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Sample records for scapular position differences

  1. Effect of the Spacing of Backpack Shoulder Straps on Cervical Muscle Activity, Acromion and Scapular Position, and Upper Trapezius Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Min-hee; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effect of the spacing of backpack shoulder straps on cervical muscle activity, acromion and scapular position, and upper trapezius (UT) pain. [Subjects] Fourteen males aged 20?32?years, were recruited. [Methods] We measured the MPS (midcervical paraspinal) activity, acromial angle, scapular distance, and UT pain after gait carrying a backpack with different shoulder strap spacings. [Results] The MPS, scapular inferior distance, and UT pressure pain thresh...

  2. Does scapular positioning predict shoulder pain in recreational overhead athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, F; Nijs, J; Meeus, M; Roussel, N A; Mottram, S; Truijen, S; Meeusen, R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this prospective study is to investigate possible scapular related risk factors for developing shoulder pain. Therefore, a 2-year follow-up study in a general community sports centre setting was conducted. A sample of convenience of 113 recreational overhead athletes (59 women and 54 men) with a mean age of 34 (17-64; SD 12) years were recruited. At baseline, visual observation for scapular dyskinesis, measured scapular protraction, upward scapular rotation and dynamic scapular control were evaluated. 22% (n=25) of all athletes developed shoulder pain during the 24 months following baseline assessment. The Mean Shoulder Disability Questionnaire (SDQ) score for the painful shoulders was 34.8 (6.3-62.5; SD 17.4). None of the scapular characteristics predicted the development of shoulder pain. However, the athletes that developed shoulder pain demonstrated significantly less upward scapular rotation at 45° (p=0.010) and 90° (p=0.016) of shoulder abduction in the frontal plane at baseline in comparison to the athletes that remained pain-free. In conclusion, although these scapular characteristics are not of predictive value for the development of shoulder pain, this study increases our understanding of the importance of a scapular upward rotation assessment among recreational overhead athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Effect of Sustained Typing Work on Changes in Scapular Position, Pressure Pain Sensitivity and Upper Trapezius Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Park, Se-Yeon; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    ...), scapular position and activation of the upper trapezius. Methods: Vertical and horizontal positional changes of the scapular were measured with a palpation meter before and after keyboard work, and the PPT was measured using a pressure algometer...

  4. Effect of Sustained Typing Work on Changes in Scapular Position, Pressure Pain Sensitivity and Upper Trapezius Activity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Se-Yeon PARK; Won-Gyu YOO

    2013-01-01

    ...), scapular position and activation of the upper trapezius. [Methods]: Vertical and horizontal positional changes of the scapular were measured with a palpation meter before and after keyboard work, and the PPT was measured using a pressure algometer...

  5. Differences in scapular orientation, subacromial space and shoulder pain between the full can and empty can tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Mark K; Lopes-Albers, Andrea Diniz; Borgsmiller, Lindsey; Zirker, Catherine; Ericksen, Jeff; Michener, Lori A

    2013-04-01

    The empty and full can arm positions are used as diagnostic tests and in therapeutic exercise programs for patients with subacromial impingement syndrome. The adverse effects of these arm positions on the rotator cuff have not been fully described. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the acromio-humeral distance, three-dimensional scapular position, and shoulder pain during maximum isometric contractions in the empty and full can arm positions. Subjects with subacromial impingement syndrome (n=28) and a matched control group without shoulder pain (n=28) participated. Acromio-humeral distance, scapular/clavicular positions and shoulder pain were measured during maximal isometric contractions in each position. No difference was found in acromio-humeral distance (P=0.314) between the arm positions or between the groups (P=0.598). The empty can position resulted in greater scapular upward rotation (Ppain in the EC position might be due to the lack of an association amongst the scapular positions rather than the deficiency of a single scapular motion. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, B; Lund, H

    2014-01-01

    Therapy, Physiotherapy and Radiography, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway Purpose From a biomechanical perspective, the scapula plays a key role in the shoulder and arm function as a stable base for optimal muscle activation both at rest and during functional tasks.There is evidence suggesting...... that scapular positioning are altered in patients with musculoskeletal shoulder disorders, e.g in shoulder impingement syndrome and in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Rehabilitation exercises are aiming at altering abnormal/asymmetric scapular positioning and/or function. Numerous assessment methods...

  7. Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Lund, Hans

    of Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy and Radiography, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway PurposeFrom a biomechanical perspective, the scapula plays a key role in the shoulder and arm function as a stable base for optimal muscle activation both at rest and during functional tasks.There is evidence...... suggesting that scapular positioning are altered in patients with musculoskeletal shoulder disorders, e.g in shoulder impingement syndrome and in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis. Rehabilitation exercises are aiming at altering abnormal/asymmetric scapular positioning and/or function. Numerous...

  8. Measurement properties of exsisting clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, B; Lund, H

    base for optimal muscle activation both at rest and during functional tasks. There is evidence suggesting that scapular positioning are altered in patients with musculoskeletal shoulder disorders, e.g. in shoulder impingement syndrome and in patients with glenohumeral osteoarthritis [1......Department of Research and Innovation, University College Lillebaelt, Denmark3Institute of Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy and Radiography, Bergen University College, Bergen, Norway INTRODUCTION From a biomechanical perspective, the scapula plays a key role in the shoulder and arm function as a stable...... with glenohumeral osteoarthritis or frozen shoulder. Journal of biomechanics, 41:326-332, 2008.2.Ludewig PM & Reynolds JF. The Association of Scapular Kinematics and Glenohumeral Joint Pathologies. Journal of orthopaedic & sports physical therapy, 39(2):91-104, 2009.3.Shaheen AF, et al., Scapular taping alters...

  9. Scapular dyskinesis after Latarjet procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Stefano; Moroder, Philipp; Runer, Armin; Resch, Herbert; Gumina, Stefano; Hertel, Ralph

    2016-03-01

    Because of detachment of the pectoralis minor and variation of the vector of the conjoint tendons, we hypothesized that the Latarjet procedure may alter scapular position and motion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate scapular position and motion in patients who underwent a Latarjet or a modified iliac crest bone graft transfer (ICBGT) procedure (J-bone graft). Forty-six consecutive patients treated for recurrent anterior shoulder dislocation between 2010 and 2012 were retrospectively enrolled. Twenty-three were treated with a Latarjet and 23 with an ICBGT procedure. Twenty Latarjet and 20 ICBGT patients were available at a mean follow-up of 20 months (min, 12; max, 60). We recorded the Western Ontario Instability Index, the Rowe Score, and the Subjective Shoulder Value. Scapulothoracic position was studied according to the dyskinesis yes/no method. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability of the dyskinesis assessment was assessed. Intraobserver and interobserver reliability of scapula dyskinesis assessment was high (Latarjet: intratester, κ = 0.84; intertester, κ = 0.75; ICBGT: intratester, κ = 0.78; intertester, κ = 0.71). Scapular dyskinesis was observed after 5 of 20 Latarjet and after 0 of 20 ICBGT procedures (P = .047). Patients with dyskinesis had lower scores (Western Ontario Instability Index, P = .043; Rowe, P = .047; Subjective Shoulder Value, P = .046), but no statistically significant difference was found between the Latarjet and ICBGT groups. Two of the 5 scapular dyskinesis patients reached the SICK (Scapular malposition, Inferior medial scapular winging, Coracoid tenderness, and scapular dysKinesis) scapula syndrome definition. Scapular dyskinesis was found in 5 of 20 patients who underwent a Latarjet procedure. Dyskinesis may be related to the detachment of the pectoralis minor, and variation of the vector and the working length of the coracobrachialis and the short head of the biceps. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow

  10. Assessment of scapular position in patients suffering from shoulder ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measurements of the distance between T4 and the root of the scapula were made and the relationship of the distance and the function of trapezius middle fibres at resting length was tested. A Vernier caliper® ... for further studies. Keywords: Scapula position, shoulder dysfunction, trapezius muscle, competitive swimming ...

  11. EFFECT OF POSTURAL CORRECTION WITH DIFFERENT TAPING MATERIALS ON SCAPULAR KINEMATICS AND MYOELECTRIC ACTIVITIES OF SCAPULAR ROTATORS IN SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME A RANDOMIZED PLACEBO-CONTROLLED TRIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman Mohamad Abd Al-Gawad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rigid and kinesio tapings are commonly used in the rehabilitation of subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS. Yet; the effect of postural correction with the two taping materials in SIS has not been extensively studied. The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of postural correction with two different taping materials on scapular kinematics and electromyography of scapular upward rotators in patients with SIS. Methods: Twenty female patients with SIS participated in this study. Their age ranged from 30-60 years. Participants were randomly assigned into: Group I (Kinesio tape, n=10 and Group II (rigid tape, n=10. Thoracic and scapular taping with posture correction was applied to both groups. Scapular upward rotation at 0˚, 60˚, 90˚ and 120˚ of shoulder elevation and the activity level of the upper fibers of trapezius (UT, lower fibers of trapezius (LT and serratus anterior (SA muscles were measured before and immediately after taping application. Results: Both taping materials significantly increased scapular upward rotation at 60°, 90° and 120° angles (P =.004,.002 and .047 respectively after the application of tape as compared to the before. In addition, significantly greater muscle activity of the LT and SA muscles (P =.027 and 0.05 respectively were demonstrated by the kinesio-taping group as compared to rigid taping group during real taping condition. Conclusion: Both taping materials are effective in restoring scapular kinematics. Furthermore, kinesio taping has a facilitatory effect on the LT and SA muscles. Kinesio taping may be considered an alternative to rigid taping in patients with SIS.

  12. EFFECT OF SCAPULAR STABILISATION EXERCISES FOR TYPE 2 SCAPULAR DYSKINESIS IN SUBJECTS WITH SHOULDER IMPINGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Shankar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Abnormal altered scapular position during rest or motion have been termed as Scapular Dyskinesia. Scapula Dyskinesia Type-2 is one type of dyskinesia in which there is a visual prominence of entire medial border of scapula that occurs due to weakness of the serratus anterior and tightness of posterior shoulder joint capsule that results in reduction in glenohumeral flexion and abduction, resulting in decreased acromial elevation. This type of dyskinesia is commonly seen in Secondary impingement of shoulder. Rehabilitation generally begins and focused on axio-humeral and scapula- humeral than axio-scapular muscle. Early application of closed kinetic exercises on scapular stabilization and its effect of application on scapular dyskinesia type 2 is unknown. The study was proposed to find the effect of scapular stabilization exercise for type 2 Scapular Dyskinesia in subjects with shoulder impingement. Methods: An experimental study design, 7 male patients with mean age 37 years diagnosed with Shoulder impingement associated with Type 2 scapular dyskinesia were included in the study. The protocol includes closed kinematic chain exercises (scapula clock, Black burn exercises, Sleepers stretch, and thera band exercises aimed to balance force couple of upper, lower trapezius and serratus anterior. Duration of intervention was 3 sessions per week for 2 weeks. Outcome measurements such as Lateral scapular slide test and SPADI were measured pre and post interventions. Results: Analysis using Paired ‘t’ test as a parametric test found that there is statistically significant difference p<0.000 when pre to post interventions means were compared within the groups showing significant improvement in post SPADI and lateral scapular slide test. Conclusion: It is concluded that Scapula stabilization exercise protocol found to be effective in Scapular type-2 Dyskinesia.

  13. Can scapular and humeral head position predict shoulder pain in adolescent swimmers and non-swimmers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Leanda; Straker, Leon; Smith, Anne

    2012-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether scapular and humeral head position can predict the development of shoulder pain in swimmers, whether those predictors were applicable to non-swimmers and the annual rate of shoulder pain in adolescent swimmers and non-swimmers. Forty-six adolescent swimmers and 43 adolescent non-swimmers were examined prospectively with a questionnaire and anthropometric measures. The questionnaire examined demographic and training variables. Anthropometric measures examined the distances between the T7 spinous process and the inferior scapula (Inferior Kibler) and T3 spinous process and the medial spine of the scapula (Superior Kibler), humeral head position in relation to the acromion using palpation, BMI and chest width. Shoulder pain was re-assessed 12 months later by questionnaire. Shoulder pain in swimmers was best predicted by a larger BMI (OR = 1.48, P = 0.049), a smaller Inferior Kibler distance in abduction (e.g. OR = 0.90, P = 0.009) and a smaller horizontal distance between the anterior humeral head and the anterior acromion (OR = 0.76, P = 0.035). These variables were not significantly predictive of shoulder pain in non-swimmers. Annual prevalence of shoulder pain was 23.9% in swimmers and 30.8% in non-swimmers (χ(2) = 0.50, P = 0.478).

  14. The scapular glenopolar angle: standard values and side differences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucek, Michal; Bartonicek, Jan [Charles University and Military University Hospital Prague, Department of Orthopaedic Trauma, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Nanka, Ondrej [Charles University, Institute of Anatomy, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Prague 2 (Czech Republic); Malik, Jozef [Military University Hospital Prague, Department of Radiology, Prague 6 (Czech Republic)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to determine normal glenopolar angle (GPA) values on bone specimens of the scapula and compare them with various radiological views and CT examination. GPA values were measured on 100 mature, dry, non-paired scapulae, 20 pairs of dry scapulae, 50 AP radiographs of the shoulder, 50 Neer I views, 50 AP chest radiographs and 20 3D CT reconstructions of the scapula. Measurements made on bone specimens of the scapula showed an average GPA value of 42.3 ; the mean absolute side-to-side difference was on average 1.6 . The average GPA measured on 50 AP shoulder radiographs was 35.9 , on Neer I views 40.6 and AP chest radiographs 37.1 , with the mean absolute side-to-side difference on average 4.9 ; on 3D CT the average GPA was 43.0 and the mean absolute side-to-side difference on average 1.4 . GPA values depend on the method of measurement used. Measurements made on 3D CT reconstructions and Neer I views showed almost the same values as those measured on bone specimens. The values measured on AP shoulder views and AP chest radiographs were statistically significantly lower. Side-to-side variability (right and left) measured on 3D CT reconstructions was insignificant, and the obtained values corresponded to the values from bone specimens. Therefore, the best method to measure the GPA is a 3D CT reconstruction and an exact Neer I projection. (orig.)

  15. Effect of sustained typing work on changes in scapular position, pressure pain sensitivity and upper trapezius activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Se-Yeon; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of sustained computer keyboard typing on the human musculoskeletal system by assessing the pressure-pain threshold (PPT), scapular position and activation of the upper trapezius. Vertical and horizontal positional changes of the scapular were measured with a palpation meter before and after keyboard work, and the PPT was measured using a pressure algometer. Activation of the upper trapezius during 20 minutes of computer keyboard work was measured by electromyography, and four consecutive 5-minute segments were analyzed. The vertical distance from the seventh cervical process to the acromion, and the horizontal distance from the inferior angle to the same level of the spinal process were significantly increased after keyboard typing work compared with before keyboard typing work (ptrapezius activity increased with increased time at the keyboard. The percent reference voluntary contraction of phase 1 (from start to 5 minutes) was lower than those of phase 2 (from 5 to 10 minutes), and phase 3 (from 10 to 15 minutes) (ptrapezius. To prevent musculoskeletal problems in the shoulder region, posture reeducation during computer work should be considered in terms not only of neck and trunk posture, but also of scapular position.

  16. Assessment of scapular positioning and function as future effect measure of shoulder interventions – an inter-examiner reliability study of the clinical assessment methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Eshøj, Henrik; Ingwersen, Kim Gordon

    2015-01-01

    as an abnormal positioning, and/or altered function of the scapular is often present in subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). SIS is one of the most common shoulder disorders, potentially leading to degenerative conditions and/or osteoarthritis in the glenohumeral joint. Treatment of SIS primarily consists...... of physical therapy aiming at reducing signs of scapular dyskinesis. However, no consensus exists regarding which clinical tests to use for identifying and measuring scapular positioning and function. As a first step acceptable clinimetric measures of reliability is important, although, several tests have...... Science and Clinical Biomechanics, Odense M, Denmark 2 University College Lillebaelt, Odense, Denmark 3 Bergen University College, Institute of Occupational Therapy, Physiotherapy and Radiography, Bergen, Norway Email: heshoj@health.sdu.dk Introduction and objectives Scapular dyskinesis, defined...

  17. Can clinical observation differentiate individuals with and without scapular dyskinesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miachiro, Newton Y; Camarini, Paula M F; Tucci, Helga T; McQuade, Kevin J; Oliveira, Anamaria S

    2014-01-01

    Altered scapular rotation and position have been named scapular dyskinesis. Visual dynamic assessment could be applied to classify this alteration based on the clinical observation of the winging of the inferior medial scapular border (Type I) or of the prominence of the entire medial border (Type II), or by the excessive superior translation of the scapula (Type III). The aim of this study was to determine if there were differences in scapular rotations (Type I and II) and position (Type III) between a group of subjects with scapular dyskinesis, diagnosed by the clinical observation of an expert physical therapist, using a group of healthy individuals (Type IV). Twenty-six asymptomatic subjects volunteered for this study. After a fatigue protocol for the periscapular muscles, the dynamic scapular dyskinesis tests were conducted to visually classify each scapula into one of the four categories (Type IV dyskinesis-free). The kinematic variables studied were the differences between the maximum rotational dysfunctions and the minimum value that represented both normal function and a small dysfunctional movement. Only scapular anterior tilt was significantly greater in the type I dyskinesis group (clinical observation of the posterior projection of the inferior angle of the scapula) when compared to the scapular dyskinesis-free group (p=0.037 scapular and p=0.001 sagittal plane). Clinical observation was considered appropriate only in the diagnoses of dyskinesis type I. Considering the lower prevalence and sample sizes for types II and III, further studies are necessary to validate the clinical observation as a tool to diagnose scapular dyskinesis.

  18. Lateral Scapular Slide Test and Scapular Mobility in Volleyball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozunlu, Nihan; Tekeli, Hatice; Baltaci, Gul

    2011-01-01

    Context: The stability of the scapula in relation to the entire moving upper extremity is the key in the throwing sequence. The importance of scapular positioning in volleyball players has been well documented in the literature, but no one has compared scapular positioning between volleyball players and sedentary people. Objective: To compare measurements of scapular mobility obtained using the lateral scapular slide test between volleyball players and sedentary participants without shoulder impairments and to compare changes in scapular mobility in players according to the number of years of sport participation. Design: Cross-sectional study. Setting: University research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: A total of 121 people at a single university volunteered. Of these, 67 were sedentary (age = 24.3 ± 2.34 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.09 m, mass = 65.1 ± 11.91 kg); 54 were volleyball players from 4 professional teams and were separated into 2 groups according to their years of sport participation. The first group was named young players (n = 31; age = 17.7 ± 2.58 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.10 m, mass = 68.3 ± 12.21 kg, sport participation ≤ 9 years), and the second group was named old players (n = 23; age = 26.9 ± 3.39 years, height = 1.95 ± 4.38 m, mass = 90.7 ± 5.75 kg, sport participation ≥ 10 years). Main Outcome Measure(s): Study participants completed a rating scale for pain and a questionnaire about demographic and shoulder problems. One assessor performed the lateral scapular slide test and additional flexibility measurements around the shoulder girdle. Flexibility (external rotation, internal rotation) and scapular position (1, 2, 3) were compared among groups (young players, old players, sedentary people) and between sides (dominant, nondominant). Results: In sedentary participants, we found differences for position 1 (t66 = 3.327, P = .002), position 2 (t66 = 2.491, P = .004), position 3 (t66 = 2.512, P = .006), and internal rotation

  19. Lateral scapular slide test and scapular mobility in volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozunlu, Nihan; Tekeli, Hatice; Baltaci, Gul

    2011-01-01

    The stability of the scapula in relation to the entire moving upper extremity is the key in the throwing sequence. The importance of scapular positioning in volleyball players has been well documented in the literature, but no one has compared scapular positioning between volleyball players and sedentary people. To compare measurements of scapular mobility obtained using the lateral scapular slide test between volleyball players and sedentary participants without shoulder impairments and to compare changes in scapular mobility in players according to the number of years of sport participation. Randomized controlled clinical trial. University research laboratory. A total of 121 people at a single university volunteered. Of these, 67 were sedentary (age = 24.3 ± 2.34 years, height = 1.69 ± 0.09 m, mass = 65.1 ± 11.91 kg); 54 were volleyball players from 4 professional teams and were separated into 2 groups according to their years of sport participation. The first group was named young players (n = 31; age = 17.7 ± 2.58 years, height = 1.83 ± 0.10 m, mass = 68.3 ± 12.21 kg, sport participation ≤ 9 years), and the second group was named old players (n = 23; age = 26.9 ± 3.39 years, height = 1.95 ± 4.38 m, mass = 90.7 ± 5.75 kg, sport participation ≥ 10 years). Study participants completed a rating scale for pain and a questionnaire about demographic and shoulder problems. One assessor performed the lateral scapular slide test and additional flexibility measurements around the shoulder girdle. Flexibility (external rotation, internal rotation) and scapular position (1, 2, 3) were compared among groups (young players, old players, sedentary people) and between sides (dominant, nondominant). In sedentary participants, we found differences for position 1 (t(66) = 3.327, P = .002), position 2 (t(66) = 2.491, P = .004), position 3 (t(66) = 2.512, P = .006), and internal rotation (t(66) = 2.592, P = .001) between the dominant and nondominant sides. In old

  20. Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Lund, Hans

    2014-01-01

    ; (2) validity; and (3) responsiveness. Observational evaluation systems and assessment of scapular upward rotation seem suitably evidence-based for clinical use. Future studies should test and improve the clinimetric properties, and especially diagnostic accuracy and responsiveness, to increase...... excluded for evaluation due to no/few clinimetric results, leaving 35 studies for evaluation. Graded according to the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN checklist), the methodological quality in the reliability and validity domains was "fair" (57...

  1. The effects of shoulder and scapular region rigid taping and kinesio taping on scapular dyskinesis and pectoralis minor shortness in overhead athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özer, Sibel Tekeli; Gülpınar, Damla; Yeşilyaprak, Sevgi Sevi

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of shoulder and scapular region rigid taping and kinesio taping on scapular dyskinesis and pectoralis minor shortness in overhead athletes. Method: This study included 72 overhead athletes. The athletes were randomly divided into four groups: kinesio taping (shoulder and scapular region) was applied to Kinesio Taping Group (KB), rigid taping (shoulder and scapular region) was applied to Rigid Taping Group (RB), placebo kinesio taping was applied to Placebo Taping Group (PB). Control group received no tape. Demographic data of overhead athletes, anthropometric characteristics, pain severity and injury background were evaluated before taping. Pectoralis minor shortness (Pectoralis Minor Index) and scapular dyskinesis (Scapular Dyskinesis Test) were evaluated before taping, immediately after (30-minutes) taping and after 48 hours of use within 12-24 hours. Control group was evaluated at the same periods. Results: Before taping; demographic, anthropometric and sports-related characteristics were similar in groups and there was no statistically difference (p>0.05). It was determined that Pectoralis Minor Index (PMI) and scapular dyskinesis improved immediately after taping and after 48 hours of use in KB and RB (ptaping for PMI among groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Kinesio taping and rigid taping seems to have positive effects on scapular dyskinesis and pectoralis minor shortness in overhead athletes. Future studies on larger sample size are needed to verify the differences of the effects of these taping techniques between placebo or controls.

  2. Scapular Dyskinesis: Related Pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio López-Vidriero,

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Shoulder pain is one of the most frequent causes of disability in overhead sports and often forces athletes and workers to stop their activities. Scapular dyskinesis is not an injury or a musculoskeletal diagnosis, but rather an alteration of the normal position or motion of the scapula during coupled scapulohumeral movements. The underlying pathology can be multifactorial in nature, and understanding the various contributing factors is important in order to properly diagnose and treat the patient. An additional goal should be the prevention of further pathology or symptoms. In the present article the concept of scapular dyskinesis is reviewed along with a review of the literature regarding related pathology and our observations. Scapular dyskinesis can exist in asymptomatic individuals. In symptomatic patients with shoulder pain the scapular rhythm should be evaluated and treated. Some of the associated pathologies could be subacromial impingement, internal impingement, chronic acromioclavicular dislocations grade III, chronic neck pain. Physical therapy is usually the preferred treatment of choice and effective to treat these patients.

  3. Scapular Resting Position and Gleno-Humeral Movement Dysfunction in Asymptomatic Racquet Players: A Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimpi, Apurv P; Bhakti, Shah; Roshni, Karnik; Rairikar, Savita A; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag K

    2015-12-01

    Racquet sports, especially lawn tennis and badminton have been gaining popularity in Asian countries like India. With this increase in popularity, the injury rate in the sport has also increased. The study will help detect the presence of gleno-humeral movement dysfunction and scapular resting position abnormality in asymptomatic racquet players, thus providing basis for screening the players and allow the clinician to determine if the asymmetry is a normal adaptation in the player or an abnormal change associated with injury. 46 asymptomatic professional players were divided into a study group of 23 players (16 tennis and 7 badminton) and control group of 23 football players. Assessment of passive gleno-humeral range of motion and distance of spine and inferior angle of scapula from corresponding spinous process were measured bilaterally and between groups. There was statistically significant reduction in range of internal rotation (62.17 ± 8.09), extension (39.78 ± 4.12) and an increase in the external rotation (106.95 ± 7.49) of dominant compared to non-dominant arm of racquet players and a statistically significant decrease in internal rotation (78.69 ± 10.24), extension (44.78 ± 3.19), adduction (37.39 ± 6.54) and an increase in external rotation (102.6 ± 5.19) of dominant arm of racquet players compared to football players. Study also showed statistically significant increase in the spino-scapular distance at the level of inferior angle of scapula (10.23 ± 1.43) on dominant side compared to non-dominant. The dominant side scapula of asymptomatic racquet players showed increased external rotation and elevation as compared to the non-dominant side. Also, reduced shoulder internal rotation, extension and adduction and gain in shoulder external rotation was observed on the dominant side of racquet players when compared to the control group.

  4. Neck muscle fatigue differentially alters scapular and humeral kinematics during humeral elevation in subclinical neck pain participants versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Howarth, Samuel; Ferguson, Brad; Murphy, Bernadette

    2017-04-01

    Scapular orientation is highly dependent on axioscapular muscle function. This study examined the impact of neck muscle fatigue on scapular and humeral kinematics in participants with and without subclinical neck pain (SCNP) during humeral elevation. Ten SCNP and 10 control participants performed three unconstrained trials of dominant arm humeral elevation in the scapular plane to approximately 120 degrees before and after neck extensor muscle fatigue. Three-dimensional scapular and humeral kinematics were measured during the humeral elevation trials. Humeral elevation plane angle showed a significant interaction between groups (SCNP vs controls) and trial (pre- vs post-fatigue) (p=0.001). Controls began the unconstrained humeral elevation task after fatigue in a more abducted position, (p=0.002). Significant baseline differences in scapular rotation existed between the two groups (Posterior/Anterior tilt, p=0.04; Internal/External Rotation, p=0.001). SCNP contributed to altered scapular kinematics. Neck muscle fatigue influenced humeral kinematics in controls but not the SCNP group; suggesting that altered scapular motor control in the SCNP group resulted in an impaired adaption further to the neck muscle fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapular muscles do not improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    Proprioception is essential for shoulder neuromuscular control and shoulder stability. Exercise of the rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles is an important part of shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle exercises on shoulder joint position sense. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a control or training group. The subjects in the training group received closed-chain and open-chain exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles for four weeks. Shoulder joint position sense errors in elevation, including the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints, was measured. After four weeks of exercise training, strength increased overall in the training group, which demonstrated the effect of exercise on the muscular system. However, the changes in shoulder joint position sense errors in any individual joint of the subjects in the training group were not different from those of the control subjects. Therefore, exercises specifically targeting individual muscles with low intensity may not be sufficient to improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects. Future work is needed to further investigate which types of exercise are more effective in improving joint position sense, and the mechanisms associated with those changes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapular muscles do not improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Proprioception is essential for shoulder neuromuscular control and shoulder stability. Exercise of the rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles is an important part of shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscle exercises on shoulder joint position sense. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a control or training group. The subjects in the training group received closed-chain and open-chain exercises focusing on rotator cuff and scapulothoracic muscles for four weeks. Shoulder joint position sense errors in elevation, including the humerothoracic, glenohumeral and scapulothoracic joints, was measured. After four weeks of exercise training, strength increased overall in the training group, which demonstrated the effect of exercise on the muscular system. However, the changes in shoulder joint position sense errors in any individual joint of the subjects in the training group were not different from those of the control subjects. Therefore, exercises specifically targeting individual muscles with low intensity may not be sufficient to improve shoulder joint position sense in healthy subjects. Future work is needed to further investigate which types of exercise are more effective in improving joint position sense, and the mechanisms associated with those changes. PMID:27475714

  7. Reconstruction with scapular hemiarthroplasty endoprosthesis after scapulectomy for malignant tumour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Li; Zhou, Yong; Tang, Fan; Zhang, Wenli; Luo, Yi; Duan, Hong; Tu, Chongqi

    2017-05-01

    Recently, endoprosthesis reconstruction has been used for scapular malignant tumours. Our aim is to present and evaluate the clinical indications, peri-operative technique, and mid-term clinical results. Scapular hemiarthroplasty after total scapulectomy has been performed in 15 patients between 2011 and 2014. Clinical records and radiographs were evaluated retrospectively. The average follow-up was 41.2 months. No infection, dislocation, pressure ulcer, wound healing problems or mechanical failures were reported. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. The final follow-up average Musculoskeletal Tumor Society (MSTS) scoring system score was 25.3 points. The average ranges of motion of shoulder abduction and forward flexion were 45.3°and 65.7°, respectively. There were significant differences in function, lifting ability, MSTS scores, abduction function and flexion function between the seven patients with artificial ligament reconstruction for articular capsule and the others with direct suture. Three patients who had reconstruction of the rotator cuff were verified to gain better post-operative hand positioning, lifting ability, MSTS score, and abduction function than the others without rotator cuff reconstruction. As long as the indications and surgical skills are fully mastered, reconstruction with the scapular hemiarthroplasty endoprosthesis can result in mid-term oncologic salvage, good post-operative function and low complication rate after scapulectomy for malignant tumors.

  8. The reliability of three-dimensional scapular attitudes in healthy people and people with shoulder impingement syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hébert Luc J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal scapular displacements during arm elevation have been observed in people with shoulder impingement syndrome. These abnormal scapular displacements were evaluated using different methods and instruments allowing a 3-dimensional representation of the scapular kinematics. The validity and the intrasession reliability have been shown for the majority of these methods for healthy people. However, the intersession reliability on healthy people and people with impaired shoulders is not well documented. This measurement property needs to be assessed before using such methods in longitudinal comparative studies. The objective of this study is to evaluate the intra and intersession reliability of 3-dimensional scapular attitudes measured at different arm positions in healthy people and to explore the same measurement properties in people with shoulder impingement syndrome using the Optotrak Probing System. Methods Three-dimensional scapular attitudes were measured twice (test and retest interspaced by one week on fifteen healthy subjects (mean age 37.3 years and eight subjects with subacromial shoulder impingement syndrome (mean age 46.1 years in three arm positions (arm at rest, 70° of humerothoracic flexion and 90° of humerothoracic abduction using the Optotrak Probing System. Two different methods of calculation of 3-dimensional scapular attitudes were used: relative to the position of the scapula at rest and relative to the trunk. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC and standard error of measure (SEM were used to estimate intra and intersession reliability. Results For both groups, the reliability of the three-dimensional scapular attitudes for elevation positions was very good during the same session (ICCs from 0.84 to 0.99; SEM from 0.6° to 1.9° and good to very good between sessions (ICCs from 0.62 to 0.97; SEM from 1.2° to 4.2° when using the method of calculation relative to the trunk. Higher levels of

  9. The comparison of scapular upward rotation and scapulohumeral rhythm between dominant and non-dominant shoulder in male overhead athletes and non-athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Hossein; Anbarian, Mehrdad; Norasteh, Ali Asghar; Fardmal, Javad; Khosravi, Mohammad Taghi

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have stated that the scapulohumeral rhythm dysfunction can make person prone to glenohumeral joint pathologies. The purpose of this study was to compare scapular upward rotation and scapulohumeral rhythm between dominant and non-dominant shoulder in male overhead athletes and non-athletes. Seventeen overhead athletes and seventeen non-athletes volunteered for this study. Two inclinometers were used to measure humeral abduction and scapular upward rotation in rest position, 45°, 90° and 135° humeral abduction in frontal plane. Findings indicated there was no significant asymmetry in scapular upward rotation and scapulohumeral rhythm in different abduction angles between dominant and non-dominant shoulder in non-athletes. In contrast, overhead athletes' dominant shoulders have more downward rotation in scapular rest position and more upward rotation in 90° and 135° shoulder abduction than non-dominant shoulders. Also, overhead athletes presented scapulohumeral rhythm asymmetry between dominant and non-dominant shoulder in 90° and 135° humeral abduction as dominant shoulders have less scapulohumeral rhythm ratio than non-dominant shoulders. Furthermore, overhead athletes dominant shoulders have more scapular downward rotation in scapular rest position, more scapular upward rotation in 90° and 135° humeral abduction and less scapulohumeral rhythm ratio in 45°, 90° and 135° humeral abduction than non-athletes in dominant shoulders. We suggest that clinicians should be aware that some scapular asymmetry may be common in some athletes. It should not be considered as a pathological sign but rather an adaptation to extensive use of upper limb. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Shoulder Muscle Fatigue on Acromiohumeral Distance and Scapular Dyskinesis in Women With Generalized Joint Hypermobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibazi, Razie J; Moghadam, Afsun Nodehi; Cools, Ann M; Bakhshi, Enayatollah; Ahari, Alireza Aziz

    2017-12-01

    Muscle fatigue is considered to be one cause of shoulder pain, and subjects with generalized joint hypermobility (GJH) are affected more by shoulder pain. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of muscle fatigue on acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and scapular dyskinesis in women with GJH. Thirty-six asymptomatic participants were assigned to either a GJH (n = 20) or control group (n = 16) using the Beighton scale. Before and after elevation fatigue trials, AHD was measured with ultrasonography at rest and when the arm was in 90° active elevation. A scapular dyskinesis test was used to visually observe alterations in scapular movement. Our results showed that in both groups, the fatigue reduced AHD in the 90° elevation position and increased the presence of scapular dyskinesis; however, no differences were found between the two groups. Although GJH has been identified as a factor for developing musculoskeletal disorders, generalized joint hypermobility did not result in changes to scapular dyskinesis or AHD, even after an elevation fatigue task. More studies are needed to evaluate the effects of muscle fatigue in subjects with GJH and a history of shoulder instability.

  11. Effects of scapular taping in young adults with shoulder pain and scapular dyskinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intelangelo, Leonardo; Bordachar, Diego; Barbosa, Alexandre Wesley Carvalho

    2016-07-01

    To assess the immediate effects of scapular taping on pain, isometric force, and the level of activation of several scapular girdle muscles in individuals with shoulder pain and scapular dyskinesis. Ten individuals with shoulder pain during arm elevation and scapular dyskinesis were included and evaluated by using a visual analogue scale (VAS), pressure algometry, dynamometry, and surface electromyography. All assessments were performed before and immediately after the application of scapular taping. Scapular taping did not change the electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius muscle (p = 0.041, IC95%: -0.8256 to 10.8752). The positive effects of taping application were related to pain reduction (p = 0.025) and improvement in pressure algometry in the middle deltoid muscle (p = 0.020, IC95%:-1.8910 to -0.0490). Maximal isometric force did not change after the application of taping (flexo-abduction p = 0.4136, external rotation p = 0.4261). Significant correlations were noted between the VAS and pressure pain threshold (PPT) for the upper trapezius muscle (r = -0.6643, p = 0.0361) as well as for the PPT measures of the middle deltoid and infraspinatus muscles before (r = 0.9491, p = 0.0001) and after (r = 0.9006, p = 0.0004) the application of taping. Scapular taping was not effective for inducing changes in the electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles, nor in altering the isometric force of shoulder flexo-abduction and external rotation. However, taping was effective at improving the pressure algometry values of the middle deltoid. Significant correlations between the pressure algometry of the middle deltoid and infraspinatus muscles, both before and after the application of scapular taping, were noted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of scapular muscle EMG activity in patients with idiopathic neck pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Bostyn, Emma; Delemarre, Jolien; Lemahieu, Trees; Cagnie, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    It is proposed that altered scapular muscle function can contribute to abnormal loading of the cervical spine. However, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of the scapular muscles. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature regarding the differences or similarities in scapular muscle activity, measured by electromyography ( = EMG), between patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain compared to pain-free controls. Case-control (neck pain/healthy) studies investigating scapular muscle EMG activity (amplitude, timing and fatigue parameters) were searched in Pubmed and Web of Science. 25 articles were included in the systematic review. During rest and activities below shoulder height, no clear differences in mean Upper Trapezius ( = UT) EMG activity exist between patients with idiopathic neck pain and a healthy control group. During overhead activities, no conclusion for scapular EMG amplitude can be drawn as a large variation of results were reported. Adaptation strategies during overhead tasks are not the same between studies. Only one study investigated timing of the scapular muscles and found a delayed onset and shorter duration of the SA during elevation in patients with idiopathic neck pain. For scapular muscle fatigue, no definite conclusions can be made as a wide variation and conflicting results are reported. Further high quality EMG research on scapular muscles (broader than the UT) is necessary to understand/draw conclusions on how scapular muscles react in the presence of idiopathic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Surgical technique and clinical results for scapular allograft reconstruction following resection of scapular tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Zhou

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress in developing effective surgical techniques, such as scapular allograft reconstruction, enhance shoulder stability and extremity function, in patients following scapular tumor resection. Methods Case details from seven patients who underwent scapular allograft reconstruction following scapular tumor resection were reviewed. A wide marginal resection (partial scapulectomy was performed in all patients and all affected soft tissues were resected to achieve a clean surgical margin. The glenoid-resected and glenoid-saved reconstructions were performed in three and four patients, respectively. The residual host scapula were fixed to the size-matched scapular allografts with plates and screws. The rotator cuff was affected frequently and was mostly resected. The deltoid and articular capsule were infrequently involved, but reconstructed preferentially. The remaining muscles were reattached to the allografts. Results The median follow-up was 26 months (range, 14–50 months. The average function scores were 24 points (80% according to the International Society of Limb Salvage criteria. The range of active shoulder abduction and forward flexion motion were 40°–110° and 30°–90°, respectively. There was no difference between the glenoid-saved and glenoid-resected reconstructions in the total scores (mean, 24.5 points/81% versus 24 points/79%, but the glenoid-saved procedure was superior to the later in terms of abduction/flexion motion (mean, 72°/61° versus 55°/43°. During the study follow-up period, one patient died following a relapse, one patient lived despite of local recurrence, and five patients survived with no evidence of recurrence of the original cancer. Post-surgical complications such as shoulder dislocations, non-unions, and articular degeneration were not noted during this study period. Conclusion Scapular allograft reconstruction had a satisfactory functional, cosmetic, and oncological outcome in

  14. Does the application of kinesiotape change scapular kinematics in healthy female handball players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Herzeele, M; van Cingel, R; Maenhout, A; De Mey, K; Cools, A

    2013-11-01

    Elastic taping is widely used in sports medicine for correcting functional alignment and muscle recruitment. However, evidence regarding its influence on scapular dynamic positioning is scarce. This study aimed to investigate the effect of a specific kinesiotaping method on scapular kinematics in female elite handball players without shoulder complaints. 25 athletes (18.0±1.5 years) active in the highest national division were recruited. All subjects received an elastic adhesive tape (K-active tape©) with the purpose to correct scapular position. 3-dimensional scapular motion measurements were performed (Fastrak®) during humeral elevation in the sagittal, frontal and scapular plane. The results showed that taping has a moderate to large effect (Cohen's d>0.7) towards scapular posterior tilting, in all 3 planes of humeral movement and for all angles of elevation (mean posteriorizing effect of 4.23 °, 3.23 ° and 4.33 ° respectively for elevation in the sagittal, frontal and scapular plane, p0.7). Together these results suggest that kinesiotape application causes positive changes in scapular motion. This could support its use in sports medicine for preventing shoulder problems in overhead athletes. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Effect of external load on scapular upward rotation during arm elevation: the knot concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madokoro, Kazuya; Gotoh, Masafumi; Kai, Yoshihiro; Kakuma, Tatsuyuki; Nagamatsu, Takashi; Shiba, Naoto

    2016-12-01

    Failure of the scapulohumeral rhythm (SHR) is observed in patients with shoulder joint dysfunction. The SHR reportedly has a 2:1 ratio during scapular upward rotation with arm elevation. However, three-dimensional scapular motion analysis has indicated variations in this ratio according to the arm elevation angle. We observed 2 distinct patterns: the scapular upward rotation decreased after knot formation (type I) or increased after knot formation (type II) during arm elevation. In the present study, we aimed to identify the knot and investigate the influence of varying external loads on this kinesiological change point. We evaluated 35 healthy adult men (35 dominant-side shoulders) with a mean age of 20 ± 1.7 years (mean height: 172 ± 6.4 cm, mean weight: 65.7 ± 5.8 kg). Participants performed scapular plane elevation with no load or with an external load (1-5 kg) while sitting on a chair. The measured scapular upward rotation values were interpolated using the spline function and fitted to line graphs, and the change in these values was compared for various loads. The estimated knot angles (standard error) in the no load condition, and with external loads of 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 kg were 83.5 (2.9°), 81.2 (2.9°), 81.0 (2.9°), 76.1 (2.9°), 73.4 (3.1°), and 75.8 (3.1°), respectively. No significant difference was noted in the knot position at 1-2 kg (vs. unloaded), although the knot was significantly lower at 3-5 kg (3 kg: p = 0.01, 4 kg: p = 0.001, and 5 kg: p = 0.02). Moreover, we observed that participants either exhibited increased or decreased upward rotational momentum after knot formation. Our results confirm that the kinesiological change point (the knot) during scapular upward rotation occurred at lower angles in cases of increasing external loads.

  16. Fracture of the scapular body: functional outcome after conservative treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosens, Taco; Speigner, Bernhard; Minekus, Joanne

    2009-01-01

    Scapular body fractures, irrespective of the number of fragments, are usually managed non-operatively, with favorable results. We evaluated results after non-operative management to determine the outcomes of scapular body fractures. We evaluated 22 patients following a fracture of the scapular body that had been treated non-operatively. To assess the influence of accompanying injuries other than those of the involved limb, we used both patient-oriented general health and shoulder-based outcome measures. In this series the functional outcome, reflected by the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score, the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) score and the range-of-motion, showed a difference between multiple injured patient group and a group sustaining a isolated scapular fracture. There was no significant difference in the SF-36 scores of the overall group compared with an age-matched population control in any subcategory beside the subcategory social function. The SF-36 scores of the multitrauma patient group were significantly lower than the scores of the age-matched population controls in several subcategories. Whereas isolated scapular body fractures healed leading to a functional shoulder score level equal to the general population and a range of motion equal to the uninjured contralateral shoulder, the multitrauma patient group showed a less favorable outcome.

  17. Specific kinematics and associated muscle activation in individuals with scapular dyskinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tsun-Shun; Ou, Hsiang-Ling; Huang, Chien-Ying; Lin, Jiu-Jenq

    2015-08-01

    Knowledge of the kinematics and associated muscular activity in individuals with scapular dyskinesis may provide insight into the injury mechanism and inform the planning of treatment strategies. We investigated scapular kinematics and associated muscular activation during arm movements in individuals with scapular dyskinesis. A visual-based palpation method was used to evaluate 82 participants with unilateral shoulder pain. Scapular movements during arm raising/lowering movements were classified as abnormal single pattern (inferior angle prominence, pattern I; medial border prominence, pattern II; excessive/inadequate scapular elevation or upward rotation, pattern III), abnormal mixed patterns, or normal pattern (pattern IV). Scapular kinematics and associated muscular activation were assessed with an electromagnetic motion-capturing system and surface electromyography. More scapular internal rotation was found in pattern II subjects (4°, P = .009) and mixed pattern I and II subjects (4°, P = .023) than in control subjects during arm lowering. Scapular posterior tipping (3°, P = .028) was less in pattern I subjects during arm lowering. Higher upper trapezius activity (14%, P = .01) was found in pattern II subjects during arm lowering. In addition, lower trapezius (5%, P = .025) and serratus anterior activity (10%, P = .004) were less in mixed pattern I and II subjects during arm lowering. Specific alterations of scapular muscular activation and kinematics were found in different patterns of scapular dyskinesis. The findings also validated the use of a comprehensive classification test to assess scapular dyskinesis, especially in the lowering phase of arm elevation. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Validation of a new method for assessing scapular anterior-posterior tilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scibek, Jason S; Carcia, Christopher R

    2014-10-01

    Electromagnetic tracking systems have enabled some investigators and clinicians to measure tri-planar scapular motion; yet, they are not practical and affordable options for all clinicians. Currently, the ability to affordably quantify scapular motion is limited to monitoring only the motion of scapular upward rotation, with use of a digital inclinometer. The objective of this study was to determine the criterion-related validity of a modified digital inclinometer when used to measure the motion of scapular anterior-posterior (AP) tilt. Thirteen volunteers, free from any history of shoulder injury, reported for a single testing session. Each subject underwent a brief shoulder and posture examination in order to confirm the absence of pathology. Subjects actively performed clinically relevant amounts of humeral elevation in the scapular plane while in a seated position. An electromagnetic tracking system (Ascension Technology, Burlington, VT) and a modified inclinometer (Pro 360, Baseline®, Fabrication Enterprises, White Plains, NY) were used to acquire scapular AP tilt over the same shoulder motions. Criterion-related validity was determined using Pearson Product Moment correlations. Correlation analyses revealed significant moderate to good associations (r = 0.63 to 0.86, p valid device to use for the quantification of scapular AP tilt. Further study is warranted to establish reliability and to validate use of the device in patients with shoulder injury or pathology. The modified inclinometer expands the clinician's ability to quantify scapular kinematic motion during the clinical evaluation and rehabilitation process. Level 3.

  19. [Anatomy of fractures of the inferior scapular angle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, J; Tuček, M; Malík, J

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe the anatomy of fractures of the inferior angle and the adjacent part of the scapular body, based on 3D CT reconstructions. In a series of 375 scapular fractures, we identified a total of 20 fractures of the inferior angle of the scapular body (13 men, 7 women), with a mean patient age of 50 years (range 3373). In all fractures, 3D CT reconstructions were obtained, allowing an objective evaluation of the fracture pattern with a focus on the size and shape of the inferior angle fragment, propagation of the fracture line to the lateral and medial borders of the infraspinous part of the scapular body, fragment displacement and any additional fracture of the ipsilateral scapula and the shoulder girdle. We identified a total of 5 types of fracture involving the distal half of the infraspinous part of the scapular body. The first type, recorded in 5 cases, affected only the apex of the inferior angle, with a small part of the adjacent medial border. The second type, occurring in 4 cases, involved fractures separating the entire inferior angle. The third type, represented by 4 cases, was characterized by a fracture line starting medially close above the inferior angle and passing proximolaterally. The separated fragment had a shape of a big drop, carrying also the distal half of the lateral pillar in addition to the inferior angle. In the fourth type identified in 5 fractures, the separated fragment was formed both by the inferior angle and a variable part of the medial border. The fifth type, being by its nature a transition to the fracture of the infraspinous part of the body, was recorded in 2 cases, with the same V-shaped fragment. Fractures of the inferior angle and the adjacent part of the scapular body are groups of fractures differing from other infraspinous fractures of the scapular body. Although these fractures are highly variable in terms of shape, they have the same course of fracture line and the manner of displacement

  20. Early history of scapular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartoníček, Jan; Kozánek, Michal; Jupiter, Jesse B

    2016-01-01

    The first to use the term Scapula was Vesalius (1514-1564) and thus it has remained ever since. Probably the oldest injured scapula, from 250 million years ago, was described by Chinese authors of a skeletal examination of a fossilised remains of a dinosaur Yangchuanosaurus hepingensis. In humans, the oldest known scapular fractures date back to the prehistoric and early historic times. In ancient times, a fracture of acromion was described in the treatises of Hippocrates. Early modern history of the treatment of scapular fractures is closely interlinked with the history of the French surgery. The first to point out the existence of these fractures were Petit, Du Verney and Desault in the 18th century. The first study devoted solely to scapular fractures was published by Traugott Karl August Vogt in 1799. Thomas Callaway published in 1849 an extensive dissertation on injuries to the shoulder girdle, in which he discussed a number of cases known at that time. The first radiograph of a scapular fracture was published by Petty in 1907. Mayo Robson (1884), Lambotte (1913) and Lane (1914) were pioneers in the surgical treatment of these fractures, followed in 1923 by the French surgeons Lenormat, Dujarrier and Basset. The first internal fixation of the glenoid fossa, including a radiograph, was published by Fischer in 1939.

