them without fully understanding and practical implementation of the principle of the indivisibility of food security for all peoples of the world and implementation of the global food security. To achieve this, the author believes, it is necessary to abandon the "repair" of the current neo-liberal wing of biopolitics and its pragmatic and mercantilist approaches to human nutrition and pass over to a humanistic biopolitics. There offered a concrete roadmap motion to it, in particular, intending to strengthen the natural sciences and engineering for the production of food with the theoretical instruments of social sciences and humanities; to replace the outdated positivistic, scientistic postulate «knowledge - power" with the formula of ethical, humanistically oriented responsibility of scientists: "the integral knowledge of all sciences - quality food for the health of all
Takle, E. S.; Gustafson, D. I.; Beachy, R.; Nelson, G. C.; Mason-D'Croz, D.; Palazzo, A.
Agreement is developing among agricultural scientists on the emerging inability of agriculture to meet growing global food demands. The lack of additional arable land and availability of freshwater have long been constraints on agriculture. Changes in trends of weather conditions that challenge physiological limits of crops, as projected by global climate models, are expected to exacerbate the global food challenge toward the middle of the 21st century. These climate- and constraint-driven crop production challenges are interconnected within a complex global economy, where diverse factors add to price volatility and food scarcity. We use the DSSAT crop modeling suite, together with mid-century projections of four AR4 global models, as input to the International Food Policy Research Institute IMPACT model to project the impact of climate change on food security through the year 2050 for internationally traded crops. IMPACT is an iterative model that responds to endogenous and exogenous drivers to dynamically solve for the world prices that ensure global supply equals global demand. The modeling methodology reconciles the limited spatial resolution of macro-level economic models that operate through equilibrium-driven relationships at a national level with detailed models of biophysical processes at high spatial resolution. The analysis presented here suggests that climate change in the first half of the 21st century does not represent a near-term threat to food security in the US due to the availability of adaptation strategies (e.g., loss of current growing regions is balanced by gain of new growing regions). However, as climate continues to trend away from 20th century norms current adaptation measures will not be sufficient to enable agriculture to meet growing food demand. Climate scenarios from higher-level carbon emissions exacerbate the food shortfall, although uncertainty in climate model projections (particularly precipitation) is a limitation to impact
Rothuis, A.J.; Duijn, van A.P.; Rijsingen, J.C.M.; Pijl, van der W.; Rurangwa, E.
This study aims to assess the potential role of aquaculture in improving food security in Kenya. It addresses current bottlenecks that prevent aquaculture from achieving its food security objectives and identifies possible interventions. This study furthermore explores business opportunities for
Gunatilake, Herath; Roland-Holst, David; Sugiyarto, Guntur
The emergence of biofuel as a renewable energy source offers opportunities for significant climate change mitigation and greater energy independence to many countries. At the same time, biofuel represents the possibility of substitution between energy and food. For developing countries like India, which imports over 75% of its crude oil, fossil fuels pose two risks—global warming pollution and long-term risk that oil prices will undermine real living standards. This paper examines India's options for managing energy price risk in three ways: biofuel development, energy efficiency promotion, and food productivity improvements. Our salient results suggest that biodiesel shows promise as a transport fuel substitute that can be produced in ways that fully utilize marginal agricultural resources and hence promote rural livelihoods. First-generation bioethanol, by contrast, appears to have a limited ability to offset the impacts of oil price hikes. Combining the biodiesel expansion policy with energy efficiency improvements and food productivity increases proved to be a more effective strategy to enhance both energy and food security, help mitigate climate change, and cushion the economy against oil price shocks. - Highlights: • We investigate the role of biofuels in India applying a CGE model. • Biodiesel enhances energy security and improve rural livelihoods. • Sugarcane ethanol does not show positive impact on the economy. • Biodiesel and energy efficiency improvements together provide better results. • Food productivity further enhances biodiesel, and energy efficiency impacts
Lestari, Sri; Bambang, Azis Nur
Efforts to achieve food security, especially food self-sufficiency, face severe challenges. Intensification needs to be done in optimizing the existing land by applying integrated agriculture. One of them is by integrating agriculture and fishery aspect with implementation of minapadi. Minapadi cultivation has actually grown since a long time, but in the course of time this system Began displaced because of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Become flagship Minapadi back in line with the increasing public awareness of the importance of sustainable environment, health, increasing demand for organic products that are free from pesticide residues which means safe for consumption. Minapadi is the answer to the fulfillment of people's need for carbohydrate and protein food. Blending the fulfillment of carbohydrates is rice as the staple food of most people with the fulfillment of animal protein from fish commodities to add nutritional value. In realizing the food security strategy is required Minapadi development. This descriptive research aims to find out various minapadi development strategies in several regions with different methods based on the literature and previous studies. The result is the formulation of minapadi development strategy in an area not necessarily can be applied in other areas.This occurs because of differences in setting criteria/ variables based on the characteristics and potential of a region, the strengths and opportunities, as well as the weaknesses and threats that the area may encounter.
Reynolds, Lawrence P; Wulster-Radcliffe, Meghan C; Aaron, Debra K; Davis, Teresa A
A conservative projection shows the world's population growing by 32% (to 9.5 billion) by 2050 and 53% (to 11 billion) by 2100 compared with its current level of 7.2 billion. Because most arable land worldwide is already in use, and water and energy also are limiting, increased production of food will require a substantial increase in efficiency. In this article, we highlight the importance of animals to achieving food security in terms of their valuable contributions to agricultural sustainability, especially in developing countries, and the high nutritional value of animal products in the diet. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Farsund, Arild Aurvåg; Daugbjerg, Carsten
in Australia and Norway is compared. In Australia, agricultural normalism (agricultural markets and production are considered to be similar to those of other economic sectors) has been dominant since the mid-1980s, while Norwegian agricultural policy making has been dominated by agricultural exceptionalism...... (agriculture is considered a unique economic sector with special market and production conditions). It is demonstrated in the article how these two opposing institutionalised ideational foundations have influenced the nature of the food security debate in the two countries. In Australia, the debate emphasises...... the positive role of the market and trade in providing global food security. In Norway, the debate highlights the need to regulate market forces and restrict trade in order to allow countries to develop their own agricultural sectors....
Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the fi nancial security of food industry enterprises in Poland in 2009–2013, with particular emphasis on the processing industry of milk and cheese production, including those operating in the form of dairy cooperatives. The analysis was conducted using unpublished data of GUS, as well as individual fi nancial data on dairy cooperatives. The study indicates that the manufacturing sector of food and beverage production, as well as milk processing and cheese making, according to the established measures of fi nancial security, can be considered safe. This assessment, however, is varied and results from the specifi c industries, especially in relation to capital management.
Olumide D. Onafeso
Full Text Available Decadal variability in African rainfall is projected from General Circulation Models (GCMs to continue under elevated greenhouse gas scenarios. Effects on rain intensity, spatio-temporal variability of growing seasons, flooding, drought, and land-use change impose feedbacks at regional-local scales. Yet, empirical knowledge of associated impacts on crop yield is limited; thus, we examined the imperatives for food security in Nigeria. Bivariate correlation and multiple regression suggests impending drought in the northern region where livestock farming is predominant. Relative contributions of climate independent variables in determining crop yield by backward selection procedures with stepwise approach indexed the impacts of annual climate variability by a parameter computed as annual yield minus mean annual yield divided by the standard deviation. Results show Z-distribution approximately 5 to + 5, when 3 indicate impacts significant at 95% confidence levels. In conclusion, we established the interwoven relationship between climatic change and food security.
Seafood is the primary source of animal protein for more than one billion people. Many economies and communities, in particular those in developing nations and coastal regions, depend on fisheries. Whereas the dire effects of overfishing on open-access ocean fisheries are already recognized, impacts of catches on freshwater systems are still underestimated. IIASA’s fisheries research elucidates how to secure and expand aquatic food resources, emphasizing three topical challenges. First, impro...
efficient cultivars (a plant produced by selective breeding), genetically modified organisms ( GMOs ), and building canals to transport water to...genetically modified organisms ( GMOs ). DARPA was interested in the details of China’s agriculture, trade, and future prospects for food security...to breed cultivars that are more water-efficient and tolerant of increased cropping intensity (Zhang et al. 2013). Despite import bans on GMO crops
Awami League's Election Manifesto 2008 appropriately recognizes the importance of ensuring food security for all in Bangladesh. Food Security requires increasing agricultural growth which in turn is a key factor in reducing poverty in the country. Food security also requires increasing agricultural production and protecting consumers. Sustained production increases, in turn, require tec...
Clancy, Joy S.; Rivero Acha, Sergio Luis; Chen, Wei
This paper examines the demonization of biofuels in relation to food security and assess whether or not the negativity towards biofuels is justified. We first examine the concept of food security which has been a concern long before the emergence of biofuels. We show that creating food security is
Charles B. Moss
Full Text Available This study examines, using quantile regression, the linkage between food security and efforts to enhance smallholder coffee producer incomes in Rwanda. Even though in Rwanda smallholder coffee producer incomes have increased, inhabitants these areas still experience stunting and wasting. This study examines whether the distribution of the income elasticity for food is the same for coffee and noncoffee growing provinces. We find that that the share of expenditures on food is statistically different in coffee growing and noncoffee growing provinces. Thus, the increase in expenditure on food is smaller for coffee growing provinces than noncoffee growing provinces.
Frank, Stefan; Havlík, Petr; Soussana, Jean-François; Levesque, Antoine; Valin, Hugo; Wollenberg, Eva; Kleinwechter, Ulrich; Fricko, Oliver; Gusti, Mykola; Herrero, Mario; Smith, Pete; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Kraxner, Florian; Obersteiner, Michael
To keep global warming possibly below 1.5 °C and mitigate adverse effects of climate change, agriculture, like all other sectors, will have to contribute to efforts in achieving net negative emissions by the end of the century. Cost-efficient distribution of mitigation across regions and economic sectors is typically calculated using a global uniform carbon price in climate stabilization scenarios. However, in reality such a carbon price would substantially affect food availability. Here, we assess the implications of climate change mitigation in the land use sector for agricultural production and food security using an integrated partial equilibrium modelling framework and explore ways of relaxing the competition between mitigation in agriculture and food availability. Using a scenario that limits global warming cost-efficiently across sectors to 1.5 °C, results indicate global food calorie losses ranging from 110-285 kcal per capita per day in 2050 depending on the applied demand elasticities. This could translate into a rise in undernourishment of 80-300 million people in 2050. Less ambitious greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation in the land use sector reduces the associated food security impact significantly, however the 1.5 °C target would not be achieved without additional reductions outside the land use sector. Efficiency of GHG mitigation will also depend on the level of participation globally. Our results show that if non-Annex-I countries decide not to contribute to mitigation action while other parties pursue their mitigation efforts to reach the global climate target, food security impacts in these non-Annex-I countries will be higher than if they participate in a global agreement, as inefficient mitigation increases agricultural production costs and therefore food prices. Land-rich countries with a high proportion of emissions from land use change, such as Brazil, could reduce emissions with only a marginal effect on food availability. In contrast
Naylor, Rosamond L; Falcon, Walter P
This article analyzes international commodity price movements, assesses food policies in response to price fluctuations, and explores the food security implications of price volatility on low-income groups. It focuses specifically on measurements, causes, and consequences of recent food price trends, variability around those trends, and price spikes. Combining these three components of price dynamics shows that the variation in real prices post-2000 was substantially greater than that in the 1980s and 1990s, and was approximately equal to the extreme volatility in commodity prices that was experienced in the 1970s. Macro policy, exchange rates, and petroleum prices were important determinants of price variability over 2005–2010, highlighting the new linkages between the agriculture-energy and agriculture-finance markets that affect the world food economy today. These linkages contributed in large part to misguided expectations and uncertainty that drove prices to their peak in 2008. The article also argues that there is a long-lasting effect of price spikes on food policy around the world, often resulting in self-sufficiency policies that create even more volatility in international markets. The efforts by governments to stabilize prices frequently contribute to even greater food insecurity among poor households, most of which are in rural areas and survive on the margin of net consumption and net production. Events of 2008—and more recently in 2010—underscore the impact of price variability for food security and the need for refocused policy approaches to prevent and mitigate price spikes.
Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert
Freshwater scarcity is increasingly perceived as a global systemic risk. Previous global water scarcity assessments, measuring water scarcity annually, have underestimated experienced water scarcity by failing to capture the seasonal fluctuations in water consumption and availability. We assess blue
Full Text Available Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1 model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80% under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.
Deng, Jian; Xiang, Youzhen; Hao, Wenhui; Feng, Yongzhong; Yang, Gaihe; Ren, Guangxin; Han, Xinhui
Food security is chronically guaranteed in Egypt because of the food subsidy policy of the country. However, the increasing Egyptian population is straining the food supply. To study changes in Egyptian food security and future food supply capacity, we analysed the historical grain production, yield per unit, grain-cultivated area, and per capita grain possession of Egypt. The GM (1,1) model of the grey system was used to predict the future population. Thereafter, the result was combined with scenario analysis to forecast the grain possession and population carrying capacity of Egypt under different scenarios. Results show that the increasing population and limitations in cultivated land will strain Egyptian food security. Only in high cultivated areas and high grain yield scenarios before 2020, or in high cultivated areas and mid grain yield scenarios before 2015, can food supply be basically satisfied (assurance rate ≥ 80%) under a standard of 400 kg per capita. Population carrying capacity in 2030 is between 51.45 and 89.35 million. Thus, we propose the use of advanced technologies in agriculture and the adjustment of plant structure and cropping systems to improve land utilization efficiency. Furthermore, urbanization and other uses of cultivated land should be strictly controlled to ensure the planting of grains.
Ademilua, O.S; Adeeko, A; Gbotoso, O.A; Akomolafe, A.M; Ishola, O.O
The issue of food security in Nigeria is of national concern as it affects young and old, male and female. The review assessed the emerging roles of women and their contributions to food security in Nigeria. Specifically, it explained the concept of food security, identified the specific roles of women in food security and identified factors affecting women participation in national food security. Food security is a situation that exist when all people at all times, have physical, social and ...
Nord, Mark; Bickel, Gary
The capacity to accurately measure the food security status of children in household surveys is an essential tool for monitoring food insecurity and hunger at the most severe levels in U.S. households and for assessing programs designed to prevent or ameliorate these conditions. USDA has developed a children's food security scale to meet this measurement need. The scale is calculated from 8 questions in the 18-item food security survey module that ask specifically about food-related experienc...
