WorldWideScience

Sample records for scarce knowledge ornamental

  1. Nutritional requirements of freshwater ornamental fish: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Velasco-Santamaría, Yohana; Corredor-Santamaría, Wilson

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge of nutritional requirements in ornamental fish species is essential to improve the productive development; however, the nutritional information of these species is scarce and sometimes this information is extrapolated from results obtained from non-ornamental fish species. In ornamental fish, a correct formulation of the diet improve the nutrient digestibility and supply the metabolic needs, reducing the maintenance cost and at the same time the water pollution. Inert food such ...

  2. Geophysical methods as a tool for improving our knowledge of ornamental rock deposits and their exploitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espín de Gea, A.; Reyes Urquiza, M.; Gil Abellán, A.

    2017-01-01

    The ornamental rock sector, particularly the investigation of deposits, is not readily given to the incorporation of new technologies. The Marble Technology Center (CTM) has made advances in this sector with the implementation of geophysical techniques able to obtain subsurface information. There are still a few outcrops and active quarries where joint geophysical techniques have been applied sufficiently to obtain a three-dimensional model of the study area. The application of geophysics and more specifically, ground penetrating radar, electrical tomography and seismic refraction, when conducting research of a reservoir or outcrop, is only slightly aggressive to the environment, allowing a real knowledge of the characteristics before beginning the more aggressive work, as is the case when conducting surveys and test pits which can subsequently complement the data obtained. This makes it possible to gain a good idea of the quality of the reservoir thus allowing optimization of resources, both financial and environmental beforehand. Several studies conducted by the CTM illustrate the benefits brought by the application of these geophysical techniques as well as the weaknesses within the characteristics of the extraction sites and ornamental rock outcrops. [es

  3. Nutritional requirements of freshwater ornamental fish: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohana Velasco-Santamaría

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of nutritional requirements in ornamental fish species is essential to improve the productive development; however, the nutritional information of these species is scarce and sometimes this information is extrapolated from results obtained from non-ornamental fish species. In ornamental fish, a correct formulation of the diet improve the nutrient digestibility and supply the metabolic needs, reducing the maintenance cost and at the same time the water pollution. Inert food such as meal powder, flakes, milk powder, bovine heart and liver, tubifex worms, as well as live food including Artemia sp., rotifers and Moina have been used extensively in ornamental fish feeding with a diverse range of nutritional values and productive properties. In contrast with farmed fish, skin pigmentation is a mandatory characteristic in ornamental fish and the use of dietary supplements with carotenoids is recommended. The aim of this document is to review the specific nutritional requirements which are indispensable to improve economical and productive potential of freshwater ornamental fish.

  4. Geophysical methods as a tool for improving our knowledge of ornamental rock deposits and their exploitation; Los métodos geofísicos como herramienta de mejora para el conocimiento y aprovechamiento de los yacimientos de roca ornamental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espín de Gea, A.; Reyes Urquiza, M.; Gil Abellán, A.

    2017-09-01

    The ornamental rock sector, particularly the investigation of deposits, is not readily given to the incorporation of new technologies. The Marble Technology Center (CTM) has made advances in this sector with the implementation of geophysical techniques able to obtain subsurface information. There are still a few outcrops and active quarries where joint geophysical techniques have been applied sufficiently to obtain a three-dimensional model of the study area. The application of geophysics and more specifically, ground penetrating radar, electrical tomography and seismic refraction, when conducting research of a reservoir or outcrop, is only slightly aggressive to the environment, allowing a real knowledge of the characteristics before beginning the more aggressive work, as is the case when conducting surveys and test pits which can subsequently complement the data obtained. This makes it possible to gain a good idea of the quality of the reservoir thus allowing optimization of resources, both financial and environmental beforehand. Several studies conducted by the CTM illustrate the benefits brought by the application of these geophysical techniques as well as the weaknesses within the characteristics of the extraction sites and ornamental rock outcrops. [Spanish] El sector de la roca ornamental, y más concretamente la investigación de los yacimientos, es poco dado a la incorporación de nuevas tecnologías. El Centro Tecnológico del Mármol (CTM) avanza en este sector con la utilización de técnicas geofísicas capaces de obtener información del subsuelo. Existen todavía pocos afloramientos y canteras activas donde se hayan aplicado técnicas geofísicas de manera conjunta y con la intensidad suficiente como para obtener un modelo tridimensional de la zona estudiada. La aplicación de diversas metodologías geofísicas, y más concretamente georadar, tomografía eléctrica y sísmica de refracción, a la hora de realizar la investigación de un yacimiento o

  5. The function of ornaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2014-01-01

    of their manifold functions that integrates aesthetic and utilitarian, individual and social roles. Ornaments help us to identify and locate, tell or communicate, remind and organise our action, they guide our attention, express and individualise, can generate an experience, beautify as well as re......-present. These functions are illustrated with examples from a study of Easter egg decoration practices in northern Romania. In the end, the ‘meta-function’ of emergence is discussed and consideration is given to the spatial and temporal contexts of ornaments. Future opportunities for theorising ornamentation...

  6. Biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Soledad Darqui

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of commercial transgenic varieties of orange petunias sold in Europe and the United States although they had never reached the approved status, and the consequent recommendation to destroy them, was the trigger to discuss about biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants. Inside the restricted world of 26 vegetal transgenic species, according to the ISAAA’s reports (http://www.isaaa.org, there are three ornamental species: carnation, rose and the Beijing University developed petunia; all of them with the same trait, a change in their colour. On the other hand, in 2014, the whole-genome sequence of carnation appeared which was the first and until now the only one among ornamental species. In this context, we review the publications from the last five years in petunia, rose, chrysanthemum and carnation. In these papers there are detailed descriptions of modification of the cascade of genes and transcription factors involved in stress situations, in different developmental stages and their regulation through different plant hormones. This knowledge will allow breeding for better and new varieties with changes in their abiotic or biotic stress tolerance, altered growth or yield and modified product quality as colour or fragrance.

  7. The evolution of mutual ornamentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Kraaijeveld-Smit, Femmie J. L.; Komdeur, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Many conspicuous ornamental traits in animals are expressed in both males and females. Despite this, most research has focused on sexually dimorphic ornamentation. Mutual ornamentation has often been viewed as a result of either a nonadaptive genetic correlation between the sexes or similar

  8. Ornament is No Crime:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karpova, Yulia

    noted, “they don’t paint pictures, they work in production, speak of materials, textures, and constructions, but the result is still an old-fashioned decorativism, applied fancywork, [ornamental] roosters and flowers or circles and doodles.” The future material culture, as Brik saw it, would...

  9. The Lifespan of Ornaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.; Riisberg, Vibeke

    ? In this paper we will look at contemporary use of ornament in different scales and contexts – from fashion textiles and interior objects to architecture. The lifespan of a building is different from that of a fashion dress or a plate, but with the digital era it seems like the concern of appropriateness...

  10. The Lifetime of Ornaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisberg, Vibeke; Munch, Anders V.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we will look at contemporary use of ornament in different scale and contexts – from fashion textiles and interior objects to architecture. The lifespan of a building is different from that of a fashion dress or a plate, but with the digital area it seems like the concern...

  11. Virtual scarce water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Kuishuang; Hubacek, Klaus; Pfister, Stephan; Yu, Yang; Sun, Laixiang

    2014-07-15

    Water footprints and virtual water flows have been promoted as important indicators to characterize human-induced water consumption. However, environmental impacts associated with water consumption are largely neglected in these analyses. Incorporating water scarcity into water consumption allows better understanding of what is causing water scarcity and which regions are suffering from it. In this study, we incorporate water scarcity and ecosystem impacts into multiregional input-output analysis to assess virtual water flows and associated impacts among 30 provinces in China. China, in particular its water-scarce regions, are facing a serious water crisis driven by rapid economic growth. Our findings show that inter-regional flows of virtual water reveal additional insights when water scarcity is taken into account. Consumption in highly developed coastal provinces is largely relying on water resources in the water-scarce northern provinces, such as Xinjiang, Hebei, and Inner Mongolia, thus significantly contributing to the water scarcity in these regions. In addition, many highly developed but water scarce regions, such as Shanghai, Beijing, and Tianjin, are already large importers of net virtual water at the expense of water resource depletion in other water scarce provinces. Thus, increasingly importing water-intensive goods from other water-scarce regions may just shift the pressure to other regions, but the overall water problems may still remain. Using the water footprint as a policy tool to alleviate water shortage may only work when water scarcity is taken into account and virtual water flows from water-poor regions are identified.

  12. Genetic Architecture of Conspicuous Red Ornaments in Female Threespine Stickleback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lengxob Yong

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Explaining the presence of conspicuous female ornaments that take the form of male-typical traits has been a longstanding challenge in evolutionary biology. Such female ornaments have been proposed to evolve via both adaptive and nonadaptive evolutionary processes. Determining the genetic underpinnings of female ornaments is important for elucidating the mechanisms by which such female traits arise and persist in natural populations, but detailed information about their genetic basis is still scarce. In this study, we investigated the genetic architecture of two ornaments, the orange-red throat and pelvic spine, in the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus. Throat coloration is male-specific in ancestral marine populations but has evolved in females in some derived stream populations, whereas sexual dimorphism in pelvic spine coloration is variable among populations. We find that ornaments share a common genetic architecture between the sexes. At least three independent genomic regions contribute to red throat coloration, and harbor candidate genes related to pigment production and pigment cell differentiation. One of these regions is also associated with spine coloration, indicating that both ornaments might be mediated partly via pleiotropic genetic mechanisms.

  13. Ornamental Plant Breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Barbosa Silva Botelho

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available World’s ornamental plant market, including domestic market of several countries and its exports, is currently evaluated in 107 billion dollars yearly. Such estimate highlights the importance of the sector in the economy of the countries, as well as its important social role, as it represents one of the main activities, which contributes to income and employment. Therefore a well-structured plant breeding program, which is connected with consumers’ demands, is required in order to fulfill these market needs globally. Activities related to pre-breeding, conventional breeding, and breeding by biotechnological techniques constitute the basis for the successful development of new ornamental plant cultivars. Techniques that involve tissue culture, protoplast fusion and genetic engineering greatly aid conventional breeding (germplasm introduction, plant selection and hybridization, aiming the obtention of superior genotypes. Therefore it makes evident, in the literature, the successful employment of genetic breeding, since it aims to develop plants with commercial value that are also competitive with the ones available in the market.

  14. Potencial ornamental de Curcuma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de novas espécies e de novos produtos na indústria da floricultura brasileira é de grande importância para o crescimento do setor, ampliando osortimento de produtos disponíveis, atendendo à necessidade dos produtores e consumidores por novidade, importante componente da estratégia de marketing, desenvolvendo competitividade e estimulando a comercialização, tanto ao nível de mercado interno como externo. O presente artigo discorre sobre o potencial ornamental de espécies do gênero Curcuma L. (Zingiberaceae e apresenta informações referentes à botânica, à produção e à tecnologia de pós-colheita e pós-produção de algumas espécies disponíveis atualmente no mercado internacional de flores e plantas ornamentais, bem como de espécies com potencial de utilização como ornamental. Espera-se, assim, chamar a atenção de pesquisadores e produtores para o potencial do gênero e contribuir para o estabelecimento e desenvolvimento da sua produção no Brasil.

  15. Mitochondrial function, ornamentation, and immunocompetence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Rebecca E; Josefson, Chloe C; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the mechanisms that link ornamental displays and individual condition is key to understanding the evolution and function of ornaments. Immune function is an aspect of individual quality that is often associated with the expression of ornamentation, but a general explanation for why the expression of some ornaments seems to be consistently linked to immunocompetence remains elusive. We propose that condition-dependent ornaments may be linked to key aspects of immunocompetence through co-dependence on mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial involvement in immune function is rarely considered outside of the biomedical literature, but the role of mitochondria as the primary energy producers of the cell and the centres of biosynthesis, the oxidative stress response, and cellular signalling place them at the hub of a variety of immune pathways. A promising new mechanistic explanation for correlations between a wide range of ornamental traits and the properties of individual quality is that mitochondrial function may be the 'shared pathway' responsible for links between ornament production and individual condition. Herein, we first review the role of mitochondria as both signal transducers and metabolic regulators of immune function. We then describe connections between hormonal pathways and mitochondria, with implications for both immune function and the expression of ornamentation. Finally, we explore the possibility that ornament expression may link directly to mitochondrial function. Considering condition-dependent traits within the framework of mitochondrial function has the potential to unify central tenets within the study of sexual selection, eco-immunology, oxidative stress ecology, stress and reproductive hormone biology, and animal physiology. © 2016 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  16. 7 CFR 1437.305 - Ornamental nursery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ornamental nursery. 1437.305 Section 1437.305... Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.305 Ornamental nursery. (a) Eligible ornamental nursery stock is a... ornamental nursery stock is limited to field-grown and containerized decorative plants grown in a controlled...

  17. Biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Soledad Darqui; Laura Mabel Radonic; Horacio Esteban Hopp; Marisa Lopez Bilbao

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of commercial transgenic varieties of orange petunias sold in Europe and the United States although they had never reached the approved status, and the consequent recommendation to destroy them, was the trigger to discuss about biotechnological improvement of ornamental plants. Inside the restricted world of 26 vegetal transgenic species, according to the ISAAA’s reports (http://www.isaaa.org), there are three ornamental species: carnation, rose and the Beijing University develo...

  18. Seasonal foreign bodies: the dangers of winter holiday ornamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, Andrew T; Towbin, Alexander J

    2014-12-01

    Foreign bodies, whether ingested, aspirated or retained in the soft tissues, are a particular hazard to pediatric patients. Ornamentation associated with the winter holidays is an uncommon source of foreign bodies in children, and many of these foreign bodies have a distinct appearance on imaging. Knowledge of these appearances and the unusual features of winter holiday foreign bodies might facilitate their identification.

  19. The Assessment of Literal Ornaments in Persian Badiâ Books from the linguistic, Phonetic and Phonologic Viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Heidari

    2016-01-01

    AbstractThe literal rhetoric (scheme) is a most important branch of Persian language aesthetics. The purpose of the knowledge is studying and evaluating the verbal music with applying the instruments that called Ornaments. Ornament as is obvious from its name is all devices that writers using them for making their art fine. With historical skimming over Badi` books, we understand our rhetoricians have gave and dedicated useless names and titles to the literal ornaments rather than analyzing t...

  20. Handicap principle implies emergence of dimorphic ornaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Sara M; Braun, Rosemary I; Abrams, Daniel M

    2016-11-30

    Species spanning the animal kingdom have evolved extravagant and costly ornaments to attract mating partners. Zahavi's handicap principle offers an elegant explanation for this: ornaments signal individual quality, and must be costly to ensure honest signalling, making mate selection more efficient. Here, we incorporate the assumptions of the handicap principle into a mathematical model and show that they are sufficient to explain the heretofore puzzling observation of bimodally distributed ornament sizes in a variety of species. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Interspecific Hybridization within Ornamental Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna

    commercially important genera of ornamental plants: Kalanchoë and Hibiscus. The nature of hybridization barriers hampering hybrid production was investigated during pre- and post-fertilization stages. For each genus the interspecific crosses of Kalanchoë species and Hibiscus species, abnormal germination...... and growth of pollen tubes, as well as lower frequencies of pollen tubes were observed in specific cross-combinations. Post-fertilization barriers related to endosperm development and hybrid incompatibility were also observed in Kalanchoë and Hibiscus genus, respectively. Qualitative and quantitative...

  2. Planning product quality: An example - ornamental plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević Miodrag

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The industry of ornamental plants is a subject of quality planning. The quality plan is a document setting out the specific quality practices in ornamental plants production. That plan introduce organizational structure procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality in life cycle of product chain. For engineers it represents a new tool.

  3. Mutation breeding in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Datta, S.K.

    1990-01-01

    Full text: Mutation induction produced a large number of new promising varieties in ornamental species. 37 new mutants of Chrysanthemum and 14 of rose have been developed by mutations and released for commercialisation. The mutations in flower colour/shape were detected as chimeras in M 1 V 1 , M 1 V 2 , M 1 V 3 generations. The mutation frequency varied with the cultivar and exposure to gamma rays. Comparative analysis of original cultivars and their respective induced mutants on cytomorphological, anatomical and biochemical characters are being carried out for better understanding of the mechanism involved in the origin and evolution of somatic flower colour/shape mutations. Cytological analysis with reference to chromosomal aberrations, chromosome number, ICV, INV and DNA content gave no differences between the original and mutant cultivars. Analysis of florets/petal pigments by TLC and spectrophotometric methods indicated both qualitative and quantitative changes. (author)

  4. Tissue culture of ornamental cacti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Pérez-Molphe-Balch

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cacti species are plants that are well adapted to growing in arid and semiarid regions where the main problem is water availability. Cacti have developed a series of adaptations to cope with water scarcity, such as reduced leaf surface via morphological modifications including spines, cereous cuticles, extended root systems and stem tissue modifications to increase water storage, and crassulacean acid metabolism to reduce transpiration and water loss. Furthermore, seeds of these plants very often exhibit dormancy, a phenomenon that helps to prevent germination when the availability of water is reduced. In general, cactus species exhibit a low growth rate that makes their rapid propagation difficult. Cacti are much appreciated as ornamental plants due to their great variety and diversity of forms and their beautiful short-life flowers; however, due to difficulties in propagating them rapidly to meet market demand, they are very often over-collected in their natural habitats, which leads to numerous species being threatened, endangered or becoming extinct. Therefore, plant tissue culture techniques may facilitate their propagation over a shorter time period than conventional techniques used for commercial purposes; or may help to recover populations of endangered or threatened species for their re-introduction in the wild; or may also be of value to the preservation and conservation of the genetic resources of this important family. Herein we present the state-of-the-art of tissue culture techniques used for ornamental cacti and selected suggestions for solving a number of the problems faced by members of the Cactaceae family.

  5. SURVEY OF ORNAMENTAL FERNS, THEIR MORPHOLOGY AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ornamental ferns for environmental management and economic values. ... little variations in the structures of rhizome except in Phymatodes .... forms such as erect, tall, open, bushy and .... linear leaflet with acute apex and flat, glabrous lamina.

  6. Toxic ornamental plants in Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Varela Romero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to contribute information on toxic ornamental plants in Venezuela. Information on taxonomy, common names, habit, origin, status, location, propagation and toxicology (part of the plant, effects was compiled from articles, books, catalogs, herbarium collections. A botanical analysis (taxonomy, common names, habit, origin, status, location, propagation and toxicology (part of the plant, effects was performed. The information about plant poisoning cases was requested to SIMET (Pharmacy faculty -UCV. Seventy-eight species were found in 34 families, the most important were: Apocynaceae (10 genera/12 species, Araceae (9/9, Euphorbiaceae (4/10 and Solanaceae (5/6. Genus Euphorbia was the most species rich. Most species were exotic species (79.5% and shrubs (32.1%. The entire plant (35 and latex (19 were the most toxic parts and the most frequent accidental ingestion (61.5%. Twenty cases were reported between 2009-2013, of which 80% were minors, female and urban areas. There is very little information published in Hispanic American countries

  7. IRRIGATION OF ORNAMENTAL PLANT NURSERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Aguiar do Couto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Airports consume significant amounts of water which can be compared to the volume consumed by mid-size cities, thus practices aimed at reducing water consumption are important and necessar y. The objective of this study was to assess the reuse potential of sewage effluent produced at a mid-size international airport for nursery irri gation. The sewage treatment system consisted of a facultative pond followed by a constructed wetland, which were monitored during one hydrological year a nd the parameters COD, pH, solids, nitrogen, phosphorus and Escherichia coli we re analyzed. Removal efficiencies of 85% and 91% were achieved for C OD and solids, respectively. Removal efficiencies for ammonia nitrogen a nd total phosphorus were 77% and 59%, respectively. In terms of E. coli concen tration, the treated effluent met the recommendations by the World Health Organization for reuse in irrigation with the advantage of providing high levels of residual nutrient. The ornamental species Impatiens walleriana was irrigated with treated sewage effluent and plant growth characteristics were evalua ted. The experiment showed that reuse can enhance plant growth without signi ficantly affecting leaf tissue and soil characteristics. This study highlighted th e importance of simple technologies for sewage treatment especially in count ries which still do not present great investment in sanitation and proved that effluent reuse for landscape irrigation can provide great savings of water and financial resources for airport environments.

  8. Holiday ornament-related injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimia, Amir; Lee, Lois; Shannon, Michael; Capraro, Andrew; Mays, Donald; Johnston, Patrick; Hummel, David; Shuman, Margot

    2009-12-01

    Holiday ornament injuries in children have not been well documented in the medical literature. Our aim was to investigate the patterns of injuries sustained from these ornaments as a first measure toward prevention. This was a retrospective cohort analysis of all patients examined in an urban pediatric emergency department over a 13-year period ending in March 2008 for holiday ornament-related injuries. Cases were identified using a computer-assisted text query followed by a manual chart review. Data collected from each chart included the child's age, sex, injury characteristics, physical examination findings, radiographic imaging, interventions, and disposition. To analyze injury rates over the years, we used a multiplicative Poisson model allowing varying exposures. Over the study period, we identified 76 eligible patients. The median age was 2 years (interquartile range, 1.17-3.3 years); 44.7% were female. Forty-three of the 76 cases (53.9%) involved ingestions: 35 were of holiday ornaments, and 8 were of light bulbs. All but one of these ornaments were made of glass. In 28%, there was an associated bleed either from the mouth or as a delayed gastrointestinal bleed. Other patients experienced lacerations (27.6%), eye injuries (5.1%), and minor electrocution injury (2.5%). Imaging was performed in 85%. A subspecialty consult was obtained in 23%, primarily addressing a foreign body ingestion or removal after skin exploration. The incidence rate has not changed over the years. Holiday ornament-related injuries primarily involve foreign body ingestions and glass-related injuries. Over half of the injuries involved small light bulbs and ornaments made of glass placed at the level a toddler can reach. Pediatricians are advised to discuss these points with families during holiday season.

  9. The Attractivity of Ornamental Plants to Some Natural Enemies of Pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Ramdan Muhamed Al Kawan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are several roles of ornamental plants to environment management and human being. One of them is to attract some natural enemies of pest which more ecofriendly and specific target. Related with this role, the objectives of this study are to inventory kind of ornamental plants in the play ground, to inventory kind of ornamental plants which attract natural enemies, and to know the foreign students perception to the function of the ornamental plant species for attracting the natural enemies. This study was conducted using Visual Encounter Survey (VES method with three repetitions. The result showed that there were 5 ornamental plants in the area study as Acalypha siamensis, Osmoxylon lineare, Canna indica, Crinum asiaticum L. and Oleina syzigium. Data analysis using Community structure of Arthropods, Index of Diversity, and Index of Similarity on different area. The result Based on the average of species abundance, O. lineare is the most visited plant by animals. It was showed from range of average of species abundance which reached from 0.17 to 13.72 individu. The second one was A. siamensis which had average of species abundance 0.14 - 13.14 individu. The next plant which visited by many animals are C. indica and C. asiaticum L. The average of species abundance respectively varied from 0.43 to 12.00 individu and from 0.14 to 8.72 individu. Oleina syzigium became the least one, because the average of species abundance reached from 0.14 to 3.14 individu. Overall, the level of respondents (foreign students knowledge about the function of ornamental plants for attracting natural enemies was categorized into high Key words: Attractivity, Natural enemies, Ornamental plants

  10. A female melanin ornament signals offspring fluctuating asymmetry in the barn owl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roulin, A; Ducrest, AL; Balloux, F; Dijkstra, Cornelis; Riols, C

    2003-01-01

    Sexual selection theory predicts that males advertise quality by displaying extravagant ornaments. By contrast, whether phenotypic variation in females has a signalling function remains an open question. Here, to our knowledge, we provide the first evidence that a female plumage trait can signal

  11. 16 CFR 501.2 - Christmas tree ornaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... specify how the net quantity statement should be expressed, provided: (a) The quantity of contents is expressed in terms of numerical count of the ornaments, and (b) The ornaments are so packaged that the...

  12. Convenience of Statistical Approach in Studies of Architectural Ornament and Other Decorative Elements Specific Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priemetz, O.; Samoilov, K.; Mukasheva, M.

    2017-11-01

    An ornament is an actual phenomenon of the architecture modern theory, a common element in the practice of design and construction. It has been an important aspect of shaping for millennia. The description of the methods of its application occupies a large place in the studies on the theory and practice of architecture. However, the problem of the saturation of compositions with ornamentation, the specificity of its themes and forms have not been sufficiently studied yet. This aspect requires accumulation of additional knowledge. The application of quantitative methods for the plastic solutions types and a thematic diversity of facade compositions of buildings constructed in different periods creates another tool for an objective analysis of ornament development. It demonstrates the application of this approach for studying the features of the architectural development in Kazakhstan at the end of the XIX - XXI centuries.

  13. Emotional ornamentation in performances of a Handel sonata

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.; Ashley, R.

    2007-01-01

    ORNAMENTATION IS ONE ASPECT OF MUSIC ASSOCIATED with emotional affect in Baroque music. In an empirical study, the relationship between ornamentation and emotion was investigated by asking a violinist and flutist to ornament three melodies in different ways to express four emotions: happiness,

  14. Mutual ornamentation, age, and reproductive performance in the European starling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Komdeur, J; Oorebeek, M; van Overveld, T; Cuthill, IC; Cuthill, Innes C.

    2005-01-01

    Ornamental traits expressed in both sexes are widespread among birds. Many studies have indicated that male ornaments develop through sexual selection. Female ornaments may be correlated effects of selection on males or have signaling functions in their own right. In the facultatively polygynous

  15. Ornamental Horticulture Production Occupations. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reneau, Fred; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains guidesheets for the ornamental horticulture production occupations. Each guidesheet provides a job-relevant task; performance objective, with task, performance standard, source of standard, and conditions for performance of task; enabling objectives; a list of resources; teaching activities; a criterion-referenced…

  16. Ornament and object—ornament as object. Alina Payne, From Ornament to Object: Genealogies of Architectural Modernity, Yale University Press, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros Papapetros

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available What would be the relationship between the rich historiography of ornament in the late nineteenth century and ornament’s ostensible eclipse from early twentieth-century building practice? Alina Payne’s From Ornament to Object retraces the gradual shift in interest from the endless stylistic iterations of architectural ornamentation in fin-de-siécle culture to the unornamented artifacts of architectural modernism and argues that such plain yet highly sculptural implements carry over architecture’s rhetorical function previously allotted to ornamentation. While Payne’s “genealogy” is based on a carefully crafted polarity, this review-essay underscores the implicit analogies and correspondences between ornament and object and demonstrates how Payne’s intricate historical design corroborates that ornament is an object, a highly privileged but also an enigmatic one, whose loss and periodic recovery replicate the negative dialectics between art historiography and design practice.

  17. Ornamental Eudicotyledons from grasslands of Pampa biome in Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana De Araújo Carrion

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims at investigating the group of Eudicotyledons native plants with ornamental potential of grasslands from the Pampa biome in the south of Brazil. The Pampa presents a high level of biodiversity; however, it requires studies related to the richness of vascular plants and its biological and ecological knowledge. The purpose of this work is to elaborate a preliminary inventory of this group of plants, analyzing the ornamental potential of each specie and indicating those that could be considered as being priorities for the purpose of sustainable use with this objective. Some grassland species were selected through the search for information in herbarium registers, national and international works about decorative plants, floristic surveys, besides the authors´ practical knowledge. Some parameters and values were associated, aiming at reducing the subjectivity of the choice. The survey resulted in a list of 177 species distributed in 36 families and 101 genera. Among these species, ten presented high ornamental potential. These data show that the richness of the grassland native ornamental flora is high, even though its use is poorly known. The use of these plants, if in a sustainable manner, can produce economic and ecological benefits.

  18. Scarce information about breast cancer screening: An Italian websites analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attena, Francesco; Cancellieri, Mariagrazia; Pelullo, Concetta Paola

    2016-12-01

    Although the public should have complete and correct information about risk/benefit ratio of breast cancer screening, public knowledge appears generally scarce and oriented to overestimate benefits, with little awareness of possible disadvantages of the screening.We evaluated any document specifically addressed to the general female public and posted on internet by Italian public health services. The presence of false positive, false positive after biopsy, false negative, interval cancer, overdiagnosis, lead-time bias, exposure to irradiation, and mortality reduction was analyzed.Of the 255 websites consulted, 136 (53.3%) had sites addressed to the female public. The most commonly reported information points were the false-positive (30.8% of sites) and radiation exposure (29.4%) rates. Only 11 documents mentioned overdiagnosis, 2 mentioned risk of false positive with biopsy, and only 1 mentioned lead-time bias. Moreover, only 15 sites (11.0%) reported quantitative data for any risk variables.Most documents about breast cancer screening published on the web for the female public contained little or no information about risk/benefit ratio and were biased in favor of screening.

  19. Conservation and restoration of ornamental elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Rallo Gruss

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Intervention on a building as complex and rich in ornamentation as the Palacio del Marqués de Dos Aguas requires special attention as regards the restoration of all the singular elements, both inside and outside, and the different finishes and furnishings. Within this methodology of integral restoration, it is worth pointing out especially the consolidation and cleaning of the emblematic alabaster portal, the restoration of the paintings and the treatment of the different collections of tiles.

  20. Nitrogen use efficiency as a tool to evaluate the development of ornamental cacti species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen efficiency, along with associated indexes, is a widely used tool for assessing nutritional status in agricultural species. However, this parameter is not used in studies with ornamental plants, especially epiphytic cacti species. In particular, we know very little about the potential response of ornamental cacti to N absorption and use. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate N use efficiency (NUE, along with its associated parameters, in three species of ornamental cacti under nitrogen nutrition. To accomplish this, Rhipsalis baccifera, Rhipsalis paradoxa and Hatiora salicornioides were fertilized by Hogland and Arnon nutrition solution modified and enriched with urea in the concentrations of 0, 33.3 or 66.6 mM N during 180 days. At the end of the experiment, efficiency indexes were calculated. Efficiency parameters varied according to species. R. baccifera presented the greatest dissimilarity among the species, with highest uptake efficiency (NUpE, but lowest use efficiency (NUtE and biomass conversion (BCE. R. paradoxa presented high values for NUE, NUtE, BCE and physiological efficiency (NPE at concentrations of 33.3 mM N, suggesting greater investment in biological processes with lower supply of N. H. salicornioides had the highest averages in most parameters measured. Our results show that these indexes provided important comparative baseline information on nutritional status and investment strategy, thus serving as a suitable analytical tool to increase knowledge about this group of ornamental plants.

  1. Attitudes of ornamental trees and shrubs producers towards nursery production of ornamental beech cultivars in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonić Marina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. is, along with its significance as a forest species, renowned as an ornamental species, due to its numerous cultivars. Ornamental beech cultivars are planted in various green spaces, but a small number of such trees have ascertained in Serbia. For the time being, production of beech cultivars is represented in a very small number of nurseries, with a negligible share of those seedlings in their total assortment. The aim of this research is to study the attitudes of ornamental trees and shrubs producers towards the nursery production of ornamental beech cultivars, and possibilities of its improvements in Serbia. “Door to door” survey and in-depth interviews were used as research techniques. Surveys with the representatives of 65 nurseries in Serbia (in the selected statistical region Šumadija and Western Serbia were conducted in the first stage of data collection. In the second stage of data collection were interviewed the representatives of the 10 nurseries who, during the survey, pointed out that they produce ornamental beech cultivars. Nurserymen’s attitudes suggest that there is a possibility to improve the production of ornamental beech cultivars in Serbia, with the appropriate support measures and increased interest of customers on the market, i.e. with the provision of subsidies for the production of seedlings and greater use of cultivars by utility companies in the cities of Serbia. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ТP 31041: Establishment of forest plantations to increase the afforested areas in Serbia

  2. Ornamental rocks prospection in Uruguay. A new database territorial management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmignani, L.; Gattiglio, S.; Masquelin, H.; Gomez Rifas, C.; Medina, E.; Da Silva, J.; Pirelli, H.

    1998-01-01

    Here are exposed the main of the last ornamental rocks inventory and their exploitation ambiental implicances. The project was realized between the Uruguayan government (Ministry of Industries, Energy and Mining) and the economical European Community (C.E.E). a two -fold target was poursuit. The first o administrative order in the sense that results of such recensement could allow to review the ornamental rocks management in a more efficiently and realistic manner. The second of geoeconomical order permits to re-evaluate traditional ornamental rocks facilities (marbles and granites) form the marketing and either the valoration of a new generation of ornamental materials also. (author)

  3. Cope's Rule and the Universal Scaling Law of Ornament Complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raia, Pasquale; Passaro, Federico; Carotenuto, Francesco; Maiorino, Leonardo; Piras, Paolo; Teresi, Luciano; Meiri, Shai; Itescu, Yuval; Novosolov, Maria; Baiano, Mattia Antonio; Martínez, Ricard; Fortelius, Mikael

    2015-08-01

    Luxuriant, bushy antlers, bizarre crests, and huge, twisting horns and tusks are conventionally understood as products of sexual selection. This view stems from both direct observation and from the empirical finding that the size of these structures grows faster than body size (i.e., ornament size shows positive allometry). We contend that the familiar evolutionary increase in the complexity of ornaments over time in many animal clades is decoupled from ornament size evolution. Increased body size comes with extended growth. Since growth scales to the quarter power of body size, we predicted that ornament complexity should scale according to the quarter power law as well, irrespective of the role of sexual selection in the evolution and function of the ornament. To test this hypothesis, we selected three clades (ammonites, deer, and ceratopsian dinosaurs) whose species bore ornaments that differ in terms of the importance of sexual selection to their evolution. We found that the exponent of the regression of ornament complexity to body size is the same for the three groups and is statistically indistinguishable from 0.25. We suggest that the evolution of ornament complexity is a by-product of Cope's rule. We argue that although sexual selection may control size in most ornaments, it does not influence their shape.

  4. Exploring deep potential aquifer in water scarce crystalline rocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    out to explore deep groundwater potential zone in a water scarce granitic area. As existing field condi- ... Decision support tool developed in granitic ter- .... cially in terms of fracture system, the aquifer char- acteristics ... Methodologies used.

  5. Total exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taboada, J.

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a methodology to estimate the recovery percentage for each of the products which can be obtained from the exploitation of an ornamental granite quarry: block, semiblock, masonry-transverse stone, and the smaller materials that can be used to obtain construction aggregates. This methodology ensures that quarry exploitation is exhaustive, thereby minimising the production of spoils and the consequent negative impact on the environment. The analysis is based on a detailed and exhaustive compilation of discontinuity data from the research fronts, which are then interpreted statistically and projected over the three weakness planes that are a particular feature of ornamental granite deposits. Using this information, and bearing in mind the minimum commercially viable sizes for each kind of granite, the corresponding recovery rates are calculated for each material in each plane. The results are then integrated using spatial techniques, and the result is an evaluation of quarry contents with a view to total exploitation. This methodology was applied to a quarry in the opening phase in order to carry out an a priori assessment of the economic feasibility of the quarry.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para estimar el porcentaje de recuperación de cada uno de los productos que se pueden obtener en la explotación de una cantera de granito ornamental: bloque, semibloque, manpostería y per piaños, y material restante destinado a la obtención de áridos. De esta manera se logra un aprovechamiento integral de la cantera, evitándose la generación de estériles y el subsiguiente impacto ambiental producido por éstos. La metodología de análisis se basa en la recopilación detallada y exhaustiva de datos de discontinuidades en los frentes de investigación, que se interpretan estadísticamente y se proyectan sobre los tres planos de debilidad propios del granito ornamental. Con esta información, y las

  6. Consumers’ and Retailers’ Attitudes Towards a Mexican Native Species of Aztec Lily as an Ornamental Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yesica Mayett-Moreno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of native ornamental plants in urban landscapes and ornamental consumers’ designs is one strategy to preserve biodiversity. Sprekelia formosissima (L. Herb., known as Aztec lily (ALY, is one of the nearly 4000 species of native ornamental plants of Mexico. However, its domestic market is not yet developed and is virtually unknown. The objectives of this study were to: (1 compare consumers’ and retailers’ knowledge of ALY, and (2 to identify potential clusters of consumers and retailers based on their knowledge and preferences, such that marketing of the ALY could be best tailored to different market segments, leading to its sustainable commercialization. There were 464 interviews conducted in four nurseries in Mexico. Results showed only one consumer knew about the ALY; additionally, we found different behaviors in consumers and in retailers: those not interested in the ALY, but when they know it is Mexican they will acquire it; those interested no matter the ALY origin, and those who dislike the ALY because it is Mexican. Those answers suggest that improving consumers/retailers knowledge about this native flower could lead to a sustainable commercialization in Mexico, helping to ensure its conservation as well.

  7. Micropropagação do abacaxizeiro ornamental Protocol for in vitromicropropagation of ornamental pineapple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacir Pasqual

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available O Ananas comosus var. erectifolius, cultivar de abacaxi ornamental, tem apresentado grande interesse para paisagistas e floricultores do Brasil e do exterior, por ser uma planta ornamental tropical, exótica e rústica. A produção de plantas ornamentais a partir de técnicas de cultura de tecidos apresenta-se como uma alternativa viável para a obtenção de um grande número de plantas com qualidade genética e fitossanitária, em um curto espaço de tempo, suprindo, assim, a necessidade do mercado na aquisição de mudas com qualidade comprovada. Estudou-se a influência das concentrações de BAP (0; 0,5; 1,0 e 1,5 mg L-1 e ANA (0,0; 0,12; 0,24; 0,48 mg L-1 no meio de cultura MS com 0; 2,5; 5,0; e 7,5 g L-1 de ágar, visando estabelecer um protocolo para multiplicação e enraizamento in vitro de brotos de abacaxizeiro ornamental. Brotações com 1,5 ± 0,5 cm, já estabelecidas in vitro, oriundas das gemas da coroa do fruto do abacaxizeiro ornamental, foram inoculados assepticamente nos frascos. Após inoculados, os explantes foram mantidos em sala de crescimento com luminosidade em torno de 35 ìmol m-2 s-1, 26±1ºC e fotoperíodo de 16 horas. Após 45 dias observou-se que a multiplicação in vitrodo abacaxi ornamental é viável em meio MS líquido acrescido de BAP 1,5 mg L-1 e o enraizamento também em meio MS líquido, na ausência de reguladores de crescimento.The Ananas comosus var. erectifoliusis an ornamental pineapple cultivar which greatly interests Brazilians and foreign landscapers and flower producers for being an exotic and rustic tropical ornamental plant. The market demand for high quality of cuttings requires efficient methods of propagation and in this context the tissue culture stands out as a viable alternative to obtain plants with genetic and phytossanitary quality in a short time. In the present work we studied the influence of concentrations of BAP (0; 0.5; 1.0; 1.5 mg L-1 and NAA (0; 0.12; 0.24; 0.48 mg L-1 in

  8. Offspring sex ratios in relation to mutual ornamentation and extra-pair paternity in the Black Swan Cygnus atratus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Ming, Ma; Komdeur, Jan; Mulder, Raoul A.

    In sexually dichromatic birds, females may adaptively adjust the sex ratio of their offspring prior to hatching in relation to male ornamentation, for example, by producing more sons when paired to a highly attractive partner. However, to our knowledge no studies have investigated offspring sex

  9. Patterns of divergence in the morphology of ceratopsian dinosaurs: sympatry is not a driver of ornament evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Andrew; Knell, Robert J; Farke, Andrew A; Loewen, Mark A; Hone, David W E

    2018-03-28

    Establishing the origin and function of unusual traits in fossil taxa provides a crucial tool in understanding macroevolutionary patterns over long periods of time. Ceratopsian dinosaurs are known for their exaggerated and often elaborate horns and frills, which vary considerably between species. Many explanations have been proposed for the origin and evolution of these 'ornamental' traits, from predator defence to socio-sexual dominance signalling and, more recently, species recognition. A key prediction of the species recognition hypothesis is that two or more species possessing divergent ornamental traits should have been at least partially sympatric. For the first time to our knowledge, we test this hypothesis in ceratopsians by conducting a comparison of the morphological characters of 46 species. A total of 350 ceratopsian cladistic characters were categorized as either 'internal', 'display' (i.e. ornamental) or 'non display'. Patterns of diversity of these characters were evaluated across 1035 unique species pairs. Display characters were found to diverge rapidly overall, but sympatric species were not found to differ significantly in their ornamental disparity from non-sympatric species, regardless of phylogenetic distance. The prediction of the species recognition hypothesis, and thus the idea that ornamentation evolved as a species recognition mechanism, has no statistical support among known ceratopsians. © 2018 The Authors.

  10. Major diseases of ornamental plants and their management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhtar, M.A.; Zakria, M.; Sohail, F.

    2003-01-01

    Major diseases of ornamental plants are caused by infections agents (biotic) or non-infectious (abiotic) agents. Infectious agents are bacteria, fungi, nematodes and virus. Non infectious agents are nutritional imbalances, environmental stresses and chemical toxicities. Grouping of the diseases has been done on symptomatology basis. Disease management in ornamental plants has been described through cultural practices, chemical and other control strategies. (author)

  11. Ornamental Horticulture. Course of Study Outlines. 1975 Edition. Volume XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Aubry

    These courses of study in ornamental horticulture for secondary and adult technical education levels are based on a 1972 Rutgers University study and are designed to accomodate occupational needs in the field of ornamental horticulture. Job titles emphasized at the secondary level are caretaker, nurserymen, flower grower, and flower salesperson;…

  12. 7 CFR 1437.303 - Aquaculture, including ornamental fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. 1437.303... ASSISTANCE PROGRAM Determining Coverage Using Value § 1437.303 Aquaculture, including ornamental fish. (a... human consumption as determined by CCC. (2) Fish raised as feed for other fish that are consumed by...

  13. Effects of radiations on ornamental fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anita; Kalyankar, Amol D.; Ohlyan, Sunita; Gupta, R.K.

    2012-01-01

    Radiation is a process in which energetic particles or energetic waves travel through a medium or space. There are two distinct types of radiations: ionizing and non-ionizing. Ultraviolet, X-rays, and gamma rays are some examples of radiation. 'Ornamental fish' is designed for aquatic hobbyists and the aquatic industry for several purposes. UV light has two primary uses in fish culture: Controlling green water and disinfecting the water supply. Many proponents of UV disinfection sometimes overlook the additional benefits relating to ornamental fish; those being that cleaner water reduces the stress on the fish by not having to fight off diseases, thus enhancing its immune system and leading to faster growth and more brilliant colors. Ultraviolet sterilizers are often used in aquaria to help control unwanted microorganisms in the water. UV radiation also ensures that exposed pathogens cannot reproduce, thus decreasing the likelihood of a disease outbreak in an aquarium. Despite of these benefits, the ill-effects of radiations cannot be ruled out. Ultraviolet Radiation-induced DNA Damage is seen in the skin of the Platyfish Xiphophorus. Higher radiation doses may cause the gastrointestinal syndrome that leads to defects of the intestinal mucosa barrier with successive contamination of musculature. Exposure to UV radiation can kill the fish and induce sublethal effects in embryos, larvae and adults. The change in skin includes irregularity of skin surface, epidermal oedema, necrosis etc. Irradiation may badly influence the textural attributes of fish muscle. (author)

  14. Genetic engineering and sustainable production of ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Müller, Renate

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources and reduct......Abstract Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources....... This review presents the more recent progress of genetic engineering in ornamental breeding, delivers an overview of the biological background of the used technologies and critically evaluates the usefulness of the strategies to obtain improved ornamental plants. First, genetic engineering is addressed......, compactness can be accomplished by using a natural transformation approach without recombinant DNA technology. Secondly, metabolic engineering approaches targeting elements of the ethylene signal transduction pathway are summarized as a possible alternative to avoid the use of chemical ethylene inhibitors...

  15. EVOLUTION OF ABSTRACT VEGETAL ORNAMENTS IN ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Abdullahi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the history of Islamic abstract vegetal ornaments and sketched their evolution to understand their creation process and innovations. We studied these ornaments regionally to identify regional variations and classified them based on tastes of patrons. Meanwhile, we analysed the formal aspects of these ornaments, including their dimension, proportion, dominant colour, material, and techniques. In addition, the study conducted detailed observations of their characteristics, such as margins, apex, thickness of stem scrolls and vents, to define their constructive elements, aesthetical properties, and design principles that reveal date, region, and styles. This research not only provides a comprehensive guide to the evolution of Islamic abstract vegetal ornaments for architectural conservation projects but also serves as a reference for the comparative and critical analysis of contemporary Islamic-inspired ornaments.

  16. Processing scarce biological samples for light and transmission electron microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Taupin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Light microscopy (LM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM aim at understanding the relationship structure-function. With advances in biology, isolation and purification of scarce populations of cells or subcellular structures may not lead to enough biological material, for processing for LM and TEM. A protocol for preparation of scarce biological samples is presented. It is based on pre-embedding the biological samples, suspensions or pellets, in bovine serum albumin (BSA and bis-acrylamide (BA, cross-linked and polymerized. This preparation provides a simple and reproducible technique to process biological materials, present in limited quantities that can not be amplified, for light and transmission electron microscopy.

  17. Video2vec Embeddings Recognize Events when Examples are Scarce

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habibian, A.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims for event recognition when video examples are scarce or even completely absent. The key in such a challenging setting is a semantic video representation. Rather than building the representation from individual attribute detectors and their annotations, we propose to learn the entire

  18. Towards development of new ornamental plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuligowska, Katarzyna; Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Müller, Renate

    2016-01-01

    is one of the oldest breeding techniques that contributed enormously to the development of modern plant cultivars. Within ornamental breeding, it represents the main source of genetic variation. During the long history of wide hybridization, a number of methods were implemented allowing the evolution...... from a conventional breeding tool into a modern methodology. Nowadays, the research on model plants and crop species increases our understanding of reproductive isolation among distant species and partly explains the background of the traditional approaches previously used for overcoming hybridization...... barriers. Characterization of parental plants and hybrids is performed using molecular and cytological techniques that strongly facilitate breeding processes. Molecular markers and sequencing technologies are used for the assessment of genetic relationships among plants, as the genetic distance...

  19. Epigrafical Ornaments In Architecture Of Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultanova Dilshoda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Article illuminates using of artistic importance epigrafical ornamenst on architecture ofUzbekistan. Calligraphic group formed embellishment in the manner of ornament in medicine to be taken externally and in internal parts of the public buildings. The Inscription taken from Koran were executed on arabic alphabet consists of themes - religious inctructive. Using appeared In mosque from Koran and hadis in hotel of the expression of the nature. Resemblance of the inscriptions ed in interior of the hotels Buhara Samarkand and Tashkent with inscription of the dishes gives the cause to expect that probably poetry IX-X ages were in the beginning used in product decorative-aplied arts tureen plate and gradually moved to wall. Besides they were broadly used in interior of buildings the mosques mausoleum in premiseses vein of the houses and on surfaces subject decorative-aplied arts. Amongst which there are real and fantastic images animal - a phoenix dragon deer. Meet in SHerdor and Nadir Devonbegi in Samarkand in Abdulazizhan and Nadir Devonbegi. About using ornament except mausoleum of Amir Temur and Temuridov and cathedral mosque of Amir Temur appropriately was in detail describe the artistic facilities of Aksaray. Of the building process was it is important to fill am empty the surface of the dome by new artistic method. In this period by new direction was - a technology amp1082amp1091amp1085amp1076amp1072amp1083amp1100 which as raised decoration has alterred by sawing in architecture of the interior due to artistic embroidery.

  20. Potencial ornamental de acessos de pimenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leane Fialho de Melo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial ornamental de dez acessos de pimenta Capsicum spp. procedentes da Coleção de Germoplasma da Universidade Federal do Piauí, Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Fitotecnia, do Centro de Ciências Agrárias, no município de Teresina, Piauí, obedecendo ao delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Na caracterização morfoagronômica dos acessos, conforme orientação do Bioversity International, utilizaram-se os seguintes descritores qualitativos e quantitativos para o gênero Capsicum: forma da folha, hábito de crescimento da planta, antocianina no nó da planta, posição da flor, cor da corola, cor do fruto no estado intermediário e maduro, forma do fruto, forma do ápice do fruto, textura da epiderme do fruto, comprimento do fruto, comprimento do pedicelo, persistência do fruto maduro e altura da planta. Dentre os dez acessos avaliados, sete foram considerados com potencial ornamental: CGC-06 (C. chinense, CGC-07 (C. chinense, CGC-11 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum, CGC-23 (C. chinense, CGC-36 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum, CGC-59 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum e CGC-67 (C. annuum var. glabriusculum. O CGC 11 apresentou estética mais harmoniosa, com flores eretas, as quais são de fácil percepção; frutos eretos e vistosos e folhas de formato lanceolado.

  1. VideoStory Embeddings Recognize Events when Examples are Scarce

    OpenAIRE

    Habibian, Amirhossein; Mensink, Thomas; Snoek, Cees G. M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims for event recognition when video examples are scarce or even completely absent. The key in such a challenging setting is a semantic video representation. Rather than building the representation from individual attribute detectors and their annotations, we propose to learn the entire representation from freely available web videos and their descriptions using an embedding between video features and term vectors. In our proposed embedding, which we call VideoStory, the correlati...

  2. Video2vec Embeddings Recognize Events when Examples are Scarce

    OpenAIRE

    Habibian, A.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims for event recognition when video examples are scarce or even completely absent. The key in such a challenging setting is a semantic video representation. Rather than building the representation from individual attribute detectors and their annotations, we propose to learn the entire representation from freely available web videos and their descriptions using an embedding between video features and term vectors. In our proposed embedding, which we call Video2vec, the correlatio...

  3. Ornaments of Metropolis: Siegfried Kracauer and Modern Urban Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik

    Arkitektur, byrum, idéhistorie, byhistorie, Sigfried Kracauer (1889-1966), Walter Benjamin, Georg Simmel, ornament, bykultur, Paris, Frankfurt am Main, berlin, Nice, Urban Studies, humanistiske bystudier, byplanlægning, byteori, bysociologi...

  4. The Distinction of Ornament and Decoration in Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ornament has been present throughout the recorded history, revealing human's aspirations, reflections and imaginations. Correspondingly, the discussion of ornament has almost uninterruptedly been a major topic for architectural discourses; one which has led to the publication of several significant texts in which ornamental practices has been addressed from a variety of perspectives. An investigation into the key architectural texts however, reveals that the absence of a certain definition of ornament and its functions in architecture as well as the interchangeable use of the terms 'decoration' and ornament as synonyms, have always been a serious obstacle to reach a clear conception of ornament nature . In this regard, the present paper attempted to distinguish between 'ornament' and 'decoration' based on a comparative analysis of the scholars’ accounts and the way the terms were employed in the architectural texts. Results indicated that the aforementioned concepts can be distinguished by means of seven criteria including components, connection, reference source, role, field of application and reference mode. According to the most referred criteria, ornament is an essential part of architecture which creates a firm bonding with its carrier and often fulfills functions more than aesthetic one .It is mostly made up of transformed motifs and evokes natural forces that originate deeply beyond or within the body of building. Decoration on the other hand, is a pleasing arrangement of real things; a suggestion of the decorous which does not have a permanent connection with its carrier. It is also purely representational, due to its reference to external matters such as mythology, religion, history, or cultural practice.

  5. Plan de marketing para un vivero de planta ornamental

    OpenAIRE

    MARCH CUBERTORET, PAULA

    2017-01-01

    [ES] Se ha realizado un plan de marketing de un vivero de planta ornamental interior en Petrés (Valencia), así como un estudio de mercado para analizar las necesidades del consumidor y proponer mejorar el posicionamiento de la empresa para finalmente aumentar las ventas de sus productos. March Cubertoret, P. (2017). Plan de marketing para un vivero de planta ornamental. http://hdl.handle.net/10251/92819 TFGM

  6. Repeat Buying Behavior for Ornamental Plants: A Consumer Profile

    OpenAIRE

    Palma, Marco A.; Collart, Alba J.; Hall, Charles R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper used an electronic survey conducted in Texas to study the main factors affecting the frequency of purchase, measured in transactions per month, for ornamental plants. While we found several differences in demographic characteristics of respondents, the two major factors impacting the frequency of buying for ornamental plants were the purpose of the purchase (self use vs. gifts) and seasonality. Respondents with a college degree in the older age groups, and higher income levels had ...

  7. Allocation of scarce resources during mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Waxman, Daniel A; Pillemer, Francesca; Carey, Christine; Moore, Melinda; Karir, Veena; Johnson, Tiffani J; Iyer, Neema; Hu, Jianhui; Shanman, Roberta; Larkin, Jody Wozar; Timmer, Martha; Motala, Aneesa; Perry, Tanja R; Newberry, Sydne; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2012-06-01

    This systematic review sought to identify the best available evidence regarding strategies for allocating scarce resources during mass casualty events (MCEs). Specifically, the review addresses the following questions: (1) What strategies are available to policymakers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (2) What strategies are available to providers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (3) What are the public's key perceptions and concerns regarding the implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? (4) What methods are available to engage providers in discussions regarding the development and implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? We searched Medline, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Global Health, Web of Science®, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1990 through 2011. To identify relevant non-peer-reviewed reports, we searched the New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report. We also reviewed relevant State and Federal plans, peer-reviewed reports and papers by nongovernmental organizations, and consensus statements published by professional societies. We included both English- and foreign-language studies. Our review included studies that evaluated tested strategies in real-world MCEs as well as strategies tested in drills, exercises, or computer simulations, all of which included a comparison group. We reviewed separately studies that lacked a comparison group but nonetheless evaluated promising strategies. We also identified consensus recommendations developed by professional societies or government panels. We reviewed existing State plans to examine the current state of planning for scarce resource allocation during MCEs. Two investigators independently reviewed each article, abstracted data, and assessed study quality. We considered 5,716 reports for this comparative effectiveness

  8. Typological Study of Traditional Mosque Ornamentation in Malaysia – Prospect of Traditional Ornament in Urban Mosque

    OpenAIRE

    N. Utaberta; S. D. M. Sojak; M. Surat; A. I. Che-Ani; M.M. Tahir

    2012-01-01

    Since the admission of Islam onto the Malay World in 16th century, the Malay culture began to grow in line with the teachings of Islam as a guide of life. Mosque become a symbol of Muslim communities, as well as the cultural values that have been adapted represent the maturity and readiness of Malay Muslim in manifest a lifestyle tradition into the community. Refinement of ornament that used to take from Hindu-Buddhist beliefs before were adopted and refined to the Islami...

  9. A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Michael J; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W; Neupane, Kabi R; Hu, John S

    2013-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3' termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92 % identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus.

  10. A cilevirus infects ornamental hibiscus in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melzer, Michael J.; Simbajon, Nelson; Carillo, James; Borth, Wayne B.; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Kitajima, Elliot W.; Neupane, Kabi R.; Hu, John S.

    2013-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a virus infecting ornamental hibiscus (Hibiscus sp.) in Hawaii with symptoms of green ringspots on senescing leaves was determined from double-stranded RNA isolated from symptomatic tissue. Excluding polyadenylated regions at the 3′ termini, the bipartite RNA genome was 8748 and 5019 nt in length for RNA1 and RNA2, respectively. The genome organization was typical of a cilevirus: RNA1 encoded a large replication-associated protein with methyltransferase, protease, helicase and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase domains as well as a 29-kDa protein of unknown function. RNA2 possessed five open reading frames that potentially encoded proteins with molecular masses of 15, 7, 62, 32, and 24 kDa. The 32-kDa protein is homologous to 3A movement proteins of RNA viruses; the other proteins are of unknown function. A proteome comparison revealed that this virus was 92% identical to citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type 2 (CiLV-C2), a recently characterized cilevirus infecting citrus with leprosis-like symptoms in Colombia. The high sequence similarity suggests that the virus described in this study could be a strain of CiLV-C2, but since the new genus Cilevirus does not have species demarcation criteria established at present, the classification of this virus infecting hibiscus is open to interpretation. This study represents the first documented case of a cilevirus established in the United States and provides insight into the diversity within the genus Cilevirus. PMID:23732930

  11. Morpheme matching based text tokenization for a scarce resourced language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Zobia; Anwar, Waqas; Bajwa, Usama Ijaz; Xuan, Wang; Chaoying, Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Text tokenization is a fundamental pre-processing step for almost all the information processing applications. This task is nontrivial for the scarce resourced languages such as Urdu, as there is inconsistent use of space between words. In this paper a morpheme matching based approach has been proposed for Urdu text tokenization, along with some other algorithms to solve the additional issues of boundary detection of compound words, affixation, reduplication, names and abbreviations. This study resulted into 97.28% precision, 93.71% recall, and 95.46% F1-measure; while tokenizing a corpus of 57000 words by using a morpheme list with 6400 entries.

  12. Use your eyes - metallographic versus superficial traces of the crafting of Bronze Age ornaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Heide Wrobel

    and superficial archaeological examinations can be used to understand prehistoric craft. Furthermore, it will show that with an intensive knowledge about previous scientific investigations the superficial traces preserved can reveal a great amount of information and could talk for themselves. Taking as an example...... the early and middle Bronze Age bronze ornaments from North Germany, superficial traces of the metal crafting process, visible with the naked eye, will be compared with metallographic images. The aim of this presentation is to give an overview over the crafting traces everybody could see (with a bit...

  13. Optimizing sealed transports of small ornamental fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Esteves da Silva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a report on multiple simulated long-term transports of small ornamental fish inside plastic bags. The species involved were Diplodus sargus, Gobius paganellus, Gobiusculus flavescens, Lepadogaster lepadogaster and Lipophrys pholis. The objective of such simulations was moving the maximum bioload possible while ensuring 100% survivorship, ultimately resulting in savings for the end-receiver. Transports were simulated over 24, 48 and 72 hours, with increasing animal bioloads per bag. Half of the trials were performed with “regular” saltwater while the other half involved seawater buffered with Amquel ®, sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate, with the objective of keeping ammonia low and pH similar to initial baseline values. At the end of each trial, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and ammonia were analized and the survival rate calculated and recorded. L. lepadogaster endured the highest bioloads at 100% survivorship (i.e. up to 30 g / L, which is not surprising given the intertidal nature of this species. D. sargus exhibited mortalities with bioloads as low as 3,23 g / L, which echoes its predominantly pelagic nature and relatively lesser ability to endure confinement. The three remaining species showed varying degrees of tolerance to increasing bioloads in transport: L. pholis, also an intertidal species, handled up to 20 g/L over 72 hours, while G. paganellus handled up to 7 g/L over 72 hours, and G. flavescens (a predominantly pelagic species could deal with no more than 6 g/L up to 72 hours.

  14. Color ornaments and territory position in king penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keddar, Ismaël; Jouventin, Pierre; Dobson, F Stephen

    2015-10-01

    King penguins exhibit mutual color ornamentation of feathers and beak color. They breed in dense colonies and produce a single chick every 2 years. Thus, males and females must choose partners carefully to be reproductively successful, and auricular patches of males and UV coloration of beak spots have been shown to influence mate choice. Position in the breeding colony is also important to reproductive success, with pairs on the edge of the colony less successful than those in the center. We studied the mutual ornaments, individual condition, and position of pairs in their breeding colony. Males were significantly larger than females in size, body mass, and auricular patch size. Within pairs, auricular patch size of males and females were significantly correlated, and male auricular patch size and body mass were significantly associated, suggesting a link between this ornament and male body condition. Moving from the edge to the center of the colony, pairs had larger yellow-orange auricular patches, indicating a link between this ornament and settlement in higher quality territories in the center of the colony. Pairs were also less brightly brown colored on the breast and less saturated in UV color of the beak spot. Since we observed pairs that were settling for egg laying, location in the colony may have reflected aspects of pair condition, rather than later jockeying for positioning using ornaments as signals of behavioral dominance. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental safety issues for semiconductors (research on scarce materials recycling)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izumi, Shigekazu

    2004-01-01

    In the 21st century, in the fabrication of various industrial parts, particularly, current and future electronics devices in the semiconductor industry, environmental safety issues should be carefully considered. We coined a new term, environmental safety issues for semiconductors, considering our semiconductor research and technology which include environmental and ecological factors. The main object of this analysis is to address the present situation of environmental safety problems in the semiconductor industry; some of which are: (1) the generation and use of hazardous toxic gases in the crystal growth procedure such as molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD), (2) the generation of industrial toxic wastes in the semiconductor process and (3) scarce materials recycling from wastes in the MBE and MOCVD growth procedure

  16. Improving Flood Predictions in Data-Scarce Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vimal, Solomon; Zanardo, Stefano; Rafique, Farhat; Hilberts, Arno

    2017-04-01

    Flood modeling methodology at Risk Management Solutions Ltd. has evolved over several years with the development of continental scale flood risk models spanning most of Europe, the United States and Japan. Pluvial (rain fed) and fluvial (river fed) flood maps represent the basis for the assessment of regional flood risk. These maps are derived by solving the 1D energy balance equation for river routing and 2D shallow water equation (SWE) for overland flow. The models are run with high performance computing and GPU based solvers as the time taken for simulation is large in such continental scale modeling. These results are validated with data from authorities and business partners, and have been used in the insurance industry for many years. While this methodology has been proven extremely effective in regions where the quality and availability of data are high, its application is very challenging in other regions where data are scarce. This is generally the case for low and middle income countries, where simpler approaches are needed for flood risk modeling and assessment. In this study we explore new methods to make use of modeling results obtained in data-rich contexts to improve predictive ability in data-scarce contexts. As an example, based on our modeled flood maps in data-rich countries, we identify statistical relationships between flood characteristics and topographic and climatic indicators, and test their generalization across physical domains. Moreover, we apply the Height Above Nearest Drainage (HAND)approach to estimate "probable" saturated areas for different return period flood events as functions of basin characteristics. This work falls into the well-established research field of Predictions in Ungauged Basins.

  17. Knowledges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berling, Trine Villumsen

    2012-01-01

    Scientific knowledge in international relations has generally focused on an epistemological distinction between rationalism and reflectivism over the last 25 years. This chapter argues that this distinction has created a double distinction between theory/reality and theory/practice, which works...... and reflectivism. Bourdieu, on the contrary, lets the challenge to the theory/reality distinction spill over into a challenge to the theory/practice distinction by thrusting the scientist in the foreground as not just a factor (discourse/genre) but as an actor. In this way, studies of IR need to include a focus...... as a ghost distinction structuring IR research. While reflectivist studies have emphasised the impossibility of detached, objective knowledge production through a dissolution of the theory/reality distinction, the theory/practice distinction has been left largely untouched by both rationalism...