  1. Stretching position can affect levator scapular muscle activity, length, and cervical range of motion in people with a shortened levator scapulae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hyo-Jung; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Yi, Chung-Hwi; Yoon, Jang-Whon; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Yoon, Tae-Lim; Kim, Bo-Been

    2017-07-01

    Levator scapulae (LS) muscle stretching exercises are a common method of lengthening a shortened muscle; however, the appropriate stretching position for lengthening the LS in people with a shortened LS remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of different stretching exercise positions on the LS and introduce effective stretching exercise methods to clinicians. Twenty-four university students (12 men, 12 women) with a shortened LS were recruited. LS muscle activity, LS index (LSI), and cervical range of motion (ROM) were measured pre (baseline) and post three different stretching exercise positions (sitting, quadruped, and prone). The LSI and cervical ROM exceeded the minimal detectable change and had significant changes. The LSI was greater in the sitting position than at the baseline (p = 0.01), quadruped position (p Stretching the LS in the sitting position was the most effective exercise for improving LS muscle length and cervical ROM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Scapular muscle activity from selected strengthening exercises performed at low and high intensity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Zebis, Mette K; Saervoll, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    practical implications for exercise prescription for optimal shoulder function. For example, both workers with neck pain and athletes at risk of shoulder impingement (e.g. overhead sports) should perform push-up plus and press-up to specifically strengthen the serratus anterior and lower trapezius.......A balanced level of muscle strength between the different parts of the scapular muscles is important to optimize performance and prevent injuries in athletes. Emerging evidence suggests that many athletes lack balanced strength in the scapular muscles. Evidence based recommendations are important...... for proper exercise prescription. This study determines scapular muscle activity during strengthening exercises for scapular muscles performed at low and high intensities (Borg-CR10 level 3 and 8). Surface electromyography (EMG) from selected scapular muscles was recorded during seven strengthening exercises...

  3. Comparison of scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after pectoralis minor stretching on scapular alignment and scapular upward rotators activity in subjects with short pectoralis minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Hyun; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Yoon, Tae-Lim; Choi, Sil-Ah; Choi, Woo-Jeong; Choi, Bong-Sam; Ko, Chang-Hee

    2015-08-01

    To compare scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after pectoralis minor (PM) stretching on the PM index (PMI), scapular anterior tilting index, scapular upward rotation angle, and scapular upward rotators' activity in subjects with a short PM. Fifteen subjects with a short PM participated in this study. The PMI, scapular anterior tilting index, and scapular upward rotation angle were measured after scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretches. Scapular upward rotators' activities were collected during scapular posterior tilting exercise alone and scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretches. The PMI and scapular upward rotation angle, as well as the activity of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscles, were significantly greater for scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching and the scapular anterior tilting index was significantly lower for scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching than the scapular posterior tilting exercise alone. Scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching in subjects with a short PM could be an effective method of modifying scapular alignment and scapular upward rotator activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The influence of a depressed scapular alignment on upper limb neural tissue mechanosensitivity and local pressure pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Merinero, Patricia; Lluch, Enriqe; Gallezo-Izquierdo, Tomas; Pecos-Martín, Daniel; Plaza-Manzano, Gustavo; Nuñez-Nagy, Susana; Falla, Deborah

    2017-06-01

    A depressed scapular alignment could lead to prolonged and repetitive stress or compression of the brachial plexus, resulting in sensitization of neural tissue. However, no study has investigated the influence of alignment of the scapulae on sensitization of upper limb neural tissue in otherwise asymptomatic people. In this case-control study, we investigate the influence of a depressed scapular alignment on mechanosensitivity of the upper limb peripheral nervous system as well as pressure pain thresholds (PPT). Asymptomatic individuals with neutral vertical scapular alignment (n = 25) or depressed scapular alignment (n = 25) participated. We measured the upper limb neurodynamic test (ULNT1), including assessment of symptom response and elbow range of motion (ROM), and PPT measured over upper limb peripheral nerve trunks, the upper trapezius muscle and overlying cervical zygapophyseal joints. Subjects with a depressed scapular reported significantly greater pain intensity (t = 5.7, p < 0.0001) and reduced elbow extension ROM (t = -2.7, p < 0.01) during the ULNT1 compared to those with a normal scapular orientation. Regardless of the location tested, the group presenting with a depressed scapular had significantly lower PPT compared to those with a normal scapular orientation (PPT averaged across all sites: normal orientation: 3.3 ± 0.6 kg/cm(2), depressed scapular: 2.1 ± 0.5 kg/cm(2), p < 0.00001). Despite being asymptomatic, people with a depressed scapular have greater neck and upper limb neural tissue mechanosensitivity when compared to people with a normal scapular orientation. This study offers insight into the potential development of neck-arm pain due to a depressed scapular position. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Scapular dyskinesis and SICK syndrome in patients with a chronic type III acromioclavicular dislocation. Results of rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Stefano; Postacchini, Roberto; Gumina, Stefano

    2015-05-01

    Scapular dyskinesis has been related to acromioclavicular injuries. A rehabilitation protocol has been studied in order to treat scapular dyskinesis, but it has not yet been evaluated. This rehabilitation programme was adopted to improve the shoulder function, thereby improving the scapular dyskinesis in patients with chronic acromioclavicular dislocation. Twenty-four patients diagnosed with chronic type III acromioclavicular dislocation and scapular dyskinesis that have already been conservatively treated were enrolled in the rehabilitation protocol and analysed. Fourteen of these patients had a Scapular Inferior Coracoid dysKinesis (SICK) Syndrome. The adopted rehabilitation protocol consisted of 12 strengthening and stretching exercises of the scapulae. The final follow-ups were performed after 6 weeks, 6 months and 12 months using clinical measurements of scapular position and clinical evaluation of the scapular motion. In order to evaluate the SICK scapula syndrome, we used the SICK Scapula Rating Scale. The shoulder function was evaluated with a Constant Score and a Subjective Shoulder Value. After 12 months, the follow-up concluded that the scapular dyskinesis was no longer present in 18/23 patients (78.2 %). SICK scapula syndrome was observed in 4/8 patients with a scapular malposition. The Scapula Rating Scale score in 4 patients with SICK scapula was 7.5 points. After 12 months of rehabilitation, the mean Constant Score and Subjective Shoulder Value grew up to 85 points. The scapular dyskinesis and SICK syndrome secondary to chronic type III AC dislocation can be treated with the proposed rehabilitation protocol resulting in positive improvements of the shoulder function within 6 weeks; however, patients that do not respond to the rehabilitation programme will not improve with extended rehabilitation time. It is important to advise patients of the specific exercises for the prevention/treatment of scapular dyskinesis in the rehabilitation programme after

  6. Different positions of uncertain lives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenum, Helle

    On the basis of my ethnographic research in Denmark and Spain, I will investigate and compare four different positions of illegality in two different national contexts. Legal and institutional practices on the one hand produce the conditions for migrant illegality as such, but are also decisive...

  7. Muscle thickness measurements of the lower trapezius with rehabilitative ultrasound imaging are confounded by scapular dyskinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seitz, Amee L; Baxter, Caralyn J; Benya, Kristen

    2015-08-01

    Alterations in scapular muscle activity have been theorized to contribute to abnormal scapular motion and shoulder pain, but pose challenges to quantify in the clinic. Rehabilitative Ultrasound Imaging (RUSI) has proved useful identifying dysfunction of lumbar regional stabilizing muscle activity, specifically contractile behavior. Although, recent examinations of scapular stabilizing trapezius muscle function using RUSI did not detect alterations individuals with shoulder pain or differences in muscle thickness between varying external loads in asymptomatic individuals, a potential confounder to prior results, scapular dyskinesis has not been controlled. It is unknown if dyskinesis alters scapular muscle thickness during activation measured with RUSI. Thus, the purpose of this study was to compare change in scapular muscle thickness between individuals with and without scapular dyskinesis. Thirty-nine asymptomatic adults with (n = 19) and without (n = 20) scapular dyskinesis, defined with a reliable and validated method, participated. Two separate ultrasound images of the serratus anterior (SA) and lower trapezius (LT) were captured under two randomized conditions, rest and isometric contraction against gravity, and saved for blinded measurement. Change in thickness with contraction was calculated and expressed as a percentage. The dyskinesis group demonstrated a greater increase (p = 0.005) in LT thickness with the isometric contraction than the group without (mean difference = 31.6%; 95%CI = 10.3, 53.0). No differences in SA or resting thickness of either muscle were found between groups. The presence of scapular dyskinesis alters thickness changes of the lower trapezius during activation. Furthermore, potential underlying reasons beyond muscle contractile behavior must be considered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Scapular asymmetry in participants with and without shoulder impingement syndrome; a three-dimensional motion analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Elif; Duzgun, Irem; Baltaci, Gul

    2016-11-01

    This study analyzed the dynamic three-dimensional scapular kinematics and scapular asymmetry in participants with and without shoulder impingement syndrome. Twenty-nine participants with shoulder impingement syndrome, have been suffering from unilateral shoulder pain at the dominant arm lasting more than six weeks and thirty-seven healthy controls participated in the study. Scapular kinematics was measured with an electromagnetic tracking device during shoulder elevation in the sagittal plane. Data for bilateral scapular orientation were analyzed at 30°, 60°, 90°, and 120° of humerothoracic elevation and lowering. The symmetry angle was calculated to quantify scapular asymmetry throughout shoulder elevation. Statistical comparisons indicated that the scapula was more downwardly rotated (pshoulder impingement syndrome compared to healthy controls. Side-to-side comparisons revealed that the scapula was more anteriorly tilted on the involved side of participants with shoulder impingement syndrome (p=0.01), and the scapula was rotated more internally (p=0.02) and downwardly (p=0.01) on the dominant side of healthy controls. Although there were side-to-side differences in both groups, symmetry angle calculation revealed that the scapular movement was more asymmetrical for scapular internal and upward rotation in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome when compared with healthy controls (pshoulder assessment and rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. RIGID TAPE VERSUS KINESIO TAPE ON SCAPULAR ROTATION AND FORWARD HEAD ANGLE IN SUBACROMIAL IMPINGEMENT SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Eman A. Embaby; Eman M.A. Abdalgwad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Rigid and kinesio taping is commonly used in the rehabilitation and prevention of subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS). It is proposed to have positive effects on shoulder function and scapular kinematics. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding the effectiveness of rigid versus elastic taping on scapular upward rotation and forward head posture (FHP), which is commonly adopted in SIS. Purpose: This study was designed to investigate the effect of taping with post...

  10. Scapular-focused treatment in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, F; Nijs, J; Mollekens, S; Jeurissen, I; Truijen, S; Mottram, S; Meeusen, R

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical trial is to compare the effectiveness of a scapular-focused treatment with a control therapy in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. Therefore, a randomized clinical trial with a blinded assessor was used in 22 patients with shoulder impingement syndrome. The primary outcome measures included self-reported shoulder disability and pain. Next, patients were evaluated regarding scapular positioning and shoulder muscle strength. The scapular-focused treatment included stretching and scapular motor control training. The control therapy included stretching, muscle friction, and eccentric rotator cuff training. Main outcome measures were the shoulder disability questionnaire, diagnostic tests for shoulder impingement syndrome, clinical tests for scapular positioning, shoulder pain (visual analog scale; VAS), and muscle strength. A large clinically important treatment effect in favor of scapular motor control training was found in self-reported disability (Cohen's d = 0.93, p = 0.025), and a moderate to large clinically important improvement in pain during the Neer test, Hawkins test, and empty can test (Cohen's d 0.76, 1.04, and 0.92, respectively). In addition, the experimental group demonstrated a moderate (Cohen's d = 0.67) improvement in self-experienced pain at rest (VAS), whereas the control group did not change. The effects were maintained at three months follow-up.

  11. Shoulder kinematics is not influenced by external load during elevation in the scapular plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Marcelo P; Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Forte, Felipe de C; de Toledo, Joelly M; Aldabe, Daniela; Loss, Jefferson F

    2014-02-01

    The current study aimed to compare the shoulder kinematics (3D scapular orientation, scapular angular displacement and scapulohumeral rhythm) of asymptomatic participants under unloaded and loaded conditions during unilateral shoulder elevation in the scapular plane. We used a repeated-measures design with a convenience sample. Eleven male participants with an age range of 21-28 years with no recent history of shoulder injury participated in the study. The participants performed isometric shoulder elevation from a neutral position to approximately 150 degrees of elevation in the scapular plane in intervals of approximately 30 degrees during unloaded and loaded conditions. Shoulder kinematic data were obtained with videogrammetry. During shoulder elevation, the scapula rotated upwardly and externally, and tilted posteriorly. The addition of an external load did not affect 3D scapular orientation, scapular angular displacement, or scapulohumeral rhythm throughout shoulder elevation (P > .05). In clinical practice, clinicians should expect to observe upward and external rotation and posterior tilt of the scapula during their assessments of shoulder elevation. Such behavior was not influenced by an external load normalized to 5% of body weight when performed in an asymptomatic population.

  12. MRI for the diagnosis of scapular dyskinesis: a report of two cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, Wataru; Tasaki, Atsushi [St. Luke' s International Hospital, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Tokyo (Japan); Nozaki, Taiki [St. Luke' s International Hospital, Department of Radiology, Tokyo (Japan)

    2017-02-15

    Scapular dyskinesis describes the altered position of the scapula and/or abnormal movements of the scapulothoracic joint. It is caused by bony anatomical variations, bursitis, tumors, and muscular pathological conditions including loss of innervation and fibrosis. Scapular dyskinesis is just as often subclinical as it is symptomatic, and as the periscapular anatomical changes may not result in patient symptoms, a precise diagnosis of the etiology and pathophysiology has been a challenge. Scapular bony prominence is a common etiology of scapular dyskinesis, but does not always result in morbidity. We report a case of a 39-year-old man in whom an extensive MRI with fluid-sensitive imaging sequences covering the whole of the scapula was beneficial in diagnosing the inflammation adjacent to the bony deformity, which confirmed the etiology of scapular dyskinesis. Furthermore, in a 41-year old man without any anatomical variances, a similar MRI showed inflammation at the subscapular fossa that suggested altered scapular kinematics. An arthroscopic debridement of the lesion improved the symptoms. MRI in conjunction with plain radiographs, CT and physical examination enabled a precise diagnosis of the etiology. Fluid-sensitive MR images are important in defining the presence of inflammation, and are beneficial in determining the pathological significance of findings through other diagnostic measures. (orig.)

  13. Differences in glenohumeral translations calculated with three methods: Comparison of relative positions and contact point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuki, Keisuke; Kenmoku, Tomonori; Ochiai, Nobuyasu; Sugaya, Hiroyuki; Banks, Scott A

    2016-06-14

    Several published articles have reported 3-dimensional glenohumeral kinematics using model-image registration techniques. However, different methods to compute the translations were used in these articles. The purpose of this study was to compare glenohumeral translations calculated with three different methods. Fifteen healthy males with a mean age of 31 years (range, 27-36 years old) were enrolled in this study. Fluoroscopic images during scapular plane elevation were recorded at 30 frames per second for the right shoulder in each subject, and CT-derived models of the humerus and the scapula were matched with the silhouette of the bones in the fluoroscopic images using model-image registration techniques. Glenohumeral translations were computed with three methods: relative position of the origins of the humeral and scapular models, contact points of the two models, and relative positions based upon the calculated glenohumeral center of rotation (CoR). In the supero-inferior direction, translations calculated with the three methods were roughly parallel, with the maximum difference of 1.6mm (Ptranslations with the origins and CoR were parallel; however, translations computed with the origins and contact point describe arcs that differ by almost 2mm at low humeral elevation angles and converge at higher degrees of humeral elevation (Ptranslations calculated using three methods showed statistically significant differences that may be important when comparing detailed results of different studies. However, these relatively small differences are likely subclinical, so that all three methods can reasonably be used for description of glenohumeral translations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Functional morphology of the Neandertal scapular glenoid fossa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Marisa E; Churchill, Steven E

    2015-01-01

    Neandertals and Homo sapiens are known to differ in scapular glenoid fossa morphology. Functional explanations may be appropriate for certain aspects of glenoid fossa morphology; however, other factors--e.g., allometry, evolutionary development--must be addressed before functional morphology is considered. Using three-dimensional geometric morphometrics, shape of the scapular glenoid fossa was compared among Neandertals, early and recent modern humans, chimpanzees, orangutans, Australopithecus afarensis, and Au. sediba. Permutation analysis revealed that side, sex, and lifestyle did not correlate with shape. Of the features we found to differ between groups, anterior glenoid rim morphology and fossa curvature did not correlate with the aforementioned shape variables; thus, a functional explanation is appropriate for these components of glenoid fossa shape. Shared morphology among recent humans and chimpanzees (to the exclusion of Neandertals and orangutans) suggests independent forces contributing to these morphological configurations. Potential explanations include adaptations to habitual behavior and locomotor adaptations in the scapulae of recent humans and chimpanzees; these explanations are supported by clinical and experimental literature. The absence of these morphological features in Neandertals may support the lack of these selective forces on their scapular glenoid fossa morphology. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Scapular kinematic and shoulder muscle activity alterations after serratus anterior muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umehara, Jun; Kusano, Ken; Nakamura, Masatoshi; Morishita, Katsuyuki; Nishishita, Satoru; Tanaka, Hiroki; Shimizu, Itsuroh; Ichihashi, Noriaki

    2018-02-23

    Although the serratus anterior muscle has an important role in scapular movement, no study to date has investigated the effect of serratus anterior fatigue on scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity. The purpose of this study was to clarify the effect of serratus anterior fatigue on scapular movement and shoulder muscle activity. The study participants were 16 healthy men. Electrical muscle stimulation was used to fatigue the serratus anterior muscle. Shoulder muscle strength and endurance, scapular movement, and muscle activity were measured before and after the fatigue task. The muscle activity of the serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius, anterior and middle deltoid, and infraspinatus muscles was recorded, and the median power frequency of these muscles was calculated to examine the degree of muscle fatigue. The muscle endurance and median power frequency of the serratus anterior muscle decreased after the fatigue tasks, whereas the muscle activities of the serratus anterior, upper trapezius, and infraspinatus muscles increased. External rotation of the scapula at the shoulder elevated position increased after the fatigue task. Selective serratus anterior fatigue due to electric muscle stimulation decreased the serratus anterior endurance at the flexed shoulder position. Furthermore, the muscle activities of the serratus anterior, upper trapezius, and infraspinatus increased and the scapular external rotation was greater after serratus anterior fatigue. These results suggest that the rotator cuff and scapular muscle compensated to avoid the increase in internal rotation of the scapula caused by the dysfunction of the serratus anterior muscle. Copyright © 2018 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Infraglenoidal scapular notching in reverse total shoulder replacement: a prospective series of 60 cases and systematic review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hochreiter Josef

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of infraglenoidal scapular notching in reversed total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA is still controversially discussed. Our goal was to evaluate its potential influence on subjective shoulder stability and clinical outcome. We hypothesized that subjective instability and clinical outcome after implantation of RTSA correlates with objective scapular notching. Methods Sixty shoulders were assessed preoperatively and at minimum 2-year follow-up for active range of motion and by use of the Oxford instability score, Rowe score for instability, Constant score for pain, Constant shoulder score, DASH score. All shoulders were evaluated on anterior-posterior and axillary lateral radiographic views. These X-ray scans were classified twice by two orthopaedic surgeons with respect to infraglenoidal scapular notching according to the classification of Nerot. Notching was tested for correlation with clinical outcome scores to the evaluated notching. Results We found no significant correlation between infraglenoidal scapular notching and clinical outcomes after a mid-term follow-up from 24 to 60 months, but at the final follow-up of 60 months and more, we did see statistically significant, positive correlations between infraglenoidal scapular notching and the Constant pain score as well as active range of motion. At mean follow-up of 42 months (range from 24 to 96 months we found no significant correlation between subjective instability and infraglenoidal scapular notching. Conclusions We conclude that patients' subjective impression on their shoulders' stability is not correlating with radiological signs of infraglenoidal scapular notching. Nevertheless clinical parameters are affected by infraglenoidal scapular notching, at least in the long term

  17. [The relationship between scapular dyskinesia, pain, range of motion, and flexibility in patients with neck and shoulder problems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozünlü Pekyavaş, Nihan; Kunduracılar, Zuhal; Ersin, Aybüke; Ergüneş, Cengiz; Tonga, Eda; Karataş, Metin

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between scapular dyskinesia, pain, and flexibility in patients with neck, shoulder, or both injuries. A total of 160 patients who came to Baskent University Hospital, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation with pathology and pain in the neck and shoulder regions were included to our study. Patients were divided into three groups; Neck group, shoulder group and neck+shoulder group. Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain intensity, goniometer for range of motion, and tape measurement for evaluation of flexibility was used. Lateral Scapular Slide Test (LSST) and Scapular Retraction Test (SRT) vs Skapular Assisstance Test (SAT) were used for evaluation of scapular dyskinesia. SRT (r=0.617, p=0.000) and SAT (r=0.565, p=0.000) positivity was found to be correlated with dominant and non-dominant sides in patients with neck pathology. Pain at night and during rest were found to correlate with pain during activity in patients with neck+shoulder pathology (r=0.572, p=0.002). No significant correlation was found between pain intensity and scapular dyskinesia in all groups. LSST values were found under 1.5 cm and therefore, scapular mobilization was considered as normal (LSST1=0.76±0.74; LSST2=0.68±0.81; LSST3=0.75±0.75). In addition to joint limitations and flexibility, scapular dyskinesia should also be evaluated in order to solve problems related to pain in patients with neck, shoulder and neck+shoulder pathology. In future studies, the classification of groups according to pathology may help to understand the impact of scapular dyskinesia on the pathology of shoulder and neck pain.

  18. Kinesiology taping does not alter shoulder strength, shoulder proprioception, or scapular kinematics in healthy, physically active subjects and subjects with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keenan, Karen A; Akins, Jonathan S; Varnell, Michelle; Abt, John; Lovalekar, Mita; Lephart, Scott; Sell, Timothy C

    2017-03-01

    To examine the effect of kinesiology tape (KT) on shoulder strength, proprioception, and scapular kinematics in healthy and Subacromial Impingement Syndrome (SAIS) subjects. Placebo-controlled quasi-experimental study. Research laboratory. A total of 30 physically active subjects participated. Ten healthy subjects with no previous history of shoulder pathology received KT on the dominant shoulder. Twenty subjects with shoulder pain for a minimum of two weeks and presenting with clinical signs of impingement were allotted to receive KT (n = 10) or placebo taping (PT, n = 10) on the involved shoulder. All participants were tested pre- and post-application. Shoulder internal/external rotation (IR/ER) strength was assessed with isokinetic dynamometry (average peak torque/body weight). Shoulder IR/ER proprioception was assessed through threshold to detect passive motion (mean absolute error in degrees). Scapular position at 90° and 120° of shoulder abduction during arm raising/lowering were assessed using a 3D motion analysis system. No significant within group or between group differences were demonstrated for any measure. Taping does not appear to aid/impair shoulder strength, shoulder proprioception, or scapular kinematics. Future research should explore if the effects of KT are time-dependent and similar in other pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Yoga Improves Upper-Extremity Function and Scapular Posturing in Persons with Hyperkyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Ying; Greendale, Gail A; Kazadi, Leslie; Salem, George J

    2012-06-01

    Hyperkyphosis (excess thoracic spine curvature) is associated with upper-extremity functional limitations and altered scapular posturing. The purpose of this study was to quantify the changes in upper-extremity function and scapular posturing following a 6-month yogaintervention in persons with hyperkyphosis. Twenty-one older adults with hyperkyphosis (75.5+7.4 yrs) enrolled in the UCLA Yoga for Kyphosis randomized controlled trial, elected to participate in this uncontrolled, prepost substudy of upper-extremity function. They were measured at baseline and after a 24-week yoga intervention. Maximum vertical reach and timed book tests were used to evaluate upper-extremity function. Scapular posturing was quantified using a motion analysis system and data was obtained under 4 conditions: 1) quiet-standing, 2) normal walking, 3) fast walking, and 4) seated. Paired t-tests were used to test for changes between baseline and 6-month follow-up measures and Cohen's d was calculated to examine effect sizes. Following the 6-month yoga intervention, participants improved their book test performance by 26.4% (p < 0.001; d = 1.5). Scapular protraction decreased by 2.9% during the static-sitting condition (p < 0.001; d = 0.5) and the overall excursion of the scapulae decreased for both fast (25.0%, p < 0.05; d = 0.6) and self-selected walking (29.4%, p < 0.01; d = 0.9). There were no changes in maximum vertical reach. Subjects demonstrated significant improvements with small to large effect sizes in the timed book test and scapular posturing to a less protracted position during both static and dynamic conditions after the intervention. These adaptations are likely to reduce the risk of scapular impingement and help preserve functional independence in older adults.

  20. Acute effect of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques and classic exercises in adhesive capsulitis: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Yuruk, Zeliha Ozlem; Zeybek, Aslican; Gulsen, Mustafa; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah

    2016-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to compare the initial effects of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and classic exercise interventions with physiotherapy modalities on pain, scapular dyskinesis, range of motion, and function in adhesive capsulitis. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-three subjects were allocated to 3 groups: scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercies and physiotherapy modalities, classic exercise and physiotherapy modalities, and only physiotherapy modalities. The intervention was applied in a single session. The Visual Analog Scale, Lateral Scapular Slide Test, range of motion and Simple Shoulder Test were evaluated before and just after the one-hour intervention in the same session (all in one session). [Results] All of the groups showed significant differences in shoulder flexion and abduction range of motion and Simple Shoulder Test scores. There were statistically significant differences in Visual Analog Scale scores in the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and control groups, and no treatment method had significant effect on the Lateral Scapular Slide Test results. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups before and after the intervention. [Conclusion] Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation, classic exercise, and physiotherapy modalities had immediate effects on adhesive capsulitis in our study. However, there was no additional benefit of exercises in one session over physiotherapy modalities. Also, an effective treatment regimen for shoulder rehabilitation of adhesive capsulitis patients should include scapular exercises.

  1. Four-week exercise program does not change rotator cuff muscle activation and scapular kinematics in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yin-Liang; Karduna, Andrew

    2016-12-01

    Rotator cuff and scapular muscle strengthening exercises are an essential part of shoulder rehabilitation and sports training. Although the effect of exercise training on pain and function have been widely investigated, few studies have focused on the changes in shoulder kinematics and muscle activity after exercise training. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises on shoulder kinematics and the activation of rotator cuff and scapular muscles in healthy subjects. Thirty-six healthy subjects were recruited and randomly assigned into either a training or control group. Subjects in the training group were trained with rotator cuff and scapular strengthening exercises for 4 weeks. Scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity during arm elevation were measured before and after exercise training. After the 4-week training protocol, there was an increase in strength and a decrease in upper trapezius activation in the training group, which is consistent with previous studies. However, no difference was found in scapular kinematics and activation of rotator cuff muscles between the control and training groups after the training protocol. Although the exercise protocol resulted in strength gains for the rotator cuff, these gains did not transfer to an increase in muscle activation during motion. These results demonstrate the difficulty in changing activation patterns of the rotator cuff muscles. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 34:2079-2088, 2016. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Observational Scapular Dyskinesis: Known-Groups Validity in Patients With and Without Shoulder Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Hillary A; Sum, Jonathan C; Pozzi, Federico; Varghese, Rini; Michener, Lori A

    2017-08-01

    Study Design Cross-sectional. Background The scapular dyskinesis test (SDT) has demonstrated reliability and validity, but its utility for clinical decision making is unclear. Objectives To characterize the prevalence of scapular dyskinesis in participants with and without shoulder pain, and to determine the influence of blinding to the presence of shoulder pain on prevalence of scapular dyskinesis. Methods Participants (n = 135), 67 with shoulder pain and 68 healthy controls, were included in this study. The SDT was performed by 2 examiners, from a total of 21 physical therapists. The second examiner was blinded to the participant's presence of shoulder pain. The SDT involved participants performing 5 repetitions of shoulder flexion and abduction, while the clinician observed for scapular dyskinesis, as characterized by scapular winging or dysrhythmia. Dyskinesis was rated as normal, subtle, or obvious. Ratings were collapsed into 2 groups, dyskinesis (subtle and obvious) and no dyskinesis (normal), as recommended by expert consensus. Results There were no significant differences for scapular dyskinesis prevalence between the shoulder pain group and control group during the SDT in abduction (shoulder pain, 67.2%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.55, 0.77 and control group, 52.9%; 95% CI: 0.41, 0.64; P = .09) or flexion (shoulder pain, 67.2%; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.77 and control group, 61.8%; 95% CI: 0.50, 0.72; P = .51). There were significant differences (P ≤001) between the examiners' SDT ratings in the shoulder pain group. The unblinded examiner reported a higher prevalence when testing the involved shoulder for dyskinesis in flexion (blinded, 67.7%; 95% CI: 0.56, 0.78 and unblinded, 80%; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.88) and during abduction (blinded, 66.2%; 95% CI: 0.54, 0.76 and unblinded, 78.5%; 95% CI: 0.67, 0.87). Conclusion Scapular dyskinesis as assessed with the SDT is not more prevalent in those with shoulder pain. Rating was influenced by an examiner's knowledge of

  3. Pillow use: the behavior of cervical stiffness, headache and scapular/arm pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Susan J; Grimmer-Somers, Karen A; Trott, Patricia H

    2010-08-11

    Pillows are intended to support the head and neck in a neutral position to minimize biomechanical stresses on cervical structures whilst sleeping. Biomechanical stresses are associated with waking cervical symptoms. This paper adds to the scant body of research investigating whether different pillow types produce different types and frequencies of waking symptoms in asymptomatic subjects. A random-allocation block-design blinded field trial was conducted in a large South Australian regional town. Subjects were side-sleepers using one pillow only, and not receiving treatment for cervicothoracic problems. Waking cervical stiffness, headache and scapular/arm pain were recorded daily. Five experimental pillows (polyester, foam regular, foam contour, feather, and latex) were each trialed for a week. Subjects' 'own' pillow was the control (a baseline week, and a washout week between each experimental pillow trial week). Subjects reported waking symptoms related to known factors (other than the pillow), and subjects could 'drop out' of any trial pillow week. Disturbed sleep unrelated to the pillow was common. Waking symptoms occurring at least once in the baseline week were reported by approximately 20% of the subjects on their 'own' pillow. The feather trial pillow performed least well, producing the highest frequency of waking symptoms, while the latex pillow performed best. The greatest number of 'drop outs' occurred on the feather pillow. The foam contour pillow performed no better than the foam regular pillow. 'Own' pillows did not guarantee symptom-free waking, and thus were a questionable control. The trial pillows had different waking symptom profiles. Latex pillows can be recommended over any other type for control of waking headache and scapular/arm pain.

  4. Effect of sitting posture on 3-dimensional scapular kinematics measured by skin-mounted electromagnetic tracking sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Margaret A; Lee, Raymond Y

    2003-04-01

    To determine the effect of trunk sitting posture on scapular kinematics during humeral elevation by using skin-mounted electromagnetic tracking sensors. Repeated-measures design contrasting scapular kinematics in 2 different sitting postures. A biomechanics laboratory in Hong Kong with a real-time, 3-dimensional electromagnetic tracking device for measuring movements of the scapula. A sample of 16 healthy adults (12 women, 4 men; age, 21.6+/-3.92y) with full, pain-free shoulder range of motion and no history of shoulder pathology. Not applicable. Movements of the scapula were measured while each subject performed humeral elevation in an upright seated position and a slouched seated position. In both postures, posterior tip, lateral and upward rotation of the scapula, and lateral rotation of the humerus were observed during humeral elevation. When the slouched posture was adopted, there were significant decreases in the posterior tip and lateral rotation of the scapula, but there was no significant change in the magnitude of the upward rotation of the scapula. Increased thoracic kyphosis significantly alters the kinematics of the scapula during humeral elevation.

  5. Effects of scapular taping on the activity onset of scapular muscles and the scapular kinematics in volleyball players with rotator cuff tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Hio Teng; Ng, Gabriel Yin-Fat; Fu, Siu Ngor

    2017-06-01

    To examine the effect of scapular taping on the activity onset of scapular muscles and the scapular kinematics during arm elevation in volleyball players with rotator cuff (RC) tendinopathy. Randomized placebo-controlled repeated measures METHODS: Twenty-six male volleyball players with RC tendinopathy (mean age=23.6±3.3years) participated in the study. Electromyography (EMG) activity onset of upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) and the three-dimensional scapular kinematics quantified by using an acromial marker cluster method were compared with three scapular taping protocols, namely, no taping, therapeutic taping, and placebo taping. The MT, LT and SA activated significantly earlier in both therapeutic taping (all ptaping conditions than no taping conditions (all ptaping and no taping conditions were compared (p=0.007). Scapular taping may enhance the neuromotor control of the scapular muscles. Whether it provides adequate support for normal scapular kinematics during arm movement in athletes with RC tendinopathy await for further studies. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Neuromuscular dynamic scapular winging: Clinical, electromyographic and magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Christelle; Guérini, Henri; Roren, Alexandra; Zauderer, Jennifer; Vuillemin, Valérie; Seror, Paul; Ouaknine, Michaël; Palazzo, Clémence; Bourdet, Christopher; Pluot, Étienne; Roby-Brami, Agnès; Drapé, Jean-Luc; Rannou, François; Poiraudeau, Serge; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine

    2015-12-01

    Dyskinesia of the scapula is a clinical diagnosis and includes all disorders affecting scapula positioning and movement whatever its etiology. Scapular winging is a subtype of scapular dyskinesia due to a dynamic prominence of the medial border of the scapula (DSW) secondary to neuromuscular imbalance in the scapulothoracic stabilizer muscles. The two most common causes of DSW are microtraumatic or idiopathic lesions of the long thoracic nerve (that innerves the serratus anterior) or the accessory nerve (that innerves the trapezius). Diagnosis of DSW is clinical and electromyographic. Use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be of interest to distinguish lesion secondary to a long thoracic nerve from accessory nerve and to rule out scapular dyskinesia related to other shoulder disorders. Causal neuromuscular lesion diagnosis in DSW is challenging. Clinical examinations, combined with scapular MRI, could help to their specific diagnosis, determining their stage, ruling out differential diagnosis and thus give raise to more targeted treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Local systematic differences in 2MASS positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos Fierro, I. H.; Calderón, J. H.

    2018-01-01

    We have found that positions in the 2MASS All-sky Catalog of Point Sources show local systematic differences with characteristic length-scales of ˜ 5 to ˜ 8 arcminutes when compared with several catalogs. We have observed that when 2MASS positions are used in the computation of proper motions, the mentioned systematic differences cause systematic errors in the resulting proper motions. We have developed a method to locally rectify 2MASS with respect to UCAC4 in order to diminish the systematic differences between these catalogs. The rectified 2MASS catalog with the proposed method can be regarded as an extension of UCAC4 for astrometry with accuracy ˜ 90 mas in its positions, with negligible systematic errors. Also we show that the use of these rectified positions removes the observed systematic pattern in proper motions derived from original 2MASS positions.

  8. Assessment of cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia in violin players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tawde, Pooja; Dabadghav, Rachana; Bedekar, Nilima; Shyam, Ashok; Sancheti, Parag

    2016-12-01

    Playing the violin can lead to asymmetric postures which can affect the cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular stability. The objective of the study was to assess the cervical range of motion, cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia in violin players and non-players of the same age group. An inclinometer was used to assess the cervical range of motion, pressure biofeedback was used to assess cervical core strength and scapular dyskinesia was also assessed in 30 professional violin players (18-40 years) compared with 30 age-matched non-players. Analysis was done using an unpaired t test. Significant change was seen with respect to extension (p = 0.051), cervical core strength (p = 0.005), right (Rt) superior angle 0° (p = 0.004), Rt superior angle 45° (p = 0.015) and Rt inferior angle 90° (p = 0.013). This study shows a significant difference in extension range of motion and cervical core strength of violin players. Also, there was scapular dyskinesia seen at 0° and 45° right-side superior angle of the scapula and 90° right-side inferior angle of the scapula.

  9. Infraspinatus strength assessment before and after scapular muscles rehabilitation in professional volleyball players with scapular dyskinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merolla, Giovanni; De Santis, Elisa; Sperling, John W; Campi, Fabrizio; Paladini, Paolo; Porcellini, Giuseppe

    2010-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that infraspinatus strength in professional volleyball players can be assessed with the scapula free (infraspinatus strength test, IST) and with the scapula retracted (infraspinatus scapula retraction test, ISRT) before and after scapular musculature training. A prospective study was performed in 31 professional volleyball players. Isometric strength (kg) of the infraspinatus with IST and with ISRT was recorded by a handheld dynamometer and compared with the values found after 3 and 6 months of rehabilitation. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed to exclude articular and cuff pathology. Pain scores were assessed using a visual analog scale. The mean increase in the force values of IST was statistically significant after 3 months (P biomechanic effect of scapular dyskinesis results in specific infraspinatus dysfunction that arise with the ISRT. ISRT is practical and consistent to assess the infraspinatus strength in overhead athletes with scapular dyskinesis. A functional rehabilitation protocol, designed to restore scapular muscles balance and shoulder mobility, is essential in the training program to prevent shoulder dysfunction and improve sports performance. Copyright © 2010 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Do stingers affect scapular kinematics in rugby players?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Maki, Nobukazu; Shimizu, Kyoko; Ota, Chihiro; Urayama, Shingo; Moriya, Shuichi; Kaketa, Takefumi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    Scapular dyskinesis is observed in subjects with pathologic conditions of the shoulder; however, there is limited information about the factors related to scapular dyskinesis among participants in rugby. The purpose of this study was to investigate the incidence, reliability, and relationships between scapular dyskinesis and variables related to the shoulder in high-school rugby players. A total of 164 Japanese high-school rugby players were evaluated with questionnaires, physical examinations, and a video analysis during their preseason. After evaluation of the inter-rater reliability of a classification of scapular dyskinesis, the outcomes were analyzed to assess the relationships between scapular dyskinesis and other variables during the preseason. The data were assessed with a logistic regression analysis calculating the odds ratios (OR). The inter-rater reliability among 3 blinded observers based on the Fleiss κ value and percentage agreement was .52 and 79.0%, respectively, which indicates that the method is moderately reliable. Scapular dyskinesis was identified in 16 (10.1%) shoulders among 159 players, with type I being prominent. A multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that a type I dyskinesis was significantly associated with a past history of stingers with projected pain to the affected side of the shoulder (OR, 3.7) and the player's competitive grade at the time of the survey (OR, 3.9). Scapular dyskinesis is significantly associated with a past history of stingers. This suggests that stingers are a causative factor of scapular dyskinesis in the rugby population. Our method of evaluating scapular dyskinesis in collision athletes exhibits moderate reliability. Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Case-control study of high-speed exercise history of Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse racehorses that died related to a complete scapular fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, S A; Entwistle, R C; Hitchens, P L; Gardner, I A; Stover, S M

    2013-05-01

    Identification of exercise history patterns that are related to catastrophic scapular fracture will facilitate prevention of racehorse fatalities. To determine if exercise patterns are associated with scapular fracture in Thoroughbred (TB) and Quarter Horse (QH) racehorses. High-speed exercise histories for 65 TB and 26 QH racehorses that had a complete scapular fracture (cases) and 2 matched control racehorses were retrospectively studied. Exercise variables were created from lifetime race and official timed workout reports. Associations between exercise variables and scapular fracture were investigated using conditional logistic regression. Thoroughbreds with a scapular fracture had a greater number of workouts, events (combined works and races), and mean event distances than QHs with a scapular fracture. Quarter Horses worked less frequently and accumulated distance at a lower rate than TBs. Breed differences were not found for career race number or length, time between races or lay-up variables for horses with ≥1 lay-up. For both breeds, cases had fewer events, lower recent accumulated distance and fewer active days in training than controls; however, a subset of TB cases with >10 events since lay-up had a longer active career than controls. For QHs that had a lay-up, total and mean lay-up times were greater for cases than controls. Multivariable models revealed that odds ratios (OR) of scapular fracture were greater for TBs that had not yet raced (OR = 23.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.03-177.38) and lower for QHs with more events (OR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.94). Racehorses that are in early high-speed training but behind that of their training cohort should be examined for signs of scapular stress remodelling. Quarter Horses that had a prolonged lay-up and TBs that have endured high-speed training for a longer duration than that of their training cohort also were at greater risk. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  12. Does bony increased-offset reverse shoulder arthroplasty decrease scapular notching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athwal, George S; MacDermid, Joy C; Reddy, K Murali; Marsh, Jonathan P; Faber, Kenneth J; Drosdowech, Darren

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this cohort study was to compare scapular notching rates, range of motion, and functional outcomes between patients who underwent a standard Grammont-style reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) and patients who underwent bony increased-offset reverse shoulder arthroplasty (BIO-RSA) at a minimum of 2 years' follow-up. We hypothesized that the BIO-RSA cohort would have lower notching rates and improved rotational range of motion; however, validated outcome scores between cohorts would be no different. A comparative cohort study was designed after a sample size calculation. A total of 40 patients were studied with 20 in each cohort (RSA vs BIO-RSA). All patients underwent an interview and physical examination. Outcomes included range of motion; shoulder strength; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) score; American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score; Simple Shoulder Test score; Constant score; and Global Rating of Change scale score. Radiographs were obtained for all patients and examined for scapular notching. When we compared demographic characteristics between the standard RSA and BIO-RSA cohorts, including age, sex, and follow-up duration, there were no significant differences between groups (P > .05). In addition, there were no significant differences between cohorts when we compared forward elevation (P = .418); external rotation (P = .999); internal rotation (P = .071); strength (P > .376); Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score (P = .229); American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score (P = .579); Simple Shoulder Test score (P = .522); Constant score (P = .917); or Global Rating of Change scale score (P = .167). The frequency of scapular notching, however, was significantly higher (P = .022) in the RSA cohort than in the BIO-RSA cohort: 75% versus 40%. Although the scapular notching rate was significantly higher in the standard RSA group, no other outcome measures were statistically different, including range of motion, strength

  13. Pillow use: the behavior of cervical stiffness, headache and scapular/arm pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan J Gordon

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Susan J Gordon1,2, Karen A Grimmer-Somers3, Patricia H Trott41Associate Professor, School of Public Health, Tropical Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, Australia; 2Member, International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Australia; 3Professor of Allied Health, School of Health Sciences, University of South Australia, Director, International Centre for Allied Health Evidence, University of South Australia, Australia; 4Associate Professor, School of Health Sciences, University of South AustraliaBackground: Pillows are intended to support the head and neck in a neutral position to minimize biomechanical stresses on cervical structures whilst sleeping. Biomechanical stresses are associated with waking cervical symptoms. This paper adds to the scant body of research investigating whether different pillow types produce different types and frequencies of waking symptoms in asymptomatic subjects.Methods: A random-allocation block-design blinded field trial was conducted in a large South Australian regional town. Subjects were side-sleepers using one pillow only, and not receiving treatment for cervicothoracic problems. Waking cervical stiffness, headache and scapular/arm pain were recorded daily. Five experimental pillows (polyester, foam regular, foam contour, feather, and latex were each trialed for a week. Subjects’ ‘own’ pillow was the control (a baseline week, and a washout week between each experimental pillow trial week. Subjects reported waking symptoms related to known factors (other than the pillow, and subjects could ‘drop out’ of any trial pillow week.Results: Disturbed sleep unrelated to the pillow was common. Waking symptoms occurring at least once in the baseline week were reported by approximately 20% of the subjects on their ‘own’ pillow. The feather trial pillow performed least well, producing the highest frequency of waking symptoms, while the latex

  14. Activities of daily living with reverse prostheses: importance of scapular compensation for functional mobility of the shoulder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrier, Alexandre; Scheuber, Patricia; Pioletti, Dominique P; Farron, Alain

    2013-07-01

    The nonanatomical design of reverse shoulder prostheses induce medial displacement of the center of rotation, impingements and may reduce the mobility of the shoulder. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that during activities of daily living functional mobility of the shoulder can be restored by scapular compensation. A numerical 3-dimensional model was developed to reproduce the movement of the scapula and humerus, during 4 activities of daily living measured experimentally. This hypothesis was tested in 4 configurations of the aequalis reverse prosthesis (standard 36-mm glenosphere, 42-mm glenosphere, lateralized 36-mm glenosphere, lateralized Bony Increased-Offset Reverse Shoulder Arthroplasty [BIO-RSA]), which were implanted in the virtual model. All impingement positions were evaluated, as the required scapular compensation to avoid impingements. With the 36-mm glenosphere, impingements occurred only for rest of hand to back-pocket positions. The 42-mm partly improved the mobility. The 2 lateralized glenospheres were free of impingement. When impingements occurred, the scapular compensation was less than 10°. Most reverse prostheses impingements reported in clinical and biomechanical studies can be avoided, either by scapular compensation or by a glenosphere lateralization. After reverse shoulder arthroplasty, a fraction of the mobility of the gleno-humeral is transferred to the scapulo-thoracic joint. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. A different perspective: introducing positive criminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronel, Natti; Elisha, Ety

    2011-04-01

    Positive criminology is a new conceptual perspective of criminology, encompassing several theories and models. Positive criminology refers to a focus on individuals' encounters with forces and influences that are experienced as positive, which distance them from deviance and crime, whether by means of formal and informal therapy programs and interventions, such as self-help groups; through emphasis of positive social elements, such as exposure to goodness, social acceptance, and reintegrative shaming; or based on positive personal traits, such as resilience and coherence. The perspective of positive criminology broadens that of traditional criminology, which focuses mainly on understanding the factors and processes that lead individuals and groups to what is defined as deviant and criminal behavior. Positive criminology is implemented in treatment and rehabilitation of individuals and groups that have demonstrated deviant and criminal behavior, by emphasizing positive experiences that may potentially prevent or discourage continued criminal behavior. Positive criminology is also expressed in prevention based on a positive approach.

  16. The effects of taping on scapular kinematics and muscle performance in baseball players with shoulder impingement syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yin-Hsin; Chen, Wen-Yin; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Wang, Wendy T J; Shih, Yi-Fen

    2009-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of elastic taping on kinematics, muscle activity and strength of the scapular region in baseball players with shoulder impingement. Seventeen baseball players with shoulder impingement were recruited from three amateur baseball teams. All subjects received both the elastic taping (Kinesio Tex) and the placebo taping (3M Micropore tape) over the lower trapezius muscle. We measured the 3-dimensional scapular motion, electromyographic (EMG) activities of the upper and lower trapezius, and the serratus anterior muscles during arm elevation. Strength of the lower trapezius was tested prior to and after each taping application. The results of the analyses of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures showed that the elastic taping significantly increased the scapular posterior tilt at 30 degrees and 60 degrees during arm raising and increased the lower trapezius muscle activity in the 60-30 degrees arm lowering phase (ptaping. The elastic taping resulted in positive changes in scapular motion and muscle performance. The results supported its use as a treatment aid in managing shoulder impingement problems.