Cheng, Yang; Rosenberg, Mark; Yu, Jie; Zhang, Hua
Food security has been identified as an important issue for elderly people's quality of life and ageing in place. A food security index composed of three indicators (food intake, food quality and food affordability) was developed to measure the food security status of community-living elderly people. Food security was then examined among community-living elderly in the central urban districts of Beijing, China. Data were collected by a questionnaire survey in the summer of 2013 and the response rate was 78.5%. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression were applied to analyse food security and the associations between food security and demographic and socioeconomic factors. The results showed that 54.2% of the surveyed elderly experienced food security. Participants with better education (OR = 1.68) and better health (OR = 1.47) were more likely to experience food security. The young-old were less likely to experience food security than the older old (OR = 0.94). Elderly people who lived with their children were less likely to experience food security than those who lived alone (OR = 0.43). The results of impact factors on food security highlight both similarities with studies from more developed countries and the unique challenges faced in a rapidly changing China with its unique social, cultural and political systems. The food security index we developed in this study is a simple and effective measure of food security status, which can be used in surveys for evaluating the food security status of elderly people in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Gerlach, S Craig; Loring, Philip A
Multiple climatic, environmental and socio-economic pressures have accumulated to the point where they interfere with the ability of remote rural Alaska Native communities to achieve food security with locally harvestable food resources. The harvest of wild foods has been the historical norm, but most Alaska Native villages are transitioning to a cash economy, with increasing reliance on industrially produced, store-bought foods, and with less reliable access to and reliance on wild, country foods. While commercially available market foods provide one measure of food security, the availability and quality of market foods are subject to the vagaries and vulnerabilities of the global food system; access is dependent on one's ability to pay, is limited to what is available on the shelves of small rural stores, and, store-bought foods do not fulfill the important roles that traditional country foods play in rural communities and cultures. Country food access is also constrained by rising prices of fuel and equipment, a federal and state regulatory framework that sometimes hinders rather than helps rural subsistence users who need to access traditional food resources, a regulatory framework that is often not responsive to changes in climate, weather and seasonality, and a shifting knowledge base in younger generations about how to effectively harvest, process and store wild foods. The general objective is to provide a framework for understanding the social, cultural, ecological and political dimensions of rural Alaska Native food security, and to provide information on the current trends in rural Alaska Native food systems. This research is based on our long-term ethnographic, subsistence and food systems work in coastal and interior Alaska. This includes research about the land mammal harvest, the Yukon River and coastal fisheries, community and village gardens, small livestock production and red meat systems that are scaled appropriately to village size and capacity
S. Craig Gerlach
Full Text Available Background . Multiple climatic, environmental and socio-economic pressures have accumulated to the point where they interfere with the ability of remote rural Alaska Native communities to achieve food security with locally harvestable food resources. The harvest of wild foods has been the historical norm, but most Alaska Native villages are transitioning to a cash economy, with increasing reliance on industrially produced, store-bought foods, and with less reliable access to and reliance on wild, country foods. While commercially available market foods provide one measure of food security, the availability and quality of market foods are subject to the vagaries and vulnerabilities of the global food system; access is dependent on one's ability to pay, is limited to what is available on the shelves of small rural stores, and, store-bought foods do not fulfill the important roles that traditional country foods play in rural communities and cultures. Country food access is also constrained by rising prices of fuel and equipment, a federal and state regulatory framework that sometimes hinders rather than helps rural subsistence users who need to access traditional food resources, a regulatory framework that is often not responsive to changes in climate, weather and seasonality, and a shifting knowledge base in younger generations about how to effectively harvest, process and store wild foods. Objective . The general objective is to provide a framework for understanding the social, cultural, ecological and political dimensions of rural Alaska Native food security, and to provide information on the current trends in rural Alaska Native food systems. Design . This research is based on our long-term ethnographic, subsistence and food systems work in coastal and interior Alaska. This includes research about the land mammal harvest, the Yukon River and coastal fisheries, community and village gardens, small livestock production and red meat systems that
The first 13th years of the 21st century has begun with a series of widespread, long and intensive droughts around the world. Extreme and severe-to-extreme intensity droughts covered 2-6% and 7-16% of the world land, respectively, affecting environment, economies and humans. These droughts reduced agricultural production, leading to food shortages, human health deterioration, poverty, regional disturbances, population migration and death. This presentation is a travelogue of the 21st century global and regional droughts during the warmest years of the past 100 years. These droughts were identified and monitored with the NOAA operational space technology, called Vegetation Health (VH), which has the longest period of observation and provide good data quality. The VH method was used for assessment of vegetation condition or health, including drought early detection and monitoring. The VH method is based on operational satellites data estimating both land surface greenness (NDVI) and thermal conditions. The 21st century droughts in the USA, Russia, Australia Argentina, Brazil, China, India and other principal grain producing countries were intensive, long, covered large areas and caused huge losses in agricultural production, which affected food and environmental security and led to food riots in some countries. This presentation investigate how droughts affect food and environmental security, if they can be detected earlier, how to monitor their area, intensity, duration and impacts and also their dynamics during the climate warming era with satellite-based vegetation health technology.
Since the laboratories of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications were established in Seibersdorf in 1962, the world’s population has grown from 3.14 billion to 7.15 billion, which, combined with continuously increasing industrialization and economic development, has led to greater global food demand. This has placed substantial stress on natural resources as well as the agricultural production chain. The challenges to food safety and security have also been amplified by the impacts of climate change, which have global ramifications, as noted in the March 2014 report of the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Climate change impacts include higher temperatures, drought, more frequent extreme weather events and increased soil salinity which can have severe effects on agricultural production. Helping Member States adapt to and mitigate these impacts is a main focus of the five laboratories of the Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture in Seibersdorf. These laboratories are dedicated to increasing food security and safety using nuclear science and technology
Anema, Aranka; Fielden, Sarah J; Castleman, Tony; Grede, Nils; Heap, Amie; Bloem, Martin
Integration of HIV and food security services is imperative to improving the health and well-being of people living with HIV. However, consensus does not exist on definitions and measures of food security to guide service delivery and evaluation in the context of HIV. This paper reviews definitions and indicators of food security used by key agencies; outlines their relevance in the context of HIV; highlights opportunities for harmonized monitoring and evaluation indicators; and discusses promising developments in data collection and management. In addition to the commonly used dimensions of food availability, access, utilization and stability, we identify three components of food security-food sufficiency, dietary quality, and food safety-that are useful for understanding and measuring food security needs of HIV-affected and other vulnerable people. Harmonization across agencies of food security indicators in the context of HIV offers opportunities to improve measurement and tracking, strengthen coordination, and inform evidence-based programming.
Doocy, Shannon; Leidman, Eva; Aung, Tricia; Kirsch, Thomas
The 2010 floods inundated one-fifth of Pakistan and affected more than 20 million people. To characterize the impact of the floods and subsequent humanitarian response on household economy and food security. A cross-sectional 80 x 20 cluster survey (n = 1,569 households) was conducted using probability proportional to size sampling in the four most flood-affected provinces 6 months after the floods. Analysis included both descriptive statistics and regression models, with receipt of food aid (in the first month), dietary quality, and household income at 6 months postflood as outcomes. Need for food aid was nearly ubiquitous (98.9%); however, only half of the study population ever received food aid. Displacement was not a significant predictor of food aid receipt (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.83 to 1.98); however urban location (OR, 2.78; 95% CI, 2.00 to 3.86) and damage to the home (OR, 2.73; 95% CI, 1.34 to 5.60) were significantly associated. Some of the hardest-hit groups, including both farmers and day laborers, were significantly less likely to receive food aid (p floods was relatively low, and many of the most affected populations were less likely to receive aid, suggesting that targeting should be improved in future responses.
Frazier, Richard A.
The UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council’s Advanced Training Partnerships initiative represents a significant investment in the provision of high-level skills for the UK food industry sector to address global food security from farm to fork. This paper summarises the background, aims and scope of the Advanced Training Partnerships, their development so far, and offers a view on future directions and evaluation of impact.
Potamites, Elizabeth; Gordon, Anne
Using 2005 data from the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment survey, this study examines the contribution of school meals to the food and nutrient intake of children in food-secure, marginally secure, and food-insecure households. The study finds that children from food-insecure and marginally secure…
Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward
Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (pfoods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies.
Lauren Q. Sneyd
Full Text Available This article analyses wild food consumption in urban areas of Cameroon. Building upon findings from Cameroon’s Comprehensive Food Security and Vulnerability Analysis (CFSVA this case study presents empirical data collected from 371 household and market surveys in Cameroonian cities. It employs the UN Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food’s framework for understanding challenges related to the availability, accessibility, and adequacy of food. The survey data suggest that many wild/traditional foods are physically available in Cameroonian cities most of the time, including fruits, vegetables, spices, and insects. Cameroonians spend considerable sums of their food budget on wild foods. However, low wages and the high cost of city living constrain the social and economic access most people have to these foods. The data also suggest that imports of non-traditional staple foods, such as low cost rice, have increasingly priced potentially more nutritious or safe traditional local foods out of markets after the 2008 food price crisis. As a result, diets are changing in Cameroon as the resource-constrained population continues to resort to the coping strategy of eating cheaper imported foods such as refined rice or to eating less frequently. Cameroon’s nutrition transition continues to be driven by need and not necessarily by the preferences of Cameroonian consumers. The implications of this reality for sustainability are troubling.
The attainment of sound and sustainable environmental management is one of humanity's greatest challenges this century, particularly in Africa, which is still heavily dependent on the exploitation of natural and agricultural resources and is faced with rapid population growth. Yet, this challenge...... alternatives to the strong natural determinism that reduces natural resource management to questions of territory and scarcity. - Presenting material and methodologies that explore the different contexts in which social and cultural values intervene, and discovering more than "rational choice" in the agency...... of individuals. - Examining the relevance of the different conceptions of territory for the ways in which people manage, or attempt to manage, natural resources. - Placing their research within the framework of the developing discussion on policy and politics in natural resource management. The studies are drawn...
Food Security in Nigeria: The Role of Peasant Farmers in Nigeria. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... Nigerian food crisis is a product of colonial disorientation that has led to neglect of the peasant agriculture and food ...
Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Robson, Kristin; Gutilla, Margaret J; Hunter, Lori M; Twine, Wayne; Norlund, Petra
Recurring food crises endanger the livelihoods of millions of households in developing countries around the globe. Owing to the importance of this issue, we explore recent changes in food security between the years 2004 and 2010 in a rural district in Northeastern South Africa. Our study window spans the time of the 2008 global food crises and allows the investigation of its impacts on rural South African populations. Grounded in the sustainable livelihood framework, we examine differences in food security trajectories among vulnerable sub populations. A unique panel data set of 8,147 households, provided by the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Agincourt HDSS), allows us to employ a longitudinal multilevel modeling approach to estimate adjusted growth curves for the differential change in food security across time. We observe an overall improvement in food security that leveled off after 2008, most likely resulting from the global food crisis. In addition, we discover significant differences in food security trajectories for various sub populations. For example, female-headed households and those living in areas with better access to natural resources differentially improved their food security situation, compared to male-headed households and those households with lower levels of natural resource access. However, former Mozambican refugees witnessed a decline in food security. Therefore, poverty alleviation programs for the Agincourt region should work to improve the food security of vulnerable households, such as former Mozambican refugees.
Ip, Edward H; Saldana, Santiago; Arcury, Thomas A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Trejo, Grisel; Quandt, Sara A
We recruited 248 farmworker families with preschool-aged children in North Carolina and examined food security indicators over 24 months to identify food security patterns and examine the dynamic of change over time. Participants in the Niños Sanos study, conducted 2011 to 2014, completed quarterly food security assessments. Based on responses to items in the US Household Food Security Survey Module, we identified different states of food security by using hidden Markov model analysis, and examined factors associated with different states. We delineated factors associated with changes in state by using mixed-effect ordinal logistic regression. About half of the households (51%) consistently stayed in the most food-secure state. The least food-secure state was transient, with only 29% probability of this state for 2 consecutive quarters. Seasonal (vs migrant) work status, having immigration documents (vs not documented), and season predicted higher levels of food security. Heterogeneity in food security among farmworker households calls for tailoring intervention strategies. The transiency and unpredictability of low food security suggest that access to safety-net programs could reduce low food security risk in this population.
Umar Ijaz Ahmed
Full Text Available In most of the developing countries, lack of resources and little market accessibility are among the major factors that affect small farming household food security. This study aims to investigate the status of small farming households' food security, and its determinants including the role of market accessibility factors in enhancing food security at household level. In addition, this study also determines the households' perception about different kinds of livelihoods risks. This study is based on a household survey of 576 households conducted through face-to-face interviews using structured interviews in Punjab, Pakistan. Food security status is calculated using dietary intake method. The study findings show that one-fourth of the households are food insecure. The study findings reveal that farm households perceive increase in food prices, crop diseases, lack of irrigation water and increase in health expenses as major livelihood risks. Further, the results of logistic regression show that family size, monthly income, food prices, health expenses and debt are main factors influencing the food security status of rural households. Furthermore, the market accessibility factors (road distance and transportation cost do significantly affect the small farming household food security. The results suggest that local food security can be enhanced by creating off-farm employment opportunities, improved transportation facilities and road infrastructure.
Weiler, Anelyse M.; Hergesheimer, Chris; Brisbois, Ben; Wittman, Hannah; Yassi, Annalee; Spiegel, Jerry M.
There has been growing policy interest in social justice issues related to both health and food. We sought to understand the state of knowledge on relationships between health equity—i.e. health inequalities that are socially produced—and food systems, where the concepts of ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ are prominent. We undertook exploratory scoping and mapping stages of a ‘meta-narrative synthesis’ on pathways from global food systems to health equity outcomes. The review was oriented by a conceptual framework delineating eight pathways to health (in)equity through the food system: 1—Multi-Scalar Environmental, Social Context; 2—Occupational Exposures; 3—Environmental Change; 4—Traditional Livelihoods, Cultural Continuity; 5—Intake of Contaminants; 6—Nutrition; 7—Social Determinants of Health and 8—Political, Economic and Regulatory context. The terms ‘food security’ and ‘food sovereignty’ were, respectively, paired with a series of health equity-related terms. Combinations of health equity and food security (1414 citations) greatly outnumbered pairings with food sovereignty (18 citations). Prominent crosscutting themes that were observed included climate change, biotechnology, gender, racialization, indigeneity, poverty, citizenship and HIV as well as institutional barriers to reducing health inequities in the food system. The literature indicates that food sovereignty-based approaches to health in specific contexts, such as advancing healthy school food systems, promoting soil fertility, gender equity and nutrition, and addressing structural racism, can complement the longer-term socio-political restructuring processes that health equity requires. Our conceptual model offers a useful starting point for identifying interventions with strong potential to promote health equity. A research agenda to explore project-based interventions in the food system along these pathways can support the identification of ways to
Cunningham, Timothy J; Barradas, Danielle T; Rosenberg, Kenneth D; May, Ashleigh L; Kroelinger, Charlan D; Ahluwalia, Indu B
Food insecurity has detrimental effects on the mental, physical, and behavioral health of developing children. Few studies, however, have sought to determine whether associations exist between food insecurity and intake of vegetables, fresh or canned fruit, candy or cookies, French fries, fast food, water, milk, fruit juices, fruit drinks, soda, and sports drinks. To identify independent associations that exist between maternal food insecurity and food and drink intake among toddlers, population-based data from the 2006-2008 Oregon Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System follow-back survey (Oregon PRAMS-2) of 1,522 mothers of 2-year-old children were analyzed. Maternal food insecurity was defined as mothers' report of eating less because of lack of money for food. Typical weekly child food and drink intake was examined using polytomous logistic regression: 0-1 days/week, 2-3 days/week, and 4-7 days/week. Maternal food insecurity prevalence was 11.7 %. Compared to toddlers of food secure mothers, toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed vegetables (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] for 4-7 days/week = 0.31; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.12, 0.79) and fruit (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 0.25; 95 % CI 0.08, 0.75) fewer days of the week. Toddlers of food insecure mothers consumed soda (AOR for 4-7 days/week = 3.21; 95 % CI 1.12, 9.14) more days of the week. Maternal food insecurity is associated with weekly intake of certain foods and drinks. Among toddlers, consumption of fewer vegetables and fruit, and more soda may help explain the link between food insecurity and poor health.