  18. INFORMATION SYSTEM SALES OF INDOOR AND OUTDOOR ORNAMENTAL PLANTS-BASED ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutedi Sutedi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ornamental plants have fairly high commercial value and much sought after by various circles. The prospect is in the business of ornamental plants can be said very brilliant and profitable. Where is in the business of ornamental plants can bring about advantages not the least. The business struggled with ornamental plants can have very favorable prospects for the long term. There are an awful lot of various kinds of ornamental plants that we can choose to use as ornaments to beautify residential home. The ornamental plants can be used as indoor ornamental plants placed in homes or can also be used as outdoor ornamental plants grown in the garden. Ornamental plants while more popular community-wide information system for ornamental plant however is currently designed specifically and not many people who know the information on price and specs or type of indoor and outdoor ornamental plants so that the need for sales information system of indoor and outdoor ornamental plants-based online. With the sales information system of Indoor and Outdoor ornamental plants-based online is expected to facilitate the customers, business processes that occur in the company's units, unit – units that exist within the system a functioning production units as the unit working on/produce ornamental plants. With the utilization of the system marketing media, promoting, finding new customers, the sales process, recapitulation payment of ornamental plants, control the conditions of stock products, development and delivery of products to customers including convincing the product gets to the customer

  19. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: the case of lithium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society--they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like 'servicizing' the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-Replication of Localized Vegetation Patches in Scarce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordeu, Ignacio; Clerc, Marcel G.; Couteron, Piere; Lefever, René; Tlidi, Mustapha

    2016-09-01

    Desertification due to climate change and increasing drought periods is a worldwide problem for both ecology and economy. Our ability to understand how vegetation manages to survive and propagate through arid and semiarid ecosystems may be useful in the development of future strategies to prevent desertification, preserve flora—and fauna within—or even make use of scarce resources soils. In this paper, we study a robust phenomena observed in semi-arid ecosystems, by which localized vegetation patches split in a process called self-replication. Localized patches of vegetation are visible in nature at various spatial scales. Even though they have been described in literature, their growth mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Here, we develop an innovative statistical analysis based on real field observations to show that patches may exhibit deformation and splitting. This growth mechanism is opposite to the desertification since it allows to repopulate territories devoid of vegetation. We investigate these aspects by characterizing quantitatively, with a simple mathematical model, a new class of instabilities that lead to the self-replication phenomenon observed.

  1. In vitro micro-propagation of endangered ornamental plant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ornamental plant, Neotchihatchewia isatidea, is an endangered species of Turkey and threatened by complete extinction in the future. Therefore, in vitro multiplication of this species can be valuable for commercial production and germplasm conservation. Immature embryos of N. isatidea were cultured for initiation on ...

  2. Evaluation of mistletoes ( Tapinanthus sp ) on the ornamental plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Samples of the ornamental plants and trees were collected during the survey in 2001 and were identified in Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria herbarium. The severity and incidence of the parasite were determined by differential host test and the number of infected stands, were expressed in percentage of total stands sampled ...

  3. Development of Two Intelligent Spray Systems for Ornamental Nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current application technology for floral, nursery, and other specialty crop production wastes significant amounts of pesticides. Two different real-time variable-rate sprayer prototypes for ornamental nursery and tree crops were developed to deliver chemicals on target areas as needed. The first pr...

  4. NATURAL BASES OF GENESIS OF UNTZUKUL ORNAMENTAL ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. GAZIMAGOMEDOV

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The work deals with Untzukul ornamental hatching wood by metal - it is the only phenomena in decoration applied art. Special attention is paid to succession of the traditions important for conservation and further development of the natural art trade of Daghestan republic.

  5. Delonix regia Rat. (Gulmohar) is a highly ornamental tree largely ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Delonix regia Rat. (Gulmohar) is a highly ornamental tree largely cultivated on roadsides and in gardens for its beautiful foliage and scarlet red (lowers. Gulmohar trees in full bloom and new leaves dominate other flora in summer months. The infusion of flowers is used in bronchitis, asthma and malaria.

  6. Economic significance of viroids in ornamental crops (Book Chapter)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The economic significance of viroids in ornamental crops is less obvious than in food crops. Most serious direct impact is known for chrysanthemum stunt viroid in chrysanthemum and, to a lesser extent, for chrysanthemum chlorotic mottle viroid in the same crop. However, the majority of viroid infect...

  7. Zygospore ornamentation in the genera Mucor and Zygorhynchus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, Maria A.A.; Samson, R.A.; Stalpers, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Zygospores of species of the genera Mucor and Zygorhynchus were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy. The types of ornamentation are described and compared with those of some species of other genera of the Mucorales. The possibility of grouping the species according to zygospore

  8. Substrate and fertilizer rate comparison for commercial ornamental ginger production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedychiums (ornamental gingers) belong to the Zingiberaceae family and have showy and fragrant flowers, which are used in leis and perfumery. Hedychium plants are mostly free of major diseases and pests and the essential oils of some species have been found to have insecticidal, antibacterial, and a...

  9. Thin Cell Layer technology in ornamental plant micropropagation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thin cell layer (TCL) technology originated almost 30 years ago with the controlled development of flowers, roots, shoots and somatic embryos on tobacco pedicel longitudinal TCLs. Since then TCLs have been successfully used in the micropropagation of many ornamental plant species whose previous in vitro ...

  10. Viruses of ornamentals emerging in Florida and the Caribbean region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) has been reported in common weeds including American black nightshade and jimsonweed in Florida and/or Puerto Rico. Experimental host range studies demonstrated that TCSV and/or GRSV can also infect ornamentals including petunia, brugmansia and garden impatiens. ...

  11. Preliminary study on irradiation breeding of ornamental lotus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Xiulan; Bao Jianzhong; Liu Chungui; Cao Hong; Zhai Jianqing

    2004-01-01

    The effects of γ-ray irradiation on seeds and stems of ornamental lotus were studied. The results show that the mutation rate of seeds is higher than that of stems, and 30-60 Gy is the appropriate irradiation dose. The varieties with red or multi-color flower are more mutable than those with white flower. Two varieties were selected

  12. Video2vec Embeddings Recognize Events When Examples Are Scarce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibian, Amirhossein; Mensink, Thomas; Snoek, Cees G M

    2017-10-01

    This paper aims for event recognition when video examples are scarce or even completely absent. The key in such a challenging setting is a semantic video representation. Rather than building the representation from individual attribute detectors and their annotations, we propose to learn the entire representation from freely available web videos and their descriptions using an embedding between video features and term vectors. In our proposed embedding, which we call Video2vec, the correlations between the words are utilized to learn a more effective representation by optimizing a joint objective balancing descriptiveness and predictability. We show how learning the Video2vec embedding using a multimodal predictability loss, including appearance, motion and audio features, results in a better predictable representation. We also propose an event specific variant of Video2vec to learn a more accurate representation for the words, which are indicative of the event, by introducing a term sensitive descriptiveness loss. Our experiments on three challenging collections of web videos from the NIST TRECVID Multimedia Event Detection and Columbia Consumer Videos datasets demonstrate: i) the advantages of Video2vec over representations using attributes or alternative embeddings, ii) the benefit of fusing video modalities by an embedding over common strategies, iii) the complementarity of term sensitive descriptiveness and multimodal predictability for event recognition. By its ability to improve predictability of present day audio-visual video features, while at the same time maximizing their semantic descriptiveness, Video2vec leads to state-of-the-art accuracy for both few- and zero-example recognition of events in video.

  13. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: The case of lithium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prior, Timothy, E-mail: tim.prior@sipo.gess.ethz.ch [Center for Security Studies (CSS), ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney (Australia); Wäger, Patrick A. [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Stamp, Anna [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Institute for Environmental Decisions, ETH Zürich (Switzerland); Widmer, Rolf [Technology and Society Laboratory, Empa - Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, St. Gallen (Switzerland); Giurco, Damien [Institute for Sustainable Futures, University of Technology, Sydney (Australia)

    2013-09-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society—they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like ‘servicizing’ the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. - Highlights: • Lithium is a geochemically scare metal, but demand is forecast to increase in future • We explore sustainable lithium governance implications for Australia and Switzerland • One governance mechanism is the ‘servicization’ of the lithium value chain • We explore one actual, and two hypothetical lithium service business models • ‘Servicizing’ a commodity would require fundamental innovations in minerals policy.

  14. Coping with hygiene in South Africa, a water scarce country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duse, A G; da Silva, M P; Zietsman, I

    2003-06-01

    The burden of infectious diseases may be reduced by adopting effective infection control measures. Some of these are dependent on the provision of adequate and safe water supplies for maintenance of basic standards of personal, domestic and healthcare hygiene. Consequences of scarce, and sometimes unsafe, waters supplies in South Africa are highlighted with reference to healthcare-associated infections, community acquired infectious intestinal diseases and domestic practices as infection sources. Availability of water in more than 67% of South African municipal hospitals and primary health care facilities (delivered by water tanker in 12.5% of satellite clinics, 5% from river or dam sources, 12.4% relying on rainwater) does not necessarily guarantee that it's quality is safe for utilisation. In the Northern Province and Mpumalanga, water needs to be purified prior to usage in 14.4 and 33% of satellite clinics respectively. Simple, low maintenance and low-cost interventions to maximise use and safety of limited water resources may be implemented: micro-organism (S. dysenteriae) inactivation by direct UV-exposure in sunlight abundant environments, water purification by filtration mechanisms and making use of iron pots in the community for pasteurisation, decontamination and boiling procedures. Education is paramount in promoting healthy domestic food handling practices, changing cultural perceptions of hygiene, hand-washing technique and mechanisms of domestic environmental decontamination. Water provision cannot be separated from other inter-related factors such as sanitation. Although the present government has taken initiatives to reduce the number of people not having access to water by 50% in 2002, provision of sanitation has been slower (>38% inadequate sanitation in 2002). Adoption of integrated environmental management approaches in conjunction with community participation (WASH Campaign--2002), by the government, aims to address the sanitation problems.

  15. Sustainable governance of scarce metals: The case of lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prior, Timothy; Wäger, Patrick A.; Stamp, Anna; Widmer, Rolf; Giurco, Damien

    2013-01-01

    Minerals and metals are finite resources, and recent evidence suggests that for many, primary production is becoming more difficult and more expensive. Yet these resources are fundamentally important for society—they support many critical services like infrastructure, telecommunications and energy generation. A continued reliance on minerals and metals as service providers in modern society requires dedicated and concerted governance in relation to production, use, reuse and recycling. Lithium provides a good example to explore possible sustainable governance strategies. Lithium is a geochemically scarce metal (being found in a wide range of natural systems, but in low concentrations that are difficult to extract), yet recent studies suggest increasing future demand, particularly to supply the lithium in lithium-ion batteries, which are used in a wide variety of modern personal and commercial technologies. This paper explores interventions for sustainable governance and handling of lithium for two different supply and demand contexts: Australia as a net lithium producer and Switzerland as a net lithium consumer. It focuses particularly on possible nation-specific issues for sustainable governance in these two countries' contexts, and links these to the global lithium supply chain and demand scenarios. The article concludes that innovative business models, like ‘servicizing’ the lithium value chain, would hold sustainable governance advantages for both producer and consumer countries. - Highlights: • Lithium is a geochemically scare metal, but demand is forecast to increase in future • We explore sustainable lithium governance implications for Australia and Switzerland • One governance mechanism is the ‘servicization’ of the lithium value chain • We explore one actual, and two hypothetical lithium service business models • ‘Servicizing’ a commodity would require fundamental innovations in minerals policy

  16. Ornamentation, age, and survival of female striped plateau lizards, Sceloporus virgatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Stacey L.

    2016-04-01

    Individuals with greater expression of secondary sexual traits are often older and have higher survivorship than individuals with lower expression; if so, assessment of such indicator traits may provide genetic and/or direct benefits to potential mates. I examined the relationship between ornament expression, age, and survival in the striped plateau lizard, Sceloporus virgatus, a species with female-specific ornamentation that honestly signals reproductive quality. I followed a group of females from 2008 to 2013, examined ornament color and size as females aged, and compared ornamentation of survivors versus non-survivors. In addition, I explored whether other (non-ornamental) phenotypic characters predicted survival. I found that peak ornament expression (both color and size) of individual females changed year to year but appeared to be a weak signal of age due to high among-female variation in ornament expression that occurred independent of age and a non-linear pattern of change for ornament color. However, both absolute and relative ornament size did increase significantly as an individual aged and therefore may provide some age-related information such as reproductive investment, which is expected to increase as residual reproductive value declines with age. Individual survival was unrelated to peak ornament expression and to other phenotypic variables measured, providing no support for the ornament as a viability indicator and suggesting that individual survival prospects are affected by stochastic and environmental factors.

  17. Botryosphaeriaceae associated with the die-back of ornamental trees in the Western Balkans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlatković, Milica; Keča, Nenad; Wingfield, Michael J; Jami, Fahimeh; Slippers, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Extensive die-back and mortality of various ornamental trees and shrubs has been observed in parts of the Western Balkans region during the past decade. The disease symptoms have been typical of those caused by pathogens residing in the Botryosphaeriaceae. The aims of this study were to isolate and characterize Botryosphaeriaceae species associated with diseased ornamental trees in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Isolates were initially characterized based on the DNA sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer rDNA and six major clades were identified. Representative isolates from each clade were further characterized using DNA sequence data for the translation elongation factor 1-alpha, β-tubulin-2 and large subunit rRNA gene regions, as well as the morphology of the asexual morphs. Ten species of the Botryosphaeriaceae were identified of which eight, i.e., Dothiorella sarmentorum, Neofusicoccum parvum, Botryosphaeria dothidea, Phaeobotryon cupressi, Sphaeropsis visci, Diplodia seriata, D. sapinea and D. mutila were known taxa. The remaining two species could be identified only as Dothiorella spp. Dichomera syn-asexual morphs of D. sapinea, Dothiorella sp. 2 and B. dothidea, as well as unique morphological characters for a number of the known species are described. Based on host plants and geographic distribution, the majority of Botryosphaeriaceae species found represent new records. The results of this study contribute to our knowledge of the distribution, host associations and impacts of these fungi on trees in urban environments.

  18. Pseudomonas, Pantoea and Cupriavidus isolates induce calcium carbonate precipitation for biorestoration of ornamental stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, M I; Magoulas, A; Kotoulas, G; Catsikis, I; Bakolas, A; Karageorgis, A P; Mavridou, A; Doulia, D; Rigas, F

    2013-08-01

    Bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation from various isolates was investigated aiming at developing an environmentally friendly technique for ornamental stone protection and restoration. Micro-organisms isolated from stone samples and identified using 16S rDNA and biochemical tests promoted calcium carbonate precipitation in solid and novel liquid growth media. Biomineral morphology was studied on marble samples with scanning electron microscopy. Most isolates demonstrated specimen weight increase, covering partially or even completely the marble surfaces mainly with vaterite. The conditions under which vaterite precipitated and its stability throughout the experimental runs are presented. A growth medium that facilitated bacterial growth of different species and promoted biomineralization was formulated. Most isolates induced biomineralization of CaCO3 . Micro-organisms may actually be a milestone in the investigation of vaterite formation facilitating our understanding of geomicrobiological interactions. Pseudomonas, Pantoea and Cupriavidus strains could be candidates for bioconsolidation of ornamental stone protection. Characterization of biomineralization capacity of different bacterial species improves understanding of the bacterially induced mineralization processes and enriches the list of candidates for biorestoration applications. Knowledge of biomineral morphology assists in differentiating mineral from biologically induced precipitates. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Challenges of model transferability to data-scarce regions (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaniego, L. E.

    2013-12-01

    forcing 25x25 km2, FAO soil map 1:5000000) using parameters obtained with high resolution information (REGNIE forcing 1x1 km2, BUEK soil map 1:1000000) in different climatic regions indicate the potential of MPR for prediction in data-scarce regions. In this presentation, we will also discuss how the transferability of global model parameters across scales and locations helps to identify deficiencies in model structure and regionalization functions.

  20. Improvement of some vegetatively propagated ornamentals by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.K.; Dube, S.; Ghosh, P.; Dhua, S.D.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were made to induce mutations in some vegetatively propagated ornamentals like, Chrysanthemum, Dahlia, Hibiscus, Acalpha, Iresine, etc. by acute as well as chronic gamma irradiation. In both the types of irradiation experiments, apart from growth reduction and various physiological anomalies in growth and leaf characters, a total of 27 somatic mutants have been isolated in Chrysanthemum, Dahlia, Hibiscus, Acalypha and Iresine. Some of the mutants have been established by perpetuation over 3-5 vegetative generations while few could not be maintained on account of initially small chimeric changes of failure of regeneration of the propagable materials. However, most of the mutants hold as practical improvements and will find place in ornamental improvement programme in the country. (author)

  1. Garden ponds as potential introduction pathway of ornamental crayfish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patoka J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The private stocking of ornamental crayfish in garden ponds was discussed in previous studies, but there is a lack of detailed analysis for better understanding of this introduction pathway. The Czech Republic is one of leading EU countries in trade with ornamental crayfish and private garden ponds are popular among people. The crayfish keepers in the country were interviewed by self-administered questionnaire to gather data about principal characteristics of the keepers and detailed information about crayfish breeding that are of interest for conservation managers. Besides of releasing crayfish into garden ponds, alarming illegal behavior such as releasing of juvenile crayfish into the wild, and capturing of indigenous crayfish from wild populations, were registered. Therefore focusing on public education to increase awareness of possible unwanted consequences of crayfish release and introduction of an obligation to inform customers about hazardousness of non-indigenous crayfish species for retailers and wholesalers is recommended.

  2. Crawling to collapse: ecologically unsound ornamental invertebrate fisheries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Rhyne

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fishery management has historically been an inexact and reactionary discipline, often taking action only after a critical stock suffers overfishing or collapse. The invertebrate ornamental fishery in the State of Florida, with increasing catches over a more diverse array of species, is poised for collapse. Current management is static and the lack of an adaptive strategy will not allow for adequate responses associated with managing this multi-species fishery. The last decade has seen aquarium hobbyists shift their display preference from fish-only tanks to miniature reef ecosystems that include many invertebrate species, creating increased demand without proper oversight. The once small ornamental fishery has become an invertebrate-dominated major industry supplying five continents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we analyzed the Florida Marine Life Fishery (FLML landing data from 1994 to 2007 for all invertebrate species. The data were organized to reflect both ecosystem purpose (in the wild and ecosystem services (commodities for each reported species to address the following question: Are ornamental invertebrates being exploited for their fundamental ecosystem services and economic value at the expense of reef resilience? We found that 9 million individuals were collected in 2007, 6 million of which were grazers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The number of grazers now exceeds, by two-fold, the number of specimens collected for curio and ornamental purposes altogether, representing a major categorical shift. In general, landings have increased 10-fold since 1994, though the number of licenses has been dramatically reduced. Thus, despite current management strategies, the FLML Fishery appears to be crawling to collapse.

  3. Histopathological study on parasites in freshwater ornamental fishes in Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Nematollahi, A.; Jaberi, S.; Helan, J. Ashrafi; Sheikhzadeh, N.

    2014-01-01

    During March 2012 through February 2013, 100 freshwater ornamental fishes in 22 species from some aquarium fish shops were examined. Specimens were dissected and tissue samples consisted of liver, kidney, spleen, heart, intestine, ovary, brain and eye were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and sections were provided and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, Periodic Acid-Schiff, Giemsa and acid-fast staining (Ziehl-Neelsen). At present study six species of protozoans consisting of Eimeria spp. Cr...

  4. Potential pest transfer mediated by international ornamental plant trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patoka, Jiří; Bláha, Martin; Kalous, Lukáš; Vrabec, Vladimír; Buřič, Miloš; Kouba, Antonín

    2016-05-25

    In recent years, the keeping of ornamental freshwater animals and plants in garden ponds has been growing in popularity. Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) is one of the preferred macrophytes seasonally imported mainly from South-eastern Asia throughout the world. This constitutes a secondary introduction inasmuch as the species is native to South America. Although many assemblages of aquatic invertebrates have been described as associated with this plant in the wild, there has been no research focused on their potential introduction via the international plant trade. We examined 216 specimens of water hyacinths imported for ornamental purposes from Indonesia into the Czech Republic. Numerous meio- and macroinvertebrates belonging to at least 39 species were captured. On the total number of individuals, the highest prevalence was of Tubulinea and Rotifera. Most of these were still alive and vital, including a caterpillar of the Indo-Australian invasive moth Spodoptera litura. Water hyacinths are usually placed into outdoor ponds immediately after import, which facilitates the release of non-target alien species. The present paper aims to draw attention to "hitchhikers" associated with the ornamental trade.

  5. The progress of mutation breeding for ornamental plants in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Shouming

    1994-02-01

    In China, research on mutation breeding of ornamental plants was begun in the late 70's. In the past decade, about 40 plant species were tested, and hundreds of useful mutants were obtained. At least 63 mutant varieties have been produced, approved and released for cultivation in rose, chrysanthemum, canna, dahlia, bougainvillea and lotus. A rapid progress in methodology and technology of induced mutation breeding has been achieved, particularly in the selection of starting material, determination of suitable exposure and irradiation dose, expression and isolation of somatic mutation etc. In the future it is necessary to develop more plant species and mutation varieties to improve the mutation breeding method and to raise the economic benefit. Along with the development of China's economy and improvement of people's living standard more and more new varieties of ornamental plants will be required. In view of the good beginning, rich germplasm resource and favorable conditions, the prospect of mutation breeding for ornamental plants in China is very encouraging

  6. Ornamental “borderlands”: Elisabeth Wilson and Martin Heydrich’s historiographies of “primitive” ornament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Basu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines texts by Elisabeth Wilson and Martin Heydrich written in 1914 at the University of Leipzig on the subject of ‘primitive’ ornament. Both synopsize the history and literature of this field from its beginnings in the nineteenth century to the time of their writing. This article considers how Wilson and Heydrich represent this history and how the field’s multidisciplinary practitioners perceived its pressing problems. Above all, Wilson and Heydrich set up a number of recurring oppositions between major approaches to ‘primitive’ art and ornament, between ‘materialist’ interpretation, allied with archaeology, symbolic interpretation practiced for the most part by ethnologists, and an ‘aesthetic’ approach, pursued by art theorists and focused on the psychological will of its creators. These issues and this configuration of approaches are further examined in one of August Schmarsow’s important essays on art history and ethnology.

  7. Bony cranial ornamentation linked to rapid evolution of gigantic theropod dinosaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Terry A.; Organ, Chris; Zanno, Lindsay E.

    2016-09-01

    Exaggerated cranial structures such as crests and horns, hereafter referred to collectively as ornaments, are pervasive across animal species. These structures perform vital roles in visual communication and physical interactions within and between species. Yet the origin and influence of ornamentation on speciation and ecology across macroevolutionary time scales remains poorly understood for virtually all animals. Here, we explore correlative evolution of osseous cranial ornaments with large body size in theropod dinosaurs using a phylogenetic comparative framework. We find that body size evolved directionally toward phyletic giantism an order of magnitude faster in theropod species possessing ornaments compared with unadorned lineages. In addition, we find a body mass threshold below which bony cranial ornaments do not originate. Maniraptoriform dinosaurs generally lack osseous cranial ornaments despite repeatedly crossing this body size threshold. Our study provides novel, quantitative support for a shift in selective pressures on socio-sexual display mechanisms in theropods coincident with the evolution of pennaceous feathers.

  8. Micropropagation of ornamental plants: practical application and opportunities in Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Velesanova, Ivana; Trajkova, Fidanka; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2018-01-01

    Planting material of ornamental plants is in great demand for commercial production as well as for domestic gardens and landscaping. Good quality planting material is a basic need of growers for improving productivity. The most recent data show that 700 million plants worldwide are produced in vitro. USA, India, Israel, Colombia, Ecuador and Brazil are leading countries in production of ornamental plants via in vitro propagation. Ornamental industry has applied immensely in vitro propagation ...

  9. Urban Flood Risk Assessment Under Uncertain Conditions and Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Gaviria, E. M.; Botero-Fernandez, V.

    2015-12-01

    Flood risk management in small urban areas in Colombia has a great degree of uncertainty due to the low availability and quality of data, the non-existent personnel qualified in the collection and processing of data, and the insufficient information to evaluate the risk and vulnerability. It is because of this that two methods are developed: one for the generation of flood threat maps for different return periods combining historical, geomorphological, and hydrological hydraulic methods assisted by remote sensors and SIG through the use of data acquired through field campaigns, official hydrological networks, orthophotos, multitemporal topographic maps, and ASTER, STRM, and LiDAR images. And another method in which categorical variables are established, linking local physical, social, economical, environmental and political-institutional factors that are explored through different media such as reports, news, databases, transects, interviews, community workshops, and surveys conducted at homes. Such variables were included within an analysis of multiple correspondence to conduct a descriptive study of the exposure, susceptibility, and capacity conditions and to create a vulnerability index that was spatially plotted spatially on maps. The uncertainty is reduced in the measure in which local knowledge is used as a source of information acquisition, of validation of what already exists, and of calibration of the proposed methods. This research was applied to the urban centers of Caucasia (Antioquia) and Plato (Magdalena), which have been historically affected by slow flooding of the Magdalena and Cauca river, it being especially useful in the selection of best alternatives for risk management, planning for development, and land use management, with the possibility of replicating it to benefit other municipalities that experience the same reality.

  10. Genetic assessment of ornamental fish species from North East India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2015-01-25

    Ornamental fishes are traded with multiple names from various parts around the world, including North East India. Most are collected from the wild, due to lack of species-specific culture or breeding, and therefore, such unmanaged collection of the wild and endemic species could lead to severe threats to biodiversity. Despite many regulatory policies, trade of threatened species, including the IUCN listed species have been largely uncontrolled, due to species identification problems arising from the utilization of multiple trade names. So, the development of species-specific DNA marker is indispensable where DNA Barcoding is proved to be helpful in species identification. Here, we investigated, through DNA Barcoding and morphological assessment, the identification of 128 ornamental fish specimens exported from NE India from different exporters. The generated sequences were subjected to similarity match in BOLD-IDS as well as BLASTN, and analysed using MEGA5.2 for species identification through Neighbour-Joining (NJ) clustering, and K2P distance based approach. The analysis revealed straightforward identification of 84 specimens into 35 species, while 44 specimens were difficult to distinguish based on CO1 barcode alone. However, these cases were resolved through morphology, NJ and distanced based method and found to be belonging to 16 species. Among the 51 identified species, 14 species represented multiple trade names; 17 species belonged to threatened category. Species-level identification through DNA Barcoding along with traditional morphotaxonomy reflects its efficacy in regulating ornamental fish trade and therefore, appeals for their conservation in nature. The use of trade names rather than the zoological name created the passage for trafficking of the threatened species and demands immediate attention for sustaining wildlife conservation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of soda-lime glasses from ornamental rock wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babisk, Michelle Pereira

    2009-01-01

    During the ornamental rocks production, among other steps, one saw the rock blocks in order to transform them into semi-finished plates. In this step, expressive amounts of residues are generated, which are not properly discharged in nature, without any programmed utilization. The residues of silicide rocks present, in their compositions, oxides which are raw materials employed to fabricate soda-lime type glasses (containing SiO_2, Al_2O_3, CaO, Na_2O and K_2O). On the other hand the residues of carbonatic rocks are constituted of glass net modifier oxides, like CaO and MgO. In this work it was developed four types of soda-lime glasses using ornamental rock residues, where the glasses compositions were adjusted by adding sand, as silica source, as well as sodium and calcium carbonates as sources of Na_2O and CaO, respectively. The obtained glasses were characterized by means of Archimed's method for densities measurements, microstructure by using optical and electronic microscopy, phases by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), hardness by Vickers indentation, spectroscopy (UV/VIS), and hydrolytic resistance according to ISO 719. The XRD analyses confirmed the compositions total vitrification, where the greened aspect of the samples was due to the presence of the iron oxides. The produced glasses properties were compared with those of commercial glasses aiming their industrial employment. The main difference between the produced glasses and those commercials varied primarily regarding the amount of carbonates incorporated. The results showed that the ornamental rocks residues may be used as raw materials for glasses fabrication, and they found a useful economic destination rather than discharge which promotes undesirable environmental impact. (author)

  12. Stress and welfare in ornamental fishes: what can be learned from aquaculture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C H; Croft, D P; Paull, G C; Tyler, C R

    2017-08-01

    The ornamental fish trade is estimated to handle up to 1·5 billion fishes. Transportation and handling of fishes imposes a range of stressors that can result in mortality at rates of up to 73%. These rates vary hugely, however, and can be as low as 2%, because they are generally estimated rather than based on experimental work. Given the numbers of ornamental fishes traded, any of the estimated mortality rates potentially incur significant financial losses and serious welfare issues. Industry bodies, such as the Ornamental Aquatic Trade Association (OATA), have established standards and codes of best practice for handling fishes, but little scientific research has been conducted to understand the links between stress, health and welfare in ornamental species. In aquaculture, many of the same stressors occur as those in the ornamental trade, including poor water quality, handling, transportation, confinement, poor social and physical environment and disease and in this sector directed research and some resulting interventions have resulted in improved welfare standards. This review considers the concept of welfare in fishes and evaluates reported rates of mortality in the ornamental trade. It assesses how the stress response can be quantified and used as a welfare indicator in fishes. It then analyses whether lessons from aquaculture can be usefully applied to the ornamental fish industry to improve welfare. Finally, this analysis is used to suggest how future research might be directed to help improve welfare in the ornamental trade. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Male rock sparrows adjust their breeding strategy according to female ornamentation: parental or mating investment?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilastro, Andrea; Griggio, Matteo; Matessi, Giuliano

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the relations between female quality and ornamentation and between male breeding investment and female ornamentation in the rock sparrow, Petronia petronia, a passerine in which both sexes have a yellow breast patch. Breast patch size in females was positively correlated with body...

  14. Diseases of Ornamental and Shade Trees, Shrubs, Vines, and Ground Covers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Lester P.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University covers the identification and control of common ornamental trees, shrubs, and ground cover diseases. The publication is divided into sections. The first section discusses the diseases of ornamental and shade trees, including general diseases and diseases of specific…

  15. Breeding Hedychium Species, Ornamental Ginger Plants with Insecticidal and Anti-Microbial Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedychium species belong to the ginger family with great potential as ornamentals, but lodging is an impediment to this possibility, so there is a need for more compact Hedychium cultivars. Hedychium muluense (diploid) is one of the few dwarf species, but it is not ornamentally as attractive as som...

  16. ORNAMENTAL PLANTS OF CHECHNYA AND ITS ADJACENT AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa A. Taysumov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The aim of the research is to summarize the scattered information about the types of decorative flora of the Chechen Republic and adjacent territories; to identify highly resistant ornamental plants for cities and settlements of the North Caucasus and other territories of Russia. Discussion. Currently, in a variety of botanical gardens of the North Caucasus grows a large number of decorative plant species, widely used in green construction. However, not all species posses the quality to sufficient resist unfavorable conditions of the changed abiotic and biotic environment. Among the studied, the most valuable and promising for widespread introduction are the species of more than 122 taxa, the decorative effect of which is preserved throughout the year with no signs of aging. Many examples of the targeted use of herbs, tree species, lianas, bulbous plants were cited in the research. We give a large list of Caucasian species for growing on lawns, flowerbeds, flower gardens, alpine and stony mountains, roadsides and parks, urban parks, squares and alleys as a type of gardening. Their decorative properties, vitality, durability, life form and other bio-ecological features, attitude to abiotic factors (soil conditions, illumination, temperature, soil and atmospheric humidification conditions, etc. were taken into account. Conclusion. We give a large list of ornamental species and various planting techniques of specific species are introduced in conditions of Chechnya and its adjacent territories as well as the methods of implementing in the landscaping practice in other (middle and northern regions of Russia.

  17. Gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of ornamental bromeliads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Gonçalves da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence are widely used in physiological and ecological studies; however, few studies have used these techniques with ornamental plants. This study tested the potential contribution of gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence to evaluate the water and nutrients uptake by the tank and root system of epiphyte bromeliad Guzmania lingulata. For this purpose, we conducted an experiment with different water regime and another with different concentrations of nitrogen. The experiments were: 1 - Watering: Control (application of water into Tank and Root, Tank (watering into Tank, Root (watering Root and Drought (water suspension during the 90 days of experimentation and 2 - Nitrogen: Plants fertilized with Hoagland and Arnon nutrient solution exclusively into Tank or Root with nitrogen concentrations of control and 2.62 or 5.34 mM N applied as urea. The Fv /Fm ratio allowed comparing the treatments between experiments, demonstrating that Root and Tank both have the capacity to maintain G. lingulata photosynthetic activity and growth, while Drought treatment (water suspension was the limiting factor for energy conversion efficiency of PSII. However, gas exchange was more permissive as a parameter for comparing treatments in the nitrogen experiment, providing important information about the general aspects of the photosynthetic process in the watering experiment. Both gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence can support the evaluation of G. lingulata physiological status and can be useful tools in ornamental horticultural studies.

  18. Advancement of mutation breeding on ornamental plants in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handayati, W.

    2013-01-01

    Along with the increasing demand of ornamental plants in Indonesia and the change of consumers preference, Indonesian breeders have released 102 varieties in the last 5 year. However, the resulted varieties were not enough to substitute the imported varieties. A breeding method for a new variety was carried out through induced mutation. Many researches have been conducted in Indonesia, but these activities have not been comprehensively designed to create the potential genotypes that ready to be released as new superior varieties. Commonly, these activities were still in the stage of basic researches about the type and the most effective dose or lethal dose (LD 50 ), the sensitivity of both the plants cultured in-vitro and in-vivo to mutagen; and genetic or phenotypic diversity due to the mutagen treatments. Chrysanthemum and rose were the most of the ornamental plants that had been conducted. Some mutants have been released as new national superior varieties namely Julikara, Rosanda and Rosmarun (mini rose); Rosma (cut rose) and Mustika Kania (chrysanthemum). (author)

  19. Complex Ornament Machining Process on a CNC Router

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the CNC routering possibilities for three species of wood, namely ash (Fraxinus Excelsior, lime wood (Tilia cordata and fir wood (Abies Alba, in order to obtain right surfaces of Art Nouveau sculptured ornaments. Given the complexity of the CNC tool path for getting wavy shapes of Art Nouveau decorations, the choice of processing parameters for each processed species of wood requires a laborious research work to correlate these parameters. Two Art Nouveau ornaments are proposed for the investigation. They are CNC routered using two types of cutting tools. The processed parameters namely the spindle speed, feed speed and depth of cut were the three variables of the machining process for the three species of wood, which were combined so, to provide good surface finish as a quality attribute. There were totally forty six variants of combining the processing parameter which were applied for CNC routering the samples made of the three species of wood. At the end, an optimum combination of the processed parameters is recommended for each species of wood.

  20. Acclimatization and growth of ornamental pineapple seedlings under organic substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Carlos Colombo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro propagation techniques are commonly used to produce ornamental pineapple seedlings in commercial scale, aiming to attend the growers with genetic and sanitary quality seedlings. However, the choice of the ideal substrate is essential for the acclimatization and growth stage of the seedlings propagated by this technique, since some substrates can increase the seedling mortality and/or limit the seedling growth due to its physical and chemical characteristics. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the acclimatization of ornamental pineapple [Ananas comosus (L. Merr. var. ananassoides (Baker Coppens & Leal] on different substrates. Seedlings with approximately seven centimeters, obtained from in vitro culture, were transplanted into styrofoam trays filled with the following substrates: sphagnum; semi-composed pine bark; carbonized rice husk; sphagnum + semicomposed pine bark; sphagnum + carbonized rice husk; and semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk. Each treatment was replicated five times using 10 plants. At 180 days, there were evaluated the following variables: survival percentage, plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, largest root length, and shoot and root dry matter. The substrate semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk presented the lowest mean (62% for survival percentage. The semi-composed pine bark and semi-composed pine bark + carbonized rice husk treatments presented significant increments in some evaluated biometric characteristics. The semi-composed pine bark is the most favorable substrate for the A. comosus var. ananassoids acclimatization.

  1. San Personal Ornaments from the Later Stone Age at Blombos Cave and Blomboschfontein, southern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vibe, Ingrid M Østby

    2007-01-01

    A critical factor that distinguishes modern humans, Homo sapiens, from animals is the ability to communicate using symbols. One example is the use of personal ornaments. People in all cultures use personal ornaments to express something about themselves, and a wide range of functions and meanings can be applied to different ornamentation. The personal ornaments from three Later Stone Age sites in the Blomboschfontein Region, southern Cape, South Africa were analysed in order to determine vari...

  2. Influence of culture on ornament of the traditional architecture in Medan (Malay Deli Sultanate)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawawiy Loebis, M.; Ginting, Nurlisa; Simanjuntak, Haryanto; Jamaluddin, Fattah

    2018-03-01

    During the Dutch colonialism, Malay Deli Sultanate was dominant and big which now their superiority was destroyed by Social Revolution. At that time, Malay people live in the peak of glory and civilization resulting in their growing culture. The purpose of research is to find the influence of culture in Malay Deli ornaments as a part of Architecture. Data obtained with literatures study and observation. The data was analysed using qualitative method to describe the phenomenon occur between variables. The aim of this research is identifying any culture influences ornaments in architecture. Such as Islam influences Malay ornament on the building and ornament division between the noble and people. The research result is the culture such as language, religion have influence on ornaments in Malay Deli architecture.

  3. Measuring scarce water saving from interregional virtual water flows in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Li, Y. P.; Yang, H.; Liu, W. F.; Tillotson, M. R.; Guan, D.; Yi, Y.; Wang, H.

    2018-05-01

    Trade of commodities can lead to virtual water flows between trading partners. When commodities flow from regions of high water productivity to regions of low water productivity, the trade has the potential to generate water saving. However, this accounting of water saving does not account for the water scarcity status in different regions. It could be that the water saving generated from this trade occurs at the expense of the intensified water scarcity in the exporting region, and exerts limited effect on water stress alleviation in importing regions. In this paper, we propose an approach to measure the scarce water saving associated with virtual water trade (measuring in water withdrawal/use). The scarce water is quantified by multiplying the water use in production with the water stress index (WSI). We assessed the scarce water saving/loss through interprovincial trade within China using a multi-region input-output table from 2010. The results show that interprovincial trade resulted in 14.2 km3 of water loss without considering water stress, but only 0.4 km3 scarce water loss using the scarce water concept. Among the 435 total connections of virtual water flows, 254 connections contributed to 20.2 km3 of scarce water saving. Most of these connections are virtual water flows from provinces with lower WSI to that with higher WSI. Conversely, 175 connections contributed to 20.6 km3 of scarce water loss. The virtual water flow connections between Xinjiang and other provinces stood out as the biggest contributors, accounting for 66% of total scarce water loss. The results show the importance of assessing water savings generated from trade with consideration of both water scarcity status and water productivity across regions. Identifying key connections of scarce water saving is useful in guiding interregional economic restructuring towards water stress alleviation, a major goal of China’s sustainable development strategy.

  4. Scarce skills expatriates in South African universities: Rhetoric and realities of the “Messianic” academics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokoko Sebola

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the reason for the continued scarce skills shortage, despite the recruitment of expatriates in academic institutions as an intervention measure. It argues that while the Human Resources Departments in South African universities motivate for the appointment of expatriates in the development of scarce skills, little monitoring is done to determine the effectiveness of this objective and, often, no performance instrument exists for such personnel. As such, the scarce skills to be developed continue to be wanting in the country. This article is conceptual and uses literature to argue about the hypothetical relation between the lack of a monitoring tool for expatriates and the continued scarce skills problems that universities cannot address. It concludes that the continued lack of a performance-monitoring instrument in South African universities for contracted expatriates will not solve the skills shortage problem experienced in South Africa.

  5. Crisis Team Management in a Scarce Resource Setting: Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, Cambodia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Alynn Henker

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA crisis team management (CTM simulation course was developed by volunteers from Health Volunteers Overseas for physicians and nurses at Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC in Siem Reap, Cambodia. The framework for the course was adapted from crisis resource management (1, 2, crisis team training (3, and TeamSTEPPs© models (4. The CTM course focused on teaching physicians and nurses on the development of team performance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Challenges to providing this course at AHC included availability of simulation equipment, cultural differences in learning, and language barriers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the impact of a CTM simulation course at AHC on attitudes and perceptions of participants on concepts related to team performance.MethodsEach of the CTM courses consisted of three lectures, including team performance concepts, communication, and debriefing followed by rotation through four simulation scenarios. The evaluation instrument used to evaluate the AHC CTM course was developed for Cambodian staff at AHC based on TeamSTEPPs© instruments evaluating attitude and perceptions of team performance (5. CTM team performance concepts included in lectures, debriefing sessions, and the evaluation instrument were: team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze pre- and post-test paired data from participants in the course.ResultsOf the 54 participants completing the three CTM courses at AHC, 27 were nurses, 6 were anesthetists, and 21 were physicians. Attitude and perception scores were found to significantly improve (p < 0.05 for team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, and communication. Team performance areas that improved the most were: discussion of team performance, communication, and exchange of information.ConclusionTeaching of non-technical skills can be effective in a setting with scarce

  6. Crisis Team Management in a Scarce Resource Setting: Angkor Hospital for Children in Siem Reap, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henker, Richard Alynn; Henker, Hiroko; Eng, Hor; O'Donnell, John; Jirativanont, Tachawan

    2017-01-01

    A crisis team management (CTM) simulation course was developed by volunteers from Health Volunteers Overseas for physicians and nurses at Angkor Hospital for Children (AHC) in Siem Reap, Cambodia. The framework for the course was adapted from crisis resource management (1, 2), crisis team training (3), and TeamSTEPPs© models (4). The CTM course focused on teaching physicians and nurses on the development of team performance knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Challenges to providing this course at AHC included availability of simulation equipment, cultural differences in learning, and language barriers. The purpose of this project was to evaluate the impact of a CTM simulation course at AHC on attitudes and perceptions of participants on concepts related to team performance. Each of the CTM courses consisted of three lectures, including team performance concepts, communication, and debriefing followed by rotation through four simulation scenarios. The evaluation instrument used to evaluate the AHC CTM course was developed for Cambodian staff at AHC based on TeamSTEPPs© instruments evaluating attitude and perceptions of team performance (5). CTM team performance concepts included in lectures, debriefing sessions, and the evaluation instrument were: team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, mutual support, and communication. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to analyze pre- and post-test paired data from participants in the course. Of the 54 participants completing the three CTM courses at AHC, 27 were nurses, 6 were anesthetists, and 21 were physicians. Attitude and perception scores were found to significantly improve ( p  < 0.05) for team structure, leadership, situation monitoring, and communication. Team performance areas that improved the most were: discussion of team performance, communication, and exchange of information. Teaching of non-technical skills can be effective in a setting with scarce resources in a Southeastern Asian country.

  7. Leveraging Scarce Resources With Bone Health TeleECHO to Improve the Care of Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewiecki, E Michael; Rochelle, Rachelle; Bouchonville, Matthew F; Chafey, David H; Olenginski, Thomas P; Arora, Sanjeev

    2017-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a common condition with serious consequences because of fractures. Despite availability of treatments to reduce fracture risk, there is a large osteoporosis treatment gap that has reached crisis proportions. There are too few specialists to provide services for patients who need them. Bone Health Extension for Community Health Care Outcomes (TeleECHO) is a strategy using real-time ongoing videoconferencing technology to mentor health care professionals in rural and underserved communities to achieve an advanced level of knowledge for the care of patients with skeletal diseases. Over the first 21 months of weekly Bone Health TeleECHO programs, there were 263 registered health care professionals in the United States and several other countries, with 221 attending at least 1 online clinic and typically 35 to 40 attendees at each session at the end of the reported period. Assessment of self-confidence in 20 domains of osteoporosis care showed substantial improvement with the ECHO intervention ( P = 0.005). Bone Health TeleECHO can contribute to mitigating the crisis in osteoporosis care by leveraging scarce resources, providing motivated practitioners with skills to provide better skeletal health care, closer to home, with greater convenience, and lower cost than referral to a specialty center. Bone Health TeleECHO can be replicated in any location worldwide to reach anyone with Internet access, allowing access in local time zones and languages. The ECHO model of learning can be applied to other aspects of bone care, including the education of fracture liaison service coordinators, residents and fellows, and physicians with an interest in rare bone diseases.

  8. Girassol ornamental: caracterização, pós-colheita e escala de senescência Ornamental sunflower: characterization, postharvest and senescence scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Luiz Curti

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O girassol ornamental amplia o mercado de comercialização de plantas ornamentais no Brasil. Desta forma, este trabalho teve como objetivo apresentar uma caracterização do manejo pós-colheita e propor uma escala de senescência da cultura do girassol ornamental quanto à senescência, durabilidade das flores e referências de valores de comercialização. A produção de flores é uma atividade de alto risco pela fragilidade do produto, qualidades estéticas e as condições de produção, bem como a menor durabilidade pós-colheita do produto. Esse estudo propõe uma escala de senescência para cultivares de girassol ornamental quanto à senescência dos capítulos para atribuir diferentes remunerações e possibilidades de comercialização da cultura.The ornamental sunflower widen the market of ornamental plants in Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to present a characterization of post-harvest management and to propose a range of senescence stage of sunflower as an ornamental in relation to senescence, flower longevity and benchmark values of trade. The production of flowers is a high risk activity for the fragility of the product, aesthetic qualities and conditions of production as well as lower post-harvest durability of the product. This study proposes a range of senescence stages for ornamental sunflower cultivars as the aging of different chapters to assign salaries and marketability of the crop.

  9. GENERATION OF GEOMETRIC ORNAMENTS IN ANCIENT MOSAIC ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASS Ludmila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines geometrical ornaments from ancient mosaic.We studied the geometric generation by using Computer Aided Graphics for three examples of ancient mosaic: a mosaic of Ancient Corinth, a mosaic of the sacred geometry Flower of Life (exposed in the National Museum of Israel and a mosaic of fortress Masada - Israel. The technique of drawing ancient mosaic is recomposed using computer aided graphics. A program has been developed that can help draw a petal-type arc (semicircle of the mosaic that is the Byzantine church of Masada. Based on these mosaics, other variants of aesthetic images in monochrome or black and white and polychrome were drawn, all of which can be materialized in decorative art to embellish various surfaces: walls, floors, pools, fountains, etc.

  10. Characteristics of ornamental rocks waste: application of mechanochemical concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, J. dos; Galembeck, F.

    2016-01-01

    Processing of ornamental rocks produces up to 80% weight residues which become an environmental problem. In this work, we analyzed residual powders from cutting and crushing granite Cinza Corumba, to study the influence of mechanical processes in the properties of the residues. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, surface area determination and adsorption of methylene blue. The same elements and minerals are found in both powders but the powders formed during crushing contain lubricating oil residues, from the crusher. Particle shapes of the crushed powder (surface area 2.85 m2/g) are more irregular than cut powder (surface area 1.98 m2/g). Adsorption of methylene blue is lighter in the crushed powder than in the cutting powder. Thus, the powders analyzed have different surface properties. (author)

  11. Ornament in Contemporary Iranian Architecture (Case Study: Prominent Buildings in Tehran after the Islamic Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ahani

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the status of ornamental practices in contemporary Iranian architecture, specifically after the Islamic revolution, using a descriptive–analytical method. In this regard, the external appearances of 92 prominent buildings constructed in Tehran between 1979–2013, were examined, and their means of visual expression were analyzed. The results indicate that half of the samples lack ornament; in the others, a noticeable increase in the ornamental element size and visual complexity, as well as a significant decrease in their semantic contents (as compared with traditional ornament were observed. These are changes that mostly resulted from modernization and subsequent processes such as industrialization and rationalization, as well as the long-lasting influence of modernists’ arguments against such practices. The presence of ornament in architecture, however, is necessary due to its crucial role in increasing the visual coherence of the environment and fulfilling the human desire for order and beauty. Therefore, this paper suggests the replacement of the current dualistic model of thought, which is dominant in the profession and schools of architecture in Iran, with one that provides an opportunity for the coexistence of concepts such as ornament and structure, form and function, and the sensuous and the rational, hence providing a revitalization of ornament in contemporary architecture.

  12. Diplomonad flagellates of some ornamental fish cultured in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonkob Viriyapongsutee

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The study on diplomonad flagellates infection in some ornamental fishes in the family cichlidae i.e., angelfish(Pterophyllum scalare, oscar (Astronotus ocellatus, blue mbuna (Labeotropheus fuelleborni and the family osphronemidaei.e., Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens revealed that this parasite infected three out of four ornamental fish species,angelfish, oscar and blue mbuna. The highest infection was recorded in angelfish (90% followed by oscar (75.4% and bluembuna (61%, respectively. Identification of diplomonad flagellates from angelfish by means of morphological studies underlight and electron microscopes indicated that the parasite was Spironucleus vortens. The 14–days LD50 of S. vortens inangelfish was 2.99x103 cells. Histopathological changes of infected angelfish revealed granulomatous liver, numerousnumbers of melanomacrophage in the spleen and inflammation of the intestine. Susceptibility study of S. vortens to goldfish(Carassius auratus, guppy (Poecilia reticulata and platy (Xiphophorus maculatus indicated that they were resistant toartificial infection. In vitro examination of the growth inhibition assay of S. vortens indicated that dimetridazole and metronidazolewere effective in inhibiting parasite growth after 48 hrs exposure at concentrations of >4.0 μg/ml and >6.0 μg/ml,respectively. Magnesium sulfate at a concentration of >60 mg/ml inhibited the parasite growth after 72 hrs exposure. In vivoexamination of the dimetridazole efficiency on S. vortens infection indicated that dimetridazole at 4.0 μg/ml provided thehighest efficiency which could be used for treatment of spironucleosis in angelfish.

  13. Does skull morphology constrain bone ornamentation? A morphometric analysis in the Crocodylia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, F; Souter, T; Cubo, J; de Buffrénil, V; Brochu, C; Cornette, R

    2016-08-01

    Previous quantitative assessments of the crocodylians' dermal bone ornamentation (this ornamentation consists of pits and ridges) has shown that bone sculpture results in a gain in area that differs between anatomical regions: it tends to be higher on the skull table than on the snout. Therefore, a comparative phylogenetic analysis within 17 adult crocodylian specimens representative of the morphological diversity of the 24 extant species has been performed, in order to test if the gain in area due to ornamentation depends on the skull morphology, i.e. shape and size. Quantitative assessment of skull size and shape through geometric morphometrics, and of skull ornamentation through surface analyses, produced a dataset that was analyzed using phylogenetic least-squares regression. The analyses reveal that none of the variables that quantify ornamentation, be they on the snout or the skull table, is correlated with the size of the specimens. Conversely, there is more disparity in the relationships between skull conformations (longirostrine vs. brevirostrine) and ornamentation. Indeed, both parameters GApit (i.e. pit depth and shape) and OArelat (i.e. relative area of the pit set) are negatively correlated with snout elongation, whereas none of the values quantifying ornamentation on the skull table is correlated with skull conformation. It can be concluded that bone sculpture on the snout is influenced by different developmental constrains than on the skull table and is sensible to differences in the local growth 'context' (allometric processes) prevailing in distinct skull parts. Whatever the functional role of bone ornamentation on the skull, if any, it seems to be restricted to some anatomical regions at least for the longirostrine forms that tend to lose ornamentation on the snout. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  14. Ornament Complexity Is Correlated with Sexual Selection: (A Comment on Raia et al., "Cope's Rule and the Universal Scaling Law of Ornament Complexity").

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Luke; Bro-Jørgensen, Jakob

    2016-08-01

    Raia et al. propose that the evolution of the shape and complexity of animal ornaments (e.g., deer antlers) can be explained by interspecific variation in body size and is not influenced by sexual selection. They claim to show that ornament complexity is related to body size by an 0.25-power law and argue that this finding precludes a role for sexual selection in the evolution of ornament complexity. However, their study does not test alternative hypotheses and mismeasures antler shape allometry by omitting much of the published data. We show that an index of sexual selection (sexual size dimorphism) is positively correlated with size-corrected antler complexity and that the allometric slope of complexity is substantially greater than 0.25, contra Raia et al. We conclude that sexual selection and physical constraints both affect the evolution of antler shape.

  15. New and improved ornamental plants for a world of environmental stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibert, R J

    1970-01-01

    Ornamental plants serve several useful functions, among them beautification of the environment and oxygen production. The strengths and advantages of a large number of plant species and varieties are discussed. Resistance to pollution damage, when known, is discussed.

  16. Susceptibility of ornamental pepper banker plant candidates to common greenhouse pests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susceptibility of four potential ornamental pepper banker plant candidates [Black Pearl (BP), Explosive Ember (EE), Masquerade (MA), Red Missile (RM), and a commercial pepper cultivar Blitz (BL)] were evaluated against three common greenhouse pests - Bemisia tabaci, Polyphagotarsonemus latus and Fra...

  17. Interaction of insecticide and media moisture on ambrosia beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) attacks on ornamental trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford), are among the most economically damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but rec...

  18. Chronic gamma irradiation of ornamental and landscaping plants at gamma greenhouse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuhaimi Shamsudin; Zaiton Ahmad; Affrida Abu Hassan

    2011-01-01

    Activities on chronic gamma irradiation of ornamental and landscaping plants have started since April 2010. Among plants which have been irradiated were landscaping plants such as hibiscus, canna, turnera, plumeria, amaryllis, and ornamental plants such as orchid, heliconia, cucurma and sanseviera, as well as vanilla. The main objectives at the initial stage were to develop database for optimum chronic irradiation dose and suitable experimental design for each species. The ultimate aim is to obtain new varieties of ornamental plants with flower and horticultural traits of commercial values and landscaping plants suitable for Malaysian landscape such as large and colourful flower, longer bloom period and frequent flowering. This paper discusses irradiation activities for ornamental plants in Gamma Greenhouse including preparation of samples, growing medium and screening plots, selection/determination of optimum dose and dose rate, collection of data and selection of mutants. (author)

  19. Genetic diversity in a collection of ornamental squash (Cucurbita pepo L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Emina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is collecting and preserving of unique Cucurbita pepo germplasm in Serbia. This study also describes the intraspecific variation of C. pepo within twenty germplasm accessions. Conservation work aimed to develop a representative core collection of C. pepo germplasm, to guide future studies and breeding of its ornamental use. A wide range of C. pepo germplasm was collected from diferent parts of the world. Nineteen variables were recorded in 20 varieties to determine the overall degree of polymorphism and to detect similarities among them. Qualitative traits of fruit such is shape, color and texture, showed immense variation. Coefficient of variation were highest for fruit length, fruit weight and number of fruits per plant (CV=56.69161.32%, while they were the lowest for leaf length (CV=20.65%. Morphological characterization is need to facilitate the use of C. pepo varieties in breeding work. Based on the PCA results, 20 accessions of squash are separate in five groups. Those groups are unique in qualitative and quantitative traits. Knowledge of genetic divergence among varieties is essential for breeding.

  20. Virtual scarce water embodied in inter-provincial electricity transmission in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Lijin; Liang, Sai; Sanders, Kelly T.; Wang, Jiao; Xu, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Virtual water in inter-provincial electricity transmission in China is calculated. • A Water Stress Index is used to reflect relative scarcity of water consumption. • West Inner Mongolia is the largest exporter of scarce water. • Hebei, Beijing and Shandong are the three largest receivers of scarce water. - Abstract: Intra-national electricity transmission drives virtual water transfer from electricity production regions to electricity consumption regions. In China, the water-intensive thermoelectric power industry is expanding quickly in many water-scarce energy production hubs in northern and northwestern provinces. This study constructed a node-flow model of inter-provincial electricity transmission to investigate the virtual water and scarcity-adjusted virtual water (or virtual scarce water) embodied in the electricity transmission network. It is revealed that total inter-provincial virtual water transfer embodied in electricity transmission was 623 million m"3 in 2011, equivalent to 12.7% of the national total thermoelectric water consumption. The top three largest single virtual water flows are West Inner Mongolia-to-Beijing (44 million m"3), East Inner Mongolia-to-Liaoning (39 million m"3), and Guizhou-to-Guangdong (37 million m"3). If the actual volumes of consumptive water use are translated into scarcity-adjusted water consumption based on Water Stress Index, West Inner Mongolia (81 million m"3), Shanxi (63 million m"3) and Ningxia (30 million m"3) become the top three exporters of virtual scarce water. Many ongoing long-distance electricity transmission projects in China will enlarge the scale of scarce water outflows from northwestern regions and potentially increase their water stress.

  1. Action of ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropene and silver thiosulfate in two developmental stages of potted ornamental pepper(

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Cristina Carvalho Lima; Milena Maria Tomaz Oliveira; Wellington Souto Ribeiro; Lucas Cavalcante Costa; Fernando Luiz Finger

    2017-01-01

    The species of Capsicum genus have great genetic variability with enormous potential for marketing as ornamental potted plants. The exposure at ethylene induces various deleterious responses during plants life cycle, but there are few studies on how the ethylene affects early developmental stages of these ornamental plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of ethylene and ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and silver thiosulphate (STS) in two ea...

  2. Induction of somatic mutations in ornamental plants by ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, B.M.; Abraham, V.

    1980-01-01

    Improvement in some ornamental plants through induction of somatic mutations by ionizing radiations and chemical mutagens viz. colchicine, EMS and DS has been attempted. Mutants of high ornamental value have been evolved, isolated and multiplied in canna, perennial portulaca, tuberose, bougainvillea, hibiscus, daisy, lilies. These pertain to changes in colour, shape and size of flower and foliage. Procedural details on induction, isolation, stabilisation of the mutants and description of the new characteristics are presented. (author)

  3. Micropropagation of ornamental species Petunia grandiflora and Dianthus chinensis x barbatus

    OpenAIRE

    Velesanova, Ivana; Trajkova, Fidanka; Koleva Gudeva, Liljana

    2017-01-01

    Petunia (Petunia sp.) and pink dianthus (Dianthus sp.) are important ornamental plants which are grown on balconies, in flower gardens, parks and other during summer period. Approximately 156 ornamental species are cultivated via tissue culture in different commercial laboratories worldwide. In vitro plant culture is one of the key tools in plant biotechnology that utilizes the totipotency of plant cells. In this research the influence of different concentrations and combinations of BA, GA...

  4. The changing role of ornamental horticulture in alien plant invasions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleunen, Mark; Essl, Franz; Pergl, Jan; Brundu, Giuseppe; Carboni, Marta; Dullinger, Stefan; Early, Regan; González-Moreno, Pablo; Groom, Quentin J; Hulme, Philip E; Kueffer, Christoph; Kühn, Ingolf; Máguas, Cristina; Maurel, Noëlie; Novoa, Ana; Parepa, Madalin; Pyšek, Petr; Seebens, Hanno; Tanner, Rob; Touza, Julia; Verbrugge, Laura; Weber, Ewald; Dawson, Wayne; Kreft, Holger; Weigelt, Patrick; Winter, Marten; Klonner, Günther; Talluto, Matthew V; Dehnen-Schmutz, Katharina

    2018-03-05

    The number of alien plants escaping from cultivation into native ecosystems is increasing steadily. We provide an overview of the historical, contemporary and potential future roles of ornamental horticulture in plant invasions. We show that currently at least 75% and 93% of the global naturalised alien flora is grown in domestic and botanical gardens, respectively. Species grown in gardens also have a larger naturalised range than those that are not. After the Middle Ages, particularly in the 18th and 19th centuries, a global trade network in plants emerged. Since then, cultivated alien species also started to appear in the wild more frequently than non-cultivated aliens globally, particularly during the 19th century. Horticulture still plays a prominent role in current plant introduction, and the monetary value of live-plant imports in different parts of the world is steadily increasing. Historically, botanical gardens - an important component of horticulture - played a major role in displaying, cultivating and distributing new plant discoveries. While the role of botanical gardens in the horticultural supply chain has declined, they are still a significant link, with one-third of institutions involved in retail-plant sales and horticultural research. However, botanical gardens have also become more dependent on commercial nurseries as plant sources, particularly in North America. Plants selected for ornamental purposes are not a random selection of the global flora, and some of the plant characteristics promoted through horticulture, such as fast growth, also promote invasion. Efforts to breed non-invasive plant cultivars are still rare. Socio-economical, technological, and environmental changes will lead to novel patterns of plant introductions and invasion opportunities for the species that are already cultivated. We describe the role that horticulture could play in mediating these changes. We identify current research challenges, and call for more

  5. Reproduction of Bela Krajina Ornaments on Linen Fabrics by Screen Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Rijavec

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Decorated Bela Krajina (White Carniolan towels called “otirači” are historical textiles, which represent an important cultural heritage of the Slovenian nation. This article presents the research of the suitability of the screen printing technique for reproducing ornaments from Bela Krajina towels, originally made with a technique called “tkaničenje”. The basic characteristics of woven fabrics, the colours of ornaments from Bela Krajina towels and the linen fabric, suitable for kitchen textiles, were analysed. Two Bela Krajina motifs were chosen for the decoration, namely a diamond and an eight-arm star. A comparison of the the colour diff erences, DE*ab , of the replica ornaments and the ornaments on the original towels made in blue and red colours showed a good match even after washing. It was confi rmed that the screen printing technique is suitable for decorating linen textiles with the original Bela Krajina ornaments, wherein the ornaments retaining their aesthetic and message values.

  6. Phytostabilization potential of ornamental plants grown in soil contaminated with cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Peng; Guo, Zhaohui; Cao, Xia; Xiao, Xiyuan; Liu, Yanan; Shi, Lei

    2018-03-21

    In a greenhouse experiment, five ornamental plants, Osmanthus fragrans (OF), Ligustrum vicaryi L. (LV), Cinnamomum camphora (CC), Loropetalum chinense var. rubrum (LC), and Euonymus japonicas cv. Aureo-mar (EJ), were studied for the ability to phytostabilization for Cd-contaminated soil. The results showed that these five ornamental plants can grow normally when the soil Cd content is less than 24.6 mg·kg -1 . Cd was mainly deposited in the roots of OF, LV, LC and EJ which have grown in Cd-contaminated soils, and the maximum Cd contents reached 15.76, 19.09, 20.59 and 32.91 mg·kg -1 , respectively. For CC, Cd was mainly distributed in the shoots and the maximum Cd content in stems and leaves were 12.5 and 10.71 mg·kg -1 , however, the total amount of Cd in stems and leaves was similar with the other ornamental plants. The enzymatic activities in Cd-contaminated soil were benefited from the five tested ornamental plants remediation. Soil urease and sucrase activities were improved, while dehydrogenase activity was depressed. Meanwhile, the soil microbial community was slightly influenced when soil Cd content is less than 24.6 mg·kg -1 under five ornamental plants remediation. The results further suggested that ornamental plants could be promising candidates for phytostabilization of Cd-contaminated soil.

  7. Male mate choice scales female ornament allometry in a cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullmann Harald

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin greatly differing from that of males. Results We show that allometry of the female pelvic fin is scaled more positively in comparison to other fins. The pelvic fin exhibits isometry, whereas the other fins (except the caudal fin show negative allometry. The size of the pelvic fin might be exaggerated by male choice because males prefer female stimuli that show a larger extension of the trait. Female pelvic fin size is correlated with individual condition, suggesting that males can assess direct and indirect benefits. Conclusions The absence of positive ornament allometry might be a result of sexual selection constricted by natural selection: fins are related to locomotion and thus may be subject to viability selection. Our study provides evidence that male mate choice might scale the expression of a female sexual ornament, and therefore has implications for the understanding of the relationship of female sexual traits with body size in species with conventional sex-roles.

  8. I'm sexy and I glow it: female ornamentation in a nocturnal capital breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Juhani; Baudry, Gautier; Candolin, Ulrika; Kaitala, Arja

    2015-10-01

    In many species, males rely on sexual ornaments to attract females. Females, by contrast, rarely produce ornaments. The glow-worm (Lampyris noctiluca) is an exception where wingless females glow to attract males that fly in search of females. However, little is known about the factors that promote the evolution of female ornaments in a sexual selection context. Here, we investigated if the female ornament of the glow-worm is a signal of fecundity used in male mate choice. In support of this, we found brightness to correlate with female fecundity, and males to prefer brighter dummy females. Thus, the glow emitted by females is a reliable sexual signal of female fecundity. It is likely that male preference for the fecundity-indicating ornament has evolved because of large variation among females in fecundity, and because nocturnal males cannot directly assess female size and fecundity. These results indicate that female ornamentation may evolve in capital breeders (i.e. those in which stored resources are invested in reproduction) when females vary significantly in fecundity and this variation cannot be assessed directly by males. © 2015 The Author(s).