  17. [Scapular balance angle reference values in a healthy population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, J; Gil, D; de Dios Errázuriz, J; Ruiz, P; Díaz, C; Aguila, P; Rosselot, A; Espinoza, R; Beltrán, M; Liendo, R; Soza, F

    2014-01-01

    To calculate the Scapular Balance Angle (SBA) reference values in a healthy population between 18 and 85 years old, and to define abnormality criteria for this sample. A descriptive study was conducted on a total of 300 individuals (mean age: 44.83, range: 18-83; proportion male/female: 1.59), calculating the SBA through manual measurement with a goniometer. An intraobserver Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of 0.87 and a interobserver ICC of 0.84 was observed. The values for the SBA in healthy population were 2.505 ± 2.340°. We define the abnormality criteria for this sample with an angle greater than 7.185°. SBA manual measurement is a simple and reproducible assessment of the position and rotation of the scapula in clinical practice. The main findings of this study are the reference values for the SBA and a statistical cut-off to define abnormality. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. Prosthetic design of reverse shoulder arthroplasty contributes to scapular notching and instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huri, Gazi; Familiari, Filippo; Salari, Nima; Petersen, Steve A; Doral, Mahmut Nedim; McFarland, Edward G

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate whether implant design, glenoid positioning, and other factors influenced instability and scapular notching in reverse total shoulder arthroplasty. METHODS We retrospectively reviewed records of patients who had undergone reverse total shoulder arthroplasty by the senior author from July 2004 through October 2011 and who had at least 24 mo of follow-up. The 58 patients who met the criteria had 65 arthroplasties: 18 with a Grammont-type prosthesis (Grammont group) and 47 with a lateral-based prosthesis (lateral-design group). We compared the groups by rates of scapular notching and instability and by radiographic markers of glenoid position and tilt. We also compared glenoid sphere sizes and the number of subscapularis tendon repairs between the groups. Rates were compared using the Fisher exact test. Notching severity distribution was compared using the χ2 test of association. Significance was set at P instability (3 of 18; 17%) than the lateral-design group (0 of 47; 0%) (P = 0.019). Glenoid position, glenoid sphere size, and subscapularis tendon repair were not predictive of scapular notching or instability, independent of implant design. With the lateral-based prosthesis, each degree of inferior tilt of the baseplate was associated with a 7.3% reduction in the odds of developing notching (odds ratio 0.937, 95%CI: 0.894-0.983). CONCLUSION The lateral-based prosthesis was associated with less instability and notching compared with the Grammont-type prosthesis. Prosthesis design appears to be more important than glenoid positioning. PMID:27900271

  19. The reliability of physical examination tests for the clinical assessment of scapular dyskinesis in subjects with shoulder complaints: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Toni; Struyf, Filip; Schmitt, Jochen; Lützner, Jörg; Kopkow, Christian

    2017-07-01

    Systematic review. The aim of this systematic review was to summarize and evaluate intra- and interrater reliability research of physical examination tests used for the assessment of scapular dyskinesis. Scapular dyskinesis, defined as alteration of normal scapular kinematics, is described as a non-specific response to different shoulder pathologies. A systematic literature search was conducted in MEDLINE, EMBASE, AMED and PEDro until March 20th, 2015. Methodological quality was assessed with the Quality Appraisal of Reliability Studies (QAREL) by two independent reviewers. The search strategy revealed 3259 articles, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. These studies evaluated the reliability of 41 test and test variations used for the assessment of scapular dyskinesis. This review identified a lack of high-quality studies evaluating intra- as well as interrater reliability of tests used for the assessment of scapular dyskinesis. In addition, reliability measures differed between included studies hindering proper cross-study comparisons. The effect of manual correction of the scapula on shoulder symptoms was evaluated in only one study, which is striking, since symptom alteration tests are used in routine care to guide further treatment. Thus, there is a strong need for further research in this area. Diagnosis, level 3a. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Improving Shoulder Kinematics in Individuals With Paraplegia: Comparison Across Circuit Resistance Training Exercises and Modifications in Hand Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riek, Linda M; Tome, Joshua; Ludewig, Paula M; Nawoczenski, Deborah A

    2016-07-01

    Circuit resistance training (CRT) should promote favorable kinematics (scapular posterior tilt, upward rotation, glenohumeral or scapular external rotation) to protect the shoulder from mechanical impingement following paraplegia. Understanding kinematics during CRT may provide a biomechanical rationale for exercise positions and exercise selection promoting healthy shoulders. The purposes of this study were: (1) to determine whether altering hand position during CRT favorably modifies glenohumeral and scapular kinematics and (2) to compare 3-dimensional glenohumeral and scapular kinematics during CRT exercises. The hypotheses that were tested were: (1) modified versus traditional hand positions during exercises improve kinematics over comparable humerothoracic elevation angles, and (2) the downward press demonstrates the least favorable kinematics. This was a cross-sectional observational study. The participants were 18 individuals (14 men, 4 women; 25-76 years of age) with paraplegia. An electromagnetic tracking system acquired 3-dimensional position and orientation data from the trunk, scapula, and humerus during overhead press, chest press, overhead pulldown, row, and downward press exercises. Participants performed exercises in traditional and modified hand positions. Descriptive statistics and 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance were used to evaluate the effect of modifications and exercises on kinematics. The modified position improved kinematics for downward press (glenohumeral external rotation increased 4.5° [P=.016; 95% CI=0.7, 8.3] and scapular external rotation increased 4.4° [P<.001; 95% CI=2.5, 6.3]), row (scapular upward rotation increased 4.6° [P<.001; 95% CI=2.3, 6.9]), and overhead pulldown (glenohumeral external rotation increased 18.2° [P<.001, 95% CI=16, 21.4]). The traditional position improved kinematics for overhead press (glenohumeral external rotation increased 9.1° [P=.001; 95% CI=4.1, 14.1], and scapular external rotation

  1. Enigma of scapular foramen and tunnels: an untold story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nidhi; Chauhan, Puja; Loh, Hitendra Kumar; Kohli, Mangala; Suri, Rajesh Kumar

    2017-10-12

    The study was undertaken to make a qualitative and quantitative assessment of unnamed foramen and tunnels in adult human scapulae with aid of plain and contrast radiographs. A total of 120 dry bones, 60 each of the right and the left side were included in the study. Distribution of these foramina and tunnels was noted for their number, side, location, course and communication. Their morphometry was done using Vernier's caliper. Incidence of scapular foramina was 7.5% (R > L), whereas scapular tunnels were seen in 15.8% cases. Incidence of the sinuous, curved, and straight tunnels was found to be 50, 39, and 10.7% respectively. Left-sided tunnels were longer than the right ones. Plain and contrast radiographs were taken to confirm the findings. Anatomy literature describes only two scapular foramina, namely, nutrient foramen and suprascapular foramen/notch in a great zeal; occurrence of such anonymous foramina is hardly discussed. Through this study, there is an endeavor towards unfolding the mystery of scapular foramina in terms of their morphometry and distribution, the knowledge of which will aid clinicians, forensic experts, and surgeons in better diagnosis and management of clinical cases.

  2. The scapular neck fracture : biomechanical, clinical and surgical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, Arthur van

    2005-01-01

    After a short introduction to the topics of this thesis, in chapter 2 we described the functional and radiological results of a retrospective study in patients with an ipsilateral scapular neck and clavicular shaft fracture (floating shoulder). Forty-six patients were treated between 1991 and 1996.

  3. Reconstruction of the maxilla following hemimaxillectomy defects with scapular tip grafts and dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertens, Christian; Freudlsperger, Christian; Bodem, Jens; Engel, Michael; Hoffmann, Jürgen; Freier, Kolja

    2016-11-01

    Treatment of post-resective defects of the maxilla can be challenging and usually requires dental obturation or microvascular reconstruction. As compared to soft-tissue microvascular grafts, bone reconstruction can additionally allow for facial support and retention of dental implants. The aim of this study was to evaluate scapular tip grafts with respect to their applicability for maxillary reconstruction and their potential to retain dental implants for later dental rehabilitation. In this retrospective study, 14 patients with hemimaxillectomy defects were reconstructed with free scapular tip grafts, oriented horizontally, to rebuild the palate and alveolar ridge. After bone healing, three-dimensional virtual implant planning was performed, and a radiographic guide was fabricated to enable implant placement in the optimal anatomic and prosthetic position. All patients' mastication and speech were evaluated, along with the extent of defect closure, suitability of the graft sites for implant placement, and soft-tissue stability. Pre- and postsurgical radiographs were also evaluated. A good postoperative outcome was achieved in all patients, with complete closure of maxillary defects that were class II, according to the system of Brown and Shaw. Additional bone augmentation was necessary in two patients in order to increase vertical bone height. Patients were subsequently treated with 50 dental implants to retain dental prostheses. In all cases, additional soft-tissue surgery was necessary to achieve a long-term stable periimplant situation. No implants were lost during the mean observation period of 34 months. Due to its specific form, the scapular tip graft is well suited to reconstruct the palate and maxillary alveolar ridge and to enable subsequent implant-retained rehabilitation. Due to the limited bone volume, an accurate three-dimensional graft orientation is essential. Furthermore, most cases require additional soft-tissue surgery to achieve a long

  4. Dorsal scapular nerve neuropathy: a narrative review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Brad

    2017-08-01

    The purpose of this paper is to elucidate this little known cause of upper back pain through a narrative review of the literature and to discuss the possible role of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) in the etiopathology of other similar diagnoses in this area including cervicogenic dorsalgia (CD), notalgia paresthetica (NP), SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern. Dorsal scapular nerve (DSN) neuropathy has been a rarely thought of differential diagnosis for mid scapular, upper to mid back and costovertebral pain. These are common conditions presenting to chiropractic, physiotherapy, massage therapy and medical offices. The methods used to gather articles for this paper included: searching electronic databases; and hand searching relevant references from journal articles and textbook chapters. One hundred-fourteen articles were retrieved. After removing duplicates, there were 57 articles of which 29 were retrieved. There were 26 articles and textbook chapters retrieved by hand searching equaling 55 articles retrieved of which 47 relevant articles were used in this report. The anatomy, pathway and function of the dorsal scapular nerve can be varied and exceptionally rarely may include a sensory component. The signs and symptoms, therefore, may include pain, atrophy, scapular winging, and dysesthesia. The mechanism of injury to the DSN is also quite varied ranging from postural to overuse in overhead work and sport. Other conditions in this area, including CD, NP, SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern bear a striking resemblance to DSN neuropathy. DSN neuropathy should be included in the list of common differential diagnoses of upper and mid-thoracic pain, stiffness, dysesthesia and dysfunction. The study also brings forward interesting connections between DSN neuropathy, CD, NP, SICK scapula and a posterolateral arm pain pattern.

  5. Are chronic neck pain, scapular dyskinesis and altered scapulothoracic muscle activity interrelated?: A case-control study with surface and fine-wire EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Parlevliet, Thierry; Cagnie, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The function of the scapula is important in normal neck function and might be disturbed in patients with neck pain. The surrounding muscular system is important for the function of the scapula. To date, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of these scapulothoracic muscles. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate differences in deeper and superficial lying scapulothoracic muscle activity between patients with idiopathic neck pain and healthy controls during arm elevation, and to identify the influence of scapular dyskinesis on muscle activity. Scapular dyskinesis was rated with the yes/no method. The deeper lying (Levator Scapulae, Pectoralis Minor (Pm) and Rhomboid major) and superficial lying (Trapezius and Serratus Anterior) scapulothoracic muscles' activity was investigated with fine-wire and surface EMG, respectively, in 19 female subjects with idiopathic neck pain (age 28.3±10.1years, average duration of neck pain 45.6±36.3months) and 19 female healthy control subjects (age 29.3±11.7years) while performing scaption and towel wall slide. Possible interactions or differences between subject groups, scapular dyskinesis groups or phases of the task were studied with a linear mixed model. Higher Pm activity during the towel wallslide (p=0.024, mean difference 8.8±3.3% MVIC) was shown in patients with idiopathic neck pain in comparison with healthy controls. For the MT, a significant group∗dyskinesis interaction effect was found during scaption which revealed that patients with neck pain and scapular dyskinesis showed lower Middle Trapezius (MT) activity in comparison with healthy controls with scapular dyskinesis (p=0.029, mean difference 5.1±2.2% MVIC). In the presence of idiopathic neck pain, higher Pm activity during the towel wallslide was found. Patients with neck pain and scapular dyskinesis showed lower MT activity in comparison with healthy controls with scapular dyskinesis during scaption

  6. MRI appearance of the superior transverse scapular ligament

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    Simeone, F.J.; Bredella, Miriam A.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin; Huang, Ambrose J. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    The superior transverse scapular ligament (STSL) forms the roof of the suprascapular notch, which is the most common location of entrapment of the suprascapular nerve, a cause of shoulder pain and weakness. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of visualization of the STSL on routine shoulder MRIs, to identify the sequences and imaging planes on which it is visualized most frequently, and to describe its typical MRI appearance, none of which have been previously addressed in the radiologic literature. One hundred twenty-one consecutive shoulder MRIs were reviewed for the presence or absence of the STSL, including the imaging plane and sequence that best depicted the ligament. Dimensions of the ligament were recorded. Fifty four of 121 shoulder MRIs were technically adequate for visualization of the STSL, and it was identified on 51 of these studies (94 %). There was no statistically significant difference between 1.5-T and 3-T systems. The best individual sequence for visualizing the STSL was the sagittal T1-weighted sequence, in which the STSL was visible on 75/80 technically adequate sequences (94 %). The sagittal plane was the best plane for visualizing the STSL, in which it was visible on 65/69 technically adequate studies (94 %). The STSL on average measured 12.8 ± 1.5 mm in transverse dimension. The STSL can be visualized on the majority of shoulder MRIs and is best seen on sagittal T1-weighted images on our imaging protocol. Evaluation of the STSL can potentially help in identifying pathologic conditions affecting the suprascapular nerve. (orig.)

  7. Positive Solutions for Systems of Second-Order Difference Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Henderson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the existence and nonexistence of positive solutions of some systems of nonlinear second-order difference equations subject to multipoint boundary conditions which contain some positive constants.

  8. Bursa formation with scapular osteochondroma in hereditary multiple exostosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceberut, Kadri; Korkmaz, Murat; Ergin, Ismail; Müslehiddinoglu, Ahmet

    2013-07-01

    Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumour present multiple hereditary exostosis (HME). Scapular osteochondroma associated with pain and bursitis is rarely reported in literature. Here, we describe a 49-year-old male with the diagnosis of HME who was admitted to the Department of Thoracic Surgery with a painful and rapidly enlarging mass behind the left scapula. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging indicated a large bursa formation associated with chest wall mass. Pre-operatively, the mass was diagnosed as osteochondroma and resected. Pathological findings confirmed that mass was a large bursa formation due to scapular osteochondroma without any evidence of malignancy. Osteochondroma should be considered in differential diagnosis of chest wall tumours located at this specific site. We discuss this rare complication of HME and emphasize the importance of early diagnosis and differentiation from malignant transformation of osteochondroma.

  9. Orbital metastasis: A rare manifestation of scapular bone osteosarcoma

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    Mohammad Taher Rajabi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a case of orbital metastasis from scapular bone osteosarcoma. Case Report: A 55-year-old man who was a known case of scapular bone osteosarcoma, was referred to our clinic with ocular symptoms including acute painful decreased vision, proptosis, conjunctival injection, and chemosis. He had undergone surgical excision of the original tumor and received systemic chemotherapy 4 months before. Imaging studies and incisional biopsy were performed for the orbital lesion, the histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic osteosarcoma. The patient was referred to the oncologist for palliative chemotherapy and further intervention; however, he deceased 2 months later due to sepsis in the context of immunosuppression. Conclusion: Metastatic involvement of the orbit due to osteosarcoma is a rare condition manifesting with orbital mass, pain, diplopia and ocular motility disturbance. Although there is no effective treatment, the combination of modalities such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery may delay progression of the disease.

  10. Malawer limb salvage surgery for the treatment of scapular chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fei; Liu, Guang-Yao; Zhang, Qiao; Lin, Gang; Huang, Hong; Duan, De-Sheng; Wang, Jin-Cheng

    2014-06-30

    Chondrosarcoma is a common malignant bone tumor, which accounts for 20% of all malignant bone tumors. It often occurs in the long bones, but the incidence of scapular chondrosarcoma is rare. Here, we describe a case of a large chondrosarcoma occurring in the scapula which was treated with Malawer limb salvage surgery. The patient retained considerable limb function after complete removal of the tumor tissue as assessed at the follow-up visit two years and ten months following surgery.

  11. Stature estimation from scapular measurements by CT scan evaluation in an Italian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurazza, Francesco; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Schena, Emilano; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; D'Agostino, Francesco; Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Silvestri, Sergio; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte

    2013-07-01

    This study evaluated the correlation between scapula size and stature and developed standard equations in order to estimate stature by CT scan evaluation. A total of 200 healthy Italian subjects (100 men and 100 women, mean age 64.2±12.8years) underwent thoracic CT scan evaluation during pulmonary screening in our department; we measured the stature of each patient with standard anthropometric instruments and then analyzed images to calculate the longitudinal scapular length (LSL) and the transverse scapular length (TSL). The correlation between stature and each parameter measured was analyzed by dividing the population into two groups, males and females, and was examined by simple regression analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Each anthropometric variable showed a significant difference between males and females (p value stature and LSL. Our study demonstrates that scapulae can be used for stature estimation; in our sample LSL was found to have a better correlation with stature then TSL. hm=4.247*LSL+93.74 and hf=4.031*LSL+92.38 are the formulae that provide the most accurate stature assessment in males and females respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The uncertainty research of visual positioning in different mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yanzhu; Wang, Song; Ai, Xinbo; Meng, Zhen; Tian, Wenjia; Wang, Jiao; Hu, Yu

    2017-06-01

    In engineering application, there existed deviation when light spreads in different mediums. At the same time miscellaneous medium and random fluctuation may lead to inaccuracy of visual positioning. It explored visual positioning technology in condition of different mediums for binocular camera. Firstly focused on medium material and impurity in real environment, the refractive index formula is derived through binocular visual positioning principle. Then considering deviation when light spreads in different mediums, deductive process of vision positioning is realized according to calculated refractive index. Because cloud model can better describe randomness and fuzziness. It was introduced to deal with problems of random fluctuation in different mediums. Finally simulation was designed to prove the accuracy improvement in different mediums. The result showed that accuracy error had decreased by 66.7% after considering transparent organic mediums. Compared with not knowing refractive index, positioning error had decreased by 49.7%.

  13. Scapular dyskinesis in trapezius myalgia and intraexaminer reproducibility of clinical tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Hilt, Kenneth; Enoch, Flemming

    2011-01-01

    The aims were to test the intraexaminer reproducibility and report the presence of specific clinical variables of scapular dyskinesis in cases with trapezius myalgia and healthy controls, along with general health and work ability. A total of 38 cases and 23 controls were tested for scapular dysk...

  14. Scapular Fractures in Blunt Chest Trauma – Self-Experience Study

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    Tabet A. Al-Sadek

    2016-11-01

    CONCLUSIONS:The study confirms the role of scapular fractures as a marker for the severity of the chest trauma (based on the number of associated thoracic injuries, but doesn’t present scapular fractures as an indicator for high mortality in blunt chest trauma patients.

  15. Scapular allograft reconstruction after total scapulectomy: surgical technique and functional results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capanna, R.; Totti, F.; Geest, I.C.M. van der; Muller, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    HYPOTHESIS: Scapular allograft reconstruction after total scapulectomy preserving the rotator cuff muscles is an oncologically safe procedure and results in good functional outcome with a low complication rate. METHODS: The data of 6 patients who underwent scapular allograft reconstruction after a

  16. Effects of Kinesio taping on scapular kinematics of overhead athletes following muscle fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, Gisele Garcia; Grüninger, Bruno; Mattiello, Stela Márcia

    2016-08-01

    Scapular kinematics alterations have been found following muscle fatigue. Considering the importance of the lower trapezius in coordinated scapular movement, this study aimed to investigate the effects of elastic taping (Kinesio taping, KT) for muscle facilitation on scapular kinematics of healthy overhead athletes following muscle fatigue. Twenty-eight athletes were evaluated in a crossover, single-blind, randomized design, in three sessions: control (no taping), KT (KT with tension) and sham (KT without tension). Scapular tridimensional kinematics and EMG of clavicular and acromial portions of upper trapezius, lower trapezius and serratus anterior were evaluated during arm elevation and lowering, before and after a fatigue protocol involving repetitive throwing. Median power frequency decline of serratus anterior was significantly lower in KT session compared to sham, possibly indicating lower muscle fatigue. However, the effects of muscle fatigue on scapular kinematics were not altered by taping conditions. Although significant changes were found in scapular kinematics following muscle fatigue, they were small and not considered relevant. It was concluded that healthy overhead athletes seem to present an adaptive mechanism that avoids the disruption of scapular movement pattern following muscle fatigue. Therefore, these athletes do not benefit from the use of KT to assist scapular movement under the conditions tested. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender Differences in Positive Social-Emotional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romer, Natalie; Ravitch, N. Kathryn; Tom, Karalyn; Merrell, Kenneth W.; Wesley, Katherine L.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated gender differences of children and adolescents on positive social and emotional competencies using a new strength-based measure of positive social-emotional attributes and resilience--the Social-Emotional Assets and Resilience Scales (SEARS) cross-informant system. Caregivers, teachers, and students in grades kindergarten through…

  18. Facility for sustained positive affect as an individual difference characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola S. Schutte

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of studies investigated a proposed new individual difference characteristic or trait, facility for sustained positive affect, consisting of tendencies that allow individuals to maintain a high level of positive mood. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses resulted in the creation of a measure, the self-congruent and new activities (SANA scale which identified two core aspects of sustainable positive affect, engaging in self-congruent activities and engaging in new activities. A higher level of facility for sustainable affect, as operationalized by the SANA scale, was associated with maintenance of positive mood for a month, fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety, less negative affect, and more life satisfaction, relationship satisfaction, work satisfaction, mindfulness, personal expansion and growth, and emotional intelligence. The results provided initial evidence that facility to maintain positive affect may be an emotion-related individual difference characteristic.

  19. Training induces scapular dyskinesis in pain-free competitive swimmers: a reliability and observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Pernille H; Bak, Klaus; Jensen, Susanne; Welter, Ulrik

    2011-03-01

    Scapular dyskinesis is a major etiological factor in overhead athletes' shoulder problems. Our hypotheses were to evaluate if (1) visual observation of scapular dyskinesis during scaption has substantial interobserver reliability, and (2) scapular dyskinesis may be induced by swim training in pain-free swimmers. A reliability and observational study. Bachelor project at a college institution and at a private sports orthopedic hospital. Seventy-eight competitive swimmers with no history of shoulder pain were included in the study. Fourteen swimmers were evaluated regarding reliability. Inclusion criteria were competitive swimmers with high training volume who previously had no shoulder pain. Observations of scapular dyskinesis (yes/no) during simple scaption. The interobserver reliability of scaption and wall push-up was evaluated in 14 swimmers using kappa analysis. Prevalence of scapular dyskinesis at 4 time intervals during a swim training session. The scaption test resulted in a weighted kappa value of 0.75. Scapular dyskinesis was seen in 29 shoulders (37%) after the first time interval, in another 24 (cumulated prevalence 68%) after one-half of the training session, and in an additional 4 swimmers (cumulated prevalence 73%) after three-quarters of the training session. During the last quarter of the training session, another 7 swimmers had dyskinesis, resulting in a cumulated prevalence of 82%. The prevalence of abnormal scapular kinesis during a normal training session is high in previously pain-free swimmers. The prevalence increases with more training and occurs early during the training session.

  20. Visual scapular dyskinesis: kinematics and muscle activity alterations in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Andrea Diniz; Timmons, Mark K; Grover, Molly; Ciconelli, Rozana Mesquita; Michener, Lori A

    2015-02-01

    To characterize scapular kinematics and shoulder muscle activity in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome, with and without visually identified scapular dyskinesis. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Participants with subacromial impingement syndrome (N=38) were visually classified using a scapular dyskinesis test with obvious scapular dyskinesis (n=19) or normal scapular motion (n=19). Not applicable. An electromagnetic motion capture system measured 3-dimensional kinematics of the thorax, humerus, and scapula. Simultaneously, surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity of the upper, middle, and lower trapezius; serratus anterior; and infraspinatus during ascending and descending phases of weighted shoulder flexion. Separate mixed-model analyses of variance for the ascending and descending phases of shoulder flexion compared kinematics and muscle activity between the 2 groups. Shoulder disability was assessed with the Pennsylvania Shoulder Score (Penn). The group with obvious dyskinesis reported 6 points lower on Penn shoulder function (0-60 points), exhibited a main group effect of less scapular external rotation of 2.1° during ascent and 2.5° during descent, and had 12.0% higher upper trapezius muscle activity during ascent in the 30° to 60° interval. Patients with obvious dyskinesis and subacromial impingement syndrome have reduced scapular external rotation and increased upper trapezius muscle activity, along with a greater loss of shoulder function compared with those without dyskinesis. These biomechanical alterations can lead to or be caused by scapular dyskinesis. Future studies should determine if correction of these deficits will eliminate scapular dyskinesis and improve patient-rated shoulder use. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Does scapular dyskinesis affect top rugby players during a game season?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawasaki, Takayuki; Yamakawa, Jun; Kaketa, Takefumi; Kobayashi, Hideo; Kaneko, Kazuo

    2012-06-01

    Scapular dyskinesis represents a considerable risk of shoulder injury to overhead athletes; however, there is a shortage of detailed epidemiologic information about scapular dyskinesis among the participants in collision sports. To describe the incidence and relationship of scapular dyskinesis to shoulder discomfort and variables related to the shoulder in top rugby players. One hundred twenty top rugby football players in Japan were evaluated by means of questionnaires, physical examinations, and a video analysis during their preseason. Data were assessed by a logistic regression analysis calculating odds ratios. The primary outcome was processed to assess the relationship between scapular dyskinesis and other variables at the preseason. The secondary outcome was processed to assess an influence of scapular dyskinesis to shoulder discomfort during their regular season that were reassigned by second questionnaires. Scapular dyskinesis was identified in 33 (32%) shoulders, and type III was prominent. Scapular dyskinesis was significantly associated with shoulder discomfort (OR [odds ratio] = 4.4), and was also associated with variables of the affected shoulder. In addition, the players with asymptomatic scapular dyskinesis at the preseason would have high incident with shoulder discomfort during their regular season (OR = 3.6). Scapular dyskinesis was associated significantly with both subjective and objective symptoms of the affected shoulder. These appearances may be of particular relevance in the early screening of chronic shoulder disorders in the rugby population. Further study to investigate and evaluate its reliability is needed to characterize its impact on the participants in collision sports. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Ipsilateral Scapular Cutaneous Anchor System: An alternative for the harness in body-powered upper-limb prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hichert, Mona; Plettenburg, Dick H

    2017-03-01

    Body-powered prosthesis users frequently complain about the poor cosmesis and comfort of the traditional shoulder harness. The Ipsilateral Scapular Cutaneous Anchor System offers an alternative, but it remains unclear to what extent it affects the perception and control of cable operation forces compared to the traditional shoulder harness. To compare cable force perception and control with the figure-of-nine harness versus the Ipsilateral Scapular Cutaneous Anchor System and to investigate force perception and control at different force levels. Experimental trial. Ten male able-bodied subjects completed a cable force reproduction task at four force levels in the range of 10-40 N using the figure-of-nine harness and the Anchor System. Perception and control of cable operating forces were quantified by the force reproduction error and the force variability. In terms of force reproduction error and force variability, the subjects did not behave differently when using the two systems. The smallest force reproduction error and force variability were found at the smallest target force level of 10 N. The Anchor System performs no differently than the traditional figure-of-nine harness in terms of force perception and control, making it a viable alternative. Furthermore, users perceive and control low operation forces better than high forces. Clinical relevance The Ipsilateral Scapular Cutaneous Anchor System offers an alternative for the traditional harness in terms of cable operation force perception and control and should therefore be considered for clinical use. Low cable operation forces increase the perception and control abilities of users.

  3. Intrarater and interrater reliability of three classifications for scapular dyskinesis in athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Martineli Rossi

    Full Text Available Clinical evaluation of scapular dyskinesis (SD aims to identify abnormal scapulothoracic movement, underlying causal factors, and the potential relationship with shoulder symptoms. The literature proposes different methods of dynamic clinical evaluation of SD, but improved reliability and agreement values are needed. The present study aimed to evaluate the intrarater and interrater agreement and reliability of three SD classifications: 1 4-type classification, 2 Yes/No classification, and 3 scapular dyskinesis test (SDT. Seventy-five young athletes, including 45 men and 30 women, were evaluated. Raters evaluated the SD based on the three methods during one series of 8-10 cycles (at least eight and maximum of ten of forward flexion and abduction with an external load under the observation of two raters trained to diagnose SD. The evaluation protocol was repeated after 3 h for intrarater analysis. The agreement percentage was calculated by dividing the observed agreement by the total number of observations. Reliability was calculated using Cohen Kappa coefficient, with a 95% confidence interval (CI, defined by Kappa coefficient ±1.96 multiplied by the measurement standard error. The interrater analyses showed an agreement percentage between 80% and 95.9% and an almost perfect reliability (k>0.81 for the three classification methods in all the test conditions, except the 4-type and SDT classification methods, which had substantial reliability (k<0.80 in shoulder abduction. Intrarater analyses showed agreement percentages between 80.7% and 89.3% and substantial reliability (0.67 to 0.81 for both raters in the three classifications. CIs ranged from moderate to almost perfect categories. This indicates that the three SD classification methods investigated in this study showed high reliability values for both intrarater and interrater evaluation throughout a protocol that provided SD evaluation training of raters and included several repetitions of

  4. Cervical-scapular muscles strength and severity of temporomandibular disorder in women with mechanical neck pain

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    Fernanda Pasinato

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Changes in cervical muscle function have been observed in patients with neck pain (NP and TMD. However, the relationship between TMD severity and neck muscle strength in the presence/absence of NP is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of TMD in women with and without mechanical NP and assess the cervical-scapular muscle strength and its association with TMD severity. Methods: Fifteen volunteers without neck pain (CG and 14 women with mechanical neck pain (NPG took part and were selected by the Neck Disability Index. The diagnosis and severity of TMD were determined by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD and Temporomandibular Index (TI, respectively. The strength of the upper trapezius muscle, and cervical flexor and extensor muscles was measured by digital hand dynamometer. Results: 64.5% of women with NP and 33.3% without NP were diagnosed with TMD (p = 0.095. The NPG showed lower strength of the cervical flexor (p = 0.044 and extensor (p=0.006 muscles, and higher TI (p = 0.038 than in the CG. It was also verified moderate negative correlation between TI and the strength of dominant (p = 0.046, r = -0.547 and non-dominant (p = 0.007, r = -0.695 upper trapezius, and cervical flexors (p = 0.023, r = -0.606 in the NPG. Conclusion: There was no difference in the prevalence of TMD in women with and without NP. However, women with NP have lower cervical muscle strength - compared to those without NP - which was associated with greater severity of TMD. Thus, in women with NP associated with TMD, it is advisable to assess and address the severity of this dysfunction and identify the cervical-scapular muscles compromise.

  5. HYDRODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT THUMB POSITIONS IN SWIMMING

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    António J. Silva

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to analyze the hydrodynamic characteristics of a true model of a swimmer hand with the thumb in different positions using numerical simulation techniques. A three-dimensional domain was created to simulate the fluid flow around three models of a swimmer hand, with the thumb in different positions: thumb fully abducted, partially abducted, and adducted. These three hand models were obtained through computerized tomography scans of an Olympic swimmer hand. Steady-state computational fluid dynamics analyses were performed using the Fluent® code. The forces estimated in each of the three hand models were decomposed into drag and lift coefficients. Angles of attack of hand models of 0º, 45º and 90º, with a sweep back angle of 0º were used for the calculations. The results showed that the position with the thumb adducted presented slightly higher values of drag coefficient compared with thumb abducted positions. Moreover, the position with the thumb fully abducted allowed increasing the lift coefficient of the hand at angles of attack of 0º and 45º. These results suggested that, for hand models in which the lift force can play an important role, the abduction of the thumb may be better, whereas at higher angles of attack, in which the drag force is dominant, the adduction of the thumb may be preferable

  6. Vantage sensitivity: individual differences in response to positive experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluess, Michael; Belsky, Jay

    2013-07-01

    The notion that some people are more vulnerable to adversity as a function of inherent risk characteristics is widely embraced in most fields of psychology. This is reflected in the popularity of the diathesis-stress framework, which has received a vast amount of empirical support over the years. Much less effort has been directed toward the investigation of endogenous factors associated with variability in response to positive influences. One reason for the failure to investigate individual differences in response to positive experiences as a function of endogenous factors may be the absence of adequate theoretical frameworks. According to the differential-susceptibility hypothesis, individuals generally vary in their developmental plasticity regardless of whether they are exposed to negative or positive influences--a notion derived from evolutionary reasoning. On the basis of this now well-supported proposition, we advance herein the new concept of vantage sensitivity, reflecting variation in response to exclusively positive experiences as a function of individual endogenous characteristics. After distinguishing vantage sensitivity from theoretically related concepts of differential-susceptibility and resilience, we review some recent empirical evidence for vantage sensitivity featuring behavioral, physiological, and genetic factors as moderators of a wide range of positive experiences ranging from family environment and psychotherapy to educational intervention. Thereafter, we discuss genetic and environmental factors contributing to individual differences in vantage sensitivity, potential mechanisms underlying vantage sensitivity, and practical implications. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  7. Positional Differences in Elite Basketball: Selecting Appropriate Training - Load Measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svilar, Luka; Castellano, Julen; Jukic, Igor; Casamichana, David

    2018-01-18

    The purpose of this paper was to study the structure of interrelationships among external training load measures and how these vary among different positions in elite basketball. Eight external variables of jumping (JUMP), acceleration (ACC), deceleration (DEC) and change of direction (COD), and two internal load variables (RPE and sRPE) were collected from 13 professional players with 300 session records. Three playing positions were considered: guards (n=4), forwards (n=4) and centers (n=5). High and total external variables (hJUMP and tJUMP, hACC and tACC, hDEC and tDEC, hCOD and tCOD) were used for the principal component analysis. Extraction criteria were set at the eigenvalue of greater than one. Varimax rotation mode was used to extract multiple principal components. The analysis showed that all positions had two or three principal components (explaining almost all of the variance), but the configuration of each factor was different: tACC, tDEC, tCOD and hJUMP for centers, hACC, tACC, tCOD and hJUMP for guards, and tACC, hDEC, tDEC, hCOD, and tCOD for forwards are specifically demanded in training sessions and, therefore, these variables must be prioritized in load monitoring. Furthermore, for all playing positions, RPE and sRPE have high correlation with the total amount of ACC, DEC and COD. This would suggest that, although players perform the same training tasks, the demands of each position can vary. A particular combination of external load measures is required to describe training load of each playing position, especially to better understand internal responses among players.

  8. Physical performance and positional differences among young female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paz, Gabriel A; Gabbett, Tim J; Maia, Marianna F; Santana, Haroldo; Miranda, Humberto; Lima, Vicente

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association among anthropometric, physical performance parameters, and dynamic postural control attributes of young female volleyball athletes, and to determine if differences exist in these attributes according to playing position. Forty-three young female volleyball players participated in this study. Players were divided by position into hitters (N.=17), middle blockers (N.=8), setters (N.=10), and liberos (N.=8). Stature, body mass, vertical jump (VJ), peak power, horizontal jump (HJ), sit-and-reach (SRT), star excursion balance (SEBT), and agility (e.g. shuttle run and Illinois agility test) tests were assessed on non-consecutive days in randomized order. No difference was found between groups for SRT, peak power, VJ, and HJ (P≤0.05). Middle blockers and hitters were taller than setters (P≤0.05). Middle blockers were also taller than liberos (P=0.017). Significant differences were observed among groups for agility tests, with hitters significantly faster than setters (P=0.023) and middle blockers (P=0.037). In addition, liberos were significantly faster than setters (P=0.032) and middle blockers (P=0.046), during the Illinois agility test. No difference was observed between groups for reach distance scores in the SEBT. These results demonstrate important positional differences in agility measures of young female volleyball players. Coaches can use this information to determine the type of physical profile that is needed for specific positions and to design training programs to maximize strength, power, and neuromuscular development of young female volleyball athletes.

  9. Rigid and Elastic taping changes scapular kinematics and pain in subjects with shoulder impingement syndrome; an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Aliah F; Bull, Anthony M J; Alexander, Caroline M

    2015-02-01

    Rigid and Elastic scapular taping is used in physical rehabilitation of shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). It is believed to reduce pain and normalise scapular movement patterns. However, there is insufficient evidence to support its use. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of Rigid and Elastic taping techniques on the scapular kinematics and pain in patients with SIS. Eleven patients with SIS participated in the study. They performed elevation and lowering of the arm in the scapular and sagittal planes under three conditions: Baseline, Rigid taping and Elastic taping. The movements of the thorax, humerus and scapula were tracked. Scapular displacements and scapulothoracic joint rotations were calculated. Subjects used a visual analogue scale to rate the intensity of pain at rest and during movements in both planes. Both taping techniques externally rotated the scapula in sagittal plane movements (ppain. In the scapular plane, Elastic taping increased the scapular retraction (ppain in this plane. In conclusion, both taping techniques had an effect on scapular kinematics and pain in movements occurring in the sagittal plane. Elastic taping also affected scapular kinematics in scapular plane movements, but without the concomitant decrease in pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A Giant Scapular Aneurysmal Bone Cyst in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Beslikas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs are rare benign bone tumours. Scapula is a very rare location, and the relative literature is sparse. The purpose of this study is to present a case of a giant aggressive scapular aneurysmal bone cyst in a child. A 7-year-old boy presented to our hospital with pain and a palpated mass on the right scapula. Imaging studies (radiographs computed tomography scintigraphy were indicative of aneurysmal bone cyst. We performed curettage and bone grafting after the diagnosis was set by pathological examination through a posterior shoulder approach. Five years later, the patient has only residual signs of the lesion on radiographic control without signs of recurrence.

  11. A Giant Scapular Aneurysmal Bone Cyst in a Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beslikas, Theodoros; Chytas, Anastasios; Christodoulou, Andreas; Gigis, Ioannis; Christoforidis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) are rare benign bone tumours. Scapula is a very rare location, and the relative literature is sparse. The purpose of this study is to present a case of a giant aggressive scapular aneurysmal bone cyst in a child. A 7-year-old boy presented to our hospital with pain and a palpated mass on the right scapula. Imaging studies (radiographs computed tomography scintigraphy) were indicative of aneurysmal bone cyst. We performed curettage and bone grafting after the diagnosis was set by pathological examination through a posterior shoulder approach. Five years later, the patient has only residual signs of the lesion on radiographic control without signs of recurrence. PMID:23259119

  12. Social position and health in old age: the relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn E; Osler, Merete

    2003-01-01

    AIMS: An analysis was undertaken to investigate social inequalities in health among old men and women in relation to five indicators of social position. METHODS: The study is based on a population-based cross-sectional survey among 748 75-year-old men and women, which was performed as clinical...... examinations and interviews in 1989 in Glostrup, a suburban area west of Copenhagen. Social position was measured by vocational education, occupation, social class, income, and housing tenure. Health was measured by number of chronic diseases, tiredness in relation to mobility, need of help in relation...... the relationships between the other social position variables and health showed no consistent patterns. Multiple logistic regression analyses with tenure and income as independent variables and each of the health variables as dependent variables and control for education and occupation showed different patterns...

  13. Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Lund, Hans; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics Larsen CM1, Juul-Kristensen B1,2 Holtermann A3, Lund H1,2, Søgaard K1 1University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, DK 2Institute...... patient sample with SIS, and to assess the clinimetric properties of clinical assessment methods of scapular kinematics as important aspects for optimising effect measures of treatment in order to improve clinical guidelines in this area. METHODS: Scapular muscle activity was examined, 1) during...... a voluntary arm movement task and 2) selective activation tasks during sessions with and without on-line biofeedback, in a general population consisting of 16 SIS patients and 15 controls (No-SIS). Furthermore, 3) a systematic review was conducted of all available clinical scapular assessment methods...

  14. The difference between registered natural head position and estimated natural head position in three dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, S; Keeling, A; Hsung, T C; Yang, Y; Khambay, B

    2018-02-01

    This study determined the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability of re-orientating three-dimensional (3D) facial images into the estimated natural head position. Three-dimensional facial images of 15 pre-surgical class III orthognathic patients were obtained and automatically re-orientated into natural head position (RNHP) using a 3D stereophotogrammetry system and in-house software. Six clinicians were asked to estimate the NHP of these patients (ENHP); they re-estimated five randomly selected 3D images after a 2-week interval. The differences in yaw, roll, pitch, and chin position between RNHP and ENHP were measured. For intra-rater reliability, the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) values ranged from 0.55 to 0.77, representing moderate reliability for roll, yaw, pitch, and chin position, while for inter-rater reliability, the ICC values ranged from 0.38 to 0.58, indicating poor to moderate reliability. The median difference between ENHP and RNHP was small for roll and yaw, but larger for pitch. There was a tendency for the clinicians to estimate NHP with the chin tipped more posteriorly (6.3±5.2mm) compared to RNHP, reducing the severity of the skeletal deformity in the anterior-posterior direction. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Subcutaneous bronchogenic cyst in the scapular region presenting as an acute abscess

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Zhu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Subcutaneous bronchogenic cysts in the scapular region are extremely rare entities, with only 17 cases reported so far in the literature. We present a case of a three year old boy who underwent an excision and drainage of what was preoperatively diagnosed as an abscess in the scapular region. Histological examination of the excised lesion showed a cystic space lined by respiratory epithelium with an inflammatory cell infiltrate, consistent with an inflamed bronchogenic cyst.

  16. Scapular Bracing and Alteration of Posture and Muscle Activity in Overhead Athletes With Poor Posture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Ashley K; McGrath, Melanie L; Harrington, Shana E; Padua, Darin A; Rucinski, Terri J; Prentice, William E

    2013-01-01

    Context Overhead athletes commonly have poor posture. Commercial braces are used to improve posture and function, but few researchers have examined the effects of shoulder or scapular bracing on posture and scapular muscle activity. Objective To examine whether a scapular stabilization brace acutely alters posture and scapular muscle activity in healthy overhead athletes with forward-head, rounded-shoulder posture (FHRSP). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Setting Applied biomechanics laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Thirty-eight healthy overhead athletes with FHRSP. Intervention(s) Participants were assigned randomly to 2 groups: compression shirt with no strap tension (S) and compression shirt with the straps fully tensioned (S + T). Posture was measured using lateral-view photography with retroreflective markers. Electromyography (EMG) of the upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and serratus anterior (SA) in the dominant upper extremity was measured during 4 exercises (scapular punches, W's, Y's, T's) and 2 glenohumeral motions (forward flexion, shoulder extension). Posture and exercise EMG measurements were taken with and without the brace applied. Main Outcome Measure(s) Head and shoulder angles were measured from lateral-view digital photographs. Normalized surface EMG was used to assess mean muscle activation of the UT, MT, LT, and SA. Results Application of the brace decreased forward shoulder angle in the S + T condition. Brace application also caused a small increase in LT EMG during forward flexion and Y's and a small decrease in UT and MT EMG during shoulder extension. Brace application in the S + T group decreased UT EMG during W's, whereas UT EMG increased during W's in the S group. Conclusions Application of the scapular brace improved shoulder posture and scapular muscle activity, but EMG changes were highly variable. Use of a scapular brace might improve shoulder posture and muscle activity in

  17. Local differences in the position of the mental foramen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşilyurt, H; Aydinlioglu, A; Kavakli, A; Ekinci, N; Eroglu, C; Hacialiogullari, M; Diyarbakirli, S

    2008-02-01

    The mental foramen has been reported to vary in position in different ethnic groups. Repeated failures during injections and operative procedures involving the mental foramen suggest the presence of local differences in a given population. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible local differences of the mental foramen in Eastern Anatolian individuals in the Turkish population. The present investigation is based on the examination of 70 adult mandibles. The study consisted of three measurements, to include the relations of the mental foramen to the following: 1) the lower teeth; 2) the body of mandible; 3) the mandibular symphysis and posterior border of the ramus of the mandible. The most common position of the foramen was in line with the longitudinal axis of the second premolar tooth (relation IV), at the midpoint of the mandibular body height and at 1/3.5 of the distance from the mandibular symphysis to the posterior border of the ramus. Local differences of the mental foramen may occur in a population. Prior to surgery knowledge of the most common location of the foramen peculiar to a local population may enable effective mental block anaesthesia to be provided.

  18. Stature estimation in Japanese cadavers based on scapular measurements using multidetector computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Makino, Yohsuke; Saitoh, Hisako; Sakuma, Ayaka; Ishii, Namiko; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Inokuchi, Go; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Hoshioka, Yumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the correlation between stature and scapular measurements in a Japanese population, using three-dimensional (3D) computed tomographic (CT) images, and derived regression equations for predicting stature. A total of 194 cadavers (100 males 94 females) underwent postmortem CT (PMCT) and subsequent forensic autopsy in our department between May 2011 and April 2014. Left and right longitudinal scapular lengths (LLSL and RLSL, respectively) and left and right transverse scapular lengths (LTSL and RTSL, respectively) were measured on 3D CT reconstructed images that extracted only scapular data. The correlation between stature and each of the scapular measurements were analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients. The four variables correlated significantly with stature, regardless of sex. The LLSL measurement had the lowest standard error of estimation value among all subjects (4.22 cm) and among all females (4.37 cm), whereas the RLSL measurement had the lowest standard error of estimation value among all males (3.75 cm). The results of this study indicate that scapular measurements may be useful for the forensic estimation of the stature of Japanese individuals, particularly in cases where better predictors, such as long bone lengths, are unavailable.

  19. Evaluation of the positional difference between two common geocoding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dustin T. Duncan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Geocoding, the process of matching addresses to geographic coordinates, is a necessary first step when using geographical information systems (GIS technology. However, different geocoding methodologies can result in different geographic coordinates. The objective of this study was to compare the positional (i.e. longitude/latitude difference between two common geocoding methods, i.e. ArcGIS (Environmental System Research Institute, Redlands, CA, USA and Batchgeo (freely available online at http://www.batchgeo.com. Address data came from the YMCA-Harvard After School Food and Fitness Project, an obesity prevention intervention involving children aged 5-11 years and their families participating in YMCAadministered, after-school programmes located in four geographically diverse metropolitan areas in the USA. Our analyses include baseline addresses (n = 748 collected from the parents of the children in the after school sites. Addresses were first geocoded to the street level and assigned longitude and latitude coordinates with ArcGIS, version 9.3, then the same addresses were geocoded with Batchgeo. For this analysis, the ArcGIS minimum match score was 80. The resulting geocodes were projected into state plane coordinates, and the difference in longitude and latitude coordinates were calculated in meters between the two methods for all data points in each of the four metropolitan areas. We also quantified the descriptions of the geocoding accuracy provided by Batchgeo with the match scores from ArcGIS. We found a 94% match rate (n = 705, 2% (n = 18 were tied and 3% (n = 25 were unmatched using ArcGIS. Forty-eight addresses (6.4% were not matched in ArcGIS with a match score ≥80 (therefore only 700 addresses were included in our positional difference analysis. Six hundred thirteen (87.6% of these addresses had a match score of 100. Batchgeo yielded a 100% match rate for the addresses that ArcGIS geocoded. The median for longitude and latitude

  20. Acute effect of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques and classic exercises in adhesive capsulitis: a randomized controlled trial

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Balcı, Nilay Comuk; Yuruk, Zeliha Ozlem; Zeybek, Aslican; Gulsen, Mustafa; Tekindal, Mustafa Agah

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of our study was to compare the initial effects of scapular proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques and classic exercise interventions with physiotherapy modalities on pain...

  1. Effects of a 16-week hydrotherapy program on three-dimensional scapular motion and pain of women with fibromyalgia: A single-arm study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avila, Mariana Arias; Camargo, Paula Rezende; Ribeiro, Ivana Leão; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Salvini, Tania Fatima

    2017-11-01

    Although hydrotherapy is widely used to treat women with fibromyalgia, no studies have investigated the effects of this intervention on scapular kinematics in this population. This study verified the effectiveness of a hydrotherapy program on scapular kinematics, pain and quality of life in women with fibromyalgia. Twenty women completed the study and performed three evaluations before treatment (to establish a baseline), and two other evaluations (after 8 and 16weeks of hydrotherapy) at the end of treatment. Three-dimensional kinematics of the scapula was evaluated during arm elevation in two different planes with the Flock of Birds® system. Patients also answered quality of life and Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaires and had pain assessed with a digital algometer. Treatment consisted of 2 weekly hydrotherapy sessions, lasting 45min each, for 16weeks. Data were analyzed with a two-way ANOVA (for kinematics results) and one-way ANOVA (for the other variables). Effect size was assessed with Cohen's d coefficient for all quantitative variables. Although an important improvement was achieved in terms of pain and quality of life (P0.05, effect sizes from -0.40 to 0.46 for all kinematic variables). The proposed program of hydrotherapy was effective to improve quality of life, pain intensity and fibromyalgia impact in women with fibromyalgia. However, scapular kinematics did not change after the period of treatment. Although symptoms improved after the treatment, the lack of changes in scapular kinematics may indicate these women have an adaptive movement pattern due to their chronic painful condition. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of Natural Head Position in Different Anteroposterior Malocclusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Hedayati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The facial esthetics after orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery may be affected by the patient’s natural head position. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the natural head position for the three skeletal classes of malocclusion.Materials and Methods: Our sample consisted of 102 lateral cephalometric radiographs of patients aged 15 to 18 years; class I (n=32, class II (n=40 and class III (n=30. Nine landmarks of the craniofacial skeleton and three landmarks of the cervical vertebrae were determined. Variables consisted of two angles for cervical posture (OPT/Hor and CVT/Hor, three angles for craniofacial posture (SN/Ver, PNS-ANS/Ver, and ML/Ver and five for craniofacial angulation (SN/OPT, SN/CVT, PNS-ANS/OPT, PNS-ANS/CVT, ML/CVT. The data were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and post hoc tests.Results: PNS-ANS/Ver and SN/Ver differed significantly (p<0.05 among the three groups. There were no significant differences between class I and class II malocclusions for the indicator angles of cranial posture except for ML/Ver. The SN/CVT was significantly different for class I compared to class III patients. A head posture camouflaging the underlying skeletal class III was observed in our population.Conclusion: A more forward head posture was observed in skeletal class III participants compared to skeletal class I and II and that class III patients tended to incline their head more ventral compared to class I participants. These findings may have implications for the amount of jaw movements during surgery particularly in patients with a class III malocclusion

  3. Effects of Feldenkrais method on chronic neck/scapular pain in people with visual impairment: a randomized controlled trial with one-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Zetterlund, Christina; Richter, Hans O

    2014-09-01

    To determine whether the Feldenkrais method is an effective intervention for chronic neck/scapular pain in patients with visual impairment. Randomized controlled trial with an untreated control group. Low vision center. Patients (N=61) with visual impairment (mean, 53.3 y) and nonspecific chronic (mean, 23.8 y) neck/scapular pain. Participants were randomly assigned to the Feldenkrais method group (n=30) or untreated control group (n=31). Patients in the treatment group underwent one 2-hour Feldenkrais method session per week for 12 consecutive weeks. Blind assessment of perceived pain (visual analog scale [VAS]) during physical therapist palpation of the left and right occipital, upper trapezius, and levator scapulae muscle areas; self-assessed degree of pain on the Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints questionnaire; and the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey bodily pain scale. Patients undergoing Feldenkrais method reported significantly less pain than the controls according to the VAS and Visual, Musculoskeletal, and Balance Complaints questionnaire ratings at posttreatment follow-up and 1-year follow-up. There were no significant differences regarding the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey bodily pain scale ratings. Feldenkrais method is an effective intervention for chronic neck/scapular pain in patients with visual impairment. Copyright © 2014 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Efficacy differences between different position in patients treated with electroacupuncture for lumbar herniated disc].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Qilong; Wu, Yaochi; He, Chengmin; Sun, Yijun; Ma, Guangxing; Tian, Yong

    2016-07-12

    To observe the clinical efficacy differences between modified lateral position and prone position in patients treated with electroacupuncture (EA) for lumbar herniated disc (LHD). Seventy-six patients with LHD were randomly divided into a lateral position group and a prone position group, 38 cases in each one. The acupoint selection and treatment method were identical in the two groups except the position. Mingmen (GV 4), Yaoyangguan (GV 3), Dachangshu (BL 25), Xiaochangshu (BL 27), Zhibian (BL 54) and Huantiao (GB 30) were selected. EA was given three times a week, ten times were taken as one course and totally 20 times were given. The visual analogue scale (VAS) and Japanese orthopaedic association (JOA) scale were taken as efficacy criteria, which were evaluated before and after treatment as well as one month after treatment. After treatment, VAS and JOA were significantly improved in the two groups (lateral position group:JOA 10.60±2.60 vs 18.92±3.87, VAS 8.13±0.99 vs 2.34±0.81; prone position group:JOA 10.94±2.06 vs 17.02±3.96, VAS 8.02±1.05 vs 2.86±0.96, all P <0.01); the VAS and JOA in the lateral position group were higher than those in the prone position group (both P <0.05). One month after treatment, VAS and JOA were significantly improved in the two groups (all P <0.01), which was more significant in the lateral position group (both P <0.05). The treatment position could influence the efficacy of EA for LHD, and lateral position pre-sents certain advantages to prone position group.