Restrepo-Arango, Marcos; Gutiérrez-Builes, Lina Andrea; Ríos-Osorio, Leonardo Alberto
Food security and the vulnerability among indigenous and peasant populations has become a topic of interest to public health all around the world, leading to the investigation about measurement, classification and factors that determine it. This systematic review aims to describe the situation of food security in indigenous and peasant communities, and the methods used for evaluation. The literature search was performed on the Pub Med (5), ScienceDirect (221) and Scopus (377) databases searching for publications between 2004 and 2015, a total of 603 items were located with the search engines. At the end of the screening process and after adding the items found in the gray literature, 25 papers were obtained to write the review. In the 11 years evaluated between 2004 and 2015, scientific activity around the theme was poor with just 4.54% of the publications on this subject, but for 2011 the percentage increased to 13 publications, 63%. Various factors that influence the development of food insecurity are climate change, the diversity of agriculture, globalization and market westernization.
Meng, Qingfeng; Chen, Xinping; Lobell, David B; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Yi; Yang, Haishun; Zhang, Fusuo
Climate change can reduce crop yields and thereby threaten food security. The current measures used to adapt to climate change involve avoiding crops yield decrease, however, the limitations of such measures due to water and other resources scarcity have not been well understood. Here, we quantify how the sensitivity of maize to water availability has increased because of the shift toward longer-maturing varieties during last three decades in the Chinese Maize Belt (CMB). We report that modern, longer-maturing varieties have extended the growing period by an average of 8 days and have significantly offset the negative impacts of climate change on yield. However, the sensitivity of maize production to water has increased: maize yield across the CMB was 5% lower with rainfed than with irrigated maize in the 1980s and was 10% lower (and even >20% lower in some areas) in the 2000s because of both warming and the increased requirement for water by the longer-maturing varieties. Of the maize area in China, 40% now fails to receive the precipitation required to attain the full yield potential. Opportunities for water saving in maize systems exist, but water scarcity in China remains a serious problem.
Xiong, Wei; Lin, Erda; Ju, Hui; Xu, Yinlong
Identification of 'critical thresholds' of temperature increase is an essential task for inform policy decisions on establishing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission targets. We use the A2 (medium-high GHG emission pathway) and B2 (medium-low) climate change scenarios produced by the Regional Climate Model PRECIS, the crop model - CERES, and socio-economic scenarios described by IPCC SRES, to simulate the average yield changes per hectare of three main grain crops (rice, wheat, and maize) at 50 km x 50 km scale. The threshold of food production to temperature increases was analyzed based on the relationship between yield changes and temperature rise, and then food security was discussed corresponding to each IPCC SRES scenario. The results show that without the CO2 fertilization effect in the analysis, the yield per hectare for the three crops would fall consistently as temperature rises beyond 2.5C; when the CO2 fertilization effect was included in the simulation, there were no adverse impacts on China's food production under the projected range of temperature rise (0.9-3.9C). A critical threshold of temperature increase was not found for food production. When the socio-economic scenarios, agricultural technology development and international trade were incorporated in the analysis, China's internal food production would meet a critical threshold of basic demand (300 kg/capita) while it would not under A2 (no CO2 fertilization); whereas basic food demand would be satisfied under both A2 and B2, and would even meet a higher food demand threshold required to sustain economic growth (400 kg/capita) under B2, when CO2 fertilization was considered
Scherer, Laura; Pfister, Stephan
Water scarcity adversely affects ecosystems, human well-being and the economy. It can be described by water scarcity indices (WSIs) which we calculated globally for the decades 1981-1990 and 2001-2010. Based on a model ensemble, we calculated the WSI for both decades including uncertainties. While there is a slight tendency of increased water scarcity in 2001-2010, the likelihood of the increase is rather low (53%). Climate change played only a minor role, but increased water consumption is more decisive. In the last decade, a large share of the global population already lived under highly water scarce conditions with a global average monthly WSI of 0.51 (on a scale from 0 to 1). Considering that globally there are enough water resources to satisfy all our needs, this highlights the need for regional optimization of water consumption. In addition, crop choices within a food group can help reduce humanity’s water scarcity footprint without reducing its nutritional value.
Moradkhani, H.; Hameed, M.
Developing countries have experienced crucial conditions in meeting the needs for food, energy, and water security. This paper presents a country-level quantitative assessment of the current issues associated with the Food-Energy-Water-Security (FEWS) Nexus in the Middle East region. In this study, sixteen countries in the Middle East region are chosen, namely, Arabian Peninsula, Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, Palestine, Egypt, and Turkey. The most recent datasets are used to study and analyze the factors that have emerged the demand to understand and manage the linkage of FEW systems in the region. Water scarcity, extreme events, population growth, urbanization, economic growth, poverty, and political stability are found to be the key drivers of the current challenges in the Middle East region. Additionally, the results suggest that these factors have created a subsequent stress on FEW resources specifically on water sector in the region. Therefore, more attention is required to sustain the FEW resources and cope with the socio-economic development.
Burghouwt, G.; de Wit, W.
This report addresses the responses related to scarcity rents and airport charges. The Commission has asked ITF/SEO to provide evidence on scarcity rents in the London airport system. Different reports submitted in response to the Commission’s consultation make different assumptions on the way
Jawad Taleb Al-Bakri
Full Text Available This study investigates the impact of climate change and land use change on water resources and food security in Jordan. The country is dominated by arid climate with limited arable land and water resources, where the per capita share of water is less than 145 m3/year. The study focused on crop production and water resources under trends of anticipated climate change and population growth in the country. Remote sensing data were used to determine land use/cover changes and rates of urbanization, which took place at the cost of the cultivable land. Recession of irrigated areas led to lesser food production and food security. Outputs from crop production and water requirements models, in addition to regression analysis, were used to estimate the projected increase in agricultural water demand under the scenarios of increased air temperature and reduced rainfall by the years 2030 and 2050. Results indicated that problems of water scarcity and food insecurity would be exacerbated by climate change and increased population growth. To move from the tragedy of the commons towards transcendence, the study emphasized the need for adaptive measures to reduce the impacts of climate change on water resources and food security. The challenge, however, would remain the development and the efficient use of new water resources as a means for future sustainable development.
Lawlis, Tanya; Islam, Wasima; Upton, Penney
Food security is defined by four dimensions: food availability, access, utilisation and stability. Resettled refugees face unique struggles securing these dimensions and, thus, food security when moving to a new country. This systematic review aimed to identify the challenges Australian refugees experience in achieving the four dimensions of food security. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines were followed; the SPIDER tool was used to determine eligibility criteria. Three databases were searched using terms relating to food in/security and refugees from 2000 to 20 May 2017. Seven articles were retained for analysis. Studies were categorised against the four dimensions, with four studies identifying challenges against all dimensions. Challenges contributing to high levels of food insecurity in each dimension included: availability and cost of traditional foods, difficulty in accessing preferred food outlets, limited food knowledge and preparation skills and food stability due to low income and social support. Food insecurity adversely impacts refugee health and integration. Methodical research framed by the four dimensions of food security is imperative to address challenges to securing food security in refugee groups and assisting in the development of sustainable interventions. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.
Angelos, John A; Arens, Amanda L; Johnson, Heather A; Cadriel, Jessica L; Osburn, Bennie I
Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.
John A. Angelos
Full Text Available Educating students in the range of subjects encompassing food safety and security as approached from a One Health perspective requires consideration of a variety of different disciplines and the interrelationships among disciplines. The Western Institute for Food Safety and Security developed a subject matter outline to accompany a previously published One Health in food safety and security curricular framework. The subject matter covered in this outline encompasses a variety of topics and disciplines related to food safety and security including effects of food production on the environment. This subject matter outline should help guide curriculum development and education in One Health in food safety and security and provides useful information for educators, researchers, students, and public policy-makers facing the inherent challenges of maintaining and/or developing safe and secure food supplies without destroying Earth's natural resources.
Brambilla, Gianfranco; Testa, Cecilia
The environmental presence of pharmaceuticals in top soil and in water where extensive animal farming occurs may represent an involuntary source of residues in food that might affect both food safety and food security. We modelled the presence of residues in animal matrices from the inventoried environmental concentration of selected drugs in surface waters (range: 0.1-10μgL(-1)) and agriculture soils (range: 1-100μgkg(-1) dry weight), accounting for animal production parameters (i.e., forages, water intake and milk and egg production) and drug pharmacokinetics. The results indicate that the contamination of tetracyclines in top soil may represent a major issue both for the compliance with maximum residue levels in food (100-300ngg(-1)) and for the claim of organic products. via surface water, animals may be vulnerable to the intake of anabolics and growth-promoting agents, such as 17-beta estradiol and clenbuterol, only under a worst-case scenario. Their identification, which is currently achievable at a pgg(-1) level in animal specimens, is considered proof of illegal treatment and can lead to the prosecution of farmers. The Environmental Quality Standards that have been proposed for priority substances in surface waters may also be considered protective in terms of food security/food safety; however, a broad-spectrum characterisation of drugs within the agriculture context could be envisaged to refine the uncertainties in the risk assessment and for combined intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
In view of the enormous health and economic consequences of foodborne diseases, the World Health Organization (WHO) encourages its Member States to consider all measures to eliminate or reduce foodborne pathogens in food an improve their supplies of safe and nutritious food. With the wholesomeness of irradiated food clearly established by extensive scientific studies, food irradiation has important roles to play in both ensuring food safety and reducing food losses. Food irradiation may be one of the most significant contributions to public health to be made by food science and technology since the introduction of pasteurization. Because the promotion of a safe, nutritious and adequate food supply is an essential component of its primary health care strategy, WHO is concerned that the unwarranted rejection of this process may endanger public health and deprive consumers of the choice of foods processed for safety. (J.P.N.)
Dudarev, Alexey A; Alloyarov, Pavel R; Chupakhin, Valery S; Dushkina, Eugenia V; Sladkova, Yuliya N; Dorofeyev, Vitaliy M; Kolesnikova, Tatijana A; Fridman, Kirill B; Nilsson, Lena Maria; Evengård, Birgitta
Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination) have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000-2011. Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23-43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil) are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries) is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East is of utmost importance. Both quantitative and qualitative
At present, the application of advanced technology during production, processing, storage and distribution of food with an ultimate aim of strengthening the socio-economic status of farmers, entrepreneurs and rural artisan community has paramount importance. The convention made an effort to touch upon the following areas: food and nutritional security and sustainability, food processing and engineering, food safety management systems, food health and nutrition, skill development and entrepreneurship, food science and technology research etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately
Vanham, Davy; Gawlik, Bernd; Bidoglio, Giovanni
. Many of the products consumed, contribute to different levels of blue water scarcity (WS) in the regions of origin Hong Kong imports from. Most rice consumed in Hong Kong e.g., is produced under moderate to severe WS in Thailand, Vietnam, China, the USA or Australia. Other food items consumed in Hong Kong with a high blue WFcons contributing to local WS are wheat, sugar, selected treenuts (pistachios and almonds), oranges, grapes and livestock products. This poses, to some extent, a water-related risk to food security in Hong Kong. As all diet scenarios also result in a lower blue WFcons, they decrease this risk. In order to become sustainable, (mega)cities should reduce their dependency on distant resources and ecosystems.
James Mabli; Jim Ohls; Lisa Dragoset; Laura Castner; Betsy Santos
The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) provides food assistance to more than 47 million low-income Americans every month. It aims to reduce hunger by facilitating beneficiariesâ€™ access to enough food for a healthy, active lifestyle, otherwise known as "food security." Our study conducted for the Food and Nutrition Service of the U.S. Department of Agriculture shows that SNAP participation is associated with improved food security. The study is the largest and most rigorous one...
L.J. de Haan (Leo); A. Klaasse Bos (Andries); C. Lutz (Clemens)
textabstractThe problem of food security in West Africa was put on the international agenda in 1974 at the international food conference in Rome following the Great Sahelian Drought of 1968-1973. In those years preoccupation with food security was limited mainly to the Sahel countries and
Kuhnlein, Harriet V
Traditional knowledge and practice of Indigenous Peoples related to their food use and well-being is a wealth of information for academic study and for public health nutrition. Despite unique long-evolved heritages of knowledge of ecosystem resources, Indigenous Peoples comprise 15% of the global poor, but only 5% of the world's population, and they experience poverty, discrimination, and poor nutritional health at far greater rates than mainstream populations in their nations of residence. These disparities are unacceptable in all human rights frameworks, and the call to alleviate them resonates through all human development programmes and the United Nations organizations. The scholars contributing to this special issue of Maternal and Child Nutrition describe how gender roles and the right to food for several cultures of Indigenous Peoples can be fostered to protect their unique foods and traditions, providing food sovereignty and food and nutrition security benefits, especially for women and children. Aspects of societal maternal or paternal lineality and locality, division of labour, spirituality and decision-making are described. These factors structure the impact of gender roles with Indigenous worldviews on the dynamics of family food access, its availability and use, and the use of local food biodiversity. Cultures of Indigenous Peoples in Ecuador, Nigeria, Thailand, India, Canada, Japan, and Morocco are discussed. This publication is a work of the Task Force on Traditional, Indigenous and Cultural Food and Nutrition of the International Union of Nutritional Sciences. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Morrissey, Taryn W; Jacknowitz, Alison; Vinopal, Katie
Both obesity and food insecurity are important public health problems facing young children in the United States. A lack of affordable, healthy foods is one of the neighborhood factors presumed to underlie both food insecurity and obesity among children. We examine associations between local food prices and children's BMI, weight, and food security outcomes. We linked data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative study of children from infancy to age 5, to local food price data from the Council for Community and Economic Research (C2ER) Cost-of-Living Index (n = 11,700 observations). Using ordinary least squares (OLS), linear probability, and within-child fixed effects (FE) models, we exploit the variability in food price data over time and among children who move residences focusing on a subsample of households under 300% of the Federal Poverty Level. Results from ordinary least squares and FE models indicate that higher-priced fruits and vegetables are associated with higher child BMI, and this relationship is driven by the prices of fresh (versus frozen or canned) fruits and vegetables. In the FE models, higher-priced soft drinks are associated with a lower likelihood of being overweight, and surprisingly, higher fast food prices are associated with a greater likelihood of being overweight. Policies that reduce the costs of fresh fruits and vegetables may be effective in promoting healthy weight outcomes among young children.
Sadler, Richard C.; Gilliland, Jason A.; Arku, Godwin
The effect of the built environment on diet (and ensuing health outcomes) is less understood than the effect of diet on obesity. Natural experiments are increasingly advocated in place of cross-sectional studies unable to suggest causality. The central research question of this paper, therefore, asks whether a neighborhood-level food retail intervention will affect dietary habits or food security. The intervention did not have a significant impact on fruit and vegetable consumption, and the intervention population actually purchased prepared meals more frequently. More problematic, only 8% of respondents overall regularly consumed enough fruits and vegetables, and 34% were food insecure. Further complicating this public health issue, the new grocery store closed after 17 months of operation. Results indicate that geographic access to food is only one element of malnutrition, and that multi-pronged dietary interventions may be more effective. The economic failure of the store also suggests the importance of non-retail interventions to combat malnutrition. PMID:23921626
Beriša Hatidža A.