  9. Downy mildews on ornamental plants and their control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, C

    2006-01-01

    Among downy mildews occurring on ornamentals in Poland the most dangerous are downy mildew of rose and downy mildew of German statice (Tartarian statice). Downy mildew of rose caused by Peronospora sparsa Berk. is a serious threat to commercial cultivation of cut roses, especially grown under plastic tunnels. Peronospora statices Lobik casual agent of German statice downy mildew can causes the total losses in the second year of statice cultivation more than 70%. Both pathogens are very difficult to control. Effectiveness of azoxystrobine, cymoxanil + famoxate, mancozeb, phosethyl aluminium, phosethyl aluminium + fenamidone, propamocarb in the control of P. sparsa and P. statices was presented. In the control of statice downy mildew none of tested compounds was able to control satisfactory the pathogen. Relatively the best results were obtained with mixture of fenamidone (88 microg/cm3) and phosethyl AL (1334 microg/cm3). In the control of rose downy mildew, the best results were obtained with phosethyl Al at concentration 1600 microg/cm3.

  10. Imaging-based logics for ornamental stone quality chart definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifazi, Giuseppe; Gargiulo, Aldo; Serranti, Silvia; Raspi, Costantino

    2007-02-01

    Ornamental stone products are commercially classified on the market according to several factors related both to intrinsic lythologic characteristics and to their visible pictorial attributes. Sometimes these latter aspects prevail in quality criteria definition and assessment. Pictorial attributes are in any case also influenced by the performed working actions and the utilized tools selected to realize the final stone manufactured product. Stone surface finishing is a critical task because it can contribute to enhance certain aesthetic features of the stone itself. The study was addressed to develop an innovative set of methodologies and techniques able to quantify the aesthetic quality level of stone products taking into account both the physical and the aesthetical characteristics of the stones. In particular, the degree of polishing of the stone surfaces and the presence of defects have been evaluated, applying digital image processing strategies. Morphological and color parameters have been extracted developing specific software architectures. Results showed as the proposed approaches allow to quantify the degree of polishing and to identify surface defects related to the intrinsic characteristics of the stone and/or the performed working actions.

  11. Vegetative Regeneration Capacities of Five Ornamental Plant Invaders After Shredding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monty, Arnaud; Eugène, Marie; Mahy, Grégory

    2015-02-01

    Vegetation management often involves shredding to dispose of cut plant material or to destroy the vegetation itself. In the case of invasive plants, this can represent an environmental risk if the shredded material exhibits vegetative regeneration capacities. We tested the effect of shredding on aboveground and below-ground vegetative material of five ornamental widespread invaders in Western Europe that are likely to be managed by cutting and shredding techniques: Buddleja davidii (butterfly bush, Scrophulariaceae), Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed, Polygonaceae), Spiraea × billardii Hérincq (Billard's bridewort, Rosaceae), Solidago gigantea (giant goldenrod, Asteraceae), and Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac, Anacardiaceae). We looked at signs of vegetative regeneration and biomass production, and analyzed the data with respect to the season of plant cutting (spring vs summer), the type of plant material (aboveground vs below-ground), and the shredding treatment (shredded vs control). All species were capable of vegetative regeneration, especially the below-ground material. We found differences among species, but the regeneration potential was generally still present after shredding despite a reduction of growth rates. Although it should not be excluded in all cases (e.g., destruction of giant goldenrod and staghorn sumac aboveground material), the use of a shredder to destroy woody alien plant material cannot be considered as a general management option without significant environmental risk.

  12. Alternative potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Thereza dos Santos Torqueti

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Brazil is dependent on importation of fertilizers, especially the potassics. Rocks and minerals that contain nutrients have a potential for use in agriculture as fertilizer, especially those of slow solubilization and that exhibit residual effect. In this context, the objective was to assess the feasibility of glauconite rock as potassium source for the cultivation of ornamental sunflower. The experiment was conducted under controlled conditions arranged in an entirely randomized design, in a 4x4 + 4 factorial scheme, with four replicates and one plant per plot. Four glauconite-based fertilizers were used as a potassium source: fine grained glauconite, fine grained organo-mineral glauconite, coarse grained glauconite and coarse grained organo-mineral glauconite, in four doses, as well as an additional treatment with four doses of KCl, the principal conventional source of the nutrient. The height of the flower stalks, the diameter of the stem and floral capitulum, the number of cultivation days and post-harvest durability were evaluated. The application of KCl yielded the production of flower stems with greater height and larger capitulum diameter in relation to the supply of glauconite. Among the glauconite based fertilizers, the fine grained organo-mineral product provided the best flower charateristics. The postharvest commercial durability of the flower stalks was higher in plants that received the glauconite and fine grained organo-mineral glauconite. The fine grained organo-mineral glauconite surpasses all other alternative sources of potassium in relation to the agronomic characteristics evaluated.

  13. Symbolic Meaning of the Ornamental Diversity of Cirebon Batik Pegajahan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarudin Kudiya

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cirebon Batik Pegajahan is the result ofthe creative process, feeling, intention, also long thought of people who have expertise in interpreting the condition of people‘s behavior of Cirebon (palace, which was then adapted into a form of art and culture of batik fabric through a process of creativity of the craftsmen. This Batik Pegajahan grows and develops within the community of (palace Cirebon, including: Kasepuhan Palace, Kanoman, Kacirebonan, and Keprabonan. This study will explain the symbolic narrative contained in Pegajahan Cirebon batik decoration. The discussion is based on the systematic symbolic visual elements of the Pegajahan batik decoration which is based on the teachings ofthe Tarekat Syattariyah attitudes and behavior of (palace Cirebon society, form of local wisdom that is reflected in the symbolic-aesthetic elements. The research used descriptive—analytic method and ethnography, in describing the symbolic narrative found in Batik Pegajahan Cirebon, The results are in the form ofvisual data complete with symbolic narratives in Batik Pegajahan Cirebon, which represents behavior of (palace Cirebon people significantly; so it can be used as reference for further research in the reconstruction, reproducing, and formulating such ornaments as the basis for designing or guidance for the people of batik (palace Cirebon in particular. Keywords: Symbolic Narratives, Decoration of Batik Pegajahan and Tarekat Syattariyah

  14. The function of female and male ornaments in the Inca Tern: evidence for links between ornament expression and both adult condition and reproductive performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velando, A.; Lessells, C.M.; Marquez, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Inca Terns Larosterna inca are medium-size seabirds that breed along the Peruvian and Chilean coast. They are monogamous and both sexes incubate and contribute to chick provisioning. The sexes are similar in appearance and have elaborate ornaments, including a long white moustache of feathers and

  15. Analysis of consumer behavior in decision making of purchasing ornamental freshwater fish (case of study at ornamental freshwater fish market at Peta Street, Bandung)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumilar, I.; Rizal, A.; Sriati; Setiawan Putra, R.

    2018-04-01

    This research aim was to analyzed process of decision making of purchasing ornamental freshwater fish at Peta Street, Bandung City and Analyzed what factors are driving consumers to buy freshwater fish Peta Street. The method used in this research is case study with rating scale and rank spearman analysis. The sampling technique is the accidental random sampling method consist of 30 respondents. The consumer’s decision making process consist of five stages, namely the recognition of needs, information searching, alternative evaluation, process of purchasing, and the evaluation of results. The results showed that at the stage of recognition of needs the motivation of purchasing freshwater fish because respondents are very fond of ornamental freshwater fish, at the stage of information search, the information sources are from the print media and friends or neighborhood. At the stage of alternative evaluation, the reason consumers buy ornamental freshwater fish because the quality of good products. The stage of purchasing decision process consumers bought 1-5 fish with frequency of purchase 1 time per month. The evaluation of results of post-purchasing consumers feel very satisfied with the fish products and the price is very affordable. To observe the factors that influence purchasing motivation of consumers, spearman rank test is the method. The results showed that the quality and price of the product are the factors that most influence the purchase decision of ornamental freshwater fish with the range of student-t value 3,968 and 2,107.

  16. Molluscs for Sale: Assessment of Freshwater Gastropods and Bivalves in the Ornamental Pet Trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Ting Hui; Tan, Siong Kiat; Wong, Wing Hing; Meier, Rudolf; Chan, Sow-Yan; Tan, Heok Hui; Yeo, Darren C J

    2016-01-01

    The ornamental pet trade is often considered a key culprit for conservation problems such as the introduction of invasive species (including infectious diseases) and overharvesting of rare species. Here, we present the first assessment of the biodiversity of freshwater molluscs in the ornamental pet trade in Singapore, one of the most important global hubs of the ornamental aquarium trade, and discuss associated conservation concerns. We recorded freshwater molluscs from ornamental pet shops and major exporters including non-ornamental species (e.g., hitchhikers, molluscs sold as fish feed). We recorded an unexpectedly high diversity-59 species-of freshwater bivalves and gastropods, with the majority (38 species or 64%) being from the Oriental region. In addition to morphological examination, we sequenced the DNA barcode region of mitochondrial CO1 and 16S genes to provide molecular data for the confirmation of the identification and for future re-identification. DNA barcodes were obtained for 50 species, and all but four were separated by > 3% uncorrected pairwise distances. The trade has been considered a main introduction pathway for non-native species to Singapore, and we found that out of 15 species in the trade as well as in the wild in Singapore, 12 are either introduced or of unknown origin, representing almost half of the known non-native freshwater molluscs in Singapore. Particularly prevalent are non-ornamental species: six hitchhikers on aquarium plants and six species sold as fish feed. We found that a quarter of the trade species have a history of introduction, which includes 11 known or potentially invasive species. We conclude that potential overharvesting is difficult to assess because only half of the trade species have been treated by IUCN. Of these, 21 species are of Least Concern and three are Data Deficient. Our checklist, with accompanying DNA barcodes, images, and museum vouchers, provides an important reference library for future monitoring

  17. Crowdsourcing Stream Stage in Data Scarce Regions: Applications of CrowdHydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, C.; Fienen, M. N.

    2013-12-01

    Crowdsourced data collection using citizen scientists and mobile phones is a promising way to collect supplemental information in data scarce or remote regions. The research presented here explore the possibilities and pitfalls of crowdsourcing hydrologic data via mobile phone text messaging through the example of CrowdHydrology, a distributed network of over 40 stream gages in four states. Signage at the CrowdHydrology gages ask citizen scientists to answer to a simple question via text message: 'What is the water height?'. While these data in no way replace more traditional measurements of stream stage, they do provide low cost supplemental measurements in data scarce regions. Results demonstrate the accuracy of crowdsourced data and provide insight for successful future crowdsourced data collection efforts. A less recognized benefit is that even in data rich areas, crowdsourced data collection is a cost-effective way to perform quality assurance on more sophisticated, and costly, data collection efforts.

  18. Early Warning System Ghana: how to successfully implement a disaster early warning system in a data scarce region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Job; Jungermann, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Ghana is a country frequently struck by natural disasters like floods and droughts. Timely warning or detection of such disasters will mitigate the negative impact on lives and property. However, local data and monitoring systems necessary to provide such a warning are hardly available. The availability and improvement of internet, mobile phones and satellites has provided new possibilities for disaster warning systems in data scarce regions such as Ghana. Our presentation describes the development of an early warning system (EWS) in Ghana completely based on satellite based open data. The EWS provides a flood or drought hazard warning on sub-catchment level and links the warning to a more detailed flood or drought risk map, to enable the disaster coordinator to send warnings or relieve more efficiently to areas that have the highest risk. This is especially relevant because some areas for which the system is implemented are very remote. The system is developed and tested to be robust and operational especially in remote areas. This means that the necessary information is also available under limited internet conditions and not dependent on local computer facilities. In many rural areas in Ghana communities rely on indigenous knowledge when it comes to flood or drought disaster forecasting. The EWS has a feature that allows indigenous knowledge indicators to be taken into account in the warning and makes easy comparison possible with the satellite based warnings.

  19. Sexual ornaments, body morphology, and swimming performance in naturally hybridizing swordtails (teleostei: xiphophorus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James B Johnson

    Full Text Available Determining the costs of sexual ornaments is complicated by the fact that ornaments are often integrated with other, non-sexual traits, making it difficult to dissect the effect of ornaments independent of other aspects of the phenotype. Hybridization can produce reduced phenotypic integration, allowing one to evaluate performance across a broad range of multivariate trait values. Here we assess the relationship between morphology and performance in the swordtails Xiphophorus malinche and X. birchmanni, two naturally-hybridizing fish species that differ extensively in non-sexual as well as sexual traits. We took advantage of novel trait variation in hybrids to determine if sexual ornaments incur a cost in terms of locomotor ability. For both fast-start and endurance swimming, hybrids performed at least as well as the two parental species. The sexually-dimorphic sword did not impair swimming performance per se. Rather, the sword negatively affected performance only when paired with a sub-optimal body shape. Studies seeking to quantify the costs of ornaments should consider that covariance with non-sexual traits may create the spurious appearance of costs.

  20. Frontiers of torenia research: innovative ornamental traits and study of ecological interaction networks through genetic engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Advances in research in the past few years on the ornamental plant torenia (Torenia spps.) have made it notable as a model plant on the frontier of genetic engineering aimed at studying ornamental characteristics and pest control in horticultural ecosystems. The remarkable advantage of torenia over other ornamental plant species is the availability of an easy and high-efficiency transformation system for it. Unfortunately, most of the current torenia research is still not very widespread, because this species has not become prominent as an alternative to other successful model plants such as Arabidopsis, snapdragon and petunia. However, nowadays, a more global view using not only a few selected models but also several additional species are required for creating innovative ornamental traits and studying horticultural ecosystems. We therefore introduce and discuss recent research on torenia, the family Scrophulariaceae, for secondary metabolite bioengineering, in which global insights into horticulture, agriculture and ecology have been advanced. Floral traits, in torenia particularly floral color, have been extensively studied by manipulating the flavonoid biosynthetic pathways in flower organs. Plant aroma, including volatile terpenoids, has also been genetically modulated in order to understand the complicated nature of multi-trophic interactions that affect the behavior of predators and pollinators in the ecosystem. Torenia would accordingly be of great use for investigating both the variation in ornamental plants and the infochemical-mediated interactions with arthropods. PMID:23803155

  1. Clonal evaluation of new ornamental pineapple hybrids to use as cut flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Silva Costa Junior

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Embrapa Cassava and Fruits has developed ornamental pineapple hybrids for several categories of ornamental use including cut flowers, potted plants and landscaping. The objective of this study was to carry out a clonal evaluation of two ornamental hybrids using quantitative and qualitative morphological descriptors to recommend these hybrids as new ornamental pineapple cultivars. Twenty plants of each hybrid (PL01 and PL04 were evaluated regarding the response to floral induction as well as the stability and homogeneity of the clones in two production cycles. The descriptive statistics were calculated and analyzed to determine the genetic distance based on the Gower algorithm. Four groups were formed, two using parental data and the other two containing the different hybrids that were evaluated in the two growing cycles. In the floral evaluation, the time from field planting to harvest of the stem as a cut flower was determined to be as long as 17 months in the first cycle and 13.5 months in the second cycle for both hybrids. They were characterized as a novelty in the flower market; they showed genetic stability and homogeneity and can be recommended as new cultivars of ornamental pineapple because they exhibit satisfactory quality and meet the market requirements.

  2. The prevalence of parasites in ornamental fish from fish market in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, R. R.; Desrita; Fadhilla, A.

    2018-02-01

    Parasites still become the major problem in ornamental fish as the fast grown of its trading in Indonesia. Parasites causes diseases in ornamental fish hence followed by death and reducing its appearence. In this study, the prevalence of parasites in 100 apparently healthy ornamental fishes namely Guppy (Poecilia reticulate) and Goldfish (Carrasius auratus) were determined. The method of this research used was survey in local fish market in Medan from March to May 2017 The aim of this study was to determine the parasite that infects aquarium fishes and find out its prevalence. For this purpose, ornamental fishes were examined for parasites from their skin, fin, gill and intestine using wet mount method under a light microscope. The survey result showed that parasites that infect Guppy and Goldfish were Monogenea (Dactylogyrus sp and Gyrodactylus sp) in their skin and gill, Protozoa (piscinodinium sp) in their gill and Nematoda (Capillaria sp) in abdominal cavity. Prevalence rate of parasites that attack Guppy in Medan is Dactylogyrus sp (8%), Gyrodactylus sp (14 %), Piscinodinium sp (6%) and Capillaria sp (8%). Then, prevalence rate of Capilaria sp that attack Goldfish is 4%. The conclusion of this work revealed that the prevalence rate of ectoparasite and endoparasites in ornamental fishes in Medan had the low rate as well as there was no pathological findings is observed. However, these parasites could be a harmful parasitic diseases in case there is the changes in aquarium environment and improper fish handling.

  3. Sexual selection on land snail shell ornamentation: a hypothesis that may explain shell diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schilthuizen Menno

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many groups of land snails show great interspecific diversity in shell ornamentation, which may include spines on the shell and flanges on the aperture. Such structures have been explained as camouflage or defence, but the possibility that they might be under sexual selection has not previously been explored. Presentation of the hypothesis The hypothesis that is presented consists of two parts. First, that shell ornamentation is the result of sexual selection. Second, that such sexual selection has caused the divergence in shell shape in different species. Testing the hypothesis The first part of the hypothesis may be tested by searching for sexual dimorphism in shell ornamentation in gonochoristic snails, by searching for increased variance in shell ornamentation relative to other shell traits, and by mate choice experiments using individuals with experimentally enhanced ornamentation. The second part of the hypothesis may be tested by comparing sister groups and correlating shell diversity with degree of polygamy. Implications of the hypothesis If the hypothesis were true, it would provide an explanation for the many cases of allopatric evolutionary radiation in snails, where shell diversity cannot be related to any niche differentiation or environmental differences.

  4. Use of tetrazolium (TTC, Germ's and greenhouse plant emergences methods for testing seed vigour of selected ornamental plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Hołubowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the years 1996-1997 the experiments were carried out on methods to investigate seed vigour of tassel flower (Amaranthus caudatus L., sand pink (Dianthus chinensis L., babies' breath (Gypsophila elegans M.B., sweet pea (Lathyrus odorathus L., African marigold (Tagetes erecta L. and zinnia (Zinnia elegans Jasq.. The main goals of this research were to specify conditions for accelerated ageing (AA of the seeds of a few selected ornamental plant species and to choose the most appropriate methods for their seed vigour evaluation in the laboratory and greenhouse conditions. All used in the experiments seeds came from the commercial seed lots from Polish seed company. Evaluation was carried out on the seed samples with high and low vigour. The latter ones were received through subjecting the seed samples to AA, i.e. by placing them in 100% relative humidity (RH at 44°C, except African marigold-at 42°C, in the darkness and keeping them for 144, 88, 100, 48, 72 and 72 hours, respectively. The tested seed vigour estimated methods included the Germ's method, the 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazoilum chloride (TTC method and the test of plant emergences in the greenhouse. The high vigour seeds samples were used as a check. The Germ's method was found to be useful to evaluate sand pink, babies' breath and African marigold seed vigour, whereas the TTC method was found to be suitable for vigour evaluation of sand pink, babies' breath and zinnia. At present stage of our knowledge about seed vigour, the plant emergences in the greenhouse method was found to be the best for evaluation of seed vigour of tassel flower, sand pink, babies' breath, sweet pea and zinnia. It is reasonable to combine a few methods of seed vigour evaluation for ornamental plant species.

  5. Brazilian consumption of flowers and ornamental plants: habits, practices and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Helio Junqueira

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian consumption of flowers and ornamental plants reproduces the main typical conditions of developing countries, which it shares with other nations of Latin America, Asia and Africa. These include low per capita consumption rates, the centralization of purchases in a few traditional items, and the concentration of demand on dates and special occasions of the national calendar of celebrations. However, in recent decades, strong growth rates have been observed for this sector, signaling a potent and promising market for producers, wholesalers, retailers, floral designers, landscapists and other professionals working in the floral segment. This article analyzes original quantitative research data applied throughout Brazil, from 2014 to 2016, by the market intelligence firm Hórtica Consultoria and by the Union of the Retail Trade of Flowers and Ornamental Plants of the State of São Paulo (Sindiflores, revealing preferences, habits, practices and tendencies for the consumption of flowers and ornamental plants in Brazil.

  6. Mutation induction as a tool for varietal development in ornamental plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Nazir Basiran

    2000-01-01

    Although the current advancement in biotechnology has tremendously change the modern breeding approach, the induced mutation techniques is still very much in use as complementary tools. MINT experiences in using the techniques for varietal development in ornamental plants has helped to increase genetic variabilities in several ornamental plant species, produced twelve new mutant cultivars as well as developed efficient tissue culture system for six ornamental plant species as tool for in vitro mutagenesis procedures and micropropagation. The technology and expertise that have been established are ready for transfer to the horticulture industry. Sharing of capability and capacity between research institutions and private sector is one possible way by improving and maintaining long-term sustenance of the floriculture industry. (author)

  7. Immune activation affects chemical sexual ornaments of male Iberian wall lizards

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Pilar; Gabirot, Marianne; Martín, José

    2009-01-01

    Many animals use chemical signals in sexual selection, but it is not clear how these sexual traits might have evolved to signal honestly male condition. It is possible that there is a trade-off between maintaining the immune system and the elaboration of ornaments. We experimentally challenged the immune system of male Iberian wall lizards, Podarcis hispanica, with a bacterial antigen (lipopolysaccharide), without pathogenic effects, to explore whether the immune activation affected chemical ornaments. Immune activation resulted in decreased proportions of a major chemical in femoral secretions (cholesta-5,7-dien-3-ol = provitamin D3) known to be selected in scent of males by females and which active form (vitamin D) has a variety of important effects on immune system function. This result suggests the existence of a potential trade-off between physiological regulation of the immune system and the allocation of essential nutrients (vitamins) to sexual chemical ornaments in male lizards.

  8. Oxidative stress and the effect of parasites on a carotenoid-based ornament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, F; Martínez-Padilla, J; Blount, J D; Pérez-Rodríguez, L; Webster, L M I; Piertney, S B

    2010-02-01

    Oxidative stress, the physiological condition whereby the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species overwhelms the capacity of antioxidant defences, causes damage to key bio-molecules. It has been implicated in many diseases, and is proposed as a reliable currency in the trade-off between individual health and ornamentation. Whether oxidative stress mediates the expression of carotenoid-based signals, which are among the commonest signals of many birds, fish and reptiles, remains controversial. In the present study, we explored interactions between parasites, oxidative stress and the carotenoid-based ornamentation of red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus. We tested whether removing nematode parasites influenced both oxidative balance (levels of oxidative damage and circulating antioxidant defences) and carotenoid-based ornamentation. At the treatment group level, parasite purging enhanced the size and colouration of ornaments but did not significantly affect circulating carotenoids, antioxidant defences or oxidative damage. However, relative changes in these traits among individuals indicated that males with a greater number of parasites prior to treatment (parasite purging) showed a greater increase in the levels of circulating carotenoids and antioxidants, and a greater decrease in oxidative damage, than those with initially fewer parasites. At the individual level, a greater increase in carotenoid pigmentation was associated with a greater reduction in oxidative damage. Therefore, an individual's ability to express a carotenoid-based ornament appeared to be linked to its current oxidative balance and susceptibility to oxidative stress. Our experimental results suggest that oxidative stress can mediate the impact of parasites on carotenoid-based signals, and we discuss possible mechanisms linking carotenoid-based ornaments to oxidative stress.

  9. Ornamental comb colour predicts T-cell-mediated immunity in male red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, Francois

    2008-02-01

    Sexual ornaments might reliably indicate the ability to cope with parasites and diseases, and a better ability to mount a primary inflammatory response to a novel challenge. Carotenoid-based ornaments are amongst the commonest sexual signals of birds and often influence mate choice. Because carotenoids are immuno-stimulants, signallers may trade-off allocating these to ornamental colouration or using them for immune responses, so carotenoid-based ornaments might be particularly useful as honest indicators of immuno-compentence. Tetraonid birds, such as the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus, exhibit supra-orbital yellow red combs, a conspicuous ornament which functions in intra- and inter-sexual selection. The colour of combs is due to epidermal pigmentation by carotenoids, while their size is testosterone-dependent. In this study, I investigated whether comb characteristics, and in particular, comb colour, indicated immuno-competence in free-living male red grouse. I assessed T-cell-mediated immunity using a standardised challenge with phytohaemagglutinin. Red grouse combs reflect in the red and in the ultraviolet spectrum of light, which is not visible to humans but that grouse most likely see, so I measured comb colour across the whole bird visible spectrum (300 700 nm) using a reflectance spectrometer. I found that males with bigger and redder combs, but with less ultraviolet reflectance, had greater T-cell-mediated immune response. Comb colour predicted T-cell-mediated immune response better than comb size, indicating that the carotenoid-based colouration of this ornament might reliably signal this aspect of male quality.

  10. Sexual selection and the function of a melanin-based plumage ornament in polygamous penduline tits Remiz pendulinus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kingma, Sjouke A.; Szentirmai, Istvan; Szekely, Tamas; Bokony, Veronika; Bleeker, Maarten; Liker, Andras; Komdeur, Jan; McGraw, K.

    Melanin-based ornaments are often involved in signaling aggression and dominance, and their role in sexual selection is increasingly recognized. We investigated the functions of a melanin-based plumage ornament (facial 'mask') in male Eurasian penduline tits Remiz pendulinus in the contexts of

  11. Improvement of some ornamental plants by induced somatic mutations at National Botanical Research Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, M.N.

    1980-01-01

    Research work on improvement of some ornamental plants by induced somatic mutations has been in progress at the National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow, since 1964. The methods of treatments with gamma rays, detection, isolation and multiplication of induced somatic mutations have been given for Bougainvillea, Chrysanthemum, perennial Portulaca, rose and tuberose. During the last 15 years, a total of 38 new cultivars of different ornamentals evolved by gamna induced somatic mutations have been released. They include Bougainvillea 1; Chrysanthemum 28; perennial portulaca 6; rose 1 and tuberose 2. Descriptions of the original cultivars and their gamma induced mutants are given along with other pertinent details. (author)

  12. Learners’ Mistakes or Professional Error – the Nordic Bronze Age ornaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Heide Wrobel

    Nordic Bronze Age ornaments are known for their rich decorations, often consisting of spiral bands used as part of a variety of other decorative elements. Even a cursory examination makes it clear that these ornaments vary greatly in terms of their quality. How can this variation be explained......? Is this the result of different workshops, levels of crafting skills or perhaps even the incorporation of novice metalworkers? As part of a study on craft organization in the Nordic Bronze Age, several metal workshops were analyzed in relation to the skill of the craftsmen and the amount of time involved...

  13. Chemical Resistance of Ornamental Compound Stone Produced with Marble Waste and Unsaturated Polyester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Carlos E. Gomes; Rodriguez, Rubén J. Sánchez; Vieira, Carlos M. Fontes

    Ornamental compound stone are produced by industry for decades, however, few published studies describe these materials. Brazil has many deposits of stone wastes and a big potential to produce these materials. This work aims to evaluate the chemical resistance of ornamental compound stones produced with marble waste and unsaturated polyester. An adaptation of Annex H of ABNT NBR 13818:97 standard, with reagents commonly used in household products, was used. The results were compared with those obtained for natural stone used in composite production.

  14. Characterization of slate ornaments from Teotihuacan by nuclear and conventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villa-Cordoba, T.; Lopez-Palacios, J.A.; Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Tenorio, D.

    2012-01-01

    Several ornaments named tezcacuitlapilli (coccyx-mirrors) are described and chemical analyses of raw materials (slate and pigments) were carried out by neutron activation, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and radiography. Elemental and statistical analyses revealed that three different kinds of slate were used in their manufacture. The white pigment contains gypsum while ochre, yellow and red pigments contain iron oxide. These ornaments were identified as coming from the Cave of the Sun Pyramid of Teotihuacan. An attempt was undertaken to reconstruct the contexts of their manufacture and symbolic interpretation. (author)

  15. REFLECTIONS ON THE ORNAMENTAL PHENOMENON WITHIN THE REPERTOIRE OF TRADITIONAL VIOLONISTS IN THE HISTORICAL MOLDOVAN FOLK SPACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GRIB VITALIE

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The eclectic style in the interpretative manner of the younger generation of traditional violinists, which oft en distorts the aesthetic essence of folklore creations, has determined the need for research, scientifi c reasoning and elaboration of some methods of learning the traditional ornamental instrumental style, which can be general or individual, yet specifi c to the historical Moldovan folk space. To achieve this, we consider important to identify the types of ornaments in traditional instrumental music; to delimit the interpretative particularities of ornaments in literate and folk music; to analyse the ornamentation styles of songs within the repertoire of diff erent traditional violinists, that belong to the folk space investigated in terms of the type of creation. As a model for analysing the particularities of interpreting these ornaments, we select violinists from older generations, whose repertoire and style of execution has not been aff ected by the media and technological progress.

  16. Development of Load Duration Curve System in Data Scarce Watersheds Based on a Distributed Hydrological Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    WANG, J.

    2017-12-01

    In stream water quality control, the total maximum daily load (TMDL) program is very effective. However, the load duration curves (LDC) of TMDL are difficult to be established because no sufficient observed flow and pollutant data can be provided in data-scarce watersheds in which no hydrological stations or consecutively long-term hydrological data are available. Although the point sources or a non-point sources of pollutants can be clarified easily with the aid of LDC, where does the pollutant come from and to where it will be transported in the watershed cannot be traced by LDC. To seek out the best management practices (BMPs) of pollutants in a watershed, and to overcome the limitation of LDC, we proposed to develop LDC based on a distributed hydrological model of SWAT for the water quality management in data scarce river basins. In this study, firstly, the distributed hydrological model of SWAT was established with the scarce-hydrological data. Then, the long-term daily flows were generated with the established SWAT model and rainfall data from the adjacent weather station. Flow duration curves (FDC) was then developed with the aid of generated daily flows by SWAT model. Considering the goal of water quality management, LDC curves of different pollutants can be obtained based on the FDC. With the monitored water quality data and the LDC curves, the water quality problems caused by the point or non-point source pollutants in different seasons can be ascertained. Finally, the distributed hydrological model of SWAT was employed again to tracing the spatial distribution and the origination of the pollutants of coming from what kind of agricultural practices and/or other human activities. A case study was conducted in the Jian-jiang river, a tributary of Yangtze river, of Duyun city, Guizhou province. Results indicate that this kind of method can realize the water quality management based on TMDL and find out the suitable BMPs for reducing pollutant in a watershed.

  17. Predicting Posttraumatic Stress Symptom Prevalence and Local Distribution after an Earthquake with Scarce Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussaillant, Francisca; Apablaza, Mauricio

    2017-08-01

    After a major earthquake, the assignment of scarce mental health emergency personnel to different geographic areas is crucial to the effective management of the crisis. The scarce information that is available in the aftermath of a disaster may be valuable in helping predict where are the populations that are in most need. The objectives of this study were to derive algorithms to predict posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptom prevalence and local distribution after an earthquake and to test whether there are algorithms that require few input data and are still reasonably predictive. A rich database of PTS symptoms, informed after Chile's 2010 earthquake and tsunami, was used. Several model specifications for the mean and centiles of the distribution of PTS symptoms, together with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) prevalence, were estimated via linear and quantile regressions. The models varied in the set of covariates included. Adjusted R2 for the most liberal specifications (in terms of numbers of covariates included) ranged from 0.62 to 0.74, depending on the outcome. When only including peak ground acceleration (PGA), poverty rate, and household damage in linear and quadratic form, predictive capacity was still good (adjusted R2 from 0.59 to 0.67 were obtained). Information about local poverty, household damage, and PGA can be used as an aid to predict PTS symptom prevalence and local distribution after an earthquake. This can be of help to improve the assignment of mental health personnel to the affected localities. Dussaillant F , Apablaza M . Predicting posttraumatic stress symptom prevalence and local distribution after an earthquake with scarce data. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):357-367.

  18. 48 CFR 801.602-73 - Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health-care resources. 801.602-73 Section 801.602... Responsibilities 801.602-73 Review requirements for scarce medical specialist contracts and contracts for health...

  19. Event-based nonpoint source pollution prediction in a scarce data catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lei; Sun, Cheng; Wang, Guobo; Xie, Hui; Shen, Zhenyao

    2017-09-01

    Quantifying the rainfall-runoff-pollutant (R-R-P) process is key to regulating non-point source (NPS) pollution; however, the impacts of scarce measured data on R-R-P simulations have not yet been reported. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive study of scarce data that addressed both rainfall-runoff and runoff-pollutant processes, whereby the impacts of data scarcity on two commonly used methods, including Unit Hydrograph (UH) and Loads Estimator (LOADEST), were quantified. A case study was performed in a typical small catchment of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR) of China. Based on our results, the classification of rainfall patterns should be carried out first when analyzing modeling results. Compared to data based on a missing rate and a missing location, key information generates more impacts on the simulated flow and NPS loads. When the scarcity rate exceeds a certain threshold (20% in this study), measured data scarcity level has clear impacts on the model's accuracy. As the model of total nitrogen (TN) always performs better under different data scarcity conditions, researchers are encouraged to pay more attention to continuous the monitoring of total phosphorus (TP) for better NPS-TP predictions. The results of this study serve as baseline information for hydrologic forecasting and for the further control of NPS pollutants.

  20. Observation and Estimation of Evapotranspiration from an Irrigated Green Roof in a Rain-Scarce Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youcan Feng

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available While the rain-driven evapotranspiration (ET process has been well-studied in the humid climate, the mixed irrigation and rain-driven ET process is less understood for green roof implementations in dry regions, where empirical observations and model parameterizations are lacking. This paper presents an effort of monitoring and simulating the ET process for an irrigated green roof in a rain-scarce environment. Annual ET rates for three weighing lysimeter test units with non-vegetated, sedums, and grass covers were 2.01, 2.52, and 2.69 mm d−1, respectively. Simulations based on the three Penman–Monteith equation-derived models achieved accuracy within the reported range of previous studies. Compared to the humid climate, the overestimation of high ET rates by existing models is expected to cause a larger error in dry environments, where the enhanced ET process caused by repeated irrigations overlapped with hot, dry conditions often occurs during summer. The studied sedum species did not show significantly lower ET rates than native species, and could not effectively take advantage of the deep moisture storage. Therefore, native species, instead of the shallow-rooted species commonly recommended in humid climates, might be a better choice for green roofs in rain-scarce environments.

  1. Survivorship of adult Aedes albopictus (Diptera: Culicidae) feeding on indoor ornamental plants with no inflorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qualls, Whitney A; Xue, Rui De; Beier, John C; Müller, Günter C

    2013-06-01

    The international trade of lucky bamboo (Dracaena sanderiana [Asparagaceae]) is responsible for certain introductions of the exotic species Aedes albopictus (Skuse) in California and the Netherlands. Understanding the association of this species with lucky bamboo and other ornamental plants is important from a public health standpoint. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of indoor ornamental plants as sugar sources for adult A. albopictus. If exposed to D. sanderiana, bromeliad (Guzmania spp. hybrid [Bromeliaceae]), Moses-in-the-cradle (Rhoeo spathacea [Commelinaceae]), 10 % sucrose solution, and a negative water control as the only nutrient source, adult female A. albopictus mean survival time was 12, 7, 6, 15, and 4 days, respectively. Mean survival times for adult males were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from the females and were 10, 7, 6, 14, and 3 days, respectively. Combined male and female survival times were not significantly different on lucky bamboo compared to survival times on a 10 % sucrose control. Based on our findings, A. albopictus can readily survive long enough to complete a gonotrophic cycle and potentially complete the extrinsic incubation period for many arboviruses when only provided access to lucky bamboo plants or possibly other common ornamentals. Vector control professionals should be aware of potential in-home infestations and public health concerns associated with mosquito breeding and plant tissue feeding on ornamental plants.

  2. Parasites of ornamental fish commercialized in Macapá, Amapá State (Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érico de Melo Hoshino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study investigated the parasites fauna of four freshwater ornamental fish species in aquarium shops of Macapá, Amapá State, in addition to survey the commercialized fish species and sanitary conditions of aquarium shops. Different native and non-native ornamental fish species were found in aquarium shops, mainly Poecilidae. We examined 30 specimens of Xiphophorus maculatus, 30 Danio rerio, 30 Paracheirodon axelrodi, and 30 Corydoras ephippifer for parasites. Of the 120 fish examined, 22.5% were parasitized by one or more species and a total of 438 parasites were collected and identified. Parasites such as: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Monogenea, undermined Digenea metacercariae, Acanthostomum sp. metacercariae, Camallanus spp., Bothriocephalus acheilognathi and Echinorhynchus sp. infected the hosts examined. Endoparasites in the larval stage showed the greatest diversity and Camallanus spp. was found in all hosts species examined. Paracheirodon axelrodi (43.3% was the most parasitized host, while C. ephippifer (6.7% was the least parasitized. Despite the low ectoparasites level, six species of endoparasites was observed, demonstrating that prophylactic and quarantine procedures were not fully adequate. Therefore, failures in prophylactic procedures on any link in the production industry of ornamental fish may cause parasite transmission to ornamental fish captured in different environments and localities.

  3. Sexual selection on land snail shell ornamentation: a hypothesis that may explain shell diversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schilthuizen, M.

    2003-01-01

    Background: Many groups of land snails show great interspecific diversity in shell ornamentation, which may include spines on the shell and flanges on the aperture. Such structures have been explained as camouflage or defence, but the possibility that they might be under sexual selection has not

  4. She Wore a Flower in Her Hair: The Effect of Ornamentation on Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, JeriJayne W.; Hensley, Wayne E.

    Six waitresses in a restaurant of a large midwestern city agreed to participate in a study of the nonverbal effects of ornamentation. The hypothesis was that diners would leave larger tips for a waitress who wore a flower in her hair than for the same waitress without a flower. During the four nights that data were collected, the waitresses…

  5. Do ornaments, arrival date, and sperm size influence mating and paternity success in the collared flycatcher?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Edme, A.; Zobač, P.; Opatová, Pavlína; Šplíchalová, P.; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš; Krist, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 71, č. 1 (2017), č. článku 3. ISSN 0340-5443 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP506/12/2472 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Mating success * Extra-pair paternity * Differential allocation * Sexual ornament * Sperm size Subject RIV: EG - Zoology OBOR OECD: Zoology Impact factor: 2.185, year: 2016

  6. Genetic engineering and sustainable production of ornamentals: current status and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lütken, Henrik; Clarke, Jihong Liu; Müller, Renate

    2012-07-01

    Through the last decades, environmentally and health-friendly production methods and conscientious use of resources have become crucial for reaching the goal of a more sustainable plant production. Protection of the environment requires careful consumption of limited resources and reduction of chemicals applied during production of ornamental plants. Numerous chemicals used in modern plant production have negative impacts on human health and are hazardous to the environment. In Europe, several compounds have lost their approval and further legal restrictions can be expected. This review presents the more recent progress of genetic engineering in ornamental breeding, delivers an overview of the biological background of the used technologies and critically evaluates the usefulness of the strategies to obtain improved ornamental plants. First, genetic engineering is addressed as alternative to growth retardants, comprising recombinant DNA approaches targeting relevant hormone pathways, e.g. the gibberellic acid (GA) pathway. A reduced content of active GAs causes compact growth and can be facilitated by either decreased anabolism, increased catabolism or altered perception. Moreover, compactness can be accomplished by using a natural transformation approach without recombinant DNA technology. Secondly, metabolic engineering approaches targeting elements of the ethylene signal transduction pathway are summarized as a possible alternative to avoid the use of chemical ethylene inhibitors. In conclusion, molecular breeding approaches are dealt with in a way allowing a critical biological assessment and enabling the scientific community and public to put genetic engineering of ornamental plants into a perspective regarding their usefulness in plant breeding.

  7. Mutual ornamentation, sexual selection, and social dominance in the black swan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraaijeveld, K; Gregurke, J; Hall, C; Komdeur, J; Mulder, RA

    We investigated the adaptive significance of a sexually monomorphic ornament in the black swan Cygnus atratus. Both sexes grow curled feathers on their wings (range 7-22 curled feathers per wing), which are displayed prominently in a range of social interactions. The number of curled feathers

  8. Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.; Guarnaccia, V.; Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2011-01-01

    Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from

  9. Calonectria spp. causing leaf spot, crown and root rot of ornamental plants in Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lombard, L.; Polizzi, G.; Guarnaccia, V.; Vitale, A.; Crous, P.W.

    2012-01-01

    Calonectria spp. are important pathogens of ornamental plants in nurseries, especially in the Northern Hemisphere. They are commonly associated with a wide range of disease symptoms of roots, leaves and shoots. During a recent survey in Tunisia, a number of Calonectria spp. were isolated from

  10. Identification and Control of Common Insect Pests of Ornamental Shrubs and Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gesell, Stanley G.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University introduces the identification and control of common ornamental insect pests. For each of the insects or insect groups (i.e. aphids) identified in this publication, information on host plants, pest description, and damage caused by the pest is given. Also a calendar…

  11. Induced Polyploidy in Diploid Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium muluense) Using Colchicine and Oryzalin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ploidy level of H. muluense, a diploid (2n = 2x = 34) and dwarf ornamental ginger species, has been determined and is reported for the first time. Oryzalin and colchicine were successfully used to induce polyploidy in Hedychium muluense in vitro. Embryogenic cell lines were treated with oryzalin...

  12. Naturalization of ornamental plant species in public green spaces and private gardens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, K.; Haeuser, E.; Dawson, W.; Essl, F.; Kreft, H.; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Weigelt, P.; Winter, M.; Lenzner, B.; van Kleunen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 12 (2017), s. 3613-3627 ISSN 1387-3547 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DG16P02M041 Keywords : climate change * ornamental plants * invasioins Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Ecology Impact factor: 2.473, year: 2016

  13. Integrating invasive species policies across ornamental horticulture supply chains to prevent plant invasions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulme, Philip E.; Brundu, Giuseppe; Carboni, Marta; Dehnen-schmutz, Katharina; Dullinger, Stefan; Early, Regan; Essl, Franz; González-moreno, Pablo; Groom, Quentin J.; Kueffer, Christoph; Kühn, Ingolf; Maurel, Noëlie; Novoa, Ana; Pergl, Jan; Pyšek, Petr; Seebens, Hanno; Tanner, Rob; Touza, Julia M.; Van Kleunen, Mark; Verbrugge, Laura Nicoline Halley

    2017-01-01

    1.Ornamental horticulture is the primary pathway for invasive alien plant introductions. We critically appraise published evidence on the effectiveness of four policy instruments that tackle invasions along the horticulture supply chain: pre-border import restrictions, post-border bans, industry

  14. Identification of Values of Ornaments in Indonesian Batik in Visual Content of Nitiki Game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Tresnadi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Batik is a form of visual art on textile materials produced using traditional drawing techniques originating from Indonesia. For the Javanese, batik is a traditional cloth integral to their cultural identity. Visuals on ornaments of batik cloths illustrate the life sayings and values upon which the life of the community is laid. The study focuses on identifying the values found in Indonesian batik ornaments which are adapted as visual content on the Nitiki game. The findings are then used to reconstruct the values that represent the real batik culture. This study employs the qualitative descriptive method by collecting dozens of batik ornaments on the Nitiki game, exploring the values mentioned in literature, sorting out the dominant values, and reconstructing them. The findings suggest that the values found in Indonesian batik ornaments in the Nitiki game clearly show the patterns of how traditional culture of batik survives and thrives in Indonesian society, as well as show the flexibility of batik against the current development of modern culture, including its integration as culture-based content in interactive media. This study contributes to the dissertation research on aesthetical interaction in cultural content-based game.

  15. Ornamenting 3D printed scaffolds with cell-laid extracellular matrix for bone tissue regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pati, Falguni; Song, Tae-Ha; Rijal, Girdhari; Jang, Jinah; Kim, Sung Won; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-01-01

    3D printing technique is the most sophisticated technique to produce scaffolds with tailorable physical properties. But, these scaffolds often suffer from limited biological functionality as they are typically made from synthetic materials. Cell-laid mineralized ECM was shown to be potential for improving the cellular responses and drive osteogenesis of stem cells. Here, we intend to improve the biological functionality of 3D-printed synthetic scaffolds by ornamenting them with cell-laid mineralized extracellular matrix (ECM) that mimics a bony microenvironment. We developed bone graft substitutes by using 3D printed scaffolds made from a composite of polycaprolactone (PCL), poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and mineralized ECM laid by human nasal inferior turbinate tissue-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hTMSCs). A rotary flask bioreactor was used to culture hTMSCs on the scaffolds to foster formation of mineralized ECM. A freeze/thaw cycle in hypotonic buffer was used to efficiently decellularize (97% DNA reduction) the ECM-ornamented scaffolds while preserving its main organic and inorganic components. The ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds supported osteoblastic differentiation of newly-seeded hTMSCs by upregulating four typical osteoblastic genes (4-fold higher RUNX2; 3-fold higher ALP; 4-fold higher osteocalcin; and 4-fold higher osteopontin) and increasing calcium deposition compared to bare 3D printed scaffolds. In vivo, in ectopic and orthotopic models in rats, ECM-ornamented scaffolds induced greater bone formation than that of bare scaffolds. These results suggest a valuable method to produce ECM-ornamented 3D printed scaffolds as off-the-shelf bone graft substitutes that combine tunable physical properties with physiological presentation of biological signals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sex-biased parental investment is correlated with mate ornamentation in eastern bluebirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligon, Russell A; Hill, Geoffrey E

    2010-03-01

    Males typically have greater variance in reproductive success than females, so mothers should benefit by producing sons under favorable conditions. Being paired with a better-than-average mate is one such favorable circumstance. High-quality fathers can improve conditions for their offspring by providing good genes, good resources, or both, so females paired to such males should invest preferentially in sons. Ornamentation has been linked to male quality in many birds and, in support of differential allocation theory, females of several avian species invest more in entire broods when paired to attractive mates. Additionally, the females of some bird species apparently manipulate the primary sex-ratio of their broods in relation to the attractiveness of their mates. However, empirical support for a link between mate ornamentation and preferential feeding of sons (another form of biased investment) is lacking. We tested for correlations between sex-biased parental investment and mate plumage colour in the eastern bluebird (Sialia sialis), a species in which juveniles have sexually dichromatic UV-blue plumage. We found that the proportion of maternal feeding attempts to fledgling sons (versus fledgling daughters) was positively correlated with structurally coloured plumage ornamentation of fathers. Additionally, paternal feeding attempts to sons were correlated with plumage ornamentation of mothers and increased in fathers exhibiting breast plumage characteristics typical of older males. These results provide further support for the idea that parental strategies are influenced by mate attractiveness and provide the first evidence that mate ornamentation can influence parental behavior even after offspring have left the nest.

  17. Experimental stress during molt suggests the evolution of condition-dependent and condition-independent ornaments in the king penguin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, Quentin; Robin, Jean-Patrice; Dobson, F Stephen; Saadaoui, Hédi; Viblanc, Vincent A; Bize, Pierre

    2018-01-01

    Sexual selection and social selection are two important theories proposed for explaining the evolution of colorful ornamental traits in animals. Understanding signal honesty requires studying how environmental and physiological factors during development influence the showy nature of sexual and social ornaments. We experimentally manipulated physiological stress and immunity status during the molt in adult king penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus ), and studied the consequences of our treatments on colourful ornaments (yellow-orange and UV beak spots and yellow-orange auricular feather patches) known to be used in sexual and social contexts in this species. Whereas some ornamental features showed strong condition-dependence (yellow auricular feather chroma, yellow and UV chroma of the beak), others were condition-independent and remained highly correlated before and after the molt (auricular patch size and beak UV hue). Our study provides a rare examination of the links between ornament determinism and selection processes in the wild. We highlight the coexistence of ornaments costly to produce that may be honest signals used in mate choice, and ornaments for which honesty may be enforced by social mediation or rely on genetic constraints.

  18. Pteridine, not carotenoid, pigments underlie the female-specific orange ornament of striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, S L; Foerster, K; Hudon, J

    2012-02-01

    Indicator models of sexual selection suggest that signal honesty is maintained via costs of ornament expression. Carotenoid-based visual signals are a well-studied example, as carotenoids may be environmentally limited and impact signaler health. However, not all bright yellow, orange and red ornaments found in vertebrates are carotenoid-based; pteridine pigments may also produce these colors. We examine the contribution of carotenoid and pteridine pigments to the orange reproductive color of female striped plateau lizards (Sceloporus virgatus). This color ornament reliably indicates female mate quality, yet costs maintaining signal honesty are currently unknown. Dietary carotenoid manipulations did not affect orange color, and orange skin differed from surrounding white skin in drosopterin, not carotenoid, content. Further, orange color positively correlated with drosopterin, not carotenoid, concentration. Drosopterin-based female ornaments avoid the direct trade-offs of using carotenoids for ornament production vs egg production, thus may relax counter-selection against color ornament exaggeration in females. Direct experimentation is needed to determine the actual costs of pteridine-based ornaments. Like carotenoids, pteridines influence important biological processes, including immune and antioxidant function; predation and social costs may also be relevant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Modeling landslide susceptibility in data-scarce environments using optimized data mining and statistical methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Hyun; Sameen, Maher Ibrahim; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Park, Hyuck-Jin

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the generalizability of five models to select a suitable approach for landslide susceptibility modeling in data-scarce environments. In total, 418 landslide inventories and 18 landslide conditioning factors were analyzed. Multicollinearity and factor optimization were investigated before data modeling, and two experiments were then conducted. In each experiment, five susceptibility maps were produced based on support vector machine (SVM), random forest (RF), weight-of-evidence (WoE), ridge regression (Rid_R), and robust regression (RR) models. The highest accuracy (AUC = 0.85) was achieved with the SVM model when either the full or limited landslide inventories were used. Furthermore, the RF and WoE models were severely affected when less landslide samples were used for training. The other models were affected slightly when the training samples were limited.

  20. The community speaks: understanding ethical values in allocation of scarce lifesaving resources during disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty Biddison, Elizabeth L; Gwon, Howard; Schoch-Spana, Monica; Cavalier, Robert; White, Douglas B; Dawson, Timothy; Terry, Peter B; London, Alex John; Regenberg, Alan; Faden, Ruth; Toner, Eric S

    2014-06-01

    Pandemic influenza or other crises causing mass respiratory failure could easily overwhelm current North American critical care capacity. This threat has generated large-scale federal, state, and local efforts to prepare for a public health disaster. Few, however, have systematically engaged the public regarding which values are most important in guiding decisions about how to allocate scarce healthcare resources during such crises. The aims of this pilot study were (1) to test whether deliberative democratic methods could be used to promote engaged discussion about complex, ethically challenging healthcare-related policy issues and (2) to develop specific deliberative democratic procedures that could ultimately be used in a statewide process to inform a Maryland framework for allocating scarce healthcare resources during disasters. Using collaboratively developed focus group materials and multiple metrics for assessing outcomes, we held 5-hour pilot community meetings with a combined total of 68 community members in two locations in Maryland. The key outcomes used to assess the project were (1) the comprehensibility of the background materials and ethical principles, (2) the salience of the ethical principles, (3) the perceived usefulness of the discussions, (4) the degree to which participants' opinions evolved as a result of the discussions, and (5) the quality of participant engagement. Most participants were thoughtful, reflective, and invested in this pilot policy-informing process. Throughout the pilot process, changes were made to background materials, the verbal introduction, and pre- and post-surveys. Importantly, by holding pilot meetings in two distinct communities (an affluent suburb and inner city neighborhood), we discerned that participants' ethical reflections were framed in large part by their place-based life experiences. This pilot process, coupled with extensive feedback from participants, yielded a refined methodology suitable for wider

  1. Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling to assess water exchange in a data-scarce reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Binbin; Wang, Guoqiang; Wang, Zhonggen; Liu, Changming; Ma, Jianming

    2017-12-01

    Integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling is useful in evaluating hydrodynamic characteristics (e.g. water exchange processes) in data-scarce water bodies, however, most studies lack verification of the hydrologic model. Here, water exchange (represented by water age) was investigated through integrated hydrologic and hydrodynamic modeling of the Hongfeng Reservoir, a poorly gauged reservoir in southwest China. The performance of the hydrologic model and parameter replacement among sub-basins with hydrological similarity was verified by historical data. Results showed that hydrological similarity based on the hierarchical cluster analysis and topographic index probability density distribution was reliable with satisfactory performance of parameter replacement. The hydrodynamic model was verified using daily water levels and water temperatures from 2009 and 2010. The water exchange processes in the Hongfeng Reservoir are very complex with temporal, vertical, and spatial variations. The temporal water age was primarily controlled by the variable inflow and outflow, and the maximum and minimum ages for the site near the dam were 406.10 d (15th June) and 90.74 d (3rd August), respectively, in 2010. Distinct vertical differences in water age showed that surface flow, interflow, and underflow appeared alternately, depending on the season and water depth. The worst water exchange situation was found in the central areas of the North Lake with the highest water ages in the bottom on both 15th June and 3rd August, in 2010. Comparison of the spatial water ages revealed that the more favorable hydraulic conditions on 3rd August mainly improved the water exchange in the dam areas and most areas of the South Lake, but had little effect on the bottom layers of the other deepest areas in the South and North Lakes. The presented framework can be applied in other data-scarce waterbodies worldwide to provide better understanding of water exchange processes.

  2. Genetical Studies On Haploid Production In Some Ornamental Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MOSTAFA, M.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Haploid are plants with a gametophytic chromosome number and doubled haploid are dihaploids that have undergone chromosome duplication. The production of haploid and doubled haploid (DHs) through gametic embryogenesis allows a single-step development of complete homozygous lines from heterozygous parents, shortening the time required to produce homozygous plants in comparison with the conventional breeding methods that employ several generations of selfing. The production of haploid and DHs provides a particularly attractive biotechnological tool, and the development of haploidy technology and protocols to produce homozygous plants has had a significant impact on agricultural systems. Nowadays, these bio technologies represent an integral part of the breeding programmes of many agronomically important crops. There are several available methods to obtain haploid and DHs, of which in vitro anther or isolated microspore culture are the most effective and widely used (Germana Maria 2011). Tissue culture techniques, particularly short-term culture procedures such as shoot-tip culture and regeneration from primary explants, have been proposed as methods for obtaining large numbers of plants identical to the plant used as an explant source( Evans et al., 1984). Nicotiana spp. are one of the most important commercial crops in the world ( Liu and Zhang, 2008). Nicotiana alata is member from family solanacea, it is ornamental plant and the diploid cells contains 18 chromosomes. Nitsch (1969) reported the first production of haploid plants through anther culture and regeneration of plants of Nicotiana alata, For these reasons they have been considered to suitable candidates for model species in somatic cell genetics research( Bourgin et al., 1979). Radiobiological studies on plant tissues in culture may provide information on the cell growth behavior, radiosensitivity and the induction of mutations. The radiosensitivity of plants and calli can be manifested mostly in three

  3. The Assessment of Literal Ornaments in Persian Badi’ Books from the linguistic, Phonetic and Phonologic Viewpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Heidari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe literal rhetoric (scheme is a most important branch of Persian language aesthetics. The purpose of the knowledge is studying and evaluating the verbal music with applying the instruments that called Ornaments. Ornament as is obvious from its name is all devices that writers using them for making their art fine. With historical skimming over Badi` books, we understand our rhetoricians have gave and dedicated useless names and titles to the literal ornaments rather than analyzing the musical beauties of language. The author has used a historical method and content analysis approach in his research. The sampling kind in this research is stratified sampling; i.e. the Persian Badi` books and linguistic and phonetic books from two old and new classes with regarding indicative criteria have been analyzed.  The author’s essential problem in this article is replying to the question:How the literal ornaments can be analyzed with scientific and measurable principles?In this article the ornaments below are evaluated:Movashshah, Moamma, Mosahhaf, Khifa, Motazalzel, Raqta, Mo`jam, Tanafor, Hazf, Moqatta`, Movassal, Vase` osh-shafatayn, Vasel osh-shafatayn, Heja, Touzi` (Tekrar (Hamhorufi, Hamsedayi, Tekrar-e Heja, The natural relationship between letters and words with theme of poem.The author has reported his findings in below items:1.      The impact of Arabic language and its phonetic rules in Persian Badi` books is very remarkable and sometimes caused faults of Persian writers.2.      The examples that mentioned as samples of literal ornaments are very rare and exceptional.3.      The musical repetition of phonemes and sounds and the concepts associated from them is the only reason of beauty of literal ornaments.4.      In translating the foreign ornaments to Persian has not been used enough accuracy.5.      Occasionally, in explaining the repetition ornament

  4. Relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in a water-scarce area in China: A quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiping; Gao, Lei; Liu, Pin; Hailu, Atakelty

    2014-07-01

    Northern China has been facing severe water scarcity as a result of vigorous economic growth, population expansion and changing lifestyles. A typical case is Shandong province whose water resources per capita is approximately only a sixth of the national average and a twentieth of the global average. It is useful to assess the implications of the province’s growth and trade patterns for water use and water conservation strategies. This study quantitatively analyses relationships between regional economic sectors and water use in Shandong using an input-output model for virtual water resources. The changes in key indicators for 1997-2007 are tracked and the effects of water-saving policies on these changes are examined. The results highlight the benefits of applying a virtual water trade analysis on a water-scarce region where water resources exhibit highly heterogeneous temporal and geographical distributions. The net export of virtual water in Shandong was initially large, but this declined over the years and the province has recently become a net importer. Between 1997 and 2002, water use in most sectors increased due to rapid urbanisation and industrialisation. Since then, water use in all Shandong economic sectors exhibit a downward trend despite continued increases in goods and services net exports, a trend which can be attributed to the vigorous implementation of water-saving policies and measures, especially water use quotas. Economic sectors consume water directly and indirectly and understanding the pattern of virtual water trade implied by sectoral relationships is important for managing water scarcity problems. This study fills the knowledge gap in the existing literature created by the lack of case studies that dynamically assess virtual water trade and analyse the effects of water-saving policies and measures. The study draws policy recommendations that are relevant for future water planning in Shandong and other regions in northern China.

  5. Systematic review of strategies to manage and allocate scarce resources during mass casualty events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Pillemer, Francesca; Waxman, Daniel A; Moore, Melinda; Hansen, Cynthia K; Knebel, Ann R; Ricciardi, Richard; Kellermann, Arthur L

    2013-06-01

    Efficient management and allocation of scarce medical resources can improve outcomes for victims of mass casualty events. However, the effectiveness of specific strategies has never been systematically reviewed. We analyze published evidence on strategies to optimize the management and allocation of scarce resources across a wide range of mass casualty event contexts and study designs. Our literature search included MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from 1990 through late 2011. We also searched the gray literature, using the New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report and key Web sites. We included both English- and foreign-language articles. We included studies that evaluated strategies used in actual mass casualty events or tested through drills, exercises, or computer simulations. We excluded studies that lacked a comparison group or did not report quantitative outcomes. Data extraction, quality assessment, and strength of evidence ratings were conducted by a single researcher and reviewed by a second; discrepancies were reconciled by the 2 reviewers. Because of heterogeneity in outcome measures, we qualitatively synthesized findings within categories of strategies. From 5,716 potentially relevant citations, 74 studies met inclusion criteria. Strategies included reducing demand for health care services (18 studies), optimizing use of existing resources (50), augmenting existing resources (5), implementing crisis standards of care (5), and multiple categories (4). The evidence was sufficient to form conclusions on 2 strategies, although the strength of evidence was rated as low. First, as a strategy to reduce demand for health care services, points of dispensing can be used to efficiently distribute biological countermeasures after a bioterrorism attack or influenza pandemic, and their organization influences speed of

  6. The Development of a Plant Risk Evaluation (PRE) Tool for Assessing the Invasive Potential of Ornamental Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Conser, Christiana; Seebacher, Lizbeth; Fujino, David W.; Reichard, Sarah; DiTomaso, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Weed Risk Assessment (WRA) methods for evaluating invasiveness in plants have evolved rapidly in the last two decades. Many WRA tools exist, but none were specifically designed to screen ornamental plants prior to being released into the environment. To be accepted as a tool to evaluate ornamental plants for the nursery industry, it is critical that a WRA tool accurately predicts non-invasiveness without falsely categorizing them as invasive. We developed a new Plant Risk Evaluation (PRE) too...

  7. Ornament induced complications in snake bites: Revisiting the "Do it RIGHT" approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Subhendu; Singh, Sudipta Ranjan; Sahoo, Sangeeta; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Limb adorning ornaments (LAO) can exacerbate the local effects of envenoming in case of venomous snake bite. Cultural presuppositions do inhibit victims from removing symbolically/ritually important jewelry even under circumstances that might increase the dangers of envenoming-induced gangrene formation. The recommendation to remove the LAO is usually skipped in guidelines and if at all included the very real hazard is uncommonly documented. We observed 14 cases of snake bite with LAO on the bitten limb with minimal to severe local complications. The possible reasons were discussed with recommendations of proper and timely methods of removal of these ornaments. We suggest inclusion of this concept of 'Remove' in the recommended first aid methods of the guidelines/protocols.

  8. Ornament induced complications in snake bites: Revisiting the “Do it RIGHT” approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Subhendu; Singh, Sudipta Ranjan; Sahoo, Sangeeta; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Limb adorning ornaments (LAO) can exacerbate the local effects of envenoming in case of venomous snake bite. Cultural presuppositions do inhibit victims from removing symbolically/ritually important jewelry even under circumstances that might increase the dangers of envenoming-induced gangrene formation. The recommendation to remove the LAO is usually skipped in guidelines and if at all included the very real hazard is uncommonly documented. We observed 14 cases of snake bite with LAO on the bitten limb with minimal to severe local complications. The possible reasons were discussed with recommendations of proper and timely methods of removal of these ornaments. We suggest inclusion of this concept of 'Remove’ in the recommended first aid methods of the guidelines/protocols. PMID:27843867

  9. Retardation of hypocotyl elongation of ornamental and vegetable seedlings by ultraviolet irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, E.; Inamoto, K.; Doi, M.; Imanishi, H.

    1998-01-01

    Seedlings of cosmos (Cosmos bipinnatus Cav.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), sunflower (Helianthus annuus L), ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephara), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) were irradiated by a UV-B lamp (fluorescent sun lamp) or a three-band fluorescent lamp (control) for 72 hr just after sowing. Hypocotyl elongation was repressed by all species during the irradiation with UV-B. The retarding effects of UV-B persisted when these seedlings were placed in dark or a greenhouse with 30% shade after irradiation. The most effective timing of UV-B irradiation for cosmos and ornamental kale seedlings was from 48 hr to 72 hr after sowing, when the seedlings were rapidly increasing their surface area to UV-B

  10. Phytotoxicity of the combination of some insecticides and fungicides on the ornamental species Petunia sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bažok

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the production of ornamental plants, it is often necessary to combine plant protection products (PPPs for simultaneous pest control. The use of a combination of PPPs often leads to phytotoxicity. The aim of this study was to determine the phytotoxicity of the combination of fungicides (azoxystrobin and cyprodinil + fludioxonil and insecticides based on abamectin and thiomethoxam on the ornamental plant Petunia sp. The PPPs are used at recommended and double doses. Based on the damage, phytotoxicity indices were calculated. Petunia plants are sensitive even when PPPs are used in recommended doses. Combinations of the both insecticides with the combined fungicide based on cyprodinil and fludioxinil can be advised to protect petunias only if one applies the recommended doses. All combinations of insecticides with a fungicide based on azoxystrobin should not be applied because there is a serious risk of phytotoxicity.