  5. DIFFERENCES BETWEEN FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT GAMING POSITIONS BASED ON SOME BASIC AND SPECIFIC MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Tomić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on the structure competition activities, and its character can be defined as a hypothetical model of the anthropological characteristics of football players of different gaming positions. Based on hypothetical models of different football players' position can make a division into two groups of players based on game systems that are commonly used in modern football, which is 4-4-2, and the common anthropological characteristics, structure and nature of activities carried out by during the game, so the first group consists of players with smaller volumes of engagement in the game (goalkeeper, two central defenders and two strikers and the second group 190 CRNOGORSKA SPORTSKA AKADEMIJA, „Sport Mont“ časopis br. 31,32,33. consists of players with greater scope to engage in the game (two foreign players and four defensive midfielder (midfielder . The aim is to determine the difference between players of different players' positions on the basis of some basic and specific motor abilities. The sample of 206 football players aged 18 ± 0.5 years is divided into 5 subsamples according to examinees gaming position: forwarders (45, midfield players (47, defenders (41, central defenders (44 and goalkeepers (29. The battery of 16 tests (in which the results are expressed in distance and time - metric. It can be concluded that there are differences between players of different players' positions on the team in relation to the basic and specific motor skills.

  6. Muscle activation during pedaling in different saddle position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Barcellos Karolczak

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects on muscle activation pattern of different saddle positions during cycling. Three elite cyclists followed a protocol that consisted of four different saddles positions, displaced forward, backward, upward and downward with relation to the reference position used in training and competition. In all tests the saddle was displaced by 1cm. The cyclists’ bicycles were mounted on a magnetic cycle simulator. The load was normalized at the second ventilatory threshold. Muscle activation of six lower limb muscles was registered: gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, and tibialis anterior. The results demonstrated that relatively small saddle adjustments can affect the pattern of muscle activation and probably cycling technique. Resumo ResumoO objetivo do presente estudo foi analisar os efeitos de diferentes posicionamentos do selim no padrão de ativação elétrica durante a pedalada. Três ciclistas de elite foram submetidos a um protocolo que constou da avaliação de quatro diferentes posições de selim (para frente, para trás, para cima e para baixo, assumindo como posição de referência a posição usada durante os treino e competição. O deslocamento do selim foi de 1 cm para todas as posições. As bicicletas dos ciclistas foram acopladas a um ciclossimulador magnético. A carga do teste foi normalizada utilizando um critério fisiológico, garantindo assim o mesmo nível de esforço para todos os sujeitos. A atividade elétrica de seis músculos do membro inferior foi mensurada: gluteus maximus, rectus femoris, biceps femoris, vastus lateralis, gastrocnemius medialis, e tibialis anterior. Os resultados demonstram que pequenos ajustes na posição do selim podem afetar os padrões de ativação elétrica e provavelmente a técnica de pedalada.

  7. Microdevice's susceptibility difference based MRI positioning system, a preliminary investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfoul, O; Martel, S; Beaudoin, G; Mathieu, J-B

    2004-01-01

    A positioning technique for an endovascular microdevice propelled by magnetic force inside a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system is being developed. Positioning options are presented and a magnetic positioning technique is described in more details. Since a magnetic positioning system is deeply dependent on the quality of the measurement modality, we describe the main magnetic field measurement techniques that can be used inside an MRI. Finally, we propose a magnetic positioning system using MRI phase images to measure the magnetic distortion induced by the ferromagnetic body. Positioning results on a 1010/1020 carbon steel, 1.5875 mm diameter sphere with gradient echo phase images are presented.

  8. An Interesting Case of Intramuscular Myxoma with Scapular Bone Lysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Tirefort

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Intramuscular myxoma is a rare benign primitive tumor of the mesenchyme founded at the skeletal muscle level; it presents itself like an unpainful, slow-growing mass. Myxomas with bone lysis are even more rare; only 7 cases have been reported in the English literature, but never at the shoulder level. Case Presentation. We describe an 83-year-old patient with a growing mass in the deltoid muscle with unique scapular lysis, without any symptom. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and a biopsy were performed and the diagnosis of intramuscular myxoma has been retained. In front of this diagnosis of nonmalignant lesion, the decision of a simple follow-up was taken. One year after this decision, the patient was still asymptomatic. Conclusion. In the presence of an intramuscular growing mass with associated bone lysis, intramuscular myxoma as well as malignant tumor should be evoked. MRI has to be part of the initial radiologic appraisal but biopsy is essential to confirm the diagnosis. By consensus, the standard treatment is surgical excision but conservative treatment with simple follow-up can be an option.

  9. Effects of scapular stability exercise on shoulder stability and rehabilitative ultrasound images in office workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Seong-Uk; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] To examine the clinical effectiveness of scapular stability exercise on shoulder stability and rehabilitative ultrasound images in office workers. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight subjects were randomly divided into a scapular stability exercise group (n=19) and a manual therapy group (n=19). Subjects in the scapular stability exercise group performed a scapular stability exercise designed to correct the abnormal location of the scapula, at 40 minutes per session, two times per week, for 6 weeks. Forward head horizontal distance, rounded shoulder posture, stability of the upper limb for the shoulder, and rehabilitative ultrasound images were evaluated before and after 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significantly decreased forward head horizontal distance and rounded shoulder posture, with significantly improved stability of the upper limb and rehabilitative ultrasound images. Forward head horizontal distance, rounded shoulder posture, stability of the upper limb, and rehabilitative ultrasound images showed greater improvements in the shoulder stability exercise group than in the manual therapy group. [Conclusion] Scapular stability exercise can improve shoulder stability and the thickness of the lower trapezius in rehabilitative ultrasound images of office workers, and could be useful in clinical rehabilitation. PMID:27942108

  10. Effects of scapular stability exercise on shoulder stability and rehabilitative ultrasound images in office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Seong-Uk; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] To examine the clinical effectiveness of scapular stability exercise on shoulder stability and rehabilitative ultrasound images in office workers. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-eight subjects were randomly divided into a scapular stability exercise group (n=19) and a manual therapy group (n=19). Subjects in the scapular stability exercise group performed a scapular stability exercise designed to correct the abnormal location of the scapula, at 40 minutes per session, two times per week, for 6 weeks. Forward head horizontal distance, rounded shoulder posture, stability of the upper limb for the shoulder, and rehabilitative ultrasound images were evaluated before and after 6 weeks. [Results] After the intervention, both groups showed significantly decreased forward head horizontal distance and rounded shoulder posture, with significantly improved stability of the upper limb and rehabilitative ultrasound images. Forward head horizontal distance, rounded shoulder posture, stability of the upper limb, and rehabilitative ultrasound images showed greater improvements in the shoulder stability exercise group than in the manual therapy group. [Conclusion] Scapular stability exercise can improve shoulder stability and the thickness of the lower trapezius in rehabilitative ultrasound images of office workers, and could be useful in clinical rehabilitation.

  11. Social position and health in old age. The relevance of different indicators of social position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, Kirsten; Holstein, Bjørn Evald; Osler, Merete

    2002-01-01

    Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility......Social medicine, social position, chronic diseases, material wealth, income, tenure, oral health, functional ability, well-being, mobility...

  12. Nominal and Real Accuracy of the GPS Position Indicated by Different Maritime Receivers in Different Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Januszewski

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays on the ship's bridge two or even more GPS receivers are installed. As in the major cases the coordinates of the position obtained from these receivers differ the following questions can be posed - what is the cause of this divergence, which receiver in the first must be taken into account etc. Based on information published in annual GPS and GNSS receiver survey it was estimated the percentage of GPS receivers designed for marine and/or navigation users. The measurements of GPS position based on the four different stationary GPS receivers were realized in the laboratory of Gdynia Maritime University in Poland in the summer 2012. The coordinates of the position of all these receivers were registered at the same time. The measurements in mode 3D were made for different input data, the same for all receivers. The distances between the individual unit's antenna were considered also. Next measurements in mode 3D also were realized on two ships in different European ports. Additional measurements were made in mode 2D with three receivers for different their's antenna heights. The results showed that the GPS position accuracy depends on the type of the receiver and its technical parameters particularly.

  13. Differences of Starch Granule Distribution in Grains from Different Spikelet Positions in Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anling; Li, Yong; Ni, Yingli; Yang, Weibing; Yang, Dongqing; Cui, Zhengyong; Wang, Zhenlin; Yin, Yanping

    2014-01-01

    Wheat starch development is a complex process and is markedly difference by changes in spikelet spatial position. The present study deals with endosperm starch granule distribution and spatial position during filling development. The study was conducted with pure starch isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Jimai20 and Shannong1391, at 7–35 days after anthesis (DAA). The results showed that grain number, spikelet weight and grain weight per spikelet in different spatial position showed parabolic changes. Upper spikelets had highest starch and amylose content followed by basal spikelets, then middle spikelets. The paper also suggested the volume percents of B-type and A-type granule in grain of middle spikelets were remarkably higher and lower than those of basal and upper spikelets, respectively. However, no significant difference occurred in the number percents of the two type granule. The ratio of amylase to amylopectin was positively correlated with the volume proportion of 22.8–42.8 µm, but was negatively related to the volume proportion of starch granules were affected significantly by spikelet position, and grains at upper and basal spikelet had the potential of increasing grain weight through increasing the volume of B-type granules. PMID:25514032

  14. Comparison of Three Different Administration Positions for Intratracheal Beractant in Preterm Newborns with Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Karadag

    2016-04-01

    Conclusion: In terms of efficacy and side effects, no important difference was observed between the recommended four position beractant application, the two position administration, and the neutral position.

  15. Toward a Positive Explanation of Student Differences in Reading Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Curt M.; Palmer, Anna H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Education has much in common with professions that are using positive psychology and positive organizational scholarship to transform practice, yet the science behind peak human and group functioning has been slow to displace deficit-based framing of reform policies and improvement strategies in education. Purpose of the Study: This…

  16. Anaerobic capacity in soccer players from different competitive levels: Comparison of players in different field positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanderson Luis Moro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare anaerobic capacity in professional soccer players of different competitive levels in their respective positions in the game, early in the preseason. The study group consisted of 44 male athletes belonging to two groups (A and B of different competitive levels. Group A was composed of 20 athletes participating in the Sagres League - Portuguese. Group B was composed of 24 athletes participating in the 2nd division Championship Gaucho - Brazil. For the assessment of anaerobic capacity it was applied the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test - RAST. For data analysis it was used the Student t test for independent samples and analysis of variance (ANOVA One Way supplemented with post hoc Tukey. Results showed that group A athletes performed better on the average power and worst values for the fatigue index. In the group A it was found statistical difference between attacks and other two positions (midfielder and side back for the fatigue index. It is concluded that there was significant differences in anaerobic capacity, measured at the start of the preseason, evaluated soccer players who work in competitions of different levels and positions play (group A.

  17. Shoulder and Scapular Kinematics during the Windmill Softball Pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backus, Sherry I.; Kraszewski, Andrew; Kontaxis, Andreas; Gibbons, Mandi; Bido, Jennifer; Graziano, Jessica; Hafer, Jocelyn; Jones, Kristofer J.; Hillstrom, Howard; Fealy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Pitch count has been studied extensively in the overhand throwing athlete. However, pitch count and fatigue have not been systematically evaluated in the female windmill (underhand) throwing athlete. Direct kinematic measurements of the glenohumeral and scapulo-thoracic joint have not to be correlated and determined. The purpose is to measure scapular kinematics for the high school female windmill softball pitcher and identify kinematic adaptions and changes in pitching performance due to fatigue. Methods: Eight female high school softball pitchers without previous shoulder injury were enrolled. Three-dimensional (3D) motion of the humerus, scapula and trunk were recorded with surface markers at 250 Hz. Marker placement and the anatomical calibration of bony landmarks followed recommendations by the ISB (Wu et al. 2005) and Kontaxis et al (2009). A custom marker cluster was used to dynamically track the scapula (Karduna et al. 2001). The pitching mound was at regulation distance (43’) from the strike zone target. All athletes completed 105 pitches in sets of 15 with a rest of 5 minutes between sets. Ball speed recorded with a radar gun, 3D angular rotations of the glenohumeral joint, scapulo-thoracic joint and thorax with respect to the room were calculated for all throws. The last five pitches of every set were averaged for analysis. Results: Ball speed (Figure 1, n=8 subjects) and peak glenohumeral, scapulo-thoracic and thoracic angular rotations (n=4 subjects) were consistent across all sets. Examples of kinematics at two of these joints are presented across all sets (Figure 2, n=4). Data across all planes demonstrated similar consistency. Conclusion: This study presents a systematic protocol for the study of fatigue during windmill softball pitching. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to analyze glenohumeral as well as scapulo-thoracic kinematics during this task. The consistency in the glenohumeral, scapulo-thoracic and torso

  18. FORWARD HEAD POSTURE CORRECTION VERSUS SHOULDER STABILIZATION EXERCISES EFFECT ON SCAPULAR DYSKINESIA AND SHOULDER PROPRIOCEPTION IN ATHLETES AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepmala Thakur

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forward head posture (FHP, the most common deviation from the normal curvature in cervical spine. Craniocervical flexor muscle strengthening is frequently used treatment for FHP. Scapular dykinesia (SD is the alteration in the normal static or dynamic motion of the scapula during coupled scapulohumeral movements. Shoulder stabilization exercises are an effective treatment for SD. As both FHP and SD are related to each other, the objective of the study was to find and compare the effect of FHP correction and shoulder stabilization exercises on SD and shoulder proprioception. Methods: 40 athletes (18-30yrs were recruited. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups. Group A received deep neck flexor strengthening and anterior scalene stretch, group B received shoulder stabilizing exercises. Paired t test and chi-square test were used to judge the statistical significant difference. The level of significance was set at p <0.05. All data was analyzed using SPSS program version 12. Result: No statistical significant difference was found between the groups for the 4 outcome variables, but significant improvement was seen within the groups. Shoulder proprioception was found to be significant between the groups where group B (p =<0.001 showed better improvement than group A (p = <0.017. Conclusion: Both FHP correction as well as shoulder stabilization exercises were equally effective in correction of scapular dyskinesia and shoulder proprioception. Shoulder stabilization exercises showed slightly better improvement than FHP correction group in reducing proprioception errors. Also neck strength values were found to be clinically significant for deep neck strengthening group.

  19. Medial scapular winging associated with rib fractures and plating corrected with pectoralis major transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John G. Skedros

    2014-01-01

    CONCLUSION: Although the specific cause of the long thoracic nerve injury could not be determined in our patient, it was associated with chest wall trauma in the setting of rib fracture ORIF. The scapular winging was surgically corrected with a pectoralis major transfer.

  20. Scapular Malunion in a Vietnam War Veteran: Superior Medial Angle of the Scapula Impinging on the Clavicle: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Scott M; Armstrong, April D

    2015-01-01

    Scapular malunion can be overlooked as a source of substantial upper-extremity pain and dysfunction and can generate unnecessary studies or treatments. We present the case of a Vietnam War veteran who sustained a projectile injury in the left shoulder and had persistent symptoms limiting his activity and quality of life for a number of years until surgical resection was performed. Scapular malunion should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a patient presenting with persistent upper-extremity pain and weakness following scapular fracture. Making the correct diagnosis based on the history, examination, and imaging will prevent unnecessary studies and invasive procedures.

  1. Differences in Trocar Positioning within the Vertebral Body Using Two Different Positioning Methods: Effect on Trainee Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Komemushi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate the educational effect of the Japanese Society of Interventional Radiology 7th Academic Summer Seminar from a technical perspective. Materials and Methods. Nineteen trainees participated in the seminar. The seminar consisted of vertebroplasty trainings using swine with the single-plane landmark method and with the ISOcenter Puncture (ISOP method. All trainees were advised by an instructor as they operated the instruments and punctured the vertebra. For each trainee, the accuracy in the final position of the needle tip of the initial puncture in each swine training was evaluated. Results. Error in the final position of the needle tip of ≥5 mm from the target puncture site occurred in the lateral direction in 42% (8/19 of trainees with the landmark method and 5% (1/19 with the ISOP method. No error ≥5 mm occurred in the vertical or anteroposterior directions. In terms of puncture accuracy, error in the lateral direction was significantly lower with the ISOP method than with the landmark method (2.2 ± 1.5 mm versus 5.6 ± 3.2 mm. Conclusion. This seminar was effective training for trocar placement for beginners. The puncture was more accurate with the ISOP method than with the landmark method.

  2. Candida-associated gastric ulcer relapsing in a different position with a different appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Kenji

    2012-08-28

    An 87-year-old, Japanese woman was shown to have a submucosal tumor-like lesion with a deep, central ulceration covered with thick, whitish exudate in the stomach. Biopsy showed Candida tropicalis but not Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). She had no predisposing factors or history of peptic ulcers nor had taken non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), diagnosed with Candida-associated gastric ulcer. Though cured of the lesion, she developed another ulcer in a different position, in which Candida was demonstrated but H. pylori was undetectable. This is the first case of recurrent Candida-associated gastric ulcer in the world. Detected in both the original and recurrent lesions in an H. pylori-negative patient with no antecedent ulcers who had not taken NSAIDs, Candida is considered, contrary to the prevailing opinion, to play an etiologic role in ulcer formation.

  3. Visual fatigue while watching 3D stimuli from different positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar-Casanova, J Antonio; Romeo, August; Gómez, Aurora Torrents; Enrile, Pedro Martin

    When observers focus their stereoscopic visual system for a long time (e.g., watching a 3D movie) they may experience visual discomfort or asthenopia. We tested two types of models for predicting visual fatigue in a task in which subjects were instructed to discriminate between 3D characters. One model was based on viewing distance (focal distance, vergence distance) and another in visual direction (oculomotor imbalance). A 3D test was designed to assess binocular visual fatigue while looking at 3D stimuli located in different visual directions and viewed from two distances from the screen. The observers were tested under three conditions: (a) normal vision; (b) wearing a lens (-2 diop.); (c) wearing a base-out prism (2▿) over each eye. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated (as Signal Detection Theory parameters: SDT). An ANOVA and SDT analyses revealed that impaired visual performance were directly related to short distance and larger deviation in visual direction, particularly when the stimuli were located nearer and at more than 24° to the centre of the screen in dextroversion and beyond. This results support a mixed model, combining a model based on the visual angle (related to viewing distance) and another based on the oculomotor imbalance (related to visual direction). This mixed model could help to predict the distribution of seats in the cinema room ranging from those that produce greater visual comfort to those that produce more visual discomfort. Also could be a first step to pre-diagnosis of binocular vision disorders. Copyright © 2016 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of scapular external rotation on the axillary nerve during the arthroscopic Latarjet procedure: an anatomical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinares, Felipe; Werthel, Jean-David; Moraiti, Constantina; Valenti, Philippe

    2017-10-01

    The first purpose of this study is to measure the distance between the axillary nerve and the exit point of K-wires placed retrograde through the glenoid in the setting of an arthroscopic Latarjet procedure. The second objective is to evaluate whether manual external rotation of the scapula alters that distance. In seven fresh-frozen specimens, two 2.0-mm K-wires were drilled through the glenoid using an arthroscopic Latarjet retrograde glenoid guide. These were drilled into the glenoid at the 7- and 8-o'clock positions (right shoulders) and at the 4- and 5-o'clock positions (left). K-wires were oriented parallel to the glenoid articular surface and perpendicular to the long superoinferior axis of the glenoid, 7 mm medial to the joint surface. Two independent evaluators measured the distances between the axillary nerve and the exit point of the K-wires in the horizontal plane (AKHS for the superior K-wire and AKHI for the inferior K-wire) and in the vertical plane (AKV). Measurements were taken with the scapula left free and were repeated with the scapula placed at 15° and 30° of external rotation. With the scapula left free, scapular external rotation was 34° ± 2.3°. In this position, the AKHS was 2.5 ± 1.6, 6.3 ± 1.2 mm at 15° of external rotation (ER) and 11.4 ± 1.4 mm at 30° ER. The AKHI distance was 0.37 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 1.4 and 10.6 ± 2.1 mm, respectively, for the scapula left free, at 15° ER and 30° of ER. The AKV distances were, respectively, 0.12 ± 0.2, 4.9 ± 1.6 and 9.9 ± 1.7 mm. The increase in all distances was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Increasing scapular external rotation significantly increases the distance between the axillary nerve and the exit point of the K-wires, increasing the margin of safety during this procedure. Therefore, increased external rotation of the scapula could be an effective tool to decrease the risk of iatrogenic axillary nerve injury. Cadaveric study, Level V.

  5. The effect of scapular posterior tilt exercise, pectoralis minor stretching, and shoulder brace on scapular alignment and muscles activity in subjects with round-shoulder posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-hyun; Cynn, Heon-seock; Yoon, Tae-lim; Ko, Chang-hee; Choi, Woo-jeong; Choi, Sil-ah; Choi, Bong-sam

    2015-02-01

    There are various methods for rehabilitating round-shoulder posture (RSP), including strengthening exercises, stretching, and using a shoulder brace or taping to correct the altered posture. However, no study has determined which intervention is the most effective of the three methods to decrease RSP (intervention #1: scapular posterior tilting exercise alone [hereafter, SPT], intervention #2: the scapular posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching [PM stretch+SPT], and intervention #3: the scapular posterior tilting exercise with use of a shoulder brace [SPT+brace]). The purpose of this study was to compare the SPT, PM stretch+SPT, and SPT+brace on RSP, PM index (PMI), and lower trapezius (LT) and serratus anterior (SA) activity in subjects with RSP. In total, fifteen young men with RSP, participated in the study (21.46 ± 2.30 years old). RSP was confirmed using a caliper measure. Surface electromyography (SEMG) data for LT and SA activity were collected during the three interventions, and the SEMG data are expressed as a percentage of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC). RSP was significantly less in the PM stretch+SPT and SPT+brace than in the SPT (Pstretch+SPT and SPT+brace than in the SPT (Pstretch+SPT than in the SPT or SPT+brace in subjects with RSP (Pstretching exercise and application of a shoulder brace may help correct RSP and restore the length of the PM. The posterior tilting exercise after PM stretching was the most effective method for eliciting greater LT muscle activation among the interventions tested. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface EMG during the Push-up plus Exercise on a Stable Support or Swiss Ball: Scapular Stabilizer Muscle Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Sung-Hwa; Jeon, In-Ho; Cho, Yong-Ho; Lee, Hyun-Gi; Hwang, Yoon-Tae; Jang, Jee-Hun

    2013-07-01

    [Purpose] Scapular stabilizer strengthening exercise is crucial for shoulder rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to compare two types of push-up plus exercises, on a stable and unstable bases of support, using surface electromyography (EMG), to suggest an effective shoulder rehabilitation program. [Subjects and Methods] Ten healthy men volunteered for this study. All volunteers performed two sets of push-up plus exercise (standard push up and knee push up) on stable and unstable bases of support. The muscle activities of five important scapular stabilizer muscles (upper trapezius, middle trapezius, lower trapezius, serratus anterior, latissimus dorsi) were recorded during the exercise. [Results] The upper trapezius showed greater mean electric activation amplitude in the scapular retraction posture than in the scapular protraction posture, and the serratus anterior showed greater mean electric activation amplitude in the scapular protraction posture than in the scapular retraction posture. The root-mean-square normalized EMG values of the muscles were greater during the exercise performed on the unstable support than those on the stable support. [Conclusion] The standard push-up plus exercise on an unstable base of support helps to increase muscle activity, especially those of the upper/middle trapezius and serratus anterior.

  7. Hardware complications in oromandibular defects: Comparing scapular and fibular based free flap reconstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Gordon F Z; Zhang, Han; Yao, Christopher; Kolarski, Mirko; Gullane, Patrick J; Irish, Jonathan C; Brown, Dale H; Chepeha, Douglas B; Goldstein, David P; Gilbert, Ralph W; de Almeida, John R

    2017-08-01

    Despite improvements in surgical technique and technology, hardware complications occur relatively frequently. This study analyzes hardware complications in patients undergoing oromandibular reconstruction using scapular (SFF) or fibular (FFF) free flaps. Retrospective data for 178 patients was obtained (1999-2014) at University Hospital Network (Toronto, Canada). Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to identify risk factors for hardware complications. Patients with FFF reconstruction (n=129) had significantly more hardware complications than those with SFF (n=49) (16% vs. 2%;p=0.01). Surgical site infection (SSI) (OR=7.05; phardware complications on univariable analysis. Flap type (OR=0.12; p=0.04) was an independent predictor of plate complication after adjusting for SSI. A subgroup analysis suggested a trend towards fewer hardware complications with SFF stratified by mandibular defect type. Scapular free flaps are associated with a lower rate of hardware-related complications in oromandibular reconstruction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of scapular stabilization based exercise therapy on pain, posture, flexibility and shoulder mobility in patients with shoulder impingement syndrome: a controlled randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moezy, Azar; Sepehrifar, Saeed; Solaymani Dodaran, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction in the kinetic chain caused by poor scapula stabilization can contribute to shoulder injuries and Shoulder Impingement Syndrome (SIS). The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two treatment approaches scapular stabilization based exercise therapy and physical therapy in patients with SIS. The study is a randomized clinical trial in which 68 patients with SIS were randomly assigned in two groups of exercise therapy (ET) and physical therapy (PT) and received 18 sessions of treatment. Pain, shoulders' range of abduction and external rotation, shoulder protraction, scapular rotation and symmetry as well as postural assessment and Pectoralis minor length were evaluated pre and post intervention. The paired-sample t test and the independent sample t test were applied respectively to determine the differences in each group and between two groups. Our findings indicated significant differences in abduction and external rotation range, improvement of forward shoulder translation and increase in the flexibility of the involved shoulder between the two groups (respectively ; p=0.024, p=0.001, ppain reduction between the groups (p=0.576). Protraction of the shoulder (pshoulder range, decreasing forward head and shoulder postures and Pectoralis minor flexibility.

  9. Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie

    Neuromuscular function in patients with Subacromial Impingement Syndrome and clinical assessment of scapular kinematics Larsen CM1, Juul-Kristensen B1,2 Holtermann A3, Lund H1,2, Søgaard K1 1University of Southern Denmark, Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, DK 2Institute of Oc...... benefit from biofeedback training. Lastly, these results indicate that very few clinical assessment methods have sufficient clinimetric properties that can be recommended for clinical use....... a voluntary arm movement task and 2) selective activation tasks during sessions with and without on-line biofeedback, in a general population consisting of 16 SIS patients and 15 controls (No-SIS). Furthermore, 3) a systematic review was conducted of all available clinical scapular assessment methods...... parts were below 1.5% activity or (ii) an activation ratio above 95% of the total activity of all muscles, significantly fewer SIS subjects than No-SIS subjects achieved selective activation of individual scapular muscle compartments without on-line biofeedback of muscle activity from each muscle...

  10. Grade-IV inferior glenohumeral mobilization does not immediately alter shoulder and scapular muscle activity: a repeated-measures study in asymptomatic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Daniel Cury; Day, Ashleigh; Dickerson, Clark R

    2017-12-01

    To assess: (1) the presence of any carry-over effect between interventions; (2) the immediate effects of inferior shoulder mobilization on shoulder and scapular muscle activity; and (3) to compare muscle activity response between the control and mobilization conditions. Repeated measures, cross-over, pre-post intervention study with sample of convenience. Twenty-two asymptomatic individuals performed 10 repetitions of shoulder abduction before and after the control and mobilization, with a dosage of three sets of 30-s duration, with grade-IV. The order of intervention was randomized. Surface electromyography was used for recording activity of upper and lower trapezius; anterior, middle and posterior deltoids; supraspinatus; infraspinatus; and serratus anterior. Repeated measures mixed-model analysis of variance was used to assess immediate changes in muscle activity levels following inferior shoulder mobilization. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used for comparing muscle activity waveforms between control and mobilization conditions throughout the range of motion. No systematic changes in muscle activity levels were found between: (1) baseline and follow-up for each condition, at the concentric and eccentric phases of shoulder abduction; (2) control and mobilization conditions during the concentric and eccentric phases of shoulder abduction. SPM results suggested no differences in muscle activity pattern between conditions. Inferior shoulder mobilization did not produce immediate effects on shoulder and scapular muscle activity. It is possible that the dose used was insufficient to generate an immediate neuromuscular response to the mobilization.

  11. The Effects on the Pain Index and Lumbar Flexibility of Obese Patients with Low Back Pain after PNF Scapular and PNF Pelvic Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, KwangYong; Seo, KyoChul

    2014-10-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercises using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) scapular and pelvic patterns might decrease the pain index and increase the lumbar flexibility of obese patients with low back pain. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty obese patients with low back pain were randomly assigned to an experimetal group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). The exercise program of the experimental group consisted of scapular patterns (anterior depression - posterior elevation) and pelvic patterns (anterior elevation - posterior depression). The control group performed neutral back muscle strengthening exercises. Over the course of four weeks, the groups participated in PNF or performed strengthening exercises for 30 minutes, three times per week. Subjects were assessed a pre-test and post-test using measurements of pain and lumbar flexibility. [Results] The results show that lumbar flexion and lumbar extension significantly improved in the experimental group, had significant improvement and that the Oswestry Disability index (ODI) significantly decreased. However, there were no significant changes in the control group. The experimental group also showed significant differences in the pain index and lumbar flexibility from the control group. [Conclusion] This study showed that PNF can be used to improve pain index rating and lumbar flexibility. The findings indicate that the experimental group experienced greater improvement than the control group by participating in the PNF lumbar stabilization program.

  12. Comparison of the Forward Head Posture on Scapular Muscle Contributions During Shoulder Flexion of Predominant Arm in Women with Forward Head Posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Rezazadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of the corrigibility of forward head posture (FHP, the recognition of the relationship between this deformity and scapular rotator muscles may be influential on scapular muscle activities in detection of better way to improve movement disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the serratus anterior, upper and lower trapezius muscle contributions during shoulder flexion without weight in women with and without FHP. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study was carried out on 18 women with FHP and 14 healthy subjects who were matched. EMG muscle activities were recorded during shoulder flexion and abduction. The value of each muscle divided on total muscle values to calculate contribution ratio and independent t-test was used to compare contributions between groups. Results: There was a significant decrease in serratus anterior muscle activity ratio (p=0.002 and a significant increase in upper trapezius muscle activity ratio (p=0.001 between subjects with and without FHP. There was not also significant difference in contribution of lower trapezius muscle. Conclusion: Contribution of the serratus anterior muscle in individuals with forward head posture is less than healthy subjects. The contribution of upper trapezius muscle also in individuals with FHP is greater than healthy subjects.

  13. Scapuloplasty alleviates scapular pain resulting from lung cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hey-Ran; Lee, Pyung-Bok; Kim, Kyung-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Osteoplasty, a highly effective minimally invasive procedure that alleviates the painful effects of metastatic bone disease by injecting bone cement to support weakened bones, provides immediate and substantial pain relief. However, it is rarely performed in non-weight bearing flat bones such as the scapula. Fractures of the body of the scapula are rarely treated surgically, except for cases of marked displacement of fragments that limit the function of the scapula. According to the reported incidences of operative treatment of different scapula fracture types, 99% of all isolated scapula body fractures are treated nonoperatively A 54-year-old man had been experiencing metastatic bone pain in the lateral border, medial border, and medial infraspinatus fossa of the left scapula for the past 2 months; this pain originated from adenocarcinoma of the right lung. He could not sleep on his back even after completion of radiation therapy. We decided to perform scapuloplasty. The patient was placed in the prone position on a radiolucent table with an inflatable adjustable axillary pillow. Three 13-gauge, 10-cm long bone biopsy needles were simultaneously inserted from the 3 different entry points to fill the osteolytic lesion with the bone cement with fluoroscopic guidance under local anesthesia and intravenous analgesia. After confirming needle placement and ensuring that no contrast medium was extravasated, a total of 8 mL of the cement was injected. Immediately after the operation, the patient could lie on his back without pain. Scapuloplasty is a new variant of osteoplasty used to alleviate the painful effects of metastatic bone disease. It may be an option of shoulder motion-preserving minimally invasive procedure for alleviating intractable pain induced by lying on the back.

  14. Measurement properties of existing clinical assessment methods evaluating scapular positioning and function. A systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Camilla Marie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Lund, Hans

    2014-01-01

    %) to ‘‘poor’’ (43%), with only one study rated as ‘‘good’’. The reliability domain was most often investigated. Few of the assessment methods in the included studies that had ‘‘fair’’ or ‘‘good’’ measurement property ratings demonstrated acceptable results for both reliability and validity. We found...

  15. 77 FR 30435 - In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-23

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 50 In-core Thermocouples at Different Elevations and Radial Positions in Reactor Core... ``require all holders of operating licenses for nuclear power plants (``NPP'') to operate NPPs with in-core thermocouples at different elevations and radial positions throughout the reactor core.'' DATES: Submit comments...

  16. TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF SCAPULAR MOBILIZATION VERSUS MOBILIZATION WITH MOVEMENT TO REDUCE PAIN AND IMPROVE GLENO-HUMERAL RANGE OF MOTION IN ADHESIVE CAPSULITIS OF SHOULDER: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lipika Boruah

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Joint mobilization is an effective intervention for adhesive capsulitis. Scapular mobilization in shoulder adhesive capsulitis is used to decrease intra articular pressure by increasing mobility of the joint capsule and its surrounding soft tissue that results in a reduction of pain and increase range of motion and shoulder function. At the same time the use of mobilization with movement (MWM for peripheral joints was also used clinically. This technique combines a sustained application of a manual technique ‘gliding’ force to a joint with concurrent physiologic motion of joint, either actively performed by the subject or passively performed by the therapist. So far there is no study which is done on comparison between both of these techniques. The aim of the study is to find out whether the scapular mobilization or mobilization with movement technique improve gleno-humeral range of motion and reduce pain in patients with shoulder adhesive capsulitis. Methods: 50 subjects with adhesive capsulitis were randomly divided in to two groups and one group was treated with mobilization with movement and another group treated with scapular mobilization technique. Each group consist 25 patients. Both groups were given hot packs and pendular exercises as conventional therapy procedures. Treatment was given 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Restricted joint range of motion and severity of pain were measured before and after treatment completion by using goniometer and SPADI pain score respectively. Result: Results of the present study revealed that there was a significant difference in SPADI pain score(%, AROM-GH-Flexion and AROM-GH-External rotation who were treated in group A(MWM with mean being 44.00, 102.24 and 46.08 respectively compared to group B (SM with mean being 54.00, 81.00 and 35.84 in 3 weeks. Comparisons between these three parameters used in two treatment techniques were extremely significant (p= 0.000 for all. Conclusion: On the

  17. Surgical Release of the Pectoralis Minor Tendon for Scapular Dyskinesia and Shoulder Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencher, Matthew T; Kirby, Hannah; McDonald, Lucas S; Golijanin, Petar; Gross, Daniel; Campbell, Kevin J; LeClere, Lance; Sanchez, George; Anthony, Shawn; Romeo, Anthony A

    2017-01-01

    Pectoralis minor (PM) tightness has been linked to pain and dysfunction of the shoulder joint secondary to anterior tilt and internal rotation of the scapula, thus causing secondary impingement of the subacromial space. To describe outcomes pertaining to nonoperative and operative treatment via surgical release of the PM tendon for pathologic PM tightness in an active population. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Over a 3-year period, a total of 46 patients were enrolled (mean age, 25.5 years; range, 18-33 years). Inclusion criteria consisted of symptomatic shoulder pain, limited range of overhead motion, inability to participate in overhead lifting activities, and examination findings consistent with scapular dysfunction secondary to a tight PM with tenderness to palpation of the PM tendon. All patients underwent a lengthy physical therapy and stretching program (mean, 11.4 months; range, 3-23 months), which was followed by serial examinations for resolution of symptoms and scapular tilt. Of the 46 patients, 6 (13%) were unable to adequately stretch the PM and underwent isolated mini-open PM release. Outcomes were assessed with scapula protraction measurements and pain scales as well as American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES), Single Assessment Numeric Evaluation (SANE), and visual analog scale (VAS) scores. Forty of the 46 patients (87%) resolved the tight PM and scapular-mediated symptoms with a dedicated therapy program (pre- and posttreatment mean outcome scores: 58 and 91 [ASES], 50 and 90 [SANE], 4.9 and 0.8 [VAS]; P shoulder symptoms after surgical release of the PM. Additional research is necessary to evaluate the long-term efficacy of isolated PM treatment.

  18. Scapular allograft reconstruction after total scapulectomy: surgical technique and functional results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capanna, Rodolfo; Totti, Francesca; Van der Geest, Ingrid C M; Müller, Daniel A

    2015-08-01

    Scapular allograft reconstruction after total scapulectomy preserving the rotator cuff muscles is an oncologically safe procedure and results in good functional outcome with a low complication rate. The data of 6 patients who underwent scapular allograft reconstruction after a total scapulectomy for tumor resection were retrospectively reviewed. At least 1 of the rotator cuff muscles was preserved and the size-matched scapular allograft fixed to the residual host acromion with a plate and screws. The periscapular muscles and the residual joint capsule were sutured to the corresponding insertions of the allograft. The mean follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 24-175 months). In all patients, a wide surgical margin was achieved. The average functional scores were 20 points for the International Society of Limb Salvage score and 60 points for the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score. Mean active shoulder flexion of 60° (range, 30°-90°) and mean active abduction of 62° (range, 30°-90°) were achieved. During the follow-up, 1 patient (16.6%) had a local recurrence and lung metastasis, whereas the remaining 5 patients (83.3%) were disease free. Two breakages of the osteosynthesis and 2 allograft fractures were observed, necessitating a revision surgery in 2 cases (33.3%). In this series, no infection, allograft resorption, or shoulder instability occurred. Allograft substitution of a completely removed scapula is an oncologically safe procedure, with good functional results, avoiding common complications in prosthetic replacements such as infection and dislocation of the shoulder joint. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The reliability and concurrent validity of scapular plane shoulder elevation measurements using a digital inclinometer and goniometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolber, Morey J; Fuller, Cydne; Marshall, Jessica; Wright, Amanda; Hanney, William J

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated the reliability and concurrent validity of active shoulder elevation in the scapular plane (scaption) using a digital inclinometer and goniometer. Two investigators used a goniometer and digital inclinometer to measure scaption on 30 asymptomatic participants in a blinded repeated measures design. Good reliability was present with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) for intrarater reliability of goniometry = 0.87, intrarater digital inclinometry = 0.88, interrater goniometry = 0.92, and interrater digital inclinometry = 0.89. The minimal detectable change (MDC95) for the interrater analysis indicated that a change equal to or greater than 8 degrees for goniometry and 9 degrees for inclinometry is required to be 95% certain that the change is not due to intertrial variability or measurement error. The concurrent validity between goniometry and digital inclinometry was excellent with an ICC value of 0.94 for both raters. The 95% limits of agreement suggest that the difference between these two measurement instruments can be expected to vary by up to ±11 degrees. The results support the interchangeable use of goniometry and digital inclinometer for measuring scaption. Clinicians and researchers should consider the MDC values presented when interpreting change during subsequent measurement sessions.

  20. The effects of scapulothoracic bursa injections in patients with scapular pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won Hyuk; Im, Sang Hee; Ryu, Jeong Ah; Lee, Sang Chul; Kim, Ji Sung

    2009-02-01

    To assess the effects of steroid plus hyaluronate injections for scapulothoracic bursitis in patients with scapular pain. Prospective open-label unicenter trial with a 3-month follow-up. University rehabilitation hospital. Twenty-two cases of suspected scapulothoracic bursitis. Injections into scapulothoracic bursa were performed with steroid plus hyaluronate. Injections were administered once a week for 3 weeks. Visual analog scale (VAS), Rubin scale, adverse events, and injection-associated complications. Mean outcome scores at 3-month follow-up visits showed significant improvements versus baseline (mean VAS increased from 7.8 to 2.2) (Pbursa provide an effective means of treating patients with scapulothoracic bursitis.

  1. Floating Shoulder: Ipsilateral Clavicle, Scapular Body And Glenoid Fracture. A Case Report

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    Mehmet Elmadag

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of shoulder instability following a traffic accident. Allman Type I midshaft clavicle, Ideberg Type II glenoid and DeCloux Type I scapular body fractures were diagnosed following radiologic examination. There were no signs of ligamentous injury. Mechanical instability was noted at the shoulder due to breakage of the supportive bony skeleton. The patient was treated surgically with plate and screw fixation. Surgical fixation allowed early postoperative physiotherapy and rehabilitation. This rare injury and its treatment options are discussed in the light of current literature.

  2. Influence of different positive emotions on persuasion processing: a functional evolutionary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griskevicius, Vladas; Shiota, Michelle N; Neufeld, Samantha L

    2010-04-01

    Much research has found that positive affect facilitates increased reliance on heuristics in cognition. However, theories proposing distinct evolutionary fitness-enhancing functions for specific positive emotions also predict important differences among the consequences of different positive emotion states. Two experiments investigated how six positive emotions influenced the processing of persuasive messages. Using different methods to induce emotions and assess processing, we showed that the positive emotions of anticipatory enthusiasm, amusement, and attachment love tended to facilitate greater acceptance of weak persuasive messages (consistent with previous research), whereas the positive emotions of awe and nurturant love reduced persuasion by weak messages. In addition, a series of mediation analyses suggested that the effects distinguishing different positive emotions from a neutral control condition were best accounted for by different mediators rather than by one common mediator. These findings build upon approaches that link affective valence to certain types of processing, documenting emotion-specific effects on cognition that are consistent with functional evolutionary accounts of discrete positive emotions. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  3. Changes in the cervical FRR, shoulder muscle pain and position after continuous detailed assembly work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo And, In-Gyu; Yoo, Won-Gyu

    2014-01-01

    Several risk factors for upper-extremity muscle injuries are known, including repetitive and continuous-flow assembly work. However, no study has investigated the changes in the cervical flexion-relaxation ratio (FRR) and scapular position after continuous detailed assembly work. This study investigated the changes in the cervical FRR, trapezius muscle pain, and acromion and scapular positions after continuous detailed assembly work. Fifteen male workers were recruited. The cervical FRR, pressure-pain threshold (PPT) of the upper and middle trapezius muscle, and acromion and scapular positions were measured in all subjects once before and once after detailed assembly work. The cervical FRR after detailed assembly work was significantly decreased compared with that before detailed assembly work. The PPT of the upper and middle trapezius muscle after detailed assembly work was significantly decreased compared with that before detailed assembly work. The acromion angle after detailed assembly work was significantly decreased compared with that before detailed assembly work. The scapular inferior distance after detailed assembly was significantly increased compared with that before detailed assembly work. Our findings suggest that detailed assembly work may cause the absence of FRR, upper trapezius and middle trapezius pain, and scapular malalignment associated with a potential risk of neck and shoulder pain.

  4. Gender Differences in Context: The Impact of Track Position on Study Involvement in Flemish Secondary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houtte, Mieke

    2017-01-01

    This study examines whether the influence of track position on study involvement is gendered and whether gender differences in study involvement according to track position are associated with school misconduct and rather poor future perspectives. Three-level analyses (HLM 6) of data gathered in 2004-2005 from 11,872 third- and fifth-grade…

  5. [Difference of body movements accompanying mandibular movements in standing and sitting positions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Satoshi; Kohno, Shoji; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Naoki; Hosogai, Akiko; Kinjoh, Atsushi; Kai, Asako

    2008-10-01

    To assess whether body movement accompanying jaw movement exists even in sitting position, and, if so, to investigate differences of body movements in the sitting and standing positions. The subjects were six men (age, 25-29 years, mean, 27.0 years) without stomatognathic problems. During the measurements, their Camper's planes were kept horizontal. One measurement sequence consisted of 20 s of tapping preceded and followed by 10 s of intercuspation. Mandibular movements (lower incisor point) were measured by referring to a coordinate system located on the maxilla, and head movements (upper incisor, condyle, etc) with TRIMETII (Tokyo Sizaisya) and body movements (sternum point) in sagittal plane were measured by referring to a coordinate system located on the floor with Proreflex (Qualisys). Body movements accompanying jaw movements were detected even in sitting position. The ratio of body movements to jaw movements was significantly larger in standing position than in sitting position using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. Peak power of body movement at corresponding frequency to the open-close movement was significantly larger in standing position than in sitting position using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test. On the other hand, there was no difference between sitting and standing position in probability of body movement detection by the original wave analysis using Wilcoxon matched-pairs signedrank test. Body movements accompanying jaw movements were detected even in sitting position, and were smaller than in standing position. However, the probability of movements detected in original wave had no difference between the positions. Thus we concluded that we can analyze body movements during mastication in natural sitting position.

  6. A retrospective study: does upper airway morphology differ between non-positional and positional obstructive sleep apnea?

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    Xiao Jiao

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective The objective of this study was to explore the differences in upper airway morphology between positional (POSA and non-positional (NPOSA obstructive sleep apnea. Methods This retrospective study enrolled 75 patients (45 NPOSA and 30 POSA who underwent polysomnography (PSG and computed tomography (CT. The differences in, and relationships of, the PSG values and CT data between POSA and NPOSA were analyzed. Results Significant (p < 0.05 differences between the two groups were found in the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI, lateral-AHI (L-AHI, soft palate length (SPL, cross-sectional palatopharyngeal area, and the coronal diameter (CD of the palatopharyngeal area at the narrowest part of the glossopharynx, which were all higher in POSA, except for SPL, AHI, and L-AHI. L-AHI was correlated with the cross-sectional area (r =  − 0.306, p = 0.008 and CD (r =  − 0.398, p < 0.001 of the palatopharyngeal area, the cross-sectional area (r =  − 0.241, p = 0.038 and CD (r =  − 0.297, p = 0.010 of the narrowest level of the glossopharynx, the CD of the glossopharynx (r = 0.284, p = 0.013, body mass index (BMI, r = 0.273, p = 0.018, SPL (r = 0.284, p = 0.014, and vallecula-tip of tongue (r = 0.250, p = 0.030. The SPL and CD at the narrowest part of the glossopharynx were included in the simplified screening model. Conclusions In NPOSA, the CD of the upper airway was smaller, and the soft palate was longer, than in POSA. These differences may play significant roles in explaining the main differences between NPOSA and POSA.

  7. Complex Scapular Winging following Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in a Patient with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome

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    John G. Skedros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a unique case of a female patient with features of classical and hypermobile types of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS who developed complex scapular winging from spinal accessory and long thoracic neuropathies. These neurological problems became manifest after an uncomplicated total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA. The patient had a complex postoperative course with extensive work-up in addition to revision shoulder surgery and manipulations to treat shoulder stiffness. It was eventually suspected that the periscapular nerve impairments occurred during physical therapy sessions after her TSA. This interpretation was further supported by genetic evidence that, in addition to EDS, the patient had an unrecognized genetic propensity for nerve palsies from stretch or pressure (“hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies” (HNPP. By two years after the TSA the neuropathies had only partially improved, leaving the patient with persistent scapular winging and shoulder weakness. With this case we alert surgeons and physical therapists that patients with EDS can have not only a complicated course after TSA, but rare concurrent conditions that can further increase the propensity of neurological injuries that result in compromised shoulder function.