Full Text Available Natural resources are a common good and the common wealth of each country. Their use, commercial applications and economic evaluation should be planned focused and targeted controlled. In a group of natural resources include: energy resources, water, food, land, mineral resources, biological resources and others. Given that the conditions of resource exploitation variable categories, it can be said that the volume of resources also variable. Abstracting growing problem of resources scarcity of vital importance to the existence in the world, this paper aims to try to shed light on the wider and comprehensive aspects of contemporary global problems in the scarcity of natural resources with a focus on the deficit of food, water and energenata. Search for answers to questions related to the scarcity of the basic needs of some of the world's population, civilizational confrontation about the energy pie, is a research and empirical contribution to the work, which is reflected in the effort to look at global challenges that mankind faces in the second decade of the 21st century.
Asfour, Lila; Natale, Ruby; Uhlhorn, Susan; Arheart, Kris L; Haney, Kanathy; Messiah, Sarah E
This study evaluated the relationship between food security and child nutritional intake, sedentary behavior, and body mass index (BMI) and potential moderation by ethnic subgroup membership. Cross-sectional data analysis from baseline data of a preschool intervention trial. Twenty-eight subsidized child care centers in Miami-Dade County, FL. Children ages 2 to 5 (n = 1,211) and their caregivers. The BMI percentile and the following 4 factors (via confirmatory factor analysis): food security, consumption of fruits/vegetables, consumption of unhealthy foods, and sedentary behaviors. Separate linear mixed models tested relationships between food security and main outcome measures with an interaction term to test for possible moderation by ethnicity. Results indicated a significant relationship (P security and child consumption of fruit/vegetables, consumption of unhealthy foods, and sedentary behavior, but not with BMI percentile. With greater food security, Haitians reported greater consumption of fruit/vegetables and sedentary behavior. With greater food security, Cubans and non-Hispanic whites reported less consumption of unhealthy foods, while Haitians reported greater consumption. Results showed higher food security was associated with higher consumption of fruit/vegetables, consumption of unhealthy foods, and sedentary behavior, but this was moderated by ethnicity. Implications for healthy weight interventions among low-income preschoolers should focus on the importance of food security and tailor intervention strategies for diverse ethnic groups accordingly. Copyright © 2015 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nadine Felicity Petersen
Full Text Available This paper provides an account of student teachers responses to a simulation game about food scarcity and how the game served as a conversation starter about the influence of food scarcity on educational provisioning. The simulation game was utilised as part of a suite of activities during an educational excursion for first years in primary school teacher education. In this investigation data were generated via video recordings of the simulation game itself, summary notes of the key points of the discussion session during the game, and students’ learning portfolios. Analysis of the various data sets indicate that student-teachers’ engaged with the game both viscerally and cerebrally, with the game providing a powerful concrete introduction to the issues of food scarcity and unequal distribution of resources. Most student teachers were able to relate the lessons learned from the game to the classroom and educational situation. In addition, I found that the simulation game as method can assist students in their activity of learning to look at education as an equity and justice issue.
Che Wan Jasimah bt Wan Mohamed Radzi; Huang Hui; Nur Anisah Binti Mohamed @ A. Rahman; Hashem Salarzadeh Jenatabadi
Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) has been used extensively in sustainability studies to model relationships among latent and manifest variables. This paper provides a tutorial exposition of the SEM approach in food security studies and introduces a basic framework based on family food security and children’s environment sustainability. This framework includes family food security and three main concepts representing children’s environment, including children’s BMI, health, and school perfor...
One of the objectives of the World Health Organization (WHO) is to assist efforts throughout the world to provide safe and nutritious food supplies. However, the safety and nutritional quality, as well as the mere availability of our food, is constantly threatened by contamination, infestation and deterioration. The most recent addition to the list of food preserving methods is irradiation, i.e., processing of food to carefully measured amounts of ionizing radiation. The paper will highlight the contribution this technology is expected to make with regard to the prevention of foodborne diseases and food losses. (orig.) [de
O'Mara, F P
Grasslands are a major part of the global ecosystem, covering 37 % of the earth's terrestrial area. For a variety of reasons, mostly related to overgrazing and the resulting problems of soil erosion and weed encroachment, many of the world's natural grasslands are in poor condition and showing signs of degradation. This review examines their contribution to global food supply and to combating climate change. Grasslands make a significant contribution to food security through providing part of the feed requirements of ruminants used for meat and milk production. Globally, this is more important in food energy terms than pig meat and poultry meat. Grasslands are considered to have the potential to play a key role in greenhouse gas mitigation, particularly in terms of global carbon storage and further carbon sequestration. It is estimated that grazing land management and pasture improvement (e.g. through managing grazing intensity, improved productivity, etc) have a global technical mitigation potential of almost 1·5 Gt CO(2) equivalent in 2030, with additional mitigation possible from restoration of degraded lands. Milk and meat production from grassland systems in temperate regions has similar emissions of carbon dioxide per kilogram of product as mixed farming systems in temperate regions, and, if carbon sinks in grasslands are taken into account, grassland-based production systems can be as efficient as high-input systems from a greenhouse gas perspective. Grasslands are important for global food supply, contributing to ruminant milk and meat production. Extra food will need to come from the world's existing agricultural land base (including grasslands) as the total area of agricultural land has remained static since 1991. Ruminants are efficient converters of grass into humanly edible energy and protein and grassland-based food production can produce food with a comparable carbon footprint as mixed systems. Grasslands are a very important store of carbon, and
Rulli, M.; D'Odorico, P.
show how at gap closure up to about 290-470 million people could be fed by crops grown on this land, in face of the 200-300 million people that can be supported with the current crop yields. These numbers raise some concern because many of the target countries exhibit high malnourishment levels. If used for domestic consumption, the crops harvested in the acquired land could ensure food security to the local populations.
Saha, Kuntal K; Frongillo, Edward A; Alam, Dewan S; Arifeen, Shams E; Persson, Lars A; Rasmussen, Kathleen M
Despite a strong relationship between household food security and the health and nutritional status of adults and older children, the association of household food security with the growth of infants and young children has not been adequately studied, particularly in developing countries. We examined the association between household food security and subsequent growth of infants and young children in rural Bangladesh. We followed 1343 children from birth to 24 months of age who were born in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention in Matlab (MINIMat) study in rural Bangladesh. A food security scale was created from data collected on household food security from the mothers during pregnancy. Data on weight and length were collected monthly in the first year and quarterly in the second year of life. Anthropometric indices were calculated relative to the 2006 WHO child growth standards. Growth trajectories were modelled using multilevel models for change controlling for possible confounders. Household food security was associated (P secure households. Proportions of underweight and stunting were significantly (P secure households. These results suggest that household food security is a determinant of child growth in rural Bangladesh, and that it may be necessary to ensure food security of these poor rural households to prevent highly prevalent undernutrition in this population and in similar settings elsewhere in the world.
Ghodsi, Delaram; Omidvar, Nasrin; Eini-Zinab, Hassan; Rashidian, Arash; Raghfar, Hossein
Food aid programs are strategies that aim to improve nutritional status and to tackle food insecurity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a National Food Supplementary Program for Children on households' food security. The study sample included 359 mothers of children aged 6-72 months under the coverage of the program in two provinces of Iran. Demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the households and percentage of supplementary food items consumed by target child were assessed by a questionnaire and checklist. Data on household food security were collected by locally adapted Household Food Insecurity Access Scale at the baseline of the study and 6 months thereafter. At the baseline, only 4.7% of families were food secure, while 43.5% were severely food insecure, and these proportions were changed to 7.9% and 38%, respectively ( P security in the baseline and at the end of the study ( P > 0.05). Findings show that the food supplementary program for children can also improve the household food security status. Further research is needed to assess other factors that affect the effectiveness of this kind of programs.
Rowland, J.; Verdin, J. P.; Hillbruner, C.; Budde, M. E.
Before and during the El Niño of 2015-2016, regular and frequent application of climate monitoring and seasonal forecasts enabled early warning of food insecurity in Africa, Central America, and the Caribbean. As it happened, drought associated with the quasi-El Niño of 2014 had already adversely impacted harvests in Central America, Haiti, and Southern Africa, so the effects of the El Niño of 2015-2016 were especially hard-hitting and particularly devastating to crop conditions and food security. In the case of Ethiopia, 2014 conditions were normal but there were record rainfall deficits in 2015, with consequent crop failure, inadequate forage, and sharply curtailed water availability. Combining such agro-climatological information with knowledge of household economies, livelihood systems, markets & trade, and health & nutrition, FEWS NET constructed scenarios of food insecurity eight months into the future, with monthly updates. These scenarios informed assistance programming by USAID and partners. Overall, FEWS NET estimates that at least 18 million people will be severely food insecure during 2015/16 as a direct result of the impact of El Nino on rainfall. However, in Ethiopia, the contrast with the 1982-1983 El Niño is dramatic; though the two events were climatically similar, the human impacts of the 2015-2016 El Niño are much less, thanks not only to well-functioning early warning systems and large scale emergency response, but also improved social safety nets and lack of ongoing armed conflict. In southern Africa, El Nino resulted in extensive failed crops, with some areas of South Africa and Zimbabwe having insufficient rain to plant crops. Remote sensing products provided relevant information to depict the severity of rainfall and vegetation deficits. Likewise, in Central America and the Caribbean (Hispaniola), rainfall deficits were portrayed in the perspective of 30+ years of data.
Verdin, James Patrick
Many of the 250 million people living in the drylands of Sub-Saharan Africa are food insecure---they lack access at all times to enough food for an active and healthy life. Their vulnerability is due in large measure to highly variable climatic conditions and a dependence on rainfed agriculture. Famine, the most extreme food security emergency, is caused by crop failure due to bad weather, conflict, or both. Famine is a slow onset disaster, culminating after two or more bad growing seasons. After the disastrous African famines of the 1970s and 1980s, the U.S. established the Famine Early Warning System (FEWS) to make the observations of climatic and socioeconomic variables needed for early detection of food security emergencies. Two geospatial climate monitoring products, rainfall estimate and vegetation index images derived from satellite data, are operationally used by FEWS analysts. This dissertation describes research to derive new products from them to reduce ambiguity and improve the link between early warning and early response. First, rainfall estimate images were used in a geospatial crop water accounting scheme. The resulting water requirement satisfaction index was used to estimate crop yield, and a correlation of 0.80 with conventional yield reports was obtained for the 1997 maize harvest in Zimbabwe. Thus, the agricultural significance of remotely sensed patterns of precipitation in time and space was made more clear. The second product tested was the expression of a seasonal climate forecast as a series of vegetation index anomaly images. Correlations between sea surface temperature anomalies in the equatorial Pacific and vegetation index anomalies in Southern Africa were established and predictive relationships cross-validated. Using model forecast values of Pacific sea surface temperature from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration for January, February, and March, forecast images of vegetation index anomalies were prepared prior to the
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Rice is an important crop globally that influences food security and the Earth system. Rice is the predominant food staple in many regions with approximately 700...
Maria Amelia Dias
Full Text Available The simultaneous rise in commodity prices and the global production of biofuels, between 2007 and 2008, strengthened discussions, which persist currently, about the competition of land use between biofuel production and food production. The objective of this paper is to compare and evaluate the arguments from both sides. The methodology used was an analysis of the relevant and comprehensive reports and manuscripts on the topic, comparing them to the available data from international organizations and agencies. Biodiesel received special attention in this analysis. The conclusion is that hunger and poverty problems are due to structural and historical roots and they do not have a cause-effect relationship with biodiesel production. In fact, the production of biodiesel, under specific regulatory and production conditions, can be a driver of economic development improving energy security and promoting social inclusion in poor countries, which still have land available for agriculture.
Kershen, Drew L
Agricultural trade between nations is a significant proportion of total international trade. Agricultural trade in transgenic crops faces extra complications due to the existence of domestic and international regimes that focus specifically on agricultural biotechnology. These specialized regimes create legal and commercial challenges for trade in transgenic crops that have significant implications for the food security of the nations of the world. By food security, one should understand not just the available supply of food, but also the quality of the food and the environmental impact of agricultural production systems. These specialized regimes for transgenic crops can either encourage or hinder the adoption of agricultural biotechnology as a sustainable intensive agriculture. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers hope for agronomic improvements for agricultural production, socio-economic betterment for farmers and environmental benefits for societies. Sustainable intensive agriculture offers particular hope for the poorest farmers of the world because agricultural biotechnology is a technology in the seed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Valeria De Laurentiis
Full Text Available The challenge of feeding nine billion people by 2050, in a context of constrained resources and growing environmental pressures posed by current food production methods on one side, and changing lifestyles and consequent shifts in dietary patterns on the other, exacerbated by the effects of climate change, has been defined as one of the biggest challenges of the 21st century. The first step to achieve food security is to find a balance between the growing demand for food, and the limited production capacity. In order to do this three main pathways have been identified: employing sustainable production methods in agriculture, changing diets, and reducing waste in all stages of the food chain. The application of an energy, water and food nexus (EWFN approach, which takes into account the interactions and connections between these three resources, and the synergies and trade-offs that arise from the way they are managed, is a prerequisite for the correct application of these pathways. This work discusses how Life Cycle Assessment (LCA might be applicable for creating the evidence-base to foster such desired shifts in food production and consumption patterns.
Kleinschmit, Daniela; Sijapati Basnett, Bimbika; Martin, Adrian
In the context of this chapter, drivers are considered to be natural or anthropogenic developments affecting forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition. They can improve and contribute to food security and nutrition, but they can also lead to food insecurity and malnutrition......, commercialisation of agriculture, industrialisation of forest resources, gender imbalances, conflicts, formalisation of tenure rights, rising food prices and increasing per capita income) were identified within these four categories. They affect food security and nutrition through land use and management; through...
Brunori, Gianluca; Malandrin, Vanessa; Rossi, Adanella
In this paper we analyse the role that "food security" has played in the evolution of the food discourse in Italy, a country with a strong and internationally recognized food culture. We identify three phases of this evolution: in the first phase, from the end of the Second World War to the end of the 1980s, the "modernization"…
Full Text Available Harnessing women’s potential for food production and security has been a challenge in Southern Africa. The face of food production in Southern Africa is often female, but more often than not, their roles are generally undervalued and constrained by gender inequalities and limitations on their access to resources, services, and market opportunities. This chapter explores how women involvement in food production can have a positive impact on food security in Southern Africa. The gender aspect of food security assume significance, as it is widely recognized that women are the custodian of food production in many communities in Southern Africa. There is a tendency of men and women participating unevenly in food production, have unequal access to productive resources and exhibit different levels of engagement in rural, urban and home-based food production. Despite this anomaly, there is still a common understanding that food production needs to be increased in order to cope with the increased human population and achieving food security in the region. With this in mind, food production and security have emerged as key development targets in Southern Africa. This has propelled the urgent need for promoting food production, reducing food insecurity and poverty reduction in its totality. One of the factors contributing to perpetual low food production and insecurity has been gender discrimination and/or lack of participation of women in agricultural programs and projects. In this chapter there is an attempt to describe the impact of gender-based discrimination on food production and its implication on food security. The indispensable role and challenges faced by women in food production are highlighted. The need to invest in education and training of women to support food production systems in order to accrue maximum benefit is acknowledged. In this regard, it is imperative that planning and implementation of any food production programs focusing on
Butcher, Lucy M; O'Sullivan, Therese A; Ryan, Maria M; Lo, Johnny; Devine, Amanda
Currently, two food sufficiency questions are utilised as a proxy measure of national food security status in Australia. These questions do not capture all dimensions of food security and have been attributed to underreporting of the problem. The purpose of this study was to investigate food security using the short form of the US Household Food Security Survey Module (HFSSM) within an Australian context; and explore the relationship between food security status and multiple socio-demographic variables. Two online surveys were completed by 2334 Australian participants from November 2014 to February 2015. Surveys contained the short form of the HFSSM and twelve socio-demographic questions. Cross-tabulations chi-square tests and a multinomial logistic regression model were employed to analyse the survey data. Food security status of the respondents was classified accordingly: High or Marginal (64%, n = 1495), Low (20%, n = 460) or Very Low (16%, n = 379). Significant independent predictors of food security were age (P important issue across Australia and that certain groups, regardless of income, are particularly vulnerable. Government policy and health promotion interventions that specifically target "at risk" groups may assist to more effectively address the problem. Additionally, the use of a multi-item measure is worth considering as a national indicator of food security in Australia. © 2018 Australian Health Promotion Association.