  11. Creativity and Aggression as Ornament and Armament: Intersexual and Intrasexual Selection on Men's Mating Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin-Bin Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In three studies, we tested the hypothesis that men respond to intersexual and intrasexual selection by facultatively choosing between weapon-like and ornament-like behaviors. In the first two studies, we manipulated intersexual and intrasexual selection by having male participants take part in a simulated dating game (Study 1 or imagine having a date (Study 2. In both studies, participants were told either that the target female would choose her date (intersexual or that male suitors would nominate one another (intrasexual. Under the intersexual selection condition, men demonstrated increased creativity levels and decreased aggression levels, whereas the opposite pattern was observed under the intrasexual selection condition. Study 3 showed that individual differences in creativity and aggression as personality traits similarly predicted intrasexual and intersexual mating strategies, respectively. These extend existing evolutionary mating research by specifying the mechanism of intrasexual or intersexual selection in shaping men's weapon-like or ornament-like situational response and personality development.

  12. Heat treatment of processing sludge of ornamental rocks: application as pozzolan in cement matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.G. Uliana

    Full Text Available The sector of ornamental rocks produces significant volume of waste during the sawing of the blocks and demand to find ways to recycle, given its environmental impact. Considering the possibilities of use of industrial by-products as mineral admixtures, aiming at sustainable development in the construction industry, this paper aims to study the performance of the processing sludge of ornamental rocks and grinding after heat treatment, based on their potential application as partial substitute for cement. The residue was characterized, cast and milled to produce glassy material. Was analyzed the mechanical performance and pozzolanic activity with partial replacement of cement by waste in natural condition and after heat treatment in mortars for comparison. The results were promising, so it was possible to verify that after heat treatment, the treated waste is presented as a material with pozzolanic characteristics.

  13. First report of scuticociliatosis caused by Uronema sp. in ornamental reef fish imported into Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Henrique Magalhães Cardoso

    Full Text Available Abstract Scuticociliatosis, which is caused by an opportunistic ciliate protozoan, is responsible for significant economic losses in marine ornamental fish. This study reports the occurrence of Uronema sp., which was found to be parasitizing three species of marine reef fish imported into Brazil and maintained in quarantine: Vanderbilt’s Chromis (Chromis vanderbilti, blue-green damselfish (Chromis viridis, and sea goldie (Pseudanthias squamipinnis. During the quarantine period, some fish presented with behavioral disorders and hemorrhages and ulcerative lesions on the body surface. Histopathological analysis showed hemorrhages, inflammation comprising mononuclear and granular cells in the skeletal muscle, and necrosis of the skin and the secondary lamellae of the gills, and parasites were also observed in the renal capsule. The absence of transboundary measures available to prevent the occurrence of ornamental fish diseases is also discussed.

  14. Ornament induced complications in snake bites: Revisiting the “Do it RIGHT” approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhendu Mallik

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Limb adorning ornaments (LAO can exacerbate the local effects of envenoming in case of venomous snake bite. Cultural presuppositions do inhibit victims from removing symbolically/ritually important jewelry even under circumstances that might increase the dangers of envenoming-induced gangrene formation. The recommendation to remove the LAO is usually skipped in guidelines and if at all included the very real hazard is uncommonly documented. We observed 14 cases of snake bite with LAO on the bitten limb with minimal to severe local complications. The possible reasons were discussed with recommendations of proper and timely methods of removal of these ornaments. We suggest inclusion of this concept of 'Remove' in the recommended first aid methods of the guidelines/protocols.

  15. A mechanism of extreme growth and reliable signaling in sexually selected ornaments and weapons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emlen, Douglas J; Warren, Ian A; Johns, Annika; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura Corley

    2012-08-17

    Many male animals wield ornaments or weapons of exaggerated proportions. We propose that increased cellular sensitivity to signaling through the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway may be responsible for the extreme growth of these structures. We document how rhinoceros beetle horns, a sexually selected weapon, are more sensitive to nutrition and more responsive to perturbation of the insulin/IGF pathway than other body structures. We then illustrate how enhanced sensitivity to insulin/IGF signaling in a growing ornament or weapon would cause heightened condition sensitivity and increased variability in expression among individuals--critical properties of reliable signals of male quality. The possibility that reliable signaling arises as a by-product of the growth mechanism may explain why trait exaggeration has evolved so many different times in the context of sexual selection.

  16. Ornamental fish goldfish,Carassius auratusand related parasites in three districts of West Bengal, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukti Chanda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The lucrative business of ornamental fish culture in West Bengal (Mainly in three districts-Howrah, North and South 24 Parganas are facing loses due to the invasion of different ecto- and endo-parasites. The present study shows that the ornamental fish (Goldfish - Carassius auratus are mainly affected with ecto-parasites like Ichthyophthirius sp., Dactylogyrus sp., Gyrodactylus sp., Argulus sp. and endo-parasites like Procamallanus sp. and Cucullanus sp. The intensity of infection is high in case of Ichthyophthirius sp. and the intensity of the infection is high in summer months when the temperature is high or moderately high. In cooler months the intensity of the infection is lower as because the parasites are unable to breed or scarcity of food particles.

  17. Concurrent processes scheduling with scarce resources in small and medium enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马嵩华

    2016-01-01

    Scarce resources , precedence and non-determined time-lag are three constraints commonly found in small and medium manufacturing enterprises (SMEs), which are deemed to block the ap-plication of workflow management system ( WfMS ) .To tackle this problem , a workflow scheduling approach is proposed based on timing workflow net (TWF-net) and genetic algorithm (GA).The workflow is modelled in a form of TWF-net in favour of process simulation and resource conflict checking .After simplifying and reconstructing the set of workflow instance , the conflict resolution problem is transformed into a resource-constrained project scheduling problem ( RCPSP ) , which could be efficiently solved by a heuristic method , such as GA.Finally, problems of various sizes are utilized to test the performance of the proposed algorithm and to compare it with first-come-first-served ( FCFS) strategy.The evaluation demonstrates that the proposed method is an overwhelming and effective approach for scheduling the concurrent processes with precedence and resource con -straints .

  18. Forest fire occurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in the Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnan, Xavier; Quevedo, Lídia; Rodrigo, Anselm

    2013-01-01

    Here we report how fire recurrence increases the distribution of a scarce forest type in NE Spain that is dominated by the resprouter tree species Arbutus unedo. We used a combination of GIS and field surveys to determine the effect of fire and pre-fire vegetation on the appearance of A. unedo forests. In the field, we also analyzed the factors that promote fire and lead to the appearance of A. unedo forests. Our results reveal an increased occurrence of A. unedo forests in NE Spain in recent years; this phenomenon was strongly related to fire recurrence and the vegetation type present prior to fire. Most Pinus halepensis forests that burned more than once gave rise to A. unedo forests. Our results indicate that these conversions were related to a reduction in pine density coupled with increases in the density and size of A. unedo trees due to recurrent fires. Given that fires are increasing in number and magnitude in the Mediterranean, we predict a major change in landscape structure and composition at the regional scale.

  19. A study on the ethics of microallocation of scarce resources in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, P A de Carvalho; Zoboli, E L C P

    2002-08-01

    This study attempts to analyse the ethical dilemmas arising from the microallocation of scarce health care resources, in terms of deontology and utilitarianism. A group of 395 people were interviewed in the region of Diadema, greater San Paulo, Brazil, while visiting patients in the only state hospital in town. Each interviewee was given a list of eight simulated emergencies (see appendix). In each of the eight cases the interviewee had to choose which of the two patients described, both of whom suffered from exactly the same problem, should receive the only hospital bed currently available. The differences between the hypothetical patients were as follows: age, gender, family dependency, and lifestyle. Each interviewee was asked to justify one of their responses. These responses were then analysed. The results pointed to the co-existence of deontological and utilitarian orientations among the people interviewed. A tendency to give priority to the destitute was revealed throughout the research, contradicting the idea that society, valuing only productive people, wishes only such people to receive the most resources, thus maximising the benefits to be gained from resources. The results showed that people's disapproval of the alcoholic was stronger than that of the nicotine abuser.

  20. Developing a methodological framework for estimating water productivity indicators in water scarce regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubako, S. T.; Fullerton, T. M.; Walke, A.; Collins, T.; Mubako, G.; Walker, W. S.

    2014-12-01

    Water productivity is an area of growing interest in assessing the impact of human economic activities on water resources, especially in arid regions. Indicators of water productivity can assist water users in evaluating sectoral water use efficiency, identifying sources of pressure on water resources, and in supporting water allocation rationale under scarcity conditions. This case study for the water-scarce Middle Rio Grande River Basin aims to develop an environmental-economic accounting approach for water use in arid river basins through a methodological framework that relates water use to human economic activities impacting regional water resources. Water uses are coupled to economic transactions, and the complex but mutual relations between various water using sectors estimated. A comparison is made between the calculated water productivity indicators and representative cost/price per unit volume of water for the main water use sectors. Although it contributes very little to regional economic output, preliminary results confirm that Irrigation is among the sectors with the largest direct water use intensities. High economic value and low water use intensity economic sectors in the study region include Manufacturing, Mining, and Steam Electric Power. Water accounting challenges revealed by the study include differences in water management regimes between jurisdictions, and little understanding of the impact of major economic activities on the interaction between surface and groundwater systems in this region. A more comprehensive assessment would require the incorporation of environmental and social sustainability indicators to the calculated water productivity indicators.

  1. The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system with scarce observational data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penttilä, A.; Granvik, M.; Muinonen, K.; Wilkman, O.

    2014-07-01

    The H,G_1,G_2 photometric system was officially adopted at the IAU General Assembly in Beijing, 2012. The system replaced the H,G system from 1985. The 'photometric system' is a parametrized model V(α; params) for the magnitude-phase relation of small Solar System bodies, and the main purpose is to predict the magnitude at backscattering, H := V(0°), i.e., the (absolute) magnitude of the object. The original H,G system was designed using the best available data in 1985, but since then new observations have been made showing certain features, especially near backscattering, to which the H,G function has troubles adjusting to. The H,G_1,G_2 system was developed especially to address these issues [1]. With a sufficient number of high-accuracy observations and with a wide phase-angle coverage, the H,G_1,G_2 system performs well. However, with scarce low-accuracy data the system has troubles producing a reliable fit, as would any other three-parameter nonlinear function. Therefore, simultaneously with the H,G_1,G_2 system, a two-parameter version of the model, the H,G_{12} system, was introduced [1]. The two-parameter version ties the parameters G_1,G_2 into a single parameter G_{12} by a linear relation, and still uses the H,G_1,G_2 system in the background. This version dramatically improves the possibility to receive a reliable phase-curve fit to scarce data. The amount of observed small bodies is increasing all the time, and so is the need to produce estimates for the absolute magnitude/diameter/albedo and other size/composition related parameters. The lack of small-phase-angle observations is especially topical for near-Earth objects (NEOs). With these, even the two- parameter version faces problems. The previous procedure with the H,G system in such circumstances has been that the G-parameter has been fixed to some constant value, thus only fitting a single-parameter function. In conclusion, there is a definitive need for a reliable procedure to produce

  2. Mapping Stormwater Retention in the Cities: A Flexible Model for Data-Scarce Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, P.; Keeler, B.

    2014-12-01

    There is a growing demand for understanding and mapping urban hydrological ecosystem services, including stormwater retention for flood mitigation and water quality improvement. Progress in integrated urban water management and low impact development in Western countries increased our understanding of how grey and green infrastructure interact to enhance these services. However, valuation methods that account for a diverse group of beneficiaries are typically not made explicit in urban water management models. In addition, the lack of spatial data on the stormwater network in developing countries makes it challenging to apply state-of-the-art models needed to understand both the magnitude and spatial distribution of the stormwater retention service. To fill this gap, we designed the Urban InVEST stormwater retention model, a tool that complements the suite of InVEST software models to quantify and map ecosystem services. We present the model structure emphasizing the data requirements from a user's perspective and the representation of services and beneficiaries. We illustrate the model application with two case studies in a data-rich (New York City) and data-scarce environment. We discuss the difference in the level of information obtained when less resources (data, time, or expertise) are available, and how this affects multiple ecosystem service assessments that the tool is ultimately designed for.

  3. ORNAMENTAL ART AND SYMBOLISM: ACTIVATORS OF HISTORICAL REGENERATION FOR KAZAKHSTAN’S LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmaral Ardasher Yussupova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The use of symbolism in contemporary architecture is increasingly gaining momentum, especially so in the Eastern countries currently undergoing rapid economic development. Sociologically, this phenomenon can be related to a desire to manifest a vast wealth of national art and respond to the globalisation and unification of world culture. Taking this tendency as a prompt, this study explores different ways of implementing symbolic ornaments in landscape architecture. Traditionally architecture has been defined through and judged against culturally acceptable criteria that set the norm for appropriate form and expression. Yet, technical advances have altered this process and contributed to a certain level of oblivion of traditional architectural form. Thus, the meaning of many Kazakh ornaments has been lost through time. On one hand, this paper collects historical information on the semiotics of Kazakh ornaments and on the other hand, it conducts field studies focusing on the cultural tradition of the native people in Eurasia. The study introduces the use of symbolism in landscape architecture as an aspiration for luck and prosperity which then dictates the quality of the landscape compositions. The findings show that the use of symbolic ornamentation in architecture is not bound to specific geographic areas but rather motivated by broader underlying principles. Through analytical exploration of different cultures and their use of symbols in architecture, this study identifies four main categories of architectural symbolism relating to floral, zoomorphic, geometric and cosmogonic patterns. Each nation then recognises its own identity in the semiotics of those patterns and incorporates them in the urban realm as part of its cultural legacy.

  4. Mini-DNA barcode in identification of the ornamental fish: A case study from Northeast India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, Bishal; Ghosh, Sankar Kumar

    2017-09-05

    The ornamental fishes were exported under the trade names or generic names, thus creating problems in species identification. In this regard, DNA barcoding could effectively elucidate the actual species status. However, the problem arises if the specimen is having taxonomic disputes, falsified by trade/generic names, etc., On the other hand, barcoding the archival museum specimens would be of greater benefit to address such issues as it would create firm, error-free reference database for rapid identification of any species. This can be achieved only by generating short sequences as DNA from chemically preserved are mostly degraded. Here we aimed to identify a short stretch of informative sites within the full-length barcode segment, capable of delineating diverse group of ornamental fish species, commonly traded from NE India. We analyzed 287 full-length barcode sequences from the major fish orders and compared the interspecific K2P distance with nucleotide substitutions patterns and found a strong correlation of interspecies distance with transversions (0.95, pbarcode. The proposed segment was compared with the full-length barcodes and found to delineate the species effectively. Successful PCR amplification and sequencing of the 171bp segment using designed primers for different orders validated it as mini-barcodes for ornamental fishes. Thus, our findings would be helpful in strengthening the global database with the sequence of archived fish species as well as an effective identification tool of the traded ornamental fish species, as a less time consuming, cost effective field-based application. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Differential effects of endoparasitism on the expression of carotenoid- and melanin-based ornamental coloration.

    OpenAIRE

    McGraw, K J; Hill, G E

    2000-01-01

    The striking diversity of sexual dimorphisms in nature begs the question: Why are there so many signal types? One possibility is that ornamental traits convey different sets of information about the quality of the sender to the receiver. The colourful, pigmented feathers of male birds seem to meet the predictions of this hypothesis. Evidence suggests that carotenoid pigmentation reflects the nutritional condition of males during moult, whereas in many instances melanin pigmentation is a relia...

  6. Treatment and Remediation of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils Using Selective Ornamental Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Rui; Jadeja, Rajendrasinh N.; Zhou, Qixing; Liu, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    Pot-culture experiments were carried out to assess the phytoremediation potential of 14 ornamental plants in weathered petroleum-contaminated soil, which was collected in the Shengli Oil Field, one of the biggest oil fields in China, by examining their impact on the degradation potential of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and its composition. Results showed Gaillardia aristata, Echinacea purpurea, Fawn (Festuca arundinacea Schreb), Fire Phoenix (a combined F. arundinacea), and Medicago sa...

  7. Female mate choice and the potential for ornament evolution in túngara frogs Physalaemus pustulosus

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. RYAN, Ximena E. BERNA, A. Stanley RAND

    2010-01-01

    The potential for ornament evolution in response to sexual selection rests on the interaction between the permissiveness or selectivity of female preferences and the constraints on male development of signaling related traits. We investigate the former by determining how latent female preferences either exaggerate the magnitude of current traits (i.e. elaborations) or favor novel traits (i.e. innovations). In túngara frogs, females prefer complex mating calls (whine-chucks) to simple calls (...

  8. Ornament induced complications in snake bites: Revisiting the ?Do it RIGHT? approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mallik, Subhendu; Singh, Sudipta Ranjan; Sahoo, Sangeeta; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Limb adorning ornaments (LAO) can exacerbate the local effects of envenoming in case of venomous snake bite. Cultural presuppositions do inhibit victims from removing symbolically/ritually important jewelry even under circumstances that might increase the dangers of envenoming-induced gangrene formation. The recommendation to remove the LAO is usually skipped in guidelines and if at all included the very real hazard is uncommonly documented. We observed 14 cases of snake bite with LAO on the ...

  9. Application of mycorrhizas to ornamental horticultural crops: lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) as a test case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Ornamental crops are high-cash crops, grown under greenhouse conditions in semi-arid regions in Israel where a reduction in the native population of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is expected due to routine soil disinfection. The application of AMF inoculum to the soil has been shown to be effective at improving plant growth and enhancing plant resilience to abiotic and biotic stresses. One of our aims is to introduce mycorrhizal application to ornamental crops, and a test case is presented here for two cultivars of lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum), one of the major ornamental crops grown in Israel. Several different methods of AMF application and their effects on growth, yield and vase life were examined in lisianthus grown in two different semi-arid locations in southern Israel. AMF enhanced lisianthus growth and yield, especially when introduced to the growth medium during seeding and to the pit hole during planting. Significantly enhanced growth and yield parameters included flowering stem length (58 {+-} 0.7 and 65.1 {+-} 0.7 cm for control and AMF treated, respectively) and number of flowering stems per square meter (73 {+-} 9 and 106 {+-} 6 for control and AMF treated, respectively); positive but non-significant effects were recorded on stem weight, number of flowers per stem and vase life of cut flowers. Yield enhancement was recorded under both low and regular phosphorus conditions. Although not significant, higher resilience against two pathogenic fungi was also recorded following AMF inoculation (23 {+-} 13 and 41 {+-} 10 surviving plants for control and AMF treated, respectively). Hence, AMF is suggested to be a useful growth amendment for promotion of lisianthus commercial production, and may potentially be applied to additional ornamental crops. (Author) 23 refs.

  10. The Ornamental Design of Traditional Malay Utensils (Kukuran) in Peninsula Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Md Yusoff Zulkfli bin; Md Zain Dzul Haimi bin; Saniman Hamidon bin

    2016-01-01

    Woodcarving is a significant craft in Malay society that reflects the local traditions and customs. It is a manifestation of craftsmen artistic skills and intutitive ideas into a piece of wood. It is also manifestation of the creative process of imitation, denaturalization, stylization and abstraction. Historically, the Malay craftsmen have created many attractive traditional art forms and one of it is the coconut graters (kukuran). The ornamental carved kukuran is closely related to its Mala...

  11. Application of wood chips for soil mulching in the cultivation of ornamental grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henschke Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of the soil. Mulching plays an important role in the maintenance of green spaces. Organic materials are still sought for the preparation of mulches. Recently interest in wood chips has grown. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mulching with pine and birch chips on the contents of phenolic compounds in the soil, as well as on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses – Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth. Lag. ex Griffiths, Panicum virgatum L. and Pennisetum alopecuroides L. The content of phenolic compounds in the soil steadily increased from spring to autumn. Mulching led to a substantial increase in the level of phenolic compounds. In the first year of cultivation more phenolic compounds were released by chips of pine than birch, while in the second year this difference did not occur. Mulching had a negative impact on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses, especially in the first year of cultivation. Ornamental grass sensitivity to the substances released from mulches decreased with the age of the plants and was dependent on the species – Bouteloua gracilis was found to be particularly sensitive.

  12. The evolution of honest communication: integrating social and physiological costs of ornamentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A

    2014-10-01

    Much research on animal communication has addressed how costs such as social costs or physiological costs favor the accuracy of signals. Previous work has largely considered these costs separately, but we may be missing essential connections by studying costs in isolation. After all, social interactions produce rapid changes in hormone titers which can then affect individual behavior and physiology. As a result, social costs are likely to have widespread physiological consequences. Here, I present a new perspective on the factors that maintain honest signals by describing how the interplay between social costs and physiological costs may maintain an accurate link between an animal's abilities and ornament elaboration. I outline three specific mechanisms by which the interaction between social behavior and hormones could favor honest signals and present specific predictions for each of the three models. Then, I review how ornaments alter agonistic behavior, agonistic behavior influences hormones, and how these hormonal effects influence fitness. I also describe the few previous studies that have directly tested how ornaments influence hormones. Finally, opportunities for future work are discussed. Considering the interaction between social behavior and physiology may address some challenges associated with both social and physiological models of costs. Understanding the dynamic feedbacks between physiology and social costs has potential to transform our understanding of the stability of animals' communication systems. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. How sexual selection can drive the evolution of costly sperm ornamentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüpold, Stefan; Manier, Mollie K.; Puniamoorthy, Nalini; Schoff, Christopher; Starmer, William T.; Luepold, Shannon H. Buckley; Belote, John M.; Pitnick, Scott

    2016-05-01

    Post-copulatory sexual selection (PSS), fuelled by female promiscuity, is credited with the rapid evolution of sperm quality traits across diverse taxa. Yet, our understanding of the adaptive significance of sperm ornaments and the cryptic female preferences driving their evolution is extremely limited. Here we review the evolutionary allometry of exaggerated sexual traits (for example, antlers, horns, tail feathers, mandibles and dewlaps), show that the giant sperm of some Drosophila species are possibly the most extreme ornaments in all of nature and demonstrate how their existence challenges theories explaining the intensity of sexual selection, mating-system evolution and the fundamental nature of sex differences. We also combine quantitative genetic analyses of interacting sex-specific traits in D. melanogaster with comparative analyses of the condition dependence of male and female reproductive potential across species with varying ornament size to reveal complex dynamics that may underlie sperm-length evolution. Our results suggest that producing few gigantic sperm evolved by (1) Fisherian runaway selection mediated by genetic correlations between sperm length, the female preference for long sperm and female mating frequency, and (2) longer sperm increasing the indirect benefits to females. Our results also suggest that the developmental integration of sperm quality and quantity renders post-copulatory sexual selection on ejaculates unlikely to treat male-male competition and female choice as discrete processes.

  14. HIGH-QUALITY ORNAMENTAL FINE CONCRETES MODIFIED BY NANOPARTICLES OF TITANIUM DIOXIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bazhenov Yuriy Mikhaylovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic method of generation of a stable suspension of nano-particles of titanium dioxide and the strengthening properties of the ornamental fine concrete that contains cement binders with a nano-dispersed additive constitute the subject of the research covered by the authors. Nanoparticles react with the basic chemical elements that compose the concrete and act as crystallization centres. Therefore, the concrete porosity is reduced, while physical and technology-related properties of the ornamental fine concrete are improved. The authors have proven that the application of the nano-dispersed additive that contains titanium dioxide influences the processes of the structure formation in respect of fine ornamental concretes and improves the strength, as well as the water and cold resistance of fine concretes. The improvement is attributed to the dense concrete structure and strong adhesion between cement grains and between the cement and the aggregate. This conclusion is based on the data obtained through the employment of an electronic microscope used to identify the porosity of fine concretes.

  15. The Ornamental Design of Traditional Malay Utensils (Kukuran in Peninsula Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Yusoff Zulkfli bin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Woodcarving is a significant craft in Malay society that reflects the local traditions and customs. It is a manifestation of craftsmen artistic skills and intutitive ideas into a piece of wood. It is also manifestation of the creative process of imitation, denaturalization, stylization and abstraction. Historically, the Malay craftsmen have created many attractive traditional art forms and one of it is the coconut graters (kukuran. The ornamental carved kukuran is closely related to its Malay woodcarving tradition and philosophy. The aim of this paper is to illustrate this tradition of the great traditional Malay kukuran, the testiment of its time through its visual characteristics and design composition. This study presents an analysis of six kukuran, which were gathered from the state museums in Peninsular Malaysia. The discussion is focused on the formalistic and iconology aspects of the kukuran carving ornaments. The finding briefly shows the fusion of Malay concept of beauty, Malay culture and the understanding of Islam had been manifested in these domestic utensils - the ornamental kukuran

  16. Helicobacter pylori HopE and HopV porins present scarce expression among clinical isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lienlaf, Maritza; Morales, Juan Pablo; Díaz, María Inés; Díaz, Rodrigo; Bruce, Elsa; Siegel, Freddy; León, Gloria; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate how widely Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) HopE and HopV porins are expressed among Chilean isolates and how seroprevalent they are among infected patients in Chile. METHODS: H. pylori hopE and hopV genes derived from strain CHCTX-1 were cloned by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequenced and expressed in Escherichia coli AD494 (DE3). Gel-purified porins were used to prepare polyclonal antibodies. The presence of both genes was tested by PCR in a collection of H. pylori clinical isolates and their expression was detected in lysates by immunoblotting. Immune responses against HopE, HopV and other H. pylori antigens in sera from infected and non-infected patients were tested by Western blotting using these sera as first antibody on recombinant H. pylori antigens. RESULTS: PCR and Western blotting assays revealed that 60 and 82 out of 130 Chilean isolates carried hopE and hopV genes, respectively, but only 16 and 9, respectively, expressed these porins. IgG serum immunoreactivity evaluation of 69 H. pylori-infected patients revealed that HopE and HopV were infrequently recognized (8.7% and 10.1% respectively) compared to H. pylori VacA (68.1%) and CagA (59.5%) antigens. Similar values were detected for IgA serum immunoreactivity against HopE (11.6%) and HopV (10.5%) although lower values for VacA (42%) and CagA (17.4%) were obtained when compared to the IgG response. CONCLUSION: A scarce expression of HopE and HopV among Chilean isolates was found, in agreement with the infrequent seroconversion against these antigens when tested in infected Chilean patients. PMID:20082477

  17. Application of logical analysis of data to machinery-related accident prevention based on scarce data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jocelyn, Sabrina; Chinniah, Yuvin; Ouali, Mohamed-Salah; Yacout, Soumaya

    2017-01-01

    This paper deals with the application of Logical Analysis of Data (LAD) to machinery-related occupational accidents, using belt-conveyor-related accidents as an example. LAD is a pattern recognition and classification approach. It exploits the advancement in information technology and computational power in order to characterize the phenomenon under study. The application of LAD to machinery-related accident prevention is innovative. Ideally, accidents do not occur regularly, and as a result, companies have little data about them. The first objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility of using LAD as an algorithm to characterize a small sample of machinery-related accidents with an adequate average classification accuracy. The second is to show that LAD can be used for prevention of machinery-related accidents. The results indicate that LAD is able to characterize different types of accidents with an average classification accuracy of 72–74%, which is satisfactory when compared with other studies dealing with large amounts of data where such a level of accuracy is considered adequate. The paper shows that the quantitative information provided by LAD about the patterns generated can be used as a logical way to prioritize risk factors. This prioritization helps safety practitioners make decisions regarding safety measures for machines. - Highlights: • LAD is presented as an innovative approach to prevent machinery-related accidents. • LAD is applied to a very small database of belt-conveyor-related accidents. • Despite scarce data, LAD generates patterns with adequate classification accuracy. • The patterns characterize different types of belt-conveyor-related accidents. • The patterns are useful to belt conveyor risk identification and risk estimation.

  18. Performance of High Resolution Satellite Rainfall Products over Data Scarce Parts of Eastern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimelis B. Gebere

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate estimation of rainfall in mountainous areas is necessary for various water resource-related applications. Though rain gauges accurately measure rainfall, they are rarely found in mountainous regions and satellite rainfall data can be used as an alternative source over these regions. This study evaluated the performance of three high-resolution satellite rainfall products, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM 3B42, the Global Satellite Mapping of Precipitation (GSMaP_MVK+, and the Precipitation Estimation from Remotely-Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN at daily, monthly, and seasonal time scales against rain gauge records over data-scarce parts of Eastern Ethiopia. TRMM 3B42 rain products show relatively better performance at the three time scales, while PERSIANN did much better than GSMaP. At the daily time scale, TRMM correctly detected 88% of the rainfall from the rain gauge. The correlation at the monthly time scale also revealed that the TRMM has captured the observed rainfall better than the other two. For Belg (short rain and Kiremt (long rain seasons, the TRMM did better than the others by far. However, during Bega (dry season, PERSIANN showed a relatively good estimate. At all-time scales, noticing the bias, TRMM tends to overestimate, while PERSIANN and GSMaP tend to underestimate the rainfall. The overall result suggests that monthly and seasonal TRMM rainfall performed better than daily rainfall. It has also been found that both GSMaP and PERSIANN performed better in relatively flat areas than mountainous areas. Before the practical use of TRMM, the RMSE value needs to be improved by considering the topography of the study area or adjusting the bias.

  19. Plasticity of rhizosphere hydraulic properties as a key for efficient utilization of scarce resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris

    2013-01-01

    experimental methods need to be developed and applied to different plant species and soil types, in order to understand whether such dualism in rhizosphere properties is an important mechanism for efficient utilization of scarce resources and drought tolerance. PMID:23235697

  20. Knowledge typology for imprecise probabilities.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G. D. (Gregory D.); Zucker, L. J. (Lauren J.)

    2002-01-01

    When characterizing the reliability of a complex system there are often gaps in the data available for specific subsystems or other factors influencing total system reliability. At Los Alamos National Laboratory we employ ethnographic methods to elicit expert knowledge when traditional data is scarce. Typically, we elicit expert knowledge in probabilistic terms. This paper will explore how we might approach elicitation if methods other than probability (i.e., Dempster-Shafer, or fuzzy sets) prove more useful for quantifying certain types of expert knowledge. Specifically, we will consider if experts have different types of knowledge that may be better characterized in ways other than standard probability theory.

  1. Mapping evapotranspiration trends using MODIS and SEBAL model in a data scarce and heterogeneous landscape in Eastern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiptala, J.K.; Mohamedi, Y.; Mul, M.L.; Van der Zaag, P.

    2013-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) accounts for a substantial amount of the water use in river basins particular in the tropics and arid regions. However, accurate estimation still remains a challenge especially in large spatially heterogeneous and data scarce areas including the Upper Pangani River Basin in

  2. The value of holding scarce wind resource—A cause of overinvestment in wind power capacity in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xuemei

    2013-01-01

    China's wind power capacity has increased dramatically in recent years, but about 30% of the installed capacity sits idle, so overinvestment in wind power capacity seems to be a serious problem. This paper explores reasons for the overinvestment. The economic analysis shows that, given uncertain future policy on wind power, it is optimal for power companies to invest more than the amount in a certain world. A part of the “overinvestment” has a real value, which can be interpreted as the value of holding scarce wind resource. This value exists because the wind-rich sites with convenient locations to connect to the grids are scarce resource, and also because the specific government policies that are essential for promoting wind power are uncertain in the future. This value should be taken into account in the investment decision, but it results in the phenomenon of “overinvestment”. The concept of the value of holding scarce resource can be generally applied to the resources that are scarce and for which the future policy is uncertain

  3. 38 CFR 17.142 - Authority to approve sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sharing agreements, contracts for scarce medical specialist services and contracts for other medical... medical specialist services and contracts for other medical services. The Under Secretary for Health is... specialist services at Department of Veterans Affairs health care facilities (including, but not limited to...

  4. Impact of biogas slurry fertilizer on growth, quality and biochemical characteristics of ornamental lettuce 'Biscia Rossa'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiaxiang, J.; Khalid, M.; Hong, Z.; Leqi, Y.; Dongqin, T.; Danfeng, H.

    2018-01-01

    Biogas slurry is a good source of plant nutrients and substituting chemical fertilizers with biogas slurry not only achieve resource utilization of slurry, but also reduce the amount of fertilizer. The present study investigated the influence of different ratios of biogas slurry fertilizer (BSF) on the growth, yield and quality characteristics of ornamental lettuce 'Biscia Rossa'. Results revealed that BSF significantly (p<0.05) improved the growth of ornamental lettuce on treatment with Z1 fertilizer; the plant height was increased by 12.66% and 16.75%, while leaf area was improved by 19.97% and 42.03%, in comparison with control group. The improvement in yield of ornamental lettuce was noted in varying degrees by BSF. The highest dry and fresh weights were observed in case of Z1 treated lettuce plants. The fresh weight was 33.52%, 44.77%, 43.96% and 49.04% higher than that of other 2 fertilizers and 2 control groups, respectively. Whereas the dry weight was 2.7 and 3.17-times greater than that of two control groups. The biogas slurry irrigation also considerably improved the quality of ornamental lettuce. Moreover, it was observed that vitamin C, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and protein were higher than that of control groups. Contrarily, the BSF led to decrease in nitrate-nitrogen content in ornamental lettuce. (author)

  5. Spatial estimation of mean temperature and precipitation in areas of scarce meteorological information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, J.D. [Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Chapingo (Mexico)]. E-mail: dgomez@correo.chapingo.mx; Etchevers, J.D. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Colegio de Postgraduados, Montecillo, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico); Monterroso, A.I. [departamento de Suelos, Universidad Autonoma Chapingo, Chapingo (Mexico); Gay, G. [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Campo, J. [Instituto de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Martinez, M. [Instituto de Recursos Naturales, Montecillo, Edo. de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-01-15

    In regions of complex relief and scarce meteorological information it becomes difficult to implement techniques and models of numerical interpolation to elaborate reliable maps of climatic variables essential for the study of natural resources using the new tools of the geographic information systems. This paper presents a method for estimating annual and monthly mean values of temperature and precipitation, taking elements from simple interpolation methods and complementing them with some characteristics of more sophisticated methods. To determine temperature, simple linear regression equations were generated associating temperature with altitude of weather stations in the study region, which had been previously subdivided in accordance with humidity conditions and then applying such equations to the area's digital elevation model to obtain temperatures. The estimation of precipitation was based on the graphic method through the analysis of the meteorological systems that affect the regions of the study area throughout the year and considering the influence of mountain ridges on the movement of prevailing winds. Weather stations with data in nearby regions were analyzed according to their position in the landscape, exposure to humid winds, and false color associated with vegetation types. Weather station sites were used to reference the amount of rainfall; interpolation was attained using analogies with satellite images of false color to which a model of digital elevation was incorporated to find similar conditions within the study area. [Spanish] En las regiones de relieve complejo y con escasa informacion meteorologica se dificulta la aplicacion de las diferentes tecnicas y modelos de interpolacion numericos para elaborar mapas de variables climaticas confiables, indispensables para realizar estudios de los recursos naturales, con la utilizacion de las nuevas herramientas de los sistemas de informacion geografica. En este trabajo se presenta un metodo para

  6. Determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to scarce freshwater resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, R.; Hornberger, G.; Carrico, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    Stress on freshwater resources is a significant risk associated with climatic change. The risk is even greater given the expected changes in overall resource use as the developing world develops, as the world's population continues to grow, and as land use changes dramatically. Effective water management has implications for food security, health, and political stability worldwide. This is particularly true in developing regions heavily dependent on agriculture, and where agriculture depends on irrigation. Adaptation to water stress requires both managing water allocation among competing users and ensuring that each user is efficient in his or her use of a limited allotment: the problem is a quintessential common-pool resource (CPR) dilemma. In the future even more so than in the past, adaptation will be essential as the world evolves. The problem that we identify—determining paths by which farmers can adapt effectively to increasingly scarce freshwater resources—is one of great scientific and societal importance. The issue lies at the intersection of water-cycle processes and social-psychological processes that influence and are influenced by water availability and use. This intersection harbors intriguing unresolved scientific questions; advances in natural and social sciences will stem from attacks on the overall problem. The issue is societally compelling because the ability of the world to supply adequate food for a population expected to grow to over 9 billion by 2050 may well be determined by how farmers, consumers, and government institutions adapt to changing conditions of water availability. Major strides have been made in recent decades in understanding why Hardin's envisioned "tragedy of the commons" is avoided under certain circumstances, in some cases through self-organization rather than government intervention originally considered a necessity. Furthermore, we now know that the impacts of decisions about allocation and use of water can be

  7. Action of ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropene and silver thiosulfate in two developmental stages of potted ornamental pepper(

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Carvalho Lima

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The species of Capsicum genus have great genetic variability with enormous potential for marketing as ornamental potted plants. The exposure at ethylene induces various deleterious responses during plants life cycle, but there are few studies on how the ethylene affects early developmental stages of these ornamental plants. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of the application of ethylene and ethylene inhibitors, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and silver thiosulphate (STS in two early development stages (seedling or initial flowering of potted ornamental peppers of the cultivars ‘Calypso’ and ‘MG 302’. Cultivar ‘MG 302’ showed intermediate sensitivity to ethylene, while the cultivar ‘Calypso’ showed complete abscission of leaves when exposed to 10 µl of ethylene for 48 hours in both development stages. Plants treated with 1-MCP showed similar durability to control for both varieties and developmental stages, and the treatment with 1-MCP + ethylene was beneficial only for ‘MG 302’. STS was the most efficient substance in delaying the ethylene, wherein at stage 1 there was no leaf abscission and at stage 2 had much reduced leaf abscission occurred, regardless the cultivar. Treatment with STS + ethylene was efficient only at stage 1 for ‘Calypso’ and at stage 2 for ‘MG 302’. According to the data, cultivars showed different levels of sensitivity to ethylene, ‘Calypso’ is very sensitive and ‘MG 302’ showed intermediate sensitivity. Regardless the cultivar, STS treatment significantly blocked the ethylene action in both development stages and the use of 1-MCP was less efficient

  8. Managing the marine aquarium trade: revealing the data gaps using ornamental polychaetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Joanna M; Watson, Gordon J; Giangrande, Adriana; Licciano, Margherita; Bentley, Matt G

    2012-01-01

    The marine aquarium industry has great potential to generate jobs in low-income coastal communities creating incentives for the maintenance of a healthy coral reef, if effectively managed. In the absence of current monitoring or legislation to govern the trade, baseline information regarding the species, number and source location of animals traded is missing despite being critical for its successful management and sustainability. An industry assessment to establish the number and provenance of species of ornamental polychaetes (sabellids and serpulids) traded was undertaken across UK wholesalers and retailers. Six geographical regions exporting fan worms were identified. Singapore contributed the highest percentage of imports, but of only one worm "type" whereas Bali, the second largest source, supplied five different worm "types". Over 50% of UK retailers were supplied by one wholesaler while the remainder were stocked by a mixture of one other wholesaler and/or direct imports from the source country. We estimate that up to 18,500 ornamental polychaetes (16,980 sabellids and 1,018 serpulids) are sold annually in the UK revealing a drastic underestimation of currently accepted trade figures. Incorrect identification (based on exporting region or visual characteristics) of traded animals exacerbates the inaccuracy in market quantification, although identification of preserved sabellids using published keys proved just as inconclusive with high within-species variability and the potential for new or cryptic species. A re-description of the polychaete groups traded using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques is necessary for effective identification and market quantification. This study provides the first assessment of ornamental polychaetes but more importantly highlights the issues surrounding the collection of baseline information necessary to manage the aquarium trade. We recommend that future management should be community based and site

  9. Managing the marine aquarium trade: revealing the data gaps using ornamental polychaetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna M Murray

    Full Text Available The marine aquarium industry has great potential to generate jobs in low-income coastal communities creating incentives for the maintenance of a healthy coral reef, if effectively managed. In the absence of current monitoring or legislation to govern the trade, baseline information regarding the species, number and source location of animals traded is missing despite being critical for its successful management and sustainability. An industry assessment to establish the number and provenance of species of ornamental polychaetes (sabellids and serpulids traded was undertaken across UK wholesalers and retailers. Six geographical regions exporting fan worms were identified. Singapore contributed the highest percentage of imports, but of only one worm "type" whereas Bali, the second largest source, supplied five different worm "types". Over 50% of UK retailers were supplied by one wholesaler while the remainder were stocked by a mixture of one other wholesaler and/or direct imports from the source country. We estimate that up to 18,500 ornamental polychaetes (16,980 sabellids and 1,018 serpulids are sold annually in the UK revealing a drastic underestimation of currently accepted trade figures. Incorrect identification (based on exporting region or visual characteristics of traded animals exacerbates the inaccuracy in market quantification, although identification of preserved sabellids using published keys proved just as inconclusive with high within-species variability and the potential for new or cryptic species. A re-description of the polychaete groups traded using a combination of molecular and morphological techniques is necessary for effective identification and market quantification. This study provides the first assessment of ornamental polychaetes but more importantly highlights the issues surrounding the collection of baseline information necessary to manage the aquarium trade. We recommend that future management should be community

  10. Utilization of Integrated Geophysical Techniques to Delineate the Extraction of Mining Bench of Ornamental Rocks (Marble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Martínez

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Low yields in ornamental rock mining remain one of the most important problems in this industry. This fact is usually associated with the presence of anisotropies in the rock, which makes it difficult to extract the blocks. An optimised planning of the exploitation, together with an improved geological understanding of the deposit, could increase these yields. In this work, marble mining in Macael (Spain was studied to test the capacity of non-destructive geophysical prospecting methods (GPR and ERI as tools to characterize the geology of the deposit. It is well-known that the ERI method provides a greater penetration depth. By using this technique, it is possible to distinguish the boundaries between the marble and the underlying micaschists, the morphology of the unit to be exploited, and even fracture zones to be identified. Therefore, this technique could be used in the early stages of research, to estimate the reserves of the deposit. The GPR methodology, with a lower penetration depth, is able to offer more detailed information. Specifically, it detects lateral and vertical changes of the facies inside the marble unit, as well as the anisotropies of the rock (fractures or holes. This technique would be suitable for use in a second stage of research. On the one hand, it is very useful for characterization of the texture and fabric of the rock, which allows us to determine in advance its properties, and therefore, the quality for ornamental use. On the other hand, the localization of anisotropy using the GPR technique will make it possible to improve the planning of the rock exploitation in order to increase yields. Both integrated geophysical techniques are effective for assessing the quality of ornamental rock and thus can serve as useful tools in mine planning to improve yields and costs.

  11. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S.

    2009-04-01

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0∼2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0∼2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia indica were

  12. Induction of somatic mutations in some vegetatively Propagated ornamentals by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, P.K.; Ghosh, P.; Dube, S.; Dhua, S.P.

    1974-01-01

    Attempts were made to produce mutations in some vegetatively propagated ornamentals by acute and chronic gamma irradiation. Rooted cutting of Chrysanthemums and dormant bulbs of Dahlias were exposed to 1.5, 2.5, 3.5 and 2.0, 3.0 kR of acute doses respectively. In chronic irradiation, potted plants of Bougainvillea, Hibiscus, Allamanda, Achania, Jasminum, Chrysanthemum were exposed to several dose rates at different isodose arcs in the gamma field. Isolated mutants are being vegetatively multiplied and some of them have already been stabilized as pure forms. (M.G.B.)

  13. THRIPS SPECIES (INSECTA: THYSANOPTERA OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS FROM THE PARKS AND GREENHOUSES OF ADP PITESTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The observations carried-out in 2008/2010 to ornamental plants from parks and greenhouses of ADP Pitesti relieve 12 species of thrips. One species of them, Frankliniella occidentalis was identified in greenhouses on Rosa sp., Dianthus sp. and Zantedeschia sp. In parks, the thrips species belong to 12 species, dominated by Frankliniella intonsa. All of them are polypfagous and divided in two throphic levels: primary and secondary consumers. The thrips species are mentioned for the first time in Romania on this host plant. In greenhouses are necessary intensive chemical treatments and methods of cultural hygiene to limit the F. occidentalis populations.

  14. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H. J.; Lim, J. H.; Woo, S. M.; Hwang, M. J.; Pyo, S. H.; Woo, J. S. [Phygen Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-04-15

    It is necessary to induce the improved strains of ornamental plants with more disease-resistant and useful for landscape or phytoremediation. Mutation breeding has played an important role in crop improvement, and more than 2,000 mutant cultivars have been released. For the induction of mutation, gamma rays and X-rays are widely used as a mutagen. Proton beam had higher energy than -ray and worked with localized strength, so that proton-beam radiation could be valuable tool to induce useful strains of ornamental plants. Proton ion beam irradiation was used to induce a useful mutant in rice, chrysanthemum, carnation, and so on in Japan. Also, proton ion beam was used to select a useful host strain, in polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a member of biodegradable plastic, could be overproduced in Korea. Therefore, we surmise that the effects of proton beam is different from those of gamma rays and X-rays, and we expect proton beam to be a new mutagen. This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of the various ornamental plants like as Albizia julibrissin, Ficus religiosa, Rhus chinensis, Sorbaria sorbilfolia and Spiraea chinensis, to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx}2kGy of proton beam at room temperature. Proton beam energy level was 45 MeV and was irradiated at dose of 0{approx}2kGy by MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. By the proton beam radiation, the germination rate decreased at the higher dose. The other hand, the germination rate of Rhus chinensis increased the dose higher, so that it need to investigate the germination rate over 2kGy radiation. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia

  15. Hospitability of ornamental and medicinal plants to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José Carvalho Moreira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The correct identification of species and genus of nematodes that affect a particular culture is of great importance to form a quantity of information that will be useful to laboratories for diagnosis and control of these pathogens. Because of the increase in the production of ornamental and medicinal plants in the of Cear. á State, the agricultural importance of the genus Meloidogyne and the scarcity of information on the hospitability this pathogen in these species, in that it was to evaluate the susceptibility testing of 30 species, and 20 ornamental (Antirrhimum majus, Gazania ringens, Carthamus tinctorius, Bryophyllum cayicinum, Ceasalpinia pulcherrima, Thumbergia alata, Petunia hibryda, Exacum affine, Catharanthus roseus, Opuntia sp., Sansevieria trifasciata, Asparagus densiflorus, Hibiscus mutabilis-roreus, Impatiens balsamiana, Celosia spicata, Antirrhimum sp., Dianthus chinensis, Zinnia elegans, Tagetes patula, Capsicum annuum and 10 medicinal (Peumus boldus, Ocimum gratissimum, Mentha arvensis var. piperascens, Mentha x Vilosa, Plectranthus amboinicus, Ocimum bassilicum, Rosmarinus officinalis, Cymbopogon citratus, Lippia alba, Cymbopogon winterianus. The test was conducted in a greenhouse, of the Phytosanitary Sector, Department of Plant Science, Federal University of Ceará. The inoculation was conducted with 4,000 eggs/J2 for pot. Evaluation of the plants gave to 60 days after inoculation. Evaluated is the reaction of the plants, measuring up: number of galls and eggs, egg mass index, reproduction factor and reduce the reproduction factor. From these variables it was classified the reaction of plants to the nematode by means of five criterions. Of ownership of the results, it was verified that of the ornamental plants only species T. patula didn’t presented galls in your root system. Concerning medicinal species M. vilosa, C. citrates, L. alba, C. winterianus and P. boldus showed no galls in their root systems. Thus, concluded

  16. Analysis of Chromosome Number in Some Allium and Silene Wild Species with Ornamental Use

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia DRAGHIA; Elena Liliana CHELARIU; Culiţă SÎRBU; Maria BRÂNZĂ; Cristina SANDU MICULSCHI

    2013-01-01

    The present study analyses the number of somatic chromosomes in plant species with ornamental value, in Romanian indigenous flora, Allium (A. flavum L., A. saxatile Bieb.) and Silene (S. compacta Fischer., S. supina M.Bieb.). The biological material was identified and harvested in the South-Eastern part of Dobrogea (Tulcea and Constanţa counties), area in the South-Eastern part of Romania, situated between the Danube and the Black Sea. Individuals from two populations of Allium flavum and All...

  17. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-Mediated Transformation – a Non-GMO Platform For Developing Compact Ornamentals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Lauridsen, Uffe Bjerre

    of these compounds are potentially harmful to both the environment and human health. A new non-GMO molecular breeding strategy, as opposed to both the application of chemical growth retardants and conventional molecular breeding is Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation. In this method, the soil borne...... for transformations, plants produced via this approach are not considered as GMOs in the European Union and Japan. We have developed an optimised Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation platform useful for a wide range of ornamentals. Kalanchoë was the starting point and the effect of the rol-genes has now...

  18. Risco do uso do eletrocautério em pacientes portadores de adornos metálicos Risk of the use of electrocautery in patient with metallic ornaments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Toledo Afonso

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A eletrocirurgia é tecnologia conhecida há longo tempo que, atualmente, tem adquirido cada vez mais destaque. Apesar disso, ainda apresenta vários riscos quanto à sua utilização. Várias lesões podem ser causadas por eletrocautérios, sendo as queimaduras a complicação mais frequente. Nem sempre existe a cooperção do paciente frente a medidas preventivas. MÉTODO: Revisão da literatura pertinente em função de questionamento jurídico de paciente que se negou a retirar seus ornamentos no início de procedimento cirúrgico, já estando ela na sala de operações. CONCLUSÃO: É essencial o conhecimento dos fundamentos da eletrocirurgia, seu uso correto, equipamento seguro, monitoramento constante e investigação imediata diante de quaisquer suspeitas, para minimizar o risco de acidentes em paciente com adornos metálicos, e a cooperação do paciente na obediência das medidas preventivas de acidentes deve ser obrigatória.INTRODUCTION: Electrosurgery technology is known in a long time ago, and has gained increasing prominence. Nevertheless, it still presents many risks as to its use. Several lesions can be caused by electrocautery, and burns are the most frequent complications. There is not always patient's cooperation regarding preventive measures. METHOD: Review of relevant literature on the basis of legal questioning of a patient who refused to remove their ornaments at the beginning of surgery, being already in the operating room. CONCLUSION: It is essential to have the knowledge of the fundamentals of electrosurgery, its correct use, safety equipment, constant monitoring and immediate investigation to minimize the risk of accidents in patients with metal ornaments, and patient cooperation in obeying the preventive measures of accidents should be mandatory.

  19. Evaluation of Ornamental Flowers and Fishes Breeding in Bushehr Urban Wastewater Using a Pilot Scale Aquaponic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Agharokh

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 24 species of aquaponically grown ornamental flowers and 10 fish species were used. The purpose of the study was to put urban wastewater into economic use in an attempt to reduce contaminate loads in coastal waters through biological treatment. Certain chemical parameters of pond water such as EC, temperature, DO, pH and TDS were measured on a daily basis while parameters such as salinity, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, TSS, chloride, sulphate, potassium, carbonate, etc. were measured on a monthly basis. It was found that Petunia hybrida, Verbena hybrida, Ficus sp., Phinix sp., and Conokarpus sp. as the ornamental flowers and Serresalmus natlerei and Junit sp. in the ornamental fish group had the highest adaptability to life and growth in urban wastewater.

  20. Natural transformation in plant breeding - a biotechnological platform for quality improvement of ornamental, agricultural and medicinal plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lütken, Henrik Vlk; Hegelund, Josefine Nymark; Himmelboe, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Compactness is a desirable trait in ornamental plant breeding because it is preferred by producers, distributors and consumers. Presently, in ornamental plant production growth of many potted plants is regulated by application of chemical growth retardants, several of which are harmful to both...... (rol)-genes rolA, rolB, rolC and rolD among 18 ORFs, into the plant genome. Infection of plants by A. rhizogenes induces hairy roots, from which shoots containing rol-genes can be regenerated. Natural transformation with A. rhizogenes reveals very promising results in several plant species and can...... be useful in a broader range of application than ornamental breeding. One important aspect of this technology is that the hairy roots can be used directly in the selection proceß as a primary indicator of a succeßful transformation. Thus the technology avoids use of undesired antibiotic resistance marker...

  1. Knowledge about knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramm, Hans Henrik

    2006-01-01

    Technology and knowledge make up the knowledge capital that has been so essential to the oil and gas industry's value creation, competitiveness and internationalization. Report prepared for the Norwegian Oil Industry Association (OLF) and The Norwegian Society of Chartered Technical and Scientific Professionals (Tekna), on the Norwegian petroleum cluster as an environment for creating knowledge capital from human capital, how fiscal and other framework conditions may influence the building of knowledge capital, the long-term perspectives for the petroleum cluster, what Norwegian society can learn from the experiences in the petroleum cluster, and the importance of gaining more knowledge about the functionality of knowledge for increased value creation (author) (ml)

  2. Evaluation of Air Pollution Tolerance Index of Plants and Ornamental Shrubs in Enugu City: Implications for Urban Heat Island Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The study compared the air pollution tolerance indices (APTI of five plant species and five ornamental shrubs in Enugu Urban Center. Laboratory analysis was performed on the four physiological and biological parameters including leaf relative water content (RWC, ascorbic acid (AA content, total leaf chlorophyll (TCH and leaf extract pH. These parameters were used to develop an air pollution tolerance index. Factor analysis and descriptive statistics were utilized in the analysis to examine the interactions between these parameters. Vegetation monitoring in terms of its APTI acts as a \\'Bioindicator\\' of air pollution. The study also showed the possibility of utilizing APTI as a tool for selecting plants or ornamental shrubs for urban heat Island mitigation in Enugu City. The result of APTI showed order of tolerance for plants as Anacarduim occidentale (23.20, Pinus spp (22.35, Catalpa burgei (22.57, Magifera indica (23.37, and Psidum guajava (24.15.The result of APTI showed increasing order of sensitivity for ornamental shrubs from ixora red (14.32, yellow ficus(12.63, masquerade pine(12.26, Tuja pine(11.000,to Yellow bush(10.60. The APTI of all the plants examined were higher than those of ornamental shrubs. Thus suggesting that plants in general were more tolerant to air pollution than ornamental shrubs. The ornamental shrubs with lower APTI values (sensitive were recommended as bioindicator of poor urban air quality while plants with high APTI values (tolerant are planted around areas anticipated to have high air pollution load. The result of this current study is therefore handy for future planning and as well provides tolerant species for streetscape and urban heat island mitigation.

  3. Ornamental Plants of Home Garden along the Coridor of Kopendukuh Village, Banyuwangi, East Java-Indonesia as a Basis for Ecotourism Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maic A.L. Sihombing

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Home garden is a habitat for many plants species which are important in planning and management of tourism in rural area. Ornamental plants have crucial function to increase the appearance of homes and buildings through landscaping. The purpose of this study is to analyze ornamental plants species which grow in the home garden along the corridor of Kopendukuh Village as one of the potential attractions of tourism development. The observation of ornamental plants diversity was carried out at home gardens along the rural coridor of Kopendukuh Village. Totally, there are about 10 home gardens were assessed. In each home gardens, plans species were recorded and identified systematically. Qualitative analysis was performed using analysis of sociability, vitality, and periodicity. Result of the survey confirm that home garden is home of about 40 ornamental plants species. These species came from 24 family. About 59% of the ornamental species was classified as individual plant species live in small groups, 28% of ornamental plant was classified as shrubs. About 65% of are ornamental plant without flowers and seeds.  The diversity of plants in home garden needs special attention, especially in order to increase settlement visual quality. Keywords: Kopendukuh, ornamental plant, sociability, vitality, periodicity.

  4. Characterization of ceramic ornaments of a theatre-like incense burner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Valenzuela, R.; Lopez-Palacios, J.A.; Jimenez-Reyes, M.; Tenorio, D.; Catano, G.

    2010-01-01

    Thirteen Teotihuacan-style ornaments of an incense burner were studied. Ceramic pastes, pigments and mica were analyzed by neutron activation, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Elemental (Sc, Cr, Fe, Co, Rb, Cs, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Th and U) and statistical analyses of ceramic-body data showed that these pieces were made from the same raw material, which is chemically different from the fine orange ceramic of Teotihuacan. Montmorillonite and the classical components of sand were the minerals identified in the ceramic pastes. The white pigment contained calcium, titanium and aluminium, the yellow pigment was ocher, and the red pigment was a mixture of red ocher and cinnabar, the binder of the pigments being clay. Exoskeletons of diatoms and locust ootecs were found in the pigments. Mica was identified as biotite, identical with that coming from Monte Alban Oaxaca. We wish to undertake a historical reconstruction of these ornaments based on archaeometric and literature data. (author)

  5. Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-11-07

    Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material.

  6. BREEDING FIELD CROPS FOR ORNAMENTAL PURPOSE: A CASE IN Jathropa spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narathid Muakrong

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Populations of F1, F2 and BC1F1 were formed from an interspecific cross between green-flowered Jatropha curcas and red-flowered J. integerrima (dwarf type to observe for segregation in flower colors and to select for ornamental segregants. The crossing to produce F1 and BC1F1 was successful only when J. curcas was used as the female parent. The suitable time for crossing was between 08:00 – 13:00 o’clock with fruit setting rate of 65-78%. The F1 segregated into white- and pink-flowered plants. While flowers of the F2 population segregated into nine different colors, viz. light green, green, white, very light pink, light pink, pink, deep pink, very deep pink, and red. When J. curcas was backcrossed by a pink-flowered F1, its BC1F1 progenies segregated into green, light green, white, very light pink and light pink flowers. While another set of BC1F1 progenies obtained from a white-flowered F1 parent segregated into green, light green, and white. The segregating progenies in both sets showed smaller plants than jatropha and bore colorful flowers suitable for ornamental purpose. Six plants were chosen and registered at Kasetsart University and the Thai Department of Agriculture as commercial cultivars, ‘Kamphaeng Saen 1’ to ‘Kamphaeng Saen 6’.

  7. Conspicuous female ornamentation and tests of male mate preference in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shane Wright

    Full Text Available Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks.

  8. Conspicuous female ornamentation and tests of male mate preference in threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Daniel Shane; Pierotti, Michele E R; Rundle, Howard D; McKinnon, Jeffrey S

    2015-01-01

    Sexual selection drives the evolution of exaggerated male ornaments in many animal species. Female ornamentation is now acknowledged also to be common but is generally less well understood. One example is the recently documented red female throat coloration in some threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) populations. Although female sticklebacks often exhibit a preference for red male throat coloration, the possibility of sexual selection on female coloration has been little studied. Using sequential and simultaneous mate choice trials, we examined male mate preferences for female throat color, as well as pelvic spine color and standard length, using wild-captured threespine sticklebacks from the Little Campbell River, British Columbia. In a multivariate analysis, we found no evidence for a population-level mate preference in males, suggesting the absence of directional sexual selection on these traits arising from male mate choice. Significant variation was detected among males in their preference functions, but this appeared to arise from differences in their mean responsiveness across mating trials and not from variation in the strength (i.e., slope) of their preference, suggesting the absence of individual-level preferences as well. When presented with conspecific intruder males, male response decreased as intruder red throat coloration increased, suggesting that males can discriminate color and other aspects of phenotype in our experiment and that males may use these traits in intrasexual interactions. The results presented here are the first to explicitly address male preference for female throat color in threespine sticklebacks.

  9. Ethylene, 1-methylcyclopropene and silver thiosulfate on the post-production of ornamental pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Cristina Carvalho Lima

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Species from Capsicum genus are used for different purposes and in more recent years as ornamental potted plant. Despite the increased commercial importance, there are only a few studies on the environmental factors affecting the post-production shelf life of these ornamental plants. The presence of ethylene induces various responses on potted peppers, reducing the shelf life of sensitive cultivars. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ethylene and the inhibitors of ethylene action, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP and silver thiosulfate (STS on the shelf life of potted 'Calypso' and 'MG 302' peppers. Cultivar 'MG 302' showed intermediate sensitivity to ethylene action, while the cultivar 'Calypso' showed complete abscission of leaves when exposed to ethylene. In both cultivars, treatment with STS + Ethylene presented symptoms of phytotoxicity in plants, while treatment with 1-MCP + Ethylene was effective in delaying senescence and abscission for the cultivar 'MG 302', while cultivar 'Calypso' showed abscission similar to control plants. Plants treated with STS showed the longest durability when compared to the other treatments, about six days for 'Calypso' and 18 days for 'MG 302'. Nevertheless, plants treated with 1-MCP also exhibited good shelf life, about six days for 'Calypso' and nine days for the 'MG 302'. Although the treatment with STS was more efficient on the plants shelf life, did not completely block the action of ethylene and exhibited some phytotoxicity, while the treatment with 1-MCP had good efficiency without inducing any toxicity.

  10. Vascularization in Ornamented Osteoderms: Physiological Implications in Ectothermy and Amphibious Lifestyle in the Crocodylomorphs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarac, F; De Buffrénil, V; Cubo, J; Quilhac, A

    2018-01-01

    Vascularization in the core of crocodylian osteoderms, and in their superficial pits has been hypothesized to be a key feature involved in physiological thermoregulation and/or acidosis buffering during anoxia (apnea). However, up to now, there have been no quantitative data showing that the inner, or superficial, blood supply of the osteoderms is greater than that occurring in neighboring dermal tissues. We provide such data: our results clearly indicate that the vascular networks in both the osteoderms and the pits forming their superficial ornamentation are denser than in the overlying dermis. These results support previous physiological assumptions and indicate that vascularization in pseudosuchian (crocodylians and close relatives) ornamented osteoderms could be part of a broad eco-physiological adaptation towards ectothermy and aquatic ambush predation acquired by the crocodylomorphs during their post-Triassic evolution. Moreover, regressions demonstrate that the number of enclosed vessels is correlated with the sectional area of the cavities housing them (superficial pits and inner cavities). These regressions can be used to infer the degree of vascularization on dry and fossilized osteoderms and thus document the evolution of the putative function of the osteoderms in the Pseudosuchia. Anat Rec, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Anat Rec, 301:175-183, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using proton beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Jae Hong; Woo, Seong Min; Hwang, Mun Joo; Pyo, Sun Hui [Phygen, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hye Jin [Environmental-Friendly Agriculture Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Woo, Jong Suk [Cheonan Yonam College, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of 18 ornamental plants and to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0{approx} 2kGy of proton beam at room temperature by 45 MeV MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia indica and Ligustrum obtusifolium were investigated. Irradiation with proton beam at the dose of 750Gy induced mutants in leaf length, leaf width, internode length, plant height, leaf color, autumn leaves and plant width in each strains. According to a principal component analysis, the induced strains were divided into three groups. Promising strain(strain 25) for commercial varieties was selected Lagerstroemia indica. It was analysed that strain 25 showed the highest genetic dissimility from original species. The strain 25 had red leaf edge and maintained autumnal tints till late fall. So, we try to promote a patent registration of the strain 25 as a new caltivar 'Bulkkot'

  12. Improvement of grafting procedures for the ornamental species: I. Picea pungens Engelm. var. glauca Regel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to get ornamental trees for landscaping, Colorado blue spuce (Picea pungens Engelm. var.glauca Regel scions were grafted on Norway spruce (Picea abies (L. Karst. rootstocks. An original double-side-veneer grafting method was applied in five experimental or basic variants. The plastic tapes and the ecological Ceraltin wax developed by the Research and Development of Bio-stimulators (CCDB BIOS Cluj were tested. In addition, two controls in which the classic raffia and the traditional hot wax and the classic side-veneer-grafting method were used. The obtained results, expressed in percents, were transformed in arcsin square root of percent values, and then a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used. Highly significant (p < 0.001 statistical differences were found between all grafting variants, including controls. The Duncan test proved that original double-side-veneer grafting method and the new developed materials, i.e. plastic tapes and the ecological Ceraltin wax have contributed in getting a better grafting success compared to the controls.Thus, the double-side-veneer grafting method and the two grafting materials are highly recommended to be used in getting grafted Colorado blue spuce ornamental trees.