  8. Vascularized scapular grafting for treatment of osteonecrosis of the humeral head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Kenji; Kawate, Kenji; Yajima, Hiroshi; Kobata, Yasunori; Takakura, Yoshinori

    2008-11-01

    Eight dissections in four embalmed cadavers were performed to investigate the possibility of vascularized scapular grafting for osteonecrosis of the humeral head. When the angular branch was used as the nutrient vessel, the mean length of the vascular pedicle was 12.4 cm, which was sufficient for transferring the scapula into the humeral head. Based on the anatomical study, a 27-year-old man with corticosteroid-induced osteonecrosis of the right humeral head was treated by vascularized scapular grafting. The pedicled vascularized scapula was successfully transferred into the humeral head using the angular branch. The patient's right shoulder pain disappeared following surgical recovery. He had no limitations of right shoulder motion 3 years after the surgery. Magnetic resonance imaging at 1 year after the surgery indicated revascularization of the humeral head. The humeral head did not collapse during a 3-year follow-up with radiographic evaluation. This procedure has the potential to be a new joint-preserving procedure for osteonecrosis of the humeral head.

  9. Scapular Free Vascularised Bone Flaps for Mandibular Reconstruction: Are Dental Implants Possible?

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    Martin Lanzer

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Free fibula flap remains the flap of choice for reconstruction of mandibular defects. If free fibula flap is not possible, the subscapular system of flaps is a valid option. In this study, we evaluated the possibility of dental implant placement in patients receiving a scapular free flap for oromandibular reconstruction. Material and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 10 patients undergoing mandible reconstruction with a subscapular system free-tissue (lateral border of the scapula transfer at the University Hospital Zürich between January 1, 2010 and January 1, 2013. Bone density in cortical and cancellous bone was measured in Hounsfield units (HU. Changes of bone density, height and width were analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 22. Comparisons of bone dimensions as well as bone density were performed using a chi-square test. Results: Ten patients were included. Implantation was conducted in 50%. However, all patients could have received dental implants considering bone stock. Loss of bone height and width were significant (P < 0.001. There was a statistical significant increase in bone density in cortical (P < 0.001 and cancellous (P = 0.004 bone. Conclusions: Dental implants are possible after scapular free flap reconstruction of oromandibular defects. Bone height and width were reduced, while bone density increased with time.

  10. Endoscopically assisted resection of a scapular osteochondroma causing snapping scapula syndrome

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    Futani Hiroyuki

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteochondroma is the most common benign bone tumor in the scapula. This condition might lead to snapping scapula syndrome, which is characterized by painful, audible, and/or palpable abnormal scapulothoracic motion. In the present case, this syndrome was successfully treated by use of endoscopically assisted resection of the osteochondroma. Case presentation A 41-year-old man had a tolerable pain in his scapular region over a 10 years' period. The pain developed gradually with shoulder motion, in particular with golf swing since he was aiming a professional golf player career. On physical examination, "clunking" was noted once from 90 degrees of abduction to 180 degrees of shoulder motion. A trans-scapular roentgenogram and computed tomography images revealed an osteochondroma located at the anterior and inferior aspect of the scapula. Removal of the tumor was performed by the use of endoscopically assisted resection. One portal was made at the lateral border of the scapula to introduce a 2.7-mm-diameter, 30 degrees Hopkins telescope. The tumor was resected in a piece-by-piece manner by the use of graspers through the same portal. Immediately after the operation pain relief was obtained, and the "clunking" disappeared. CT images showed complete tumor resection. The patient could start playing golf one week after the surgery. Conclusion Endoscopically assisted resection of osteochondroma of the scapula provides a feasible technique to treat snapping scapula syndrome and obtain early functional recovery with a short hospital stay and cosmetic advantage.

  11. Full can test: Mechanisms of a positive test in patients with shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, Mark K; Yesilyaprak, Sevgi S; Ericksen, Jeff; Michener, Lori A

    2017-02-01

    The full can test is theorized to produce compressive loads on the supraspinatus tendon within the subacromial space. Characterizing the width of the subacromial outlet, scapular orientation, and shoulder pain during the full can test will improve the mechanistic understanding of the positive full can test. Cross-sectional repeated measures design. Participants with subacromial pain syndrome (n=30) were compared to a matched control group (n=30) during 2 conditions: passive support, and the full can test. The full can test was performed with the arm elevated to 90° in the scapular plane. In both conditions, measurements were taken of acromiohumeral distance with ultrasonography, scapular position using electromagnetic tracking, shoulder strength using a dynamometer, and shoulder pain with the 11-point rating scale. During the full can test, both groups had a decreased acromial humeral distance, scapular upward rotation, posterior tilt, external rotation and clavicular protraction as compared to passive support (ppain group as compared to the control group reported greater shoulder pain (ppain and reduced strength in those with subacromial pain syndrome can be explained additionally by an increase in scapular anterior tilt. These mechanistic changes may lead to tendon compression, but this cannot be verified as direct tendon compression was not measured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Are positive and negative reinforcement "different"? Insights from a free-operant differential outcomes effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magoon, Michael A; Critchfield, Thomas S; Merrill, Dustin; Newland, M Christopher; Schneider, W Joel

    2017-01-01

    Although theoretical discussions typically assume that positive and negative reinforcement differ, the literature contains little unambiguous evidence that they produce differential behavioral effects. To test whether the two types of consequences control behavior differently, we pitted money-gain positive reinforcement and money-loss-avoidance negative reinforcement, scheduled through identically programmed variable-cycle schedules, against each other in concurrent schedules. Contingencies of response-produced feedback, normally different in positive and negative reinforcement, were made symmetrical. Steeper matching slopes were produced compared to a baseline consisting of all positive reinforcement. This free-operant differential outcomes effect supports the notion that that stimulus-presentation positive reinforcement and stimulus-elimination negative reinforcement are functionally "different." However, a control experiment showed that the feedback asymmetry of more traditional positive and negative reinforcement schedules also is sufficient to create a "difference" when the type of consequence is held constant. We offer these findings as a small step in meeting the very large challenge of moving negative reinforcement theory beyond decades of relative quiescence. © 2017 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior.

  13. Ipsilateral Scapular Cutaneous Anchor System : An alternative for the harness in body-powered upper-limb prostheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hichert, M.; Plettenburg, D.H.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Body-powered prosthesis users frequently complain about the poor cosmesis and comfort of the traditional shoulder harness. The Ipsilateral Scapular Cutaneous Anchor System offers an alternative, but it remains unclear to what extent it affects the perception and control of cable

  14. Sensorimotor modulation differs with load type during constant finger force or position.

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    Hikari Kirimoto

    Full Text Available During submaximal isometric contraction, there are two different load types: production of a constant force against a rigid restraint (force task, and maintenance of position against a constant load (position task. Previous studies reported that the time to task failure during a fatigue task was twice as long in the force task compared with the position task. Sensory feedback processing may contribute to these differences. The purpose of the current study was to determine the influence of load types during static muscle contraction tasks on the gating effect, i.e., attenuation of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs and the cortical silent period (cSP. Ten healthy subjects contracted their right first dorsal interosseus muscle by abducting their index finger for 90 s, to produce a constant force against a rigid restraint that was 20% of the maximum voluntary contraction (force task, or to maintain a constant position with 10° abduction of the metacarpophalangeal joint against the same load (position task. Somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs were recorded from C3' by stimulating either the right ulnar or median nerve at the wrist while maintaining contraction. The cortical silent period (cSP was also elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation. Reduction of the amplitude of the P45 component of SEPs was significantly larger during the position task than during the force task and under control rest conditions when the ulnar nerve, but not the median nerve, was stimulated. The position task had a significantly shorter cSP duration than the force task. These results suggest the need for more proprioceptive information during the position task than the force task. The shorter duration of the cSP during the position task may be attributable to larger amplitude of heteronymous short latency reflexes. Sensorimotor modulations may differ with load type during constant finger force or position tasks.

  15. Effect of Different Positions of the Head on Tympanometry Results: An Exploratory Study

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    Indranil Chatterjee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Tympanometry is an objective measure of middle ear function that has been an integral part of the audiological evaluation test battery, for nearly three decades. The parameters of the tympanogram obtained are influenced with many factors such as introduction of positive or negative air pressure, speed of recording tympanogram, etc. This study was aimed to explore the influence of head positioning on tympanometric findings in normal ears. Materials and Methods Thirty ears of fifteen normal hearing subjects (mean age 22.8 years and five ears of subjects (mean age 23 years with high negative middle ear pressure were selected for the study. Tympanometry was done in four postures: head erect, head bent forward (chin touching the chest, head in supine and head lateralized towards one side. Results Two different results were obtained. It was interesting to note that the results significantly changed when the tympanogram was recorded after ten minutes in different head positions compared to those taken immediately after changing the head position. Discussion The possible explanation for the effect of duration in different head positions on tympanogram is discussed. Conclusion No significant changes were observed on static compliance, middle ear pressure, ear canal volume and pressure gradient when the tympanogram were recorded immediately bringing head in the particular posture. When head was held in the changed position for ten minutes, significant reduction in the pressure gradient was observed. Further extensive studies may be required to document the relationship between head positioning and tympanometric results.

  16. Kinematic predictors of wrist shot success in floorball/unihockey from two different feet positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Matteo; Kayser, Bengt; Armand, Stéphane

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to identify biomechanical predictors for accuracy and speed of the wrist shot in floorball, comparing two different starting feet positions. Ten floorball players performed 2 series of 10 stationary wrist shots, in 2 different positions (feet at a right angle to the end of the stick, oriented towards a target and feet parallel to the end of the stick and to the target). A 12-camera motion capture system, tracking reflective markers on key landmarks, was used to record participant and stick kinematics. Accuracy of the shot was quantified by distance of impact from target centre. Player gaze was approximated from head position. Shot accuracy was significantly better (P = 0.007) when feet were at right angle (0.22 [0.14] m) than when they were parallel (0.27 [0.20] m). Ball speed was no significantly different (P = 0.485) between the right angle position (23.50 [17.52] m · s(-1)) and the parallel position (23.50 [17.95] m · s(-1)). Between self-selected position and imposed position, there was no significant difference. Players looking at the target during shooting had greater accuracy. Regression models suggested that ball speed was mainly influenced, in both positions, by the flexion of the supporting leg (ankle, knee and hip), by the rotation of the hip and of the trunk, especially for the spine angles, and by the rotation and abduction-adduction movements of the wrist of the hand on the top of the stick. The comparison between players showed important differences in these technical skills.

  17. Physical fitness qualities of professional volleyball players: determination of positional differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Mário C; van den Tillaar, Roland; Gabbett, Tim J; Reis, Victor M; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and to determine if differences exist in these characteristics according to playing position. A group of 35 professional male team volleyball players (mean +/- SD age: 26.6 +/- 3.1 years) participated in the study. Players were categorized according to playing position and role: middle blockers (n = 9), opposite hitters (n = 6), outside hitters (n = 10), setters (n = 6), and liberos (n = 4). Height, body mass, muscular strength (4 repetition maximum bench press and 4 repetition maximum parallel squat tests), and muscular power (overhead medicine ball throw, countermovement jump) were assessed. Significant differences (p libero players were the lightest. Differences were also found in bench press maximal strength, with the middle blockers and opposite players significantly stronger (p liberos. The setter positional group had significantly poorer (p 0.05) were found among groups for the strength and power parameters. These results demonstrate that significant anthropometric and strength differences exist among playing positions in elite male volleyball players. In addition, these findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific individual playing positions. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take the strength and anthropometric characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized position-specific training programs.

  18. Differences in biological maturation, anthropometry and physical performance between playing positions in youth team handball

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matthys, S.P.; Fransen, J.; Vaeyens, R.; Lenoir, M.; Philippaerts, R.

    2013-01-01

    It was the goal of this cross-sectional study to examine differences in maturity, anthropometry and physical performance between youth handball players across different playing positions (i.e. goalkeeper, back, pivot and wing). Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), accounting for biological

  19. The role of positive selection in determining the molecular cause of species differences in disease

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    Foord Steven M

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Related species, such as humans and chimpanzees, often experience the same disease with varying degrees of pathology, as seen in the cases of Alzheimer's disease, or differing symptomatology as in AIDS. Furthermore, certain diseases such as schizophrenia, epithelial cancers and autoimmune disorders are far more frequent in humans than in other species for reasons not associated with lifestyle. Genes that have undergone positive selection during species evolution are indicative of functional adaptations that drive species differences. Thus we investigate whether biomedical disease differences between species can be attributed to positively selected genes. Results We identified genes that putatively underwent positive selection during the evolution of humans and four mammals which are often used to model human diseases (mouse, rat, chimpanzee and dog. We show that genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection pressure during human evolution are implicated in diseases such as epithelial cancers, schizophrenia, autoimmune diseases and Alzheimer's disease, all of which differ in prevalence and symptomatology between humans and their mammalian relatives. In agreement with previous studies, the chimpanzee lineage was found to have more genes under positive selection than any of the other lineages. In addition, we found new evidence to support the hypothesis that genes that have undergone positive selection tend to interact with each other. This is the first such evidence to be detected widely among mammalian genes and may be important in identifying molecular pathways causative of species differences. Conclusion Our dataset of genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection in five species serves as an informative resource that can be consulted prior to selecting appropriate animal models during drug target validation. We conclude that studying the evolution of functional and biomedical disease differences

  20. The role of positive selection in determining the molecular cause of species differences in disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vamathevan, Jessica J; Hasan, Samiul; Emes, Richard D; Amrine-Madsen, Heather; Rajagopalan, Dilip; Topp, Simon D; Kumar, Vinod; Word, Michael; Simmons, Mark D; Foord, Steven M; Sanseau, Philippe; Yang, Ziheng; Holbrook, Joanna D

    2008-10-06

    Related species, such as humans and chimpanzees, often experience the same disease with varying degrees of pathology, as seen in the cases of Alzheimer's disease, or differing symptomatology as in AIDS. Furthermore, certain diseases such as schizophrenia, epithelial cancers and autoimmune disorders are far more frequent in humans than in other species for reasons not associated with lifestyle. Genes that have undergone positive selection during species evolution are indicative of functional adaptations that drive species differences. Thus we investigate whether biomedical disease differences between species can be attributed to positively selected genes. We identified genes that putatively underwent positive selection during the evolution of humans and four mammals which are often used to model human diseases (mouse, rat, chimpanzee and dog). We show that genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection pressure during human evolution are implicated in diseases such as epithelial cancers, schizophrenia, autoimmune diseases and Alzheimer's disease, all of which differ in prevalence and symptomatology between humans and their mammalian relatives. In agreement with previous studies, the chimpanzee lineage was found to have more genes under positive selection than any of the other lineages. In addition, we found new evidence to support the hypothesis that genes that have undergone positive selection tend to interact with each other. This is the first such evidence to be detected widely among mammalian genes and may be important in identifying molecular pathways causative of species differences. Our dataset of genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection in five species serves as an informative resource that can be consulted prior to selecting appropriate animal models during drug target validation. We conclude that studying the evolution of functional and biomedical disease differences between species is an important way to gain insight into

  1. Intracellular position of mitochondria in mesophyll cells differs between C3and C4grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatakeyama, Yuto; Ueno, Osamu

    2017-09-01

    In C 3 plants, part of the CO 2 fixed during photosynthesis in chloroplasts is released from mitochondria during photorespiration by decarboxylation of glycine via glycine decarboxylase (GDC), thereby reducing photosynthetic efficiency. The apparent positioning of most mitochondria in the interior (vacuole side of chloroplasts) of mesophyll cells in C 3 grasses would increase the efficiency of refixation of CO 2 released from mitochondria by ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/​oxygenase (Rubisco) in chloroplasts. Therefore, in mesophyll cells of C 4 grasses, which lack both GDC and Rubisco, the mitochondria ought not to be positioned the same way as in C 3 mesophyll cells. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the intracellular position of mitochondria in mesophyll cells of 14 C 4 grasses of different C 4 subtypes and subfamilies (Chloridoideae, Micrairoideae, and Panicoideae) and a C 3 -C 4 intermediate grass, Steinchisma hians, under an electron microscope. In C 4 mesophyll cells, most mitochondria were positioned adjacent to the cell wall, which clearly differs from the positioning in C 3 mesophyll cells. In S. hians mesophyll cells, the positioning was similar to that in C 3 cells. These results suggest that the mitochondrial positioning in C 4 mesophyll cells reflects the absence of both GDC and Rubisco in the mesophyll cells and the high activity of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. In contrast, the relationship between the mitochondrial positioning and enzyme distribution in S. hians is complex, but the positioning may be related to the capture of respiratory CO 2 by Rubisco. Our study provides new possible insight into the physiological role of mitochondrial positioning in photosynthetic cells.

  2. Acute effects of scapular Kinesio Taping® on shoulder rotator strength, ROM and acromiohumeral distance in asymptomatic overhead athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harput, Gulcan; Guney, Hande; Toprak, Ugur; Colakoglu, Filiz; Baltaci, Gul

    2017-11-01

    There is limited information in the literature that shows whether scapular taping has an effect on the acromiohumeral distance (AHD) and shoulder functions. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of scapular Kinesio Taping® on shoulder internal rotation (IR) and external rotation (ER) strength, IR and ER range of motion (ROM) and AHD in asymptomatic overhead athletes. Forty-one volleyball athletes (24 men, 17 women; mean age: 16.1±1.5 years, body mass: 66.5±9.6 kg, body height: 179.6±8.4 cm, Body Mass Index: 20.5±2.3 kg/m2, time participating in overhead sports activity: 6.2±1.4 h/week, experience in sport: 4.1±2.4 years) were included in this study. Shoulder IR and ER ROM, total rotation ROM, AHD, shoulder isometric IR and ER strength and ER:IR strength ratio of the dominant side were tested before and after taping. Scapular taping increased the shoulder IR (PROM (PROM and ER:IR ratio did not change after taping (P=0.26, P=0.98, respectively). The results of this study suggest that scapular taping could be an effective method for enhancing the acromiohumeral distance, shoulder rotator strength and range of motion. Therefore, scapular taping could be recommended for not only in the asymptomatic athletes' shoulder exercise training but also in the prevention of subacromial impingement syndrome.

  3. Natural organic matter removal by ion exchange at different positions in the drinking water treatment lane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Grefte

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee a good water quality at the customers tap, natural organic matter (NOM should be (partly removed during drinking water treatment. The objective of this research was to improve the biological stability of the produced water by incorporating anion exchange (IEX for NOM removal. Different placement positions of IEX in the treatment lane (IEX positioned before coagulation, before ozonation or after slow sand filtration and two IEX configurations (MIEX® and fluidized IEX (FIX were compared on water quality as well as costs. For this purpose the pre-treatment plant at Loenderveen and production plant Weesperkarspel of Waternet were used as a case study. Both, MIEX® and FIX were able to remove NOM (mainly the HS fraction to a high extent. NOM removal can be done efficiently before ozonation and after slow sand filtration. The biological stability, in terms of assimilable organic carbon, biofilm formation rate and dissolved organic carbon, was improved by incorporating IEX for NOM removal. The operational costs were assumed to be directly dependent of the NOM removal rate and determined the difference between the IEX positions. The total costs for IEX for the three positions were approximately equal (0.0631 € m−3, however the savings on following treatment processes caused a cost reduction for the IEX positions before coagulation and before ozonation compared to IEX positioned after slow sand filtration. IEX positioned before ozonation was most cost effective and improved the biological stability of the treated water.

  4. The Effect of the Posture of the “Hermit Doing Body Contortion” on Relief of Shoulder and Scapular Pain Caused by Chronic Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized, Parallel Group, Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peamruetai Butdapan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore the ability of the posture of the “Hermit Doing Body Contortion” (HDBC to relieve shoulder and scapular pain in patients with chronic myofascial pain syndrome (MPS. Methods: One hundred and thirty-six out-patients with chronic MPS were randomly assigned to one of two groups. The experimental group was advised to perform a posture of the HDBC named “posture for relieving abdominal pain, pain of the scapular blade” (PRASP every day for two months. Both groups received Thai traditional massage treatment and hot herbal compresses once a week for four weeks. Using a numeric rating scale and dolorimeter, outcomes were assessed prior to commencing the intervention (M0 , and one and two months after commencing the intervention (M1 and M2 . Results: The mean change in pain intensity between M1 and M2 differed significantly between the groups (1.32±1.45 in the experimental group and 0.47±2.26 in the control group; p = 0.039. Similarly, the mean change in pressure pain threshold between M0 and M2 also differed significantly between the groups (1.39±1.76 in the experimental group and 0.53±1.90 in the control group; p =0.027. In both cases, the experimental group achieved greater pain relief. Conclusion: In patients with chronic MPS, the posture of the HDBC combined with standard Thai traditional medicine treatments provided better ongoing relief of shoulder and scapular pain than did standard Thai traditional medicine treatments alone. Clinical trial registration no.: TCTR20151230002

  5. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformation through different reaction pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic......The degradation of organic micropollutants occurs via different reaction pathways. Compound specific isotope analysis is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. We propose a mechanism-based modeling approach that provides a quantitative framework...... description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. To demonstrate specific features of the modeling approach, we simulated the degradation of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model accurately reproduces...

  6. Positional Role Differences in the Aerobic and Anaerobic Power of Elite Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pojskić Haris

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to compare the aerobic and anaerobic power and capacity of elite male basketball players who played multiple positions. Fifty-five healthy players were divided into the following three different subsamples according to their positional role: guards (n = 22, forwards (n = 19 and centers (n = 14. The following three tests were applied to estimate their aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities: the countermovement jump (CMJ, a multistage shuttle run test and the Running-based Anaerobic Sprint Test (RAST. The obtained data were used to calculate the players’ aerobic and anaerobic power and capacities. To determine the possible differences between the subjects considering their different positions on the court, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with the Bonferroni post-hoc test for multiple comparisons was used. The results showed that there was a significant difference between the different groups of players in eleven out of sixteen measured variables. Guards and forwards exhibited greater aerobic and relative values of anaerobic power, allowing shorter recovery times and the ability to repeat high intensity, basketball-specific activities. Centers presented greater values of absolute anaerobic power and capacities, permitting greater force production during discrete tasks. Coaches can use these data to create more individualized strength and conditioning programs for different positional roles.

  7. Anthropometric, Physical, and Age Differences by the Player Position and the Performance Level in Volleyball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palao, José M.; Manzanares, Policarpo; Valadés, David

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to study the ranges in height, weight, age, spike reach, and block reach of volleyball players in relation to the player position and the level of their respective teams in peak performance. The analysed sample included 1454 male and 1452 female players who participated in the volleyball competitions of the Olympic Games and World Championships in the 2000–2012 period. A descriptive, correlational, and longitudinal design was used. The variables studied were: the player position, body height, weight, body mass index, spike reach, block reach, age, and team level. The results show differences between body height, spike and block reaches, and the age of the players by their position. These differences are related to the needs of the different positions with regard to the actions they execute. Middle-blockers, outside-hitters, and opposites have the characteristics that are most suitable for blocking and spiking, and the setters and liberos appear to have characteristics conducive to setting and receiving as well as digging, respectively. The differences found in the studied variables with regard to the playing position are related to players’ needs regarding the actions they perform. Player’s age was a variable that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for males, and physical capacities (body height, weight, spike reach, and block reach) were variables that differentiated first teams at this level of competition for females. PMID:25713683

  8. The Effect of Different Global Navigation Satellite System Methods on Positioning Accuracy in Elite Alpine Skiing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Limpach, Philippe; Geiger, Alain; Müller, Erich

    2014-01-01

    In sport science, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are frequently applied to capture athletes' position, velocity and acceleration. Application of GNSS includes a large range of different GNSS technologies and methods. To date no study has comprehensively compared the different GNSS methods applied. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of differential and non-differential solutions, different satellite systems and different GNSS signal frequencies on position accuracy. Twelve alpine ski racers were equipped with high-end GNSS devices while performing runs on a giant slalom course. The skiers' GNSS antenna positions were calculated in three satellite signal obstruction conditions using five different GNSS methods. The GNSS antenna positions were compared to a video-based photogrammetric reference system over one turn and against the most valid GNSS method over the entire run. Furthermore, the time for acquisitioning differential GNSS solutions was assessed for four differential methods. The only GNSS method that consistently yielded sub-decimetre position accuracy in typical alpine skiing conditions was a differential method using American (GPS) and Russian (GLONASS) satellite systems and the satellite signal frequencies L1 and L2. Under conditions of minimal satellite signal obstruction, valid results were also achieved when either the satellite system GLONASS or the frequency L2 was dropped from the best configuration. All other methods failed to fulfill the accuracy requirements needed to detect relevant differences in the kinematics of alpine skiers, even in conditions favorable for GNSS measurements. The methods with good positioning accuracy had also the shortest times to compute differential solutions. This paper highlights the importance to choose appropriate methods to meet the accuracy requirements for sport applications. PMID:25285461

  9. The Effect of Different Global Navigation Satellite System Methods on Positioning Accuracy in Elite Alpine Skiing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Gilgien

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In sport science, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS are frequently applied to capture athletes’ position, velocity and acceleration. Application of GNSS includes a large range of different GNSS technologies and methods. To date no study has comprehensively compared the different GNSS methods applied. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of differential and non-differential solutions, different satellite systems and different GNSS signal frequencies on position accuracy. Twelve alpine ski racers were equipped with high-end GNSS devices while performing runs on a giant slalom course. The skiers’ GNSS antenna positions were calculated in three satellite signal obstruction conditions using five different GNSS methods. The GNSS antenna positions were compared to a video-based photogrammetric reference system over one turn and against the most valid GNSS method over the entire run. Furthermore, the time for acquisitioning differential GNSS solutions was assessed for four differential methods. The only GNSS method that consistently yielded sub-decimetre position accuracy in typical alpine skiing conditions was a differential method using American (GPS and Russian (GLONASS satellite systems and the satellite signal frequencies L1 and L2. Under conditions of minimal satellite signal obstruction, valid results were also achieved when either the satellite system GLONASS or the frequency L2 was dropped from the best configuration. All other methods failed to fulfill the accuracy requirements needed to detect relevant differences in the kinematics of alpine skiers, even in conditions favorable for GNSS measurements. The methods with good positioning accuracy had also the shortest times to compute differential solutions. This paper highlights the importance to choose appropriate methods to meet the accuracy requirements for sport applications.

  10. The effect of different Global Navigation Satellite System methods on positioning accuracy in elite alpine skiing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgien, Matthias; Spörri, Jörg; Limpach, Philippe; Geiger, Alain; Müller, Erich

    2014-10-03

    In sport science, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are frequently applied to capture athletes' position, velocity and acceleration. Application of GNSS includes a large range of different GNSS technologies and methods. To date no study has comprehensively compared the different GNSS methods applied. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of differential and non-differential solutions, different satellite systems and different GNSS signal frequencies on position accuracy. Twelve alpine ski racers were equipped with high-end GNSS devices while performing runs on a giant slalom course. The skiers' GNSS antenna positions were calculated in three satellite signal obstruction conditions using five different GNSS methods. The GNSS antenna positions were compared to a video-based photogrammetric reference system over one turn and against the most valid GNSS method over the entire run. Furthermore, the time for acquisitioning differential GNSS solutions was assessed for four differential methods. The only GNSS method that consistently yielded sub-decimetre position accuracy in typical alpine skiing conditions was a differential method using American (GPS) and Russian (GLONASS) satellite systems and the satellite signal frequencies L1 and L2. Under conditions of minimal satellite signal obstruction, valid results were also achieved when either the satellite system GLONASS or the frequency L2 was dropped from the best configuration. All other methods failed to fulfill the accuracy requirements needed to detect relevant differences in the kinematics of alpine skiers, even in conditions favorable for GNSS measurements. The methods with good positioning accuracy had also the shortest times to compute differential solutions. This paper highlights the importance to choose appropriate methods to meet the accuracy requirements for sport applications.

  11. PENGARUH LARGE POSITIVE ABNORMAL BOOK-TAX DIFFERENCES TERHADAP PERSISTENSI LABA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Aisyah Rachmawati

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to analyze the effect of Large Positive Abnormal Book-Tax Differences (LPABTD on earnings persistence and accruals persistence. This study used unbalanced panel data of listed companies in Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2006-2011. It is hypothesized that firms with LPABTD exhibit lower earnings and accruals persistence than other firms with Large Positive Normal Book-Tax Differences (LPNBTD. The results provide evidence which is consistent with the hypotheses. It is shown that firms with LPABTD exhibit lower earnings quality than other firms with LPNBTD.

  12. Comparison of Three Different Administration Positions for Intratracheal Beractant in Preterm Newborns with Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadag, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ramazan; Degirmencioglu, Halil; Uras, Nurdan; Dilmen, Ugur; Bilgili, Gokmen; Erdeve, Omer; Cakir, Ufuk; Atasay, Begum

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and adverse effects of various intratracheal beractant administration positions in preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. This study was performed on preterm newborns with respiratory distress syndrome. The inclusion criteria were being between 26 weeks and 32 weeks of gestational age, having a birth weight between 600 g and 1500 g, having received clinical and radiological confirmation for the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) within 3 hours of life, having been born in one of the centers where the study was carried out, and having fractions of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ≥ 0.40 to maintain oxygen saturation by pulse oximeter at 88-96%. Beractant was administered in four positions to Group I newborns, in two positions to Group II, and in neutral position to Group III. Groups I and II consisted of 42 preterm infants in each whereas Group III included 41 preterm infants. No significant differences were detected among the groups with regards to maternal and neonatal risk factors. Groups were also similar in terms of the following complications: patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), pneumothorax, intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH), chronic lung disease (CLD), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), death within the first 3 days of life, death within the first 28 days of life, and rehospitalization within 1 month after discharge. Neither any statistically significant differences among the parameters related with surfactant administration, nor any significant statistical differences among the FiO2 levels and the saturation levels before and after the first surfactant administration among the groups were determined. In terms of efficacy and side effects, no important difference was observed between the recommended four position beractant application, the two position administration, and the neutral position. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Differences in the INR evaluation of two different thromboplastins in patients with positivity to lupus anticoagulant in ongoing oral anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrazzi, Paola; Colombo, Anna; Di Micco, Pierpaolo; Lodigiani, Corrado; Librè, Luca; Rota, Lidia Luciana; Montanelli, Alessandro; Quaglia, Ilaria

    2010-01-01

    A possible interference between lupus anticoagulant (LAC), a well characterized clotting inhibitor, in the International Normalized Ratio (INR) determination during oral anticoagulation (OA) has been reported in the literature. Few data are available about the relationship between this kind of interference and the daily clinical management of oral anticoagulation. The aim of the study is to evaluate the role of two different thromboplastins-RecombiPlasTin 2G and HepatoComplex-in the determination of INR values of several patients' ongoing OA for a previous thrombotic disorder with and without positivity to LAC, and to evaluate possible interferences in the daily therapeutic approach. We selected 16 patients (13 females and 3 males, mean age 59 ± 16 years) with LAC positivity ongoing OA and 11 control subjects (7 females and 4 males, mean age 58 ± 14.5 years) with similar characteristics (ie, ethnic background and weight) with LAC negativity ongoing OA. 165 assays for INR determination were analyzed from both groups. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA 10 software. P values were considered significant if LAC positivity were 3.79 ± 1.63 when tested with RecombiPlasTin 2G vs 3.18 ± 1.15 when tested with HepatoComplex (P LAC negativity were 3.54 ± 1.39 when tested with RecombiPlasTin 2G vs 3.23 ± 1.14 when tested with HepatoComplex (P than 4.5 was found in 31/165 samples in 9 subjects, 8 patients with LAC positivity, and 1 control group subject with LAC negativity. There was a great difference in INR values in these subjects if we use the common thromboplastin (ie, RecombiPlasTin 2G) with a INR range varying from 5.14 ± 0.35 vs 3.79 ± 0.38 if we use another thromboplastin (ie, HepatoComplex) (P LAC positivity, when the INR value is LAC positivity if we use a different thromboplastin for the INR determination. For this reason values obtained by RecombiPlasTin 2G need to be confirmed and matched with another thromboplastin (ie, HepatoComplex). This

  14. Anthropometric and Somatotype Characteristics of Young Soccer Players: Differences Among Categories, Subcategories, and Playing Position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Vetrano, Mario; Camolese, Giancarlo; Guidetti, Laura; Baldari, Carlo

    2015-08-01

    Considering that anthropometric parameters are important factors in the performance of the soccer players, the aim of this study was to explore the differences in anthropometric and somatotype characteristics of Italian young soccer players. Weight, height, body mass index, and somatotype of 112 young soccer players, grouped in Giovanissimi "A" (14 years), "B" (13 years), and "C" (12 years) as well as Allievi "B" (15 years) and "A" (16 years) and "Juniores" (older than 17 years), were evaluated. Statistical analysis tests were computed at p ≤ 0.05, and an analysis of variance for each somatotype was calculated to analyze the main effects and interactions of the factors: categories, subcategories, and playing position. Bonferroni's post hoc analysis was used to identify differences among mean values. Considering all subjects, we have found significant differences in categories, subcategories, and playing position between anthropometric values and a somatotype value of 2.8-3.8-2.9. Significant differences have found among goalkeepers and the others playing position in endomorphy (p ≤ 0.001) and with defenders and midfielders in ectomorphy (p somatotype differences for playing position within categories also in the youngest categories and subcategories, in particular, in the endomorphy component. Young soccer players should be trained with more appropriate and specific training load to avoid the increased injury risk during adolescence.

  15. Simple reaction time in soccer players from differing categories and field positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ruschel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at analyzing the visual and auditory simple reaction times in soccer players from differing categories and field positions. Participated in the study 49 male soccer players, amateurs and professionals, occupying the field positions of goalkeeper, center defender, right and left defender, halfback, midfielder, and forward. Data collection was carried out through a system composed by a switch, a mechanism of visual and auditory stimuli and appropriate acquisition software. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics (p < .05. When comparing categories, there was no difference in visual reaction time (VRT. Professionals showed faster auditory reaction times (ART than amateurs did. Regarding field positions, goalkeepers showed significantly faster VRT than midfielders and there was no difference in terms of ART. Main differences between players from differing categories and field positions may be due to the adoption of more complex strategies in retaining and using visual information in specific situations. ART may be less important in soccer, since this is essentially a visual game.

  16. Fruit Detectability Analysis for Different Camera Positions in Sweet-Pepper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jochen Hemming

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available For robotic harvesting of sweet-pepper fruits in greenhouses a sensor system is required to detect and localize the fruits on the plants. Due to the complex structure of the plant, most fruits are (partially occluded when an image is taken from one viewpoint only. In this research the effect of multiple camera positions and viewing angles on fruit visibility and detectability was investigated. A recording device was built which allowed to place the camera under different azimuth and zenith angles and to move the camera horizontally along the crop row. Fourteen camera positions were chosen and the fruit visibility in the recorded images was manually determined for each position. For images taken from one position only with the criterion of maximum 50% occlusion per fruit, the fruit detectability (FD was in no case higher than 69%. The best single positions were the front views and looking with a zenith angle of 60° upwards. The FD increased when a combination was made of multiple viewpoint positions. With a combination of five favourite positions the maximum FD was 90%.

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of scapular physical examination tests for shoulder disorders: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alexis A; Wassinger, Craig A; Frank, Mason; Michener, Lori A; Hegedus, Eric J

    2013-09-01

    To systematically review and critique the evidence regarding the diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests for the scapula in patients with shoulder disorders. A systematic, computerised literature search of PubMED, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library databases (from database inception through January 2012) using keywords related to diagnostic accuracy of physical examination tests of the scapula. The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies tool was used to critique the quality of each paper. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria; three were considered to be of high quality. Of the three high-quality studies, two were in reference to a 'diagnosis' of shoulder pain. Only one high-quality article referenced specific shoulder pathology of acromioclavicular dislocation with reported sensitivity of 71% and 41% for the scapular dyskinesis and SICK scapula test, respectively. Overall, no physical examination test of the scapula was found to be useful in differentially diagnosing pathologies of the shoulder.

  18. Evaluation of I-gel™ airway in different head and neck positions in anesthetized paralyzed children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Divya; Ghai, Babita; Bala, Indu; Gandhi, Komal; Banerjee, Gargi

    2015-12-01

    Studies that have compared and quantified the oropharyngeal leak pressure (OPLP) and adequacy of ventilation with supraglottic airway devices in different head and neck positions have been done in adult populations. The effects of head-neck position changes on the functioning of I-gel(™) in pediatric population still remain unevaluated. This study aimed to quantify the influence of different head and neck positions namely neutral, maximum flexion, and maximum extension on OPLP, ventilation scoring, and fiberoptic grading using I-gel(™) in anesthetized, paralyzed children. I-gel(™) was inserted in 30 paralyzed, anesthetized children scheduled for elective urological and orthopedic procedures. Anesthesia was induced with sevoflurane in oxygen. Atracurium was administered intravenously to facilitate neuromuscular relaxation. Recordings of OPLP in neutral, maximum flexion, and maximum extension were taken as primary outcome. Fiberoptic grading, insertion of ryle's tube and ventilation scoring were also measured in different head and neck positions as secondary outcomes. The OPLP was significantly higher in flexion (27.6 ± 3.3 cm H2 O, P = 0.000) and lower in extension (19.6 ± 3.2 cm H2 O, P = 0.006) in comparison to the neutral position (23.2 ± 3.2 cm H2 O). There was a worsening of the fiberoptic view in flexion compared to neutral position (0/5/19/6 vs 5/21/4/0). The ventilation score was poorer (1 [0-3], P flexion (15.2 ± 1.4 cm H2 O, P = 0.000) compared to the neutral position (10.4 ± 1.6 cm H2 O). Caution is warranted in pediatric patients while ventilating with I-gel(™) in extreme flexion of head and neck owing to poor ventilation despite increase in OPLP. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of different jumping tests in defining position-specific and performance-level differences in high level basketball players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehar, Miran; Sekulic, Damir; Sisic, Nedim; Spasic, Miodrag; Uljevic, Ognjen; Krolo, Ante; Sattler, Tine

    2017-01-01

    The importance of jumping ability in basketball is well known, but there is an evident lack of studies that have examined different jumping testing protocols in basketball players at advanced levels. The aim of this study was to assess the applicability of different tests of jumping capacity in identifying differences between (i) playing position and (ii) competitive levels of professional players. Participants were 110 male professional basketball players (height: 194.92±8.09 cm; body mass: 89.33±10.91 kg; 21.58±3.92 years of age; Guards, 49; Forwards, 22; Centres, 39) who competed in the first (n = 58) and second division (n = 52). The variables included anthropometrics and jumping test performance. Jumping performances were evaluated by the standing broad jump (SBJ), countermovement jump (CMJ), reactive strength index (RSI), repeated reactive strength ability (RRSA) and four running vertical jumps: maximal jump with (i) take-off from the dominant leg and (ii) non-dominant leg, lay-up shot jump with take-off from the (iii) dominant leg and (iv) non-dominant leg. First-division players were taller (ES: 0.76, 95%CI: 0.35-1.16, moderate differences), heavier (0.69, 0.29-1.10), had higher maximal reach height (0.67, 0.26-1.07, moderate differences), and had lower body fat % (-0.87, -1.27-0.45, moderate differences) than second-division players. The playing positions differed significantly in three of four running jump achievements, RSI and RRSA, with Centres being least successful. The first-division players were superior to second-division players in SBJ (0.63, 0.23-1.03; 0.87, 0.26-1.43; 0.76, 0.11-1.63, all moderate differences, for total sample, Guards, and Forwards, respectively). Running vertical jumps and repeated jumping capacity can be used as valid measures of position-specific jumping ability in basketball. The differences between playing levels in vertical jumping achievement can be observed by assessing vertical jump scores together with differences

  20. A Biomechanical Model of the Scapulothoracic Joint to Accurately Capture Scapular Kinematics during Shoulder Movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Ajay; Matias, Ricardo; Veloso, António P; Delp, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The complexity of shoulder mechanics combined with the movement of skin relative to the scapula makes it difficult to measure shoulder kinematics with sufficient accuracy to distinguish between symptomatic and asymptomatic individuals. Multibody skeletal models can improve motion capture accuracy by reducing the space of possible joint movements, and models are used widely to improve measurement of lower limb kinematics. In this study, we developed a rigid-body model of a scapulothoracic joint to describe the kinematics of the scapula relative to the thorax. This model describes scapular kinematics with four degrees of freedom: 1) elevation and 2) abduction of the scapula on an ellipsoidal thoracic surface, 3) upward rotation of the scapula normal to the thoracic surface, and 4) internal rotation of the scapula to lift the medial border of the scapula off the surface of the thorax. The surface dimensions and joint axes can be customized to match an individual's anthropometry. We compared the model to "gold standard" bone-pin kinematics collected during three shoulder tasks and found modeled scapular kinematics to be accurate to within 2 mm root-mean-squared error for individual bone-pin markers across all markers and movement tasks. As an additional test, we added random and systematic noise to the bone-pin marker data and found that the model reduced kinematic variability due to noise by 65% compared to Euler angles computed without the model. Our scapulothoracic joint model can be used for inverse and forward dynamics analyses and to compute joint reaction loads. The computational performance of the scapulothoracic joint model is well suited for real-time applications; it is freely available for use with OpenSim 3.2, and is customizable and usable with other OpenSim models.

  1. Comparison of perceptual eye positions among patients with different degrees of anisometropia

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Xue; Zhang, Guanrong; Lan, Jianqing; Zhang, Yan; Chu, Hang; Li, Juan; Xie, Wenjuan; Wang, Shujun; Yan, Li; Zeng, Jin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study is to compare the perceptual eye positions (PEPs) among patients with different degrees of anisometropia. A total of 157 patients were recruited into this retrospective study. A detailed ophthalmic examination was conducted on each patient. The degree of refractive errors in the presence of astigmatism was converted into the degree of spherical equivalent (SE). Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the interocular SE difference: severe anisometropia g...

  2. Methods of smoothing applied to differences in star positions in observational catalogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović N.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Three different methods, Whittaker - Robinson - Vondrak (WRV, cubic spline (SPL and Expansion of the Elementary Trigonometric and Exponential Functions (ETE, are applied to differences in star positions of five observational catalogues in order to eliminate random errors. The Belgrade, Kiev, Moscow, Odessa and Kharkov catalogues of double stars (DS programme have been used. The ETE method appears as reliable and even somewhat more efficacious that the usual WRV and SPL methods.

  3. Differences in Teachers' Perceptions of the Causes of Positive Versus Negative Student Achievement Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guskey, Thomas R.

    Past research on teachers' causal attributions has shown little relation between perceptions of responsibility for positive versus negative student learning outcomes. In this study, Weiner's model for causal attributions was employed to explore these perceived attributional differences. Data were gathered from 184 teachers from two metropolitan…

  4. Different subcellular locations of secretome components of Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buist, Girbe; Ridder, Anja N. J. A.; Kok, Jan; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2006-01-01

    Gram-positive bacteria contain different types of secretion systems for the transport of proteins into or across the cytoplasmic membrane. Recent studies on subcellular localization of specific components of these secretion systems and their substrates have shown that they can be present at various

  5. The dimensions of the tarsal sinus and canal in different foot positions and its clinical implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleipool, R. P.; Blankevoort, L.; Ruijter, J. M.; Kerkhoffs, G. M. M. J.; Oostra, R. J.

    2017-01-01

    This study presents a reference for the dimensions of the tarsal sinus and canal in healthy adults in different foot positions to facilitate understanding of the kinematics of the subtalar joint, the effect of an implant, and other clinical issues. In a 3D CT stress test on 20 subjects, the right

  6. Methane Production and Consumption in Loess Soil at Different Slope Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Brzezińska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Methane (CH4 production and consumption and soil respiration in loess soils collected from summit (Top, back slope (Middle, and slope bottom (Bottom positions were assessed in laboratory incubations. The CH4 production potential was determined under conditions which can occur in the field (relatively short-term flooding periods with initially ambient O2 concentrations, and the CH4 oxidation potential was estimated in wet soils enriched with CH4. None of the soils tested in this study emitted a significant amount of CH4. In fact, the Middle and Bottom soils, especially at the depth of 20–40 cm, were a consistent sink of methane. Soils collected at different slope positions significantly differed in their methanogenic, methanotrophic, and respiration activities. In comparison with the Top position (as reference soil, methane production and both CO2 production and O2 consumption under flooding were significantly stimulated in the soil from the Middle slope position (P<0.001, while they were reduced in the Bottom soil (not significantly, by 6 to 57%. All upper soils (0–20 cm completely oxidized the added methane (5 kPa during 9–11 days of incubation. Soils collected from the 20–40 cm at the Middle and Bottom slope positions, however, consumed significantly more CH4 than the Top soil (P<0.001.

  7. Comparison of different patient positioning strategies to minimize shoulder girdle artifacts in head and neck CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wirth, Stefan; Meindl, Thomas; Treitl, Marcus; Pfeifer, K.J.; Reiser, Maximilian [University of Munich, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to analyze different patient positioning strategies for minimizing artifacts of the shoulder girdle in head and neck CT. Standardized CT examinations of three positioning groups were compared (P: patients pushed their shoulders downwards; D: similar optimization by a pulling device; N: no particular positioning optimization). Parameters analyzed were the length of the cervical spine not being superimposed by the shoulder girdle as well as noise in the supraclavicular space. In groups P and D, the portion of the cervical spine not superimposed was significantly larger than in group N (P: 10.4 cm; D: 10.6 cm; N: 8.5 cm). At the supraclavicular space, noise decreased significantly (P: 12.5 HU; D: 12.1 HU; N: 17.7 HU). No significant differences between the two position-optimized groups (P and D) were detected. Optimized shoulder positioning by the patient increases image quality in CT head and neck imaging. The use of a pulling device offers no additional advantages. (orig.)

  8. Chronotype, sport participation, and positive personality-trait-like individual differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laborde, Sylvain; Guillén, Félix; Dosseville, Fabrice; Allen, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Chronotype and sport participation have been found to relate to positive personality-trait-like individual differences (PTLID). To date, research has focused exclusively on the morningness-eveningness dimension of chronotype, and little is known about the relationship between chronotype and various characteristics of sport participation (e.g. training time). This investigation had three primary objectives: (1) to extend the current evidence base by exploring how sport participation and PTLID relate to chronotype amplitude, (2) to explore how chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) relates to various characteristics of sport training and competition, and (3) to explore the independent and interrelated contribution of sport participation and chronotype to PTLID. The sample included 976 non-athletes (493 women and 483 men) and 974 athletes (478 women and 496 men). Participants completed a battery of questionnaires targeting sport participation characteristics, six positive PTLID (hope, optimism, perseverance, resilience, self-efficacy and trait emotional intelligence) and chronotype dimensions. Results showed that morningness-eveningness was negatively related to positive PTLID but was unrelated to sport participation. Greater diurnal fluctuations (amplitude dimension) were associated with lower positive PTLID values, lower sport participation, and shorter training durations. Positive PTLID were also associated with better sleep quality and a shorter sleep duration. Chronotype (morningness-eveningness and amplitude) and sport participation had independent associations with PTLID. These findings suggest that changes in sport participation and activity times might be a useful approach to developing positive PTLID.