Isabel Cristina BENTO
Full Text Available Objective: To verify whether what users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, think about a healthy diet and the challenges they face to eat healthy are associated with their household food security status. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1,656 users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte. Socioeconomic and household food security data, and healthy-eating discourses were collected by a semi-structured questionnaire. The data were submitted to descriptive analyses for constructing frequency distribution tables, and to univariate analysis. Discourse analysis was based on the social representation theory. Results: To cut, reduce, avoid, not eat, eat less, and decrease carbohydrates, salt, meats, various beverages, and other foods are the most frequent changes (71.4% that food-secure users have made or intend to make. Food-insecure users intended to eat more fruits, non-starchy vegetables, and other foods (34.4%. The main obstacles food-secure and food-insecure users face to adopt a healthier diet are lack of time (82.9% and low income (53.5%, respectively (p<0.001. Conclusion: What users of soup kitchens in Belo Horizonte think about food and the obstacles they face to adopt a healthier diet are related to their household food security status. The results provide valuable data for effective proposals of food and nutrition education, which should act on the producers of subjectivity in this group and consider this group's food and nutrition security status.
Medina, T. A.; Ganti-Agrawal, S.; Joshi, D.; Lakhankar, T.
Food yield is equal to the total crop harvest per unit cultivated area. During the elapsed time of germination and frequent harvesting, both human and climate related effects determine a country's' contribution towards global food security. Each country across the globe's annual income per capita was collected to then determine nine countries for further studies. For a location to be chosen, its income per capita needed to be considered poor, uprising or wealthy. Both physical land cover and regional climate helped categorize potential parameters thought to be studied. Once selected, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data was collected for Ethiopia, Liberia, Indonesia, United States, Norway, Russia, Kuwait and Saudi Arabia over the recent 16 years for approximately every 16 days starting from early in the year 2000. Software languages such as Geographic Information System (GIS), MatLab and Excel were used to determine how population size, income and deforestation directly determines agricultural yields. Because of high maintenance requirements for large harvests when forest areas are cleared, they often have a reduction in soil quality, requiring fertilizer use to produce sufficient crop yields. Total area and vegetation index of each country is to be studied, to determine crop and deforestation percentages. To determine how deforestation impacts future income and crop yield predictions of each country studied. By using NDVI results a parameter is to be potentially found that will help define an index, to create an equation that will determine a country's annual income and ability to provide for their families and themselves.
Carlos Arturo Meza Carvajalino
Full Text Available The paper presents some elements associated to the approaches to bioeconomy. The purpose is to debate the conflicts in the territory when it is conceived as a space of social historical construct governed by human laws and institutions that make it possible to mitigate the different levels of power exerted on their soil, and as a natural means self-regulated by the law of thermodynamics. As a methodological approach, a case study in the city of Medellín is taken, namely Mujeres populares en la gestión alimentaria en la ciudad urbano-rural de Medellín (Popular women in food management in the urban-rural city of Medellin. This is the result of an interest in understanding how energy flows and how material cycles are established in ecosystems, as well as their use value and exchange value in the relationships and interests of both the market and in the process and the strategies of communities in order to ensure food security.
White, Daniel M; Gerlach, S Craig; Loring, Philip; Tidwell, Amy C; Chambers, Molly C
In the Arctic, permafrost extends up to 500 m below the ground surface, and it is generally just the top metre that thaws in summer. Lakes, rivers, and wetlands on the arctic landscape are normally not connected with groundwater in the same way that they are in temperate regions. When the surface is frozen in winter, only lakes deeper than 2 m and rivers with significant flow retain liquid water. Surface water is largely abundant in summer, when it serves as a breeding ground for fish, birds, and mammals. In winter, many mammals and birds are forced to migrate out of the Arctic. Fish must seek out lakes or rivers deep enough to provide good overwintering habitat. Humans in the Arctic rely on surface water in many ways. Surface water meets domestic needs such as drinking, cooking, and cleaning as well as subsistence and industrial demands. Indigenous communities depend on sea ice and waterways for transportation across the landscape and access to traditional country foods. The minerals, mining, and oil and gas industries also use large quantities of surface water during winter to build ice roads and maintain infrastructure. As demand for this limited, but heavily-relied-upon resource continues to increase, it is now more critical than ever to understand the impacts of climate change on food and water security in the Arctic
Luiz Eduardo Fonseca
Full Text Available This article analyses the most recent action plans set out by different agencies and organizations of the United Nations system, including these in as out of the health or nutrition area but that can produce an impact on the health and nutritional status of population and national systems of health care and food production and distribution. It seeks to find common points between these Plans of Action for possible collaboration in a future common agenda between the two areas. In addition, this exercise can also help in the incorporation of new elements and another analysis of variables that influence global policies and national health and food and nutritional security. More than answers, this article seeks to collaborate with some milestones and guidelines to support the governance of the Agenda 2030 and the SDG implementation at a country level. This article obviously does not exhaust the subject, but draws attention to common points that can influence the health and nutrition situation of the national populations. The political dimension and the governance, the coherence and political coordination can contribute to the implementation of the SDG health and FNS and to achieve common objectives, including greater costeffectiveness, because both processes are synergistic.
Dra. Rosa Catalina Bermúdez-Savòn
Full Text Available A sustainable way for food and energetic security in rural and the city regions, is presented with the application of the solid state fermentation for the biotransformation of lignocellulosic by-products and agro-industrial wastes with white-rot fungi. Inamush as advantages of this technology, is showed the cultivation of mushroom Pleurotus spp.on coffee pulp, cedar chip , coconut and cocoa shells, and the influence of it´s mixture (1:1, trough examination of their growth rates and conversion efficacy to fruiting bodies, which cause contamination of soil and water, because of large volumes and difficult management. The use of residues for these cultive was consolidate such as alternative viable for food production, capable to satisfy the protein and nutritive necessity of population in the non-developing countries, besides low cost production, high protein content and obtention in large quantity in short time. In addition to produce complements for animal feet, such as the spent oyster mushroom substrate postcosecha is detoxified, has proteic content and better digestibility than original substrates,and can be used as animal feed or fertilizer, at the same time, was eradicated the problem of environmental contamination of these residues provoking and further contribution at sustainable development of the communities.
Enenkel, M.; Dorigo, W.; See, L. M.; Vinck, P.; Papp, A.
Droughts statistically exceed all other natural disasters in complexity, spatio-temporal extent and number of people affected. Triggered by crop failure, food insecurity is a major manifestation of agricultural drought and water scarcity. However, other socio-economic precursors, such as chronically low levels of disaster preparedness, hampered access to food security or a lack of social safety nets are equally important factors. We will present the first results of the SATIDA (Satellite Technologies for Improved Drought-Risk Assessment) project, which advances three complementary developments. First, an existing drought indicator is enhanced by replacing in-situ measurements on rainfall and surface air temperature with satellite-derived datasets. We identify the vegetation status via a new noise-corrected and gap-filled vegetation index. In addition, we introduce a soil moisture component to close the gap between rainfall deficiencies, extreme temperature and the first visible impacts of atmospheric anomalies on vegetation. Second, once calibrated, the index is forced with seasonal forecasts to quantify their uncertainty and added value in the regions of interest. Third, a mobile application is developed to disseminate relevant visualizations to decision-makers in affected areas, to collect additional information about socio-economic conditions and to validate the output of the drought index in real conditions. Involving Doctors without Borders (MSF) as a key user, SATIDA aims at decreasing uncertainties in decision-making via a more holistic risk framework, resulting in longer lead times for disaster logistics in the preparedness phase.
Enenkel, M.; Dorigo, W.; See, L. M.; Vinck, P.; Pham, P.
Droughts statistically exceed all other natural disasters in spatio-temporal extent, number of people affected or financial loss. Triggered by crop failure, food insecurity is a major manifestation of agricultural drought and water scarcity. However, other socio-economic precursors, such as chronically low levels of disaster preparedness, hampered access to food security or a lack of social safety nets are equally important factors. Consequently, this study is focused on two complementary developments - a new satellite-derived agricultural drought index and a mobile phone application. The Combined Drought Index (CDI) is enhanced by replacing field measurements of temperature and rainfall modelled/assimilated data. The vegetation component is replaced by a smoothed NDVI dataset. A soil moisture component is introduced to close the gap between rainfall deficiencies and the first visible impacts of atmospheric anomalies on vegetation. The mobile phone application enables the validation of drought index outputs and gives aid organizations an opportunity to increase the speed of socio-economic vulnerability assessments. Supported by Doctors without Borders (MSF) this approach aims at decreasing uncertainties in decision-making via a more holistic risk framework.
Moghadam, Seyed Amir Hossein Zehni; Javadi, Maryam; Mohammadpooral, Asghar
Food security has been defined as the "availability, stability, access and utilization of safe foods". Diabetes has been known as one of the biggest health and medical problems throughout the world and is clearly related to lifestyle, and particularly, improper food consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between food security with sugar and blood pressure in patients suffering from type 2 diabetes who refer to diabetes centers in Tehran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2015 on type 2 diabetes patients in Tehran, Iran. From two diabetes centers in the eastern and southern parts of Tehran, 243 type 2 diabetes patients were selected. Necessary information (demographic and food security information) about all the studied persons was collected using the standard questionnaire verified by US Department of Agriculture (USDA). The data was analyzed by SPSS version 16, statistical comparisons were made using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square and Tukey tests and a significant level of food security (p=0.372). No significant relation was observed between food security and fasting blood pressure, HbA1C, and systolic blood pressure (p>0.05), but there was a significant relationship between food security and diastolic blood pressure (p= 0.030). According to the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and food security and the role of blood pressure in the irreparable diabetic complications, it is recommended to perform appropriate food advice.
Anne van der Veen
Full Text Available Following the design of a conservation-based agricultural development strategy and food security strategy, the Tigray government has implemented different pro-poor development programs over the past years to address the problems of food security. This study attempts to investigate the effectiveness of government policy interventions at different scales addressed to improve food security. Food security both at the regional and district level was investigated by deriving food balance sheets for the period 2000-2008. An empirical analysis based on a logit model was also employed to analyze household level food security status. The results of the logit model reveal that government policy interventions such as water harvesting schemes, employment generation schemes, and promotion of technology adoption significantly contribute to a higher likelihood of household food security status. The findings of the food balance sheet also indicate that the region has made some impressive development gains in improving regional food self-sufficiency, indicating the importance of government interventions in improving food security both at the household and regional level.
Rice as a food is key to the survival of more than 60% of the world population, most of whom live in Asia. Food security in Asia is therefore strongly dependent on an adequate, available supply of affordable rice. Experts estimate that global rice supply would need to increase at an average of 1.7% per annum for the next 20 years, and average rice yields must roughly double in the next 20 years in both the irrigated and favourable rainfed lowland environments, if a global shortage is to be avoided. At the same time that the need to increase total production, and unit area productivity is being felt, society is also demanding that agricultural practices be environment friendly and be part of a sustainable agricultural system. Rice breeders have seen increased difficulties to source and utilize new genetic resources for genetic improvement of yield potential from within the rice genome. As with other cereals, rice yield potential has not been dramatically increased in the last decade when compared to the quantum increase of the early Green Revolution years. Furthermore, pest-induced losses currently account for up to 30% of the loss in yield potential. Biotechnology, especially recombinant DNA technology, offers tools to transfer genes from outside the rice genome to address the critical issues of raising the yield potential, increasing tolerance or resistance to insects, diseases and a biotic stresses, to increase the efficiency of pest management, and also to improve the nutritive value of the rice grain. Genetically modified crops have a demonstrated record of environmental and food safety, and all such crops undergo a process of safety assessment and regulatory approval before they are put into the marketplace. Serious social issues, however, arise in matching the capacity of biotechnology to change crops, and in what changes society is willing to accept; and at this early stage of biotechnology applications, science-based approaches are important so that emotion
Tshediso Joseph Sekhampu
Full Text Available Researchshowsthatfoodinsecurityisone of the challengesthatpost-apartheidSouth Africafaces.Food securityindicators notethat South Africa as a countryhas an apparent state of sufficiency, while household indicators show greatdisparities between urban and rural households.Thepurpose of this study was toanalysethe food security status of households in the township of Kwakwatsi, FreeStateprovince. Data were collected through a household survey to determinetheassociationbetweenhousehold food security andthedemographic variables of ahousehold. Of the sampled households,51.1%were found to be food secureaccording tothe Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS. Logisticregression analysis revealedthatthere is a clear correlation betweenhouseholdsize, household income,andgender and marital status of the household headandhousehold food security.While household size,and the gender andmarital statusof the household head wereassociated withfoodinsecurity,an increase inhousehold income andtheage of thehouseholdheadwereassociated withfoodsecurity.The study offers trends in food security and can be used as a referencesource when addressing socio-economic challengesthatlow-incomehouseholdsin South African townshipsface.
Full Text Available Justice in health care and the allocation of scarce medical resources must be analyzed differently in affluent as compared to economically weaker societies. The protective functions of the state must be extended to cover basic needs for those too poor to meet them on their own. Medical needs are a high priority, since poor health hampers the ability to secure other basic needs. The state may operate as either a health care provider or supervisor, guaranteeing that citizens be treated fairly by nongovernmental institutions. Two-tiered systems with a vigorous private health care sector are compatible with the explicit right to health care, provided the private tier operates without directly or indirectly draining public funds.
Bala, B.K.; Hossain, M.A.
This paper presents food security and ecological footprint of the Chittagong Hill Tracts (CHT) in Bangladesh. To estimate food security and ecological footprint, primary and secondary data were collected and a multistage sampling was designed for selecting the farm households from the three districts of the Hill Tracts of Chittagong. A quantitative method for computation of food security was used. To estimate the environmental sustainability sustainability as upazila (sub-district) levels, a method of computation of ecological footprint developed by Wackernagel was used. Multiple logistic regression models were fitted to data on food security of the farmers in CHT to identify the factors affecting food security at household levels in CHT. Overall status of food security at upazila levels was found to be good for all the upazilas except Rangamati sadar and the best was found Alikadam. Environmental status in the Hill Tracts of Chittagong was poor for all the upazilas. Household food security was found to be significantly (p<0.05) affected by farm size, education, professions, crops cultivated (jhum and tobacco), distance from market and transition from jhum to horticulture. This study supports transition from jhum to horticulture crops for increased food security and banning tobacco cultivation to avoid deforestation in CHT. (author)
Yu, Wusheng; Bandara, Jayatilleke
policies, which are superior in terms of their welfare effects and fiscal costs and might also be politically feasible. These findings have important implications on the ongoing debates on India's food security policy, particularly in relation to the discussion on its National Food Security Act....