  13. Methods for growth regulation of greenhouse produced ornamental pot- and bedding plants – a current review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergstrand Karl-Johan I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical plant growth regulators (PGRs are used in the production of ornamental potted and bedding plants. Growth control is needed for maximizing production per unit area, reducing transportation costs and to obtain a desired visual quality. However, the use of PGRs is associated with toxicity risks to humans and the environment. In many countries the availability of PGRs is restricted as few substances are registered for use. A number of alternative methods have been suggested. The methods include genetic methods (breeding and crop cultivation practices such as fertigation, temperature and light management. A lot of research into “alternative” growth regulation was performed during the 1980-1990s, revealing several possible ways of using different climatic factors to optimize plant growth with respect to plant height. In recent years, the interest in climatic growth regulation has been resurrected, not least due to the coming phase-out of the plant growth regulator chlormequat chloride (CCC. Today, authorities in many countries are aiming towards reducing the use of agrochemicals. At the same time, there is a strong demand from consumers for products produced without chemicals. This article provides a broad overview of available methods for non-chemical growth control. It is concluded that a combination of plant breeding and management of temperature, fertigation and light management has the potential of replacing chemical growth regulators in the commercial production of ornamental pot- and bedding plants.

  14. HELIOTROPIUM GREUTERI: A POTENTIAL ORNAMENTAL SPECIES WITH ATTRACTIVE, LENGTHY DURATION OF FLOWERING AND DROUGHT TOLERANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Gulsen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is in the middle of major continents, Africa, Asia and Europe that creates considerable diversity. Many plant species are endemic to Turkey and the members of Boraginaceae family is one of the most important among them. For years, we are evaluating/observing Heliotropium greuteri H. Riedl, named as ‘yoghurt otu’ and affiliated to the Boraginaceae family. Heliotropium greuteri, seen as extensively in Kayseri region, has fragrant flowers and quite long flowering period. It has good ornamental characteristics because of long flowering period up to four months, showy plants with white and green colors, fragrant flowers, and considerable drought tolerance. They also attract honeybees, especially during poor vegetation as at the end of summer and in the first half of fall season. They can be used as cover plant in parks, home gardens and road sides. It can be successfully used in open areas as well as under trees (semi-shaded. Especially they can produce healthy plants at the borders where they are often exposed to drought stress. Overall, this species has desirable ornamental characteristics and can be alternative for landscaping.

  15. Does Sexual Selection Influence Ornamentation of Hemipenes in Old World Snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andonov, Kostadin; Natchev, Nikolay; Kornilev, Yurii V; Tzankov, Nikolay

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated and documented the morphology of the male copulatory organs (hemipenes) in fifteen wide-ranging snake species. The species represent four families (Boidae, Colubridae, Lamprophiidae, and Viperidae) and ten genera. We applied the same preparation techniques for all species, successfully everting and expanding the organs completely. The detailed description of the general morphology of the male copulatory organs was based on 31 specimens. Our data were compared with published observations and we point out some incorrectly described details in previous investigations. We provide the first description of the hemipenial morphology for three ophidian species (Elaphe sauromates, Telescopus fallax, and Malpolon insignitus). In addition to the morphological characteristics of the hemipenes presented in the research, we propose the adoption of a standardized index describing the hemipenial proportions. The immense variation in hemipenial morphology presupposes its dynamic evolution, but we suggest that many of the significant structures observed here may have escaped previous researchers due to differing methodologies. Some of the highly ornamented morphologies that we describe are consistent with a locking mechanism during copulation. However, other morphologies may relate to the variety of mating behaviors observed. As a result, we propose that sexual selection is the major driver affecting the hemipenial ornamentation in snakes. Anat Rec, 300:1680-1694, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Identification of Meloidogyne species associated with upland ornamentals plants in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefany Solano-González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify nematodes species of the genus Meloidogyne associated with upland ornamental plants. We sampled ten ornamental species in a commercial nursery in San Isidro, Heredia, Costa Rica between 2011-2012. Morphometric measurements of the stylet length, the tail length, and the hyaline region of J2s, as well as perineal patterns of egg-carrying females were used for identification, Genomic DNA was extracted from single J2s and molecular analyses were performed by amplifying the intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II of the COII and the long subunit of the ARN ribosomal genes by PCR-RFLP. Combining these methods allowed identification of five species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica, and new restriction enzyme patterns were reported for M. hapla and M. javanica using AluI. Additionally, a preliminary report of M. hispanica was described by sequencing the 28S and 18S regions.

  17. Micropropagation of ornamental Prunus spp. and GF305 peach, a Prunus viral indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinina, Anna; Brown, Daniel C W

    2007-07-01

    A micropropagation approach was developed for nine ornamental Prunus species, P. americana, P. cistena, P. glandulosa, P. serrulata 'Kwanzan', P. laurocerasus, P. sargentii, P. tomentosa, P. triloba, P. virginiana 'Schubert', commercially important in North America, and GF305 peach, commonly used for Prunus virus indexing. The micropropagation cycle based on proliferation of vegetative tissues includes establishment of tissue culture through introduction of shoot meristems in vitro, shoot proliferation, root induction and plant acclimatization steps and can be completed in 5 months. A meristem sterilization protocol minimized bacterial and fungal contamination. Multiple shoot formation in ornamental Prunus was obtained through the use of 1 mg l(-1) 6-benzyladenine. For GF305 peach, alteration in the sugar composition, fructose instead of sucrose, and addition of 1 mg l(-1 )ferulic acid had a significant impact on the shoot proliferation rate and maintenance of long-term in vitro culture. Rooting and plant acclimatization conditions were improved using a two-step protocol with a 4-day root induction in indole-3-butiric acid (IBA)-containing media with consequent 3-week root elongation in IBA-free media. One-month incubation of rooted shoots in a vermiculite-based medium resulted in additional shoot and root growth and provided better acclimatization and plant recovery. The micropropagation approach can be used for maintenance of the clonal properties for Prunus spp. as well as a protocol to support meristem therapy against viral infection.

  18. Production of oil palm empty fruit bunch compost for ornamental plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, B.; Mhardela, P.; Husaini, T.; Irvan; Daimon, H.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of this research was to produce the oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) compost for ornamental plant cultivation. EFB compost was produced by chopping fresh EFB into 1-3 cm pieces, inserting the pieces into basket composter (33 cm W × 28 cm L × 40 cm H), and adding activated liquid organic fertilizer (ALOF) until moisture content (MC) in the range of 55-65%. During composting, the compost pile was turned every 3 days and the MC was maintained at 55-65% range by adding the ALOF. The compost processed was then mixed with sand and rice husk with a ratio of 1:1:1; 1:3:1; 1:0:1 and was used as a potting medium for planting some valuable ornamental plants i.e. cactus (cactaceae), sansevieria, and anthurium. Composting was carried out for 40 days and the compost characteristic were pH 9.0; MC 52.59%; WHC 76%; CN ratio 12.15; N 1.96%; P 0.58%; and K 0.95%. The compost-sand-husk rice mixture can be used as a growing medium where the best ratio for cactus, sansevieria, and anthurium was 1:3:1; 1:1:1; and 1:0:1, respectively.

  19. Artificial porous stone from of ornamental rock waste adaptable for civil construction and heritage restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durán Suárez, J.A.; García Casco, A.

    2017-01-01

    The technique of volumetric reintegration in severely deteriorated stone materials is of major importance for the restoration of architectural heritage. In using mortars for restoration it is important to control aspects such as the colour and textural similarity in relation to the adjacent stone, minor or equal strength and equal or greater porosity/permeability with respect to the original stone. This latter aspect is of particular complexity because the percentage distribution of pore-size ranges should not differ from that of the original stone material. The invention patent (with numbers of publication ES2187245 A1 and B1 16. 06. 2004), owned by the University of Granada, allows the production of excellent porous stones for decorative work in construction and mortar for restoration of stone materials with controlled porosity. Both materials consist of ornamental rock waste, so that a particular recycling purpose is given to this type of material which is difficult to reuse. In this paper we present the manufacturing process of these artificial stones and porous mortars with decorative and restorative purposes, from the controlled mixture of aggregates of ornamental rocks, organic and inorganic binders and generators of porosity. Once the curing and hardening has been done it is worth noting that one of the most important aspects of the product is the generation of a complex connected porous system as a result of the incorporation of crushed expanded polystyrene, which is activated after hardening through the application of organic solvents. [es

  20. Interactions between insect pollinators and the ornamental tree, Tecoma stans (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.H. Jonathan

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae is a native of Central America but occurs throughout tropical latitudes due to cultivation as an ornamental; in India it is also normally cultivated as an ornamental tree. The plant has two anthesis schedules in a day - one during 0500-0800hrs and another during 1500-1700hrs. Different species of bees and wasps collect pollen and nectar from the flowers during daylight hours, while hawk moths collect nectar during the 0530-0700hrs and 1630-1830hrs periods. The flowers are an important source of pollen and/or nectar for these insects, and all facilitate pollination. The nectar contains three common sugars: hexoses, glucose and fructose, and it is also a source of three essential amino acids: lysine, histidine and threonine, and eight non-essential amino acids: glycine, serine, proline, arginine, glutamic acid, cystine, cysteine and alanine. With these floral rewards, T. stans sustains pollinator populations in areas where it is cultivated.

  1. Mutant breeding of ornamental trees for creating variations with high value using proton beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Jae Hong; Woo, Seong Min; Hwang, Mun Joo; Pyo, Sun Hui; Kwon, Hye Jin; Woo, Jong Suk

    2010-04-01

    This research was conducted to investigate the proton-beam radiation sensitivity and seed germination rate of 18 ornamental plants and to survey the quantitative characteristics of proton beam induced strains. To induce the variants of ornamental plants, seeds were irradiated at the dose of 0∼ 2kGy of proton beam at room temperature by 45 MeV MC-50 Cyclotron. After irradiation, to assess the effects of proton beam on radiation sensitivity and morphological changes of the plants and the seed germination rate were analysed. The effects of mutation induction by proton beam irradiation on seeds in Lagerstroemia indica and Ligustrum obtusifolium were investigated. Irradiation with proton beam at the dose of 750Gy induced mutants in leaf length, leaf width, internode length, plant height, leaf color, autumn leaves and plant width in each strains. According to a principal component analysis, the induced strains were divided into three groups. Promising strain(strain 25) for commercial varieties was selected Lagerstroemia indica. It was analysed that strain 25 showed the highest genetic dissimility from original species. The strain 25 had red leaf edge and maintained autumnal tints till late fall. So, we try to promote a patent registration of the strain 25 as a new caltivar 'Bulkkot'

  2. Identification of Meloidogyne species associated with uptall ornamentals plants in Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solano-Gonzalez, Stefany; Esquivel-Hernandez, Alejandro; Molina-Bravo, Ramon; Morera-Brenes, Bernal

    2015-01-01

    Nematodes species of the genus Meloidogyne associated with upland ornamental plants were identified. Ten ornamental species in a commercial nursery were sampled in San Isidro, Heredia, Costa Rica between 2011-2012. Morphometric measurements of the stylet length, the trail length, and the hyaline region of J_2s as well as perineal patterns of egg-carrying females were used for identification, Genomic DNA was extracted from single J_2s and molecular analyses were performed by amplifying the intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II of the COII and the long subunit of the ARN ribosomal genes by PCR-RFLP. Combining these methods allowed identification of five species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica), and new restriction enzyme patterns were reported for M. hapla and M. javanica using AluI. Additionally a preliminary report of M. hispanica was described by sequencing the 28S and 18S regions. (author) [es

  3. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, Southern Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    N. Salzmann; C. Huggel; M. Rohrer; W. Silverio; B. G. Mark; P. Burns; C. Portocarrero

    2012-01-01

    The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer) tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temp...

  4. A comparative analysis of ecosystem services valuation approaches for application at the local scale and in data scarce regions

    OpenAIRE

    Pandeya, B.; Buytaert, W.; Zulkafli, Z.; Karpouzoglou, T.; Mao, F.; Hannah, D.M.

    2016-01-01

    Despite significant advances in the development of the ecosystem services concept across the science and policy arenas, the valuation of ecosystem services to guide sustainable development remains challenging, especially at a local scale and in data scarce regions. In this paper, we review and compare major past and current valuation approaches and discuss their key strengths and weaknesses for guiding policy decisions. To deal with the complexity of methods used in different valuation approa...

  5. The Effect of Knowledge Linking Levels in Biology Lessons upon Students' Knowledge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadouh, Julia; Liu, Ning; Sandmann, Angela; Neuhaus, Birgit J.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge structure is an important aspect for defining students' competency in biology learning, but how knowledge structure is influenced by the teaching process in naturalistic biology classroom settings has scarcely been empirically investigated. In this study, 49 biology lessons in the teaching unit "blood and circulatory system" in…

  6. Bridging the Information Gap: Remote Sensing and Micro Hydropower Feasibility in Data-Scarce Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Marc Francois

    Access to electricity remains an impediment to development in many parts of the world, particularly in rural areas with low population densities and prohibitive grid extension costs. In that context, community-scale run-of-river hydropower---micro-hydropower---is an attractive local power generation option, particularly in mountainous regions, where appropriate slope and runoff conditions occur. Despite their promise, micro hydropower programs have generally failed to have a significant impact on rural electrification in developing nations. In Nepal, despite very favorable conditions and approximately 50 years of experience, the technology supplies only 4% of the 10 million households that do not have access to the central electricity grid. These poor results point towards a major information gap between technical experts, who may lack the incentives or local knowledge needed to design appropriate systems for rural villages, and local users, who have excellent knowledge of the community but lack technical expertise to design and manage infrastructure. Both groups suffer from a limited basis for evidence-based decision making due to sparse environmental data available to support the technical components of infrastructure design. This dissertation draws on recent advances in remote sensing data, stochastic modeling techniques and open source platforms to bridge that information gap. Streamflow is a key environmental driver of hydropower production that is particularly challenging to model due to its stochastic nature and the complexity of the underlying natural processes. The first part of the dissertation addresses the general challenge of Predicting streamflow in Ungauged Basins (PUB). It first develops an algorithm to optimize the use of rain gauge observations to improve the accuracy of remote sensing precipitation measures. It then derives and validates a process-based model to estimate streamflow distribution in seasonally dry climates using the stochastic

  7. Male ornamentation and within-pair paternity are not associated with male provisioning rates in scarlet rosefinches Carpodacus erythrinus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schnitzer, J.; Exnerová, A.; Poláková, Radka; Vinkler, Michal; Tomášek, Oldřich; Munclinger, P.; Albrecht, Tomáš

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 2 (2014), s. 89-97 ISSN 0873-9749 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Carotenoid-based ornamentation * Extra-pair paternity * Feeding effort * Parental care Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2014

  8. Conspicuous carotenoid-based pelvic spine ornament in three-spined stickleback populations—occurrence and inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CR Amundsen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Reports on reddish carotenoid-based ornaments in female three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus are few, despite the large interest in the species’ behaviour, ornamentation, morphology and evolution. We sampled sticklebacks from 17 sites in north-western Europe in this first extensive study on the occurrence of carotenoid-based female pelvic spines and throat ornaments. The field results showed that females, and males, with reddish spines were found in all 17 populations. Specimens of both sexes with conspicuous red spines were found in several of the sites. The pelvic spines of males were more intensely red compared to the females’ spines, and large specimens were more red than small ones. Fish infected with the tapeworm (Schistocephalus solidus had drabber spines than uninfected fish. Both sexes had red spines both during and after the spawning period, but the intensity of the red colour was more exaggerated during the spawning period. As opposed to pelvic spines, no sign of red colour at the throat was observed in any female from any of the 17 populations. A rearing experiment was carried out to estimate a potential genetic component of the pelvic spine ornament by artificial crossing and rearing of 15 family groups during a 12 months period. The results indicated that the genetic component of the red colour at the spines was low or close to zero. Although reddish pelvic spines seem common in populations of stickleback, the potential adaptive function of the reddish pelvic spines remains largely unexplained.

  9. Can mycorrhizal inoculation stimulate the growth and flowering of peat-grown ornamental plants under standard or reduced watering?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Püschel, David; Rydlová, Jana; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 80, Aug 2014 (2014), s. 93-99 ISSN 0929-1393 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : ornamental plants * arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi * beat-based substrate Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.644, year: 2014

  10. Free Radical Exposure Creates Paler Carotenoid-Based Ornaments: A Possible Interaction in the Expression of Black and Red Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Alvarez, Carlos; Galván, Ismael

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa). In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat) during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black) plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings), and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol). Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone) also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib) were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of multiple

  11. Free radical exposure creates paler carotenoid-based ornaments: a possible interaction in the expression of black and red traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alonso-Alvarez

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress could be a key selective force shaping the expression of colored traits produced by the primary animal pigments in integuments: carotenoids and melanins. However, the impact of oxidative stress on melanic ornaments has only recently been explored, whereas its role in the expression of carotenoid-based traits is not fully understood. An interesting study case is that of those animal species simultaneously expressing both kinds of ornaments, such as the red-legged partridge (Alectoris rufa. In this bird, individuals exposed to an exogenous source of free radicals (diquat during their development produced larger eumelanin-based (black plumage traits than controls. Here, we show that the same red-legged partridges exposed to diquat simultaneously developed paler carotenoid-based ornaments (red beak and eye rings, and carried lower circulating carotenoid levels as well as lower levels of some lipids involved in carotenoid transport in the bloodstream (i.e., cholesterol. Moreover, partridges treated with a hormone that stimulates eumelanin production (i.e., alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone also increased blood carotenoid levels, but this effect was not mirrored in the expression of carotenoid-based traits. The redness of carotenoid-based ornaments and the size of a conspicuous eumelanic trait (the black bib were negatively correlated in control birds, suggesting a physiological trade-off during development. These findings contradict recent studies questioning the sensitivity of carotenoids to oxidative stress. Nonetheless, the impact of free radicals on plasma carotenoids seems to be partially mediated by changes in cholesterol metabolism, and not by direct carotenoid destruction/consumption. The results highlight the capacity of oxidative stress to create multiple phenotypes during development through differential effects on carotenoids and melanins, raising questions about evolutionary constraints involved in the production of

  12. Comparative study of ornamental granite cleaning using femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivas, T., E-mail: trivas@uvigo.es [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medioambiente. E.T.S. Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo Spain (Spain); Lopez, A.J.; Ramil, A. [Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas. Campus de Esteiro. Universidad de A Coruña 15403 Ferrol Spain (Spain); Pozo, S. [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medioambiente. E.T.S. Ingeniería de Minas, Universidad de Vigo, 36200 Vigo Spain (Spain); Fiorucci, M.P. [Centro de Investigaciones Tecnológicas. Campus de Esteiro. Universidad de A Coruña 15403 Ferrol Spain (Spain); Silanes, M.E. López de [Dpto. Ingeniería de los Recursos Naturales y Medioambiente. E.I. Forestales. Universidad de Vigo, Campus Pontevedra. 36005 Pontevedra Spain (Spain); García, A.; Aldana, J. R. Vazquez de; Romero, C.; Moreno, P. [Grupo de Investigación en Microprocesado de Materiales con Laser. Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Salamanca, 37008 Salamanca Spain (Spain)

    2013-08-01

    Granite has been widely used as a structural and ornamental element in public works and buildings. In damp climates it is almost permanently humid and its exterior surfaces are consequently biologically colonized and blackened We describe a comparative analysis of the performance of two different laser sources in removing biological crusts from granite surfaces: nanosecond Nd:YVO{sub 4} laser (355 nm) and femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at its fundamental wavelength (790 nm) and second harmonic (395 nm). The granite surface was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and profilometry, in order to assess the degree of cleaning and to characterize possible morphological and chemical changes caused by the laser sources.

  13. Comparative study of ornamental granite cleaning using femtosecond and nanosecond pulsed lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivas, T.; Lopez, A.J.; Ramil, A.; Pozo, S.; Fiorucci, M.P.; Silanes, M.E. López de; García, A.; Aldana, J. R. Vazquez de; Romero, C.; Moreno, P.

    2013-01-01

    Granite has been widely used as a structural and ornamental element in public works and buildings. In damp climates it is almost permanently humid and its exterior surfaces are consequently biologically colonized and blackened We describe a comparative analysis of the performance of two different laser sources in removing biological crusts from granite surfaces: nanosecond Nd:YVO 4 laser (355 nm) and femtosecond Ti:Sapphire laser at its fundamental wavelength (790 nm) and second harmonic (395 nm). The granite surface was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, attenuated total reflection – Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and profilometry, in order to assess the degree of cleaning and to characterize possible morphological and chemical changes caused by the laser sources.

  14. Research on basal stem rot (BSR) of ornamental palms caused by basidiospores from Ganoderma boninense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, H P; Fong, Y K

    2005-01-01

    Basidiospores were isolated from the fruiting bodies of Ganoderma infecting oil palms from an estate in Johor and from ornamental palms (including oil palms) from Singapore. The spores were then germinated to obtain homokaryotic mycelia. Based on clamp connection formation in paired hyphal fusions, tester strains were identified from the homokaryons isolated. Compatibility tests were then carried out using these testers to determine the relatedness of the homokaryotic Ganoderma isolates, both from Johor and from Singapore. Results from the compatibility tests showed that Ganoderma from both locations belong to the same species, while the Ganoderma isolates from Singapore share some common alleles. The pathogenicity tests carried out on Chrysalidocarpus lutescens seedlings using inoculum growing on rubber wood blocks showed that dikaryotic mycelia can cause basal stem rot infection.

  15. Radiological hazard indices and elemental composition of Brazilian and Swiss ornamental rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El Hajj, T.M. [Universidade Federal de Alfenas (UNIFAL), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil); Silva, P.S.C.; Santos, A., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Gandolla, M.P.A. [Universita della Svizzera Italiana (USI), Lugano (Switzerland); Dantas, G.A.S.A.; Delboni Junior, H. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil)

    2017-09-01

    The objective of this paper was to evaluate the radiological risk index of ornamental rocks sold both in Brazil and Europe and to correlate their radioactive content with their chemical composition. The {sup 238}U, {sup 232}Th and {sup 40}K mean values were 62 ± 65, 122 ± 111, 1126 ± 516 Bq kg{sup -1} for Brazilian and 93 ± 59, 70 ± 67 and 1005 ± 780 Bq kg{sup -1} for Swiss samples, respectively. The radiological index: radium equivalent, external hazard index, absorbed dose rate in air, annual gonadal equivalent dose, annual effective dose equivalent, and excess lifetime cancer risk for Brazilian and Swiss samples were calculated. The main contribution for the radiological indices observed was the radionuclide {sup 232}Th, which is associated with REE, Br, Hf, Na, Rb, Sb and Zr in the rock matrix. (author)

  16. Salinity on the germination of seed and index of germination speed of three ornamental species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Vieira Ferraz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is a factor that interferes on seed germination in most species. The objective of this work was to study the effects of different concentrations of NaCl on the emergence and vigor of Petunia x hybrida hort. Vilm E. ex., Torenia fournieri Lind and Tagetes patula L. seedlings. The experimental design was entirely randomized with five treatments (five concentrations of NaCl: zero, 25, 50, 75 and 100 mM and four replications of 50 seeds, for each species. The seeds were germinated in germitest paper at the alternating temperature of 20-30°C. Emergence (% and Emergence Rate (ER were performed daily until 14 days. Salt stress caused negative effects on the emergence and vigor on seedlings of these three ornamentals species.

  17. Invasive ornamental fish: a potential threat to aquatic biodiversity in peninsular India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D.M. Knight

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Alien fish find their way into newer habitats and ecosystems opportunistically. Once in a new habitat, these species try to occupy empty niches and compete with native species. An alien species becomes invasive wherever it has a competetive advantage over native species. Ecology of aquatic invasive alien species is rather poorly understood as most attention has been on invertebrates as that which spread through ballast water. Invasive alien species of fish that have taken advantage of the aquarium trade are emerging as the most important threats to fragile aquatic habitats. Regulations to this trade are rather weak and there is a general lack of data on the ecological impact of alien fish species despite the fact that a third of the world’s worst aquatic invasive species are aquarium or ornamental species.

  18. History in the making: the ornament of the Alhambra and the past-facing present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara Eggleton

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the impact of nineteenth- and early twentieth-century European perspectives on the development of Alhambra scholarship. An Islamic palatine fortress built near the city of Granada during the Nasrid period (1232-1492, the monument has undergone substantial transformations under Christian occupation, and through its ‘rediscovery’ by foreign visitors in the nineteenth century. The fragmentation of its surfaces through a variety of Romantic and modernizing frameworks served to dislocate its decorative forms from their historical and architectural contexts, leading many historians to discuss its designs in relation to previous periods and traditions. The pervasive view of the Nasrid period and its art as ‘past-facing’ would postpone a critical consideration of the ornament of the Alhambra on its own formal and ideological terms. Only in recent decades has this position been challenged and the monument discussed in terms of its regional specificity and its multiple periods of production and reception.

  19. Characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rocks waste by magnetic separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junca, E.; Telles, V.B.; Rodrigues, G.F.; Oliveira, J.R. de; Tenorio, J.A.S.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is characterization of steel grit recovered from ornamental rock waste by magnetic separation. The magnetic separation was realized in three steps: first, using a high intensity wet magnetic separator, which used only the remaining magnetic field of equipment. In the second step, the magnetic material obtained in the first phase was subjected to a new manual magnetic separation using rare earth magnets. In a third step, magnetic material obtained with rare earth magnets was subjected to manual magnetic separation using ferrite magnets. After the magnetic separation, the material was sent to characterization which was obtained by chemical analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and size analysis. The size analysis showed that the concentrate range from 0,5 to 563,67 μm with 4 wt.% over 100 μm and content metallic iron of 93 wt%. (author)

  20. Induced mutation and in vitro culture techniques for the genetic improvement of ornamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapade, Avelina G.; Veluz, Ana Maria S.; Marbella, Lucia J.; Rama, Manny G.

    2001-01-01

    Mutation breeding using cobalt-60 ( 60 Co) gamma radiation coupled with tissue culture techniques is undertaken for genetic improvement of foliage ornamentals (Dracaena sp. and Murraya exotica L.) and cutflowers (Chrysanthemum morifolium and orchids; Vanda sanderiana, Dendrobium Pattaya Beauty and Phalenopsis schilleriana). Gamma radiation (10-30 Gy) induced chlorophyll mutations and several morphological changes in D. sanderiana. For D. godseffiana, irradiated cuttings resulted in reduction of leaf size and chlorophyll mutations. Reduction in height was observed in the M 2 generation of Murraya exotica L. irradiated at doses ranging from 10 to 30 Gy. The dwarf Murraya mutant was multiplied through the use of seeds and presently 116 plants are commercially available and are ''test marketed'' to the public. Tissue culture technique was used to induce mutation and as a means of micropropagation in two ornamental crops (orchids and chrysanthemum). Effects of different doses of gamma radiation on callus induction from nodal sections of chrysanthemum grown in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) with naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and benzyl adenine (BA) were studied. Micropropagation of irradiated and unirradiated chrysanthemum using MS basal medium is presently being studied. Whorling and changes in leaf color were observed at 10 Gy and doubling of leaf growth at the node at 20 Gy for vegetatively generated V 3 plant. In orchids, irradiation of immature embryo with gamma rays ranging from 5 to 10 Gy increased the percentage of germination in Dendrobium Pattaya Beauty and P. schilleriana. Protocorms of Vanda sanderiana irradiated at 10 Gy and grown in Knudson C medium developed into plantlets that are bigger and more vigorous than those irradiated at 20 GY and from the control plant. A decrease in seedling height was observed with increasing dose of gamma radiation. (Author)

  1. Fresh from the Ornamental Garden: Hips of Selected Rose Cultivars Rich in Phytonutrients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunja, Vlasta; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Weber, Nika; Jakopic, Jerneja; Zupan, Anka; Veberic, Robert; Stampar, Franci; Schmitzer, Valentina

    2016-02-01

    Morphological parameters (size, weight, color), the content of sugars, organic acids, lycopene, β-carotene, and phenolics were determined in hips of Rosa canina (RCA), Rosa sweginzowii (RSW), Rosa rugosa (RUG), and selected ornamental Rosa cultivars Fru Dagmar Hastrup (FDH), Repandia (REP), Veilchenblau (RVB), Aloha (RAL), Bonica (BON), and Golden Gate (RGG). Although traditionally used RCA hips contained the highest amount of cyanidin-3-glucoside (83 μg/g DW) and were the reddest (h° = 17.5), they did not stand out in other analyzed parameters. RGG climber had the biggest hips (8.86 g), which also contained highest sugar levels (50.9 g/100 g DW). RAL stood out as the cultivar rich in organic acids (33.9 g/100 g DW), mainly because of high quinic acid content (17.6 g/100g DW). FDH and RSW hips were characterized by particularly high ascorbic acid levels (4325 mg/100 g DW and 4711 mg/100 g DW). Other ornamental cultivars contained low amounts of ascorbic acid compared to the analyzed species. The phenolic profile was species/cultivars-specific. The greatest diversity of phenolic compounds was detected in RUG and FDH hips (55 and 54 different tentatively identified compounds with HPLC/MS). Flavanols represented the main phenolic class in most of the investigated species/cultivars and RGG hips contained the highest amount of catechin and proanthocyandin derivatives (15855 μg/g DW). Altogether RAL hips contained the highest quantity of phenolics (44746 μg/g DW) mainly due to high levels of hydrolysable tannins compared to other species/cultivars. Although small, hips of BON and REP were most abundant regarding β-carotene and lycopene content, respectively. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  2. Detection and identification of globally distributed mycobacterial fish pathogens in some ornamental fish in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Shubhra; Sharma, Rolee; Shukla, Sanjeev Kumar

    2013-09-01

    Mycobacteriosis is a progressive disease of a wide range of wild and captive, marine and freshwater fish species. Conventional detection of fish Mycobacteria is based on histopathology, culture, and biochemical characteristics. The present study analyzed the occurrence of Mycobacteria in clinically ill ornamental fish of different species, from different places of India. In first group, 60 fish were examined for presence of granulomatous inflammation and acid-fast bacteria. Thirty-eight (63.34 %) fish were positive for granulomatous inflammations. Presences of acid-fast bacteria were detected in 27 (45 %) fish having granulomatous inflammation and in two (3.33 %) fish without granulomatous inflammation. In total, AFB were found in 29 (48.34 %) of the 60 fish examined. In second group, 20 fish having granulomatous inflammation, 12 (60 %) samples were positive using Ziehl-Neelsen (Z-N) staining and 11 (55 %) of them were culture positive. Eight (40 %) samples were Z-N negative but two (10 %) of them were culture positive. In total, 13 (65 %) of the 20 examined fish were culture positive. On the basis of biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequencing, 13 isolates were identified: five as Mycobacterium fortuitum, five as Mycobacterium gordonae, and three as Mycobacterium chelonae. In comparison of two decontamination methods, 2 % HCl treatment was better than 4 % NaOH treatment. Mycobacteria recovery from decontaminated samples was significantly high on Lowenstein-Jensen medium compared to Middlebrook 7H11 agar and Stonebrink (SB) media. The disease is transmissible from fish to fish and also from fish to human, so the significance of Mycobacteria in ornamental fish should not be overlooked.

  3. Inhibition of ethylene response by 1-methylcyclopropene in potted ornamental pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Luiz Finger

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the face of great potential of 1-MCP in blocking ethylene action, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of 1-MCP on ethylene action and extend the post-production of ornamental peppers Capsicum annuum potted plants. Ornamental pepper cultivar Calypso shows complete abscission of leaves when exposed to 10µL L-1 ethylene. By exposing plants to ethylene, significant drops on a, b and total chlorophyll were found at the end of the treatment. Nevertheless, no changes on leaf total carotenoid were observed after the treatment with ethylene. When the plants were treated with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP, followed or not by treatment with ethylene, contents of a, b, total chlorophyll and carotenoid remained unchanged. Control plants showed no changes in chlorophylls or carotenoid contents after 48 hours from moving the pots from greenhouse to indoor conditions illuminated with white fluorescent light. The 1-MCP was able to prolong the post production shelf life, by inhibiting the abscission of leaves. Plants treated with 1-MCP, followed by ethylene had 38% accumulated leaf abscission, after 18 days of post production life, similar to control plants. After the same period, plants treated only with 1-MCP had 22% leaf abscission. The 1-MCP partially blocked ethylene and induced leaf abscission. Regardless which treatment was applied during post production life, there was a continuous decrease on leaf chlorophyll content beyond 18th day. Thus, 1-MCP was effective in preventing leaf abscission even in the presence of ethylene, avoiding deleterious effects of ethylene by blocking its receptor sites.

  4. Interaction of Insecticide and Media Moisture on Ambrosia Beetle (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Attacks on Selected Ornamental Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Steven D; Anderson, Amanda L; Ranger, Christopher M

    2017-12-08

    Exotic ambrosia beetles, particularly Xylosandrus crassiusculus (Motschulsky) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) and Xylosandrus germanus (Blandford) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), are among the most damaging pests of ornamental trees in nurseries. Growers have had few tactics besides insecticide applications to reduce ambrosia beetle attacks but recent research has shown that attacks may be reduced by maintaining media moisture below a 50% threshold thereby reducing flood stress. We compared the efficacy of managing media moisture and insecticide applications for reducing ambrosia beetle attacks on three ornamental tree species in North Carolina. During trials in spring 2013 and 2015, flooded Cornus florida and Cornus kousa were heavily attacked despite sprays with permethrin, but nonflooded C. kousa or C. florida were not attacked. In spring 2015 trials, both nonflooded and flooded Styrax japonicus were heavily attacked regardless of permethrin applications. Although ethanol emissions were not measured, the apparently healthy nonflooded S. japonicus trees may have been exposed to an unknown physiological stress, such as low temperature injury, the previous winter, which predisposed them to beetle attack. However, ethanol levels within host tissues were not measured as part of the current study. X. crassiusculus (75%), Xyloborinus saxesenii Ratzburg (13%), and X. germanus (9%) were the most abundant species collected in ethanol baited traps deployed in 2015, while X. crassiusculus (63%) and X. germanus (36%) were the predominant species reared from attacked trees. Results indicate that managing media moisture levels at or below 50%, and maximizing tree health overall, may provide significant protection against Xylosandrus spp. attacks in flood intolerant tree species. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A new horned dinosaur reveals convergent evolution in cranial ornamentation in Ceratopsidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Caleb M; Henderson, Donald M

    2015-06-15

    Ceratopsid (horned) dinosaurs are an iconic group of large-bodied, quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs that evolved in the Late Cretaceous and were largely restricted to western North America [1-5]. Ceratopsids are easily recognized by their cranial ornamentation in the form of nasal and postorbital horns and frill (capped by epiossifications); these structures show high morphological disparity and also represent the largest cranial display structures known to have evolved [2, 4]. Despite their restricted occurrence in time and space, this group has one of the best fossil records within Dinosauria, showing a rapid diversification in horn and frill morphology [1]. Here a new genus and species of chasmosaurine ceratopsid is described based on a nearly complete and three-dimensionally preserved cranium recovered from the uppermost St. Mary River Formation (Maastrichtian) of southwestern Alberta. Regaliceratops peterhewsi gen. et sp. nov. exhibits many unique characters of the frill and is characterized by a large nasal horncore, small postorbital horncores, and massive parietal epiossifications. Cranial morphology, particularly the epiossifications, suggests close affinity with the late Campanian/early Maastrichian taxon Anchiceratops, as well as with the late Maastrichtian taxon Triceratops. A median epiparietal necessitates a reassessment of epiossification homology and results in a more resolved phylogeny. Most surprisingly, Regaliceratops exhibits a suite of cranial ornamentations that are superficially similar to Campanian centrosaurines, indicating both exploration of novel display morphospace in Chasmosaurinae, especially Maastrichtian forms, and convergent evolution in horn morphology with the recently extinct Centrosaurinae. This marks the first time that evolutionary convergence in horn-like display structures has been demonstrated between dinosaur clades, similar to those seen in fossil and extant mammals [6]. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. MITTELEUROPA, ÁFRICA, PARÍS: KUPKA O LA VÍA ORNAMENTAL DE LO MODERNO / Mitteleuropa, Africa, Paris: Kupka or the ornamental route of the modern

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    María Teresa Méndez Baiges

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN. La obra de František Kupka (Opocno, Bohemia oriental, 1871-Puteaux, París, 1957, uno de los principales pioneros de la pintura no objetiva, es la materialización de una vía a la abstracción que pasa por la inspiración y reivindicación del ornamento. Se trata de una vía poco transitada por el "relato ortodoxo de la modernidad", que procede de la peculiar forma de entender la abstracción que se dio a principios del siglo XX en el centro y en el este de Europa, y que, gracias a emisores como el propio Kupka, acabaría anidando en el corazón de las vanguardias, en París, en torno al año 1912. Descansa en la idea de que la noción moderna de abstracción emerge del discurso teórico sobre el ornamento durante la edad contemporánea, y configura así el mapa de otra modernidad que va siguiendo, en este caso, el itinerario vital y estético de Kupka, desde su Bohemia natal a la mítica Viena fin de siècle, y de aquí, a su desembarco en París como destino definitivo, dejándose impregnar asimismo por estímulos procedentes de culturas no europeas, como la islámica, o ajenos a la alta cultura, como los folclóricos. Ésa es, en parte, la sustancia de la que está hecha lo moderno. Por eso este viaje, como aquí se explica, parece imprescindible para la configuración de alternativas a la lectura canónica de la modernidad. SUMMARY The work of Frantisek Kupka (Opocno, Eastern Bohemia, 1871-Puteaux, Paris, 1957, one of the main pioneers of non-objective painting, is the fruition of a route to abstraction through the inspiration and vindication of ornament. It is a route little travelled by the "orthodox story of modernity", and comes from the peculiar way of understanding abstraction that occurred at the beginning of the XXth century in central and eastern Europe. Thanks to proponents such as Kupka it would end up nestling in the heart of the avant-garde in Paris, in around 1912. It resides in the idea that the modern notion of

  7. Abutilon ornamental (Abutilon sp. - Malvaceae mostrando pústulas de Synchytrium australe Pustules on stems, leaves and pods of ornamental abutilon (Abutilon sp. caused by Synchytrium australe

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    Mário Barreto Figueiredo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de abutilon recebidas para análise fitopatológica pelo Instituto Biológico, São Paulo, Brasil mostrando como sintomas pústulas semelhantes a ferrugem (Uredinales sobre folhas e caule foram estudadas para determinar o agente causal. Numerosos esporângios amarelos característicos de fungos zoospóricos pertencentes à Ordem Chytridiales foram encontrados no interior de galhas superficiais. Com base no estudo de KARLING (1955, o patógeno foi identificado como Synchytrium australe Speg. O material foi herborizado e armazenado no Herbário Micológico do Instituto Biológico sob o número IBI/SP 11975. Esta foi a primeira constatação desta espécie no Brasil.The genus Abutilon includes a large number of ornamental species with nice foliage and flowers. The different species are known under several common names as Indian mallow, China jute, butterprint, etc. Plants of abutilon received for phytopathological analysis by the Instituto Biologico, São Paulo, Brazil showing curious rust like symptoms (pustules on leaves, stems and pods were studied to determine the causal agent. Numerous yellow sporangia characteristic of zoosporic fungi belonging to the Order Chytridiales were found within the superficial intact galls. Based on KARLING (1955 paper the pathogen was identified as Synchytrium australe Speg. The voucher material was saved and settled in the Mycological Herbarium of the Institution under the number IBI/SP 11975. This was the first report of the occurrence of this species in Brazil.

  8. The Bird in the Corner of the Painting: Some Problems with the Use of Buddhist Texts to Study Buddhist Ornamental Art in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Despite the prevalence of ornament and decoration in Buddhist monasteries in Thailand, as an art form, ornament has been almost entirely ignored in favor of the study of narrative and didactic art and literature. In this paper, I approach the subject of temple ornament (focusing primarily on the use of decorative birds) in Thai Buddhism through the lens of Affect Theory. As scholars of this approach emphasize that to study affect is to study “of accumulative beside-ness.” It is the study of a...

  9. The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivenge, Pauline; Mabhaudhi, Tafadzwanashe; Modi, Albert T.; Mafongoya, Paramu

    2015-01-01

    Modern agricultural systems that promote cultivation of a very limited number of crop species have relegated indigenous crops to the status of neglected and underutilised crop species (NUCS). The complex interactions of water scarcity associated with climate change and variability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and population pressure require innovative strategies to address food insecurity and undernourishment. Current research efforts have identified NUCS as having potential to reduce food and nutrition insecurity, particularly for resource poor households in SSA. This is because of their adaptability to low input agricultural systems and nutritional composition. However, what is required to promote NUCS is scientific research including agronomy, breeding, post-harvest handling and value addition, and linking farmers to markets. Among the essential knowledge base is reliable information about water utilisation by NUCS with potential for commercialisation. This commentary identifies and characterises NUCS with agronomic potential in SSA, especially in the semi-arid areas taking into consideration inter alia: (i) what can grow under water-scarce conditions, (ii) water requirements, and (iii) water productivity. Several representative leafy vegetables, tuber crops, cereal crops and grain legumes were identified as fitting the NUCS category. Agro-biodiversity remains essential for sustainable agriculture. PMID:26016431

  10. The Potential Role of Neglected and Underutilised Crop Species as Future Crops under Water Scarce Conditions in Sub-Saharan Africa

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    Pauline Chivenge

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern agricultural systems that promote cultivation of a very limited number of crop species have relegated indigenous crops to the status of neglected and underutilised crop species (NUCS. The complex interactions of water scarcity associated with climate change and variability in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, and population pressure require innovative strategies to address food insecurity and undernourishment. Current research efforts have identified NUCS as having potential to reduce food and nutrition insecurity, particularly for resource poor households in SSA. This is because of their adaptability to low input agricultural systems and nutritional composition. However, what is required to promote NUCS is scientific research including agronomy, breeding, post-harvest handling and value addition, and linking farmers to markets. Among the essential knowledge base is reliable information about water utilisation by NUCS with potential for commercialisation. This commentary identifies and characterises NUCS with agronomic potential in SSA, especially in the semi-arid areas taking into consideration inter alia: (i what can grow under water-scarce conditions, (ii water requirements, and (iii water productivity. Several representative leafy vegetables, tuber crops, cereal crops and grain legumes were identified as fitting the NUCS category. Agro-biodiversity remains essential for sustainable agriculture.

  11. Early selection of elite clones of an ornamental bromeliad in vitro Seleção precoce in vitro de clones elite de uma bromélia ornamental

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    Candida Elisa Manfio

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Orthophytum grossiorum is a typical bromeliad from Atlantic forestry threatened of extinction. The objectives of this research were to select O. grossiorum clones with ornamental values easy to propagate in vitro, and establish in vitro propagation protocols for these clones. The project was developed in three steps: germination and in vitro selection of seedlings responsive to BAP (6-benzylaminopurine, selection of clones with ornamental values, and establishment of protocol for in vitro propagation of the selected clones. In the first step only 18.33% of plantlets germinated in vitro were responsive to BAP. These plantlets were selected and replicated in vitro several times, each replicated plantlet constituting a clone. In the second step these clones were established ex vitro and surveyed for ornamental attributes. Five out of 11 clones were selected in this step. These clones presented distinct phenotypic traits and were considered of high ornamental quality. In the third step a protocol for in vitro propagation was developed for each selected clone.Orthophytum grossiorum é uma bromélia ameaçada de extinção típica de Mata Atlântica. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram selecionar clones de O. grossiorum com potencial ornamental e de fácil propagação in vitro e estabelecer protocolo de propagação in vitro para esses clones. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em três etapas: germinação e em seleção in vitro de plântulas responsivas a BAP (6-benzylaminopurine, seleção de clones com valores ornamentais e estabelecimento de protocolo para propagação in vitro dos clones selecionados. Na primeira etapa, foi observado que apenas 18.33% das plântulas germinadas in vitro eram responsivas a BAP. Essas plântulas foram selecionadas e reproduzidas em in vitro, e cada plântula selecionada e reproduzida constituiu um clone. Na segunda etapa, esses clones foram estabelecidos ex vitro e selecionados em relação aos atributos ornamentais

  12. Modeling Multi-Event Non-Point Source Pollution in a Data-Scarce Catchment Using ANN and Entropy Analysis

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    Lei Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Event-based runoff–pollutant relationships have been the key for water quality management, but the scarcity of measured data results in poor model performance, especially for multiple rainfall events. In this study, a new framework was proposed for event-based non-point source (NPS prediction and evaluation. The artificial neural network (ANN was used to extend the runoff–pollutant relationship from complete data events to other data-scarce events. The interpolation method was then used to solve the problem of tail deviation in the simulated pollutographs. In addition, the entropy method was utilized to train the ANN for comprehensive evaluations. A case study was performed in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, China. Results showed that the ANN performed well in the NPS simulation, especially for light rainfall events, and the phosphorus predictions were always more accurate than the nitrogen predictions under scarce data conditions. In addition, peak pollutant data scarcity had a significant impact on the model performance. Furthermore, these traditional indicators would lead to certain information loss during the model evaluation, but the entropy weighting method could provide a more accurate model evaluation. These results would be valuable for monitoring schemes and the quantitation of event-based NPS pollution, especially in data-poor catchments.

  13. What is so important about completing lives? A critique of the modified youngest first principle of scarce resource allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamlund, Espen

    2016-04-01

    Ruth Tallman has recently offered a defense of the modified youngest first principle of scarce resource allocation [1]. According to Tallman, this principle calls for prioritizing adolescents and young adults between 15-40 years of age. In this article, I argue that Tallman's defense of the modified youngest first principle is vulnerable to important objections, and that it is thus unsuitable as a basis for allocating resources. Moreover, Tallman makes claims about the badness of death for individuals at different ages, but she lacks an account of the loss involved in dying to support her claims. To fill this gap in Tallman's account, I propose a view on the badness of death that I call 'Deprivationism'. I argue that this view explains why death is bad for those who die, and that it has some advantages over Tallman's complete lives view in the context of scarce resource allocation. Finally, I consider some objections to the relevance of Deprivationism to resource allocation, and offer my responses.

  14. Selecting Candidates for Liver Transplantation: A Medical Ethics Perspective on the Microallocation of a Scarce and Rationed Resource

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    Eric M Yoshida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Liver transplantation has evolved over the past 35 years from an experimental procedure with high perioperative mortality to an accepted form of treatment with an approximate 85% one-year and 80% three-year patient survival rate. Following the success and acceptance of transplantation in the treatment of end-stage liver disease, there has been a progressive increase in the number of patients seeking a limited supply of donor organs. The ethical focus, on a microallocation level, has therefore changed from that of the 1960s, when the question was whether the procedure should be offered at all, to that of the 1990s and beyond, when the focus is on the proper allocation of a scarce, life-saving resource. The ethical issues concerning fair allocation surrounding liver transplantation are explored, from both the referring physician's perspective and the perspective of the transplant physician. In particular, the contrasting viewpoints of bioethicists Nicholas Rescher and James Childress, with respect to nonmedical and social criteria in the selection of patients for scarce, life-saving therapies, are explored. Lastly, some alternative ethical models for patient selection are reviewed.

  15. Tacit knowledge: A refinement and empirical test of the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insch, Gary S; McIntyre, Nancy; Dawley, David

    2008-11-01

    Researchers have linked tacit knowledge to improved organizational performance, but research on how to measure tacit knowledge is scarce. In the present study, the authors proposed and empirically tested a model of tacit knowledge and an accompanying measurement scale of academic tacit knowledge. They present 6 hypotheses that support the proposed tacit knowledge model regarding the role of cognitive (self-motivation, self-organization); technical (individual task, institutional task); and social (task-related, general) skills. The authors tested these hypotheses with 542 responses to the Academic Tacit Knowledge Scale, which included the respondents' grade point average-the performance variable. All 6 hypotheses were supported.

  16. Evaluation of Drought Stress Thresholds in Ornamental Barberry (Berberis thunbergii cv. Atropurpurea Shrub in Mashhad Condition

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    Reyhane Setayesh

    2017-08-01

    this regard, drought stress tolerance thresholds of ornamental barberry plant in Mashhad landscape were evaluated. Materials and Methods: In order to determine the qualitative and quantitative drought stress tolerance thresholds of ornamental barberry (Berberis thunbergii plant an experiment was conducted basis on randomized complete block design with three replications in Plant Production Complex of Mashhad Municipality. Treatments included; 100, 80, 60, 40, and 20% of culculated water requirements based on evaporation pan data. Two years old plants with similar size were transplanted from pots to field in 16 March 2012. Treatments were applied after establishment in 28 April and sampling was arranged in 6 August, 23 August, 6 September, and 7 October. During the growing season, the evaporation level was daily measured from pan Class A. In each sampling two plants sampled randomly from each plot for measuring the plant height, highest branches, number of branches, fresh and dry weight, dry mater percentage, irrigation water use index and freshness index. Results and Discussion: Results showed that with increasing severity of drought stress plant height of barberry reduced significantly, but there were no significant difference between 100 and 80% of water requirement treatments. The highest branches reduced by diminishing water application volume but there were no significant difference among 100, 80 and 60% of water requirement application. The maximum of branch number was observed at 60 percent water requirement, however, there were no significant difference between 100 and 60% of water requirement treatments. The number of branches in 60% was 26% lower than 80% of water requirement. Therefore, application of 60% water requirement with 23 branches per plant produced highest branch number. The highest and lowest plant fresh weight was measured in 100% and 20% water requirement application, respectively. Application of 60% of water requirement produced statistically

  17. The importance of the marine ornamental reef fish trade in the wider Caribbean

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    A.W Bruckner

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The marine ornamental fish trade began in the 1930s in Sri Lanka,spread to Hawaii and the Philippines in the 1950s,and expanded to a multi-million dollar industry in the 1970s with fisheries established throughout the tropical Pacific,Indian and Atlantic Oceans.Currently,45 countries supply global markets an estimated 14-30 million fish annually,with an import value of US$28-44 million.The largest suppliers are Indonesia and the Philippines,followed by Brazil,Maldives,Vietnam,Sri Lanka and Hawaii.In the tropical Western Atlantic,16 countries have export fisheries, including the U.S.(Florida and Puerto Rico.The U.S.is the world ’s largest buyer,followed by the European Union and Japan.The global trade consists of over 1400 species of reef fishes,of which only about 25 are captive bred on a commercial scale.Damselfish,anemonefish, and angelfish constitute over 50%of the global volume; butterflyfish, wrasses,blennies,gobies,triggerfish,file-fish,hawkfishes,groupers and basselets account for 31%of the trade,and the remaining 16%is represented by 33 families.The most important fishes from the Caribbean are angelfish (six species, seahorses (two species, royal gramma, jawfish,queen triggerfish,redlip blenny,puddingwife,bluehead wrasse,and blue chromis.The Caribbean currently supplies a small percentage of the global trade in marine ornamental species,but ornamental fisheries in this region represent important emerging industries.It is critical that effective ornamental fishery management plans and regulations are developed and enforced,and fishery-dependent and fishery-independent data are collected and utilized in decision making processes to ensure sustainable ornamental fisheries throughout the region.El comercio de peces marinos ornamentales se inició en la década de 1930 en Sri Lanka y se extendió a Hawai y Las Filipinas en la década de 1950.Posteriormente se convirtió en una industria multimillonaria cuando,en la década de 1970,se

  18. Basic language metaphor "man - animal" as style forming means of the ornamental prose of B. Poplavsky (on the example of the novel "To Home from the Heaven'

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    Lugovaya Nika Vyacheslavovna

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the metaphor as an integral component of the ornamental prose. It is assumed that the paths based on the similarity of the compared concepts mean in a literary text the presence of not only common knowledge, but also the copyright implications of that destination singled out and decrypted. It takes into account the cognitive theory, according to which the metaphor is one of the fundamental ways of modeling reality. It creates a picture of the object, and promotes the formation of a certain style of thinking about it. Analysis of the novel by B. Poplavsky «To Home from heaven» with regard to these theoretical premises (regulations allows to see that the basis of the artistic world lies in the basic linguistic metaphor "man - animal", which includes a number of sub-fields: the name of animal species; the habits and actions of the animals; body parts of animals, as well as words with seme ‘beast’, ‘animal’, ‘cattle’. Implementation metaphor generates numerous «animal» metamorphosis of female images and transformation taking place with the main character. Metaphorical transformation corresponds to the complex relationships of the characters with Tanya and Katya on the background of his spiritual quest. The basic metaphor and its implementation are updated by the author’s intent, helping to reveal the philosophical idea of the novel.

  19. Most ornamental plants on sale in garden centres are unattractive to flower-visiting insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbuzov, Mihail; Alton, Karin; Ratnieks, Francis L W

    2017-01-01

    Gardeners and park managers seeking to support biodiversity in urban areas often plant ornamentals attractive to flower-visiting insects. There is a huge diversity of garden plant varieties, and some recommendations are available as to which are attractive to insects. However, these are largely not based on rigorous empirical data. An important factor in consumer choice is the range of varieties available for purchase. In the UK, garden centres are a key link in the supply chain between growers and private gardens. This study is the first to determine the proportions of flowering ornamentals being sold that are attractive to flower-visiting insects. We surveyed six garden centres in Sussex, UK, each over two days in 2015, by making 12 counts of insects visiting patches of each ornamental plant on display for sale that was in bloom. To provide a consistent baseline among different locations, we brought with us and surveyed marjoram ( Origanum vulgare ) plants in pots, which are known to be attractive to a wide range of flower-visiting insects. The attractiveness of plant varieties to insects was then expressed in two ways: the absolute number and relative to that on marjoram ('marjoram score'), both per unit area of plant cover. In addition, we noted whether each variety was recommended as pollinator-friendly either via a symbol on the label, or by being included in the Royal Horticultural Society's 'Perfect for Pollinators' list. Furthermore, we compared the attractiveness of plants that are typically grown for more than one year versus only one year. We surveyed 59-74 plant varieties in bloom across the six garden centres. In each garden centre, the distributions of variety attractiveness were highly skewed to the right, with most varieties being relatively unattractive, and few varieties highly attractive to flower-visiting insects. The median attractiveness of varieties with a recommendation was 4.2× higher than that of varieties without. But, due to the large

  20. Acute toxicity and histopathology in ornamental fish amazon bluespotted corydora (Corydoras melanistius exposed to formalin

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    Rudã F.B. Santos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the acute toxicity of formalin and histopathological effects on the Amazon ornamental fish, bluespotted coridora (Corydoras melanistius. A randomized design was used, with ten concentrations of formalin (40% (0, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250mg.L-1 with four replicates and five fish per container (3L in static system for 96 hours. The moribund fish were killed and fixed in 10% formalin to proceed the histopathological analysis of gill, liver and kidney. At the end of this experiment the following mortality rates (% were obtained in increasing order of exposure: 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 65, 85, 100, 100 and 100%. The lethal concentration 50% (LC50-96h (I estimated was 50.76 mg.L-1 with regression of y = 0.51x, and r² = 0.80. Further, in higher concentrations morphological changes as gill hyperplasia, with filling of interlamellar spaces, disorganization of liver arrangement, and necrosis in kidney were observed. In this study, the formalin can be considered slightly toxic to bluespotted corydora, and cause morphological changes when exposed to high concentrations. The use of formalin to treat of ornamental fish in the inner river of capture with wrong concentration can provoke negative environmental and biological effects.O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar a toxicidade aguda de formalina e os efeitos histopatológicos para o peixe ornamental amazônico corredora bicuda (Corydora melanistius. Foi utilizado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado; com dez concentrações de formalina 40% (0, 3, 6, 12, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200 e 250mg.L-1, com quatro repetições e cinco peixes por recipiente de água (3 L em sistema estático durante 96 horas. Os peixes moribundos foram mortos e fixados em formol 10% procedendo à análise histopatológica das brânquias e do fígado. Ao final desse experimento, obtiveram-se as seguintes taxas de mortalidades em ordem crescente de exposição (%: 0, 0, 0, 0, 0, 65, 85

  1. Aportación al estudio palinológico de la flora ornamental de la ciudad de Granada (España)

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz de la Guardia Guerrero, Consuelo; Blanca López, Gabriel; Nieto, Rosa Mª

    1988-01-01

    Se estudian los caracteres polínicos de 23 especies pertenecientes a la flora ornamental de la ciudad de Granada, utilizando microscopía óptica y microscopía electrónica de barrido, indicando su posible incidencia alergógena. The pollen characters of 23 species, representing the flora ornamental from the city of Granada (Spain), are studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy to determine allergenic incidence.

  2. A Merging Framework for Rainfall Estimation at High Spatiotemporal Resolution for Distributed Hydrological Modeling in a Data-Scarce Area

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    Yinping Long

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Merging satellite and rain gauge data by combining accurate quantitative rainfall from stations with spatial continuous information from remote sensing observations provides a practical method of estimating rainfall. However, generating high spatiotemporal rainfall fields for catchment-distributed hydrological modeling is a problem when only a sparse rain gauge network and coarse spatial resolution of satellite data are available. The objective of the study is to present a satellite and rain gauge data-merging framework adapting for coarse resolution and data-sparse designs. In the framework, a statistical spatial downscaling method based on the relationships among precipitation, topographical features, and weather conditions was used to downscale the 0.25° daily rainfall field derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA precipitation product version 7. The nonparametric merging technique of double kernel smoothing, adapting for data-sparse design, was combined with the global optimization method of shuffled complex evolution, to merge the downscaled TRMM and gauged rainfall with minimum cross-validation error. An indicator field representing the presence and absence of rainfall was generated using the indicator kriging technique and applied to the previously merged result to consider the spatial intermittency of daily rainfall. The framework was applied to estimate daily precipitation at a 1 km resolution in the Qinghai Lake Basin, a data-scarce area in the northeast of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. The final estimates not only captured the spatial pattern of daily and annual precipitation with a relatively small estimation error, but also performed very well in stream flow simulation when applied to force the geomorphology-based hydrological model (GBHM. The proposed framework thus appears feasible for rainfall estimation at high spatiotemporal resolution in data-scarce areas.

  3. Morphological and hematological studies of Trypanosoma spp. infecting ornamental armored catfish from Guamá River-PA, Brazil

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    Rodrigo Y. Fujimoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 281 specimens of freshwater armored ornamental fish species (Leporacanthicus galaxias, Lasiancistrus saetiger, Cochliodon sp., Hypostomus sp., Pseudacanthicus spinosus, Ancistrus sp. and Rineloricaria cf. lanceolata were captured at the hydrological basin of Guamá River, Pará, Brazil. The infection by Trypanosoma spp. was inspected. The morphological and morphometric characterization of the parasites and the hematological parameters were determined. Leporacanthicus galaxias and Pseudacanthicus spinosus presented 100% infection prevalence, and the other species showed a variable prevalence of infection. The parasites showed clearly different morphotypes and dimensions, and probably belong to different species. The hematological response to the infection varied with the host. Cochliodon sp. showed no differences between infected and not infected fish. In other species several modifications on some hematological parameters were found, but apparently without causing disease. It is emphasized the possibility of introduction of the parasites in new environments due to the artificial movements of these ornamental fish.

  4. PESTS OF ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS IN THE PARKS OF PITEŞTI AND METHODS OF FIGHTING THEM

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    Daniela Bărbuceanu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The observations carried-out in 2008 to ornamental trees and shrubs from parks of ADP Pitesti conducted to identified of the follows pests species: Macrosiphum rosae (L., Aphis spiraephaga Müll., Cinara cupressi Buckton, Hyphantria cunea Drury, Oxycarenus lavaterae (F.. Cinara cupressi and Oxycarenus lavaterae are mentioned for the first time in Romania. Cinara cupressi was noticed on an imported Abies nordmanniana specimen in a park from this city. O. lavaterae, a Mediterranean species from Tilia sp., currently it is expanding his area in northern regions. We recommend carefully monitoring of imported ornamental plants, because they can be infested and open ways to invasion for the pests with devastated potential.

  5. A radiological study of some ornamental stones: the bluish granites from Extremadura (Spain

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    D. Pereira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In the area of Trujillo (Extremadura, Spain we have found a variety of striking bluish and secondary yellow granites outcropping within the Plasenzuela pluton. They are all quarried under different names and are characterized by leucocratic minerals in which a bluish phosphate is dispersed throughout the rock. Their physical and mechanical properties make these granites a perfect option for most applications as ornamental rocks. Within the pluton the radiological background is fairly homogeneous, with no significant differences between the gamma ray fluxes of the different facies. U (6.4 ± 0.51 ppm, Th (2.9 ± 0.47 ppm and K2O (4.32 ± 0.26% contents determined in the laboratory by gamma-ray spectrometry from representative samples are in good accordance with fast in situ measurements carried out with the same technique and also with conventional chemical analysis. Estimated activities for K-40, Ra-226 and Th-232 were, on average, 1022 ± 36 Bq kg−1, 84 ± 9 Bq kg−1 and 6.8 ± 1.6 Bq kg−1. On the basis of these results, the I index of EU technical document 112 was determined, with an average result of 0.66 ± 0.03. This suggests that the rock can be used with no restrictions for all types of construction purposes. Striking differences were observed between the blue facies and the yellow facies in radon exhalation tests from crushed material (0.03 Bq kg−1 vs. 0.20 Bq kg−1. Since both granites have similar uranium contents (6.3 ppm and 6.5 ppm, respectively, these results can probably be explained in terms of important differences in the mineralogical distribution of this chemical element, radon emanation being enhanced in the yellow facies. However, due to the ordinary use as ornamental stone, the yellow facies does not present a radiological risk in terms of excess effective dose due to internal exposure to radon.

  6. Ornamental fish in pet stores in Greece: a threat to biodiversity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. PAPAVLASOPOULOU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aquarium trade has been recognized as an important pathway for the introduction of invasive species around the world. This study investigates the availability of ornamental fish species in ten large-size, centrally positioned aquarium stores that control a large share of imports and the Hellenic market chain, and aims to provide a provisional checklist on the aquarium fish trade in Greece. For each recorded species, additional data concerning various aspects (e.g. natural environment, native range, established as aliens, conservation status and threats to humans were collected from Fishbase, IUCN red list and the scientific literature. Overall, 326 fish species belonging to 64 families were reported according to the store labels. The majority of the species recorded were freshwater (66%, originating mainly from South America and Asia, while most of the marine species (26% had primarily an Indo-Pacific native distribution. Among the freshwater fishes, Cichlidae and Cyprinidae were the dominant families with 64 and 27 species, respectively, while the family Acanthuridae dominated within the marine fishes with ten species. The vast majority of both freshwater and marine species (>90% were tropical. Concerning the presence of alien species, 62 ornamental species have been established outside their natural range, with 22 of them positively confirmed as aliens in the European waters. Moreover, 25 species were listed in the critically endangered (CR, endangered (EN and vulnerable (VU categories of the IUCN red list. Even more surprisingly, for 192 species recorded, data were missing to assign their conservation status or had not been assessed at all. Finally, the majority of the species (84% were harmless to humans. However, 35 species (11% were recognised as potentially harmful (i.e. venomous, ciguatera poisoning, traumatogenic and two were found to be poisonous if consumed. In conclusion, the aquarium fish sector in Greece is practically

  7. Caracterização de Passiflora mucronata Lam.: nova alternativa de maracujá ornamental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Maria Molina Meletti

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, a família Passifloraceae possui ampla diversidade genética devido ao elevado número de espécies nativas, entretanto, o valor ornamental da família ainda é praticamente inexplorado. Passiflora mucronata Lam. é uma das espécies nativas que integram o Banco de Germoplasma de Maracujazeiros do Instituto Agronômico (IAC, que estão sendo caracterizadas para fins ornamentais, em condições de campo, objetivando sua utilização comercial. Foram avaliados desenvolvimento vegetativo, época de florescimento, período de antese, compatibilidade, viabilidade polínica, produção de frutos, comportamento germinativo e longevidade das sementes. As flores de P. mucronata são brancas, fosforescentes e têm antese noturna, atraindo mariposas e morcegos. A viabilidade polínica permaneceu elevada (75,8%, desde a antese (18h00min h até a manhã seguinte. A espécie mostrou-se autoincompatível. A polinização cruzada resultou em frutos ovoides, com 14,82g de peso médio, 4,59cm de diâmetro longitudinal por 2,73cm de diâmetro equatorial. A casca do fruto é delgada, amarelo-canária quando totalmente maduro. A polpa apresentou pouca suculência, sem aroma característico, mas sabor agradável. As sementes são achatadas, de coloração marrom-enegrecida, com dormência quando recém-colhidas, o que pode ser superado efetivamente com armazenamento em câmara fria e seca mais choque térmico, associados. A longevidade das sementes foi de cerca de um ano. Os acessos avaliados de P. mucronata evidenciaram se tratar de uma planta de vigor vegetativo intermediário, tolerante ao frio, com intenso florescimento, que se estende por um longo período do ano. Em função destas vantagens adicionais, pode ser utilizada como planta ornamental, uma alternativa dentro do grupo das trepadeiras indicadas para cercas vivas ou caramanchões.