  9. Assessment and Differences in Anaerobic Capacity of Football Players Playing on Different Positions in the Team, Using Rast Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Andrašić

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today's rapid development of football in all stages allocates a dominant role to conditional training. Players who participated in the study played in the 4:4:2 formation, therefore the classification has been made according to the playing position in the aforementioned system. The total sample of respondents consisted of 60 players at the cadet level (14 to 16 years medically fit for playing football and without any morphological and motor aberrations. The study applied pitch RAST test, which is very convenient for conducting and obtaining fast results on the anaerobic capacity of football players. In addition to this test, the assessment of anaerobic capacity uses the modified Bangsbo test. This research has demonstrated the importance of anaerobic capacity of certain players playing in different positions

  10. Can positive social exchanges buffer the detrimental effects of negative social exchanges? Age and gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Katherine L; Windsor, Tim D; Pearson, Elissa L; Crisp, Dimity A

    2013-01-01

    Findings from existing research exploring whether positive social exchanges can help to offset (or 'buffer' against) the harmful effects of negative social exchanges on mental health have been inconsistent. This could be because the existing research is characterized by different approaches to studying various contexts of 'cross-domain' and 'within-domain' buffering, and/or because the nature of buffering effects varies according to sociodemographic characteristics that underlie different aspects of social network structure and function. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the buffering effects of global perceptions of positive exchanges on the link between global negative exchanges and mental health varied as a function of age and gender. We used a series of regressions in a sample of 556 Australian older adults (ages 55-94) to test for three-way interactions among gender, positive social exchanges, and negative social exchanges, as well as age and positive and negative social exchanges, in predicting mental health, controlling for years of education, partner status, and physical functioning. We found that positive exchanges buffered against negative exchanges for younger old adults, but not for older old adults, and for women, but not for men. Our findings are interpreted in light of research on individual differences in coping responses and interpersonal goals among late middle-aged and older adults. Our findings are in line with gerontological theories (e.g., socioemotional selectivity theory), and imply that an intervention aimed at using positive social exchanges as a means of coping with negative social exchanges might be more successful among particular populations (i.e., women, 'younger' old adults). Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Differences in immune cell function between tuberculosis positive and negative Asian elephants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Jennifer A; Miller, Michele; Maddox, Carol; Zuckermann, Federico; Langan, Jennifer N; Terio, Karen A

    2014-07-01

    Tuberculosis is an important health concern for Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) populations worldwide, however, mechanisms underlying susceptibility to Mycobacterium tuberculosis are unknown. Proliferative responses assessed via brominated uridine incorporation and cytokine expression measured by real-time RT-PCR were evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures from 8 tuberculosis negative and 8 positive Asian elephants. Cultures were stimulated with Mycobacterium bovis purified protein derivative (PPD-B), M. tuberculosis culture filtrate protein (CFP)-10, and Mycobacterium avium PPD (PPD-A). Following stimulation with PPD-B, proliferation was higher (α = 0.005) in positive samples; no significant differences were detected following CFP-10 or PPD-A stimulation. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-12, and interferon (IFN)-γ expression was greater in samples from positive elephants following stimulation with PPD-B (α = 0.025) and CFP-10 (α = 0.025 TNF-α and IL-12; α = 0.005 IFN-γ). Stimulation with PPD-A also produced enhanced IL-12 expression in positive samples (α = 0.025). Findings suggested that differences in immune cell function exist between tuberculosis positive and negative elephants. Proliferative responses and expression of TNF-α, IL-12, and IFN-γ in response to stimulation with PPD-B and CFP-10 differ between tuberculosis positive and negative elephants, suggesting these parameters may be important to tuberculosis immunopathogenesis in this species. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Epigenetic differences between human papillomavirus-positive and -negative oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biron, Vincent L; Mohamed, Adil; Hendzel, Michael J; Alan Underhill, D; Seikaly, Hadi

    2012-04-01

    Epigenetic modifications are defined as heritable changes in gene expression that are not encoded in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Despite the importance of epigenetics in tumorigenesis, there is a paucity of information regarding the epigenetic profiles of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). The objective of this study was to identify epigenetic signatures associated with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative OPSCC. We collected demographic, pathologic, and survival data from 44 patients with advanced-stage OPSCC treated with surgery and chemoradiation at the University of Alberta between January 2006 and December 2008. Tumour specimen from these patients were retreived and sectioned for immunohistochemical analysis. Double immunofluorescence staining was performed with p16 (HPV surrogate) and a panel of epigenetic markers, namely, histone methyl-lysines 4, 9, and 27 and H4 methyl-lysine 20. Correlation between p16 and epigenetic markers was measured using Metamorph and Image J software. Forty-one percent of patients were p16 positive. No statistically significant differences were found between p16-positive and -negative patients in terms of age at diagnosis, tumour subsite, or smoking history. We found significant differences in histone methylation between p16-positive and -negative tumours. OPSCC tumours positive for p16 had global elevations of histone H4 monomethylated lysine 20 (H4K20me1) and H3 trimethylated lysine 27 (H3K27me3) with depletions of H4 trimethylated lysine 20 (H4K20me3). In contrast, p16-negative tumours had depleted levels of H4K20me1 and H3K27me3 with high levels of H4K20me3. HPV-positive and -negative OPSCCs have distinct epigenetic profiles representing broad gene expression differences between these tumours.

  13. Differences in housing, health, and well-being among HIV-positive women living in poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavega, Elena; Lennon-Dearing, Robin

    2015-01-01

    The social context of living in poverty has a direct and indirect impact on a woman's health and well-being. This cross-sectional study investigates the relationship between housing and adherence to treatment, emotional wellness, environmental safety, physical health status, and risk behaviors among HIV-positive women receiving services from an AIDS service organization in the mid-South. Significant differences were found between stably housed and unstably housed women on the dependent outcome variables. Results suggest that housing services for HIV-positive women may be an effective way to increase their health and well-being as well as prevent transmission to others.

  14. The physical environment of positive places: Exploring differences between age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Tiina E; Broberg, Anna; Kyttä, Marketta

    2017-02-01

    Features of the physical environment have an impact on the human behaviour. Thus, planners and policymakers around the world should aim at providing environments that are perceived as being of good quality, in which the residents enjoy spending time and moving around in. It is widely acknowledged that urban environmental quality associates with well-being, but there is currently very little research examining which features of urban environments people of different ages perceive as appealing in their living environments. Individuals experience different age-related developmental environments throughout their life course. Thus, the usage and perceptions of different spaces can also differ between various age groups. Public Participation GIS datasets collected in 2009 and 2011 in Helsinki Metropolitan Area were used to study places perceived as being positive by adults (n=3119) and children (n=672). Participants marked points on a map that were overlaid with GIS data to study whether the physical environment of positive places of different age groups differed. The results demonstrated that the physical environment differs significantly in the positive places of different age groups. The places of adult age groups were characterized by green, blue and commercial spaces, whereas sports, residential and commercial spaces characterize children's and adolescents' places. Older adults' places were found to be closest to home, while adolescents' places were the most distant. Providing appealing environments for all age groups in one setting remains problematic but should nevertheless be strived for, especially in the urban context where a constant competition over different usages of space occurs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of scapular taping on the surface electromyographic signal amplitude of shoulder girdle muscles during upper extremity elevation in individuals with suspected shoulder impingement syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkowitz, David M; Chaney, Casey; Stuckey, Sandra J; Vlad, Georgeanne

    2007-11-01

    Multifactorial, repeated-measures, within-subjects design. To investigate the immediate effects of scapular taping on surface electromyographic (EMG) signal amplitude of shoulder girdle muscles during upper extremity elevation in individuals with suspected shoulder impingement syndrome. Individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome may present with increased activity of the upper trapezius and inhibition of other shoulder muscles active during upper extremity elevation. Scapular taping is theorized to normalize shoulder girdle function during scapular upward rotation by decreasing upper trapezius activity and increasing the activity of the lower trapezius and other muscles. assessed for each muscle. Upper trapezius activity was significantly lower with tape during shelf task elevation (P = .002), especially above 90 degrees (Pshoulder abduction in the scapular plane, the main effect for upper trapezius showed a significant decrease of EMG signal amplitude (P = .047) for tape versus no tape, but no significant interactions were found among components of this activity, or for other muscles. Scapular taping decreased upper trapezius and increased lower trapezius activity in people with suspected shoulder impingement during a functional overhead-reaching task, and decreased upper trapezius activity during shoulder abduction in the scapular plane. Taping did not affect the other muscles under the loads tested, but it is possible that the activity of these muscles was not deficient at the time of testing.

  16. Comparison of Four Different Methods for Agricultural Positioning Using GPS and IMU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Goli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, four different positioning methods were compared in order to evaluate their accuracy, using a remotely controlled robot on a specific route. These methods included: using a single GPS module, combining the data from three GPS modules, using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU, and GPS/IMU data fusion. The comparison of these four methods showed that GPS/IMU data fusion along with a Kalman filter was the most precise method, having a root mean square error of 23.4cm. Integrating the data acquired simultaneously from three GPS modules with fixed and equally spaced position and far enough from each other, had a root mean square error of 31.3cm was the second most precise method. . Also analysis of the IMU data showed that due to cumulative errors, it was not a suitable method using a single IMU for positioning.

  17. The Spinal Curvature of Three Different Sitting Positions Analysed in an Open MRI Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baumgartner

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sitting is the most frequently performed posture of everyday life. Biomechanical interactions with office chairs have therefore a long-term effect on our musculoskeletal system and ultimately on our health and wellbeing. This paper highlights the kinematic effect of office chairs on the spinal column and its single segments. Novel chair concepts with multiple degrees of freedom provide enhanced spinal mobility. The angular changes of the spinal column in the sagittal plane in three different sitting positions (forward inclined, reclined, and upright for six healthy subjects (aged 23 to 45 years were determined using an open magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scanner. An MRI-compatible and commercially available office chair was adapted for use in the scanner. The midpoint coordinates of the vertebral bodies, the wedge angles of the intervertebral discs, and the lumbar lordotic angle were analysed. The mean lordotic angles were 16.0±8.5∘ (mean ± standard deviation in a forward inclined position, 24.7±8.3∘ in an upright position, and 28.7±8.1∘ in a reclined position. All segments from T10-T11 to L5-S1 were involved in movement during positional changes, whereas the range of motion in the lower lumbar segments was increased in comparison to the upper segments.

  18. Does the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall reflect differences in appraisal or memory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schryer, Emily; Ross, Michael

    2014-07-01

    Two studies examined the extent to which the age-related positivity effect in autobiographical recall is the result of age differences in appraisal and memory. In Study 1, older and younger participants reported 1 pleasant and 1 unpleasant event for 5 days. Participants attempted to recall those events a week later. In Study 2, older and younger participants imagined that positive, negative, and neutral hypothetical events had occurred either to themselves or to an acquaintance and were later asked to recall those events. In Study 1, younger adults reported a complete set of positive and negative events. Older adults reported a pleasant event each day, but 38% did not report an unpleasant event on at least 1 day. A week later, older and younger adults were equally likely to recall the events they had reported. In Study 2, older adults who imagined events happened to themselves rated events as more positive in valence than younger adults did. Older and younger adults were equally likely to remember pleasant and unpleasant events at the end of the study. The data suggest that the age-related positivity effect resides in the appraisal rather than the recall of autobiographical events. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Biofilm formation of ica operon-positive Staphylococcus epidermidis from different sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argudín, Maria Angeles; Vanderhaeghen, Wannes; Vandendriessche, Stien; Vandecandelaere, Ilse; Denis, Olivier; Coenye, Tom; Butaye, Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Information on the prevalence of biofilm-related factors (PIA, Bhp, Aap, Embp) in Staphylococcus epidermidis of animal origin is scarce. In this study, 263 S. epidermidis isolates of diverse origin (animal, farmers, patients, and laboratory staff) were investigated for the presence of the ica operon (icaRADBC). The icaRADBC-positive isolates were further characterized by means of biofilm formation, presence of other biofilm-related genes, antimicrobial resistance, and population structure. Of all isolates, 28.5% (n = 75) were icaRADBC-positive, including 16.5% of animal origin, 29.1% farmer isolates, and 44.6% hospital-associated isolates (including patients and laboratory staff isolates). Most icaRADBC-positive isolates carried embp (n = 73), aap (n = 57), bhp (n = 22), and IS256 (n = 29). Statistical differences were found between animal and patient isolates for the presence of icaRADBC, bhp, and aap. No statistically significant relation was found between the presence of one or more genes and the level of biofilm formation. Most icaRADBC-positive isolates belonged to the clonal complex 5 (formerly 2) and most sequence types corresponded to types previously observed in community and nosocomial S. epidermidis populations. Although the prevalence of S. epidermidis in the nasal cavity of bovines and poultry is low, some isolates belong to STs related to ica-positive clinical strains. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Position-Related Differences in Selected Morphological Body Characteristics of Top-Level Female Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bon, Marta; Pori, Primoz; Sibila, Marko

    2015-09-01

    The study aimed to establish the main morphological characteristics of Slovenian junior and senior female national handball team players. Morphological characteristics of various player subgroups (goalkeepers, wings, back players and pivots) were also determined so as to establish whether they had distinct profiles. The subjects were 87 handball players who were members of the Slovenian junior and senior female national teams in the period from 2003 to 2009. A standardised anthropometric protocol was used to assess the subjects' morphological characteristics. The measurements included 23 different anthropometric measures. First, basic statistical characteristics of anthropometric measures were obtained for all subjects together and then for each group separately. Somatotypes were determined using Heath-Carter's method. Endomorphic, mesomorphic and ectomorphic components were calculated by computer on the basis of formulas. In order to determine differences in the body composition and anthropometric data of the subjects playing in different positions, a one-way analysis of variance was employed. The results show that, on average, the wings differed the most from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body characteristics. The wings differed most prominently from the other player groups in terms of their morphological body parameters as they were significantly smaller and had a statistically significantly lower body mass than the other groups. In terms of transversal measures of the skeleton and the circumferences, the wings significantly differed mainly from the pivots and goalkeepers and less from the backs. The goalkeepers were the tallest, with high values of body mass and low values of transversal measures compared to P. Their skin folds were the most pronounced among all the groups on average and their share of subcutaneous fat in total body mass was the highest. Consequently, their endomorphic component of the somatotype was pronounced

  1. Luminous Impulse Response of Positive- and Negative-Contrast Stimuli in Different Spatial Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Shi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An interesting question is whether positive- and negative-contrast stimulations have temporally different visual responses. Luminous impulse response functions (IRF were measured to investigate this question. The IRF represents a theoretical response to a flash of infinitely short duration. It can be estimated from detection thresholds of double-pulses divided by various inter-stimuli-intervals (ISI. Each threshold was measured independently 5 times included 20∼30 trials each, controlled by a psi method combined with a spatial 4-alternative-forced-choice (4AFC method. The stimulus, which has a water-wave-like structure in terms of luminance with one of various spatial frequency configurations (0 cpd, 1 cpd, 2 cpd, 4 cpd, 8 cpd, and 16 cpd, was presented on a 10 cd/m2 background (equal-energy-white. About 135,000 trials were measured for five observers. The results show that; (1 thresholds of positive contrast detection were significantly higher than that of negative contrast detection except a part of spatial frequencies on two observers; (2 there was no significant difference between positive and negative contrast IRFs. These results suggest that the responses for positive- and negative-contrast stimulations are the same in terms of IRF.

  2. Soil structure and greenhouse gas production differences between row and interrow positions under no-tillage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Pires da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available No-tillage in Brazil is an efficient agricultural system that improves crop productivity whilst controlling erosion caused to the soil by degradation. However, there is some concern regarding soil compaction. Our objective was to determine whether the function of soil structure in sustaining crop growth was dependent on row and interrow positions in long-term no-tillage. We took soil samples from a field in a commercial farm under long-term no-tillage since 1979 on a clayey Oxisol in Southern Brazil. We assessed soil physical quality using the revised Peerlkamp technique and measured bulk density, air-filled porosity and air permeability of intact soil cores. Samples were incubated to assess in vitro N2O and CO2 production. The soil physical and structural properties showed consistent differences between interrow and row positions, where the properties measured were more favorable. The revised Peerlkamp technique proved as efficient as quantitative parameters in discriminating treatment differences. Overall, soil physical conditions in the interrow were less favourable than in the row. Pore continuity did not vary as regards position. This may explain why row position did not influence in vitro N2O and CO2 production. Soil physical quality under no-tillage system is enhanced, at least in the short term, by superficial disturbances in the row as a result of the action of the coulters of the no-tillage seeder.

  3. Adaptive Changes in the Perception of Fast and Slow Movement at Different Head Positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panichi, Roberto; Occhigrossi, Chiara; Ferraresi, Aldo; Faralli, Mario; Lucertini, Marco; Pettorossi, Vito E

    2017-05-01

    This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration). The rotations induced a bias in the perception of velocity (more pronounced with fast than with slow motion). At the end of rotation, a marked target position error (TPE) was present. For the on-vertical axis rotations, the TPE was no different if the rotations were performed with a 30° nose-down, a 60° nose-up, or a 90° side-down head tilt. With off-vertical axis rotations, the simultaneous activation of the semicircular canals and otolithic receptors produced a significant increase of TPE for all head positions. This difference between on-vertical and off-vertical axis rotation was probably partly due to the vestibular transfer function and partly due to different adaptation to the speed of rotation. Such a phenomenon might be generated in different components of the vestibular system. The adaptive process enhancing the perception of dynamic movement around the vertical axis is not related to the specific semicircular canals that are activated; the addition of an otolithic component results in a significant increase of the TPE.Panichi R, Occhigrossi C, Ferraresi A, Faralli M, Lucertini M, Pettorossi VE. Adaptive changes in the perception of fast and slow movement at different head positions. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(5):463-468.

  4. Muscle Activation Differs between Three Different Knee Joint-Angle Positions during a Maximal Isometric Back Squat Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Marchetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare muscle activation of the lower limb muscles when performing a maximal isometric back squat exercise over three different positions. Fifteen young, healthy, resistance-trained men performed an isometric back squat at three knee joint angles (20°, 90°, and 140° in a randomized, counterbalanced fashion. Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activation of the vastus lateralis (VL, vastus medialis (VM, rectus femoris (RF, biceps femoris (BF, semitendinosus (ST, and gluteus maximus (GM. In general, muscle activity was the highest at 90° for the three quadriceps muscles, yet differences in muscle activation between knee angles were muscle specific. Activity of the GM was significantly greater at 20° and 90° compared to 140°. The BF and ST displayed similar activation at all joint angles. In conclusion, knee position alters muscles activation of the quadriceps and gluteus maximus muscles. An isometric back squat at 90° generates the highest overall muscle activation, yet an isometric back squat at 140° generates the lowest overall muscle activation of the VL and GM only.

  5. Differences among Job Positions Related to Communication Errors at Construction Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Akiko; Ishida, Toshiro

    In a previous study, we classified the communicatio n errors at construction sites as faulty intention and message pattern, inadequate channel pattern, and faulty comprehension pattern. This study seeks to evaluate the degree of risk of communication errors and to investigate differences among people in various job positions in perception of communication error risk . Questionnaires based on the previous study were a dministered to construction workers (n=811; 149 adminis trators, 208 foremen and 454 workers). Administrators evaluated all patterns of communication error risk equally. However, foremen and workers evaluated communication error risk differently in each pattern. The common contributing factors to all patterns wer e inadequate arrangements before work and inadequate confirmation. Some factors were common among patterns but other factors were particular to a specific pattern. To help prevent future accidents at construction sites, administrators should understand how people in various job positions perceive communication errors and propose human factors measures to prevent such errors.

  6. Influence of the positive prewhirl on the performance of centrifugal pumps with different airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C. M.; Wang, H. M.; Huang, X.; Lin, H.

    2012-11-01

    According to the basic theory of turbomachinery design and inlet guide vanes prewhirl regulation, two different airfoils inlet guide vanes of prewhirl regulation device were designed, the influence of the positive prewhirl to the performance of centrifugal pump were studied based on different airfoils. The results show that, for a single-suction centrifugal pump: Gottingen bowed blade-type inlet guide vane adjustment effect is better than straight blade-type inlet guide; appropriate design of positive prewhirl can elevate the efficiency of centrifugal pumps. Compared with no vane conditions, the efficiency of centrifugal pump with prewhirl vanes has been greatly improved and the power consumption has been reduced significantly, while has little influence on the head.

  7. Impact of different individual GNSS receiver antenna calibration models on geodetic positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baire, Q.; Pottiaux, E.; Bruyninx, C.; Defraigne, P.; Aerts, W.; Legrand, J.; Bergeot, N.; Chevalier, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    Since April 2011, the igs08.atx antenna calibration model is used in the routine IGS (International GNSS Service) data analysis. The model includes mean robot calibrations to correct for the offset and phase center variations of the GNSS receiver antennas. These so-called "type" calibrations are means of the individual calibrations available for a specific antenna/radome combination. The GNSS data analysis performed within the EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) aims at being as consistent as possible with the IGS analysis. This also applies to the receiver antenna calibrations. However, when available, individual antenna calibrations are used within the EPN analysis instead of the "type" calibration. When these individual calibrations are unavailable, then the EPN analysis falls back to (type) calibrations identical as the ones used within the IGS (igs08.atx). The aim of this study is to evaluate the significance of the offset caused by using different receiver antenna calibration models on the station position. Using the PPP (Precise Point Positioning) technique, we first investigate the differences in positioning obtained when switching between individual antenna calibrations and type calibrations. We analyze the observations of the 43 EPN stations equipped with receiver antenna individually calibrated over the period covering from 2003 to 2010 and we show that these differences can reach up to 4 mm in horizontal and 10 mm in vertical. Secondly, we study the accuracy of the individual calibrations models and we evaluate the effect of different sets of individual calibrations on the positioning. For that purpose, we use the data from 6 GNSS stations equipped with an antenna which has been individually calibrated at two calibration facilities recognized by the IGS: GEO++ and Bonn institute.

  8. Muscle Activation Pattern During Isometric Ab Wheel Rollout Exercise in Different Shoulder Angle-Positions

    OpenAIRE

    Marchetti, Paulo Henrique; Schoenfeld, Brad J.; Silva, Josinaldo Jarbas da; Guiselini, Mauro Antonio; Freitas, Fabio Sisconeto de; Pecoraro, Silvio Luiz; Gomes,Willy Andrade; Lopes,Charles Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate muscle activation of the shoulder extensors and trunk stabilizers by surface electromyography (sEMG) activity during the isometric Ab Wheel Rollout exercise in different shoulder joint positions. METHOD: We recruited 8 young, healthy, resistance trained men (age: 25 ± 3 years, height: 178 ± 5 cm, and total body mass: 81 ± 2 kg). All subjects performed two sets of 10 sec. maximal isometric contractions of the Ab Wheel Rollout exercise keeping the knees fixed on the f...

  9. Effect of Different Positions on FVC and FEV1 Measurements of Asthmatic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Melam, Ganeswara Rao; Buragadda, Syamala; Alhusaini, Adel; Alghamdi, Mohammed Abdulrahman; Alghamdi, Mansour Saleh; Kaushal, Parmveer

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of our study was to investigate the effect of different positions on pulmonary function test (PFT) values such as forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of asthmatic patients .[Subjects and Methods] Thirty subjects with severe asthma aged between 20–39 years were enrolled after they had signed a written consent. Subjects were selected using the inclusion criteria, and PFT were randomly administered. Spirometer measurements (FVC, FEV...

  10. The role of positive selection in determining the molecular cause of species differences in disease

    OpenAIRE

    Foord Steven M; Simmons Mark D; Word Michael; Kumar Vinod; Topp Simon D; Rajagopalan Dilip; Amrine-Madsen Heather; Emes Richard D; Hasan Samiul; Vamathevan Jessica J; Sanseau Philippe; Yang Ziheng; Holbrook Joanna D

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Related species, such as humans and chimpanzees, often experience the same disease with varying degrees of pathology, as seen in the cases of Alzheimer's disease, or differing symptomatology as in AIDS. Furthermore, certain diseases such as schizophrenia, epithelial cancers and autoimmune disorders are far more frequent in humans than in other species for reasons not associated with lifestyle. Genes that have undergone positive selection during species evolution are indica...

  11. A STUDY ON GROSS FEATURES AND DIFFERENT POSITIONS OF ADULTS VERMIFORM APPENDIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasukurthy Ashalatha

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Appendix is derived from a Latin word (Pendere meaning at the end. It is a narrow worm-like tubular diverticulum, which arises from the posteromedial wall of caecum about 2 cms below the ileocaecal junction and is suspended by a peritoneal fold known as mesoappendix. The body of appendix is kinked on itself where the free border of mesoappendix ends. Hence, it is coiled like a worm and so is named the ‘Vermiform Appendix’. The appendix is taken up for study in view of its different positions, varying anatomical relations, and the clinical complications when pathologically affected. The relations, measurements, positions, and arterial supply were studied by gross dissection in 61 specimens (Adults – 33 and foetuses – 28 from the population of Krishna and Warangal districts of Andhra Pradesh. MATERIALS AND METHODS The present study was done on 31 adult specimens, out the length of the appendix, the diameter of the appendix at base, length of the caecum, length of ascending colon were measured. The position of the appendix was classified as per Datta’s classification. Mesenteric attachment to the vermiform appendix were noted. Even arterial supply of the appendix was studied. RESULTS Length of the appendix in adults varied from 2.00 to 25.00 cm as described by different authors, the average being 3.00 to 12.50 cm. The length of the caecum in adults were ranging from 5 to 8 cm. In the present study, the length of appendix was 14.4 cm The origin of the appendicular artery was from inferior division of ileocolic artery. A single appendicular artery is observed in all the specimens almost coinciding with studies of Michels et al. In the present study, in adults, the mesoappendix was extending to the tip in 19 specimens and extending to a variable extent in 14 specimens. Regarding the positions, in adults, they were retrocaecal, retrocolic, and subcaecal positions were 21.21% and splenic, promontory, and pelvic positions were 78

  12. Inter and Intra Positional Differences in Ball Kicking Between U-16 Croatian Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ante Rađa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this research was to determine inter and intra positional differences in ball kicking speed between U-16 Croatian soccer players. 44 young soccer players (15.7 ± 1.5 years were tested with 8 specific soccer field tests that evaluate kicking velocity by using Pocket radar that was reading the ball velocity in km/h. The tests took place two days in a row; beginning at 8 A.M. Prior to the tests, players warmed up and stretched for 20 minutes (13 minutes of running with and without the ball, 7 minutes of dynamic stretching. Inter positional differences were significant (p ≤ 0.05 between midfielders and defenders in all tests and in one test midfielders scored better than strikers. The fastest kicks were instep kicks when stationary and non-stationary ball was kicked. Shots were taken by midfielders with 106.94±7.07 and 101.61±7.88 km/h respectively. Similar to dominant leg, midfielders also achieved the fastest instep kicks with non-dominant leg (91.44±9.56 km/h. Intra positional differences revealed that soccer kick velocity is one of possible selection tools, because more efficient players in all playing lines shoot faster kicks than less efficient players.

  13. Relative position of the mandibular foramen in different age groups of children: A radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonacha K

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the relative position of the mandibular foramen (MF and to evaluate the measurement of gonial angle (GoA and its relationship with distances between different mandibular borders in growing children between 3 and 13years of dental age. Materials and methods: The radiographs were traced to arrive at six linear and two angular measurements from which the relative position of the MF was assessed and compared in different age groups to determine the growth pattern of the mandible and changes in the location of the MF. Results: The distances between the MF and the anterior plane of the ramus were greater than that between MF and posterior plane of the ramus through all stages. There was a maximum increase in the vertical dimensions of the mandible compared with the horizontal dimensions, particularly in the late mixed dentition period. Conclusion: The mandible and its growth did not alter the position of the MF, both vertically and horizontally, in relation to different landmarks, and more obtuse GoA indicated an increased growth potential of the mandible. This has major implications in the inferior alveolar nerve block technique when used in children.

  14. Relative position of the mandibular foramen in different age groups of children: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonacha, K S; Shigli, A L; Indushekar, K R

    2010-01-01

    To assess the relative position of the mandibular foramen (MF) and to evaluate the measurement of gonial angle (GoA) and its relationship with distances between different mandibular borders in growing children between 3 and 13 years of dental age. The radiographs were traced to arrive at six linear and two angular measurements from which the relative position of the MF was assessed and compared in different age groups to determine the growth pattern of the mandible and changes in the location of the MF. The distances between the MF and the anterior plane of the ramus were greater than that between MF and posterior plane of the ramus through all stages. There was a maximum increase in the vertical dimensions of the mandible compared with the horizontal dimensions, particularly in the late mixed dentition period. The mandible and its growth did not alter the position of the MF, both vertically and horizontally, in relation to different landmarks, and more obtuse GoA indicated an increased growth potential of the mandible. This has major implications in the inferior alveolar nerve block technique when used in children.

  15. The contribution of motor commands to position sense differs between elbow and wrist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Lee D; Proske, Uwe; Allen, Trevor J; Gandevia, Simon C

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that centrally generated motor commands contribute to the perception of position and movement at the wrist, but not at the elbow. Because the wrist and elbow experiments used different methods, this study was designed to resolve the discrepancy. Two methods were used to test both the elbow and wrist (20 subjects each). For the wrist, subjects sat with their right arm strapped to a device that restricted movement to the wrist. Before each test, voluntary contraction of wrist flexor or extensor muscles controlled for muscle spindle thixotropy. After relaxation, the wrist was moved to a test angle. Position was indicated either with a pointer, or by matching with the contralateral wrist, under two conditions: when the reference wrist was relaxed or when its muscles were contracted isometrically (30% maximum). The elbow experiment used the same design to measure position sense in the passive elbow and with elbow muscles contracting (30% maximum). At the wrist when using a pointer, muscle contraction altered significantly the perceived wrist angle in the direction of contraction by 7 deg [3 deg, 12 deg] (mean [95% confidence interval]) with a flexor contraction and 8 deg [4 deg, 12 deg] with an extensor contraction. Similarly, in the wrist matching task, there was a change of 13 deg [9 deg, 16 deg] with a flexor contraction and 4 deg [1 deg, 8 deg] with an extensor contraction. In contrast, contraction of elbow flexors or extensors did not alter significantly the perceived position of the elbow, compared with rest. The contribution of central commands to position sense differs between the elbow and the wrist. PMID:24099798

  16. FORWARD HEAD POSTURE CORRECTION VERSUS SHOULDER STABILIZATION EXERCISES EFFECT ON SCAPULAR DYSKINESIA AND SHOULDER PROPRIOCEPTION IN ATHLETES AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Deepmala Thakur; Basavraj Motimath; Raghavendra M

    2016-01-01

    Background: Forward head posture (FHP), the most common deviation from the normal curvature in cervical spine. Craniocervical flexor muscle strengthening is frequently used treatment for FHP. Scapular dykinesia (SD) is the alteration in the normal static or dynamic motion of the scapula during coupled scapulohumeral movements. Shoulder stabilization exercises are an effective treatment for SD. As both FHP and SD are related to each other, the objective of the study was to find and compare the...

  17. Electromyographic activity and scapular dyskenesia in athletes with and without shoulder impingement syndrome. http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n2p193

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Cappato de Araújo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the presence of scapular dyskinesis and pain, satisfaction and function levels, as well as analyze the activation of scapular stabilizing muscles during isometric tasks of shoulder abduction in athletes with and without SIS. Thirty men athletes were divided into two groups: SIS group and Control group. The volunteers answered the Penn Shoulder Score questionnaire translated into Portuguese, which evaluates pain, dysfunction, and satisfaction with the shoulder. They were also evaluated for the presence of scapular dyskinesis through the Slide Scapular Lateral Test. The electromyographic activity of the upper trapezius (UT, middle trapezius (MT, lower trapezius (LT, and serratus anterior (SA muscles was evaluated during the isometric shoulder abduction in the frontal and scapular planes at angles of 45º, 90°, and 120°. The SIS group had a higher indication of pain and scapular dyskinesis when compared to control group. In the SIS group, higher values of electromyographic ratios between UT/LT and UT/SA were observed in the frontal plane in relation to the scapular plane. The conclusion can be made that pain, scapular dyskinesis, and altered muscle activation pattern was more frequent in the SIS group compared to the Control group. Therefore, exercises that emphasize the scapular muscles should be considered when planning rehabilitation programs for the SIS.

  18. HPV type infection in different anogenital sites among HIV-positive Brazilian women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donadi Eduardo Antonio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To evaluate the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV types, and risk factors for HPV positivity across cervix, vagina and anus, we conducted a study among 138 women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV. Goal Compare the prevalence of different HPV types and the risk factors for HPV positivity in three sites. Results The most frequently detected HPV types in all sites were, in decreasing order, HPV16, 53, 18, 61 and 81. Agreement between the cervix and vagina was good (kappa 0.60 – 0.80 for HPV16 and 53 and excellent (Kappa > 0.80 for HPV18 and 61. HPV positivity was inversely associated with age for all combinations including the anal site. Conclusion In HIV positive women, HPV18 is the most spread HPV type found in combinations of anal and genital sites. The relationship of anal to genital infection has implications for the development of anal malignancies. Thus, the efficacy of the current HPV vaccine may be considered not only for the cervix, but also for prevention of HPV18 anal infection among immunossuppressed individuals.

  19. The divide within: Older active ICT users position themselves against different 'Others'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kania-Lundholm, Magdalena; Torres, Sandra

    2015-12-01

    Although research into older people's internet usage patterns is rapidly growing, their understandings of digital technologies, particularly in relation to how these are informed by their understandings of aging and old age, remain unexplored. This is the case because research on older active ICT users tends to regard old age as an empirically interesting part of the life-course as opposed to a theoretically profuse source of information about why and how older people engage with digital technologies. This article explores - through focus group interviews with 30 older adults (aged 66-89) - the ways in which the social position of old age is used by older active ICT users in order to make sense of how and why they engage with these technologies. In this article, positioning theory is used to shed light on how the older people interviewed positioned themselves as 'active older users' in the interviews. The analysis brings to the fore the divide that older people themselves create as they discursively position themselves against different types of ICT users and non-users (young and old) when describing how and why they engage with digital technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Attenuated positive psychotic symptoms and social anxiety: Along a psychotic continuum or different constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Shanna; Klugman, Joshua; Heimberg, Richard G; Anglin, Deidre M; Ellman, Lauren M

    2016-01-30

    Social anxiety commonly occurs across the course of schizophrenia, including in the premorbid and prodromal phases of psychotic disorders. Some have posited that social anxiety may exist on a continuum with paranoia; however, empirical data are lacking. The study aim was to determine whether attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are related to social anxiety. Young adults (N=1378) were administered the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ), which measures attenuated positive psychotic symptoms (APPS), and the Social Phobia Scale (SPS), which measures a subset of social anxiety symptoms. Confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to address the extent to which social anxiety and APPS tap distinct dimensions. Confirmatory factor analyses support the existence of a separate social anxiety factor scale and four separate, though interrelated, APPS factor domains (unusual thought content, paranoia/suspiciousness, disorganized thinking, and perceptual abnormalities). Additionally, social anxiety was significantly, but not differently related to each APPS domain, although the magnitude was reduced between social anxiety and distressing APPS. The current study suggests that social anxiety and attenuated positive psychotic symptoms are separable constructs, but are significantly associated with each other. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Does debulking of enlarged positive lymph nodes improve survival in different gynaecological cancers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somashekhar, S P

    2015-08-01

    Lymph-node-positive gynaecological cancers remain a pharmacotherapeutic challenge, and patients with lymph-node-positive gynaecological cancers have poor survival. The purpose of this review is to determine whether a survival advantage arises from surgical debulking of enlarged positive lymph nodes in different types of gynaecological cancers. Information from studies published on the survival benefits from debulking lymph nodes in gynaecological cancers was investigated. Pertaining to therapeutic lymphadenectomy, survival benefit can be analysed in two ways, direct survival benefit following therapeutic lymphadenectomy of bulky positive metastatic lymph nodes and indirect survival benefit, which results after a sequela of systematic lymphadenectomy, proper, accurate staging of disease and stage migration and tailor-made adjuvant treatment. The direct hypothesis of therapeutic lymphadenectomy and survival benefit has been prospected in cervical cancers and vulval cancers and in post-chemotherapy residual paraarotic nodal mass in germ cell ovarian cancer. The indirect survival benefit of therapeutic paraarotic lymphadenectomy in high-risk endometrial cancers and advanced epithelial ovarian cancers needs to be tested in randomized controlled trials. More randomized controlled trials are required to investigate this research question. Further, indirect benefit due to tailor-made adjuvant treatment, secondary to accurate staging achieved as a sequela of systematic lymphadenectomy, needs to be analysed in future trials. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Fixation positions after skipping saccades: a single space makes a large difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krügel, André; Vitu, Françoise; Engbert, Ralf

    2012-11-01

    During reading, saccadic eye movements are generated to shift words into the center of the visual field for lexical processing. Recently, Krügel and Engbert (Vision Research 50:1532-1539, 2010) demonstrated that within-word fixation positions are largely shifted to the left after skipped words. However, explanations of the origin of this effect cannot be drawn from normal reading data alone. Here we show that the large effect of skipped words on the distribution of within-word fixation positions is primarily based on rather subtle differences in the low-level visual information acquired before saccades. Using arrangements of "x" letter strings, we reproduced the effect of skipped character strings in a highly controlled single-saccade task. Our results demonstrate that the effect of skipped words in reading is the signature of a general visuomotor phenomenon. Moreover, our findings extend beyond the scope of the widely accepted range-error model, which posits that within-word fixation positions in reading depend solely on the distances of target words. We expect that our results will provide critical boundary conditions for the development of visuomotor models of saccade planning during reading.

  3. Positional role and competitive-level differences in elite-level men's basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Abdelkrim, Nidhal; Chaouachi, Anis; Chamari, Karim; Chtara, Mokhtar; Castagna, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to compare the physical attributes of elite men's basketball players according to age and specific individual positional roles. Forty-five players from 3 national basketball teams (Under-18 years, Under-20 years, and Senior) were measured for anthropometry (height, body mass, percentage body fat), explosive power (5 jumps and vertical jump), speed (5-m, 10-m, and 30-m sprint), agility (T-test), strength (bench press and squat 1 repetition maximum [1RM]), and intermittent high-intensity endurance performance (Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test [Yo-Yo IR1]). Data on match frequency, training routines, and playing experience were also collected. Under-18 players were significantly (p Under-20 > Under-18, p basketball. Differences were particularly evident in intermittent high-intensity endurance and agility performance. Sprint training possibly should be individualized when dealing with positional roles in elite men's basketball. Strength and conditioning coaches should use Yo-Yo IR1 to assess specific endurance in players of different age and positional role.

  4. Profiling of Junior College Football Players and Differences between Position Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Lockie

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study profiled junior college football players. Sixty-two subjects completed vertical jump (VJ; height and peak power, standing broad jump (SBJ, 36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, three-cone drill, and maximal-repetition bench press and front squat. The sample included 2 quarterbacks (QB, 7 running backs (RB, 13 wide receivers (WR, 1 tight end (TE, 18 defensive backs (DB, 8 linebackers (LB, and 13 offensive and defensive linemen (LM. To investigate positional differences, subjects were split into skill (SK; WR, DB, big skill (BSK; QB, RB, TE, LB, and LM groups. A one-way ANOVA determined between-group differences. LM were taller and heavier than SK and BSK players. The SK and BSK groups were faster than LM in the 0–36.58 m sprint, pro-agility shuttle, and three-cone drill (p ≤ 0.009. The SK group had greater VJ height and SBJ distance; LM generated greater VJ peak power (p ≤ 0.022. There were no between-group differences in the strength endurance tests. Compared to Division I data, junior college players were smaller, slower, and performed worse in jump tests. Positional differences in junior college football are typical to that of established research. Junior college players should attempt to increase body mass, and improve speed and lower-body power.

  5. Postural stability in patients with different durations of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambolieva, Katerina; Angov, Georgi

    2006-02-01

    Postural stability maintenance was investigated in patients with "idiopathic" benign paroxysmal positional vertigo of the posterior semicircular canal (BPPV-PSC) and compared to healthy subjects. To measure the postural stability during a quiet upright stance, we used static posturography in two conditions: with open and with closed eyes. The effect of the repositioning Epley's maneuver on the recovery of postural stability in patients with different durations of BPPV-PSC less than 60 days after the first attack of positioning vertigo (group I) and more than 60 days (group II) was examined. The investigation was made 1 h after the positive Dix-Hallpike test and 7 days after treatment with the Epley maneuver. "Sway velocity" (SV) and "relative power spectrum" (RPS) of the stabilograms were calculated to evaluate the postural stability for each subject and each experimental condition. We found a pronounced spectral density peak in the frequency range of 1.0-2.0 Hz and smaller spectral density in the range of 0.15-0.5 Hz compared to that in healthy subjects. Our results showed that the postural maintenance in BPPV-PSC patients depended on the disease duration. Patients with a duration of BPPV symptoms less than 60 days after the first attack demonstrated a high dependence on the visual input for postural stability. One week after the Epley maneuver, differences in the recovery of postural control in both groups of patients were also found. We assume that the disturbed otolith function together with the impaired dynamics of the semicircular canal generate a particular pattern of postural maintenance. The different degree of restoration of postural stability 1 week after the EM treatment in BPPV-PSC patients with different durations of the disease gives us reason to believe that after removing the otoconia from the semicircular canal, some stimulation of other sensory subsystems and adaptation mechanisms occur that lead to a new pattern of postural maintenance.

  6. Modeling position-specific isotope fractionation of organic micropollutants degradation via different reaction pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    contaminants [2,3] are still lacking. In this study we propose an integrated modeling approach to simultaneously predict concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants [4]. The model simulates position......Organic compounds are produced in vast quantities for industrial and agricultural use, as well as for human and animal healthcare [1]. These chemicals and their metabolites are frequently detected at trace levels in fresh water environments, such as groundwater systems, and are referred......: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model successfully reproduces the multi-element isotope data, and precisely captures the dual element isotope trends, characterizing the different degradation pathways. Besides illustrating the model capability of mechanistic evaluation...

  7. Experiment of Laser Pointing Stability on Different Surfaces to validate Micrometric Positioning Sensor

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)721924; Mainaud Durand, Helene; Piedigrossi, Didier; Sandomierski, Jacek; Sosin, Mateusz; Geiger, Alain; Guillaume, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    CLIC requires 10 μm precision and accuracy over 200m for the pre-alignment of beam related components. A solution based on laser beam as straight line reference is being studied at CERN. It involves camera/shutter assemblies as micrometric positioning sensors. To validate the sensors, it is necessary to determine an appropriate material for the shutter in terms of laser pointing stability. Experiments are carried out with paper, metal and ceramic surfaces. This paper presents the standard deviations of the laser spot coordinates obtained on the different surfaces, as well as the measurement error. Our experiments validate the choice of paper and ceramic for the shutter of the micrometric positioning sensor. It also provides an estimate of the achievable precision and accuracy of the determination of the laser spot centre with respect to the shutter coordinate system defined by reference targets.

  8. Emotional traits predict individual differences in amphetamine-induced positive mood in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Goldenson, Nicholas I; Kapadia, Nahel; Kahler, Christopher W; de Wit, Harriet; Swift, Robert M; McGeary, John E; Sussman, Steve; Leventhal, Adam M

    2016-01-01

    Previous research on emotional correlates of individual differences in subjective responses to D-amphetamine has focused on relatively broad personality traits. Yet, emotional functioning is best characterized by several narrow subcomponents, each of which may contribute uniquely to amphetamine response. Here, we examine several specific subdomains of emotional functioning in relation to acute amphetamine response. At a baseline session, healthy stimulant-naive volunteers (N = 97) completed measures of several subdomains of baseline trait emotional functioning and then completed two counterbalanced experimental sessions during which they received a single oral dose of 20 mg D-amphetamine or placebo. Acute subjective drug response measures were completed at repeated intervals before and after drug administration. Data from subjective measures that were significantly modulated by amphetamine were reduced using principal component analysis (amphetamine or placebo) into three higher-order factors of "positive mood," "arousal," and "drug high." Amphetamine did not significantly alter any "negative" subjective states. Separate multiple regression analyses were conducted regressing these three drug factors on baseline trait emotional functioning scales. The combined set of trait emotional functioning indicators accounted for approximately 22 % of the variance in acute amphetamine-induced positive mood changes. Greater anticipatory pleasure and greater anxious distress each uniquely predicted greater amphetamine-induced positive mood. Trait emotional functioning did not significantly predict amphetamine-induced changes in arousal or drug high. Emotional traits appear to moderate drug-induced positive mood but not other dimensions of amphetamine effects. Different facets of emotional functioning may differentially modulate amphetamine's subjective effect profile.

  9. Psychological Outcomes After a False Positive Mammogram: Preliminary Evidence for Ethnic Differences Across Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Beresford, Shirley A A; Thompson, Beti

    2017-04-01

    Adverse psychological consequences of screening mammography are well-documented for women who receive a false positive result. However, little is known about ethnic differences. To address this gap, we examine distress associated with an abnormal mammogram (results-related distress) and perceived lifetime risk of breast cancer (perceived risk) among Latinas and non-Latina White (NLW) women 3 months after receipt of a false positive result. A sample of 28 Latina and 27 NLW women who received an initial abnormal mammogram result and later, a definitive non-cancer diagnosis were recruited for this descriptive, longitudinal study. Women were interviewed twice: within 30 days and 3 months after a false positive result. Questionnaires included standard sociodemographic questions, the Impact of Events Scale-Revised, and two perceived breast cancer risk items. All participants experienced decreased distress 3 months after the initial results. Latinas experienced higher levels of distress, F(1,45) = 4.58, p = 0.04, and had a significant increase in perceived breast cancer risk over time, F(1,45) = 3.99, p = 0.05. Larger population-based studies are necessary to confirm ethnic differences in mental health consequences of false positive results. Given cultural emphases concerning respect for authority figures, healthcare professionals may be particularly helpful in working with Latinas to mitigate distress and clarify accurate perceptions of breast cancer risk through evidence-based practice.

  10. The Effects of Double Oscillation Exercise Combined with Elastic Band Exercise on Scapular Stabilizing Muscle Strength and Thickness in Healthy Young Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Cho, Kyeongbong Lee, Minkyu Kim, Joohee Hahn, Wanhee Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of double oscillation exercise combined with elastic band exercise on the strength and thickness ratio of the scapular stabilizing muscles in healthy young individuals. A total of 30 subjects (17 male, 13 female were randomly assigned to an elastic band exercise group (EBG (n = 15 or an elastic band plus double oscillation exercise group (EB-DOG (n = 15. A total of 28 subjects completed the experiment and evaluation. Patients in the EBG performed the elastic band exercise for shoulder flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, horizontal abduction/adduction, and internal/external rotation for 30 minutes/session, five times/week, for four weeks. Patients in the EB-DOG performed the elastic band exercise for 15 minutes and the double oscillation exercise in three planes of motion (frontal, sagittal, and transverse, using a Bodyblade® for 15 minutes/session, five times/week, for four weeks. Shoulder muscle strength was assessed using a manual muscle test device during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, while the thicknesses of the scapular stabilizing muscles were assessed using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging both at rest and during MVIC. Both groups had significant effects on shoulder muscle strength, however, there was no significant difference between the two groups for change value of shoulder muscle strength (Bonferroni correction p < 0.005. Significant differences were observed in the group × time interactions for horizontal abduction, external rotation, and protraction. There was a statistically significant improvement in thickness ratio of LT and SA in the EB-DOG and no significant difference was founded in EBG (Bonferroni correction p < 0.006. In comparison between the two groups, EB-DOG showed a significant change in the thickness ratio of LT compared to EBG. In addition, significant differences were observed for the group × time interactions for the thickness ratio of the LT (F

  11. Characterisation of ail-positive Yersinia enterocolitica of different biotypes using HRMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancerz-Kisiel, Agata; Szczerba-Turek, Anna; Platt-Samoraj, Aleksandra; Michalczyk, Maria; Szweda, Wojciech

    2018-02-02

    Yersiniosis is one of the four most frequent foodborne zoonotic diseases in Europe, and Yersinia enterocolitica is the primary agent in human infections. The ail gene is an important chromosomal virulence marker of Y. enterocolitica which encodes Ail, a 17-kDa outer membrane protein that promotes attachment and invasion. In the present study, ail-positive Y. enterocolitica strains of different biotypes were examined using high resolution melting analysis (HRMA) and DNA sequencing. Genotype data relating to Y. enterocolitica strains isolated from different sources and belonging to different biotypes were compared. Applied method allowed efficient distinguishing of three genotypes and phylogenetic groups: 1A - included non-pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains; 1B - consisted of highly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains and 2/4 - involved weakly pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains. Amplicon genotyping based on HRMA supports rapid identification of ail SNPs correlated with biotype of examined Y. enterocolitica strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Patterns of Socioeconomic Inequality in Adolescent Health Differ According to the Measure of Socioeconomic Position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elgar, Frank J.; McKinnon, Britt; Torsheim, Torbjorn

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic differences in health are ubiquitous across age groups, cultures, and health domains. However, variation in the size and pattern of health inequalities appears to relate to the measure of socioeconomic position (SEP) applied. Little attention has been paid to these differences...... in adolescents and their implications for health surveillance and policy. We examined health inequalities in 1371 adolescents in seven European countries using four measures of SEP: youth-reported material assets and subjective social status and parent-reported material assets and household income. For each SEP...... variable, we estimated risk ratios, risk differences, concentration curves, and concentration indices of inequality for fair/poor self-rated health and low life satisfaction. Results showed that inequalities in health and life satisfaction were largest when subjective social status was used as the SEP...