Harrison, Barbara; Nelson, Connie; Stroink, Mirella
For six years the Food Security Research Network at Lakehead University, Canada, has been engaged in an interdisciplinary theme-based service-learning initiative focusing on food security. Informed by complexity theory, the contextual fluidity partnership model brings community partners, students, and faculty into a nexus through which new…
Ittersum, van M.K.; Giller, K.E.
Improving food security is difficult. There are many reasons why hunger and malnutrition persist, not least because deep social inequities and conflicts often dominate. Equally many approaches are needed to deal with this global problem. In the case of global food security, improvements can depend
Svetlana I. Nesterova
Full Text Available The article presents a model of integrated assessment of food security in the region. A comprehensive analysis of food security in the Samara region in the dynamics is given, and its results are compared with the numbers of the Volga Federal District as a whole. Recommendations on further improvement of the agricultural sector are suggested.
Namayengo, Mayanja Muyonga Faith
The contents of this dissertation are based on a quantitative and qualitative survey that was conducted to assess the contribution of microcredit access of women to production and household food security status, and the factors associated with enterprise performance and food security outcomes. In
Kaiser, Michelle L; Cafer, Anne
The United States is facing two interconnected social and public health crises of severe obesity and food insecurity within the social-ecological environment. Marginalized groups experience the highest rates and the greatest impacts in terms of morbidity, mortality, and financial burdens. Consequences include experiencing multimorbidities, mental health issues, and decreased quality of life. Food pantries have served as spaces to obtain food to meet household needs, but for some, food pantries have become long-term solutions. We surveyed 2,634 people who accessed pantries in 2005, 2010, and 2013 across 32 counties in a Midwest state. The authors sought to understand to what extent does length of time using a food pantry, food security status, income sources, use of federal food benefits, visiting a doctor, and demographic variables increase odds of severe obesity. More than 14% were severely obese; those who were long-term food pantry users and very low food secure were 1.732 times more likely to be severely obese. Receiving Disability/Supplemental Security Income, seeing a doctor in the last year, being female, and older age reduced the odds of severe obesity. Discussion includes implications for social workers who interact with groups likely to experience very low food security and severe obesity at different systems levels.
Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to substantiate the food security needs in the regions of Ukraine, as well as the definition of tasks in filling the market with own production products. The obtained results will determine the directions of structural changes in agricultural complexes of the regions and the necessary measures by the public regulatory bodies. Methodology. The research is based on a comparison of results of normative and search forecasts. In developing normative forecasts, the projected population and needs in different types of products according to the norms of rational consumption are taken into account. Search forecasts provide for the definition of a future state of satisfaction with the preservation of existing development trends. The gap between the necessary and projected results determines the task of accelerating growth. In terms of national security, food production should be provided with its own raw material base. Therefore, an analysis of the conditions for the development of livestock and crop production is necessary, which enables to substantiate the directions of systemic changes in agricultural complexes of the regions. In order to ensure positive changes in the structure of agricultural production, strengthening the effectiveness of public regulation on the basis of financial and economic leverage is needed. Results. Regions of Ukraine by territory and population exceed certain countries of the European Union. Significant differences in socio-economic conditions of the regions contribute to the growth of tension in society and migration. The events of recent years indicate the possibility of external interference in the functioning of the regions of Ukraine and the danger of the collapse of cooperative ties. Therefore, it is important to ensure the satisfaction of the immediate needs of the population of each region at the expense of its own production. Among the necessities, food occupies a special place. Complete
Tokgoz, S.; Zhang, W.; Msangi, S.; Bhandary, P.
Sustainable production of agricultural commodities and growth of international trade in these goods are challenged as never before by supply-side constraints (such as climate change, water and land scarcity, and environmental degradation) and by demand-side dynamics (volatility in food and energy markets, the strengthening food-energy linkage, population growth, and income growth). On the one hand, the rapidly expanding demand can potentially create new market opportunities for agriculture. On the other hand, there are many threats to a sufficient response by the supply side to meet this growing and changing demand. Agricultural production systems in many countries are neither resource-efficient, nor producing according to their full potential. The stock of natural resources such as land, water, nutrients, energy, and genetic diversity is shrinking relative to demand, and their use must become increasingly efficient in order to reduce environmental impacts and preserve the planet's productive capacity. World energy prices have increased rapidly in recent years. At the same time, agriculture has become more energy-intensive. Higher energy costs have pushed up the cost of producing, transporting and processing agricultural commodities, driving up commodity prices. Higher energy costs have also affected water use and availability through increased costs of water extraction, conveyance and desalinization, higher demand for hydroelectric power, and increased cost of subsidizing water services. In the meantime, the development of biofuels has diverted increasing amounts of agricultural land and water resources to the production of biomass-based renewable energy. This more "intensified" linkage between agriculture and energy comes at a time when there are other pressures on the world's limited resources. The related high food prices, especially those in the developing countries, have led to setbacks in the poverty alleviation effort among the global community with more
Full Text Available This paper aims to review the major food security issues in Bangladesh, with a brief reference to its past trend in agricultural output, constraints, and challenges in the coming decades. Food security relates directly to nutrition and health of a population which consequently influences a nation's socio-economic status. Despite Bangladesh has changed its status from a country with chronic food shortages to a self-sufficient one, it still faces food-security challenges. Few non-agricultural factors are identified as equally responsible for aggravating the food insecurity scenario. Since its independence in 1971, the country has constantly been facing issues like high population growth, political unrest, natural disasters which are contributing to food insecurity. Though industrialization is the order of the modern economy, agriculture remains the lifeblood of food security, especially for predominantly agrarian economies like Bangladesh. And this truth must be emphasized and implemented accordingly so that the predicted food crisis in near future can be successfully avoided. This article aims to review the performance of different agricultural sectors and to identify major setbacks to achieving food security in Bangladesh. This study is based on previously published researches on various food security issues in the context of Bangladesh.
Wulandari, S. P.; Salamah, M.; Rositawati, A. F. D.
Food security is the condition where the food fulfilment is managed well for the country till the individual. Indonesia is one of the country which has the commitment to create the food security becomes main priority. However, the food necessity becomes common thing means that it doesn’t care about nutrient standard and the health condition of family member, so in the fulfilment of food necessity also has to consider the disease suffered by the family member, one of them is pulmonary tuberculosa. From that reasons, this research is conducted to know the factors which influence on household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya by using binary logistic regression method. The analysis result by using binary logistic regression shows that the variables wife latest education, house density and spacious house ventilation significantly affect on household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya, where the wife education level is University/equivalent, the house density is eligible or 8 m2/person and spacious house ventilation 10% of the floor area has the opportunity to become food secure households amounted to 0.911089. While the chance of becoming food insecure households amounted to 0.088911. The model household food security status which suffered from pulmonary tuberculosis in the coastal area of Surabaya has been conformable, and the overall percentages of those classifications are at 71.8%.
Alexey A. Dudarev
Full Text Available Background. Problems related to food security in Russian Arctic (dietary imbalance, predominance of carbohydrates, shortage of milk products, vegetables and fruits, deficit of vitamins and microelements, chemical, infectious and parasitic food contamination have been defined in the literature. But no standard protocol of food security assessment has been used in the majority of studies. Objectives. Our aim was to obtain food security indicators, identified within an Arctic collaboration, for selected regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, and to compare food safety in these territories. Study design and methods. In 18 regions of the Russian Arctic, Siberia and the Far East, the following indicators of food security were analyzed: food costs, food consumption, and chemical and biological food contamination for the period 2000–2011. Results. Food costs in the regions are high, comprising 23–43% of household income. Only 4 out of 10 food groups (fish products, cereals, sugar, plant oil are consumed in sufficient amounts. The consumption of milk products, eggs, vegetables, potatoes, fruits (and berries is severely low in a majority of the selected regions. There are high levels of biological contamination of food in many regions. The biological and chemical contamination situation is alarming, especially in Chukotka. Only 7 food pollutants are under regular control; among pesticides, only DDT. Evenki AO and Magadan Oblast have reached peak values in food contaminants compared with other regions. Mercury in local fish has not been analyzed in the majority of the regions. In 3 regions, no monitoring of DDT occurs. Aflatoxins have not been analyzed in 5 regions. Nitrates had the highest percentage in excess of the hygienic threshold in all regions. Excesses of other pollutants in different regions were episodic and as a rule not high. Conclusion. Improvement of the food supply and food accessibility in the regions of the Russian
Mazidi, Mohsen; Vatanparast, Hassan
In the current study we aimed to assess whether the food security is associated with serum trans-fatty acids (TFAs) and dietary fat. Analyses were restricted to participants (from the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey) with data available on serum and diet TFAs and food security status from 2009 to 2010. All statistical analyses (analysis of covariance and linear regression) accounted for the survey design and sample weights. We included 3876 participants, overall (48.6%) participants were men, and (51.4%) were women, generally (69.0%) had high food security. Subjects with higher food security had a higher level of education as well (p security (all p security. Further, age, sex, race, education, and energy intake adjusted mean of dietary fatty acids show that total polyunsaturated fatty acids are higher in subjects with higher food security (p = 0.026) while, cholesterol consumption is higher in subjects with lower food security (p = 0.039). Our findings provide more evidence on the association between food insecurity and the higher level of TFAs in serum and different type of fat in the diet.
Archer, Claire; Gallegos, Danielle; McKechnie, Rebecca
To develop a measure of food and nutrition security for use among an Australian population that measures all pillars of food security and to establish its content validity. The study consisted of two phases. Phase 1 involved focus groups with experts working in the area of food security. Data were assessed using content analysis and results informed the development of a draft tool. Phase 2 consisted of a series of three online surveys using the Delphi technique. Findings from each survey were used to establish content validity and progressively modify the tool until consensus was reached for all items. Australia. Phase 1 focus groups involved twenty-five experts working in the field of food security, who were attending the Dietitians Association of Australia National Conference, 2013. Phase 2 included twenty-five experts working in food security, who were recruited via email. Findings from Phase 1 supported the need for an Australian-specific tool and highlighted the failure of current tools to measure across all pillars of food security. Participants encouraged the inclusion of items to measure barriers to food acquisition and the previous single item to enable comparisons with previous data. Phase 2 findings informed the selection and modification of items for inclusion in the final tool. The results led to the development of a draft tool to measure food and nutrition security, and supported its content validity. Further research is needed to validate the tool among the Australian population and to establish inter- and intra-rater reliability.
Ettema, Janneke; Aldrian, Edvin; de Bie, Kees; Jetten, Victor; Mannaerts, Chris
As Indonesia is the world's fourth most populous country, food security is a persistent challenge. The potential impact of future climate change on the agricultural sector needs to be addressed in order to allow early implementation of mitigation strategies. The complex island topography and local sea-land-air interactions cannot adequately be represented in large scale General Climate Models (GCMs) nor visualized by TRMM. Downscaling is needed. Using meteorological observations and a simple statistical downscaling tool, local future projections are derived from state-of-the-art, large-scale GCM scenarios, provided by the CMIP5 project. To support the agriculture sector, providing information on especially rainfall and temperature variability is essential. Agricultural production forecast is influenced by several rain and temperature factors, such as rainy and dry season onset, offset and length, but also by daily and monthly minimum and maximum temperatures and its rainfall amount. A simple and advanced crop model will be used to address the sensitivity of different crops to temperature and rainfall variability, present-day and future. As case study area, Java Island is chosen as it is fourth largest island in Indonesia but contains more than half of the nation's population and dominates it politically and economically. The objective is to identify regions at agricultural risk due to changing patterns in precipitation and temperature.
Turnipseed, D. Phil
Forecast Mekong is a significant international thrust under the Delta Research and Global Observation Network (DRAGON) of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and was launched in 2009 by the U.S. Department of State and the Foreign Ministers of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam under U.S. Department of State Secretary Hillary R. Clinton's Lower Mekong Initiative to enhance U.S. engagement with countries of the Lower Mekong River Basin in the areas of environment, health, education, and infrastructure. Since 2009, the USGS has worked closely with the U.S. Department of State; personnel from Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam; nongovernmental organizations; and academia to collect and use research and data from the Lower Mekong River Basin to provide hands-on results that will help decisionmakers in future planning and design for restoration, conservation, and management efforts in the Lower Mekong River Basin. In 2012 Forecast Mekong is highlighting the increasing cooperation between the United States and Lower Mekong River Basin countries in the areas of food and environmental security. Under the DRAGON, Forecast Mekong continues work in interactive data integration, modeling, and visualization system by initiating three-dimensional bathymetry and river flow data along with a pilot study of fish distribution, population, and migratory patterns in the Lower Mekong River Basin. When fully developed by the USGS, in partnership with local governments and universities throughout the Mekong River region, Forecast Mekong will provide valuable planning tools to visualize the consequences of climate change and river management.
Boori, M. S.; Choudhary, K.; Evers, M.; Kupriyanov, A.