  8. Quantifying the trade in marine ornamental fishes into Switzerland and an estimation of imports from the European Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica V. Biondo

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Millions of marine ornamental fishes are traded every year. Today, over half of the known nearly 4000 coral reef fish species are in trade with poor or no monitoring and demand is increasing. This study investigates their trade into and through Switzerland by analyzing import documents for live animals. In 2009, 151 import declarations with attached species lists for marine ornamental fishes from non-EU countries totaled 28 356 specimens. The 62% of the fishes remaining in Switzerland, comprised 440 marine species from 45 families, the rest transited to EU and non-EU countries. Despite the recognized large trade volume for the European region, due to bilateral agreements, no data is collected for imports from the EU. However, inferred data shows that more than 200 000 marine ornamental fishes could be imported into Switzerland every year and an unknown quantity re-exported. As biggest import region, it is therefore safe to assume, that the European region is importing at least as many marine ornamental fishes as the US. There is no adequate data-collecting system known to be in place in any country for monitoring this trade. The EU Trade Control and Expert System (TRACES to monitor animal diseases could be adjusted to gather compulsory information for the EU and Switzerland. More than half of the species imported into Switzerland are not assessed by the IUCN and therefore marked as ‘not evaluated’ on the Red List. Overall, 70% of all known coral reef fish species have not been evaluated. If coral reef fishes are threatened or endangered due to large, possibly unsustainable numbers traded, it may be rational to monitor the trade in these species through the Convention on International Trade of Endangered Species (CITES.

  9. Public Perception on Calligraphic Woodcarving Ornamentations of Mosques; a Comparison between East Coast and Southwest of Peninsula Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadreza Saberi

    2015-01-01

    Woodcarving ornamentation is considered as, a national heritage and can be found in many Malaysian mosques. Woodcarvings are mostly displayed in three different motifs, namely floral, geometry and calligraphy. The application of floral and geometry motifs is to convey an abstract meaning of Islamic teachings to the viewers. However, the calligraphic decorations directly express the messages of Allah almighty or the sayings of the prophets to the congregations. Muslims are the main users of mo...

  10. Public Perception on Calligraphic Woodcarving Ornamentations of Mosques; a Comparison between East Coast and Southwest of Peninsula Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Saberi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Woodcarving ornamentation is considered as, a national heritage and can be found in many Malaysian mosques. Woodcarvings are mostly displayed in three different motifs, namely floral, geometry and calligraphy. The application of floral and geometry motifs is to convey an abstract meaning of Islamic teachings to the viewers. However, the calligraphic decorations directly express the messages of Allah almighty or the sayings of the prophets to the congregations. Muslims are the main users of mosques as these are places for prayers as well as other religious and community activities. Therefore, the assessment of users’ opinion about this type of decoration needs to be investigated. This paper aims to evaluate the perception of two groups of mosque users on the calligraphic woodcarving ornamentations from two regions, namely the East Coast and Southwest of Peninsula Malaysia. As Arabic is not the primary language in Malaysia, it would be interesting to find out how much of the calligraphic ornamentation is recognised and understood by the mosque users. The quantitative approach and questionnaire survey were adopted to fulfil the objectives of the study through convenient sampling where 420 questionnaire surveys were distributed at eight selected mosques. A total of 408 respondents amongst users completed and returned the survey forms. The mosques were chosen based on the abundance and diversity of calligraphy woodcarving elements found in the prayer hall. The Mann-Whitney U-test was conducted to find out the differences between the two groups of respondents. Ability of reading and understanding the Arabic scripts, the aesthetic values, the function, appropriate location and finally the desirability of scripts were assessed and compared between the participants of North East and Southwest of Peninsula Malaysia. The results showed that respondents of two areas in Malaysia had different opinions about this traditional sacred ornamentation in mosques

  11. Socially selected ornaments and fitness: Signals of fighting ability in paper wasps are positively associated with survival, reproductive success, and rank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbetts, Elizabeth A; Forrest, Taylor; Vernier, Cassondra; Jinn, Judy; Madagame, Andrew

    2015-11-01

    Many animals have ornaments that mediate choice and competition in social and sexual contexts. Individuals with elaborate sexual ornaments typically have higher fitness than those with less elaborate ornaments, but less is known about whether socially selected ornaments are associated with fitness. Here, we test the relationship between fitness and facial patterns that are a socially selected signal of fighting ability in Polistes dominula wasps. We found wasps that signal higher fighting ability have larger nests, are more likely to survive harsh winters, and obtain higher dominance rank than wasps that signal lower fighting ability. In comparison, body weight was not associated with fitness. Larger wasps were dominant over smaller wasps, but showed no difference in nest size or survival. Overall, the positive relationship between wasp facial patterns and fitness indicates that receivers can obtain diverse information about a signaler's phenotypic quality by paying attention to socially selected ornaments. Therefore, there are surprisingly strong parallels between the information conveyed by socially and sexually selected signals. Similar fitness relationships in social and sexually selected signals may be one reason it can be difficult to distinguish the role of social versus sexual selection in ornament evolution. © 2015 The Author(s). Evolution © 2015 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  12. Ornaments in radiation treatment of cultural heritage: Color and UV–vis spectral changes in irradiated nacres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marušić, Katarina; Pucić, Irina; Desnica, Vladan

    2016-01-01

    Cultural heritage objects that are radiation treated in order to stop their biodegradation often contain ornamenting materials that cannot be removed. Radiation may produce unwanted changes to such materials. Nacre is a common ornamenting material so this is an attempt to assess the impact of gamma-radiation on its optical properties. Two types of nacre (yellow and white) were obtained from a museum and subjected to different absorbed doses of Co-60 gamma irradiation under the same conditions. The radiation induced changes of nacres color were investigated with fiber optic reflectance spectroscopy (FORS). Colorimetry in CIE Lab space revealed that in both nacres the lightness shifted to darker grey hues at high doses while the color component's (red, green, yellow and blue) behavior depended on the nacre type. Observable changes occurred at doses much above the dose range needed for radiation treatment of cultural heritage objects that are often ornamented with nacre. In UV–vis reflectance spectra of samples irradiated to high doses carbonate radical anion absorption appeared. - Highlights: • Radiation induced changes of nacres color were investigated with FORS. • Nacres darken at high doses while the color component depends on the nacre type. • Observable changes occurred at larger doses than needed for cultural heritage. • For samples irradiated to high doses carbonate radical anion absorption appeared.

  13. Phytophthora ×stagnum nothosp. nov., a New Hybrid from Irrigation Reservoirs at Ornamental Plant Nurseries in Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiao; Richardson, Patricia A.; Hong, Chuanxue

    2014-01-01

    A novel Phytophthora species was frequently recovered from irrigation reservoirs at several ornamental plant production facilities in eastern Virginia. Initial sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of this species generated unreadable sequences due to continual polymorphic positions. Cloning and sequencing the ITS region as well as sequencing the mitochondrially encoded cytochrome c oxidase 1 and beta-tubulin genes revealed that it is a hybrid between P. taxon PgChlamydo as its paternal parent and an unknown species genetically close to P. mississippiae as its maternal parent. This hybrid has some diagnostic morphological features of P. taxon PgChlamydo and P. mississippiae. It produces catenulate hyphal swellings, characteristic of P. mississippiae, and chlamydospores, typical of P. taxon PgChlamydo. It also produces both ornamented and relatively smooth-walled oogonia. Ornamented oogonia are another important diagnostic character of P. mississippiae. The relatively smooth-walled oogonia may be indicative of oogonial character of P. taxon PgChlamydo. The new hybrid is described here as Phytophthora ×stagnum. PMID:25072374

  14. Haste makes waste: accelerated molt adversely affects the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage ornaments in house sparrows.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csongor I Vágási

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Many animals display colorful signals in their integument which convey information about the quality of their bearer. Theoretically, these ornaments incur differential production and/or maintenance costs that enforce their honesty. However, the proximate mechanisms of production costs are poorly understood and contentious in cases of non-carotenoid-based plumage ornaments like the melanin-based badge and depigmented white wing-bar in house sparrows Passer domesticus. Costly life-history events are adaptively separated in time, thus, when reproduction is extended, the time available for molt is curtailed and, in turn, molt rate is accelerated.We experimentally accelerated the molt rate by shortening the photoperiod in order to test whether this environmental constraint is mirrored in the expression of plumage ornaments. Sparrows which had undergone an accelerated molt developed smaller badges and less bright wing-bars compared to conspecifics that molted at a natural rate being held at natural-like photoperiod. There was no difference in the brightness of the badge or the size of the wing-bar.These results indicate that the time available for molt and thus the rate at which molt occurs may constrain the expression of melanin-based and depigmented plumage advertisements. This mechanism may lead to the evolution of honest signaling if the onset of molt is condition-dependent through the timing of and/or trade-off between breeding and molt.

  15. Prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus Metacercariae in Ornamental Fish from Chiang Mai, Thailand, with Molecular Approach Using ITS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanlop, Atcharaphan; Wongsawad, Chalobol; Prattapong, Pongphol; Wongsawad, Pheravut; Chontananarth, Thapana; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2017-08-01

    The prevalence of Centrocestus formosanus metacercariae was investigated in ornamental fish purchased from a pet shop in Chiang Mai, Thailand, including Carassius auratus (goldfish), Cyprinus carpio (Koi), Poecilia latipinna (Sailfin Molly), Danio rerio (Zebrafish), and Puntigrus tetrazona (Tiger barb). The parasite species was identified by the morphology of worms as well as by a molecular approach using ITS2. The results showed that 50 (33.3%) of 150 fish examined were infected with the metacercariae. The highest prevalence was found in C. auratus (83.3%), and the highest intensity was noted in C. carpio (70.8 metacercariae/fish). The most important morphological character was the presence of 32-34 circumoral spines on the oral sucker. The phylogenetic studies using the rRNA ITS2 region revealed that all the specimens of C. formosanus in this study were grouped together with C. formosanus in GenBank database. This is the first report on ornamental fish, C. carpio, P. latipinna, D. rerio, and P. tetrazona, taking the role of second intermediate hosts of C. formosanus in Thailand. Prevention and control of metacercarial infection in ornamental fish is urgently needed.

  16. Durabilidade de peças cerâmicas vermelhas com adição de rejeito de rocha ornamental isenta de granalha Durability of red ceramic samples with addition of ornamental rock waste free of steel particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Rodrigues

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliação da degradação acelerada em laboratório sofrida pelos corpos de prova de cerâmica vermelha com adição de rejeito de rocha ornamental isento de granalha, foi utilizado um equipamento que lixivia com água quente e fria em tempos controlados, e também, congela a amostra em até -4 ºC. Os corpos de prova cerâmicos foram confeccionados com até 10% em massa de rejeito de rocha ornamental a seco, e em seguida, umedecidos e moldados por extrusão. Os materiais produzidos foram calcinados nas temperaturas de 700 ºC, 800 ºC e 900 ºC. Após 1060 h de degradação acelerada em equipamento de laboratório, analisaram-se as propriedades cerâmicas do material. Os resultados das resistências mecânicas foram comparados através da distribuição de Weibull, antes e depois da degradação. Nota-se que o material com adição de 10% de rejeito de rocha ornamental na massa cerâmica é mais confiável quando queimada a 900 ºC após a degradação, quando comparados com as amostras sem adição de rejeito, proporcionando maior durabilidade.For the evaluation of the accelerated degradation in laboratory of red ceramic specimens with addition of ornamental rock waste free from steel particles, an equipment that leach with hot and cool water and time control, and also freezing the specimen at -4 ºC was used,. The ceramic samples were made with up to 10 wt.% of the dry ornamental rock waste, and after humidifying and molding by extrusion. The specimens were fired at 700 ºC, 800 ºC and 900 ºC. After 1060 h of accelerated degradation lab test, ceramic properties were evaluated. The results of the strength were compared for Weibull distribution, before and after degradation. The specimens with addition of 10 wt.% waste is more durable and reliable when fired to 900 ºC after the degradation.

  17. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding malaria and mosquito ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To improve control measures against malaria, Tanzania has increased the distribution of free and subsidized insecticide-treated mosquito nets (ITNs) to pregnant women. However, data on knowledge, attitudes and practices of these women regarding malaria are scarce. This study was carried out to describe knowledge, ...

  18. Knowledge of appropriate blood product use in perioperative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Blood products are an expensive and scarce resource with inherent risks to patients. The current knowledge of rational blood product use among clinicians in South Africa is unknown. Purpose of research: To describe the level of clinicians' knowledge related to all aspects of the ordering and administration of ...

  19. "Tacit Knowledge" versus "Explicit Knowledge"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanchez, Ron

    creators and carriers. By contrast, the explicit knowledge approach emphasizes processes for articulating knowledge held by individuals, the design of organizational approaches for creating new knowledge, and the development of systems (including information systems) to disseminate articulated knowledge...

  20. Notes about the Palais des Machines of 1889 in Paris: space, structure and ornament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Linares de la Torre

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Palais des Machines of the Paris Universal Exposition of 1889, designed by the architect Charles Louis Ferdinand Dutert (1845-1906 and the engineer Victor Contamin (1840-1893, is undoubtedly an icon of the 19th century architecture: its powerful spatiality, its portentous structure and its straightforward tectonics have rightly received high praise by critics and architects from the second half of the 20th century. However, critical tradition and historiography from the end of the last century have frequently offered a biased interpretation of this work, aimed at underlining certain architectonic values for then presenting them as a direct product of the author’s will. The aim of this article is to explain, altogether and with maximum transparency, how the conjunction between certain circumstantial issues and the will/ability of both authors made possible the construction of one of the most important works of the nineteenth-century architecture. To achieve this, the three most celebrated architectural aspects of the building are analysed: the huge scale of the central space, the particular structural system chosen and the uneven usage of ornament.

  1. Micropropagation of an Exotic Ornamental Plant, Calathea crotalifera, for Production of High Quality Plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahril Efzueni Rozali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v NaOCl, 70% (v/v ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP, 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA. The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera.

  2. Micropropagation of an exotic ornamental plant, Calathea crotalifera, for production of high quality plantlets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozali, Shahril Efzueni; Rashid, Kamaludin A; Taha, Rosna Mat

    2014-01-01

    A successful protocol was established for micropropagation in two selected varieties of exotic ornamental plants, Calathea crotalifera. The effects of different sterilization techniques, explant type, and the combination and concentration of plant growth regulators on shoots induction were studied. The axillary shoot buds explants sprouted from rhizomes in soil free conditions showed high induction rate of shoots with lowest contamination percentage when treated with combination of 30% (v/v) NaOCl, 70% (v/v) ethanol, and 0.3% (w/v) HgCl2. In the present study, the highest number of multiple shoots was obtained in MS basal medium supplemented with 3.5 mg/L 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA), 3% sucrose, and 6 g/L plant agar for both varieties and was used as multiplication medium. Microshoots were highly induced when the young shoot bud explants were incised longitudinally prior subculture. Chlorophyll analysis was studied to test the effects of activated charcoal and L-glutamine on reduction of necrosis problem. The maximum roots induction was recorded on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/L 1-Naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) compared to indolebutyric acid (IBA). The complete regenerated plantlets were successfully acclimatized in the soilless medium under greenhouse condition. This is the first report of rapid mass propagation for C. crotalifera.

  3. Assessment of LED Technology in Ornamental Post-Top Luminaires (Host Site: Sacramento, CA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuenge, Jason R.

    2011-12-01

    The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium has evaluated four different LED replacements for existing ornamental post-top street lights in Sacramento, California. The project team was composed of the City and its consultant, PNNL (representing the Consortium), and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Product selection was finalized in March 2011, yielding one complete luminaire replacement and three lamp-ballast retrofit kits. Computer simulations, field measurements, and laboratory testing were performed to compare the performance and cost-effectiveness of the LED products relative to the existing luminaire with 100 W high-pressure sodium lamp. After it was confirmed the LED products were not equivalent to HPS in terms of initial photopic illumination, the following parameters were scaled proportionally to enable equitable (albeit hypothetical) comparisons: light output, input wattage, and pricing. Four replacement scenarios were considered for each LED product, incorporating new IES guidance for mesopic multipliers and lumen maintenance extrapolation, but life cycle analysis indicated cost effectiveness was also unacceptable. Although LED efficacy and pricing continue to improve, this project serves as a timely and objective notice that LED technology may not be quite ready yet for such applications.

  4. Geographic distributions and ecology of ornamental Curcuma (Zingiberaceae) in Northeastern Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumkratok, Sutthira; Boongtiang, Kriangsuk; Chutichudet, Prasit; Pramaul, Pairot

    2012-10-01

    The genus Curcuma is a very important economic plant. Members of this genus were used as food, medicine and ornament plants. The objectives of this study were to examine the geographic distributions and ecological conditions in the natural habitats of Curcuma in Northeastern Thailand. Species diversity was examined using the line transect method. Ecological conditions of the species were examined using a sampling plot of 20 x 20 m. A total of five species were found including Curcuma angustifolia Roxb., C. alismatifolia Gagnep., C. gracillima Gagnep., C. parviflora Wall. and C. rhabdota. These species were in an altitudinal range between 290 m and 831 m above sea level. Four species (C. angustifolia, C. alismatifolia, C. gracillima and C. rhabdota) were distributed in open gaps in dry dipterocarp forest. One species, C. parviflora was found in the contact zone between dry dipterocarp and bamboo (Gigantochloa sp.) forest. C. rhabdota was found only in a habitat with high humidity and shading along the Thailand-Lao PDR border. Significant ecological conditions of the natural habitats of these Curcuma species were identified. Altitude is the most important factor when determining the geographic distributions of these Curcuma species in Northeastern Thailand.

  5. The biology and in vitro propagation of the ornamental aquatic plant, Aponogeton ulvaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kam, Melissa Yit Yee; Chai, Li Chin; Chin, Chiew Foan

    2016-01-01

    Aponogeton ulvaceus Baker (Aponogetonaceae) is a commercially important ornamental aquatic plant species with traditional medicinal uses. Due to the low survival rate of seedlings, propagation by conventional means has been met with many difficulties. In this study, botanical aspects of A. ulvaceus were examined with regards to the morphology, anatomy and physiology of the plant and an efficient protocol for its in vitro propagation using immature tuber explants has been established. The existence of glandular trichomes on the leaves was discovered and the occurrence of circumnutation in A. ulvaceus has been demonstrated. Immature tuber segments with meristems were cultured on MS medium supplemented with various combinations (0, 1, 2, and 3 mg/L) of BAP and NAA for callus induction. The highest percentage of callus production (100 %) was obtained in two different treatments: 1 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA, and 2 mg/L BAP and 3 mg/L NAA. For shoot and root organogenesis, the combination of 1 mg/L BAP and 1 mg/L NAA was shown to be significant for A. ulvaceus regeneration when compared to control, which yields a mean shoot and root number of 22.50 and 29.50 respectively. The current protocol is the first reported successful establishment of in vitro clonal propagation of A. ulvaceus .

  6. Micropropagation of Crataeva adansonii D.C. Prodr: an ornamental avenue tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Purnima; Sharma, P K; Kothari, S L

    2010-01-01

    In this chapter, we describe multiplication of the superior and elite tree of Crataeva adansonii using plant tissue culture techniques. An ornamental and avenue tree, it is not available in abundance because of poor seed germination and seedling establishment. It reproduces in nature by root suckers, but that restricts its distribution to very limited areas. Efficient procedures are outlined for plant regeneration through direct shoot bud formation, indirect organogenesis, and somatic embryogenesis through callus formation. Different explants were utilized for separate pathways of regeneration. Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium containing 3 mg/L BA and 0.05-0.1 mg/L NAA is most effective in direct induction of axillary buds from nodal explants and shoot tips. Adventitious shoots developed from leaves on MS medium containing 3 mg/L BA and 0.1 mg/L NAA. De novo shoots were obtained from the anthers on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg/L BA. Somatic embryos developed on half strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/L 2, 4-D. Roots were induced at the cut ends of shoots on MS basal medium devoid of growth regulators. The plantlets were then transferred to pots.

  7. Improvement of grafting procedures for the ornamental species: II. Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The achieved results concerning the grafting silver-fir - Abies concolor [(Gord. & Glend. Lindl] scions on white-fir (Abies alba Mill. rootstocks are reporting in this article. The double-side-veneer grafting method and the plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax were applied in four experimental variants. The side-veneer-grafting method and the classic materials, such as raffia and the hot wax were used at the two controls involved in this experiment. The grafting success expressed in percents, were transformed in arcsin square root of percent values, and a two-way analysis of variance was performed. Highly significant (p < 0.001 statistical differences were found between grafting variants, including controls. The Duncan Multiple Range Test showed that the four experimental grafting variants were highly significantly (p < 0.01 be-tter than the two controls. The grafting success of the best experimental variant has surpassed the two controls by 129 and 153%, respectively. Consequently, the double-side-veneer grafting method, the new developed plastic tape and the ecological CeraltinŽ wax have contributed to this grafting success owing to which they are recommended to be used for grafting silver-fir ornamental trees.

  8. Cupriavidus metallidurans biomineralization ability and its application as a bioconsolidation enhancer for ornamental marble stone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalakis, Markos I; Magoulas, Antonis; Kotoulas, Georgios; Katsikis, Ioannis; Bakolas, Asterios; Karageorgis, Aristomenis P; Mavridou, Athena; Doulia, Danae; Rigas, Fotis

    2014-08-01

    Bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation of a Cupriavidus metallidurans isolate was investigated to develop an environmentally friendly method for restoration and preservation of ornamental stones. Biomineralization performance was carried out in a growth medium via a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach using, as design factors, the temperature, growth medium concentration, and inoculum concentration. The optimum conditions were determined with the aid of consecutive experiments based on response surface methodology (RSM) and were successfully validated thereafter. Statistical analysis can be utilized as a tool for screening bacterial bioprecipitation as it considerably reduced the experimental time and effort needed for bacterial evaluation. Analytical methods provided an insight to the biomineral characteristics, and sonication tests proved that our isolate could create a solid new layer of vaterite on marble substrate withstanding sonication forces. C. metallidurans ACA-DC 4073 provided a compact vaterite layer on the marble substrate with morphological characteristics that assisted in its differentiation. The latter proved valuable during spraying minimum amount of inoculated media on marble substrate under conditions close to an in situ application. A sufficient and clearly distinguishable layer was identified.

  9. Iridovirus disease in two ornamental tropical freshwater fishes: African lampeye and dwarf gourami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudthongkong, Chaiwud; Miyata, Masato; Miyazaki, Teruo

    2002-04-05

    Many species of ornamental freshwater fishes are imported into Japan from all over the world. We found African lampeye Aplocheilichthys normani and dwarf gourami Colisa lalia suffering from an iridovirus infection just after being imported by tropical fish wholesalers from Singapore. African lampeye were cultured on the Indonesian Island of Sumatra and dwarf gourami were cultured in Malaysia before export. Diseased fishes displayed distinct histopathological signs of iridovirus infection: systemic appearance of inclusion body-bearing cells, and necrosis of splenocytes and hematopoietic cells. Electron microscopy revealed viral particles (African lampeye:180 to 200 nm in edge to edge diameter; dwarf gourami: 140 to 150 nm in diameter) in an inclusion body within the cytoplasm of inclusion body-bearing cells as well as in the cytoplasm of necrotized cells. Experimental infection with an iridovirus isolate from African lampeye (ALIV) revealed pathogenicity of ALIV to African lampeye and pearl gourami Trichogaster leeri. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products from ALIV and an iridovirus isolate from dwarf gourami (DGIV) using iridovirus-specific primers were indistinguishable. The nucleotide sequence of PCR products derived from ALIV (696 base pairs) and DGIV (701 base pairs) had 95.3% identity. These results indicate that ALIV and DGIV have a single origin.

  10. On the issue of drought-tolerant ornamental woody plants the Black Sea coast (near Sochi

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    Karpun Yuriy Nikolaevich

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The summer-autumn drought, when rainfall in July - September, less than 200 mm, a significant limiting factor for ornamental woody plants of the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus. In the region under dry periods are irregular, the study of their impact on plants is problematic and delayed for many years. The last drought was in 2015, when the three months fell only 87 mm of rainfall. In the last days of the dry period were examined 501 views and intraspecific taxa belonging to 112 genera, bushy evergreen shrubs and trees, as the most vulnerable. Evaluation of drought resistance was evaluated according to our 3-point system, and the results were analyzed in the context of consolidated floristic regions. The results showed adequate drought tolerance, not less than 65 %, cultivated in the region of evergreen shrubs and bushy trees mainly from East Asia and the Mediterranean. Among the species that are recommended for mass plantings, for the pre-emptive use of landscaping and street-resistant plants 67-80 %. All this ensures stability and high decorative plants ofSochi city.

  11. Screening for drought tolerance in cultivars of the ornamental genus Tagetes (Asteraceae

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    Raluca Cicevan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance was evaluated in twelve cultivars of three ornamental Tagetes species (T. patula, T. tenuifolia and T. erecta. A stress treatment was performed by completely stopping watering of plants maintained in controlled greenhouse conditions. After three weeks, several plant growth parameters (stem length (SL, fresh weight (FW and water content (WC, photosynthetic pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids (Car, osmolytes (proline (Pro, glycine betaine (GB and total soluble sugars (TSS, an oxidative stress maker (malondialdehyde (MDA and antioxidants (total phenolic compounds (TPC and total flavonoids (TF were measured. Considerable differences in the evaluated traits were found among the control and drought-stressed plants. Drought stress generally caused a marked reduction in plant growth and carotenoid pigments, and an increase in soluble solutes and oxidative stress. For most cultivars, proline levels in stressed plants increased between 30 and 70-fold compared to the corresponding controls. According to the different measured parameters, on average T. erecta proved to be more tolerant to drought than T. patula and T. tenuifolia. However, a considerable variation in the tolerance to drought was found within each species. The traits with greater association to drought tolerance as well as the most tolerant cultivars could be clearly identified in a principal components analysis (PCA. Overall, our results indicate that drought tolerant cultivars of Tagetes can be identified at early stages using a combination of plant growth and biochemical markers.

  12. The Prevalence of Cryptocaryon irritans in wild marine ornamental fish from Vietnam

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    Van, K. V.; Nhinh, D. T.

    2018-04-01

    Wild-caught ornamental marine fish from NhaTrang (Khanh Hoa) and Ha Long (Quang Ninh) in Vietnam were examined over the three sampling batches corresponding to the spring, summer and autumn times for the prevalence of Cryptocaryon irritans. Out of a total of 211 fish (15 species), 143 (67.7 %) were found to be infected with the mean intensity of 7.67 parasites per field of view (x4 magnification). The prevalence of C. irritans in fish caught during the spring (91.0 3% on average) was significantly higher than that of the fish caught during the summer (39.29 %). A wide variation in the prevalence of the parasite was shown among the fish species. The highest prevalence and intensity of the infection occurred in Plataxteira, Diodon holocanthus, Paracanthurus hepatusat 100 % of infection and density of 12 parasites/field of view (x4 magnification) while and the lowest prevalence of C. irritans appeared on Rhinecanthus aculeatus, Zancluscornutus, and Zebrasoma veliferum with less than 50% of fish infected. Clinical signs of fish infected of C. irritans showed such as tiny white spots on skin, gills, and fins; ragged fins, changes in skin colour, cloudy eyes and increase mucus production.

  13. Induced mutations in ornamental plants by 'in vitro' irradiation of Petunia hybrida meristems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Jimenez, J.

    1993-01-01

    In recent decades it has been observed that for the induction of mutation in ornamental plants we can obtain better results when the plants are irradiated in vegetative state and even better 'in vitro' that when its are irradiated 'in vivo'. In this work the possibilities are showed to avoid the best use of a new biotechnology: the gamma irradiations on the meristem 'in vitro'. A tissue culture method was described for the best vegetative propagation of Petunia hybrid hort through morphogenesis induction of meristem. These were planted in the Murashige and Skoog's basic medium added with BAP and ANA. The pH was adjusted to 6.5 prior autoclaving at 121 Centigrade degree and 1.1 Kg/ cm 2 for 15 minutes. Latter the meristem of plantules in immature and mature physiology stated were irradiated with gamma ray doses ranging from 1.0 at 10.0 Gy. The meristem were then subcultived aseptically with the following results: 1) The immature stage was higher radio sensibilities. 2) The LD 50 for the matured plants was to ranged from 1.0 at 9.0 Gy. and immature 1.0 at 8.0 Gy. 3) The better doses was at 7.5 Gy. 4) The meristem gamma irradiation at 7.5 Gy. showed in the first culture: the adventitious bud induced and the multi meristem formation. 5) In the second cultured the results reveals the 'variegadas' plants formations and the new purples flowers. (Author)

  14. Hydric properties of some iberian ornamental granites with different superficial finishes: a petrophysical interpretation

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    Rojo, A.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Some physical properties of three ornamental granites with different superficial finishes (polished, sawn and flamed were quantified by standard tests. These granites are commercially known as Rosa Porrino, Rosavel and Blanco Alcazar. The determined properties were: density, open porosity, water absorption, capillarity, evaporation, vapour absorption and water vapour permeability. The values of the hydric properties in the studied granites fundamentally depended on their textural characteristics, mainly grain size, micro cracking network and open porosity, and, to a lesser extent, on their superficial finish.

    El estudio analiza las diferencias en el comportamiento hídrico de tres granitos con diferentes acabados superficiales: pulido, corte de sierra y chorro de fuego. Estos granitos se comercializan con los nombres de Rosa Porrino, Rosavel y Blanco Alcázar. Las propiedades determinadas han sido: densidad, porosidad abierta, absorción libre de agua, absorción de vapor de agua, absorción de agua por capilaridad, evaporación y permeabilidad al vapor de agua. Los valores de las propiedades hídricas determinadas dependen fundamentalmente de las características texturales: tamaño de grano, microfisuras y porosidad abierta y, en menor medida, de los acabados superficiales.

  15. Comparative Evaluation of Anthelmintic Activity of Edible and Ornamental Pomegranate Ethanolic Extracts against Schistosoma mansoni

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    Doaa A. Yones

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of praziquantel (PZQ schistosomes resistant strains, the discovery of new antischistosomal agents is of high priority in research. This work reported the in vitro and in vivo effects of the edible and ornamental pomegranate extracts against Schistosoma mansoni. Leaves and stem bark ethanolic extracts of both dried pomegranates were prepared at 100, 300, and 500 μg/mL for in vitro and 600 and 800 mg/kg for in vivo. Adult worms Schistosoma mansoni in RPMI-1640 medium for in vitro and S. mansoni infected mice for in vivo tests were obtained from Theodor Bilharz Research Institute, Cairo, Egypt. In vitro activity was manifested by significant coupled worms separation, reduction of motor activity, lethality, and ultrastructural tegumental alterations in adult worms. In vivo activity was manifested revealed by significant reduction of hepatic granulomas number and diameter, decreased number of bilharzial eggs in liver tissues, lowered liver inflammatory infiltration, decreased hepatic fibrosis, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS expression. Ethanolic stem bark extract of edible pomegranate exhibited highest antischistosomal activities both in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, pomegranate showed a good potential to be used as a promising new candidate for the development of new schistosomicidal agents.

  16. Nest ornamentation by female spotless starlings in response to a male display: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polo, Vicente; Veiga, José P

    2006-07-01

    1. The use of behavioural traits by females in signalling condition has been practically ignored in evolutionary theory. However, females may also exhibit ornaments and behavioural displays, although less elaborated than those of males. 2. In this study we suggest that the carrying of feathers by spotless starlings Sturnus unicolor Temminck females to decorate the nest represents an elaborated and costly behaviour that is displayed in response to a courtship male behaviour: the carrying of nest green plants. 3. By experimentally increasing the amount of green plants in the nests, to give the appearance that highly attractive males defended them, we induced females to increase their feather carrying rates. 4. The amount of feathers carried to the nest was correlated to female reproductive experience and laying date, two variables correlated with female body condition. These results suggests that this behaviour may work as an honest indicator of female quality. 5. We conclude that male carrying plants and female carrying feathers can be viewed as two sex-specific functionally related signalling behaviours involved in mutual courtship or status signalling.

  17. Introduced pathogens found on ornamentals, strawberry and trees in Finland over the past 20 years

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    A. LILJA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The comparative ease and speed of international trade and travel have enabled or enhanced the spread of pests around the globe. For example, trade in ornamental plants has bolstered the spread of alien Oomycetes such as pathogenic species of Phytophthora. To date, four Phytophthora species have been identified in Finland: P. cactorum on Fragaria x ananassa, Betula pendula and Rhododendron spp., P. plurivora on Rhododendron spp. and Syringa vulgaris, and P. pini and P. ramorum on Rhododendron spp. The ascomycete Colletotrichum acutatum, which was listed as a quarantine pathogen by the European Union until 2009, was introduced in 2000 and can survive in plant debris over two winters in Finland. Positive PCR results have also been obtained from bait plants grown in soil collected from locations where diseased Fragaria x ananassa plants had earlier been destroyed. In the mid-1990s, there was an epidemic of foliar rust caused by the Asian basidiomycete Melampsoridium hiratsukanum on Alnus glutinosa and A. incana. Recently, two ascomycetes that have been introduced are Dothistroma septosporum (responsible for red band needle blight on Pinus sylvestris and Chalara fraxinea (causing ash decline on Fraxinus excelsior.;

  18. The influence of growth retardants and cytokinins on flowering of ornamental plants

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    Anna Pobudkiewicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Growth retardants are applied in order to obtain short and well compact plants. They usually inhibit stem elongation, but also can influence the flowering of plants. The aim of cytokinin application is to obtain well branched plants without removing the apical meristem. Cytokinins usually increase the number of axillary shoots but also can influence flowering. Growth retardants and cytokinins can affect flower size, pedicel length, number of flowers, flower longevity, abortion of flower buds and number of days from potting plants to the first open flower. Flowering of growth retardant and cytokinin treated plants might depend on the method of growth regulator used (foliar spray or soil drench, plant species or even a plant cultivar, but in the highest degree it depends on the growth regulator rate used. These growth regulators, when are applied at rates appropriate for height and habit control, very seldom influence flowering of ornamental plants, but applied at high rates can delay flowering, diminish flower diameter or flower pedicel length and also can decrease the number of flowers per plant. In cultivation of bulb plants, growth retardants, used at very high rates, also cause abortion of flower buds.

  19. Isolation and Properties of Floral Defensins from Ornamental Tobacco and Petunia1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, Fung T.; Brugliera, Filippa; Anderson, Marilyn A.

    2003-01-01

    The flowers of the solanaceous plants ornamental tobacco (Nicotiana alata) and petunia (Petunia hybrida) produce high levels of defensins during the early stages of development. In contrast to the well-described seed defensins, these floral defensins are produced as precursors with C-terminal prodomains of 27 to 33 amino acids in addition to a typical secretion signal peptide and central defensin domain of 47 or 49 amino acids. Defensins isolated from N. alata and petunia flowers lack the C-terminal domain, suggesting that it is removed during or after transit through the secretory pathway. Immunogold electron microscopy has been used to demonstrate that the N. alata defensin is deposited in the vacuole. In addition to the eight canonical cysteine residues that define the plant defensin family, the two petunia defensins have an extra pair of cysteines that form a fifth disulfide bond and hence define a new subclass of this family of proteins. Expression of the N. alata defensin NaD1 is predominantly flower specific and is most active during the early stages of flower development. NaD1 transcripts accumulate in the outermost cell layers of petals, sepals, anthers, and styles, consistent with a role in protection of the reproductive organs against potential pathogens. The floral defensins inhibit the growth of Botrytis cinerea and Fusarium oxysporum in vitro, providing further support for a role in protection of floral tissues against pathogen invasion. PMID:12644678

  20. Determination of dose ranges of gamma rays to induce specific changes in three ornamental species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez J, J.

    2011-11-01

    In order to confirming the possibility of to settle a dose range that takes place directly and not at random, a specific effect independently of the species that is were produced several similar organisms to three ornamental species took place via meristems cultivation: Petunia hybrid, Impatiens walleriana and Sprekelia formosissima, same that were irradiated in an irradiator Gamma cell 220, to different dose: 0, 3.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 Gy. Later on, of the plants treated via in vitro the subsequent generations were obtained until the M 4 . To determine the DL 50 and the possible good doses, the survival parameters, development, morphogenesis and height were evaluated during 8 weeks, interpreting based on them, the possible physiologic and genetic alterations induced by the radiation. The established DL 50 were: 7.5 Gy (Petunia), 19.0 Gy (Impatiens) and 12.0 Gy (Sprekelia). Based on the DL 50 of each species, a range of coincident dose settled down that produces a similar effect in the three species: a range of DL 23 to the DL 50 induces and alteration in the cytokinins production affecting directly in the leaves number, buds and plants taken place by meristem, also a range of DL 32 - DL 50 impacts in the auxins production altering to the radicule system. However, when being superimposed the dose is considered that the investigation should continue. (Author)

  1. How to Fairly Allocate Scarce Medical Resources: Ethical Argumentation under Scrutiny by Health Professionals and Lay People.

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    Pius Krütli

    Full Text Available Societies are facing medical resource scarcities, inter alia due to increased life expectancy and limited health budgets and also due to temporal or continuous physical shortages of resources like donor organs. This makes it challenging to meet the medical needs of all. Ethicists provide normative guidance for how to fairly allocate scarce medical resources, but legitimate decisions require additionally information regarding what the general public considers to be fair. The purpose of this study was to explore how lay people, general practitioners, medical students and other health professionals evaluate the fairness of ten allocation principles for scarce medical resources: 'sickest first', 'waiting list', 'prognosis', 'behaviour' (i.e., those who engage in risky behaviour should not be prioritized, 'instrumental value' (e.g., health care workers should be favoured during epidemics, 'combination of criteria' (i.e., a sequence of the 'youngest first', 'prognosis', and 'lottery' principles, 'reciprocity' (i.e., those who provided services to the society in the past should be rewarded, 'youngest first', 'lottery', and 'monetary contribution'.1,267 respondents to an online questionnaire were confronted with hypothetical situations of scarcity regarding (i donor organs, (ii hospital beds during an epidemic, and (iii joint replacements. Nine allocation principles were evaluated in terms of fairness for each type of scarcity along 7-point Likert scales. The relationship between demographic factors (gender, age, religiosity, political orientation, and health status and fairness evaluations was modelled with logistic regression.Medical background was a major predictor of fairness evaluations. While general practitioners showed different response patterns for all three allocation situations, the responses by lay people were very similar. Lay people rated 'sickest first' and 'waiting list' on top of all allocation principles-e.g., for donor organs 83

  2. How to Fairly Allocate Scarce Medical Resources: Ethical Argumentation under Scrutiny by Health Professionals and Lay People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krütli, Pius; Rosemann, Thomas; Törnblom, Kjell Y; Smieszek, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Societies are facing medical resource scarcities, inter alia due to increased life expectancy and limited health budgets and also due to temporal or continuous physical shortages of resources like donor organs. This makes it challenging to meet the medical needs of all. Ethicists provide normative guidance for how to fairly allocate scarce medical resources, but legitimate decisions require additionally information regarding what the general public considers to be fair. The purpose of this study was to explore how lay people, general practitioners, medical students and other health professionals evaluate the fairness of ten allocation principles for scarce medical resources: 'sickest first', 'waiting list', 'prognosis', 'behaviour' (i.e., those who engage in risky behaviour should not be prioritized), 'instrumental value' (e.g., health care workers should be favoured during epidemics), 'combination of criteria' (i.e., a sequence of the 'youngest first', 'prognosis', and 'lottery' principles), 'reciprocity' (i.e., those who provided services to the society in the past should be rewarded), 'youngest first', 'lottery', and 'monetary contribution'. 1,267 respondents to an online questionnaire were confronted with hypothetical situations of scarcity regarding (i) donor organs, (ii) hospital beds during an epidemic, and (iii) joint replacements. Nine allocation principles were evaluated in terms of fairness for each type of scarcity along 7-point Likert scales. The relationship between demographic factors (gender, age, religiosity, political orientation, and health status) and fairness evaluations was modelled with logistic regression. Medical background was a major predictor of fairness evaluations. While general practitioners showed different response patterns for all three allocation situations, the responses by lay people were very similar. Lay people rated 'sickest first' and 'waiting list' on top of all allocation principles-e.g., for donor organs 83.8% (95% CI

  3. Modeling actual evapotranspiration with routine meteorological variables in the data-scarce region of the Tibetan Plateau: Comparisons and implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Zhang, Yinsheng; Xu, Chong-Yu; Szilagyi, Jozsef

    2015-08-01

    Quantitative estimation of actual evapotranspiration (ETa) by in situ measurements and mathematical modeling is a fundamental task for physical understanding of ETa as well as the feedback mechanisms between land and the ambient atmosphere. However, the ETa information in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been greatly impeded by the extremely sparse ground observation network in the region. Approaches for estimating ETa solely from routine meteorological variables are therefore important for investigating spatiotemporal variations of ETa in the data-scarce region of the TP. Motivated by this need, the complementary relationship (CR) and Penman-Monteith approaches were evaluated against in situ measurements of ETa on a daily basis in an alpine steppe region of the TP. The former includes the Nonlinear Complementary Relationship (Nonlinear-CR) as well as the Complementary Relationship Areal Evapotranspiration (CRAE) models, while the latter involves the Katerji-Perrier and the Todorovic models. Results indicate that the Nonlinear-CR, CRAE, and Katerji-Perrier models are all capable of efficiently simulating daily ETa, provided their parameter values were appropriately calibrated. The Katerji-Perrier model performed best since its site-specific parameters take the soil water status into account. The Nonlinear-CR model also performed well with the advantage of not requiring the user to choose between a symmetric and asymmetric CR. The CRAE model, even with a relatively low Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) value, is also an acceptable approach in this data-scarce region as it does not need information of wind speed and ground surface conditions. In contrast, application of the Todorovic model was found to be inappropriate in the dry regions of the TP due to its significant overestimation of ETa as it neglects the effect of water stress on the bulk surface resistance. Sensitivity analysis of the parameter values demonstrated the relative importance of each parameter in the

  4. Geospatial interpolation of reference evapotranspiration (ETo in areas with scarce data: case study in the South of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Silvio Jorge Coelho Simões

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The reference evapotranspiration is an important hydrometeorological variable; its measurement is scarce in large portions of the Brazilian territory, what demands the search for alternative methods and techniques for its quantification. In this sense, the present work investigated a method for the spatialization of the reference evapotranspiration using the geostatistical method of kriging, in regions with limited data and hydrometeorological stations. The monthly average reference evapotranspiration was calculated by the Penman-Monteith-FAO equation, based on data from three weather stations located in southern Minas Gerais (Itajubá, Lavras and Poços de Caldas, and subsequently interpolated by ordinary point kriging using the approach "calculate and interpolate." The meteorological data for a fourth station (Três Corações located within the area of interpolation were used to validate the reference evapotranspiration interpolated spatially. Due to the reduced number of stations and the consequent impossibility of carrying variographic analyzes, correlation coefficient (r, index of agreement (d, medium bias error (MBE, root mean square error (RMSE and t-test were used for comparison between the calculated and interpolated reference evapotranspiration for the Três Corações station. The results of this comparison indicated that the spatial kriging procedure, even using a few stations, allows to interpolate satisfactorily the reference evapotranspiration, therefore, it is an important tool for agricultural and hydrological applications in regions with lack of data.

  5. An Ethical Framework for Allocating Scarce Life-Saving Chemotherapy and Supportive Care Drugs for Childhood Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unguru, Yoram; Fernandez, Conrad V; Bernhardt, Brooke; Berg, Stacey; Pyke-Grimm, Kim; Woodman, Catherine; Joffe, Steven

    2016-06-01

    Shortages of life-saving chemotherapy and supportive care agents for children with cancer are frequent. These shortages directly affect patients' lives, compromise both standard of care therapies and clinical research, and create substantial ethical challenges. Efforts to prevent drug shortages have yet to gain traction, and existing prioritization frameworks lack concrete guidance clinicians need when faced with difficult prioritization decisions among equally deserving children with cancer. The ethical framework proposed in this Commentary is based upon multidisciplinary expert opinion, further strengthened by an independent panel of peer consultants. The two-step allocation process includes strategies to mitigate existing shortages by minimizing waste and addresses actual prioritization across and within diseases according to a modified utilitarian model that maximizes total benefit while respecting limited constraints on differential treatment of individuals. The framework provides reasoning for explicit decision-making in the face of an actual drug shortage. Moreover, it minimizes bias that might occur when individual clinicians or institutions are forced to make bedside rationing and prioritization decisions and addresses the challenge that individual clinicians face when confronted with bedside decisions regarding allocation. Whenever possible, allocation decisions should be supported by evidence-based recommendations. "Curability," prognosis, and the incremental importance of a particular drug to a given patient's outcome are the critical factors to consider when deciding how to allocate scarce life-saving cancer drugs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Valuing lives and allocating resources: a defense of the modified youngest first principle of scarce resource distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallman, Ruth

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, I argue that the 'modified youngest first' principle provides a morally appropriate criterion for making decisions regarding the distribution of scarce medical resources, and that it is morally preferable to the simple 'youngest first' principle. Based on the complete lives system's goal of maximizing complete lives rather than individual life episodes, I argue that essential to the value we see in complete lives is the first person value attributed by the experiencer of that life. For a life to be 'complete' or 'incomplete,' the subject of that life must be able to understand the concept of a complete life, to have started goals and projects, and to know what it would be for that life to be complete. As the very young are not able to do this, it can reasonably be said that their characteristically human lives have not yet begun, giving those accepting a complete lives approach good reason to accept the modified youngest first principle over a simple 'youngest first' approach. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assessing the Pathogenic Ability of Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum (Ralstonia solanacearum Phylotype I from Ornamental Rosa spp. Plants

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    Napoleon N. A. Tjou-Tam-Sin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum (Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype I isolates found in stunted, yellowing, and wilted ornamental rose (Rosa spp. were assessed for their pathogenic ability in two rose cultivars (cv. “Armando” and cv. “Red Naomi” and in four solanaceous crops: tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. “Money Maker”, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. “White Burley”, eggplant (Solanum melongena cv. “Black Beauty” and sweet pepper (Capsicum annum cv. “Yolo Wonder”. Significant differences were observed in susceptibility between the two rose cultivars as well as between the two modes of inoculation performed. The cultivar “Armando” was significantly more susceptible than cultivar “Red Naomi,” exhibiting higher disease severity and incidence. Similarly, stem inoculation after wounding was found to be significantly more effective than soil drenching, resulting in higher disease severity. Additionally, a temperature dependency in susceptibility was observed for both cultivars irrespective of the mode of inoculation, however, this was significantly more pronounced upon soil drenching. The solanaceous crops all showed to be susceptible to the R. pseudosolanacearum isolates originated from the Rosa spp. plants. Furthermore, both rose cultivars were able to harbor symptomless infections with other R. pseudosolanacearum and R. solanacearum isolates than those isolated from rose. Our results clearly demonstrated that latent infections in a rose cultivar such as cv. “Red Naomi” do occur even at temperatures as low as 20°C. This latency poses high risks for the entire floricultural industry as latently infected Rosa spp. plants are propagated and distributed over various continents, including areas where climatic conditions are optimal for the pathogen.

  8. Evaluation of Selected Ornamental Asteraceae as a Pollen Source for Urban Bees

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    Wróblewska Anna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Offering more floral resources for urban bees can be achieved by growing ornamental bee plants. The aim of the present study was to evaluate selected Asteraceae (Calendula officinalis ‘Persimmon Beauty’ and ‘Santana’, Centaurea macrocephala, Cosmos sulphureus, Dahlia pinnata, Tagetes patula, Tithonia rotundifolia, and Zinnia elegans as pollen sources for pollinators. Under urban conditions in Lublin, SE Poland, the investigated plants flowered from late June to the end of October. The mass of pollen produced in florets and capitula was found to be species-related. The highest pollen amounts per 10 florets (10.1 mg as well as per capitulum (249.7 mg were found for C. macrocephala. The mass of pollen yielded by a single plant depended on both the pollen mass delivered per disk florets and the proportion of disk florets in capitulum, and the flowering abundance of the plants. A single plant of D. pinnata and a single plant of T. rotundifolia each produced the largest pollen mass. Mean pollen yield per 1m2 of a plot ranged from 6.2 g (Z. elegans to 60.7 g (D. pinnata. Pollen grains are tricolporate, with echinate exine, medium or small in size. They can be categorised as oblatespherical, spherical, and prolatespherical. The principal visitors to C. macrocephala, C. sulphureus, and C. officinalis were honey bees, whereas bumble bees dominated on T. rotundifolia and D. pinnata. A magnet plant for butterflies was Z. elegans. Among the investigated species, D. pinnata, C. macrocephala, and T. rotundifolia were found to be the most valuable sources of pollen flow for managed and wild bees.

  9. Liquid Nitrogen (-196°C effect under pollen of some cultured or ornamental species

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    Sabina GLIGOR

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The criopreservation involve the stock of the vegetal material at low temperatures (-196°C in liquid nitrogen, in thermal conditions in which the division of cells and metabolic processes slow down, thus that the samplings may be conserved for long periods without suffering any genetic modifications. This stock technique is applied till present only on 80 vegetal species, keeping their seeds and vitrocultures preponderantly; researches were made regarding the maintenance of pollen in liquid nitrogen.The mature pollen, able to resist a higher degree of desiccation, may be conserved at low temperatures, without criopreservation. It was made researches on criopreservation of rise, maize, wheat, roses, sun flower and soy pollen. Our study purpose was to follow the impact of liquid nitrogen (-196°C about on viability of some cultured and ornamental species. The designed time of criopreservation it was 30 minutes and 7 days, using the TTC (tripheniltetrazole chloride method which allows testing the viability of vegetal material based on dehydrogenase activity.It was observed at Petunia hybrida species, that the pollen viability was low - in relevance with the witness represented from the pollen which was not resigned to the nitrogen liquid treatment - between percentage limits of 3.5-8%, in the case when the vegetal material was submersed 30 minutes in liquid nitrogen and 7.5-14.5% 7 days at (-196°C. The submersing of Nicotiana alata var. grandiflora species at 7 days, determined a low viability with 11.53%. The following two studied species Cucurbita and Hosta were proved to be the most resistant at submersing and maintenance in liquid nitrogen. The most affected pollen was Campsis radicans species. At Datura stramonium species was observed 2.59% a low viability of pollen, after 30 minutes of liquid nitrogen treatment, was 19.56%, after 7 days of submersing, the most pollen granules losing completely their viability.

  10. Invasion risks posed by ornamental freshwater fish trade to southeastern Brazilian rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Lincoln Barroso de Magalhães

    Full Text Available A model was developed to assess the risk of invasion of ornamental non-native fishes to six rivers in the state of Minas Gerais, southeastern Brazil, with focus on species popularity. Thirty-nine aquarium shops, in six cities, were visited monthly from January to December 2007. In each city, fish species were identified, and their biology and invasion history information was obtained from the literature. We calculated the annual frequency of occurrence and average number of specimens monthly available in stores. Quarterly water temperature and dissolved oxygen data from 1997 to 2007 were obtained for the Velhas, Muriaé, Uberabinha, Sapucaí-Mirim, Doce and Todos os Santos Rivers from public databases. The invasion risk of each species was assessed through a model comprising nine parameters grouped in four variables: (i Invasiveness (thermal and dissolved oxygen ranges, diet, parental care or fecundity, (ii History of invasions (establishment, (iii Propagule pressure (commercial success, comprising annual frequency of occurrence and number of specimens available monthly at stores, and (iv Invasibility (water temperature and dissolved oxygen in the target river compatible with the species ranges. Of the 345 ornamental fish species for sale, 332 are non-native to either Minas Gerais (n = 151 or Brazil (n = 194. Based on the proposed cutting values, in particular the compatibility between species and recipient thermal ranges, five ornamental non-native species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, Xiphophorus hellerii, Poecilia reticulata, and P. latipinna can potentially invade the Velhas and Muriaé Rivers, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. helleri, and P. reticulata the Uberabinha River, four species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus, Carassius auratus, X. maculatus, and P. reticulata the Sapucaí-Mirim River, three species (Carassius auratus, X. hellerii, and P. reticulata the Doce River, and three species (Cyprinus rubrofuscus

  11. Assessing food security in water scarce regions by Life Cycle Analysis: a case study in the Gaza strip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanati, Francesca; Castelletti, Andrea; Melià, Paco; Dotelli, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Food security is a major issue in Palestine for both political and physical reasons, with direct effects on the local population living conditions: the nutritional level of people in Gaza is classified by FAO as "insecure". As most of the protein supply comes from irrigated agricultural production and aquaculture, freshwater availability is a limiting factor to food security, and the primary reason for frequent conflicts among food production processes (e.g. aquaculture, land livestock or different types of crops). In this study we use Life Cycle Analysis to assess the environmental impacts associated to all the stages of water-based protein production (from agriculture and aquaculture) in the Gaza strip under different agricultural scenarios and hydroclimatic variability. As reported in several recent studies, LCA seems to be an appropriate methodology to analyze agricultural systems and assess associated food security in different socio-economic contexts. However, we argue that the inherently linear and static nature of LCA might prove inadequate to tackle with the complex interaction between water cycle variability and the food production system in water-scarce regions of underdeveloped countries. Lack of sufficient and reliable data to characterize the water cycle is a further source of uncertainty affecting the robustness of the analysis. We investigate pros and cons of LCA and LCA-based option planning in an average size farm in Gaza strip, where farming and aquaculture are family-based and integrated by reuse of fish breeding water for irrigation. Different technological solutions (drip irrigation system, greenhouses etc.) are evaluated to improve protein supply and reduce the pressure on freshwater, particularly during droughts. But this use of technology represent also a contribution in increasing sustainability in agricultural processes, and therefore in economy, of Gaza Strip (reduction in chemical fertilizers and pesticides etc.).

  12. Development of a hydrogeological conceptual wetland model in the data-scarce north-eastern region of Kilombero Valley, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghof, Sonja; Gabiri, Geofrey; Stumpp, Christine; Chesnaux, Romain; Reichert, Barbara

    2018-02-01

    Understanding groundwater/surface-water interactions in wetlands is crucial because wetlands provide not only a high potential for agricultural production, but also sensitive and valuable ecosystems. This is especially true for the Kilombero floodplain wetland in Tanzania, which represents a data-scarce region in terms of hydrological and hydrogeological data. A comprehensive approach combining hydrogeological with tracer-based assessments was conducted, in order to develop a conceptual hydrogeological wetland model of the area around the city of Ifakara in the north-eastern region of Kilombero catchment. Within the study site, a heterogeneous porous aquifer, with a range of hydraulic conductivities, is underlain by a fractured-rock aquifer. Groundwater chemistry is mainly influenced by silicate weathering and depends on groundwater residence times related to the hydraulic conductivities of the porous aquifer. Groundwater flows from the hillside to the river during most of the year. While floodwater close to the river is mainly derived from overbank flow of the river, floodwater at a greater distance from the river mainly originates from precipitation and groundwater discharge. Evaporation effects in floodwater increase with increasing distance from the river. In general, the contribution of flood and stream water to groundwater recharge is negligible. In terms of an intensification of agricultural activities in the wetland, several conclusions can be drawn from the conceptual model. Results of this study are valuable as a base for further research related to groundwater/surface-water interactions and the conceptual model can be used in the future to set up numerical flow and transport models.

  13. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, southern Peruvian Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzmann, N.; Huggel, C.; Rohrer, M.; Silverio, W.; Mark, B. G.; Burns, P.; Portocarrero, C.

    2013-01-01

    The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer) tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temporal variability in regions with complex topography. Here, we present an approach on how to deal with these constraints. For the Cordillera Vilcanota (southern Peruvian Andes), which is the second largest glacierized cordillera in Peru (after the Cordillera Blanca) and also comprises the Quelccaya Ice Cap, we assimilate a comprehensive multi-decadal collection of available glacier and climate data from multiple sources (satellite images, meteorological station data and climate reanalysis), and analyze them for respective changes in glacier area and volume and related trends in air temperature, precipitation and in a more general manner for specific humidity. While we found only marginal glacier changes between 1962 and 1985, there has been a massive ice loss since 1985 (about 30% of area and about 45% of volume). These high numbers corroborate studies from other glacierized cordilleras in Peru. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums and probably cannot in full explain the observed substantial ice loss. Therefore, the likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, is further discussed and we conclude that it played a major role in the observed massive ice loss of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades.

  14. Glacier changes and climate trends derived from multiple sources in the data scarce Cordillera Vilcanota region, southern Peruvian Andes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Salzmann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of glaciers as temporal water reservoirs is particularly pronounced in the (outer tropics because of the very distinct wet/dry seasons. Rapid glacier retreat caused by climatic changes is thus a major concern, and decision makers demand urgently for regional/local glacier evolution trends, ice mass estimates and runoff assessments. However, in remote mountain areas, spatial and temporal data coverage is typically very scarce and this is further complicated by a high spatial and temporal variability in regions with complex topography. Here, we present an approach on how to deal with these constraints. For the Cordillera Vilcanota (southern Peruvian Andes, which is the second largest glacierized cordillera in Peru (after the Cordillera Blanca and also comprises the Quelccaya Ice Cap, we assimilate a comprehensive multi-decadal collection of available glacier and climate data from multiple sources (satellite images, meteorological station data and climate reanalysis, and analyze them for respective changes in glacier area and volume and related trends in air temperature, precipitation and in a more general manner for specific humidity. While we found only marginal glacier changes between 1962 and 1985, there has been a massive ice loss since 1985 (about 30% of area and about 45% of volume. These high numbers corroborate studies from other glacierized cordilleras in Peru. The climate data show overall a moderate increase in air temperature, mostly weak and not significant trends for precipitation sums and probably cannot in full explain the observed substantial ice loss. Therefore, the likely increase of specific humidity in the upper troposphere, where the glaciers are located, is further discussed and we conclude that it played a major role in the observed massive ice loss of the Cordillera Vilcanota over the past decades.

  15. Diagnostic Yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage Gene Xpert in Smear-Negative and Sputum-Scarce Pulmonary Tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalil, K. F.; Butt, T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To measure the diagnostic yield of Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) gene Xpert (Xpert MTB/RIF assay), to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and rifampicin resistance and compare it with that of mycobacterial cultures in a suspected case of pulmonary tuberculosis. Study Design: An analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pulmonology, Fauji Foundation Hospital (FFH), Rawalpindi, from December 2012 to August 2013. Methodology: BAL specimens of 93 patients with suspected pulmonary tuberculosis with smear-negative or sputumscarce disease, who presented to the Department of Pulmonology, FFH, Rawalpindi were inducted. A smear-negative case was one in whom three consecutive early morning sputum samples did not reveal acid fast bacilli when examined by microscopy with Zeihl Nelson (ZN) stain. Patients who had sputum amount less than 1 ml were defined to have sputumscarce disease. The same was evaluated with ZN stain, gene Xpert and mycobacterial cultures. Sensitivity analysis was carried out using culture as the gold standard. Results: The frequency of positive mycobacterial cultures was 85 (91.4%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive values of BAL gene Xpert to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis were 91.86%, 71.42%, 97.53% and 41.66% respectively. Xpert MTB/RIF assay had a sensitivity and specificity of 83.33% and 100% to detect rifampicin resistance. Conclusion: Bronchoalveolar lavage gene Xpert had a superior diagnostic yield in patients with either smear-negative or sputum-scarce pulmonary tuberculosis. Hence a positive Xpert MTB/RIF assay may be a useful adjunct to diagnosis and detection of MDR-TB in bronchoalveolar lavage specimens. (author)

  16. Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: additional evidence on the use of personal ornaments in the Middle Paleolithic of North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Barton, Nick; Bouzouggar, Abdeljalil; Mienis, Henk; Richter, Daniel; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; McPherron, Shannon P; Lozouet, Pierre

    2009-09-22

    Recent investigations into the origins of symbolism indicate that personal ornaments in the form of perforated marine shell beads were used in the Near East, North Africa, and SubSaharan Africa at least 35 ka earlier than any personal ornaments in Europe. Together with instances of pigment use, engravings, and formal bone tools, personal ornaments are used to support an early emergence of behavioral modernity in Africa, associated with the origin of our species and significantly predating the timing for its dispersal out of Africa. Criticisms have been leveled at the low numbers of recovered shells, the lack of secure dating evidence, and the fact that documented examples were not deliberately shaped. In this paper, we report on 25 additional shell beads from four Moroccan Middle Paleolithic sites. We review their stratigraphic and chronological contexts and address the issue of these shells having been deliberately modified and used. We detail the results of comparative analyses of modern, fossil, and archaeological assemblages and microscopic examinations of the Moroccan material. We conclude that Nassarius shells were consistently used for personal ornamentation in this region at the end of the last interglacial. Absence of ornaments at Middle Paleolithic sites postdating Marine Isotope Stage 5 raises the question of the possible role of climatic changes in the disappearance of this hallmark of symbolic behavior before its reinvention 40 ka ago. Our results suggest that further inquiry is necessary into the mechanisms of cultural transmission within early Homo sapiens populations.

  17. Knowledge Sharing is Knowledge Creation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greve, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge sharing and knowledge transfer are important to knowledge communication. However when groups of knowledge workers engage in knowledge communication activities, it easily turns into mere mechanical information processing despite other ambitions. This article relates literature of knowledge...... communication and knowledge creation to an intervention study in a large Danish food production company. For some time a specific group of employees uttered a wish for knowledge sharing, but it never really happened. The group was observed and submitted to metaphor analysis as well as analysis of co...