  13. Differences in Shiga toxin and phage production among stx2g-positive STEC strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Viviana Granobles Velandia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Shigatoxigenic E. coli (STEC are characterized by the production of Shiga toxins (Stx encoded by temperate bacteriophages. Stx production is linked to the induction of the phage lytic cycle. Several stx variants have been described and differentially associated with the risk of developing severe illness.The variant named stx2g was first identified in a STEC strain isolated from the faeces of healthy cattle. Analysis of stx2g-positive strains isolated from humans, animals and environmental sources have shown that they have a close relationship. In this study, stx2g-positive STEC isolated from cattle were analyzed for phage and Stx production, with the aim to relate the results to differences observed in cytotoxicity.The presence of inducible phages was assessed by analyzing the bacterial growth/lysis curves and also by plaque assay. Bacterial growth curves in the absence of induction were similar for all isolates, however, notably differed among induced cultures. The two strains that clearly evidenced bacteriolysis under this condition also showed higher phage titers in plaque assays. However, only the phage plaques produced by one of these strains (FB 62 hybridized with a stx2-probe. Furthermore, the production of Stx was evaluated by EIA and Western immunoblotting in overnight supernatants. By EIA, we detected Stx only in supernatants of FB 62, with a higher signal with induced than in uninduced cultures. By immunoblotting, Stx2 could be detected after induction in all stx2g-positive isolates, but with lower amounts of Stx2B subunit in those supernatants where phages could not be detected.Taking into account all the results, several differences could be found among stx2g-positive strains. The strain with the highest cytotoxic titer showed higher levels of stx2-phages and toxin production by EIA, and the opposite was observed for strains that previously showed low cytotoxic titers, confirming that in stx2g-positive strains Stx production is

  14. The applicability of measures of socioeconomic position to different ethnic groups within the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelaher, Margaret; Paul, Sheila; Lambert, Helen; Ahmad, Waqar; Smith, George Davey

    2009-02-27

    In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups:1) Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators2) Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities3) Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata The sample consisted of White (n = 227), African-Caribbean (n = 213) and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233) adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research is required to establish the degree to which results of

  15. The applicability of measures of socioeconomic position to different ethnic groups within the UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lambert Helen

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups: 1 Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators 2 Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities 3 Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata Methods The sample consisted of White (n = 227, African-Caribbean (n = 213 and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233 adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Results Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. Conclusion In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research

  16. Effects of Stretching and Strengthening Exercises, With and Without Manual Therapy, on Scapular Kinematics, Function, and Pain in Individuals With Shoulder Impingement: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo, Paula R; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Avila, Mariana A; Haik, Melina N; Vieira, Amilton; Salvini, Tania F

    2015-12-01

    Randomized controlled trial. To evaluate the effects of an exercise protocol, with and without manual therapy, on scapular kinematics, function, pain, and mechanical sensitivity in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. Stretching and strengthening exercises have been shown to effectively decrease pain and disability in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. There is still conflicting evidence regarding the efficacy of adding manual therapy to an exercise therapy regimen. Forty-six patients were assigned to 1 of 2 groups, one of which received a 4-week intervention of stretching and strengthening exercises (exercise alone) and the other the same intervention, supplemented by manual therapy targeting the shoulder and cervical spine (exercise plus manual therapy). All outcomes were measured preintervention and postintervention at 4 weeks. Outcome measures were scapular kinematics in the scapular and sagittal planes during arm elevation, function as determined through the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand (DASH) questionnaire, pain as assessed with a visual analog scale, and mechanical sensitivity as assessed with pressure pain threshold. Independent of the intervention group, small, clinically irrelevant changes in scapular kinematics were observed postintervention. A significant group-by-time interaction effect (P = .001) was found for scapular anterior tilt during elevation in the sagittal plane, with a 3.0° increase (95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.5°, 7.5°) relative to baseline in the exercise-plus-manual therapy group compared to a decrease of 0.3° (95% CI: -4.2°, 4.8°) in the exercise-alone group. Pain, mechanical sensitivity, and the DASH score improved similarly for both groups by the end of the intervention period. Adding manual therapy to an exercise protocol did not enhance improvements in scapular kinematics, function, and pain in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome. The noted improvements in pain and function

  17. A computational study of flow past three unequal sized square cylinders at different positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Shams-ul; Shigri, Sehrish Hassan; Ying, Zhou Chao; Akbar, Tanvir; Majeed, Danish

    2017-03-01

    The flow past three unequal sized side-by-side square cylinders placed in different vertical configurations is investigated numerically using the lattice Boltzmann method for the Reynolds number Re = 160 and different values of the gap spacing between the cylinders, g, (ranging between 0.5 and 5). The present study is devoted to systematic investigation of the effects of cylinders position on the flow patterns. The reported results reveal that the flow patterns change significantly by the variation of cylinders configuration. Depending on the cylinders positions we observed; chaotic, base bleed, binary vortex street, modulated synchronized, inphase vortex shedding, antiphase vortex shedding, and in-antiphase vortex shedding flow patterns. The characteristics of the flow patterns are discussed with the aid of time history analysis of drag and lift coefficients, power spectra analysis of lift coefficients and vorticity contours visualization. The study also includes a detailed discussion on the aerodynamic forces, such as mean drag coefficient, Strouhal number and root-mean-square values of drag and lift coefficients. Our results show that the flow patterns behind three unequal cylinders are distinctly different compared to the flow past equisized square cylinders placed side-by-side. In chaotic flow pattern the secondary cylinder interaction frequency plays an important role especially at the second, third and fourth configurations for all gap spacings. At larger gap spacings for the first and sixth configurations, the primary vortex shedding frequency plays a dominant role and the jet effect almost diminishes between the cylinders.

  18. A new source difference artificial neural network for enhanced positioning accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Deepak; Aggarwal, Priyanka; Devabhaktuni, Vijay; Bhattacharya, Prabir

    2012-10-01

    Integrated inertial navigation system (INS) and global positioning system (GPS) units provide reliable navigation solution compared to standalone INS or GPS. Traditional Kalman filter-based INS/GPS integration schemes have several inadequacies related to sensor error model and immunity to noise. Alternatively, multi-layer perceptron (MLP) neural networks with three layers have been implemented to improve the position accuracy of the integrated system. However, MLP neural networks show poor accuracy for low-cost INS because of the large inherent sensor errors. For the first time the paper demonstrates the use of knowledge-based source difference artificial neural network (SDANN) to improve navigation performance of low-cost sensor, with or without external aiding sources. Unlike the conventional MLP or artificial neural networks (ANN), the structure of SDANN consists of two MLP neural networks called the coarse model and the difference model. The coarse model learns the input-output data relationship whereas the difference model adds knowledge to the system and fine-tunes the coarse model output by learning the associated training or estimation error. Our proposed SDANN model illustrated a significant improvement in navigation accuracy of up to 81% over conventional MLP. The results demonstrate that the proposed SDANN method is effective for GPS/INS integration schemes using low-cost inertial sensors, with and without GPS.

  19. Tuning to the Positive: Age-Related Differences in Subjective Perception of Facial Emotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rochelle Picardo

    Full Text Available Facial expressions aid social transactions and serve as socialization tools, with smiles signaling approval and reward, and angry faces signaling disapproval and punishment. The present study examined whether the subjective experience of positive vs. negative facial expressions differs between children and adults. Specifically, we examined age-related differences in biases toward happy and angry facial expressions. Young children (5-7 years and young adults (18-29 years rated the intensity of happy and angry expressions as well as levels of experienced arousal. Results showed that young children-but not young adults-rated happy facial expressions as both more intense and arousing than angry faces. This finding, which we replicated in two independent samples, was not due to differences in the ability to identify facial expressions, and suggests that children are more tuned to information in positive expressions. Together these studies provide evidence that children see unambiguous adult emotional expressions through rose-colored glasses, and suggest that what is emotionally relevant can shift with development.

  20. The difference in condylar position between centric relation and centric occlusion in pretreatment Japanese orthodontic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Osamu; Adachi, Satoshi; Takada, Kenji

    2002-08-01

    This study investigates the differences in condylar position between centric relation (CR) and centric occlusion (CO) in Japanese orthodontic patients before treatment. We employed 150 consecutive cases (age range: 6-57 years) for the study. Dental casts were mounted on a Panadent articulator with a power centric CR bite record. The differences in condylar position between CR and CO in all three spatial planes were measured using the Panadent Condyle Position Indicator (CPI). The subjects were divided into groups by age, gender, mandibular plane angle or angle classification. No significant differences in the magnitude of CPI measurements were found among the groups. The three-dimensional distances of condylar displacement on both sides were almost identical, and the superoinferior displacement (S-I) was greater (P < .0001) than the anteroposterior displacement (A-P). The S-I was greater (P = .02) on the left side than on the right side, while the A-P displacement was smaller (P < .0001) on the left side than that on the right side. Significant condylar displacement (2.0 mm for S-I and A-P, 0.5 mm for the lateral displacement, L) was found frequently in L (31.3%), S-I, and A-P, in that order. Fifty-eight (38.7%) of the subjects had significant displacement in L, S-I, or A-P. Moreover, Angle Class III subjects tended to have significant condylar displacement toward the left side. The results suggest that orthodontists should be aware of a high incidence of condylar displacement in Japanese orthodontic patients and measure condylar displacement before the start of comprehensive orthodontic treatment to unmask real jaw relationships and avoid possible misdiagnoses.

  1. Position-specific isotope modeling of organic micropollutants transformations through different reaction pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Biao; Rolle, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    Organic compounds are produced in vast quantities for industrial and agricultural use, as well as for human and animal healthcare [1]. These chemicals and their metabolites are frequently detected at trace levels in fresh water environments where they undergo degradation via different reaction pathways. Compound specific stable isotope analysis (CSIA) is a valuable tool to identify such degradation pathways in different environmental systems. Recent advances in analytical techniques have promoted the fast development and implementation of multi-element CSIA. However, quantitative frameworks to evaluate multi-element stable isotope data and incorporating mechanistic information on the degradation processes [2,3] are still lacking. In this study we propose a mechanism-based modeling approach to simultaneously evaluate concentration as well as bulk and position-specific multi-element isotope evolution during the transformation of organic micropollutants. The model explicitly simulates position-specific isotopologues for those atoms that experience isotope effects and, thereby, provides a mechanistic description of isotope fractionation occurring at different molecular positions. We validate the proposed approach with the concentration and multi-element isotope data of three selected organic micropollutants: dichlorobenzamide (BAM), isoproturon (IPU) and diclofenac (DCF). The model precisely captures the dual element isotope trends characteristic of different reaction pathways and their range of variation consistent with observed multi-element (C, N) bulk isotope fractionation. The proposed approach can also be used as a tool to explore transformation pathways in scenarios for which position-specific isotope data are not yet available. [1] Schwarzenbach, R.P., Egli, T., Hofstetter, T.B., von Gunten, U., Wehrli, B., 2010. Global Water Pollution and Human Health. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-100809-125342. [2] Jin, B., Haderlein, S.B., Rolle, M

  2. Individual thorax geometry reduces position and size differences in reconstructed images of electrical impedance tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhanqi; Frerichs, Inéz; Pulletz, Sven; Müller-Lisse, Ullrich; Möller, Knut

    2014-01-01

    Due to the ill-posed problem, the electrical impedance within the thorax cannot be exactly reconstructed. The aim of our study was to prove that reconstruction with individual thorax geometry improved the quality of EIT (electrical impedance tomography) images. Seven mechanically ventilated patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome were examined by EIT. The thorax contours were determined from routine computed tomography (CT) images based on automatic threshold filtering. EIT raw data was reconstructed offline with (1) back-projection with circular forward model; (2) GREIT reconstruction method with circular forward model and (3) GREIT with individual thorax geometry. The resulting EIT images were compared to rescaled CT images. The distance between the lung contour and the thorax contour was calculated for each method and the differences to that in CT were denoted as position differences. Shape differences was defined as the ratio of thorax (or lungs) size in EIT and that in rescaled CT. Method (3) has the smallest position differences (6.6 ± 2.8, 5.3 ± 3.3, 2.3 ± 1.4 in pixel, for each reconstruction method respectively; mean ± SD). The thorax and lungs sizes in the transformed CT images were 514 ± 73 and 177 ± 39. Shape differences of thorax were 1.81 ± 0.26, 1.81 ± 0.26, 1.10 ± 0.12 and that of lungs were 1.69 ± 0.45, 1.52 ± 0.45, 1.34 ± 0.35 for each method respectively. The reconstructed images using the GREIT method with individual thorax geometry were more realistic. Improvement of EIT image quality may foster the acceptance of EIT in routine clinical use.

  3. Individual differences in positive and negative emotion regulation: Which strategies explain variability in loneliness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearns, Sinead M; Creaven, Ann-Marie

    2017-02-01

    Loneliness is the distressing feeling accompanying the perception that one's social needs are not being met by one's social relationships. Conceptual models point to a role for cognitive factors in this experience. Because research on determinants of loneliness is sparse, this study investigates associations between individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) and loneliness. Participants (N = 116) completed measures of loneliness, and a vignette-based measure of adaptive and maladaptive ER in response to positive and negative scenarios. Regression analyses indicated that the regulation of positive and negative emotions explained comparable variance in loneliness, and associations were only partially reduced by the inclusion of social support. The specific strategies positive reappraisal, being present and negative mental time travel explained the most variance in loneliness. The findings are consistent with both the cognitive and the social needs models of loneliness and suggest that variability in ER strategies should be considered relevant to loneliness. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [Construction and improvement of animal models with different positional osseous metastasis of prostate cancer in vivo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Y X; Xiao, M H; Zhang, N N; Li, X Y; Mao, X P; Zhang, K; Zhang, Z R; Zhao, L Y

    2017-08-18

    To provide an important tool for the study of diagnose and treatment of prostate cancer (PCa) osseous metastasis and change of bone stress force on prostate cancer (PCa) osseous metastasis and a platform, which is more congruous to clinical process, for prevention and cure of neoplastic bone metastases, and to carry out the construction and improvement of animal models of PCa with different positional osseous metastasis in vivo. Different gradient concentrations of RM-1 cells were inoculated into the cavity of left femoral bone or lumbar vertebra of mice (C57BL/6) respectively. The change of mouse activity, tumor formation, tumor size and survival time were observed respectively. And the femur tissue and spinal tissue were obtained from the mice after death. The gray value of iconography were measured by imageological examination of femur tissue, and the final histopathological examination were taken to determine the tumor type in both femur and spinal tissue. The tumor growth could be touched at the puncture site in all the mice after inoculated for 7 days. There were no obvious differences in the time of tumorigenesis, the rate of tumor growth and tumor size among the mice in the same group (P>0.05). As the result, the construction femoral bone and lumbar vertebra metastatic models of PCa had been confirmed by iconography and pathology detection. At the same time, the survival time of the mice inoculated with low concentrations of PCa cells was obviously longer than that of high concentrations of PCa cells ( at least 2 weeks longer). The animal models with different positional osseous metastasis (limbs and axial skeleton) of PCa using the same PCa cells (RM-1) had been first constructed successfully in our study. At the same time, a high success rate of construction of PCa animal model with bone metastasis was obtained by femoral bone marrow cavity injection of PCa cells. The rate of tumor growth was rapid, animal survival time was appropriate, and the PCa animal

  5. [Electromyographic activity of the temporal and masseter muscles at different occlusal positions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Dorde; Horvat-Banić, Sofija

    2007-01-01

    Normal occlusion or eugnathia, is a morphologically and functionally balanced bite. Differences in the form and function of orofacial structures cause morphological and functional deviations of the orofacial system. Irregular occlusal postitions may consequently change the electromyographic activity of the muscles of orofacial region. The aim of the research was an analysis and a comparative analysis of the bioelectrical activity of masticatory muscles in normal occlusion and distocclusion, in rest position, in the position of the central occlusion of the mandible and at the maximum voluntary muscle contraction. The metodology of the research is based on electromyographic recording of the action potentials of the examined muscles in different mandibular positions. Registration of action potentials of the masticatory muscles was done using, facial, intramuscular, and coaxial electrodes, (Greenfield scheme) and measurements were performed on both sides. The research was carried out on a sample of 60 patients with an average age of 14,25 years. 30 subjects had normal occlusion and 30 had distal occlusion. The results were expressed in microvolts, as average cumulative amplitude voltages of action potentials, by means of which changes in the masticatory muscles were established and the degree of correlation between the electromyographic activity of the masticatory muscles and the occlusal type was analyzed. The results of the research show that the bioelectrical activity of the examined masticatory muscles falls in the group of subjects with distal occlusion, which is the result of a decreased number of active muscular tissues, or a decreased number of impulses coming into the muscle, or the combination of both.

  6. Physiologic performance test differences in female volleyball athletes by competition level and player position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaal, Monique; Ransdell, Lynda B; Simonson, Shawn R; Gao, Yong

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physiologic performance test differences by competition level (high school and Division-I collegiate athletes) and player position (hitter, setter, defensive specialist) in 4 volleyball-related tests. A secondary purpose was to establish whether a 150-yd shuttle could be used as a field test to assess anaerobic capacity. Female participants from 4 varsity high school volleyball teams (n = 27) and 2 Division-I collegiate volleyball teams (n = 26) were recruited for the study. Participants completed 4 performance-based field tests (vertical jump, agility T-test, and 150- and 300-yd shuttle runs) after completing a standardized dynamic warm-up. A 2-way multivariate analysis of variance with Bonferroni post hoc adjustments (when appropriate) and effect sizes were used for the analyses. The most important findings of this study were that (a) college volleyball athletes were older, heavier, and taller than high school athletes; (b) high school athletes had performance deficiencies in vertical jump/lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness; (c) lower-body power was the only statistically significant difference in the performance test measures by player position; and (d) the correlation between the 150- and 300-yd shuttle was moderate (r = 0.488). Female high school volleyball players may enhance their ability to play collegiate volleyball by improving their vertical jump, lower-body power, agility, and anaerobic fitness. Furthermore, all player positions should emphasize lower-body power conditioning. These physical test scores provide baseline performance scores that should help strength and conditioning coaches create programs that will address deficits in female volleyball player performance, especially as they transition from high school to college.

  7. Application of different molecular techniques for characterization of catalase-positive cocci isolated from sucuk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesmen, Zülal; Yarimcam, Burcu; Aslan, Hakiye; Ozbekar, Esra; Yetim, Hasan

    2014-02-01

    This study was carried out for the characterization and discrimination of the indigenous Gram positive, catalase-positive cocci (GCC) population in sucuk, a traditional Turkish dry-fermented sausage. Sucuk samples, produced by the traditional method without starter culture were collected from 8 local producers in Kayseri/Turkey and a total of 116 GCC isolates were identified by using different molecular techniques. Two different molecular fingerprinting methods; namely, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-PCR (RAPD-PCR) and repetitive extragenic palindrome-PCR (rep-PCR), were used for the clustering of isolates and identification at species level was carried out by full length sequencing of 16S rDNA. Combining the results obtained from molecular fingerprinting and 16S rDNA sequencing showed that the dominant GCC species isolated from the sucuk samples was Staphylococcus saprophyticus followed by Staphylococcus succinus and Staphylococcus equorum belonging to the Staphylococcus genus. Real-time PCR DNA melting curve analysis and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis targeting the V1 + V3 regions of 16S rDNA were also applied for the discrimination of isolates belonging to different species. It was observed statistically different Tm values and species-specific HRM profiles for all except 2 species (S. saprophyticus and Staphylococcus xylosus) that have high 16S rDNA sequence similarity. The combination of rep-PCR and/or PCR-RAPD with 16S rRNA gene sequencing was an efficient approach for the characterization and identification of the GCC population in spontaneously fermented sucuk. On the other hand, intercalating dye assays were found to be a simple and very promising technique for the differentiation of the GCC population at species level. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Novel methodology for estimating Initial Contact events from accelerometers positioned at different body locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khandelwal, Siddhartha; Wickström, Nicholas

    2018-01-01

    Identifying Initial Contact events (ICE) is essential in gait analysis as they segment the walking pattern into gait cycles and facilitate the computation of other gait parameters. As such, numerous algorithms have been developed to identify ICE by placing the accelerometer at a specific body location. Simultaneously, many researchers have studied the effects of device positioning for participant or patient compliance, which is an important factor to consider especially for long-term studies in real-life settings. With the adoption of accelerometery for long-term gait analysis in daily living, current and future applications will require robust algorithms that can either autonomously adapt to changes in sensor positioning or can detect ICE from multiple sensors locations. This study presents a novel methodology that is capable of estimating ICE from accelerometers placed at different body locations. The proposed methodology, called DK-TiFA, is based on utilizing domain knowledge about the fundamental spectral relationships present between the movement of different body parts during gait to drive the time-frequency analysis of the acceleration signal. In order to assess the performance, DK-TiFA is benchmarked on four large publicly available gait databases, consisting of a total of 613 subjects and 7 unique body locations, namely, ankle, thigh, center waist, side waist, chest, upper arm and wrist. The DK-TiFA methodology is demonstrated to achieve high accuracy and robustness for estimating ICE from data consisting of different accelerometer specifications, varying gait speeds and different environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effect of Position and Different Size of Radial Hole on Performance of Cannulated Pedicle Screw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria F. A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cannulated Pedicle Screw (CPS is the instrumentation that has been introduced in Biomedical field in order to stabilize the spine structure and also to enhance the pullout strength in osteoporotic patient. The cement is injected through the CPS which is flow from the screw head to the radial hole and then distributed around the CPS to give higher performance of pullout strength. However, the fracture still reported to happened around the radial hole. This paper is aim to focus on the effect of the position and different diameter of radial hole on the CPS. Three designs were constructed using SolidWork software where two of it are the current models whereas the third was the proposed design which the radial holes were position differently (skewed to each other and its size is smaller than the current model, 1.0 mm and 1.5mm respectively. The software used for Finite Element Analysis (FEA is Ansys workbench 16.0. The Finite Element Models were verified with FEA result of the previous research. The FEA results of torsional stress for current and proposed design were then compared to obtain the maximum torque that both designs are able to resist before fracture. It can be concluded that the performance of CPS can be improved by the proposed design which is 2 radial hole skewed to each other and smaller radial hole diameter (1.0mm than the current cannulated pedicle screw (1.5mm.

  10. Sex determination from scapular length measurements by CT scans images in a Caucasian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurazza, F; Schena, E; Del Vescovo, R; Cazzato, R L; Mortato, L; Saccomandi, P; Paternostro, F; Onofri, L; Zobel, B Beomonte

    2013-01-01

    Together with race, stature and age, sex is a main component of the biological identity. Thanks to its proportional correlation with parts of the human body, sex can be evaluated form the skeleton. The most accurate approach to determine sex by bone size is based on os coxae or skull. After natural disaster their presence can never be guaranteed, therefore the development of methods of sex determination using other skeletal elements can result crucial. Herein, sexual dimorphism in the human scapula is used to develop a two-variable discriminant function for sex estimation. We have enrolled 100 males and 100 females who underwent thoracic CT scan evaluation and we have estimated two scapular diameters. The estimation has been carried out by analyzing images of the scapulae of each patient after three dimensional post-processing reconstructions. The two-variable function allows to obtain an overall accuracy of 88% on the calibration sample. Furthermore, we have employed the mentioned function on a collection of 10 individual test sample from the collection of the "Museo di Anatomia Umana di Firenze" of the Università degli Studi di Firenze; sex has been correctly predicted on 9 skeletons.

  11. Azaisoquinolinones: N positions tell you different stories in their optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junbo; Gao, Junkuo; Li, Gang; Xiong, Weiwei; Zhang, Qichun

    2013-12-20

    Since isoquinolinones and their derivatives have been demonstrated to be powerful building blocks in constructing larger acenes and twistacenes, azaisoquinolinones and their analogues could also be important intermediates to approach larger N-heteroacenes. In this paper, we are interested in developing a concise method to synthesize novel azaisoquinolinones building blocks and studying their physical properties. Our results showed that the different N positions have a large effect on the optical and electrochemical properties of azaisoquinolinones. For example, protonation of 6- and 7-azaisoquinolinones shows different shifts of UV-vis and FL spectra. More interestingly, 6- and 7-azaisoquinolinones exhibited different interactions with metal ions in CH3CN solution. Upon the addition of 2 equiv of Fe(3+), 6-azaisoquinolinone displayed an absorption wavelength red-shifted from 470 to 540 nm (Δλ = 70 nm) with a color change from yellow to red, while the interaction between Fe(3+) and 7-azaisoquinolinone was very weak and there was no obvious color change (Δλ = 18 nm). Moreover, theoretical calculations confirmed the different optical properties with 6- and 7-azaisoquinolinones.

  12. Effects of a stretching protocol for the pectoralis minor on muscle length, function, and scapular kinematics in individuals with and without shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Dayana P; Borstad, John D; Pogetti, Lívia S; Camargo, Paula R

    Parallel-group intervention with repeated measures. Shortening of the pectoralis minor (PM) may contribute to alterations in scapular kinematics. To evaluate the effects of a stretching protocol on function, muscle length, and scapular kinematics in subjects with and without shoulder pain. A sample of 25 patients with shoulder pain and 25 healthy subjects with PM tightness performed a daily stretching protocol for 6 weeks. Outcome measures included Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire, PM length, and scapular kinematics. Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores decreased (P .05) were found for PM length in both groups. Scapular anterior tilt increased (P pain and improves function in subjects with shoulder pain. The mechanism responsible for these improvements does not appear directly related to PM muscle length or scapula kinematics, suggesting that other neuromuscular mechanisms are involved. The PM stretching protocol did not change the PM length or scapular kinematics in subjects with or without shoulder pain. However, pain and function of the upper limbs improved in patients with shoulder pain. 2b. Copyright © 2016 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of perceptual eye positions among patients with different degrees of anisometropia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng; Li, Xue; Zhang, Guanrong; Lan, Jianqing; Zhang, Yan; Chu, Hang; Li, Juan; Xie, Wenjuan; Wang, Shujun; Yan, Li; Zeng, Jin

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the perceptual eye positions (PEPs) among patients with different degrees of anisometropia.A total of 157 patients were recruited into this retrospective study. A detailed ophthalmic examination was conducted on each patient. The degree of refractive errors in the presence of astigmatism was converted into the degree of spherical equivalent (SE). Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the interocular SE difference: severe anisometropia group with interocular SE difference ≥2.50D, mild anisometropia group with interocular SE difference ≥1.00D and anisometropia group with interocular SE difference anisometropia group, 37 patients in the mild anisometropia group, and 88 patients in the non-anisometropia group. The quartiles of vertical PEP pixels were as follows: 7.50 (5.00, 16.75) in the severe anisometropia group, 5.00 (2.00, 7.50) in the mild anisometropia group, and 5.00 (3.00, 9.00) in the non-anisometropia group, respectively. The vertical PEP pixel was much higher in the severe anisometropia group than that in the other two groups (P anisometropia group, 17.00 (7.00, 54.50) in the mild anisometropia group, and 21.50 (11.00, 60.75) in the non-anisometropia group. There were no statistically significant differences among the 3 groups (P > .05).There was an obvious deviation of vertical PEP in patients with anisometropia ≥2.50D, indicating that the instability of vertical PEP might be associated with the development of severe anisometropia.

  14. Regulatory mechanisms differ in UMP kinases from gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evrin, Cécile; Straut, Monica; Slavova-Azmanova, Neli; Bucurenci, Nadia; Onu, Adrian; Assairi, Liliane; Ionescu, Mihaela; Palibroda, Nicolae; Bârzu, Octavian; Gilles, Anne-Marie

    2007-03-09

    In this work, we examined the regulation by GTP and UTP of the UMP kinases from eight bacterial species. The enzyme from Gram-positive organisms exhibited cooperative kinetics with ATP as substrate. GTP decreased this cooperativity and increased the affinity for ATP. UTP had the opposite effect, as it decreased the enzyme affinity for ATP. The nucleotide analogs 5-bromo-UTP and 5-iodo-UTP were 5-10 times stronger inhibitors than the parent compound. On the other hand, UMP kinases from the Gram-negative organisms did not show cooperativity in substrate binding and catalysis. Activation by GTP resulted mainly from the reversal of inhibition caused by excess UMP, and inhibition by UTP was accompanied by a strong increase in the apparent K(m) for UMP. Altogether, these results indicate that, depending on the bacteria considered, GTP and UTP interact with different enzyme recognition sites. In Gram-positive bacteria, GTP and UTP bind to a single site or largely overlapping sites, shifting the T R equilibrium to either the R or T form, a scenario corresponding to almost all regulatory proteins, commonly called K systems. In Gram-negative organisms, the GTP-binding site corresponds to the unique allosteric site of the Gram-positive bacteria. In contrast, UTP interacts cooperatively with a site that overlaps the catalytic center, i.e. the UMP-binding site and part of the ATP-binding site. These characteristics make UTP an original regulator of UMP kinases from Gram-negative organisms, beyond the common scheme of allosteric control.

  15. Effect of different aerodynamic time trial cycling positions on muscle activation and crank torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintelman, D M; Sterling, M; Hemida, H; Li, F-X

    2016-05-01

    To reduce air resistance, time trial cyclists and triathletes lower their torso angle. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of lowering time trial torso angle positions on muscle activation patterns and crank torque coordination. It was hypothesized that small torso angles yield a forward shift of the muscle activation timing and crank torque. Twenty-one trained cyclists performed three exercise bouts at 70% maximal aerobic power in a time trial position at three different torso angles (0°, 8°, and 16°) at a fixed cadence of 85 rpm. Measurements included surface electromyography, crank torques and gas exchange. A significant increase in crank torque range and forward shift in peak torque timing was found at smaller torso angles. This relates closely with the later onset and duration of the muscle activation found in the gluteus maximus muscle. Torso angle effects were only observed in proximal monoarticular muscles. Moreover, all measured physiological variables (oxygen consumption, breathing frequency, minute ventilation) were significantly increased with lowering torso angle and hence decreased the gross efficiency. The findings provide support for the notion that at a cycling intensity of 70% maximal aerobic power, the aerodynamic gains outweigh the physiological/biomechanical disadvantages in trained cyclists. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The British Position towards European Integration: A Different Economic and Political Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troitiño David Ramiro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The United Kingdom has had an important position in Europe for centuries. Often it is seen as an anti-European country, or as being anti-integration in Europe but it is just defending its own interests, which in many cases hare differed from other members of the European Communities. The UK policy towards European cooperation has been influenced by the particular interest of the country, but there has always been a strong relation between the British and Europe. Great Britain had the biggest empire in human history spread all over the globe, and hence its interest was global rather than limited to local European states. The UK was a victorious country in the Second World War, the only Western European state that participated actively in Nazi defeat. As an important consequence, British nationalism was seen as a positive force to unite all the British against an external threat. During centuries, the British economy has been based on trade, and internationally the government supported and expanded the free trade idea in the world economy to European trade relations. This paper analyzes the main issues that explain the special relations between the EU and the UK. The paper is developed from a historical point of view with a methodology’ based on the critical review of historical facts from a global perspective of the whole traditional approach of the UK towards European integration.

  17. Effects on ROM and joint position sense of the neck of two different interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tao; Huo, Ming; Maruyama, Hitoshi; Kurosawa, Kazuo; Hiiragi, Yukinobu; Huang, Qiuchen; Li, Desheng; Zhou, Bin; Yin, Lu; Wang, Hongzhao

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether neuromuscular joint facilitation (NJF) training is superior to NJF distal resistance training at improving the ROM and proprioceptive acuity of the neck. [Subjects] 10 healthy subjects (8 males, 2 females) participated in this study. [Methods] The participants were allocated to three groups: 10 in the control group, 10 in the NJF distal resistance training group, and 10 in the NJF training group. A miniature wireless motion recorder was used to record the maximum cervical range of motion and joint position error (JPE) before and after the interventions. The three interventions were tested on different days. [Results] No difference of ROM was observed among the three groups. A significant pre- to post-intervention decrease in JPE in extension was identified in the NJF group. No other significant differences were observed among the three groups. [Conclusion] The NJF training conferred remarkable benefits on the cervical JPE of healthy people. This result suggests that the best way to improve proprioceptive acuity is intervention together with proximal resistance training, such as NJF training.

  18. Mutation Frequency and Spectrum of Mutations Vary at Different Chromosomal Positions of Pseudomonas putida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juurik, Triinu; Ilves, Heili; Teras, Riho; Ilmjärv, Tanel; Tavita, Kairi; Ukkivi, Kärt; Teppo, Annika; Mikkel, Katren; Kivisaar, Maia

    2012-01-01

    It is still an open question whether mutation rate can vary across the bacterial chromosome. In this study, the occurrence of mutations within the same mutational target sequences at different chromosomal locations of Pseudomonas putida was monitored. For that purpose we constructed two mutation detection systems, one for monitoring the occurrence of a broad spectrum of mutations and transposition of IS element IS1411 inactivating LacI repressor, and another for detecting 1-bp deletions. Our results revealed that both the mutation frequency and the spectrum of mutations vary at different chromosomal positions. We observed higher mutation frequencies when the direction of transcription of the mutational target gene was opposite to the direction of replisome movement in the chromosome and vice versa, lower mutation frequency was accompanied with co-directional transcription and replication. Additionally, asymmetry of frameshift mutagenesis at homopolymeric and repetitive sequences during the leading and lagging-strand replication was found. The transposition frequency of IS1411 was also affected by the chromosomal location of the target site, which implies that regional differences in chromosomal topology may influence transposition of this mobile element. The occurrence of mutations in the P. putida chromosome was investigated both in growing and in stationary-phase bacteria. We found that the appearance of certain mutational hot spots is strongly affected by the chromosomal location of the mutational target sequence especially in growing bacteria. Also, artificial increasing transcription of the mutational target gene elevated the frequency of mutations in growing bacteria. PMID:23119042

  19. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  20. Relationship between goal orientation and perceived motivational climate in football players of different playing positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özkan ÇEKİÇ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to determine whether the characteristics of goal orientation and perceived motivational climate change according to the playing positions of amateur footballers. Material and Methods: Four hundred and sixty amateur male football players participated in the study (age, 21.72±4.63 years; football experience, 9.24±4.18 years. Footballers were named as the defence (n=199, midfield (n=187 and forward (n=74 according to their playing position. The scores of perceived motivational climate and goal orientation were determined by the Turkish versions of ‘The Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire’ and ‘The Perceived Motivation Climate Questionnaire’, which were adopted by Toros (2002. Results: Pearson correlation analyses showed that football experience had no effect on task orientation, ego orientation, mastery climate, and performance climate. ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests showed that task orientation and mastery climate scores were higher in defence players than midfield players (p=0.003 vs. p<0.001. Ego orientation and performance climate scores of the midfield and defence players differed in favour of the midfield players (p<0.001 vs. p<0.001. Although there were no statistically significant differences in terms of the scores of task orientation and ego orientation among forward, defence, and midfield players, performance climate scores were higher in forward players than midfield players (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, players who have higher task orientation and mastery climate scores can play as defence players, and other players who have higher ego orientation and performance climate scores can play as midfield players. With the need for more extensive studies to determine the goal orientation and motivational climate scores of forward players, scores that are obtained from questionnaires should be evaluated with physical and physiological tests.

  1. Tongue position after deglutition in subjects with habitual open-mouth posture under different functional conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knösel, M; Klein, S; Bleckmann, A; Engelke, W

    2011-08-01

    To test the null hypothesis of no significant differences in (1) the duration of the post-deglutory, cranial tongue rest position (CTP) between different functional orofacial conditions and (2) the presence or absence of an oral screen (OS) in subjects with a habitual open-mouth posture. Twenty-nine subjects (aged 6-16; mean: 9.69 years; 13/16 girls/boys) were selected according to the inclusion criterion of a habitual, daytime open-mouth posture. Deglutition was screened at baseline during resting respiration using orofacial polysensography and simultaneous assessment of tongue-to-palate position and nasal airstream, during five functional intervals of 8 min each: F1 without instruction (RR); F2 the same, but including an oral screen (RROS); F3 with OS and the instruction to maintain a tongue-to-palate contact (IROS); F4 with OS and the instruction to perform tongue repositioning manoeuvres at the time of spontaneous swallowing (TRMOS); and F5 corresponds to F3 omitting OS (IR). Duration and frequency of deglutition were analysed descriptively as well as by anova and subsequent multiple comparisons, and the CTP was evaluated with chi-square tests and paired comparisons at a significance level of 5%. Of 542 identified swallowing acts, 75% were accompanied by a post-deglutory CTP. Mean duration of CTP increased for functional conditions RR/1.01s > RROS/2.56s > IR/3.21s > IROS/6.53s > TRMOS/6.58s. The null hypothesis (1) was rejected in comparison of resting respiration (F1, F2) with IROS and TRMOS, whereas the use of an oral screen alone did not significantly prolong the duration of CTP. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  2. Quality of patient positioning during cerebral tomotherapy irradiation using different mask systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitzen, C.; Wilhelm-Buchstab, T.; Garbe, S.; Luetter, C.; Muedder, T.; Simon, B.; Schild, H.H.; Schueller, H. [Universitaetsklinik Bonn, Radiologische Klinik, FE Strahlentherapie, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    Patient immobilization during brain tumor radiotherapy is achieved by employing different mask systems. Two innovative mask systems were developed to minimize the problems of claustrophobic patients. Our aim was to evaluate whether the quality of patient immobilization using the new mask systems was equivalent to the standard mask system currently in use. Thirty-three patients with cerebral target volumes were irradiated using the Hi-Art II tomotherapy system between 2010 and 2012. Each group of 11 patients was fitted with one of the two new mask systems (Crystal {sup registered} or Open Face {sup registered} mask, Orfit) or the standard three-point mask (Raycast {sup registered} -HP, Orfit) and a total of 557 radiotherapy fractions were evaluated. After positioning was checked by MV-CT, the necessary table adjustments were noted. Data were analyzed by comparing the groups, and safety margins were calculated for nonimage-guided irradiation. The mean values of the table adjustments were: (a) lateral (mm): -0.22 (mask 1, standard deviation (σ): 2.15); 1.1 (mask 2, σ: 2.4); -0.64 (mask 3, σ: 2.9); (b) longitudinal (mm): -1 (mask 1, σ: 2.57); -0.5 (mask 2, σ: 4.7); -1.22 (mask 3, σ: 2.52); (c) vertical (mm): 0.62 (mask 1, σ: 0.63); 1.2 (mask 2, σ: 1.0); 0.57 (mask 3, σ: 0.28); (d) roll: 0.35 (mask 1, σ: 0.75); 0 (mask 2, σ: 0.8); 0.02 (mask 3, σ: 1.12). The outcomes suggest necessary safety margins of 5.49-7.38 mm (lateral), 5.4-6.56 mm (longitudinal), 0.82-3.9 mm (vertical), and 1.93-4.5 (roll). There were no significant differences between the groups. The new mask systems improve patient comfort while providing consistent patient positioning. (orig.)

  3. Effects of different femoral tunnel positions on tension changes in anterolateral ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakura, Mai; Koga, Hideyuki; Nakamura, Kaori; Sekiya, Ichiro; Muneta, Takeshi

    2017-04-01

    Several kinds of anterolateral ligament (ALL) reconstructions to augment intra-articular anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction to better control anterolateral rotational instability (ALRI) have been reported. However, the optimal femoral attachment site for ALL reconstruction is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of different femoral attachment sites on the tension changes through knee motions in different situations in order to determine a recommended femoral attachment site for ALL reconstruction. Six fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were included. ALL reconstructions were performed with three different femoral attachment sites (F1: 2 mm anterior and 2 mm distal to the lateral epicondyle, F2: 4 mm posterior and 8 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle and F3: position for the lateral extra-articular tenodesis). The graft tension changes were measured by a graft tensioning system during knee flexion-extension and manual maximum internal/external tibial rotation in the following situations: (1) intact, (2) ALL cut, (3) ALL and ACL cut and (4) ALL cut and ACL reconstructed. Effects of the different femoral attachment sites, the route superficial or deep to the LCL, and the situations of (1) to (4) were calculated via repeated-measures analysis of variance. The tension of F1 was higher in flexion and lower in extension, whereas the tension of F2 and F3 was higher in extension and lower in flexion. F2 showed the smallest tension change. Situations of (1) to (4) did not affect tension changes. The graft tension became higher with internal rotation and lower with external rotation regardless of femoral attachment sites or situations. With F2-4 mm posterior and 8 mm proximal to the lateral epicondyle-the reconstructed ALL had the least tension change with only a slight increase in tension as the knee extended. This result indicates that F2 is recommended for ALL reconstruction to better control ALRI, which will help determine the

  4. Surgical treatment of severe or moderate axillary burn scar contracture with transverse island scapular flap and expanded transverse island scapular flap in adult and pediatric patients--A clinical experience of 15 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Baoguo; Xu, Minghuo; Chai, Jiake; Song, Huifeng; Gao, Quanwen

    2015-06-01

    Axillary burn scar contracture is common and troublesome. With the aim of restoring the function of the upper extremities, a proper local flap with minor damage and preclusion from recurrence should be developed to guarantee satisfactory results. A minor webbed scar contracture was rectified by Z-plasty. However, severe or moderate contracture must be constructed by a local flap. An island scapular flap has been used in pediatric patients for repairing axillary contracture. However, no detailed description of the use of a transverse island scapular flap (TISF) was reported to correct the deformity. Moreover, an expanded transverse island scapular flap (ETISF) used for increasing the volume of skin for severe axillary contracture in adults and developing children was also not presented. From 2006 to 2013, TISFs were harvested for 12 pediatric patients (5-12 years of age) with 15 sides of severe or moderate axillary burn scar contractures. Four ETISFs were designed for two adult patients (38 and 32 years of age). The flap size was between 10 cm×5 cm and 20 cm×10 cm. In one pediatric patient, a cicatrix was observed on the surface of the flap's donor site. Handheld Doppler was applied to detect the pedicle. The patients were required to lift their upper arms regularly each day after the operation. All 19 flaps survived completely. Axillary burn scar contractures were corrected successfully in 11 patients with no expander implantation. The lifting angle was enhanced considerably with 1-3 years of follow-up in the 11 patients. Only one pediatric patient with cicatrix on the donor site displayed tight skin on the back and a little restraint on the shoulder. The patient's parents were told to intensify the chin-up movement on the horizontal bar. She was in the process of a 3-month follow-up. The lifting angle was also improved significantly in the latter three cases of expander implantation although they were followed up for a short duration of 3 months. Due to poor

  5. Effect of smile index and incisal edge position on perception of attractiveness in different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, J-C; Nelson, A; Katwal, D; Elathamna, E N; Durski, M T

    2016-11-01

    Changes in occlusal vertical dimension (OVD) and age have been found to affect Smile Index (SI, width/height of smile). Limited information is available regarding the aesthetic effects of these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the attractiveness of digitally manipulated smile images with differences in SI and incisal edge position (IEP) judged by respondents in different age groups. A total of 12 smile images were generated with varying SI (3·5, 5·3, 7·2, 9·0) and IEP (High, Medium, Low). Fifty respondents each in four age groups (15-24, 25-39, 40-54, 55+) evaluated the attractiveness of the 12 images using a 0-10 visual analog scale (VAS, 10 being most attractive). A repeated-measures three-factorial mixed model assessed differences. SI, IEP and age of respondents were found to significantly influence attractiveness score (P age groups combined, SI = 7·2/IEP = Medium was most attractive (VAS = 7·22), followed by SI = 9·0/IEP = Medium, and SI = 5·3/IEP = Medium (VAS = 6·53 and 6·48, respectively). SI = 3·5/IEP = High and SI = 3·5/IEP = Low were least attractive (VAS = 1·99 and VAS = 2·58, respectively). Age group significantly influenced aesthetic perception, with younger respondents more critical in differences in SI and IEP. SI and IEP significantly influenced attractiveness of the smile in all respondent age groups. Low SI (i.e. 3·5) combined with high or low IEP was unattractive. Medium SI to high SI (i.e. 5·3-9·0) combined with medium IEP were considered attractive. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Accuracy Assessment of the Precise Point Positioning for Different Troposphere Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguz Selbesoglu, Mahmut; Gurturk, Mert; Soycan, Metin

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the accuracy and repeatability of PPP technique at different latitudes by using different troposphere delay models. Nine IGS stations were selected between 00-800 latitudes at northern hemisphere and southern hemisphere. Coordinates were obtained for 7 days at 1 hour intervals in summer and winter. At first, the coordinates were estimated by using Niell troposphere delay model with and without including north and east gradients in order to investigate the contribution of troposphere delay gradients to the positioning . Secondly, Saastamoinen model was used to eliminate troposphere path delays by using standart atmosphere parameters were extrapolated for all station levels. Finally, coordinates were estimated by using RTCA-MOPS empirical troposphere delay model. Results demonstrate that Niell troposphere delay model with horizontal gradients has better mean values of rms errors 0.09 % and 65 % than the Niell troposphere model without horizontal gradients and RTCA-MOPS model, respectively. Saastamoinen model mean values of rms errors were obtained approximately 4 times bigger than the Niell troposphere delay model with horizontal gradients.

  7. A radiographic assessment of lumbar spine posture in four different upright standing positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Kaitlin M; Sehl, Michael; Callaghan, Jack P

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 50% of a sample population will develop prolonged standing induced low back pain. The cause of this pain may be due to their lumbar spine posture. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences in lumbar posture between 17 participants categorized as a pain or non-pain developers during level ground standing. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the influence of two standing aids (an elevated surface to act as a foot rest and declined sloped surface) on lumbopelvic posture. Four sagittal plane radiographs were taken: a normal standing position on level ground, when using an elevated foot rest, using a declined sloped surface, and maximum lumbar spine extension as a reference posture. Lumbosacral lordosis, total lumbar lordosis, and L1/L2 and L5/S1 intervertebral joint angles were measured on each radiograph. There was a significant difference between the lumbosacral lordosis angle and L5/S1 angles in upright versus maximum extension; however, this was independent of pain group. The elevated surface was most effective at causing lumbosacral spine flexion. Potentially successful postures for eliminating low back pain during prolonged standing mainly influence the lower lumbar lordosis. Future work should assess the influence of hip posture on low back pain development during standing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gender differences in HIV-positive persons in use of cardiovascular disease-related interventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatleberg, Camilla Ingrid; Ryom, Lene; El-Sadr, Wafaa

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is a lack of data on potential gender differences in the use of interventions to prevent and treat cardiovascular disease (CVD) in HIV-positive individuals. We investigated whether such differences exist in the D:A:D study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Follow-up was from 01...... smokers (29% vs. 39%, p=0.0001), to have diabetes (2% vs. 3%, p=0.0001) or to have hypertension (7% vs. 11%, p=0.0001). Of 49,071 individuals without a MI/stroke at enrolment, 0.6% women vs. 2.1% men experienced a MI while 0.8% vs. 1.3% experienced a stroke. Overall, women received ICPs at a rate of 0.......07/100 person-years (PYRS) compared to 0.29/100 PYRS in men. Similarly, the rates of initiation of LLDs (1.28 vs. 2.46), anti-hypertensives (1.11 vs. 1.38) and ACEIs (0.82 vs. 1.37) were all significantly lower in women than men (Table 1). As expected, initiation rates of each intervention were higher...

  9. ASSESSMENT OF ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD IN FOOTBALL PLAYERS ON DIFFERENT POSITIONS, USING THE CONCONI TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Cvetković

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Requirements and needs of properly programmed training process, especially in the pre-season, look for a precise definition of the functional parameters of all the players. The level of anaerobic threshold, as well as research on the same, may be a good indicator of proper dosage of loading. The aim of the research is to determine the differences in running speed and heart rate at the level of anaerobic threshold in relation to the position of the player. Methods: Age of the respondents in this study included boys from 14 to 16 years of age (60 football players. The sample of respondents was divided according to playing position, as follows: center-backs (12 players, wing-backs (15 players, midfielders (14 players, forwarders (13 players and goalkeepers (6 goalkeepers. An estimation of maximum heart rate and anaerobic threshold was performed using the Conconi test – (Conconi et al. 1996. Prior to testing players had ten minutes to warm up and after a few minutes of rest the testing began. Players started with jogging test (10 km/h and after every 200 m running speed was increased by 0.5 km/h. Within certain sections the load is constant which is achieved by increasing speed after each 200 m, and then maintaining that speed until the end of the section. After processing the results within the particular software (“Polar Precision Performance SW” the values needed for this research were collected. Multivariate methods MANOVA and discriminant analysis will be applied in the paper. Regarding the univariate procedures, ANOVA t-test and Roy’s test shall be applied. The descriptive parameters, mean value, standard deviation (SD, minimum and maximum of all values, the coefficient of variation (CV of confidence intervals, skewness as the measures of asymmetry, kurtosis as the measure of flatness and the value of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, shall be presented. Results: By using the multivariate analysis of variance and based on the

  10. Interaction of bistable glass-coated microwires in different positional relationship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodionova, V., E-mail: rodionova@magn.ru [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Immanuel Kant Baltic Federal University, 236041 Kaliningrad (Russian Federation); Kudinov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zhukov, A. [Departamento Fisica de Materiales, Facultad Quimicas, UPV/EHU, 20018 San Sebastian (Spain); IKERBASQUE, Basque Foundation for Science, 48011 Bilbao (Spain); Perov, N. [Magnetism Department, Faculty of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2012-05-01

    The amorphous ferromagnetic glass-coated microwires with positive magnetostriction constant of the metallic core possess the bistable magnetization reversal and the fast domain wall propagation along the microwire axis. These properties and also the magnetization processes in the systems of the microwires are of interest in the magnetic sensing technology, encoding systems and smart composite applications. In this work we present the results of the experimental investigation, simulations and theoretical estimations of the hysteresis process in the systems of the magnetically bistable microwires with different length and positional relationship between them. The location of the short microwires near the long microwire affects the switching fields (external coaxial magnetic field applied for starting of the domain wall propagation along the microwire axis) and the hysteresis process. The changes of these properties are not directly proportional to the value of the shorter microwire shift along the longer one. When the short microwire was placed in the middle of the long one and when the one end of the long microwire coincided with the end of the short one, the two-steps hysteresis loops were observed for both sample orientations: before and after sample rotation on 180 Degree-Sign . When the short microwire was placed close to the end of the long microwire (but did not coincide with it) we observed at first the two-steps hysteresis loop and single step behavior for one branch of the hysteresis loop after sample rotation. Moreover, changing of the orientation of the samples results in the shift of the switching field of the shorter microwire when its end was located near the end or coincided with the end of the longer one. This uncommon hysteresis behavior was explained and illustrated using results of the simulations. The values of microwires interaction were also estimated.