The central dry zone area of Myanmar is the most water stressed and also one of the most food insecure regions in the country. In the Dry Zone area, the total population is 10.1 million people in 54 townships, in which approximately 43 % live in below poverty line and 40-50 % of the rural population is landless. Agriculture is the most important economic sector in Myanmar as it is essential for national food security and a major source of livelihood for its people. In this region the adverse effects of climate change such as late or early onset of monsoon season, longer dry spells, erratic rainfall, increasing temperature, heavy rains, stronger typhoons, extreme spatial-temporal variability of rainfall, high intensities, limited rainfall events in the growing season, heat stress, drought, flooding, sea water intrusion, land degradation, desertification, deforestation and other natural disasters are believed to be a major constraint to food insecurity. For food vulnerability, we use following indicators: slope, precipitation, vegetation, soil, erosion, land degradation and harvest failure in ArcGIS software. The erosion is influenced by rainfall and slope, while land degradation is directly related to vegetation, drainage and soil. While harvest failure can be generate by rainfall and flood potential zones. Results show that around 45 % study area comes under very high erosion danger level, 70 % under average harvest failure, 59 % intermediate land degradation area and the overall around 45 % study area comes under insecure food vulnerability zone. Our analysis shows an increase in alluvial farming by 1745.33 km2 since 1988 to reduce the insecure food vulnerability. Food vulnerability map is also relevant to increased population and low income areas. The extreme climatic events are likely increase in frequency and magnitude of serious drought periods and extreme floods. Food insecurity is an important thing that must be reviewed because it relates to
M. S. Boori
Full Text Available The central dry zone area of Myanmar is the most water stressed and also one of the most food insecure regions in the country. In the Dry Zone area, the total population is 10.1 million people in 54 townships, in which approximately 43 % live in below poverty line and 40–50 % of the rural population is landless. Agriculture is the most important economic sector in Myanmar as it is essential for national food security and a major source of livelihood for its people. In this region the adverse effects of climate change such as late or early onset of monsoon season, longer dry spells, erratic rainfall, increasing temperature, heavy rains, stronger typhoons, extreme spatial-temporal variability of rainfall, high intensities, limited rainfall events in the growing season, heat stress, drought, flooding, sea water intrusion, land degradation, desertification, deforestation and other natural disasters are believed to be a major constraint to food insecurity. For food vulnerability, we use following indicators: slope, precipitation, vegetation, soil, erosion, land degradation and harvest failure in ArcGIS software. The erosion is influenced by rainfall and slope, while land degradation is directly related to vegetation, drainage and soil. While harvest failure can be generate by rainfall and flood potential zones. Results show that around 45 % study area comes under very high erosion danger level, 70 % under average harvest failure, 59 % intermediate land degradation area and the overall around 45 % study area comes under insecure food vulnerability zone. Our analysis shows an increase in alluvial farming by 1745.33 km2 since 1988 to reduce the insecure food vulnerability. Food vulnerability map is also relevant to increased population and low income areas. The extreme climatic events are likely increase in frequency and magnitude of serious drought periods and extreme floods. Food insecurity is an important thing that must be reviewed
Delormier, Treena; Horn-Miller, Kahente; McComber, Alex M; Marquis, Kaylia
Indigenous Peoples are reclaiming their food security, nutrition, and well-being by revitalizing food systems, livelihoods, knowledge-systems, and governance. Our food security research is guided by sustainable self-determination that focuses on restoring Indigenous cultural responsibilities and relationships to land, each other, and the natural world (Corntassel, 2008). Our Kanien'kehá:ka (Mohawk) research team from Kahnawà:ke, in Quebec, Canada, examines food insecurity experiences in our community to explore ways of upholding our Haudenosaunee responsibilities and enhancing local food security. We collaboratively designed the study and interviewed Kahnawakehró:non (people from the Kahnawake community) with traditional knowledge, extensive community experience, and interests in food and culture. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analysed by the team. Analysis characterized food insecurity experiences and conditions that challenge and enable food security with attention to traditional food systems, relationships to land, and gender-related responsibilities. Findings show that communal responsibilities generate resilient strategies that provide for all in times of crisis, and long-term food insecurity is managed through social programs, organized charities, and family support. Enhancing food security involves healing and protecting a limited land-base for food production, integrating food production with community priorities for education, training, health, economic development, and scientific innovation. Nurturing spiritual connections with tionhnhéhkwen (life sustaining foods), the natural world, and each other calls for accelerated teaching and practicing our original instructions. Challenges in developing food security leadership, balancing capitalism and subsistence economies, and strengthening social relationships are rooted in the historical colonial and current settler-colonial context that disrupts all aspects of Kanien'kehá:ka society
Kleinschmit, Daniela; Sijapati Basnett, Bimbika; Martin, Adrian
In the context of this chapter, drivers are considered to be natural or anthropogenic developments affecting forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition. They can improve and contribute to food security and nutrition, but they can also lead to food insecurity and malnutrition. ...... consumption, income and livelihood; or through both. These drivers are interrelated and can have different consequences depending on the social structure; for example, they can support food security for elite groups but can increase the vulnerability of other groups.......In the context of this chapter, drivers are considered to be natural or anthropogenic developments affecting forests and tree-based systems for food security and nutrition. They can improve and contribute to food security and nutrition, but they can also lead to food insecurity and malnutrition......, commercialisation of agriculture, industrialisation of forest resources, gender imbalances, conflicts, formalisation of tenure rights, rising food prices and increasing per capita income) were identified within these four categories. They affect food security and nutrition through land use and management; through...
... farms are leading to losses in food production and disruption to the food chain. ... the basis for policy recommendations related to natural resource management, ... and health to support sustainable food supply and nutrition for smallholder ...
Godrich, Stephanie L; Davies, Christina R; Darby, Jill; Devine, Amanda
To explore how determinants of food security affect children in regional and remote Western Australia (WA), across food availability, access and utilisation dimensions. The Determinants of Food Security framework guided the thematic analysis (using NVivo 10) of semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants. Food availability factors included availability, price, promotion, quality, location of outlets and variety. Food access factors included social support, financial resources, transport to food outlets, distance to food outlets and mobility. Food utilisation factors included nutrition knowledge and skills, children's food preferences, storage facilities, preparation and cooking facilities and time to purchase food. Key food availability recommendations include increasing local food supply options. Food access recommendations include ensuring equitable formal social support and empowering informal support options. Food utilisation recommendations include prioritising food literacy programs focusing on quick, healthy food preparation and budgeting skills. Implications for public health: Policymakers should invest in local food supply options, equitable social support services and experiential food literacy programs. Practitioners should focus child/parent programs on improving attitude, knowledge and skills. © 2017 Public Health Association of Australia.
Cook, John T; Black, Maureen; Chilton, Mariana; Cutts, Diana; Ettinger de Cuba, Stephanie; Heeren, Timothy C; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth; Sandel, Megan; Casey, Patrick H; Coleman, Sharon; Weiss, Ingrid; Frank, Deborah A
This review addresses epidemiological, public health, and social policy implications of categorizing young children and their adult female caregivers in the United States as food secure when they live in households with "marginal food security," as indicated by the U.S. Household Food Security Survey Module. Existing literature shows that households in the US with marginal food security are more like food-insecure households than food-secure households. Similarities include socio-demographic characteristics, psychosocial profiles, and patterns of disease and health risk. Building on existing knowledge, we present new research on associations of marginal food security with health and developmental risks in young children (security is positively associated with adverse health outcomes compared with food security, but the strength of the associations is weaker than that for food insecurity as usually defined in the US. Nonoverlapping CIs, when comparing odds of marginally food-secure children's fair/poor health and developmental risk and caregivers' depressive symptoms and fair/poor health with those in food-secure and -insecure families, indicate associations of marginal food security significantly and distinctly intermediate between those of food security and food insecurity. Evidence from reviewed research and the new research presented indicates that households with marginal food security should not be classified as food secure, as is the current practice, but should be reported in a separate discrete category. These findings highlight the potential underestimation of the prevalence of adverse health outcomes associated with exposure to lack of enough food for an active, healthy life in the US and indicate an even greater need for preventive action and policies to limit and reduce exposure among children and mothers.
DeNicola, Erica; Aburizaiza, Omar S; Siddique, Azhar; Khwaja, Haider; Carpenter, David O
Climate change is expected to bring increases in average global temperatures (1.4°C-5.8°C [34.52°F-42.44°F] by 2100) and precipitation levels to varying degrees around the globe. The availability and quality of water will be severely affected, and public health threats from the lack of this valuable resource will be great unless water-scarce nations are able to adapt. Saudi Arabia provides a good example of how the climate and unsustainable human activity go hand in hand in creating stress on and depleting water resources, and an example for adaptation and mitigation. A search of the English literature addressing climate change, water scarcity, human health, and related topics was conducted using online resources and databases accessed through the University at Albany, State University of New York library web page. Water scarcity, which encompasses both water availability and water quality, is an important indicator of health. Beyond drinking, water supply is intimately linked to food security, sanitation, and hygiene, which are primary contributors to the global burden of disease. Poor and disadvantaged populations are the ones who will suffer most from the negative effects of climate change on water supply and associated human health issues. Examples of adaptation and mitigation measures that can help reduce the strain on conventional water resources (surface waters and fossil aquifers or groundwater) include desalination, wastewater recycling and reuse, and outsourcing food items or "virtual water trade." These are strategies being used by Saudi Arabia, a country that is water poor primarily due to decades of irresponsible irrigation practices. The human and environmental health risks associated with these adaptation measures are examined. Finally, strategies to protect human health through international collaboration and the importance of these efforts are discussed. International, multidisciplinary cooperation and collaboration will be needed to promote
Rosen, Stacey L.; Shapouri, Shahla
African Governments and international donors are focused on improving the regionâ€™s ability to grow food to mitigate projected long-term deterioration in food security. An ERS study shows that improving grain yields is the key to reducing food insecurity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Investment and technology adoption in Sub-Saharan Africa will be a challenge.
Full Text Available India and China are two similar developing countries with huge populations, rapid economic growth and limited natural resources, therefore facing the massive pressure of ensuring food security. In this paper, we will discuss the food security situations in these two countries by studying the historical changes of food supply-demand balance with the concept of agricultural land requirements for food (LRF from 1963–2009. LRF of a country is a function of population, per capita consumption/diet, cropping yield and cropping intensity. We have attempted to discuss and compare our results in a framework which links consumption of different groups of food items to diet patterns; then, to the total land requirement for food in a scenario when population is growing rapidly and diet diversification and urbanization due to economic reform impose excessive pressure on food security of both countries. We also elaborate on the role of technology dissemination and critically analyze the achievements and drawbacks of government policies to ensure food self-sufficiency and food security of nations. Our results show that the total LRF increases approximately by 42% and 40%, whereas per capita LRF decreases significantly by about 48% and 30% from 1963–2009, for India and China, respectively. Furthermore, our studies reveal that population growth dominates most of the increase in total LRF for India; whereas diet pattern change induced by income growth drives the major increase in LRF for China. Therefore, sustainable management of agricultural land resource is an urgent need both for India and China as there will be demand for more food to meet the diet requirement for the entire population. We also demonstrate the role of India and China in future global food security programs and the challenges to implement the new land reform policies domestically.
Full Text Available A radical change had occurred in the definitionof the economics in Central and Eastern Europeat end of the 80’s. Since then, the theoreticaleconomists focused their attention on the conceptof scarcity. This shift was strongly connected tothe theoretical turn that pointed from the politicaleconomics towards the economics in the Westernsense. In the paper, firstly, we argue that eventhe definition of the economics in the Westernsense was not always attached to the concept ofscarcity, and the scarcity was part of the economicthinking only in the 20thcentury. Secondly, weemphasize that the adaptation of the economicsin the Western sense cannot be successful inCentral and Eastern Europe based merely on theconcept of scarcity. The scarcity, and particularlyits Central and Eastern European interpretationwill not promote the adaptation of the Westernmanagerial culture, on the contrary, it preservesthe bad technical-managerial traditions whoseliquidation was the real sense of the transition.Finally, we make a suggestion for a new approachof the definition of the economics due to the abovementioned. The examination of the philosophicalbasis of the economic thinking is an indispensablepart of this approach. Our standpoint is that theeconomics - as every science - has its ownphilosophical basis, and dealing with this basis isthe integral part of the theoretical economics. Theeconomics of Central and Eastern Europe has acertain tradition that banks on it and this can be thecomparative advantage of the economic researchundertaken in this paper. The rebirth of the politicaleconomy in this sense is a perceptible tendencyin the region.
Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert
The growing scarcity of freshwater due to rising water demands and a changing climate is increasingly seen as a major risk for the global economy. Consumer awareness, private sector initiatives, governmental regulation and targeted investments are urgently needed to move towards sustainable water
Puspi Eko Wiranthi
Full Text Available Indonesian Food Security Council in 2009 issued a Food Security and Vulnerability Atlas (FSVA which stated that there were 100 districts in Indonesia which were most vulnerable to food insecurity and 79% of which were located in eastern region. By using Susenas regular data in 2008, this study aimed to analyze determinants of household food security in eastern compared to western region. The ordered logistic regression model was employed to investigate the determinants of household food security. The result showed that most of households in Indonesia were vulnerable to food insecurity (41.76%. The percentage in eastern region (48.56% was higher than that in western region (41.76%. Increase in expenditure equivalent, age and education level of household head, female household head, small household size, household head’s occupation in non-agriculture and urban household would increase the probability of a household to become food secure in both regions. The difference was in the factor of access to electricity in eastern and access to safe drinking water and loan in western region. Policies which aim to increase education, credit access, and intensive family planning have big roles in improving household food security.
Luetkemeier, R.; Liehr, S.
North-central Namibia is characterized by seasonal alterations of drought and heavy rainfall, mostly saline groundwater resources and a lack of perennial rivers. Water scarcity poses a great challenge for freshwater supply, harvest and food security against the background of high population growth and climate change. CuveWaters project aims at poverty reduction and livelihood improvement on a long term basis by introducing a multi-resource-mix as part of an integrated water resources management (IWRM) approach. Herein, creating water buffers by rainwater harvesting (RWH) and subsurface water storage as well as reuse of treated wastewater facilitates micro-scale gardening activities. This link constitutes a major component of a sustainable adaptation strategy by contributing to the conservation and improvement of basic food and freshwater resources in order to reduce drought vulnerability. This paper presents main findings of an impact assessment carried out on the effect of integrated water resources management on ecosystem services (ESS) relevant to food security within the framework of CuveWaters project. North-central Namibia is perceived as a social-ecological system characterized by a strong mutual dependence between natural environment and anthropogenic system. This fundamental reliance on natural resources highlights the key role of ESS in semi-arid environments to sustain human livelihoods. Among other services, food provision was chosen for quantification as one of the most fundamental ESS in north-central Namibia. Different nutritional values were utilized as indicators to adopt a demand-supply approach (Ecosystem Service Profile) to illustrate the ability of the ecosystem to meet people's nutritional requirements. Calculations have been conducted using both Bayesian networks to incorporate uncertainty introduced by the variability of monthly precipitation and the application of plant specific water production functions. Results show that improving the
Full Text Available Food insecurity is a global issue, with higher prevalence of hunger in developing countries. Low crop yield and food production - due to difficult topography and traditional farming methods - combined with lower income; fluctuations in prices and supply, and low quality of food have been causing food insecurity in Nepal. This research examines food (insecurity situation in Upper-Mustang, Nepal. The results are derived from the data collected through face–to-face interviews with the heads of 66 households, in-depth interviews conducted with 22 key informants, and discussions with the group of local people in different (6 places. The household food system was studied from livelihood perspectives and food (insecurity was assessed in relation to self-sufficiency or production sufficiency, access, utilization, and stability of food. Households in the Trans-Himalaya acquire food from multiple sources such as farming and livestock ranching, buy food from the market, and also receive food aid for the sake of survival during the food crisis. Food security situation in terms of self-production in Upper-Mustang is at worst stage that many households are facing severe to chronic food insecurity. Studied households access marketed food, though the price they pay is very high. The worrisome issue is that there is no significant improvement in food security situation over time in the Trans-Himalaya. Study found that not the household size but dependency ratio in the household increases food insecurity. On the other hand, quality of farmland in terms of cropping intensity and availability of irrigation rather than the farm-plot size contribute for food security. The issue of food security is still a valid development policy goal for Nepal in general and for the Trans-Himalaya in particular. Accordingly, food security interventions are important. Yet, policy for interventions should look into all components of food systems, particularly providing irrigation
Full Text Available India has been in the throes of a lively debate on food security. There have been calls for a 'second green revolution' in the country. However, there is a need to take a look at the food security policies pursued so far to draw appropriate lessons from their implementation. An examination of these policies, including the 'First Green Revolution' shows that these policies themselves have contributed in no small measure towards undermining the food security of the country. There is a need to learn from this experience rather than blindly extending them to other parts of the country.
Cassman, Kenneth G.