  18. Knowledge Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999

    The first of the four papers in this symposium, "Knowledge Management and Knowledge Dissemination" (Wim J. Nijhof), presents two case studies exploring the strategies companies use in sharing and disseminating knowledge and expertise among employees. "A Theory of Knowledge Management" (Richard J. Torraco), develops a conceptual…

  19. Impact of exogenous salicylic acid on growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula (Calendula officinalis L. under salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayat H.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Application of salicylic acid (SA as a phytohormone has been increased due to resistance to stresses such as salt stress. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the effect of exogenous salicylic acid application on growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula grown under salt stress and greenhouse conditions. For this purpose a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design was conducted with 3 levels of SA (0 (control, 1, 2 mM and 3 levels of NaCl (0, 100 and 200 mM with 4 replications. At flowering stage, SA was applied with spraying two times in two week intervals. NaCl was also applied as drench (200 ml per pot in two day intervals. The results showed that salinity decreased the growth, Chlorophyll reading values, flower number per plant and flower diameter. However, foliar applications of SA resulted in greater root, shoot and total dry weight, plant height and leaf area of calendula plants under salt stress. The highest chlorophyll reading values was obtained from 2.00 mM SA application in all NaCl treatments. Salinity decreased number of flower per plant and flower diameter as ornamental characteristics; however SA increased them under salinity stress. Plants treated with 1.00 mM SA had the highest flower diameter at 100 and 200 mM of NaCl. Electrolyte leakage increased by salinity, however foliar application of SA significantly reduced electrolyte leakage under salt stress. Based on the present results, foliar application of SA treatments can ameliorate the negative effects of salinity on the growth and ornamental characteristics of calendula plants.

  20. Composting of wine industry wastes and their use as a substrate for growing soil less ornamental plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, E.; Moreno, M. T.; Aviles, M.; Ordovas, J.

    2012-11-01

    To study the process of composting of grape marc and test the resulting compost as a substrate for the cultivation of ornamental plants, six composting processes, with mixtures of dealcoholised grapevine marc and grape stalk (DM + GS) in a 1:1 ratio (v:v), were carried out in Seville (Spain) between 2000 and 2006. The duration of the composting ranged between 20 and 24 weeks in the Spring-Summer season. Weekly, temperature, pH, EC, N-NO{sub 3}{sup -} and N-NH{sub 4} +, were measured. The maximum temperatures reached values of 65-73 degree centigrade at a depth between 40 and 80 cm. The compost had a slightly alkaline pH, slightly salinity, high organic matter and total nitrogen contents. The final compost chemical composition in total elements showed values in the same range as those corresponding to plant material, except for Fe. The distribution in the size of the particles gives way to a total porous space that is close to the one considered as optimal in a substrate for soil less cropping. Pore size distribution showed a prevalence of big pores that produces unbalance in the water-air ratios, resulting in a material with a good aeration but with low water retention. The composts were tested as substrates for four ornamental species: geranium, petunia, carnation and gerbera. The results suggest that compost has no limiting characteristics for its use as a medium for the cultivation of ornamental plants in container, and can replace conventional substrates, such as peat and coconut fibre. (Author) 35 refs.

  1. Managing Knowledge

    OpenAIRE

    Connolly, Niall

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a perspective on what knowledge is, why knowledge is important, and how we might encourage good knowledge behaviours. A knowledge management framework is described, and although the framework is project management-centric the basic principles are transferrable to other contexts. From a strategic perspective, knowledge can be considered an asset that has the potential to provide a competitive advantage provided that it has intrinsic value, it is not easily accessible by ...

  2. Clinical presentation and outcome of Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata spider bite: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NP Dinamithra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We report on a 19-year-old boy with visible muscle spasms admitted to the hospitals 24 hours after spider bite. He was treated effectively with intravenous calcium gluconate followed by oral calcium supplements and made a full recovery 48 hours after the incident. Although no specific treatment exists in Srilanka, it has been suggested that calcium supplements may be beneficial to relieve the muscle spasms. Our patient made a full recovery with calcium supplements suggesting the treatment with calcium is beneficial in relieving the pain and muscle spasms caused by Sri-Lankan Ornamental Tarantula Poecilotheria fasciata.

  3. Transcriptome sequence analysis of an ornamental plant, Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, revealed the potential unigenes involved in terpenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Kanakala, S; He, Yehua; Zhang, Junli; Zhong, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    Ananas comosus var. bracteatus (Red Pineapple) is an important ornamental plant for its colorful leaves and decorative red fruits. Because of its complex genome, it is difficult to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth and development. Thus high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is necessary to generate large quantities of transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery and functional genomic studies. The Ananas comosus var. bracteatus transcriptome was sequenced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We obtained a total of 23.5 million high quality sequencing reads, 1,555,808 contigs and 41,052 unigenes. In total 41,052 unigenes of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, 23,275 unigenes were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 23,134 unigenes were annotated in the Swiss-Port database. Out of these, 17,748 and 8,505 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database identified 5,825 unigenes which were mapped to 117 pathways. The assembly predicted many unigenes that were previously unknown. The annotated unigenes were compared against pineapple, rice, maize, Arabidopsis, and sorghum. Unigenes that did not match any of those five sequence datasets are considered to be Ananas comosus var. bracteatus unique. We predicted unigenes encoding enzymes involved in terpenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis. The sequence data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. To our knowledge; this is the first report on the de novo transcriptome sequencing of the Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. Unigenes obtained in this study, may help improve future gene expression, genetic and genomics studies in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.

  4. Transcriptome sequence analysis of an ornamental plant, Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, revealed the potential unigenes involved in terpenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ma

    Full Text Available Ananas comosus var. bracteatus (Red Pineapple is an important ornamental plant for its colorful leaves and decorative red fruits. Because of its complex genome, it is difficult to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth and development. Thus high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is necessary to generate large quantities of transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery and functional genomic studies.The Ananas comosus var. bracteatus transcriptome was sequenced by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. We obtained a total of 23.5 million high quality sequencing reads, 1,555,808 contigs and 41,052 unigenes. In total 41,052 unigenes of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, 23,275 unigenes were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 23,134 unigenes were annotated in the Swiss-Port database. Out of these, 17,748 and 8,505 unigenes were assigned to gene ontology categories and clusters of orthologous groups, respectively. Functional annotation against Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Pathway database identified 5,825 unigenes which were mapped to 117 pathways. The assembly predicted many unigenes that were previously unknown. The annotated unigenes were compared against pineapple, rice, maize, Arabidopsis, and sorghum. Unigenes that did not match any of those five sequence datasets are considered to be Ananas comosus var. bracteatus unique. We predicted unigenes encoding enzymes involved in terpenoid and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis.The sequence data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. To our knowledge; this is the first report on the de novo transcriptome sequencing of the Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. Unigenes obtained in this study, may help improve future gene expression, genetic and genomics studies in Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.

  5. A statistical data assimilation method for seasonal streamflow forecasting to optimize hydropower reservoir management in data-scarce regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, R.; Mai, J.; Latraverse, M.; Tolson, B.

    2017-12-01

    Probabilistic ensemble forecasts generated by the ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) methodology are subject to biases due to errors in the hydrological model's initial states. In day-to-day operations, hydrologists must compensate for discrepancies between observed and simulated states such as streamflow. However, in data-scarce regions, little to no information is available to guide the streamflow assimilation process. The manual assimilation process can then lead to more uncertainty due to the numerous options available to the forecaster. Furthermore, the model's mass balance may be compromised and could affect future forecasts. In this study we propose a data-driven approach in which specific variables that may be adjusted during assimilation are defined. The underlying principle was to identify key variables that would be the most appropriate to modify during streamflow assimilation depending on the initial conditions such as the time period of the assimilation, the snow water equivalent of the snowpack and meteorological conditions. The variables to adjust were determined by performing an automatic variational data assimilation on individual (or combinations of) model state variables and meteorological forcing. The assimilation aimed to simultaneously optimize: (1) the error between the observed and simulated streamflow at the timepoint where the forecasts starts and (2) the bias between medium to long-term observed and simulated flows, which were simulated by running the model with the observed meteorological data on a hindcast period. The optimal variables were then classified according to the initial conditions at the time period where the forecast is initiated. The proposed method was evaluated by measuring the average electricity generation of a hydropower complex in Québec, Canada driven by this method. A test-bed which simulates the real-world assimilation, forecasting, water release optimization and decision-making of a hydropower cascade was

  6. Regional variability of farmer decision making and irrigation water use: insights from a data-scarce region of North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keeffe, Jimmy; Buytaert, Wouter; Brozović, Nick; Mijic, Ana

    2014-05-01

    Over the last fifty years, changes in agriculture brought about by the Green Revolution have transformed India from a famine-prone, drought-susceptible country into the worlds' third largest grain producer and one of the most intensively irrigated parts of the globe. Regionally, cheap energy, subsidised seeds and fertilisers, and in some areas Government purchase guarantees for grain promote the intensification of farming. While this allows farmers to survive, it also aggravates the drain agriculture is having on resources, particularly energy and water. Analysis at a regional scale, however, masks the considerable spatial variability that exists on a more localised level and must be taken into consideration to understand correctly aggregate system response to policy, hydrologic, and climatic change. In this study we present and analyse the results from over 100 farmer interviews conducted in the data-scarce districts of Jalaun and Sitapur on the Gangetic Plains of Uttar Pradesh during the post monsoon period of 2013. Variables such as the volumes and timing of irrigation water applied, sources of water, methods of abstraction and irrigation, and costs incurred are mapped, using qualitative data analysis and GIS. Large differences between the districts emerge, for instance in the region of Jalaun where cheaper canal water is available in addition to groundwater. This has enabled farmers to afford more water efficient technologies such as sprinklers, a practice not found in Sitapur which depends almost exclusively on more expensive diesel pumps. Results are used to delineate the spatial variability in water use practices, along with farmer behaviour and decision making. The primary data are compared with socio-economic information taken from regionally produced statistical abstracts. The combined data are used to identify the main drivers that influence farmer decision-making, which is in turn leading to groundwater overdraught in many parts of North India. Finally

  7. Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    The concept of knowledge management has, indeed, become a buzzword that every single organization is expected to practice and live by. Knowledge management is about managing the organization's knowledge for the common good of the organization -but practicing knowledge management is not as simple...... as that. This article focuses on knowledge sharing as the process seeking to reduce the resources spent on reinventing the wheel.The article introduces the concept of time sensitiveness; i.e. that knowledge is either urgently needed, or not that urgently needed. Furthermore, knowledge sharing...... is considered as either a push or pull system. Four strategies for sharing knowledge - help, post-it, manuals and meeting, and advice are introduced. Each strategy requires different channels for sharing knowledge. An empirical analysis in a production facility highlights how the strategies can be practiced....

  8. Evaluation of inhaled and cutaneous doses of imidacloprid during stapling ornamental plants in tunnels or greenhouses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprea, Cristina; Lunghini, Liana; Banchi, Bruno; Peruzzi, Antonio; Centi, Letizia; Coppi, Luana; Bogi, Mirella; Marianelli, Enrico; Fantacci, Mariella; Catalano, Pietro; Benvenuti, Alessandra; Miligi, Lucia; Sciarra, Gianfranco

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this research was to assess dermal and respiratory exposure of workers to imidacloprid during manual operations with ornamental plants previously treated in greenhouses or tunnels. A total of 10 female workers, 5 in greenhouses and 5 in tunnels, were monitored for 3 or 5 consecutive days. Actual skin contamination, excluding hands, was evaluated using nine filter paper pads placed directly on the skin. To evaluate the efficacy of protective clothing in reducing occupational exposure we also placed four pads on top of the outer clothing. Hand contamination was evaluated by washing with 95% ethanol. Respiratory exposure was evaluated by personal air sampling. Respiratory dose was calculated on the basis of a lung ventilation of 15 l/min. Absorbed doses were calculated assuming a skin penetration of 10% and a respiratory retention of 100%. Dislodgeable foliar residues (DFRs) were determined during the days of re-entry in order to determine the dermal transfer factor. From the dependence of dermal exposure of hands from DFRs, a mean transfer factor was estimated to be 36.4 cm(2)/h. Imidacloprid was determined by liquid chromatography with selective mass detection and electrospray interface in all matrices analysed. Respiratory dose was 4.1+/-4.0 (0.1-14.3)% and 3.0+/-2.0 (0.6-6.9)% (mean+/-SD (range)) of the total real dose during work in tunnels and greenhouses, respectively. The estimated absorbed doses, 0.29+/-0.45 microg/kg (0.06-2.25 microg/kg) body weight and 0.32+/-0.18 microg/kg (0.07-0.66 microg/kg) body weight (mean+/-SD (range)) in tunnels and in greenhouses, respectively, were less than the acceptable operator exposure level of 0.15 mg/kg body weight and than the acceptable daily intake of 0.05 mg/kg body weight. The hands and exposed skin of all workers were found to be contaminated, indicating that greater precautions, such as daily changing of gloves and clothing, are necessary to reduce skin exposure.

  9. Knowledge management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Mahnke, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Knowledge management has emerged as a very successful organization practice and has beenextensively treated in a large body of academic work. Surprisingly, however, organizationaleconomics (i.e., transaction cost economics, agency theory, team theory and property rightstheory) has played no role...... in the development of knowledge management. We argue thatorganizational economics insights can further the theory and practice of knowledge managementin several ways. Specifically, we apply notions of contracting, team production,complementaries, hold-up, etc. to knowledge management issues (i.e., creating...... and integrationknowledge, rewarding knowledge workers, etc.) , and derive refutable implications that are novelto the knowledge management field from our discussion....

  10. The effect of silicon foliar application on the development of Season ornamental plants. Part II: Argyranthemum frutescens 'Blazer Rose', Xerochrysum bracteatum 'Gold', Osteospermum ecklonis 'Grande Pink Blush' and Gaura lindheimeri 'Corinas Choice'

    OpenAIRE

    Katarzyna Wróblewska; Regina Dębicz

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has proved that supplementary application of silicon, involved in plant tolerance against many stress factors, positively influences plant development improving the quality of ornamental plants. A two-factorial experiment involved four cultivars of ornamental plants: Argyranthemum frutescens 'Blazer Rose', Xerochrysum bracteatum 'Gold', Osteospermum ecklonis 'Grande Pink Blush', and Gaura lindheimeri 'Corinas Choice' The first experimental factor was the concentration of Actis...

  11. Skin lipids of the striped plateau lizard ( Sceloporus virgatus) correlate with female receptivity and reproductive quality alongside visual ornaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Jay K.; Wallace, Alisa K.; Weiss, Stacey L.

    2017-10-01

    Sex pheromones can perform a variety of functions ranging from revealing the location of suitable mates to being honest signals of mate quality, and they are used in the mate selection process by many species of reptile. In this study, we determined whether the skin lipids of female striped plateau lizards ( Sceloporus virgatus) can predict the reproductive quality of females, thereby having the potential to serve as pheromones. Using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, we identified 17 compounds present in skin lipids of female lizards. Using principal component analysis to compare the skin lipid profile of receptive and non-receptive females, we determined that an uncharacterized compound may allow for chemical identification of receptive mates. We also compared extracted principal components to measures of female fitness and reproductive qualities and found that the level of two 18 carbon fatty acids present in a female's skin lipids may indicate her clutch size. Finally, we compared the information content of the skin lipids to that of female-specific color ornaments to assess whether chemical and visual cues transmit different information or not. We found that the chroma of a female's orange throat patch is also related to her clutch size, suggesting that chemical signals may reinforce the information communicated by visual ornamentation in this species which would support the "backup signals" hypothesis for multiple signals.

  12. Ornamental Marine Species Culture in the Coral Triangle: Seahorse Demonstration Project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Susan L.; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R. Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O.; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Ornamental marine species (`OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse ( Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

  13. Detection of Tospoviruses in Ornamental Plants in Hobby Gardens and Landscaping Areas in Adalar District of Istanbul Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Şafak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to detect Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, Irish yellow spot virus (IYSV and Impatients necrotic spot virus (INSV in ornamental plants growing in hobby gardens and landscaping areas in Adalar district (Büyükada, Heybeliada, Kınalıada and Burgazada of Istanbul province between 2015 and 2016. During the surveys carried out in that district, the samples were collected from both simptomatologically suspicious ornamental plants and the plants which did not show any symptoms. All of the collected samples (n=150 were firstly tested by Double Antibody Sandwich (DAS ELISA and none of the samples were found to be infected with TSWV and INSV. The samples detected to be positive with IYSV by ELISA tests were then used in RT-PCR studies. At the RT-PCR using the IYSV-465c; IYSV-239f primer pair, a band with a size of 240 bp was observed for Pittosporum tobira and Hydrangea macrophylla. Therefore, the presence of IYSV infection in Adalar was also confirmed molecularly.

  14. Histopathology and culturable bacteria associated with "big belly" and "skin nodule" syndromes in ornamental Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, H T; Senapin, S; Phiwsaiya, K; Techatanakitarnan, C; Dokladda, K; Ruenwongsa, P; Panijpan, B

    2018-06-02

    The Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) is one of the popular aquarium ornamental fish in the global trade. Large numbers of ornamental fish farmed in central Thailand suffered from two common syndromes; preliminarily named skin nodule syndrome (SNS) and big belly syndrome (BBS): they showed noticeable clinical signs of abnormal appearances resulting in depressed saleability. Since very few specifics are known about causative agents of these syndromes, this study aimed at investigating histopathological features and culturable bacteria associated with these fish infected in the process of farming. Histopathologically, SNS fish consistently exhibited necrosis and severe melanization in the muscles and multiple internal organs. Whereas BBS fish exhibited either typical granulomas or tissue damage associated with acid-fast stained bacteria and Gram negative bacteria, respectively. Six different Gram negative bacterial species were recovered from BBS fish while 23 bacterial species belonging to 14 genera were recovered from fish suffering from SNS. Most of the culturable bacteria are new to betta fish and some of them are known to be marine bacteria, suggesting possible entry route via a contaminated live feed, commercial Artemia shrimp. The true causative agents of these syndromes remain unclear. However, histopathological changes and existence of a wide range of bacteria associated with the naturally diseased fish suggest involvement of multiple bacterial infections. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nutrient uptake from liquid digestate using ornamental aquatic macrophytes (Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, Typha latifolia) in a constructed wetland system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediviani, W.; Priadi, C. R.; Moersidik, S. S.

    2018-05-01

    Indonesia has implemented energy recovery from organic (food) waste by anaerobic digestion method, but the digestate was commonly treated only by composting, and still as a separated treatment (not integrated into a resource recovery system). Whilst not getting any pretreatment, the digestate was disposed to the environment and then act as a pollutant. Yet it contains nutrients which could be recovered as a nutrient source for plants. The study was about how ornamental aquatic macrophytes could uptake nitrogen from liquid digestate in a constructed wetland method. Canna indica, Iris pseudacorus, and Typha latifolia were the experimented ornamental aquatic macrophytes used to uptake the nutrient (nitrogen—N) from liquid digestate. The study showed that the highest N uptake was done by C. indica (25.1%) which has the highest biomass increment as well (80.5%). Effluent quality improvement also shown by N removal by C. indica (68.5—76.4% TN), I. pseudacorus (61.8—71.3% TN), and T. latifolia (61.6—74.5%). This research proved that C. indica has the performance for the N uptake, best N removal efficiency, with a great growth rate as well. This system using C. indica could also improve the water quality of the effluent and add the aesthetic of environment.

  16. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ML Martins

    Full Text Available In the present work Trichodina reticulata and T. nobilis (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae are morphologically characterised from ornamental freshwater fish culture in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The prevalence of infection and a list of comparative measurements are discussed. We examined "southern platyfish" Xiphophorus maculatus (n = 35, "goldfish" Carassius auratus (n = 31, "guppy" Poecilia reticulata (n = 20, "sailfin molly" Poecilia latipinna (n = 6, "beta" Betta splendens (n = 2 and "spotted headstander" Chilodus punctatus (n = 1. After being anesthetised in a benzocaine solution, fishes were examined for parasitological evaluation. A total of 51.57% fishes were parasitised by Trichodina spp. Carassius auratus was the most parasitised species, followed by X. maculatus and P. reticulata. Beta splendens, C. punctatus and P. latipinna were not parasitised by any trichodinid species. Two species of Trichodina were collected from the skin of fish: T. nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed.

  17. Autonomous construction using scarce resources in unknown environments - Ingredients for an intelligent robotic interaction with the physical world

    OpenAIRE

    Magnenat, Stéphane; Philippsen, Roland; Mondada, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    The goal of creating machines that autonomously perform useful work in a safe, robust and intelligent manner continues to motivate robotics research. Achieving this autonomy requires capabilities for understanding the environment, physically interacting with it, predicting the outcomes of actions and reasoning with this knowledge. Such intelligent physical interaction was at the centre of early robotic investigations and remains an open topic. In this paper, we build on the fruit of decades ...

  18. Uncovering genes and ploidy involved in the high diversity in root hair density, length and response to local scarce phosphate in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus G Stetter

    Full Text Available Plant root hairs increase the root surface to enhance the uptake of sparingly soluble and immobile nutrients, such as the essential nutrient phosphorus, from the soil. Here, root hair traits and the response to scarce local phosphorus concentration were studied in 166 accessions of Arabidopsis thaliana using split plates. Root hair density and length were correlated, but highly variable among accessions. Surprisingly, the well-known increase in root hair density under low phosphorus was mostly restricted to genotypes that had less and shorter root hairs under P sufficient conditions. By contrast, several accessions with dense and long root hairs even had lower hair density or shorter hairs in local scarce phosphorus. Furthermore, accessions with whole-genome duplications developed more dense but phosphorus-insensitive root hairs. The impact of genome duplication on root hair density was confirmed by comparing tetraploid accessions with their diploid ancestors. Genome-wide association mapping identified candidate genes potentially involved in root hair responses tp scarce local phosphate. Knock-out mutants in identified candidate genes (CYR1, At1g32360 and RLP48 were isolated and differences in root hair traits in the mutants were confirmed. The large diversity in root hair traits among accessions and the diverse response when local phosphorus is scarce is a rich resource for further functional analyses.

  19. Accessible Knowledge - Knowledge on Accessibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, Inge Mette

    2015-01-01

    Although serious efforts are made internationally and nationally, it is a slow process to make our physical environment accessible. In the actual design process, architects play a major role. But what kinds of knowledge, including research-based knowledge, do practicing architects make use of when...... designing accessible environments? The answer to the question is crucially important since it affects how knowledge is distributed and how accessibility can be ensured. In order to get first-hand knowledge about the design process and the sources from which they gain knowledge, 11 qualitative interviews...... were conducted with architects with experience of designing for accessibility. The analysis draws on two theoretical distinctions. The first is research-based knowledge versus knowledge used by architects. The second is context-independent knowledge versus context-dependent knowledge. The practitioners...

  20. Powdery mildew of ornamental species caused by Oidiopsis haplophylli in Brazil Oídio em plantas ornamentais, causado por Oidiopsis haplophylli, no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ailton Reis

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Oidiopsis haplophylli (syn. Oidiopsis sicula was identified as the causal agent of powdery mildew diseases occurring on five ornamental species in Brazil. This disease was observed in plastic house-grown lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum: Gentianaceae, in nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus: Tropaeolaceae cultivated under open field conditions and in greenhouse-grown calla lily (Zantedeschia aethiopica: Araceae, impatiens (Impatiens balsamina: Balsaminaceae and balloon plant (Asclepias physocarpa: Asclepiadaceae. Typical disease symptoms consisted of chlorotic areas on the upper leaf surface corresponding to a fungal colony in the abaxial surface. With the disease progression, these chlorotic areas eventually turned to necrotic (brown lesions. Fungi morphology on all hosts was similar to that described for the imperfect stage of Leveillula taurica (O. haplophylli. The Koch's postulates were fulfilled by inoculating symptom-free plants via leaf-to-leaf contact with fungal colonies. Additional inoculations using an isolate of O. haplophylli from sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum demonstrated that it is pathogenic to all five species belonging to distinct botanical families, indicating lack of host specialization. This is the first formal report of a powdery mildew disease on lisianthus, calla lilly, impatiens and nasturtium in Brazil. It is, to our knowledge, the first report of O. haplophyllii infecting A. physocarpa, extending the host range of this atypical powdery mildew-inducing fungus. This disease might become important on these ornamental crops especially in protected cultivation and also under field conditions in hot and dry areas of Brazil.O fungo Oidiopsis haplophylli (= O. sicula foi identificado como sendo o agente causal de uma nova doença do tipo oídio em beijo-de-frade (Impatiens balsamina: Balsaminaceae, capuchinha (Tropaeolum majus: Tropaeolaceae, copo-de-leite (Zantedeschia aethiopica: Araceae, lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum

  1. Knowledge spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Doignon, Jean-Paul

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge spaces offer a rigorous mathematical foundation for various practical systems of knowledge assessment. An example is offered by the ALEKS system (Assessment and LEarning in Knowledge Spaces), a software for the assessment of mathematical knowledge. From a mathematical standpoint, knowledge spaces generalize partially ordered sets. They are investigated both from a combinatorial and a stochastic viewpoint. The results are applied to real and simulated data. The book gives a systematic presentation of research and extends the results to new situations. It is of interest to mathematically oriented readers in education, computer science and combinatorics at research and graduate levels. The text contains numerous examples and exercises and an extensive bibliography.

  2. Protecting knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sofka, Wolfgang; de Faria, Pedro; Shehu, Edlira

    2018-01-01

    Most firms use secrecy to protect their knowledge from potential imitators. However, the theoretical foundations for secrecy have not been well explored. We extend knowledge protection literature and propose theoretical mechanisms explaining how information visibility influences the importance...... of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument. Building on mechanisms from information economics and signaling theory, we postulate that secrecy is more important for protecting knowledge for firms that have legal requirements to reveal information to shareholders. Furthermore, we argue that this effect...... and a firm's investment in fixed assets. Our findings inform both academics and managers on how firms balance information disclosure requirements with the use of secrecy as a knowledge protection instrument....

  3. The Antikythera mechanism: A remnant of the ancient knowledge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, B.; Garcia, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    We tend to believe that in ancient times the scientific knowledge were scarce and sometimes arises something in history which exceeds our expectations and denies it. This is the case of the protagonist of this article, the Antikythera mechanism, an instrument that has allowed us to better understand those prodigious minds of our ancestors. (Author)

  4. Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Kiran

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study covers the knowledge management (KM in institutions of higher technical education (IHTEs from the perspective of thought leaders and junior academia to identify whether there is a difference of opinion regarding KM strategies, including knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, knowledge dissemination, and KM-based framework for research and curriculum development (CD. Data have been collected through structured questionnaire from 141 respondents covering 30 higher educational institutions in India, including national- and state-level institutions—Designations of the targeted respondents in the IHTEs have been categorized into (a senior academia, that is, professors, heads, and associate professors occupying senior management positions, considered to be the institute overseers and thought leaders of KM and (b junior academia consisting of assistant professors and lecturers who are using and also contributing to the KM system. ANOVA has been used to see whether there is a significant difference of opinion among the two groups of knowledge users. The results of the study highlight a significant difference among the two groups regarding knowledge technologies, knowledge acquisition, knowledge storage, and knowledge dissemination. But, there is a consensus regarding KM-based framework for research and CD.

  5. Produção de girassol ornamental com uso de águas salobras em sistema hidropônico NFT Production of ornamental sunflower with use of brackish waters in NFT hydroponic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlo P Maciel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de girassol ornamental 'Sol Vermelho' foram cultivadas em hidroponia com o objetivo de avaliar o uso de águas salobras sobre seu rendimento e qualidade da inflorescência. As águas salobras foram usadas para preparar a solução nutritiva e repor as perdas por evapotranspiração. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente aleatorizado com cinco níveis de salinidade da água: 1,51; 2,56; 3,86 e 6,19 dS m-1, obtidos pela adição de NaCl na água doce local (0,47 dS m-1 que também foi usada como testemunha. Cada tratamento foi repetido quatro vezes e cada parcela (com quatro plantas foi construída para simular um sistema independente da técnica do fluxo laminar de nutrientes (NFT. Observou-se uma redução linear causada pelo aumento da salinidade da água sobre a altura das plantas, o diâmetro do caule e a massa da matéria seca da parte aérea. Tanto a altura da planta quanto o diâmetro do caule foram reduzidos em 3,2% e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea foi reduzida em 5,78% (dS m-1-1, para cada acréscimo unitário da salinidade da água (dS m-1. Por outro lado, a salinidade da água não afetou o tamanho do capítulo do girassol e não foram registrados sintomas de toxicidade causados pela salinidade. Esses resultados sustentam a viabilidade técnica do uso de águas salobras para produção hidropônica de girassol ornamental.Plants of ornamental sunflower 'Sol Vermelho' were grown under hydroponic conditions aiming to evaluate the effects of use of brackish water on its yield and inflorescence (capitulum quality. The brackish waters were utilized to prepare nutrient solution and to replace water due to evapotranspiration loss. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized experimental design with five levels of water salinity: 1.51; 2.56; 3.86 and 6.19 dS m-1, obtained by addition of NaCl to local fresh water; this fresh water (0.47 dS m-1 was also studied as control treatment. Each

  6. Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalaf, Maroof A; Abdallah, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The spatial distribution of 50 ornamental fish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11-29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m) were examined in 29 sites (3-8 sites per country). A total of 522,523 fish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA), the most abundant species were Blue green damselfish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%),followed bySea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7), Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyllus aruanus (RA= 2.6%), Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0),Red Sea eightline flasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0),andKlunzinger's wrasse, Thalassoma rueppellii (0.7%). The highest number of species (S) per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8), and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11). The highest mean abundance (8565.8) was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230) was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4) and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6). This study revealed marked differences in the structure of ornamental fish assemblages with latitudinal distribution. The data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of fishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of fish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the reefs. A

  7. Greenhouse energy use in 2011. Tomato, cucumber and ornamental plants; Energianvaendning i vaexthus 2011. Tomat, gurka och prydnadsvaexter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persson, Joergen [Jordbruksverket, Joenkoeping (Sweden)

    2012-11-15

    During the past decade, Swedish greenhouse cultivation has seen a continual structural and energy use transformation. As the number of holdings and the cultivated area has decreased, energy use has been reduced, streamlined and has changed character. The present report is a description of the current energy use pattern in the Swedish greenhouse business, as well as an overview of changes since 2002. The focus lies on the - from an area perspective - major branches: tomato-, cucumber- and ornamental plant cultivation. Between 2002 and 2011, the number of Swedish commercial greenhouse holdings has been reduced by 40 %, while the cultivated area has decreased by 12 %. During the same period, energy consumption for cultivation has been reduced from about 1,2 TWh to just over 0,6 TWh. The relatively large decrease in energy consumption as compared to cultivation area, signifies an increased energy efficiency. For the entire greenhouse cultivation, energy consumption was reduced from 371 to 215 kWh per square meter during the 2002-2011 period. For the specific branches, the decreased amounted to 21 %, 54 % and 58 % for tomato-, cucumber and ornamental plant cultivation, respectively. The use of various energy sources exhibited a distinct alteration between 2002 and 2011. The share of fossil fuels decreased from 77 % of the total energy consumption in 2002, to 43 % in 2011. Meanwhile, the share of biofuels increased from 5 % to 37 % of the energy used. Tomato- and cucumber cultivation exhibited a biofuel share of 55 % and 56 %, respectively, while the use of biofuels in the cultivation of ornamental plants reached 31 %. Holdings exhibiting different energy source use profiles also exhibited some general differences regarding cultivation branch, geographic location, greenhouse size and use of materials. Even as the change in direction towards a higher share of biofuels in the energy mix appears clear, changes on a holding level are more complex. While 95 holdings increased

  8. Spatial distribution of fifty ornamental fish species on coral reefs in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maroof Khalaf

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of 50 ornamental fish species from shallow water habitats on coral reefs were investigated using visual census techniques, between latitudes 11−29°N in the Red Sea, in Jordan, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen, and in the adjacent Gulf of Aden in Djibouti. One hundred eighteen transects (each 100×5 m were examined in 29 sites (3−8 sites per country. A total of 522,523 fish individuals were counted during this survey, with mean abundance of 4428.2 ± 87.26 individual per 500 m² transect. In terms of relative abundance (RA, the most abundant species were Blue green damselfish, Chromis viridis (RA=54.4%, followed by Sea goldie, Pseudanthias squamipinnis (RA= 34.7, Whitetail dascyllus, Dascyllus aruanus (RA= 2.6%, Marginate dascyllus, Dascyllus marginatus (RA= 2.0, Red Sea eightline flasher Paracheilinus octotaenia (RA=1.0, and Klunzinger’s wrasse, Thalassoma rueppellii (0.7%. The highest number of species (S per 500 m² transect was found on reefs at the latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia (S=21.8, and the lowest number of species was found at the latitude 15° in Djibouti (S=11.11. The highest mean abundance (8565.8 was found on reefs at latitude 20° in Saudi Arabia and the lowest mean abundance (230 was found on reefs at latitude 22°, also in Saudi Arabia. Whereas, the highest Shannon-Wiener Diversity Index was found in reefs at the latitude 22° (H`=2.4 and the lowest was found in reefs at the latitude 20° (H`=0.6. This study revealed marked differences in the structure of ornamental fish assemblages with latitudinal distribution. The data support the presence of two major biogeographic groups of fishes in the Red Sea and Gulf of Aden: the southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden group and the group in the northern and central Red Sea. Strong correlations were found between live coral cover and the number of fish species, abundance and Shannon-Wiener Diversity indices, and the strength of these correlations varied among the

  9. Monthly Levels and Criteria Considerations of Nutrient, pH, Alkalinity and Ionic Variables in Runoff Containment Basins in Ornamental Plant Nurseries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triplicate water samples were collected monthly from 9 waterways (8 recycling containment basins (RCBs) and 1 stream) on 4 commercial ornamental plant nurseries from February to July, and from 1 RCB and nursery from April to October. Four RCBs, one per nursery, were actively utilized as an irrigatio...

  10. Review and key for the identification of parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae) of aphids infesting herbaceous and shrubby ornamental plants in southeastern Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kavallieratos, N. G.; Tomanović, Ž.; Petrović, A.; Janković, M.; Starý, Petr; Yovkova, M.; Athanassiou, CH. G.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 106, č. 3 (2013), s. 294-309 ISSN 0013-8746 Grant - others:Ministry of Education , Science, and Technology of the Republic of Serbia(RS) III43001 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Aphidiinae * ornamental * herbs Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.174, year: 2013 http://www.bioone.org/doi/pdf/10.1603/AN12090

  11. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  12. Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) Combined with Soil Solarization for Root-Knot Nematode Control in Vegetable and Ornamental Crops in Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) combined with soil solarization continues to be evaluated for management of plant-parasitic nematodes in vegetable and ornamental crops in Florida. ASD combines organic amendments and soil saturation to stimulate microbial activity and create anaerobic conditions...

  13. Knowledge Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Kerr, Aphra; O Riain, Sean

    2009-01-01

    We examine a number of key questions regarding this knowledge economy. First, we look at the origin of the concept as well as early attempts to define and map the knowledge economy empirically. Second, we examine a variety of perspectives on the socio-spatial organisation of the knowledge economy and approaches which link techno-economic change and social-spatial organisation. Building on a critique of these perspectives, we then go on to develop a view of a knowledge economy that is conteste...

  14. KNOWLEDGE CYCLE AND STRATEGIC KNOWLEDGE WITHIN COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu NICOLESCU

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, a company performs a set of activities focused on knowledge: identifying necessary knowledge, buying knowledge, learning, acquiring knowledge, creating knowledge, storing knowledge, sharing knowledge, using knowledge, protection of knowledge, capitalizing knowledge. As a result, a new function emerge: the knowledge function. In the knowledge-based companies, not every knowledge has the same impact. The analysis of the actual situations in the most developed and highly performing companies - based in knowledge, outlines the occurrence of a new category of knowledge – strategic knowledge. Generating this category of knowledge is a new category of challenge for the scientific system.

  15. Early upper paleolithic shell beads at Üçağızlı Cave I (Turkey): technology and the socioeconomic context of ornament life-histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiner, Mary C; Kuhn, Steven L; Güleç, Erksin

    2013-05-01

    Ten early Upper Paleolithic layers in Üçağızlı Cave I (41-29 uncalibrated ky BP) on the Hatay coast of southern Turkey preserve a rich and varied record of early Upper Paleolithic life, including the production and use of large numbers of shell ornaments. This study examines shell bead production, use, and discard in relation to site function and the diversity of on-site human activities. Four factors are expected to contribute to variation in the ornament assemblages, one environmental and three behavioral. The behavioral factors relate to winnowing for quality as a function of distance from the raw material source, changes in the size of user groups, and symbol standardization. The accumulation rates for shell beads, bones, and stone tools paralleled one another through time, indicating that ornament discard followed the pulse of daily life at this site. All stages of manufacture and use are well represented in each assemblage, and half or more of the ornaments show evidence of extended use. Changes in the local marine environment do not explain much of the variation in the assemblages, pointing instead to behavioral causes. The richness of shell types that were collected as raw material correlates to greater exploitation of edible marine shellfish and greater occupation intensity. Much of this variation in the ornament raw material was eliminated during the manufacture stage, almost certainly reflecting the influence of cultural norms. A focus on basket-shaped shells changed remarkably little over thousands of years, despite significant changes in other domains of technology. This last result suggests that beads were the most irreducible and conservative elements of more complex design traditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficient micropropagation of highly economic, medicinal and ornamental plant Lallemantia iberica (Bieb.) Fisch. and C. A. Mey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Fethi Ahmet; Yildirim, Mehmet Ugur; Pourali Kahriz, Mahsa

    2014-01-01

    Lallemantia iberica (Bieb.) Fisch. and C. A. Mey is high valued annual ornamental and medicinal plant from Lamiaceae family that prefers dry sunny hillsides, roadsides, slopes, and fallow fields over an altitude of 500-2150 m. It bears beautiful white flowers and bloom from April to June each year. This study reports L. iberica micropropagation using cotyledon node explants isolated from 15-day-old in vitro regenerated plantlets. The cotyledon node explants were cultured on MS medium containing 0.50, 1.00 plus 2.00 mg/L BAP, 0.00, 0.01, and 0.02 mg/L NAA. Maximum shoot regeneration was noted on MS medium containing 0.50 mg/L BAP. Well-developed micropropagated shoots were rooted on MS medium containing 1.00 mg/L IBA. The rooted plants were easily hardened in the growth chamber and acclimatised in greenhouse.

  17. 3D Scan of Ornamental Column (huabiao Using Terrestrial LiDAR and Hand-held Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In ancient China, Huabiao was a type of ornamental column used to decorate important buildings. We carried out 3D scan of a Huabiao located in Peking University, China. This Huabiao was built no later than 1742. It is carved by white marble, 8 meters in height. Clouds and various postures of dragons are carved on its body. Two instruments were used to acquire the point cloud of this Huabiao, a terrestrial LiDAR (Riegl VZ-1000 and a hand-held imager (Mantis Vision F5. In this paper, the details of the experiment were described, including the differences between these two instruments, such as working principle, spatial resolution, accuracy, instrument dimension and working flow. The point clouds obtained respectively by these two instruments were compared, and the registered point cloud of Huabiao was also presented. These should be of interest and helpful for the research communities of archaeology and heritage.

  18. Ethnomathematics Exploration of the Toba Community: Elements of Geometry Transformation Contained in Gorga (Ornament on Bataks House)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditasona, C.

    2018-04-01

    Gorga is an ornament known to the Batak community. As one of the works of art that poured in the form of carvings, gorga become icons for batak society. Long before the Batak people knew formal education, they had made gorga. This is evidenced through several historical sources. Gorga not only contains the value of art but also has a mathematical element. There are many mathematical principles used in the process of making gorga. The principle of geometry transformation is very prominent in the gorga motifs. This article is an ethnomathematics research that will discuss how the thinking process in making gorga. Observations and interviews with the gorga craftsmen (pande) are conducted to find out how the principles of rotation, translation, dilation and reflection are used in making gorga motifs

  19. Characteristics of ornamental rocks waste: application of mechanochemical concepts; Caracterizacao de residuos de rochas ornamentais: aplicacao de conceitos mecanoquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, J. dos; Galembeck, F., E-mail: jsquimica@gmail.com [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Quimica

    2016-07-01

    Processing of ornamental rocks produces up to 80% weight residues which become an environmental problem. In this work, we analyzed residual powders from cutting and crushing granite Cinza Corumba, to study the influence of mechanical processes in the properties of the residues. The powders were characterized by X-ray diffraction and fluorescence, infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, surface area determination and adsorption of methylene blue. The same elements and minerals are found in both powders but the powders formed during crushing contain lubricating oil residues, from the crusher. Particle shapes of the crushed powder (surface area 2.85 m2/g) are more irregular than cut powder (surface area 1.98 m2/g). Adsorption of methylene blue is lighter in the crushed powder than in the cutting powder. Thus, the powders analyzed have different surface properties. (author)

  20. The first initiative of DNA barcoding of ornamental plants from Egypt and potential applications in horticulture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O Elansary, Hosam; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Ali, Hayssam M; Yessoufou, Kowiyou

    2017-01-01

    DNA barcoding relies on short and standardized gene regions to identify species. The agricultural and horticultural applications of barcoding such as for marketplace regulation and copyright protection remain poorly explored. This study examines the effectiveness of the standard plant barcode markers (matK and rbcL) for the identification of plant species in private and public nurseries in northern Egypt. These two markers were sequenced from 225 specimens of 161 species and 62 plant families of horticultural importance. The sequence recovery was similar for rbcL (96.4%) and matK (84%), but the number of specimens assigned correctly to the respective genera and species was lower for rbcL (75% and 29%) than matK (85% and 40%). The combination of rbcL and matK brought the number of correct generic and species assignments to 83.4% and 40%, respectively. Individually, the efficiency of both markers varied among different plant families; for example, all palm specimens (Arecaceae) were correctly assigned to species while only one individual of Asteraceae was correctly assigned to species. Further, barcodes reliably assigned ornamental horticultural and medicinal plants correctly to genus while they showed a lower or no success in assigning these plants to species and cultivars. For future, we recommend the combination of a complementary barcode (e.g. ITS or trnH-psbA) with rbcL + matK to increase the performance of taxa identification. By aiding species identification of horticultural crops and ornamental palms, the analysis of the barcode regions will have large impact on horticultural industry.

  1. Phytophthora niederhauserii sp. nov., a polyphagous species associated with ornamentals, fruit trees and native plants in 13 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abad, Z Gloria; Abad, Jorge A; Cacciola, Santa Olga; Pane, Antonella; Faedda, Roberto; Moralejo, Eduardo; Pérez-Sierra, Ana; Abad-Campos, Paloma; Alvarez-Bernaola, Luis A; Bakonyi, József; Józsa, András; Herrero, Maria Luz; Burgess, Treena I; Cunnington, James H; Smith, Ian W; Balci, Yilmaz; Blomquist, Cheryl; Henricot, Béatrice; Denton, Geoffrey; Spies, Chris; Mcleod, Adele; Belbahri, Lassaad; Cooke, David; Kageyama, Koji; Uematsu, Seiji; Kurbetli, Ilker; Değirmenci, Kemal

    2014-01-01

    A non-papillate, heterothallic Phytophthora species first isolated in 2001 and subsequently from symptomatic roots, crowns and stems of 33 plant species in 25 unrelated botanical families from 13 countries is formally described here as a new species. Symptoms on various hosts included crown and stem rot, chlorosis, wilting, leaf blight, cankers and gumming. This species was isolated from Australia, Hungary, Israel, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Norway, South Africa, Spain, Taiwan, Turkey, the United Kingdom and United States in association with shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals grown mainly in greenhouses. The most prevalent hosts are English ivy (Hedera helix) and Cistus (Cistus salvifolius). The association of the species with acorn banksia (Banksia prionotes) plants in natural ecosystems in Australia, in affected vineyards (Vitis vinifera) in South Africa and almond (Prunus dulcis) trees in Spain and Turkey in addition to infection of shrubs and herbaceous ornamentals in a broad range of unrelated families are a sign of a wide ecological adaptation of the species and its potential threat to agricultural and natural ecosystems. The morphology of the persistent non-papillate ellipsoid sporangia, unique toruloid lobate hyphal swellings and amphigynous antheridia does not match any of the described species. Phylogenetic analysis based on sequences of the ITS rDNA, EF-1α, and β-tub supported that this organism is a hitherto unknown species. It is closely related to species in ITS clade 7b with the most closely related species being P. sojae. The name Phytophthora niederhauserii has been used in previous studies without the formal description of the holotype. This name is validated in this manuscript with the formal description of Phytophthora niederhauserii Z.G. Abad et J.A. Abad, sp. nov. The name is coined to honor Dr John S. Niederhauser, a notable plant pathologist and the 1990 World Food Prize laureate. © 2014 by The Mycological Society of America.

  2. Un apéndice ornamental a Reyes en el ms. M1 de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Azcárraga, M. J.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the ornamental masorah of folio 158a of Manuscript M1 allows the author to correct and improve the description made by Ch. D. Ginsburg in his introduction to the Bible. The author indeed agrees on the identification of the text as a masoretic appendix to the books of Kings. However, the beginning and the contents of the manuscript must be revised. Ginsburg describes only one of the four lists of the appendix, namely the one dealing with the differences between Eastern and Western recensions; the other three lists are the following: sedarim, peseqim, and words vocalized with patah, which are exceptional because they are pausal forms.

    El estudio detallado de la masora ornamental del folio 158a del manuscrito M1 me ha permitido corregir y puntualizar la descripción que hace de este folio Ch. D. Ginsburg en la Introducción a su Biblia. Por una parte, estamos de acuerdo en que se trata de un apéndice masorético a los libros de Reyes, pero no lo estamos en lo que se refiere al sitio donde comienza, ni al contenido total del mismo. Ginsburg sólo describe una lista de las cuatro que contiene, la de las diferencias entre los textos orientales y occidentales; las otras tres son: sedarîm, paseqîm y palabras vocalizadas con patah, que constituyen una excepción por estar en pausa.

  3. Isolation and characterization of a J domain protein that interacts with ARC1 from ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xingguo; Yang, Jia; Cao, Mingming; Wang, Yanhong; Kawabata, Saneyuki; Li, Yuhua

    2015-05-01

    A novel J domain protein, JDP1, was isolated from ornamental kale. The C-terminus of JDP1 specifically interacted with ARC1, which has a conserved role in self-incompatibility signaling. Armadillo (ARM)-repeat containing 1 (ARC1) plays a conserved role in self-incompatibility signaling across the Brassicaceae and functions downstream of the S-locus receptor kinase. Here, we identified a J domain protein 1 (JDP1) that interacts with ARC1 using a yeast two-hybrid screen against a stigma cDNA library from ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala). JDP1, a 38.4-kDa protein with 344 amino acids, is a member of the Hsp40 family. Fragment JDP1(57-344), originally isolated from a yeast two-hybrid cDNA library, interacted specifically with ARC1 in yeast two-hybrid assays. The N-terminus of JDP1 (JDP1(1-68)) contains a J domain, and the C-terminus of JDP1 (JDP1(69-344)) contains an X domain of unknown function. However, JDP1(69-344) was required and sufficient for interaction with ARC1 in yeast two-hybrid assays and in vitro binding assays. Moreover, JDP1(69-344) regulated the trafficking of ARC1 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane by interacting with ARC1 in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Finally, Tyr(8) in the JDP1 N-terminal region was identified to be the specific site for regulating the interaction between JDP1 and BoARC1 in yeast two-hybrid assays. Possible roles of JDP1 as an interactor with ARC1 in Brassica are discussed.

  4. Influences of air pollution on the growth of ornamental tree species-particularly with reference to SO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, T W

    1975-01-01

    For the purpose of detecting resistance to air pollution, particularly SO/sub 2/ contamination, six ornamental tree species were selected, i.e., Ginkgo biloba, Larix leptolepis, Pinus rigida, Syringa dilatata, Hibiscus syriacus, and Forsythia koreana. The sensitivity was observed and analyzed on the basis of the area ratio of smoke injury spot to the total leaf area. According to the results, the decreasing order of SO/sub 2/ sensitivity by species could be arranged as follows: (1) Hibiscus syriacus, (2) Ginkgo biloba, (3) Forsythia koreana, (4) Syringa dilatata, (5) Larix leptolepis, and (6) Pinus rigida. In general, Hibiscus syriacus and Ginkgo biloba can be grouped as the most resistant ones and Larix leptolepis and Pinus rigida as the weakest ones and Forsythia koreana and Syringa dilatata as the intermediate. Due to the sprouting ability and the formative ability of adventitious buds, the recovery from the SO/sub 2/ fumigation was prominent in Hibiscus syriacus, Syringa dilatata and Forsythia koreana. The differences in the smoke spot color were recognized by species, namely, dirt brown in Syringa dilatata, brilliant yellow brown in Pinus rigida and Ginkgo biloba, whitish yellow in Hibiscus syriacus, and red brown in Forsythia koreana. In the case of Ginkgo biloba and Larix leptolepis, the younger leaves were more resistant to SO/sub 2/ than the old ones. The sulfur content of leaves showed that on the basis of %/dry weight, broad-leaved species contained the higher amount of sulfur than the coniferous species. 15 ornamental tree species which have been growing in Seoul city were sampled from the 19 air polluted spots. The elucidated were the heavily polluted regions and the lightly polluted regions. The SO/sub 2/ absorbing capacities by species are explained in the text. 17 references.

  5. Knowledge brokering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine how the spanning of inter-organizational weak ties and technological boundaries influences knowledge brokering. Design/methodology/approach – The paper is based on original fieldwork and employs a case study research design, investigating a Danish...... HTSF’s inter-organizational activities. Findings – The findings show how an inter-organizational search that crosses technological boundaries and is based on a network structure of weak ties can imply a reduced risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. Research limitations/implications – By not engaging...... in strong tie collaborations a knowledge brokering organization can reduce the risk of unwanted knowledge spill-over. The risks and opportunities of knowledge spill-over furthermore rely on the nature of the technology involved and to what extent technological boundaries are crossed. Practical implications...

  6. Sharing knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The workshop on Climate Change Impacts and Adaptation Strategies for Arctic Indigenous Communities is one stage in developing positions and providing input from the perspectives of Arctic Peoples in preparation for the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change that will take place in April, 2009, in Anchorage, Alaska. The Summit, organized by the Inuit Circumpolar Council with oversight of an International Steering Committee, will bring together hundreds of indigenous Peoples around the world. This Workshop intended to bring together Arctic Indigenous Peoples to deliver and to share information, academic research, case studies based on traditional knowledge and researchers knowledgeable in traditional knowledge and/or policy issues drawn from traditional knowledge. The following themes were discussed: 1) Traditional knowledge research and education; 2) Laws and lawmaking; 3) Food and health; 4) Organisation; 5) Communications and advocacy. (ln)

  7. An Alternative Flight Software Trigger Paradigm: Applying Multivariate Logistic Regression to Sense Trigger Conditions Using Inaccurate or Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly M.; Gay, Robert S.; Stachowiak, Susan J.

    2013-01-01

    In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles.

  8. An Alternative Flight Software Paradigm: Applying Multivariate Logistic Regression to Sense Trigger Conditions using Inaccurate or Scarce Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kelly; Gay, Robert; Stachowiak, Susan

    2013-01-01

    In late 2014, NASA will fly the Orion capsule on a Delta IV-Heavy rocket for the Exploration Flight Test-1 (EFT-1) mission. For EFT-1, the Orion capsule will be flying with a new GPS receiver and new navigation software. Given the experimental nature of the flight, the flight software must be robust to the loss of GPS measurements. Once the high-speed entry is complete, the drogue parachutes must be deployed within the proper conditions to stabilize the vehicle prior to deploying the main parachutes. When GPS is available in nominal operations, the vehicle will deploy the drogue parachutes based on an altitude trigger. However, when GPS is unavailable, the navigated altitude errors become excessively large, driving the need for a backup barometric altimeter to improve altitude knowledge. In order to increase overall robustness, the vehicle also has an alternate method of triggering the parachute deployment sequence based on planet-relative velocity if both the GPS and the barometric altimeter fail. However, this backup trigger results in large altitude errors relative to the targeted altitude. Motivated by this challenge, this paper demonstrates how logistic regression may be employed to semi-automatically generate robust triggers based on statistical analysis. Logistic regression is used as a ground processor pre-flight to develop a statistical classifier. The classifier would then be implemented in flight software and executed in real-time. This technique offers improved performance even in the face of highly inaccurate measurements. Although the logistic regression-based trigger approach will not be implemented within EFT-1 flight software, the methodology can be carried forward for future missions and vehicles

  9. Suitability of native and ornamental oak species in California for Agrilus auroguttatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.J. Haavik; A.D. Graves; T.W. Coleman; F.L. Flint; R.C. Venette; S.J. Seybold

    2014-01-01

    Goldspotted oak borer, Agrilus auroguttatus Schaeffer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), is a new invasive species in southern California, USA. The extent of the host range of this insect is not known, but this knowledge will have a major impact on assessment of the risks that this pest poses to oaks [Quercus spp. (Fagaceae)]. We...

  10. Knowledge Blogging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerdal-Hjermind, Annette

    The rise of social media and web 2.0 technologies over the last few years has impacted many communication functions. One influence is organizational bloggers as knowledge mediators on government agency practices. The ways in which these organizational bloggers in their roles as experts are able...... to change, facilitate, and enable communication about a broad range of specialized knowledge areas, in a more open interactional institutional communication environment than traditional media typically offer, give rise to a set of new implications as regards the mediation of expert knowledge to the target...

  11. Conventionalized knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels

    2006-01-01

    Mental health nurses routinely hand over clinical knowledge at intershift reports. In the present study, field descriptions from prolonged fieldwork and transcripts of audio recordings of handovers were analysed discursively drawing on ethnomethodology and conversation analysis. The analysis...... identified linguistic and social conventions for handing over clinical knowledge; in particular, differences were identified between non-interactional and interactional handovers. The interactional handovers were relatively more substantial but did also bring forth obvious signs of uncertainty regarding...... exact clinical situations. Handing over caused a silencing of the least powerful nurses' voices, generated uncertainty, and promoted knowledge about the patients' clinical situation that was not necessarily precise or up-to-date....

  12. Investigating the Knowledge Needed for Teaching Mathematics: An Exploratory Validation Study Focusing on Teaching Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charalambous, Charalambos Y.

    2016-01-01

    Central in the frameworks proposed to capture the knowledge needed for teaching mathematics is the assumption that teachers need more than pure subject-matter knowledge. Validation studies exploring this assumption by recruiting contrasting populations are relatively scarce. Drawing on a sample of 644 Greek-Cypriots preservice and inservice…

  13. Process Mediates Structure: The Relation between Preschool Teacher Education and Preschool Teachers' Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blömeke, Sigrid; Jenßen, Lars; Grassmann, Marianne; Dunekacke, Simone; Wedekind, Hartmut

    2017-01-01

    Data about processes and outcomes of preschool teacher education is scarce. This paper examines the opportunities to learn (OTL) of prospective preschool teachers (N = 1,851) at different types and stages of preschool teacher education and their relation to general pedagogical knowledge (GPK), mathematics pedagogical content knowledge (MPCK), and…

  14. Placing knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Valentin, Karen; Nielsen, Gritt B.

    ; on the other hand, the rationale for strengthening mobility through internationalisation is based on an imagination of the potentials of particular locations (academic institutions). Intrigued by this tension between universality and particularity in academic knowledge production, this paper presents...... preliminary findings from a project that study internationalisation of higher education as an agent in the interrelated processes of place-making and knowledge-making. The project is based on three case-studies. In this paper, focus is on PhD students’ change of research environment. This is used as a case......Internationalisation of higher education is premised by a seeming paradox: On the one hand, academic knowledge strives to be universal in the sense that it claims to produce generalizable, valid and reliable knowledge that can be used, critiqued, and redeveloped by academics from all over the world...

  15. Sound knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kauffmann, Lene Teglhus

    as knowledge based on reflexive practices. I chose ‘health promotion’ as the field for my research as it utilises knowledge produced in several research disciplines, among these both quantitative and qualitative. I mapped out the institutions, actors, events, and documents that constituted the field of health...... of the research is to investigate what is considered to ‘work as evidence’ in health promotion and how the ‘evidence discourse’ influences social practices in policymaking and in research. From investigating knowledge practices in the field of health promotion, I develop the concept of sound knowledge...... result of a rigorous and standardized research method. However, this anthropological analysis shows that evidence and evidence-based is a hegemonic ‘way of knowing’ that sometimes transposes everyday reasoning into an epistemological form. However, the empirical material shows a variety of understandings...

  16. Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald Nielsen, Bo; Nicolajsen, Katrine

    For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model.......For Økonomistyrelsen opstilles en teoretisk model over forudsætningerne for, at mmah er kan anvende knowledge management. Praksis vurderes dernæst i forhold til denne model....

  17. Knowledge Fascism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight......Knowledge is not democratic, it is a regime. That is the clear message from Professor Vincent Hendricks. But do not be discouraged, through hard work and diligence everyone can achieve enlightenment and insight...

  18. 'Brasileirinha': cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata de frutos bicolores com valor ornamental e aptidão para consumo verde 'Brasileirinha': an ornamental bicolor squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar for immature fruit consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo S Boiteux

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available 'Brasileirinha' é uma cultivar de abóbora (Cucurbita moschata com frutos bicolores que foi desenvolvida com o objetivo de disponibilizar um produto diferenciado devido ao aspecto ornamental e a composição nutricional de seus frutos. Esta cultivar foi selecionada na geração F7, sendo obtida via cruzamentos convencionais entre um acesso de frutos bicolores, provavelmente devido à presença de um alelo do gene B, e a cultivar Mocinha (com frutos imaturos de cor verde uniforme. A característica peculiar da cultivar Brasileirinha é a produção de frutos com casca apresentando uma marcante coloração bicolor (coloração amarela na região proximal e verde na posição distal dos frutos. A polpa apresenta coloração amarela-esverdeada em frutos colhidos imaturos e, à medida que o fruto amadurece, intensifica-se uma coloração alaranjada. Beta-caroteno e luteína são os principais carotenóides presentes em frutos para consumo verde. Em frutos em completo estádio de maturação (polpa laranja intensa verifica-se a acumulação de beta-caroteno e alfa-caroteno (precursores da vitamina A em torno de 243 mg g-1. A cultivar Brasileirinha tem apresentado boa resistência de campo a diferentes raças de oídio (Podosphaera xanthii. Esta cultivar é preferencialmente recomendada para consumo como abobrinha verde (no estádio de fruto imaturo e para fins ornamentais (frutos em todos os estádios. Uma opção é o uso de frutos jovens em conservas. A cultivar Brasileirinha é recomendada para plantio em todas as tradicionais regiões produtoras do país. O sistema de produção para esta cultivar tem sido o mesmo adotado para outros tipos de abóboras.'Brasileirinha' is a squash (Cucurbita moschata cultivar developed by Embrapa Vegetable Crops, with a appealing ornamental appearance and carotenoid composition of its fruits might provide raw material for the development of value-added products targeting new market niches. This cultivar is an F7

  19. The management of scarce water resources using GNSS, InSAR and in-situ micro gravity measurements as monitoring tools

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wonnacott, R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available of Geomatics, Vol. 4, No. 3, August 2015 213  The management of scarce water resources using GNSS, InSAR and in-situ micro gravity measurements as monitoring tools Richard Wonnacott1, Chris Hartnady1, Jeanine Engelbrecht2 1Umvoto Africa (Pty) Ltd... shown to provide a useful tool for the measurement and monitoring of ground subsidence resulting from numerous natural and anthropogenic causes including the abstraction of groundwater and gas. Zerbini et al (2007) processed and combined data from a...

  20. Tacit knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexander Muir

    2017-04-01

    Information that is not made explicit is nonetheless embedded in most of our standard procedures. In its simplest form, embedded information may take the form of prior knowledge held by the researcher and presumed to be agreed to by consumers of the research product. More interesting are the settings in which the prior information is held unconsciously by both researcher and reader, or when the very form of an "effective procedure" incorporates its creator's (unspoken) understanding of a problem. While it may not be productive to exhaustively detail the embedded or tacit knowledge that manifests itself in creative scientific work, at least at the beginning, we may want to routinize methods for extracting and documenting the ways of thinking that make "experts" expert. We should not back away from both expecting and respecting the tacit knowledge the pervades our work and the work of others.

  1. Bromeliad ornamental species: conservation issues and challenges related to commercialization=Espécies ornamentais de bromélias: conservação e desafios relacionados a sua comercialização

    OpenAIRE

    Darcy Mitchell; Raquel Rejane Bonato Negrelle; Adilson Anacleto

    2012-01-01

    Bromeliads grow almost exclusively in the New World tropics and subtropics, mainly in South America in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (ca. 1200 species). Within the last few decades, their beautiful shapes and colors, low maintenance and easy adaptability to small gardens have brought bromeliads into worldwide use as ornamental plants. While the ornamental bromeliad trade could make significant contributions to household economies in rural areas, the trade may represent a significant threat in...

  2. Bromeliad ornamental species: conservation issues and challenges related to commercialization - doi: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v34i1.7314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Mitchell

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Bromeliads grow almost exclusively in the New World tropics and subtropics, mainly in South America in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (ca. 1200 species. Within the last few decades, their beautiful shapes and colors, low maintenance and easy adaptability to small gardens have brought bromeliads into worldwide use as ornamental plants. While the ornamental bromeliad trade could make significant contributions to household economies in rural areas, the trade may represent a significant threat in some of the bromeliad biodiversity hotspot countries such as Brazil, Bolivia and Colombia. This paper presents an overview of production volumes, analysis of the Brazilian bromeliads trade chain – at the state, national and international levels – and recommendations to address development and conservation challenges.

  3. Practical knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jens

    2006-01-01

    The chapter aims to develop conceptions of practical knowledge, relevant to skills and Bildung in engineering science. The starting point is Francis Bacon’s ideas of new science, developed 400 years ago. It is argued that Bacon’s vision has become dogmatized during the course of history, whereas....... Furthermore, and still with reference to truth, utility, and goodness, it is claimed that unification of skills and Bildung should include the ability to deal with complexity. A second-order complexity challenges the search for adequacy between; a) the complexity of knowledge-creation; and b) the complexity...

  4. Genetics and fine mapping of a purple leaf gene, BoPr, in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Ping; Gao, Bao-Zhen; Han, Feng-Qing; Fang, Zhi-Yuan; Yang, Li-Mei; Zhuang, Mu; Lv, Hong-Hao; Liu, Yu-Mei; Li, Zhan-Sheng; Cai, Cheng-Cheng; Yu, Hai-Long; Li, Zhi-Yuan; Zhang, Yang-Yong

    2017-03-14

    Due to its variegated and colorful leaves, ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala) has become a popular ornamental plant. In this study, we report the fine mapping and analysis of a candidate purple leaf gene using a backcross population and an F 2 population derived from two parental lines: W1827 (with white leaves) and P1835 (with purple leaves). Genetic analysis indicated that the purple leaf trait is controlled by a single dominant gene, which we named BoPr. Using markers developed based on the reference genome '02-12', the BoPr gene was preliminarily mapped to a 280-kb interval of chromosome C09, with flanking markers M17 and BoID4714 at genetic distances of 4.3 cM and 1.5 cM, respectively. The recombination rate within this interval is almost 12 times higher than the usual level, which could be caused by assembly error for reference genome '02-12' at this interval. Primers were designed based on 'TO1000', another B. oleracea reference genome. Among the newly designed InDel markers, BRID485 and BRID490 were found to be the closest to BoPr, flanking the gene at genetic distances of 0.1 cM and 0.2 cM, respectively; the interval between the two markers is 44.8 kb (reference genome 'TO1000'). Seven annotated genes are located within the 44.8 kb genomic region, of which only Bo9g058630 shows high homology to AT5G42800 (dihydroflavonol reductase), which was identified as a candidate gene for BoPr. Blast analysis revealed that this 44.8 kb interval is located on an unanchored scaffold (Scaffold000035_P2) of '02-12', confirming the existence of assembly error at the interval between M17 and BoID4714 for reference genome '02-12'. This study identified a candidate gene for BoPr and lays a foundation for the cloning and functional analysis of this gene.

  5. Knowledge of practice: A multi-sited event ethnography of border security fairs in Europe and North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Theodore

    2017-06-01

    This article takes the reader inside four border security fairs in Europe and North America to examine the knowledge practices of border security professionals. Building on the border security as practice research agenda, the analysis focuses on the production, circulation, and consumption of scarce forms of knowledge. To explore situated knowledge of border security practices, I develop an approach to multi-sited event ethnography to observe and interpret knowledge that may be hard to access at the security fairs. The analysis focuses on mechanisms for disseminating and distributing scarce forms of knowledge, technological materializations of situated knowledge, expressions of transversal knowledge of security problems, how masculinities structure knowledge in gendered ways, and how unease is expressed through imagined futures in order to anticipate emergent solutions to proposed security problems. The article concludes by reflecting on the contradictions at play at fairs and how to address such contradictions through alternative knowledges and practices.

  6. Sexual ornamentation and parasite infection in males of common bream (Abramis brama): a reflection of immunocompetence status or simple cost of reproduction?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ottová, E.; Šimková, A.; Jurajda, Pavel; Dávidová, M.; Ondračková, Markéta; Pečínková, M.; Gelnar, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 4 (2005), s. 581-593 ISSN 1522-0613 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/04/1128; GA ČR(CZ) GP524/03/P108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : cost of reproduction * immunocompetence * sexual ornamentation Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.614, year: 2005

  7. Método para avaliação da potencialidade ornamental de flores e folhagens de corte nativas e não convencionais.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth R. Tempel Stumpf

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Para garantir o êxito no mercado de novos produtos da Floricultura, é preciso estabelecer critérios objetivos de escolha das características ornamentais desejáveis. Este trabalho tem como objetivo propor e validar um método para a avaliação do potencial ornamental de plantas nativas e não-convencionais, para uso como flores e folhagens de corte. A partir de uma planilha de avaliação especialmente elaborada para tal fim, foi testado o grau de potencialidade ornamental de 11 espécies nativas do Rio Grande do Sul, resultante do somatório das notas dadas para cada uma das dez características escolhidas por sua importância para a arte floral e para o mercado. Para a validação da eficácia do método, foi efetuada uma pesquisa de opinião on line. Andropogon bicornis, Baccharis articulata, B. usterii, Eryngium ebracteatum, E. eriophorum, E. sanguisorba, Hypericum connatum, Limonium brasiliense, Myrsine umbellata, Schinus lentiscifolius e S. terebinthifolius receberam pontuação superior a 70 pontos, sendo categorizadas como de alta potencialidade ornamental. A eficácia da escolha destas espécies com base em atributos estéticos visuais ficou comprovada nos resultados obtidos pela aplicação da planilha e posteriormente validados pela pesquisa de opinião. Os resultados indicam que o método aqui proposto é uma ferramenta eficaz para avaliar o grau de potencialidade ornamental de flores e folhagens de corte nativas e não-convencionais

  8. Transcriptome Sequence Analysis of an Ornamental Plant, Ananas comosus var. bracteatus, Revealed the Potential Unigenes Involved in Terpenoid and Phenylpropanoid Biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jun; Kanakala, S.; He, Yehua; Zhang, Junli; Zhong, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    Background Ananas comosus var. bracteatus (Red Pineapple) is an important ornamental plant for its colorful leaves and decorative red fruits. Because of its complex genome, it is difficult to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth and development. Thus high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus is necessary to generate large quantities of transcript sequences for the purpose of gene discovery and functional genomic studies. Results The Anana...

  9. Calibration of a parsimonious distributed ecohydrological daily model in a data-scarce basin by exclusively using the spatio-temporal variation of NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Pérez, Guiomar; Koch, Julian; Manfreda, Salvatore; Caylor, Kelly; Francés, Félix

    2017-12-01

    Ecohydrological modeling studies in developing countries, such as sub-Saharan Africa, often face the problem of extensive parametrical requirements and limited available data. Satellite remote sensing data may be able to fill this gap, but require novel methodologies to exploit their spatio-temporal information that could potentially be incorporated into model calibration and validation frameworks. The present study tackles this problem by suggesting an automatic calibration procedure, based on the empirical orthogonal function, for distributed ecohydrological daily models. The procedure is tested with the support of remote sensing data in a data-scarce environment - the upper Ewaso Ngiro river basin in Kenya. In the present application, the TETIS-VEG model is calibrated using only NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data derived from MODIS. The results demonstrate that (1) satellite data of vegetation dynamics can be used to calibrate and validate ecohydrological models in water-controlled and data-scarce regions, (2) the model calibrated using only satellite data is able to reproduce both the spatio-temporal vegetation dynamics and the observed discharge at the outlet and (3) the proposed automatic calibration methodology works satisfactorily and it allows for a straightforward incorporation of spatio-temporal data into the calibration and validation framework of a model.

  10. Knowledge brokering:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    -organizational search strategy that spans technological boundaries and involves the formation and search among weak ties. The findings show how knowledge brokering is influenced by the make-up of the technology involved, the technological distance between the two parties and why weak ties are less likely to collaborate...

  11. Solid knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Anders

    2008-01-01

    The great icons of industrial and architectural design are cornerstones of our material culture. They are referred to again and again in education, research and cultural debate, and as such they have become nodal points of human discourse. The knowledge embedded in such artefacts has often been...... referred to as ‘silent knowledge’....

  12. Identification of sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers linked to the red leaf trait in ornamental kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. acephala).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y S; Liu, Z Y; Li, Y F; Zhang, Y; Yang, X F; Feng, H

    2013-04-02

    Artistic diversiform leaf color is an important agronomic trait that affects the market value of ornamental kale. In the present study, genetic analysis showed that a single-dominant gene, Re (red leaf), determines the red leaf trait in ornamental kale. An F2 population consisting of 500 individuals from the cross of a red leaf double-haploid line 'D05' with a white leaf double-haploid line 'D10' was analyzed for the red leaf trait. By combining bulked segregant analysis and sequence-related amplified polymorphism technology, we identified 3 markers linked to the Re/re locus. A genetic map of the Re locus was constructed using these sequence-related amplified polymorphism markers. Two of the markers, Me8Em4 and Me8Em17, were located on one side of Re/re at distances of 2.2 and 6.4 cM, whereas the other marker, Me9Em11, was located on the other side of Re/re at a distance of 3.7 cM. These markers could be helpful for the subsequent cloning of the red trait gene and marker-assisted selection in ornamental kale breeding programs.

  13. Search of Xylella fastidiosa in plants with symptoms of chlorosis and leaf scorch present in ornamental areas in the university district and nearness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco Acevedo, Maria Jose

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Xylella fastidiosa is detected in plants considered as hosts of urban ornament with characteristic symptoms, present in gardens in the area of the university district and around in the area. Urban ornamental plants are identified with suggestive symptomatology of infection by X. fastidiosa in gardens of urban areas. Plants are classified according to the presence or absence of symptoms. In the study were gathered 97 samples, belonging to 29 vegetable species with symptoms of chlorosis on leaves, leaf scorch, delay in the development and loss of foliage. The identified plants are screened by techniques of ELISA, and immunofluorescence for the detection of X. fastidiosa. Xylella fastidiosa is isolated from urban ornamental plants. The isolates of Xylella obtained, are characterized phenotypic and molecularly. The performance of two standardized immunological techniques are compared for the serological detection of Xylella fastidiosa. The presence of X. fastidiosa is detected, using the DAS-ELISA technique on 48 of the 97 processed samples, corresponding to 46,1% of the samples. Parallely, the samples processed using the IFA technique, have detected the presence of X. fastidiosa in the same proportions [es

  14. Strategic Impact of Knowledge Management on Organisational Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Pedersen, Mogens Kühn

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge management is rarely found in a strategy context. Although some companies already have introduced the role of a chief knowledge officer, knowledge management is not treated as a strategic endeavour. Furthermore, contributions from an academic point of view are scarce in the field...... of the strategic issues of knowledge management. This paper contributes with some insight in pointing out the strategic question that knowledge management might provide answers for: The efficiency issue of stategic positioning. Furthermore, the paper emphasises the distinction between symmetric and asymmetric...... incentives in business relations, and on this basis identifies the notion of Distributed Knowledge Management as a means for creating efficiency strategies with symmetric incentives in business relations. In this way a strategic agenda for knowledge management is identified....

  15. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    OpenAIRE

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-01-01

    The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  16. Solid-state fermentation of rice straw residues for its use as growing medium in ornamental nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belal, Elsayed B.; El-Mahrouk, M. E.

    2010-11-01

    This work was conducted at a private nursery in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate to investigate the bioconversion of rice straw into a soil-like substrate (SLS) by Phanerochaete chrysosporium and Trichoderma hazianum and the possibility of using rice straw compost in ornamental nurseries as a partial or total replacement of coconut peat (CP) and vermiculite (V) in the growing medium. The results showed that rice straw could be treated better by aerobic fermentation. The authors used five mixtures as follows: (1) Control (CP+V at 1:1 v/v), (2) SLS (100%), (3) SLS+CP (1:1 v/v), (4) SLS+V (1:1 v/v), and (5) SLS+CP+V (1:1:1 v/v/v). Data were recorded as seedling height, no. of leaves, shoot fresh and dry weights, root length and root fresh and dry weights in order to assess the quality of both transplants of Althea rosea (hollyhock) and Calendula officinalis (scotch marigold). Hollyhock seedlings grown in medium containing a mixture of SLS+CP+V displayed quality traits similar to those recorded from the control treatment, while scotch marigold seedlings in the same medium followed the control medium in quality.

  17. Remediation and reclamation of soils heavily contaminated with toxic metals as a substrate for greening with ornamental plants and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelusic, Masa; Lestan, Domen

    2015-11-01

    Soils highly contaminated with toxic metals are currently treated as waste despite their potential inherent fertility. We applied EDTA washing technology featuring chelant and process water recovery for remediation of soil with 4037, 2527, and 26 mg kg(-1) of Pb, Zn and Cd, respectively in a pilot scale. A high EDTA dose (120 mmol kg(-1) of soil) removed 70%, 15%, and 58% of Pb, Zn, and Cd, respectively, and reduced human oral bioaccessibility of Pb below the limit of quantification and that of Zn and Cd 3.4 and 3.2 times. In a lysimeters experiment, the contaminated and remediated soils were laid into two garden beds (4×1×0.15 m) equipped with lysimeters, and subjected to cultivation of ornamental plants: Impatiens walleriana, Tagetes erecta, Pelargonium×peltatum, and Verbena×hybrida and grasses: Dactylis glomerata, Lolium multiflorum, and Festuca pratensis. Plants grown on remediated soil demonstrated the same or greater biomass yield and reduced the uptake of Pb, Zn and Cd up to 10, 2.5 and 9.5 times, respectively, compared to plants cultivated on the original soil. The results suggest that EDTA remediation produced soil suitable for greening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytogenetic analysis of Baryancistrus xanthellus (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Ancistrini, an ornamental fish endemic to the Xingu River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa A. Medeiros

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Baryancistrus xanthellus is a species from the Ancistrini tribe known commonly as "amarelinho " or "golden nugget pleco". It is one of the most popular and valued ornamental fishes due to its color pattern. Also, it is an endemic species from the Xingu River occurring from Volta Grande do Xingu, region where the Belo Monte Hydropower Dam is being built, to São Félix do Xingu. The current study aimed to cytogenetically characterize B. xanthellus . Results point to the maintenance of 2n=52, which is considered the most common condition for the tribe, and a single nucleolus organizer region (NOR. Mapping of the 18S rDNA confirmed the NOR sites, and the 5S rDNA was mapped in the interstitial position of a single chromosome pair. The 18S and 5S rDNA located in different pairs constitute an apomorphy in Loricariidae. Large blocks of heterochromatin are present in pairs 1 and 10 and in the regions equivalent to NOR and the 5S rDNA. Data obtained in this study corroborated with the currently accepted phylogenetic hypothesis for the Ancistrini and demonstrate evidence that the genus Baryancistrus occupies a basal position in the tribe.

  19. Determination of radioactive materials in granite used as ornamental rocks; Determinacao de materiais radioativos em granitos utilizados como rochas ornamentais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salas, Humberto Terrazas; Barbosa, Joao Batista Santos; Murta, Clecio Campi; Rocha, Francisco de Assis [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)). E-mail: salasht@urano.cdtn.br; Nalini Junior, Herminio Arias; Mendes, Julio Cesar [Ouro Preto Univ., MG (Brazil). Escola de Minas. Dept. de Geologia

    2000-07-01

    For environment quality control, either in a global or regional perspective, the determination of the radioactivity present in the minerals of rocks must be included. This control is carried out through specific analysis, applied to all geological materials used in civil architecture design and other applications (e.g. artistic). To date, the radioactivity of rocks has not been specifically studied, from which an adequate and comprehensive systematics is applied, in order to determine the radioactive minerals and their corresponding alterations. In Brazil, the industry of ornamental rocks is continually increasing at high rates, with a growing variety of rocks being commercialized locally as well as abroad. To a certain extent, the technical characterization of these rocks, through standard procedures defined by standardization institutions, is already available worldwide. However, among the petrographic properties specified for these rocks, minor or accessory minerals (less than 1%) are not adequately determined and detected. Among these components are radioactive minerals and, occasionally, carriers of precious metals, rare earths and other economically important minerals. (author)

  20. USING GIS FOR DEVELOPING INFORMATION SYSTEM FOR INVENTORY AND CARE OF ORNAMENTAL PLANTS IN THE NIKITSKY BOTANICAL GARDENS (CRIMEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Plugatar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article provides the data on creating information system (IS for stocktaking and handling the ornamental woody and herbaceous plants at the Nikitsky Botanical Gardens (NBG on the basis of a database (DB and a geographic information system (GIS for addressing the problems related to the preservation of biological diversity and sustainable development of the territory.The DB is being created on the basis of a relation model using of an analytic language and a graphic method of displaying the model “object – property – relation” using International Transfer Format (ITF for coding standard fields. For formation of web maps, the electronic layers are exported to the web-GIS on the NextGIS Web platform and configured into the thematic web maps.The information on the infological DB model has been provided. Functions to be performed by the IS and its final components have been described. The IS will make it possible to assess the current status of the NBG’s collection funds and plan the collection policy aimed at rehabilitating of plants’ gene pool and enriching the cultivated flora at the Southern Coast of Crimea. 

  1. Detecting the influence of ornamental Berberis thunbergii var. atropurpurea in invasive populations of Berberis thunbergii (Berberidaceae) using AFLP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubell, Jessica D; Brand, Mark H; Lehrer, Jonathan M; Holsinger, Kent E

    2008-06-01

    Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii DC.) is a widespread invasive plant that remains an important landscape shrub represented by ornamental, purple-leaved forms of the botanical variety atropurpurea. These forms differ greatly in appearance from feral plants, bringing into question whether they contribute to invasive populations or whether the invasions represent self-sustaining populations derived from the initial introduction of the species in the late 19th century. In this study we used amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers to determine whether genetic contributions from B. t. var. atropurpurea are found within naturalized Japanese barberry populations in southern New England. Bayesian clustering of AFLP genotypes and principal coordinate analysis distinguished B. t. var. atropurpurea genotypes from 85 plants representing five invasive populations. While a single feral plant resembled B. t. var. atropurpurea phenotypically and fell within the same genetic cluster, all other naturalized plants sampled were genetically distinct from the purple-leaved genotypes. Seven plants from two different sites possessed morphology consistent with Berberis vulgaris (common barberry) or B. ×ottawensis (B. thunbergii × B. vulgaris). Genetic analysis placed these plants in two clusters separate from B. thunbergii. Although the Bayesian analysis indicated some introgression of B. t. var. atropurpurea and B. vulgaris, these genotypes have had limited influence on extant feral populations of B. thunbergii.

  2. Ornamental Exterior versus Therapeutic Interior of Madagascar Periwinkle (Catharanthus roseus: The Two Faces of a Versatile Herb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghmeh Nejat

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Catharanthus roseus (L. known as Madagascar periwinkle (MP is a legendary medicinal plant mostly because of possessing two invaluable antitumor terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs, vincristine and vinblastine. The plant has also high aesthetic value as an evergreen ornamental that yields prolific blooms of splendid colors. The plant possesses yet another unique characteristic as an amiable experimental host for the maintenance of the smallest bacteria found on earth, the phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas, and serves as a model for their study. Botanical information with respect to synonyms, vernacular names, cultivars, floral morphology, and reproduction adds to understanding of the plant while the geography and ecology of periwinkle illustrate the organism’s ubiquity. Good agronomic practices ensure generous propagation of healthy plants that serve as a source of bioactive compounds and multitudinous horticultural applications. The correlation between genetic diversity, variants, and TIA production exists. MP is afflicted with a whole range of diseases that have to be properly managed. The ethnobotanical significance of MP is exemplified by its international usage as a traditional remedy for abundant ailments and not only for cancer. TIAs are present only in micro quantities in the plant and are highly poisonous per se rendering a challenge for researchers to increase yield and reduce toxicity.

  3. Excavating the Role of Aloe Vera Wrapped Mesoporous Hydroxyapatite Frame Ornamentation in Newly Architectured Polyurethane Scaffolds for Osteogenesis and Guided Bone Regeneration with Microbial Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selvakumar, M; Pawar, Harpreet Singh; Francis, Nimmy K; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu; Chattopadhyay, Santanu

    2016-03-09

    Guided bone regeneration (GBR) scaffolds are unsuccessful in many clinical applications due to a high incidence of postoperative infection. The objective of this work is to fabricate GBR with an anti-infective electrospun scaffold by ornamenting segmented polyurethane (SPU) with two-dimensional Aloe vera wrapped mesoporous hydroxyapatite (Al-mHA) nanorods. The antimicrobial characteristic of the scaffold has been retrieved from the prepared Al-mHA frame with high aspect ratio (∼14.2) via biosynthesis route using Aloe vera (Aloe barbadensis miller) extract. The Al-mHA frame was introduced into an unprecedented SPU matrix (solution polymerized) based on combinatorial soft segments of poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL), poly(ethylene carbonate) (PEC), and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), by an in situ technique followed by electrospinning to fabricate scaffolds. For comparison, pristine mHA nanorods are also ornamented into it. An enzymatic ring-opening polymerization technique was adapted to synthesize soft segment of (PCL-PEC-b-PDMS). Structure elucidation of the synthesized polymers is established by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Sparingly, Al-mHA ornamented scaffolds exhibit tremendous improvement (175%) in the mechanical properties with promising antimicrobial activity against various human pathogens. After confirmation of high osteoconductivity, improved biodegradation, and excellent biocompatibility against osteoblast-like MG63 cells (in vitro), the scaffolds were implanted in rabbits as an animal model by subcutaneous and intraosseous (tibial) sites. Improved in vivo biocompatibilities, biodegradation, osteoconductivity, and the ability to provide an adequate biomimetic environment for biomineralization for GBR of the scaffolds (SPU and ornamented SPUs) have been found from the various histological sections. Early cartilage formation, endochondral ossification, and rapid bone healing at 4 weeks were found in the defects filled with Al-mHA ornamented

  4. Biochar versus hydrochar as growth media constituents for ornamental plant cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Fornes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Biochar and hydrochar have been proposed as novel materials for providing soilless growth media. However, much more knowledge is required before reliable advice can be given on the use of these materials for this purpose. Depending on the material and the technology applied (pyrolysis or hydrothermal carbonization, phytotoxicity and greenhouse gas emissions have been found for certain chars. In this study, our aim was to assess the feasibility of three chars as substrate constituents. We compared two biochars, one from forest waste and the other from olive mill waste, and a hydrochar from forest waste. We studied how chars affected substrate characteristics, plant performance, water economy and respiratory CO2 emission. Substrates containing biochar from forest waste showed the best characteristics, with good air/water relationships and adequate electrical conductivity. Those with biochar from olive mill waste were highly saline and, consequently, low quality. The substrates with hydrochar retained too much water and were poorly aerated, presenting high CO2 concentrations due to high respiratory activity. Plants performed well only when grown in substrates containing a maximum of 25 % biochar from forest waste or hydrochar. After analyzing the char characteristics, we concluded that biochar from forest waste could be safely used as a substrate constituent and is environmentally friendly when applied due to its low salinity and low CO2 emission. However, biochar from olive mill waste and hydrochar need to be improved before they can be used as substrate constituents.

  5. Attempts to increase a scarce peripheral population of the Red-breasted Flycatcher (Ficedula parva using a new type of nestbox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deme Tamás

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Red-breasted Flycatcher has a large and stable global population widespread through much of the Western Palearctic. Contrarily, however, it is a very scarce breeding bird in the forested montane habitats of Hungary. The few pairs breeding here represent a peripheral population on the very edge of the species’ geographic area. This peripheral population declined considerably (from 3–500 to 100 pairs during the past decades likely due to the degradation of suitable habitat patches including the loss of appropriate nesting sites. To reverse this trend, we applied a new type of artificial nestbox developed specifically for this species. Occupancy rate was very low and breeding success was also low unless applying a protective wire mesh to reduce predation pressure.

  6. An Ecological Paradox: The African Wild Dog (Lycaon Pictus Is Not Attracted to Water Points When Water Is Scarce in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Ndaimani

    Full Text Available In dry biomes, spatio-temporal variation in surface water resource stocks is pervasive, with unknown effects on the ranging behaviour of large predators. This study assessed the effect of spatial variation in surface water resources on the ranging behaviour of the African wild dog (Lycaon pictus. We analyzed data for 1992 (dry year with 20 water points and 2000 (wet year with 30 water points against presence-only data for five packs of L. pictus in a part of Hwange National Park and adjacent smallholder communal farming areas in western Zimbabwe. Modelling the potential habitat for L. pictus using Maxent with distance from water points (Dw and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI as predictor variables was successful for 2000 (AUC = 0.793 but not successful for 1992 (AUC = 0.423, with L. pictus probability of occurrence near water points being more for year 2000 than for year 1992. The predicted L. pictus range was wider in 1992 (~13888.1 km2 than in 2000 (~958.4 km2 (Test of Proportions, χ2 = 124.52, df = 1, P = 0.00. Using the 2nd order Multitype Nearest Neighbour Distance Function (Gcross, we also observed significant attraction between L. pictus and water points within only ~1km radius for 1992 but up to ~8km radius for 2000. Our study reinforced the notion that surface water resources attract wild dogs in the savannahs but paradoxically less so when water resources are scarce. In particular, our study furthers current understanding of the effects of changing water availability regimes on the endangered L. pictus, providing evidence that the endangered predator's home range encroaches into potential ecological traps (i.e., smallholder communal farming areas when water resources are scarce.

  7. Optimal allocation of physical water resources integrated with virtual water trade in water scarce regions: A case study for Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Quanliang; Li, Yi; Zhuo, La; Zhang, Wenlong; Xiong, Wei; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang

    2018-02-01

    This study provides an innovative application of virtual water trade in the traditional allocation of physical water resources in water scarce regions. A multi-objective optimization model was developed to optimize the allocation of physical water and virtual water resources to different water users in Beijing, China, considering the trade-offs between economic benefit and environmental impacts of water consumption. Surface water, groundwater, transferred water and reclaimed water constituted the physical resource of water supply side, while virtual water flow associated with the trade of five major crops (barley, corn, rice, soy and wheat) and three livestock products (beef, pork and poultry) in agricultural sector (calculated by the trade quantities of products and their virtual water contents). Urban (daily activities and public facilities), industry, environment and agriculture (products growing) were considered in water demand side. As for the traditional allocation of physical water resources, the results showed that agriculture and urban were the two predominant water users (accounting 54% and 28%, respectively), while groundwater and surface water satisfied around 70% water demands of different users (accounting 36% and 34%, respectively). When considered the virtual water trade of eight agricultural products in water allocation procedure, the proportion of agricultural consumption decreased to 45% in total water demand, while the groundwater consumption decreased to 24% in total water supply. Virtual water trade overturned the traditional components of water supplied from different sources for agricultural consumption, and became the largest water source in Beijing. Additionally, it was also found that environmental demand took a similar percentage of water consumption in each water source. Reclaimed water was the main water source for industrial and environmental users. The results suggest that physical water resources would mainly satisfy the consumption

  8. Knowledge Model: Project Knowledge Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durao, Frederico; Dolog, Peter; Grolin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The Knowledge model for project management serves several goals:Introducing relevant concepts of project management area for software development (Section 1). Reviewing and understanding the real case requirements from the industrial perspective. (Section 2). Giving some preliminary suggestions...... for usage in KIWI system (Sections 3). This document is intended for technological partners to understand how for example the software development concepts can be applied to a semantic wiki framework....

  9. Knowledge Discovery in Data in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelka J.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Decision-making processes, including the ones related to ill-structured problems, are of considerable significance in the area of construction projects. Computer-aided inference under such conditions requires the employment of specific methods and tools (non-algorithmic ones, the best recognized and successfully used in practice represented by expert systems. The knowledge indispensable for such systems to perform inference is most frequently acquired directly from experts (through a dialogue: a domain expert - a knowledge engineer and from various source documents. Little is known, however, about the possibility of automating knowledge acquisition in this area and as a result, in practice it is scarcely ever used. It has to be noted that in numerous areas of management more and more attention is paid to the issue of acquiring knowledge from available data. What is known and successfully employed in the practice of aiding the decision-making is the different methods and tools. The paper attempts to select methods for knowledge discovery in data and presents possible ways of representing the acquired knowledge as well as sample tools (including programming ones, allowing for the use of this knowledge in the area under consideration.

  10. Energy knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shove, E. [Lancaster Univ., Centre for the Study of Environmental Change (United Kingdom)

    1997-11-01

    James Thurber`s grandmother `lived the latter years of her life in the horrible suspicion that electricity was dripping invisibly all over the house`. The idea that electricity might leak from empty light sockets is both bizarre and at the same time strangely plausible. Delivered in a variety of forms, gas, electricity, oil, coal, wood etc.; energy permits countless services and is embodied in almost everything we find around us. Both everywhere, and nowhere, it remains a mysterious if not magical feature of everyday life. So the image of leaking light sockets is appealing not just because it is a quaintly ridiculous idea conjured up by a confused old lady but because it precisely articulates lingering uncertainty about the intangible qualities of this most pervasive resource. Taking the invisibility of energy as a point of departure, this paper explores the different kind of knowledge we have of energy use. Although the technologies of domestic energy measurement are familiar enough, we know what a meter looks like and we all get energy bills, it still requires an act of faith to believe in the `reality` of energy consumption. Those who have learned the official languages of energy efficiency have access to richer vocabularies of revealing terminology and can talk more confidently in terms of kilowatts, U values and the rest. But how do these different knowledge relate, and how do different ways of knowing energy influence perceptions of the possibilities and problems of energy conservation? In exploring these issues, the paper re-examines theories of energy and knowledge implicit in energy policy and energy related research. (au) 22 refs.

  11. Knowledge Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ole Henning

    1998-01-01

    The knowledge test is about competing temporal and spatial expressions of the politics of technological development and national prosperity in contemporary society. The discussion is based on literature of national systems of innovation and industrial networks of various sorts. Similarities...... and differences in the disparate theories are discussed through a critical perspective on metaphor, time, space, agency and technology. It is asserted that the process of globalization is leading to a new production of space-time perceptions and practices where localization and globalization is becoming...... increasingly important. National space is being contested and nation states need to perform differently....

  12. Utilização do planejamento experimental em rede simplex no estudo de resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler para obtenção de máxima compacidade Use of simplex lattice experimental design in the study of ornamental rock waste as filler to obtain maximum compaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Z. Destefani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A utilização de agregados industrializados vem crescendo ao longo dos anos para atender a grande demanda da construção civil devido ao crescimento econômico do país. O objetivo deste trabalho foi utilizar o planejamento experimental em Rede Simplex para avaliar o efeito da adição do resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler na composição de misturas ternárias (brita 0, pó de pedra e resíduo, que levem a máxima compacidade (densidade seca aparente máxima. Foram tomados dezesseis pontos experimentais, cujos teores dos materiais utilizados variaram de 0 a 100%. O modelo em rede simplex cúbico completo apresentou melhor ajuste aos resultados experimentais, o qual resulta em respostas estatisticamente mais adequadas para as composições estudadas. A superfície de resposta gerada indicou que a densidade seca aparente máxima de 2,0 g/cm³ foi obtida para a composição ternária: 63% de brita 0/17% de pó de pedra/20% de resíduo de rocha ornamental. Portanto, o uso de resíduo de rocha ornamental como filler em agregados para a construção civil pode ser uma alternativa viável para deposição final deste abundante resíduo de forma ambientalmente correta.The use of industrial aggregates has grown over the years to meet the great demand of the civil construction due to the country's economical growth. The aim of this work was to use the experimental design in Simplex Lattice to evaluate the effect of the addition of ornamental rock waste as filler in the composition of ternary mixtures (crushed rock 0, stone powder, rock waste, leading to maximum compaction (maximum apparent dry density. Sixteen experimental points were taken, whose contents of the used materials ranged from 0 to 100%. The complete cubic simplex model showed to best fit to the experimental results, which results in more statistically appropriated responses to the studied compositions. The response surface generated indicated that the maximum apparent dry density (2

  13. Fallible Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério P. de Andrade

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O artigo discute a natureza do conhecimento em um ambiente sócio-econômico caracterizado por incerteza genuína. O ponto de partida é considerar que ambientes incertos tornam o conhecimento falível e contingente. O conhecimento é falível tanto em virtude de interações no espaço que acontecem ao mesmo tempo (complexidade, como devido à passagem do tempo. O artigo enfatiza dois tipos de conhecimento: “knowledge how” e “knowledge that”. O primeiro consiste em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do modo como fazemos algo e o segundo em um tipo de conhecimento acerca do porque fazemos algo. Uma forma que os agentes encontram para lidar com a condição de conhecimento falível é recorrer a convenções (Keynes e regras (Hayek. Convenções e regras são uma espécie de reservatório de uma forma de conhecimento social e intersubjetiva que os agentes podem adquirir, armazenar e comunicar uns com os outros. Elas fornecem em parte a informação necessária para o desempenho de suas atividades cotidianas.

  14. Development of management policy for the marine ornamental fish and invertebrate fishery in Puerto Rico: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P Hardin

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the collection of tropical marine organisms for the aquarium trade has become perceived as an activity with an unsustainable history as well as obvious potential for rehabilitation through resource-based fisheries management and consumer-oriented product certification.In the case of Puerto Rico, collection of ornamentals has existed for decades,though unregulated due to a weak fisheries law dating from the 1930 ’s.The new Fisheries Law 278 of 1998 enabled new regulatory approaches for marine ornamentals, which were met with serious challenges rooted in (1an information gap concerning the fishery regarding participant numbers,collection methods and export volumes,and (2the absence of consultation of fishers by agency regulators.The information gap led to worst-case assumptions of impact by regulators,and a closure of the fishery, which set the stage for threatening personal confrontations and lawsuits,the latter leading to de facto resource management by judicial order.To redress these issues and move management back into the arena of science and public policy,regulators have initiated a three-phase program: (1characterize fisher numbers, methods and exports,(2describe populations and biology of commercial species,and (3propose appropriate fisheries management approaches.This paper describes only the first phase of this program.En años recientes,se ha llegado a percibir la captura de organismos marinos tropicales para el comercio de acuario como una actividad poco sostenible,pero a la vez,con potencial de rehabilitarla por medio del manejo del recurso y la certificación del producto para el consumidor.En el caso de Puerto Rico,la recolección de especies ornamentales ha existido durante décadas y ha sido poco regulada a causa de la débil ley sobre pesquerías existente desde la década de 1930.La Ley 278 de las Industrias Pesqueras de 1998 incluyó nuevas regulaciones para los organismos marinos ornamentales.Las regulaciones

  15. The Dora-Maira Unit (Italian Cottian Alps): a reservoir of ornamental stones locally and worldwide employed since Roman age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, Alessandro; Cadoppi, Paola; Antonella Dino, Giovanna

    2015-04-01

    The Dora-Maira is a geological unit belonging to the Penninic Domain of the Western Alps (NW Italy), which covers over 1000 km2 from the Susa to the Maira valleys, in the inner part of the Cottian Alps. It consists of different superposed complexes made of micaschists, fine-grained gneisses, quartzites, impure and dolomitic marbles, metabasites and various types of orthogneisses deriving from metamorphic transformation, during alpine orogeny, of a Palaeozoic upper continental crust and its Mesozoic carbonate cover. Thanks to the presence of different varieties of rocks, the Dora-Maira Unit can be considered as a reservoir of ornamental stones, locally employed, since Roman age, for military and religious buildings. Furthermore, these materials were used in Piedmont region for the construction of important historical palaces (17th and 18th centuries). Several varieties of gneisses, quartzites and marbles, exploited in the past and up to now, come from the Paleozoic basement. The most famous variety of gneiss is the so called "Luserna stone", a leucocratic gneiss characterized by a mylonitic fabric deriving from highly differentiated granitoids of Permian age. The first traces of Luserna Stone exploitation arise to the medieval age in the Pellice Valley). This material was widely employed in Turin, from Savoia kingdom period up to know. The very peculiar and precious application of Luserna stone were: Royal Palace and Venaria Reale Palace, Mole Antonelliana. Recently, it has been employed for the construction of Turin Metro stations (launched in 2006). Other varieties of orthogneisses, not yet exploited, are: Borgone and Vaie Stones, Villarfocchiardo and Cumiana Stones. They were used for the realization of the columns characterising the façade of several churches in Turin and in the piers of different bridges over the Po River. Another gneiss variety, with dioritic composition, is the Malanaggio Stone employed in the Fenestrelle Fortress. As for the palaeozoic

  16. A PCR-based genotyping method to distinguish between wild-type and ornamental varieties of Imperata cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseke, Leland J; Talley, Sharon M

    2012-02-20

    Wild-type I. cylindrica (cogongrass) is one of the top ten worst invasive plants in the world, negatively impacting agricultural and natural resources in 73 different countries throughout Africa, Asia, Europe, New Zealand, Oceania and the Americas(1-2). Cogongrass forms rapidly-spreading, monodominant stands that displace a large variety of native plant species and in turn threaten the native animals that depend on the displaced native plant species for forage and shelter. To add to the problem, an ornamental variety [I. cylindrica var. koenigii (Retzius)] is widely marketed under the names of Imperata cylindrica 'Rubra', Red Baron, and Japanese blood grass (JBG). This variety is putatively sterile and noninvasive and is considered a desirable ornamental for its red-colored leaves. However, under the correct conditions, JBG can produce viable seed (Carol Holko, 2009 personal communication) and can revert to a green invasive form that is often indistinguishable from cogongrass as it takes on the distinguishing characteristics of the wild-type invasive variety(4) (Figure 1). This makes identification using morphology a difficult task even for well-trained plant taxonomists. Reversion of JBG to an aggressive green phenotype is also not a rare occurrence. Using sequence comparisons of coding and variable regions in both nuclear and chloroplast DNA, we have confirmed that JBG has reverted to the green invasive within the states of Maryland, South Carolina, and Missouri. JBG has been sold and planted in just about every state in the continental U.S. where there is not an active cogongrass infestation. The extent of the revert problem in not well understood because reverted plants are undocumented and often destroyed. Application of this molecular protocol provides a method to identify JBG reverts and can help keep these varieties from co-occurring and possibly hybridizing. Cogongrass is an obligate outcrosser and, when crossed with a different genotype, can produce

  17. The effects of venting and decompression on Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens in the marine ornamental aquarium fish trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily S. Munday

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Each year, over 45 countries export 30 million fish from coral reefs as part of the global marine ornamental aquarium trade. This catch volume is partly influenced by collection methods that cause mortality. Barotrauma in fish resulting from forced ascent from depth can contribute to post-collection mortality. However, implementing decompression stops during ascent can prevent barotrauma. Conversely, venting (puncturing the swim bladder to release expanded internal gas following ascent can mitigate some signs of barotrauma like positive buoyancy. Here, we evaluate how decompression and venting affect stress and mortality in the Yellow Tang (Zebrasoma flavescens. We examined the effects of three ascent treatments, each with decompression stops of varying frequency and duration, coupled with or without venting, on sublethal effects and mortality using histology and serum cortisol measurements. In fish subjected to ascent without decompression stops or venting, a mean post-collection mortality of 6.2% occurred within 24 h of capture. Common collection methods in the fishery, ascent without decompression stops coupled with venting, or one long decompression stop coupled with venting, resulted in no mortality. Histopathologic examination of heart, liver, head kidney, and swim bladder tissues in fish 0d and 21d post-collection revealed no significant barotrauma- or venting-related lesions in any treatment group. Ascent without decompression stops resulted in significantly higher serum cortisol than ascent with many stops, while venting alone did not affect cortisol. Future work should examine links in the supply chain following collection to determine if further handling and transport stressors affect survivorship and sublethal effects.

  18. Atmospheric weathering and silica-coated feldspar: analogy with zeolite molecular sieves, granite weathering, soil formation, ornamental slabs, and ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J V

    1998-03-31

    Feldspar surfaces respond to chemical, biological, and mechanical weathering. The simplest termination is hydroxyl (OH), which interacts with any adsorption layer. Acid leaching of alkalis and aluminum generated a silica-rich, nanometers-thick skin on certain feldspars. Natural K, Na-feldspars develop fragile surfaces as etch pits expand into micrometer honeycombs, possibly colonized by lichens. Most crystals have various irregular coats. Based on surface-catalytic processes in molecular sieve zeolites, I proposed that some natural feldspars lose weakly bonded Al-OH (aluminol) to yield surfaces terminated by strongly bonded Si-OH (silanol). This might explain why some old feldspar-bearing rocks weather slower than predicted from brief laboratory dissolution. Lack of an Al-OH infrared frequency from a feldspar surface is consistent with such a silanol-dominated surface. Raman spectra of altered patches on acid-leached albite correspond with amorphous silica rather than hydroxylated silica-feldspar, but natural feldspar may respond differently. The crystal structure of H-exchanged feldspar provides atomic positions for computer modeling of complex ideas for silica-terminated feldspar surfaces. Natural weathering also depends on swings of temperature and hydration, plus transport of particles, molecules, and ionic complexes by rain and wind. Soil formation might be enhanced by crushing granitic outcrops to generate new Al-rich surfaces favorable for chemical and biological weathering. Ornamental slabs used by architects and monumental masons might last longer by minimizing mechanical abrasion during sawing and polishing and by silicifying the surface. Silica-terminated feldspar might be a promising ceramic surface.

  19. Effects of CaCl2 solutions to alleviate drought stress effects in potted ornamentals Salvia splendens and Ageratum houstonianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Jędrzejuk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bedding plants are often subjected to soil water deficit – either after planting and/or during the market chain. Methods to alleviate the negative water stress effects are sought for to preserve ornamental values of plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of two bedding plants, Ageratum houstonianum Mill. and Salvia splendens Sellow ex Scult., to water stress and treatments with calcium chloride aimed to alleviate drought effects. Plants were subjected either to 45 days of periodical stress (five cycles when watering was off for 5 consecutive days, followed by four cycles on for 5 consecutive days or 10 days of radical drought (complete water withdrawal. On the first day, before the onset of drought, plants were watered with 0.5% Ca or 1% Ca w/v as a solution of calcium chloride (5 g or 10 g Ca per 1 dm3 of the growing substrate. The similarly Ca-treated but routinely watered plants provided controls to evaluate the water shortage effects. Plant height, inflorescence length/number, leaf number, leaf area (in Salvia splendens only, aboveground plant part weight, and root weight (in Salvia splendens only as well as leaf relative water content (RWC were measured at the beginning and at the end of the experiments. Water withdrawal during 10 days of growth (radical drought reduced by half RWC in leaves of withering Salvia splendens and Ageratum houstonianum plants. Its effects on the growth parameters were less pronounced and mitigated by Ca applications. Also in the periodically stressed plants of both species, RWC and most growth parameters were reduced by water shortage but Ca applications alleviated the negative stress effects.

  20. Assessing and ranking the flammability of some ornamental plant species to select firewise plants for landscaping in WUI (SE France).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganteaume, A.; Jappiot, M.; Lampin, C.

    2012-04-01

    The increasing urbanization of Wildland-Urban Interfaces (WUI) as well as the high fire occurrence in these areas requires the assessment and the ranking of the flammability of the ornamental vegetation surrounding houses especially that planted in hedges. Thus, the flammability of seven species, among those most frequently planted in hedges in Provence (South-Eastern France), were studied at particle level and at dead surface fuel level (litters) under laboratory conditions. The flammability parameters (ignition frequency, time-to-ignition, flaming duration) of the very fine particles (live leaves and particles fire bench. Burning experiments using the epiradiator showed that live leaves of Phyllostachys sp., Photinia frasei and Prunus laurocerasus had the shortest time-to-ignition and the highest ignition frequency and flaming duration whereas Pittosporum tobira and Nerium oleander were the longest to ignite with a low frequency. Phyllostachys sp. and Nerium oleander litters were the shortest to ignite while Prunus laurocerasus litter had the lowest bulk density and long time-to-ignition, but high flame propagation. Photinia fraseri litter ignited frequently and had a high flame spread while Pittosporum tobira litter ignited the least frequently and for the shortest duration. Cupressus sempervirens litter had the highest bulk density and the longest flaming duration but the lowest flame propagation. Pyracantha coccinea litter was the longest to ignite and flame propagation was low but lasted a long time. Hierarchical cluster analysis performed on the flammability parameters of live leaves and of litters ranked the seven species in four distinct clusters from the most flammable (Prunus laurocerasus and Pyracantha coccinea) to the least flammable (Pittosporum tobira and Nerium oleander); the other species displaying two groups of intermediate flammabilities (Phyllostachys sp.- Photinia fraseri and Cupressus sempervirens ). The species with highly flammable

  1. On climate adaptability of nine species of Adiantum ornamental ferns in 34 provincial capital cities,China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yunhui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adiantum malesianum,A. myriosorum,A. capillus-junonis,A. capillus-veneris,A. caudatum,A. davadii,A. deentulum,A. edgeworthii and A. erythrochlamys are nine ornamental ferns of the family Adinataceae,with potential application prospect in the aspect of urban landscape and greening construction.To understand their climatic adaptation characteristics in 34 provincial capital cities in China,so as to provide the guidance for their cultivation.Based on 11 current biological climate data in RCP45CO2 emissions scenario,and 694 occurrence records in China,records,MaxEnt model and Arc Gis9.3 software were applied to quantitatively predict the potential distribution ranges of these nine fern species in China.The results show a quietly differences among the nine fern species in their climatic adaptation in 34 provincial capital cities.A. malesianum,A. myriosorum,A. capillus-junonis,A. capillus-veneris,A. deentulum and A. edgeworthii are more suitable grow in southwest China including Southeastern Sichuan,Chongqing,Yunnan,Guizhou,with wider potential distribution ranges;A. malesianum,A. capillus-junonis,A. capillus-veneris and A. caudatum have higher climatic adaptability in Southern China;Adiantum myriosorum,A. capillus-junonis,A. capillus-veneris,A. davadii and A. edgeworthii have higher climate adaptability in Central China;The potential distribution ranges of A. capillus-junonis and A. edgeworthii cover the north area of Beijing,Tianjin and Shijiazhuang,with their combined climate suitability index reaching as high as 0.60.

  2. Knowledge repositories in knowledge cities: institutions, conventions and knowledge subnetworks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, P.; Choi, C.J.; Chen, Shu; Eldomiaty, T.I.; Millar-Schijf, Carla C.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Abstract: Suggests another dimension of research in, and application of, knowledge management. This theoretical paper adopts a conceptual, multi-disciplinary approach. First, knowledge can be stored and transmitted via institutions. Second, knowledge "subnetworks" or smaller groupings within larger

  3. Knowledge Gaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyles, Marjorie; Pedersen, Torben; Petersen, Bent

    2003-01-01

    The study explores what factors influence the reduction of managers' perceivedknowledge gaps in the context of the environments of foreign markets. Potentialdeterminants are derived from traditional internationalization theory as well asorganizational learning theory, including the concept...... of absorptive capacity. Building onthese literature streams a conceptual model is developed and tested on a set of primarydata of Danish firms and their foreign market operations. The empirical study suggeststhat the factors that pertain to the absorptive capacity concept - capabilities ofrecognizing......, assimilating, and utilizing knowledge - are crucial determinants ofknowledge gap elimination. In contrast, the two factors deemed essential in traditionalinternationalization process theory - elapsed time of operations and experientiallearning - are found to have no or limited effect.Key words...

  4. Knowledge as an Asset and Knowledge Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevinç Gülseçen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The most valuable resource available to any organization today is its knowledge asset which is stored in processes and information systems, corporate data warehouses, employees’ brains, copyrights and patents. Knowledge management is the process of capturing, distributing, and effectively using this knowledge. The factors affecting Knowledge Management can be listed as follows: organizational culture, knowledge manager, the evolution of knowledge, knowledge polution and technology.

  5. Efeito da adição de resíduo de rocha ornamental nas propriedades tecnológicas e microestrutura de piso cerâmico vitrificado Effect of the addition of ornamental rock waste on the technological properties and microstructure of vitrified ceramic floor tiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. Souza

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A indústria de rochas ornamentais gera grandes quantidades de resíduos sólidos na forma de pós finos. Estes resíduos, quando descartados no ambiente, provocam impacto ambiental negativo. Foi feito um estudo sobre a influência de um resíduo de rocha ornamental nas propriedades e microestrutura de piso cerâmico vitrificado. Foi preparada uma série de massas cerâmicas contendo até 30% em peso de resíduo de rocha ornamental. Peças cerâmicas foram preparadas por prensagem uniaxial e sinterizadas entre 1190 e 1250 ºC em um ciclo de queima rápida. As seguintes propriedades tecnológicas foram determinadas: retração linear, absorção de água, massa específica aparente, e tensão de ruptura a flexão. A evolução da microestrutura e a análise de fases foram acompanhadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura e difração de raios X. Os resultados mostraram que adições de até 30% em peso de resíduo de rocha ornamental causaram variações significativas na generalidade das propriedades tecnológicas da massa cerâmica de referência. A microestrutura das peças cerâmicas também foi influenciada com a incorporação do resíduo estudado. Os resultados também mostram que a substituição de feldspato sódico por resíduo de rocha ornamental nas massas cerâmicas tende a melhorar a qualidade do piso cerâmico.The ornamental rock industries generate huge amounts of solid wastes (fine powders. These wastes as disposed in the environment generate negative environmental impacts. In this work a study was done on the influence of an ornamental rock waste in the technological properties and microstructure of vitrified floor tile. A series of ceramic pastes were prepared with additions of up to 30 wt% of waste. Ceramic pieces were prepared by uniaxial pressing and sintered between 1190 and 1250 ºC using a fast-firing cycle. The following technological properties were determined: linear shrinkage, water absorption, apparent density

  6. Knowledge Is Power for Medical Assistants: Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence As Predictors of Vocational Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moehring, Anne; Schroeders, Ulrich; Wilhelm, Oliver

    2018-01-01

    Medical education research has focused almost entirely on the education of future physicians. In comparison, findings on other health-related occupations, such as medical assistants, are scarce. With the current study, we wanted to examine the knowledge-is-power hypothesis in a real life educational setting and add to the sparse literature on medical assistants. Acquisition of vocational knowledge in vocational education and training (VET) was examined for medical assistant students ( n = 448). Differences in domain-specific vocational knowledge were predicted by crystallized and fluid intelligence in the course of VET. A multiple matrix design with 3 year-specific booklets was used for the vocational knowledge tests of the medical assistants. The unique and joint contributions of the predictors were investigated with structural equation modeling. Crystallized intelligence emerged as the strongest predictor of vocational knowledge at every stage of VET, while fluid intelligence only showed weak effects. The present results support the knowledge-is-power hypothesis, even in a broad and more naturalistic setting. This emphasizes the relevance of general knowledge for occupations, such as medical assistants, which are more focused on learning hands-on skills than the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  7. Knowledge Is Power for Medical Assistants: Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence As Predictors of Vocational Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Moehring

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Medical education research has focused almost entirely on the education of future physicians. In comparison, findings on other health-related occupations, such as medical assistants, are scarce. With the current study, we wanted to examine the knowledge-is-power hypothesis in a real life educational setting and add to the sparse literature on medical assistants. Acquisition of vocational knowledge in vocational education and training (VET was examined for medical assistant students (n = 448. Differences in domain-specific vocational knowledge were predicted by crystallized and fluid intelligence in the course of VET. A multiple matrix design with 3 year-specific booklets was used for the vocational knowledge tests of the medical assistants. The unique and joint contributions of the predictors were investigated with structural equation modeling. Crystallized intelligence emerged as the strongest predictor of vocational knowledge at every stage of VET, while fluid intelligence only showed weak effects. The present results support the knowledge-is-power hypothesis, even in a broad and more naturalistic setting. This emphasizes the relevance of general knowledge for occupations, such as medical assistants, which are more focused on learning hands-on skills than the acquisition of academic knowledge.

  8. Integrative taxonomy of the ornamental 'peppermint' shrimp public market and population genetics of Lysmata boggessi, the most heavily traded species worldwide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeza, J Antonio; Behringer, Donald C

    2017-01-01

    The ornamental trade is a worldwide industry worth >15 billion USD with a problem of rampant product misidentification. Minimizing misidentification is critical in the face of overexploitation of species in the trade. We surveyed the peppermint shrimp ornamental marketplace in the southeastern USA, the most intense market for peppermint shrimps worldwide, to characterize the composition of species in the trade, reveal the extent of misidentification, and describe the population genetics of the true target species. Shrimps were bought from aquarium shops in FL, GA, SC, and NC. We demonstrated, contrary to popular belief (information from dealers), that the most heavily traded species in the market was Lysmata boggessi , an endemic species to the eastern Gulf of Mexico, and not Lysmata wurdemanni . Importantly, only when color pattern or genetic markers in conjunction with morphological traits were employed, was it was possible to unequivocally identify L. boggessi as the only species in the trade. The intensity of the market for peppermint shrimps in the USA has led to L. boggessi being the most traded species worldwide. Misidentification in the shrimp aquarium trade is accidental and involuntary, and is explained by remarkable similarity among congeneric species. Using sequences of the 16S-mt-DNA marker, we found no indication of population genetic structure in the endemic L. boggessi across  550 km of linear coast. Therefore, this species can be considered genetically homogeneous and a single fished stock. Still, we argue in favor of additional studies using more powerful markers (e.g., SNPs) capable of revealing genetic structure at a finer spatial-scale. Our results will help advance management and conservation policies in this lucrative yet understudied fishery. Future studies of other ornamental fisheries will benefit from using an integrative taxonomic approach, as we demonstrate here.

  9. Adolescents' knowledge and opinions about smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Povlsen, Lene; Aryal, Umesh Raj; Petzold, Max

    2018-01-01

    also created environments for smoking. Some expressed confidence to resist peer pressure and refuse to start smoking, but also expressed the need for prevention strategies in schools and for governmental initiatives, such as more strict implementation of tobacco control and regulations to prevent......, whereas qualitative studies exploring adolescents' smoking behavior and their views, knowledge and experiences are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To gain a deep understanding of Nepalese adolescents' knowledge and opinions about smoking and reasons for smoking initiation. SUBJECTS: Adolescents from four secondary...... schools in the Bhaktapur district, Nepal. METHODS: Eight focus-group discussions were conducted with 71 adolescents aged 13-16 years and from grades 8-10. Data were analyzed using manifest qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: The participants knew that smoking represents health risks as well as socio...

  10. Camellianols A-G, Barrigenol-like Triterpenoids with PTP1B Inhibitory Effects from the Endangered Ornamental Plant Camellia crapnelliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Juan; Wan, Jiang; Ding, Jie; Wang, Pei-Pei; Ma, Guang-Lei; Li, Jia; Hu, Jin-Feng

    2017-11-22

    Seven new naturally occurring barrigenol-like compounds, camellianols A-G (1-7), and 10 known triterpenoids were isolated from the twigs and leaves of the cultivated endangered ornamental plant Camellia crapnelliana. According to the ECD octant rule for saturated cyclohexanones, the absolute configurations of camellianols D (4) and E (5) were defined. The backbones of the remaining new isolates are assumed to have the same absolute configuration as compounds 4, 5, and harpullone (12). Compounds 2, 3, 9, 10, 13, and 16 exhibited inhibitory effects on the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) enzyme, with IC 50 values less than 10 μM.

  11. Male sexual ornament size is positively associated with reproductive morphology and enhanced fertility in the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chapman Tracey

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exaggerated male ornaments and displays often evolve in species where males only provide females with ejaculates during reproduction. Although "good genes" arguments are typically invoked to explain this phenomenon, a simpler alternative is possible if variation in male reproductive quality (e.g. sperm number, ejaculate content, mating rate is an important determinant of female reproductive success. The "phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis" states that female preference for male ornaments or displays has been selected to ensure higher levels of fertility and has driven the evolution of exaggerated male traits. Females of the stalk-eyed fly Teleopsis dalmanni must mate frequently to maintain high levels of fertility and prefer to mate with males exhibiting large eyespan, a condition-dependent sexual ornament. If eyespan indicates male reproductive quality, females could directly increase their reproductive success by mating with males with large eyespan. Here we investigate whether male eyespan indicates accessory gland and testis length, and then ask whether mating with large eyespan males affects female fertility. Results Male eyespan was a better predictor of two key male reproductive traits – accessory gland and testis length – than was body size alone. This positive relationship held true over three levels of increasing environmental stress during the maturation of the adult accessory glands and testes. Furthermore, females housed with a large eyespan male exhibited higher levels of fertility than those with small eyespan males. Conclusion Male eyespan in stalk-eyed flies is subject to strong directional mate preference and is a reliable indicator of male reproductive quality – both because males with larger eyespan have bigger accessory glands and testes, and also as they confer higher fertility on females. Fertility enhancement may have arisen because males with larger eyespan mated more often and/or because

  12. On the random distribution of scarce doses of vaccine in response to the threat of an influenza pandemic: a response to Wardrope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLachlan, Hugh V

    2015-02-01

    Wardrope argues against my proposed non-consequentialist policy for the distribution of scarce influenza vaccine in the face of a pandemic. According to him, even if one accepts what he calls my deontological ethical theory, it does not follow that we are required to agree with my proposed randomised allocation of doses of vaccine by means of a lottery. He argues in particular that I fail to consider fully the prophylactic role of vaccination whereby it serves to protect from infection more people than are vaccinated. He concludes that: 'The benefits and burdens of vaccination are provided impartially and far more effectively by targeted vaccination than impartial lotteries.' He has shown convincingly that this conclusion can be established in the case of his particular envisaged scenario. However, Wardrope gives no reason to suppose that, in the circumstances that we actually face, targeted vaccination would constitute impartial treatment of citizens in the UK. I readily agree with Wardrope that if it should treat its citizens justly and impartially, it does not necessarily follow that the state should distribute vaccinations of the basis of a lottery. That will be a reasonable thing to do only if certain assumptions are made. These assumptions will not always be reasonable. However, they are reasonable ones to make in the actual circumstances that currently apply. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Estimation of reservoir inflow in data scarce region by using Sacramento rainfall runoff model - A case study for Sittaung River Basin, Myanmar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myo Lin, Nay; Rutten, Martine

    2017-04-01

    The Sittaung River is one of four major rivers in Myanmar. This river basin is developing fast and facing problems with flood, sedimentation, river bank erosion and salt intrusion. At present, more than 20 numbers of reservoirs have already been constructed for multiple purposes such as irrigation, domestic water supply, hydro-power generation, and flood control. The rainfall runoff models are required for the operational management of this reservoir system. In this study, the river basin is divided into (64) sub-catchments and the Sacramento Soil Moisture Accounting (SAC-SMA) models are developed by using satellite rainfall and Geographic Information System (GIS) data. The SAC-SMA model has sixteen calibration parameters, and also uses a unit hydrograph for surface flow routing. The Sobek software package is used for SAC-SMA modelling and simulation of river system. The models are calibrated and tested by using observed discharge and water level data. The statistical results show that the model is applicable to use for data scarce region. Keywords: Sacramento, Sobek, rainfall runoff, reservoir

  14. Effects of Water Management Strategies on Water Balance in a Water Scarce Region: A Case Study in Beijing by a Holistic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigong Peng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation is facing increasing pressure from other competitive water users to reduce water consumption in a water scarce region. Based on the Basin-wide Holistic Integrated Water Assessment (BHIWA model, the effects of water management strategies on water balance in the dry regions of North China were analyzed. The results show that, with the decrease of irrigation water supply reliability (IWSR and the increase of irrigation water use efficiency (WUE, irrigation water use decreased significantly, leading to reduced agriculture water consumption, and sustained ground water levels. Compared with the increase of WUE, the decrease of IWSR contributes more to reducing irrigation water consumption and protecting groundwater. Sensitivity tests show that among various water cycle components, irrigation water use is most sensitive to changes, followed by agriculture water consumption, and then groundwater level. Reducing IWSR is an effective strategy to reduce irrigation water consumption and promote sustainable water resources management, which could be the support of basic data and theory for regional water resources planning.

  15. Groundwater footprint methodology as policy tool for balancing water needs (agriculture & tourism) in water scarce islands - The case of Crete, Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourgialas, Nektarios N; Karatzas, George P; Dokou, Zoi; Kokorogiannis, Andreas

    2018-02-15

    In many Mediterranean islands with limited surface water resources, the growth of agricultural and touristic sectors, which are the main water consumers, highly depends on the sustainable water resources management. This work highlights the crucial role of groundwater footprint (GF) as a tool for the sustainable management of water resources, especially in water scarce islands. The groundwater footprint represents the water budget between inflows and outflows in an aquifer system and is used as an index of the effect of groundwater use in natural resources and environmental flows. The case study presented in this paper is the island of Crete, which consists of 11 main aquifer systems. The data used for estimating the groundwater footprint in each system were groundwater recharges, abstractions through 412 wells, environmental flows (discharges) from 76 springs and 19 streams present in the area of study. The proposed methodology takes into consideration not only the water quantity but also the water quality of the aquifer systems and can be used as an integrated decision making tool for the sustainable management of groundwater resources. This methodology can be applied in any groundwater system. The results serve as a tool for assessing the potential of sustainable use and the optimal distribution of water needs under the current and future climatic conditions, considering both quantitative and qualitative factors. Adaptation measures and water policies that will effectively promote sustainable development are also proposed for the management of the aquifer systems that exhibit a large groundwater footprint. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The Metalinguistic Knowledge of Undergraduate Students of English Language or Linguistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderson, J. Charles; Hudson, Richard

    2013-01-01

    It is often asserted that UK school-leavers know less grammatical terminology than in earlier years. However, objective data on this supposed phenomenon are somewhat scarce. The study reported in this paper aimed to see whether and to what extent knowledge about language (KaL) has declined over three decades, and how this might relate to…

  17. The role of the microfissuration of the rock matrix in the abrasion resistance of ornamental granitic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rey, Angel; Sanchez-Delgado, Nuria; Camino, Clara; Calleja, Lope; Ruiz de Argandoña, Vicente G.; Setien, Alexia

    2015-04-01

    The microcrack density and the abrasion resistance of five ornamental granites (Albero, Gris Alba, Mondariz, Rosa Porriño and Traspieles) from Galicia (NW Spain) have been quantified as part of a research aimed to interpret the cuttability of the rocks in relation to the petrophysical properties of the rock matrix. Large blocks from the quarries have been cut with an industrial saw and the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance have been measured in two surfaces: H, parallel to the cut surface; T, perpendicular both to the cut surface and the cutting direction. Both planes are perpendicular to the rift plane, as it is known in quarry works. The microcrack density has been quantified following an stereological procedure applied to polished sections imaged under scanning electron microscopy. The magnification of the images allowed the study of microcracks as narrow as 2 microns in aperture. The density has been quantified in terms of length of microcrack traces per surface unit so possible anisotropies of the microcrack network could be detected. The obtained values are in the typical range for this type of rocks although the Traspieles granite shows a higher value due to its weathering degree (H: 5.11, T: 5.37 mm/mm2). The values measured in the two surfaces (H and T) are quite similar in four of the rocks; only the Albero granite shows a marked anisotropy (H: 2.76 T: 3.53 mm/mm2). The abrasion resistance of the rocks has been measured following the european standard EN 14157:2004 using the capon method. The rocks can be classified in two groups according to their abrasion resistance. Rosa Porriño, Gris Alba and Mondariz granites are the more resistant to abrasion with values around 16-17 mm. Albero and Traspieles granites are less resistant with values higher than 19 mm. The results show a good correlation between the microcrack density and the abrasion resistance. As can be expected the rocks with high microcrack density show low abrasion resistance. The

  18. Estimation of possible radiological hazards from natural radioactivity in commercially-utilized ornamental and countertops granite tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turhan, Şeref

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The study presents the activity concentrations of radionuclides in granite tile samples. ► The activity concentrations of radionuclides are measured by gamma spectrometer.. ► In this study, possible radiological hazards from usage of these materials are estimated. ► The external exposure index and internal index are calculated. ► The indoor absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose are evaluated. - Abstract: The aim of this study is to estimate natural radioactivity levels of commercially-utilized ornamental or countertops granite tiles collected from major retailers in Turkey and possible radiological hazards from usage of these materials by calculating external exposure and internal index, indoor absorbed gamma dose rate and the corresponding annual effective dose. The activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K were determined for 42 kinds of different granite tiles using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometer. The activity concentration of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K varied from 9.2 to 192.5 Bq kg −1 (with a mean of 88.4 ± 6.9 Bq kg −1 ), 7.5 to 344.6 Bq kg −1 (with a mean of 95.3 ± 10.0 Bq kg −1 ) and 92.1 to 4155.9 Bq kg −1 (with a mean of 1055.2 ± 103.0 Bq kg −1 ), respectively. The estimated radiological hazard indices were revised in the light of the relevant national and international legislation and guidance. The values of the radiological hazard indices were found to be within relevant all limit values for superficial materials. The indoor absorbed gamma dose rates estimated from the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th and 40 K and the corresponding annual effective doses varied from 4.74 to 85.27 nGy h −1 and 0.02 to 0.42 mSv, respectively.

  19. Knowledge Management: An Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Morrow, Noreen

    2001-01-01

    Discusses issues related to knowledge management and organizational knowledge. Highlights include types of knowledge; the knowledge economy; intellectual capital; knowledge and learning organizations; knowledge management strategies and processes; organizational culture; the role of technology; measuring knowledge; and the role of the information…

  20. The effect of silicon foliar application on the development of Seasonal ornamental plants. Part I: Sanvitalia speciosa 'Sunbini', Verbena 'Patio Blue' and Portulaca umbraticola 'Duna Red'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Dębicz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silicon is known as an element stimulating plant immunity and resistance to unfavorable conditions. Additional treatment with silicon may also cause a positive change in plant performance, improving the quality of ornamental plants. In the years 2009-2010, a two-factorial experiment was conducted involving three cultivars of seasonal ornamental plant species: creeping zinnia Sanvitalia speciosa 'Sunbini', vervain Verbena 'Patio Blue', and purslane Portulaca umbraticola 'Duna Red'. The first experimental factor was the concentration of Actisil preparation being an equivalent of 60, 120, and 180 mg Si×dm-3, applied three times by spraying, the second one was the type of medium: peat substrate and peat substrate with sand. The experiment proved the beneficial effect of fertilization with silicon on plant development of Verbena and the number of shoots of all examined plant species. The higher concentrations of Actisil were applied, the higher number of shoots the plants developed. Plants treated with Actisil also produced a higher number of buds and flowers or inflorescences featuring an increased diameter. Plants cultivated in peat substrate flowered better.