There is a new urgency to improve the accuracy of predicting climate change impact on crop yields because the balance between food supply and demand is shifting abruptly from surplus to deficit. This reversal is being driven by a rapid rise in petroleum prices and, in response, a massive global expansion of biofuel production from maize, oilseed, and sugar crops. Soon the price of these commodities will be determined by their value as feedstock for biofuel rather than their importance as human food or livestock feed . The expectation that petroleum prices will remain high and supportive government policies in several major crop producing countries are providing strong momentum for continued expansion of biofuel production capacity and the associated pressures on global food supply. Farmers in countries that account for a majority of the world's biofuel crop production will enjoy the promise of markedly higher commodity prices and incomesNote1. In contrast, urban and rural poor in food-importing countries will pay much higher prices for basic food staples and there will be less grain available for humanitarian aid. For example, the developing countries of Africa import about 10 MMt of maize each year; another 3 5 MMt of cereal grains are provided as humanitarian aid (figure 1). In a world where more than 800 million are already undernourished and the demand for crop commodities may soon exceed supply, alleviating hunger will no longer be solely a matter of poverty alleviation and more equitable food distribution, which has been the situation for the past thirty years. Instead, food security will also depend on accelerating the rate of gain in crop yields and food production capacity at both local and global scales. Maize imports and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa Figure 1. Maize imports (yellow bar) and cereal donations as humanitarian aid to the developing countries of Africa, 2001 2003. MMT = million metric tons. Data
The Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA) project aims at increasing maize production and food security through development and deployment of stem borer resistant maize germplasm developed using conventional and through biotechnology methods such as Bt maize. Bt maize offers farmers an effective and practical option for controlling stem borers. It was recognized that the development and routine use of Bt maize will require addressing relevant bio-safety, environmental, and community concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns and research and information gathering activities are in place to address these concerns. Suitable Bt gene have been acquired or synthesized and back-crossed into elite maize germplasm at CIMMYT-Mexico, and the effective Cry-proteins against the major maize stem borers in Kenya were identified to better target pests. Stem borer resistant maize germplasm is being developed through conventional breeding, using locally adapted and exotic germplasm. for safe and effective deployment of Bt maize,studies on its impacts on target and non-target arthropods as well as studies on the effects of Bt maize on key non-target arthropods as well as studies on gene flow are underway. Insect resistance management strategies are being developed through quantifying the effectiveness, ???. Socioeconomic impact studies are revealing factors in the society that may influence the adoption of Bt maize in Kenya. Also, baseline data, essential for the monitoring and evaluation of the Bt maize technology in Kenya, has been established. Technology transfer and capacity building, creating awareness and communications have received attention in the project. This paper describes the major research activities as they relate to development of the stem bore resistant maize germplasm
Speed, Kelsey A; Meyer, Samantha B; Hanning, Rhona M; Majowicz, Shannon E
Food insecurity and foodborne disease are important issues in Canada, and the public health actions taken to address them can be conceptualized as factors shaping the food environment. Given emerging evidence that these two areas may interrelate, the objective of this study was to explore ways in which community food security efforts and food safety practices (and the population health issues they aim to address) may intersect in British Columbia, Canada, and interpret what this might mean for conceptualizing and attaining healthier food environments. We conducted 14 key informant interviews with practitioners working in community food security and food safety in British Columbia, and used qualitative descriptive analysis to identify examples of intersections between the sectors. Participants identified four key ways that the two sectors intersect. They identified (1) how their daily practices to promote safe or healthy food could be helped or hindered by the activities of the other sector; (2) that historically disjointed policies that do not consider multiple health outcomes related to food may complicate the interrelationship; (3) that the relationship of these sectors is also affected by the fact that specific types of food products, such as fresh produce, can be considered both risky and beneficial; and (4) that both sectors are working towards the same goal of improved population health, albeit viewing it through slightly different lenses. Food security and food safety connect in several ways, with implications for characterizing and improving Canadian food environments. Collaboration across separated public health areas related to food is needed when designing new programs or policies aimed at changing the way Canadians eat.
Kelsey A. Speed
Full Text Available Introduction: Food insecurity and foodborne disease are important issues in Canada, and the public health actions taken to address them can be conceptualized as factors shaping the food environment. Given emerging evidence that these two areas may interrelate, the objective of this study was to explore ways in which community food security efforts and food safety practices (and the population health issues they aim to address may intersect in British Columbia, Canada, and interpret what this might mean for conceptualizing and attaining healthier food environments. Methods: We conducted 14 key informant interviews with practitioners working in community food security and food safety in British Columbia, and used qualitative descriptive analysis to identify examples of intersections between the sectors. Results: Participants identified four key ways that the two sectors intersect. They identified (1 how their daily practices to promote safe or healthy food could be helped or hindered by the activities of the other sector; (2 that historically disjointed policies that do not consider multiple health outcomes related to food may complicate the interrelationship; (3 that the relationship of these sectors is also affected by the fact that specific types of food products, such as fresh produce, can be considered both risky and beneficial; and (4 that both sectors are working towards the same goal of improved population health, albeit viewing it through slightly different lenses. Conclusion: Food security and food safety connect in several ways, with implications for characterizing and improving Canadian food environments. Collaboration across separated public health areas related to food is needed when designing new programs or policies aimed at changing the way Canadians eat.
Aleksandr Samvelovich Beletskiy
Full Text Available The paper reviews the risks and threats to food security of the Ural Federal District which can significantly reduce its the level. The most significant risks are grouped according to the following classification: macroeconomic, technological, climatic, agro-ecological and foreign trade risks. The main directions of economic policy of the Ural Federal District in the area of food security are defined. Particular attention is paid to the improvement of economic and physical availability of food for all groups of population and to the problems of formation of the state material reserves and food safety. Strategic development priorities in the field of agricultural and fishery products, raw materials and food, sustainable development of rural areas in the field of foreign policy are formulated. Conceptual bases for the implementation mechanism of economic policies to ensure food security in the region are suggested.
Odhiambo, George O.
The Arabian Gulf, one of the driest parts of the world, is already passing the water scarcity line as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). The scarcity of renewable water resources and the growing discrepancy between demand and supply of water is a major challenge. Water scarcity is further worsened by rapidly growing demands due to rapid population growth, unsustainable consumption, climate change and weak management institutions and regulations. Water scarcity erodes the socio-economic sustainability of the communities that depend on the depleting storage. In this paper, an analysis of the water security situation within the Arabian Gulf region and the consequent socio-economic implications is presented.
Osabohien, Romanus; Osabuohien, Evans; Urhie, Ese
Growth in agricultural science and technology is deemed essential for in-creasing agricultural output; reduce the vulnerability of rural poverty and in turn, food security. Food security and growth in agricultural output depends on technological usages, which enhances the pro-ductive capacity of the agricultural sector. The indicators of food security utilised in this study in-clude: dietary energy supply, average value of food production, prevalence of food inadequacy, among others. In this paper, we examined the level of technology and how investment in the agriculture and technology can improve technical know-how in Nigeria with a view to achieving food security. We carried out the analysis on how investment in technology and institutional framework can improve the level of food availability (a key component of food security) in Nigeria using econ-ometric technique based on Autoregressive Distribution Lag (ARDL) framework. The results showed, inter alia, that in Nigeria, there is a high level of food insecurity as a result of low attention on food production occasioned by the pervasive influence of oil that become the major export product. It was noted that the availability of arable land was one of the major factors to increase food production to solve the challenge of food insecurity. Thus, the efforts of reducing the rate of food insecurity are essential in this regards. This can also be achieved, among others, by active interactions between government and farmers, to make contribution to important planning issues that relate to food production in the country and above all, social protection policies should be geared or channelled to agricultural sector to protect farmers who are vulnerable to shocks and avert risks associated with agriculture.
McIsaac, Kathryn E; Stock, David C; Lou, Wendy
There have been few studies investigating the association between food security and breast-feeding duration and none have been conducted among Canadian Inuit, a population disproportionately burdened with food insecurity. We evaluated the association between household food security and breast-feeding duration in Canadian Inuit children. Data were obtained from the Nunavut Inuit Child Health Survey, a population-based cross-sectional survey. The Canadian Territory of Nunavut in 2007 and 2008. Caregivers of Inuit children aged 3-5 years. Participating children were randomly sampled from community medical centre lists. Out of 215 children, 147 lived in food-insecure households (68·4 %). Using restricted mean survival time models, we estimated that children in food-secure households were breast-fed for 16·8 (95 % CI 12·5, 21·2) months and children in food-insecure households were breast-fed for 21·4 (95 % CI 17·9, 24·8) months. In models adjusting for social class, traditional knowledge and child health, household food security was not associated with breast-feeding duration (hazard ratio=0·82, 95 % CI 0·58, 1·14). Our research does not support the hypothesis that children living in food-insecure households were breast-fed for a longer duration than children living in food-secure households. However, we found that more than 50 % of mothers in food-insecure households continued breast-feeding well beyond 1 year. Many mothers in food-secure households also continued to breast-feed beyond 1 year. Given the high prevalence of food insecurity in Inuit communities, we need to ensure infants and their caregivers are being adequately nourished to support growth and breast-feeding, respectively.
Molotoks, Amy; Dawson, Terence Peter
The global challenges of food security and biodiversity are rarely addressed together, though recently there has been an increasing awareness that the two issues are closely related. The majority of land available for agriculture is already used for food production, but despite the productivity gains, one in nine people worldwide are classified as food insecure. There is an increasing risk that addressing food insecurity through methods such as agricultural expansion orintensification could l...
Gilliams, S. J.
In line with the paradigm shift in Earth Observation of "Bringing the users to the data", ESA provides collaborative, virtual work environments giving access to EO data and tools, processors, and ICT resources through coherent interfaces. These coherent interfaces are categorized thematically, tailored to the related user communities and named Thematic Exploitation Platforms (TEP). The Food Security Thematic Exploitation Platform (FS-TEP) is the youngest out of seven TEPs and is developed in an agile mode in close coordination with its users. It will provide a "one stop platform" for the extraction of information from EO data for services in the food security sector mainly in Europe & Africa, allowing both access to EO data and processing of these data sets. Thereby it will foster smart, data-intensive agricultural and aquacultural applications in the scientific, private and public domain. The FS-TEP builds on a large and heterogeneous user community, spanning from application developers in agriculture to aquaculture, from small-scale farmers to agricultural industry, from public science to the finance and insurance sectors, from local and national administration to international agencies. To meet the requirements of these groups, the FS-TEP will provide different frontend interfaces. Service pilots will demonstrate the platform's ability to support agriculture and aquaculture with tailored EO based information services.The project team developing the FS-TEP and implementing pilot services during a 30 months period (started in April 2017) is led by Vista GmbH, Germany, supported by CGI Italy, VITO, Belgium, and Hatfield Consultants, Canada. It is funded by ESA under contract number 4000120074/17/I-EF.
Lee, Gwenyth O; Surkan, Pamela J; Zelner, Jon; Paredes Olórtegui, Maribel; Peñataro Yori, Pablo; Ambikapathi, Ramya; Caulfield, Laura E; Gilman, Robert H; Kosek, Margaret N
Food insecurity is a major global public health issue. Social capital has been identified as central to maintaining food security across a wide range of low- and middle-income country contexts, but few studies have examined this relationship through sociocentric network analysis. We investigated relationships between household- and community-level social connectedness, household food security, and household income; and tested the hypothesis that social connectedness modified the relationship between income and food security. A cross-sectional census with an embedded questionnaire to capture social relationships was conducted among eleven peri-urban communities. Community connectedness was related to study outcomes of food security and per-capita income through regression models. Of 1520 households identified, 1383 were interviewed (91.0%) and 1272 (83.9%) provided complete data. Households in the youngest communities had the most total contacts, and the highest proportion of contacts outside of the community. Household income was also associated with more outside-community contacts (0.05 more contacts per standard deviation increase in income, psecure households reported more contacts nearby (0.24 increase in household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) for each additional contact, psecurity (-0.92 decrease in HFIAS for each one-unit increase in community mean degree, p=0.008). There was no evidence that social connectedness modified the relationship between income and food security such that lower-income households benefited more from community membership than higher-income households. Although households reported networks that spanned rural villages and urban centers, contacts within the community, with whom food was regularly shared, were most important to maintaining food security. Interventions that build within-community connectedness in peri-urban settings may increase food security.
Ansar, M.; Fathurrahman
This paper provides a comprehensive review of literature related to food security. The world food crisis is a threat to all countries, including Indonesia. The problem of food security in Indonesia is still happening, particularly, aspects of production and increasingly unbalanced food availability. Due to the increasing rate of population growth, land functional shift, degradation of land resources and water, as well as environmental pollution and climate change. Food production has not been able to meet the needs of the population continuously. Therefore, the food policy paradigm applied in Indonesia must change from food security to food independence. Thus, Indonesia is not dependent on other countries. Food diversification is one of the best policies to be implemented in achieving food independence and anticipating the food crisis. Food diversification utilizes land optimally by developing an integrated farming system. The integrated farming system is an efficient and environmentally agricultural system. It is able to utilize sustainable agriculture development, followed by the development of participatory technology (Participatory Technology Development) which refers to the local wisdom of the community.
for the market, livestock diversification and natural resource conservation ... Chronic food insecurity and/or vulnerability to food insecurity arising from high ..... harvesting, soil conservation and cultivating fast maturing plants) and diversification.
Thainara Araujo Franklin; Adriana da Silva Sena; Maria Lydia Aroz D'Almeida Santana; Talita Batista Matos; Maria Patrícia Milagres
Healthy eating is one of the factors that may influence the establishment of the health of an individual and the health quality of food consumed. Faced with the daily rush, with long days of activities, a large number of the population uses University restaurants for food. Thus, these sites should pay attention to the variables involved in the process of food production through the use of safe food and adequate nutrition for consumers. For this reason, knowledge ...
Uchendu, Florence Ngozi; Abolarin, Thaddeus Olatunbosun
Malnutrition is a global public health problem more prevalent in developing countries than in developed countries. Indicators of malnutrition include household food security and life expectancy. Corruption might be one of socio-political problems fuelling malnutrition in developing countries. The aim of this paper is to compare influence of corruption on food security, live expectancy (LE) and population in developed and developing countries. Thirty two least corrupt countries (LCC) and most corrupt countries (MCC) representing developed and developing countries were systematically selected using Corruption Perceptions Index (CPI). Countries’ data on population, food security index (FSI) and LE scores were obtained from Global food security index (GFSI) and Population reference bureau. T-test, Multivariate (Wilks’ Lambda), Pearson product moment analysis were performed to determine relationship between CPI, FSI, LE, and population in LCC and MCC at pcorrupt practices and promoting good governance should be embraced to eradicate malnutrition in developing countries. PMID:26090058
Livestock markets, technical and institutional constraints, innovation systems, veterinary services; smallholder farmers; structural adjustment, scaling out, co-learning, supplementary feeding, herd growth, food security, positive deviants, commercialization,
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Crop Mask Global 1 kilometer...
Cahyono, H.; Wessiani, N. A.
Government of Indonesia has been launched the bureaucratic reform program since 2010. One of the action is conducted restructuring organization in all city governments. Department of Food Security and Agriculture in Government of Surabaya City is the result of merger from two Department, namely Bureau of Food Security and Department of Agriculture. This merger makes Department of Food Security and Agriculture to redefine their business process. The new business process is needed to be defined in order to align the new structure with the long term strategic planning of Surabaya City Government. This research aims to redefine the business process of Department of Food Security and Agriculture in Government of Surabaya City. The CIMOSA model is adopted for identifying the activities in the business process. The new business process is important for the department to allocate their resource, mainly the human resource and as the main input for the department to build their standard operating procedure.