  11. Styles of thinking and creating in organizational context: Differences according to professional position?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana de Cássia Nakano

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the style of thinking and creating in professionals a pharmaceutical distribution company, in order to verify the existence of different styles according to gender, educational level and position held. Forty professionals, including 30 women and 10 men, aged 17 years and 35 years (M=24.5, SD=5.4, with high school education (n=14 and college (n=26 were divided into two groups, the first being formed by professionals working in the tax and accounting (n=20, and another group of professionals who hold positions in the sales (n=20. They answered the scale Styles of Thinking and Creating individually during office hours. The results showed that only the logical-objective style proved to be influenced by the area of performance (F=4.745; p<=0.037, with all others variables showed no significant influences. In the present study, gender and educational level did not influence the styles of thinking and creating of the participants as well as all other interactions. It was also found that most of the sample appears as the predominant style logical-objective, regardless of sex (62.0% of women and 72.7% of men were classified in this style, level of education (with 57 1% of professionals with high school and 69.2% with college and in relation to the field (60.0% of the participants in the accounting/tax filing this predominant style and 70.0% of professionals in sales.

  12. A new method of morphological comparison for bony reconstructive surgery: maxillary reconstruction using scapular tip bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Harley; Gilbert, Ralph W.; Pagedar, Nitin A.; Daly, Michael J.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Siewerdsen, Jeffrey H.

    2010-02-01

    esthetic appearance is one of the most important factors for reconstructive surgery. The current practice of maxillary reconstruction chooses radial forearm, fibula or iliac rest osteocutaneous to recreate three-dimensional complex structures of the palate and maxilla. However, these bone flaps lack shape similarity to the palate and result in a less satisfactory esthetic. Considering similarity factors and vasculature advantages, reconstructive surgeons recently explored the use of scapular tip myo-osseous free flaps to restore the excised site. We have developed a new method that quantitatively evaluates the morphological similarity of the scapula tip bone and palate based on a diagnostic volumetric computed tomography (CT) image. This quantitative result was further interpreted as a color map that rendered on the surface of a three-dimensional computer model. For surgical planning, this color interpretation could potentially assist the surgeon to maximize the orientation of the bone flaps for best fit of the reconstruction site. With approval from the Research Ethics Board (REB) of the University Health Network, we conducted a retrospective analysis with CT image obtained from 10 patients. Each patient had a CT scans including the maxilla and chest on the same day. Based on this image set, we simulated total, subtotal and hemi palate reconstruction. The procedure of simulation included volume segmentation, conversing the segmented volume to a stereo lithography (STL) model, manual registration, computation of minimum geometric distances and curvature between STL model. Across the 10 patients data, we found the overall root-mean-square (RMS) conformance was 3.71+/- 0.16 mm

  13. The Vindija Neanderthal scapular glenoid fossa: comparative shape analysis suggests evo-devo changes among Neanderthals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Churchill, Steven E; Manzi, Giorgio

    2012-02-01

    Although the shape of the scapular glenoid fossa (SGF) may be influenced by epigenetic and developmental factors, there appears to be strong genetic control over its overall form, such that variation within and between hominin taxa in SGF shape may contain information about their evolutionary histories. Here we present the results of a geometric morphometric study of the SGF of the Neanderthal Vi-209 from Vindjia Cave (Croatia), relative to samples of Plio-Pleistocene, later Pleistocene, and recent hominins. Variation in overall SGF shape follows a chronological trend from the plesiomorphic condition seen in Australopithecus to modern humans, with pre-modern species of the genus Homo exhibiting intermediate morphologies. Change in body size across this temporal series is not linearly directional, which argues against static allometry as an explanation. However, life history and developmental rates change directionally across the series, suggesting an ontogenetic effect on the observed changes in shape (ontogenetic allometry). Within this framework, the morphospace occupied by the Neanderthals exhibits a discontinuous distribution. The Vindija SGF and those of the later Near Eastern Neanderthals (Kebara and Shanidar) approach the modern condition and are somewhat segregated from both northwestern European (Neandertal and La Ferrassie) and early Mediterranean Neanderthals (Krapina and Tabun). Although more than one scenario may account for the pattern seen in the Neanderthals, the data is consistent with palaeogenetic evidence suggesting low levels of gene flow between Neanderthals and modern humans in the Near East after ca. 120-100 ka (thousands of years ago) (with subsequent introgression of modern human alleles into eastern and central Europe). Thus, in keeping with previous analyses that document some modern human features in the Vindija Neanderthals, the Vindija G(3) sample should not be seen as representative of 'classic'--that is, unadmixed, pre

  14. Relative Physical Position as an Impression-Management Strategy: Sex Differences in Its Use and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhanova, Anastasia; McNulty, James K; Maner, Jon K

    2017-05-01

    People's physical position relative to others may shape how those others perceive them. The research described here suggests that people use relative physical position to manage impressions by strategically positioning themselves either higher or lower relative to ostensible observers. Five studies supported the prediction that women take and display photographs portraying themselves in a low relative physical position to highlight their youthful features and appear attractive, whereas men take and display photographs portraying themselves in a high relative physical position to highlight their size and appear dominant. The effectiveness of these strategies was confirmed in two studies that measured social perceptions of male and female targets who varied in their relative position. In sum, as do members of other social species, people use relative physical position to manage social impressions, and although these impression-management strategies may have deep ancestral roots, they appear to manifest themselves through a contemporary human modality-photographs.

  15. [Comparison of different continuous positive airway pressure titration methods for obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Ye, Jingying; Zhang, Peng; Kang, Dan; Cao, Xin; Zhang, Yuhuan; Ding, Xiu; Zheng, Li; Li, Hongguang; Bian, Qiuli

    2014-10-01

    To explore whether there were differences between the results of automatic titration and the results of manual titration for positive airway pressure treatment in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) and its influencing factors, the results might provide a theoretical basis for the rational use of two pressure titration methods. Sixty one patients with OSAHS were included in this study. All patients underwent a manual titration and an automatic titration within one week. The clinical informations, polysomnography data, and the results of both two titration of all patients were obtained for analysis. The overall apnea/hypopnea index was (63.1 ± 17.7)/h, with a range of 14.9/h to 110.4/h. The treatment pressure of manual titration was (8.4 ± 2.1) cmH(2)O, which was significantly lower than the treatment pressure of automatic titration, (11.5 ± 2.7) cmH(2)O (t = -9.797, P titration and manual titration), it was found that the pressure of automatic titration was significantly higher in patients with a ΔP > 3 cmH(2)O than in patients with a ΔP ≤ 3 cmH(2)O, which was (13.3 ± 2.3) cmH(2)O vs (10.0 ± 2.0) cmH(2)O (t = -6.159, P titration between these two groups, which was (8.6 ± 2.4) cmH(2)O vs (8.3 ± 2.0)cmH(2)O (P > 0.05). There was no significant difference in age, body mass index, neck circumference, abdomen circumference, apnea hypopnea index, and arterial oxygen saturation between these two groups. The treatment pressure of automatic titration is usually higher than that of manual titration. For patients with a high treatment pressure which is derived from automatic titration, a suggestion about manual titration could be given to decrease the potential treatment pressure of continuous positive airway pressure, which may be helpful in improving the comfortableness and the compliance of this treatment.

  16. SRH and HrQOL: does social position impact differently on their link with health status?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delpierre Cyrille

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-rated Health (SRH and health-related quality of life (HRQoL are used to evaluate health disparities. Like all subjective measures of health, they are dependent on health expectations that are associated with socioeconomic characteristics. It is thus needed to analyse the influence played by socioeconomic position (SEP on the relationship between these two indicators and health conditions if we aim to use them to study health disparities. Our objective is to assess the influence of SEP on the relationship between physical health status and subjective health status, measured by SRH and HRQoL using the SF-36 scale. Methods We used data from the French National Health Survey. SEP was assessed by years of education and household annual income. Physical health status was measured by functional limitations and chronic low back pain. Results Regardless of their health status, people with lower SEP were more likely than their more socially advantaged counterparts to report poor SRH and poorer HRQoL, using any of the indicators of SEP. The negative impact of chronic low back pain on SRH was relatively greater in people with a high SEP than in those with a low SEP. In contrast, chronic low back pain and functional limitations had less impact on physical and mental component scores of quality of life for socially advantaged men and women. Conclusions Both SRH and HRQoL were lower among those reporting functional limitations or chronic low back pain. However, the change varied according SEP and the measure. In relative term, the negative impact of a given health condition seems to be greater on SRH and lower on HRQoL for people with higher SEP in comparison with people with low SEP. Using SRH could thus decrease socioeconomic differences. In contrast using HRQoL could increase these differences, suggesting being cautious when using these indicators for analyzing health disparities.

  17. Operant serial feature-positive conditional discrimination with composite features and different topography responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.L.O. Bueno

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In a serial feature-positive conditional discrimination procedure the properties of a target stimulus A are defined by the presence or not of a feature stimulus X preceding it. In the present experiment, composite features preceded targets associated with two different topography operant responses (right and left bar pressing; matching and non-matching-to-sample arrangements were also used. Five water-deprived Wistar rats were trained in 6 different trials: X-R®Ar and X-L®Al, in which X and A were same modality visual stimuli and the reinforcement was contingent to pressing either the right (r or left (l bar that had the light on during the feature (matching-to-sample; Y-R®Bl and Y-L®Br, in which Y and B were same modality auditory stimuli and the reinforcement was contingent to pressing the bar that had the light off during the feature (non-matching-to-sample; A- and B- alone. After 100 training sessions, the animals were submitted to transfer tests with the targets used plus a new one (auditory click. Average percentages of stimuli with a response were measured. Acquisition occurred completely only for Y-L®Br+; however, complex associations were established along training. Transfer was not complete during the tests since concurrent effects of extinction and response generalization also occurred. Results suggest the use of both simple conditioning and configurational strategies, favoring the most recent theories of conditional discrimination learning. The implications of the use of complex arrangements for discussing these theories are considered.

  18. Accuracy of Implant Position Transfer and Surface Detail Reproduction with Different Impression Materials and Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alikhasi, Marzieh; Siadat, Hakimeh; Beyabanaki, Elaheh; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of implant position transfer and surface detail reproduction using two impression techniques and materials. A metal model with two implants and three grooves of 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 mm in depth on the flat superior surface of a die was fabricated. Ten regular-body polyether (PE) and 10 regular-body polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions with square and conical transfer copings using open tray and closed tray techniques were made for each group. Impressions were poured with type IV stone, and linear and angular displacements of the replica heads were evaluated using a coordinate measuring machine (CMM). Also, accurate reproduction of the grooves was evaluated by a video measuring machine (VMM). These measurements were compared with the measurements calculated on the reference model that served as control, and the data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and t-test at P= 0.05. There was less linear displacement for PVS and less angular displacement for PE in closed-tray technique, and less linear displacement for PE in open tray technique (PDetail reproduction accuracy was the same in all the groups (P>0.05). The open tray technique was more accurate using PE, and also both closed tray and open tray techniques had acceptable results with the use of PVS. The choice of impression material and technique made no significant difference in surface detail reproduction.

  19. Hyomental distance in the different head positions and hyomental distance ratio in predicting difficult intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevena Kalezić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The hyomental distance ratio (HMDR is the ratio between the hyomental distance (HMD (the distance between the hyoid bone and the tip of the chin at the extreme of head extension (HMDe and the one in the neutral position (HMDn. The objective of the study was to examine the predictive value, sensitivity, and specificity of HMDe, HMDn, and HMDR in predicting difficult endotracheal intubation (DI. A prospective study included 262 patients that underwent elective surgical operations. The following parameters were observed as possible predictors of DI: HMDR, HMDe, HMDn, Mallampati score, and body mass index (BMI. The cut-off points for the DI predictors were HMDe <5.3 cm, HMDn ≤5.5 cm, and HMDR ≤1.2. The assessment that DI existed was made by the anesthesiologist while performing laryngoscopy by applying the Cormack-Lehane classification. DI was present in 13 patients (5%. No significant difference was observed in the frequency of DI with regard to the sex, age, and BMI of the patients. Our research indicated HMDR as the best predictor of DI with a sensitivity of 95.6% and specificity of 69.2%. HMDR can be used in the everyday work of anesthesiologists because HMDR values ≤1.2 may reliably predict DI.

  20. Neural evidence for cultural differences in the valuation of positive facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, BoKyung; Tsai, Jeanne L; Chim, Louise; Blevins, Elizabeth; Knutson, Brian

    2016-02-01

    European Americans value excitement more and calm less than Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans value excited and calm states similarly, whereas Chinese value calm more than excited states. To examine how these cultural differences influence people's immediate responses to excited vs calm facial expressions, we combined a facial rating task with functional magnetic resonance imaging. During scanning, European American (n = 19) and Chinese (n = 19) females viewed and rated faces that varied by expression (excited, calm), ethnicity (White, Asian) and gender (male, female). As predicted, European Americans showed greater activity in circuits associated with affect and reward (bilateral ventral striatum, left caudate) while viewing excited vs calm expressions than did Chinese. Within cultures, European Americans responded to excited vs calm expressions similarly, whereas Chinese showed greater activity in these circuits in response to calm vs excited expressions regardless of targets' ethnicity or gender. Across cultural groups, greater ventral striatal activity while viewing excited vs. calm expressions predicted greater preference for excited vs calm expressions months later. These findings provide neural evidence that people find viewing the specific positive facial expressions valued by their cultures to be rewarding and relevant. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The influence of positive mood on different aspects of cognitive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Elizabeth A; Kerns, John G

    2011-02-01

    Some evidence suggests that positive mood influences cognitive control. The current research investigated whether positive mood has differential effects on two aspects of cognitive control, working memory and prepotent response inhibition. In Study 1, following either a positive or neutral mood induction, participants completed the Running Memory Span (RMS), a measure primarily of working memory storage capacity, and the Stroop task, a measure of prepotent response inhibition. Results were that the positive mood group performed worse on the RMS task but not on the Stroop task. In Study 2, participants completed the RMS and another measure of prepotent response inhibition, the Flanker task. Results were that when in a positive mood state participants performed worse on the RMS but not on the Flanker task. Overall, this research suggests that positive mood has differential effects on cognitive control, impairing working memory but having no effect on prepotent response inhibition. © 2010 Psychology Press, an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

  2. Influence of two different sitting positions on postural adjustments in children with spastic diplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brogren, E; Forssberg, H; Hadders-Algra, M

    The present study addressed the question whether the deviant postural adjustments in children with spastic diplegia can be attributed to their crouched sitting position or primarily to their neural deficit. Postural adjustments during sitting in an erect and in a crouched position on a movable

  3. Doing Gender for Different Reasons: Why Gender Conformity Positively and Negatively Predicts Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Jessica J.; Sanchez, Diana T.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that valuing gender conformity is associated with both positive and negative consequences for self-esteem and positive affect. The current research (women, n= 226; men, n= 175) explored these conflicting findings by separating out investing in societal gender ideals from personally valuing one's gender identity ("private…

  4. The difference between 5 x 5 doubly nonnegative and completely positive matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burer, Samuel; Anstreicher, Kurt M.; Duer, Mirjam

    2009-01-01

    The convex cone of n x n completely positive (CP) matrices and its dual cone of copositive matrices arise in several areas of applied mathematics, including optimization. Every CP matrix is doubly nonnegative (DNN), i.e., positive semidefinite and component-wise nonnegative, and it is known that,

  5. The difference between 5 × 5 doubly nonnegative and completely positive matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burer, Samuel; Anstreicher, Kurt M.; Dür, Mirjam

    2009-01-01

    The convex cone of n × n completely positive (CP) matrices and its dual cone of copositive matrices arise in several areas of applied mathematics, including optimization. Every CP matrix is doubly nonnegative (DNN), i.e., positive semidefinite and component-wise nonnegative, and it is known that,

  6. A Comparative Study on the Positive Lightning Return Stroke Electric Fields in Different Meteorological Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Leong Wooi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Positive cloud-ground lightning is considerably more complex and less studied compared to the negative lightning. This paper aims to measure and characterize the significant parameters of positive return strokes electric field, namely, the zero-to-peak rise time, 10–90% rise time, slow front duration, fast transition rise time (10–90%, zero-crossing time, and opposite polarity overshoot relative to peak. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time such detailed characteristics of positive lightning in Malaysia are thoroughly analyzed. A total of 41 positive lightning flashes containing 48 return strokes were analyzed. The average multiplicity is 1.2 strokes per flash. The majority of positive lightning was initiated from the primary positive charge rather than as a byproduct of in-cloud discharges. The cumulative probability distribution of rise time parameters, opposite polarity overshoot relative to peak, and slow front amplitude relative to peak are presented. A comparison between studies in four countries representing tropic, subtropic, and temperate regions was also carried out. Measured parameters in Florida, Sweden, and Japan are generally lower than those in Malaysia. Positive lightning occurrences in tropical regions should be further studied and analyzed to improve our current understanding on positive return strokes.

  7. Sport-Specific Motor Fitness Tests in Water Polo: Reliability, Validity and Playing Position Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ognjen Uljevic

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sport-specific motor fitness tests are not often examined in water polo. In this study we examined the reliability, factorial and discriminative validity of 10 water-polo-specific motor-fitness tests, namely: three tests of in-water jumps (thrusts, two characteristic swimming sprints (10 and 20 metres from the water start, three ball-throws (shoots, one test of passing precision (accuracy, and a test of the dynamometric force produced while using the eggbeater kick. The sample of subjects consisted of 54 young male water polo players (15 to 17 years of age; 1.86 ± 0.07 m, and 83.1 ± 9.9 kg. All tests were applied over three testing trials. Reliability analyses included Cronbach Alpha coefficients (CA, inter-item- correlations (IIR and coefficients of the variation (CV, while an analysis of variance was used to define any systematic bias between the testing trials. All tests except the test of accuracy (precision were found to be reliable (CA ranged from 0.83 to 0.97; IIR from 0.62 to 0.91; CV from 2% to 21%; with small and irregular biases between the testing trials. Factor analysis revealed that jumping capacities as well as throwing and sprinting capacities should be observed as a relatively independent latent dimensions among young water polo players. Discriminative validity of the applied tests is partially proven since the playing positions significantly (p < 0.05 differed in some of the applied tests, with the points being superior in their fitness capacities in comparison to their teammates. This study included players from one of the world’s best junior National leagues, and reported values could be used as fitness standards for such an age. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the proposed test procedures to older subjects and females.

  8. Treatment pattern of type 2 diabetes differs in two German regions and with patients' socioeconomic position.

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    Teresa Tamayo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes treatment may differ by region and patients' socioeconomic position. This may be particularly true for newer drugs. However, data are highly limited. METHODS: We examined pooled individual data of two population-based German studies, KORA F4 (Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg, south, and the HNR (Heinz Nixdorf Recall study, west both carried out 2006 to 2008. To ascertain the association between region and educational level with anti-hyperglycemic medication we fitted poisson regression models with robust error variance for any and newer anti-hyperglycemic medication, adjusting for age, sex, diabetes duration, BMI, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle, and insurance status. RESULTS: The examined sample comprised 662 participants with self-reported type 2 diabetes (KORA F4: 83 women, 111 men; HNR: 183 women, 285 men. The probability to receive any anti-hyperglycemic drug as well as to be treated with newer anti-hyperglycemic drugs such as insulin analogues, thiazolidinediones, or glinides was significantly increased in southern compared to western Germany (prevalence ratio (PR; 95% CI: 1.12; 1.02-1.22, 1.52;1.10-2.11 respectively. Individuals with lower educational level tended to receive anti-hyperglycemic drugs more likely than their better educated counterparts (PR; 95% CI univariable: 1.10; 0.99-1.22; fully adjusted: 1.10; 0.98-1.23. In contrast, lower education was associated with a lower estimated probability to receive newer drugs among those with any anti-hyperglycemic drugs (PR low vs. high education: 0.66; 0.48-0.91; fully adjusted: 0.68; 0.47-0.996. CONCLUSIONS: We found regional and individual social disparities in overall and newer anti-hyperglycemic medication which were not explained by other confounders. Further research is needed.

  9. Effects of an oral appliance with different mandibular protrusion positions at a constant vertical dimension on obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarab, Ghizlane; Lobbezoo, Frank; Hamburger, Hans L; Naeije, Machiel

    2010-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the influence of four mandibular protrusion positions, at a constant vertical dimension, on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Seventeen OSA patients (49.2 +/- 8.5 years) received an adjustable mandibular advancement device (MAD). The patients underwent four polysomnographic recordings with their MAD in situ at, in random order, 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75% of the maximum protrusion. The mean apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) values of the patients differed significantly between the protrusion positions (P protrusion position resulted in a significant reduction of the AHI with respect to the 0% position, while in the 50% and 75% positions, even lower AHI values were found. The number of side effects was larger starting at the 50% protrusion position. We therefore recommend coming to a weighted compromise between efficacy and side effects by starting a MAD treatment in the 50% protrusion position.

  10. Prevalence of positive microbiology results from donor cornea tissue in different methods of corneal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sumit; Said, Bishoy; Farid, Marjan; Steinert, Roger F

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of positive microbiology results (culture and/or Gram stain) in donor cornea tissue with newer transplant methods and to assess if the results subsequently correlate with higher incidence of clinical infection. A retrospective review of the microbiology records of 569 consecutive corneal transplants from July 2006 through July 2010 was performed to evaluate positive microbiology results in routine evaluation of cornea donor tissue. Microbiologic results were available for 544 of 569 transplants. The remaining 25 cases did not have specimens submitted for microbiologic analysis. In cases with results available, 46 (8.5%) positive reports occurred. In 10 of the 46 cases, Gram stain results were positive with subsequent negative cultures. Analysis revealed that the prevalence of positive results was 6 in 137 (4.4%), 14 in 127 (11.0%), and 26 in 271 (9.6%) for femtosecond laser-enabled keratoplasty, Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, and conventional penetrating keratoplasty, respectively; 9 femtosecond deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty had no positive results. There was no significant relationship between the types of transplant procedures and the occurrence of positive microbiologic results (P = 0.08). The overall incidence of clinical infection was found to be 0.4% (2 of 569); however, only 1 case (1 of 569 or 0.2%), which was a Candida albicans infection after Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty, was attributable to the donor. Of 25 cases in which microbiology studies were not performed, none developed a clinical infection. Prevalence of positive microbiologic results and subsequent infections do not appear to be increased with the method of donor handling used for newer techniques for keratoplasty.

  11. Analysis of pharyngeal airway space and tongue position in individuals with different body types and facial patterns: A cephalometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Kulshrestha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate if the different body types and facial patterns have any effect on the dimensions of the pharyngeal airway space and tongue position. Materials and Methods: Ninety subjects (age 13-30 years with no history of previous orthodontic treatment, jaw surgeries, or functional jaw orthopedics were taken and divided into different groups based on their body built. They were further subdivided into different groups based on their Frankfort Mandibular Angle. Group I included 30 subjects (15 males, 15 females who were ectomorphic (body mass index [BMI] 25. Lateral cephalograms were traced manually to evaluate the pharyngeal airway passage and tongue position. Results: When the comparison between different facial growth patterns was done, differences in soft palate inclination (P < 0.004 and upper pharyngeal wall - pterygomaxillary (P < 0.012 was found to be statistically significant. A significant difference among different growth patterns was observed for the soft palate inclination between the hypo- and hyper-divergent groups (P < 0.003. No significant differences were seen when a comparison between different facial types (irrespective of growth was done. No significant difference was seen in the position of the tongue in all the groups. Conclusion: Different body types and facial patterns had a significant effect on the dimension of the pharyngeal airway space but no significant effect on the position of the tongue.

  12. A Physiological and Kinematic Comparison of two Different Lean Back Positions During Stationary Rowing on a Concept II Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Gordon; Bennett, Jack; Reynolds, William; Syrotuik, Daniel; Gervais, Pierre

    This study compared two different body positions at the finish of a stroke during stationary rowing exercise on physiological and kinematic measurements. Nine male and five female rowers volunteered for the study: mean age (± SD), body height and body mass were 27 ±9 yrs, 180.5 ±12.3 cm and 81.2 ±14.2 kg. The two body positions at the finish were controlled at an upright posture or a novel greater lean back position. All subjects completed 3 different experimental trials on a Concept IID rowing machine at 3 different exercise intensities and comparisons were made between the lean back position at the same stroke rate and the same power output as the upright trial. Power output, heart rate, oxygen uptake, energy expenditure and % efficiency were higher (plean back position at the same stroke rate compared to all other conditions. Range of motion at the hip, ankle, and elbow and the handle velocity and distance moved were greater (plean back position. In conclusion, a greater lean back posture at the finish during stationary rowing produces a higher power output and improved efficiency at the same stroke rate but at an elevated physiological cost compared to a more upright position. Despite the higher energy expenditure, the relative gain in power output and efficiency with no negative kinematic changes suggests that a greater lean back position at the finish will enhance performance during stationary rowing exercise. PMID:24146710

  13. Metrical analysis of disc-condyle relation with different splint treatment positions in patients with TMJ disc displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mu-Qing Liu

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To evaluate the effect of bite positions characterizing different splint treatments (anterior repositioning and stabilization splints on the disc-condyle relation in patients with TMJ disc displacement with reduction (DDwR, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Material and Methods: 37 patients, with a mean age of 18.8±4.3 years (7 male and 30 females and diagnosed with DDwR based on the RDC/TMD, were recruited. MRI metrical analysis of the spatial changes of the disc/condyle, as well as their relationships, was done in three positions: maximum intercuspation (Position 1, anterior repositioning splint position (Position 2, and stabilization splint position (Position 3. Disc/condyle coordinate measurements and disc condyle angles were determined and compared. Results: In Position 1, the average disc-condyle angle was 53.4° in the 60 joints with DDwR, while it was −13.3° with Position 2 and 30.1° with Position 3. The frequency of successful "disc recapture" with Position 2 was significantly higher (58/60, 96.7% than Position 3 (20/60, 33.3%. In Positions 2 and 3, the condyle moved forward and downward while the disc moved backward. The movements were, however, more remarkable with Position 2. Conclusions: Anterior repositioning of the mandible improves the spatial relationship between the disc and condyle in patients with DDwR. In addition to anterior and inferior movement of the condyle, transitory posterior movement of the disc also occurred.

  14. Differences in immune response between HCV positive, HIV negative haemophilia A and B patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, K; Smid, WM; Verspiek, SPJ; Smit, JW; van der Meer, J

    We measured numbers of lymphocytes and subsets in seven HIV negative, HCV positive severe haemophilia B patients, before and after substitution was changed from prothrombin complex concentrate to monoclonally purified concentrate. Data were compared with controls and our previous findings in

  15. Positive Development, Sense of Belonging, and Support of Peers among Early Adolescents: Perspectives of Different Actors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drolet, Marie; Arcand, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Trusting relationships at school and within other social networks emerge as protective factors that are crucial to the positive development of early adolescents. School is one of the critical environments where they can develop a sense of belonging. This study involved 20 qualitative interviews with school staff and youth workers recruited from…

  16. The Effects of Different Drawing Materials on Children's Drawings of Positive and Negative Human Figures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkitt, Esther; Barrett, Martyn

    2011-01-01

    Children tend to use certain drawing strategies differentially when asked to draw topics with positive and negative emotional characterisations. These effects have however only been established when children are asked to use standard drawing materials. The present study was designed to investigate whether the above pattern of children's response…

  17. The ability of second graders to identify solids in different positions and to justify their answer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yael Sarfaty

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available From a young age children feel the need to identify two-dimensional geometric figures (shapes and three-dimensional geometric figures (solids. The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics indicates the importance of being able to identify and name various geometric figures by kindergarten age. One of the objectives of this study was to learn the ability of second graders to identify examples and non-examples of three generally known solids: cylinder, cone and pyramid, and to justify their identification based on the attributes (critical and non-critical of those solids. Another objective was to find out whether changing the position of the solids would result in those children maintaining their decisions regarding the name or changing their identification of the solids, giving arguments accordingly. Findings of this study illustrate that children can identify and characterise solids presented to them in a typical position. However, they find it difficult to correctly identify the same solids in another position. An interesting finding was that most of the arguments given to justify their identification were based on the specific attributes of the solid rather than on the perception of the solids in general. Findings of the present study suggest that it is highly important for learners to be acquainted with a variety of both non-examples and examples of solids. Moreover, it is recommended that solids are presented to learners not only in the typical position, in order to improve their ability to identify them and understand that the name of the figure does not change when its position changes.

  18. Scapular tip and latissimus dorsi osteomyogenous free flap for the reconstruction of a maxillectomy defect: A minimally invasive transaxillary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung Joon; Jeong, Woo-Jin; Ahn, Soon-Hyun

    2017-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a novel, minimally invasive transaxillary approach for harvesting the scapular tip and latissimus dorsi osteomyogenous free flap for the reconstruction of a maxillectomy defect. A retrospective case series study of 4 patients who underwent reconstruction using a scapular tip composite free flap through the transaxillary approach was conducted. The data (age, sex, pathology, previous treatment and adjuvant treatment) were collected and analysed. Total operation time, number of hospital days and the cosmetic and functional outcome of reconstruction were analysed. Two male and two female patients were enrolled in this study. The patients' ages ranged from 52 to 59 years. All the patients had maxillectomy defects, with at least a classification of Okay type II, which were successfully reconstructed using a scapular tip and latissimus dorsi free flap through a minimally invasive transaxillary approach. The entire operation time for the primary tumour surgery and reconstruction ranged from 6.2 to 12.1 h (mean, 11.1 h). The average length of the hospital stay was 13 days (range, 10-16 days). No major donor site morbidity was observed, and there was no graft failure that required revision or exploration surgery. The minimally invasive transaxillary approach for harvesting the scapular tip and latissimus dorsi osteomyogenous free flap for the reconstruction of maxillectomy defect is a promising approach for more favourable functional and aesthetic outcomes when compared to the use of other bone containing free flaps and the classic approach for harvesting scapular tip and latissimus dorsi free flap. Copyright © 2017 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Frequency response variation of two offshore wind park transformers with different tap changer positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arana Aristi, Iván; Holbøll, Joachim; Sørensen, T

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of several sweep frequency response analysis (SFRA) measurements performed on two identical offshore wind farm transformers. A comparison is made between the transformers based on different recommended measurements and procedures, different measurement systems...

  20. Doppler echocardiographic evaluation of HIV-positive patients in different stages of the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werneck Guilherme Lobosco

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVE: To evaluate by Doppler echocardiography (DE early abnormalities of ventricular function in HIV-positive patients, as well as other cardiac abnormalities that can be detected by this method, with special emphasis on mitral valve flow. METHODS: 84 HIV- positive patients, 59 with CD4 cell count >500/mm³ (Group A and 25 with CD4 cell count 500/mm³ had no abnormalities by DE. Patients with a more advanced infection (those with a CD4 cell count <500/mm³, had a significantly abnormal LV systolic function and a higher incidence of pericardial effusion and mitral regurgitation. Mitral valve inflow by Doppler did not indicate diastolic dysfunction.

  1. Playing level and playing position differences of anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics in elite junior handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousanoglou, E N; Noutsos, K S; Bayios, I A

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify the playing level (Under 16: U16, Under 18: U18 and Under 20: U20) and the playing position (Goalkeepers, Backs, Wings, Pivots, Centers) differences of elite junior handball players expressed in the anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics. The anthropometric characteristics of body height, arm span, hand length, hand width, body mass, adipose tissue percentage, somatotype components and the physical fitness characteristics of ball throwing velocity, sprinting time, standing long jump, aerobic capacity, lower back and hamstring flexibility were measured in a total of sixty (60) handball players all members of the Greek Junior National Teams. There were significant (P≤0.05) differences among playing levels regarding hand length, hand width, ball velocity (U18>U16), body mass, ball velocity and standing long jump (U20>U16). Significant differences among playing positions (P≤0.05) were found for body height (Backs>Wings and Centres, Pivots>Wings), arm span (Goalkeepers and Backs>Wings), body mass (Pivots>Wings and Centres) and 5 m sprint time (Pivots>Centres). The anthropometric differences among playing positions may indicate the advantageous characteristics that the respective position demands, whereas the absence of playing position differences in physical fitness characteristics may indicate training specificity issues that must be addressed cautiously. The anthropometric and physical fitness differences between playing levels may be attributed to developmental maturation and the progressive increase of training intensity.

  2. The efficacy of oxygen wafting using different delivery devices, flow rates and device positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Denise F; Shih, Elizabeth M; Mateos, Paul; Brown, Lawrence H

    2014-08-01

    Oxygen "wafting" provides a non-contact oxygen alternative for uncooperative paediatric patients in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this study was to identify the combination of oxygen delivery device, flow rate and device positioning that delivers the highest concentration of wafted oxygen. ED nursing staff were surveyed to determine current oxygen wafting practice. A simulated patient and oxygen sensor were used to compare wafted oxygen concentrations for six delivery devices in various positions and oxygen flow rates. Only oxygen tubing and the paediatric non-rebreather mask consistently delivered wafted oxygen concentrations above 30%. The paediatric non-rebreather held below the face produced concentrations ranging from 26.1% (10 cm) to 39.8% (5 cm). At 15 L/min, tubing held in front of the face produced concentrations ranging from 31.2% (15 cm) to 56.7% (5 cm); reducing the flow rate to 6-8 L/min had no meaningful effect on the delivered oxygen concentration. When tubing was used below the face, flow rates between 6 and 8 L/min produced somewhat higher concentrations than 15 L/min (5 cm: 36.3% vs. 30.9%). When delivering oxygen by wafting, the highest oxygen concentrations are achieved when positioning tubing 5-15 cm in front of the face or positioning tubing or a paediatric non-rebreather mask 5-10 cm below the face at 10-15 L/min flow. This should be considered when using oxygen wafting in the ED. Copyright © 2014 College of Emergency Nursing Australasia Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of different seated positions on lung volume and oxygenation in acute respiratory distress syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellamonica, J; Lerolle, N; Sargentini, C; Hubert, S; Beduneau, G; Di Marco, F; Mercat, A; Diehl, J L; Richard, J C M; Bernardin, G; Brochard, L

    2013-06-01

    Lung volume available for ventilation is markedly decreased during acute respiratory distress syndrome. Body positioning may contribute to increase lung volume and partial verticalization is simple to perform. This study evaluated whether verticalization had parallel effects on oxygenation and end expiratory lung volume (EELV). Prospective multicenter study in 40 mechanically ventilated patients with ALI/ARDS in five university hospital MICUs. We evaluated four 45-min successive trunk position epochs (supine slightly elevated at 15°; semi recumbent with trunk elevated at 45°; seated with trunk elevated at 60° and legs down at 45°; back to supine). Arterial blood gases, EELV measured using the nitrogen washin/washout, and static compliance were measured. Responders were defined by a PaO₂/FiO₂ increase >20 % between supine and seated position. Results are median [25th-75th percentiles]. With median PEEP = 10 cmH₂O, verticalization increased lung volume but only responders (13 patients, 32 %) had a significant increase in EELV/PBW (predicted body weight) compared to baseline. This increase persisted at least partially when patients were positioned back to supine. Responders had a lower EELV/PBW supine [14 mL/kg (13-15) vs. 18 mL/kg (15-27) (p = 0.005)] and a lower compliance [30 mL/cmH₂O (22-38) vs. 42 (30-46) (p = 0.01)] than non-responders. Strain decreased with verticalization for responders. EELV/PBW increase and PaO₂/FiO₂ increase were not correlated. Verticalization is easily achieved and improves oxygenation in approximately 32 % of the patients together with an increase in EELV. Nonetheless, effect of verticalization on EELV/PBW is not predictable by PaO₂/FiO₂ increase, its monitoring may be helpful for strain optimization.

  4. Numerical study of aerodynamic characteristics of FSW aircraft with different wing positions under supersonic condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Juanmian

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the influence of forward-swept wing (FSW positions on the aerodynamic characteristics of aircraft under supersonic condition (Ma = 1.5. The numerical method based on Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations, Spalart–Allmaras (S–A turbulence model and implicit algorithm is utilized to simulate the flow field of the aircraft. The aerodynamic parameters and flow field structures of the horizontal tail and the whole aircraft are presented. The results demonstrate that the spanwise flow of FSW flows from the wingtip to the wing root, generating an upper wing surface vortex and a trailing edge vortex nearby the wing root. The vortexes generated by FSW have a strong downwash effect on the tail. The lower the vertical position of FSW, the stronger the downwash effect on tail. Therefore, the effective angle of attack of tail becomes smaller. In addition, the lift coefficient, drag coefficient and lift–drag ratio of tail decrease, and the center of pressure of tail moves backward gradually. For the whole aircraft, the lower the vertical position of FSW, the smaller lift, drag and center of pressure coefficients of aircraft. The closer the FSW moves towards tail, the bigger pitching moment and center of pressure coefficients of the whole aircraft, but the lift and drag characteristics of the horizontal tail and the whole aircraft are basically unchanged. The results have potential application for the design of new concept aircraft.

  5. Perceptual and positional saliencies influence children's sequence learning differently with age and instructions at test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Arnaud; Vinter, Annie

    2017-11-01

    There is growing evidence that, faced with a complex environment, participants subdivide the incoming information into small perceptual units, called chunks. Although statistical properties have been identified as playing a key role in chunking, we wanted to determine whether perceptual (repetitions) and positional (initial units) features might provide immediate guidance for the parsing of information into chunks. Children aged 5 and 8 years were exposed to sequences of 3, 4, or 5 colours. Sequence learning was assessed either through an explicit generation test (Experiment 1) or through a recognition test (Experiment 2). Experiment 1 showed that perceptual and positional saliencies benefited learning and that sensitivity to repetitions was age dependent and permitted the formation of longer chunks (trigrams) in the oldest children. Experiment 2 suggested that children became sensitive to perceptual and positional saliencies regardless of age and that the both types of saliencies supported the formation of longer chunks in the oldest children. The discussion focuses on the multiple factors intervening in sequence learning and their differential effects as a function of the instructions used at test to assess sequence learning.

  6. Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria differ in their sensitivity to cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai-Prochnow, Anne; Clauson, Maryse; Hong, Jungmi; Murphy, Anthony B.

    2016-12-01

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma (CAP) is a relatively new method being investigated for antimicrobial activity. However, the exact mode of action is still being explored. Here we report that CAP efficacy is directly correlated to bacterial cell wall thickness in several species. Biofilms of Gram positive Bacillus subtilis, possessing a 55.4 nm cell wall, showed the highest resistance to CAP, with less than one log10 reduction after 10 min treatment. In contrast, biofilms of Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, possessing only a 2.4 nm cell wall, were almost completely eradicated using the same treatment conditions. Planktonic cultures of Gram negative Pseudomonas libanensis also had a higher log10 reduction than Gram positive Staphylococcus epidermidis. Mixed species biofilms of P. aeruginosa and S. epidermidis showed a similar trend of Gram positive bacteria being more resistant to CAP treatment. However, when grown in co-culture, Gram negative P. aeruginosa was more resistant to CAP overall than as a mono-species biofilm. Emission spectra indicated OH and O, capable of structural cell wall bond breakage, were present in the plasma. This study indicates that cell wall thickness correlates with CAP inactivation times of bacteria, but cell membranes and biofilm matrix are also likely to play a role.

  7. Regional differences in AIDS and non-AIDS related mortality in HIV-positive individuals across Europe and Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reekie, Joanne; Kowalska, Justyna Dominika; Karpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Differences in access to care and treatment have been reported in Eastern Europe, a region with one of the fastest growing HIV epidemics, compared to the rest of Europe. This analysis aimed to establish whether there are regional differences in the mortality rate of HIV-positive individuals acros...

  8. X-cephalometric study of different parts of the upper airway space and changes in hyoid position following mandibular fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L-J; Zhao, M-C; Pan, X-F; Wei, Y-Q; Wang, D-Y

    2013-09-01

    This study analyses the different parts of the upper airway space and the changes in hyoid position. The results provide a clinical reference for developing timely and effective treatment programmes for patients with mandibular fractures caused by maxillofacial trauma. Standard X-cephalometric measurements of the lateral skull of 210 subjects were taken. The subjects were divided into four fracture groups: condylar, mandibular angle, mandibular body, and parasymphyseal. The radiographs of the mandibular fracture groups were compared with the normal occlusion group to analyse the upper airway space and the changes in hyoid position. Different types of fractures have different effects on the upper airway space. Bilateral mandibular body fracture and the parasymphyseal fracture have a significant influence on the lower oropharyngeal and laryngopharyngeal airway spaces, with serious obstructions severely restricting the ventilatory function of patients. Fractures at different parts of the mandibular structure are closely related to the upper airway and hyoid position.

  9. What Constitutes a Good Life? Cultural Differences in the Role of Positive and Negative Affect in Subjective Well-Being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Derrick; Chiu, Chi-yue; Diener, Ed; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2009-01-01

    East Asians and Asian Americans report lower levels of subjective well-being than Europeans and European Americans. Three studies found support for the hypothesis that such differences may be due to the psychological meanings Eastern and Western cultures attach to positive and negative affect. Study 1 demonstrated that the desire to repeat a recent vacation was significantly predicted by recalled positive affect—but not recalled negative affect—for European Americans, whereas Asian Americans considered both positive and negative affect. Study 2 replicated this effect in judging satisfaction with a personal friendship. Study 3 linked changes in European Americans’ life satisfaction to everyday positive events caused by the self (vs. others) and changes in Japanese life satisfaction to everyday negative events caused by others (vs. the self). Positive affect appears particularly meaningful for European Americans and negative affect for Asian Americans and Japanese when judging a satisfying vacation, friendship, or life. PMID:19558439

  10. Daily positive events and diurnal cortisol rhythms: Examination of between-person differences and within-person variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sin, Nancy L; Ong, Anthony D; Stawski, Robert S; Almeida, David M

    2017-09-01

    Growing evidence from field studies has linked daily stressors to dysregulated patterns of diurnal cortisol. Less is known about whether naturally-occurring positive events in everyday life are associated with diurnal cortisol. The objectives of this study were to evaluate daily positive events as predictors of between-person differences and within-person (day-to-day) variations in diurnal cortisol parameters, in addition to daily positive events as buffers against the associations between daily stressors and cortisol. In the National Study of Daily Experiences, 1657 adults ages 33-84 (57% female) reported daily experiences during telephone interviews on 8 consecutive evenings. Saliva samples were collected 4 times per day on 4 interview days and assayed for cortisol. Multilevel models were used to estimate associations of daily positive events with cortisol awakening response (CAR), diurnal cortisol slope, and area under the curve (AUC). At the between-person level, people who experienced more frequent positive events exhibited a steeper diurnal cortisol slope, controlling for daily stressors, daily affect, and other covariates. At the within-person level, positive events in the morning (but not prior-night or afternoon/evening events) predicted steeper decline in cortisol across that day; positive events were also marginally associated with lower same-day AUC. Associations were not mediated by daily positive affect, and positive events did not buffer against stressor-related cortisol alterations. These findings indicate that individual differences and day-to-day variations in daily positive events are associated with diurnal cortisol patterns, independent of stressors and affect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Expression of positive emotions differs in illness and recovery in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapelo, Marcela Marin; Hart, Sharon; Hale, Christiane; Morris, Robin; Tchanturia, Kate

    2016-12-30

    People with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) display reduced facial expression of emotions. This study investigated the expression of positive affect in response to a film, examining Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles in 20 women who have recovered from AN (REC), 20 with acute AN and 20 healthy controls (HC). The results indicated that the REC group exhibited Duchenne and non-Duchenne smiles with higher duration and intensity than the AN group, comparable to the HC group. The findings warrant longitudinal studies to confirm that reduced expressivity is linked to acute AN, ameliorating after recovery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A Physiological and Kinematic Comparison of two Different Lean Back Positions During Stationary Rowing on a Concept II Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Gordon; Bennett, Jack; Reynolds, William; Syrotuik, Daniel; Gervais, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    This study compared two different body positions at the finish of a stroke during stationary rowing exercise on physiological and kinematic measurements. Nine male and five female rowers volunteered for the study: mean age (± SD), body height and body mass were 27 ±9 yrs, 180.5 ±12.3 cm and 81.2 ±14.2 kg. The two body positions at the finish were controlled at an upright posture or a novel greater lean back position. All subjects completed 3 different experimental trials on a Concept IID rowing machine at 3 different exercise intensities and comparisons were made between the lean back position at the same stroke rate and the same power output as the upright trial. Power output, heart rate, oxygen uptake, energy expenditure and % efficiency were higher (prowing produces a higher power output and improved efficiency at the same stroke rate but at an elevated physiological cost compared to a more upright position. Despite the higher energy expenditure, the relative gain in power output and efficiency with no negative kinematic changes suggests that a greater lean back position at the finish will enhance performance during stationary rowing exercise.

  13. STUDY OF DIFFERENT POSITIONS OF APPENDIX IN OPERATED CASES OF APPENDICITIS IN RURAL HOSPITAL AND ITS CLINICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunabha Sinha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The relationship of the various positions of appendix to its clinical picture and course in the patient is a subject of controversy. The objective is to study the correlation between anatomical position of appendix and its varied clinical presentation and also to determine the frequency of different positions of appendix in operated cases of acute appendicitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was conducted from Nov 2012 to April 2014 for a period of 16 months in MVJ Medical College and Research Hospital, Hoskote, Bangalore. There were 150 cases in the study, which were histopathologically positive for appendicitis. RESULTS There were total of 150 cases. The commonest position of the appendix is retrocaecal (67.3% followed by pelvic (16%, preileal (7.3%, post-ileal (4.6%, paracaecal (2.6%, subcaecal (1.3% and subhepatic (0.6%. Certain positions like fixed retrocaecal, pelvic and post-ileal presented more often atypically. CONCLUSION There is no increased predisposition for any of the position of the appendix to get inflamed. Complications were more common in cases fixed retrocaecal, post-ileal and pelvic appendix. The patients with the above positions presented more often atypically than typically and with subtle signs and symptoms leading to delayed diagnosis and increased complications.

  14. [Stress fracture of the scapular spine associated with rotator cuff dysfunction: Report of 3 cases and review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Coiradas, J; Lópiz, Y; Marco, F

    2014-01-01

    Scapular spine stress fractures have been scarcely reported in the literature. Their pathomechanics, clinical course and treatment are not well established. We review 3 cases in 2 patients that were associated with cuff dysfunction. On follow-up, none of these fractures progressed to healing. Two of them needed osteosynthesis and bone grafting, and the third one became a painless non-union. The authors propose the combination of 3 factors as a reason for this lesion: a functionally impaired cuff, a greater activation of the muscles with origin and insertion in the spine-acromion and a fragile bone. As we believe that these fractures are unstable, and non-union would be expected, their surgical management is recommended. Copyright © 2013 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. Three-dimensional condylar positions and forms associated with different anteroposterior skeletal patterns and facial asymmetry in Chinese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Che, Bei; Ni, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Hao; Pan, Yongchu; Wang, Lin; Ma, Junqing

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the association of condylar asymmetry and chin position with different anteroposterior skeletal patterns using three-dimensional models reconstructed from cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. CBCT scans of 123 Chinese adolescents (aged 11-15 years, 68 girls and 55 boys) with 64 skeletal Class I, 46 Class II and 13 Class III were selected from scans of patients attending the orthodontic clinic. The condyles of the subjects were reconstructed bilaterally and 25 linear, angular and volumetric measurements were performed to evaluate the asymmetry of the condyles and position of the chin. The proportions of condylar asymmetry in the different skeletal groups were calculated by the absolute difference value between the left and right sides to the smaller side value. One-way analysis of variance and Pearson's correlations were used to analyse the data. The values for RV, RCL, LCH, RCH, LCGM, RCGM, LCo-Me and RCo-Me were significantly different among the three skeletal groups (p condyles exceeded a ratio of 20% for more than 30% of the subjects. Condylar asymmetry varied significantly among the three skeletal groups, with the vertical position of the condyle (Co-Sh) and height of the mandibular ramus (Co-Me) being significantly and positively related to the chin position.

  16. Dynamic Positioning System for a Ship on Harbour Manoeuvring with Different Observers. Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomera Mirosław

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In cases when the navigational space of the manoeuvre performed by the ship is severely limited, the procedures making use of the rudder blade, propeller screw, and thrusters are very complicated. Such situations take place when the ship manoeuvres inside the harbour area and in those cases the structure of the control system is very complex. Te article describes the algorithm of multivariable control of ship motion over the water surface, which makes use of the state vector consisting of 6 variables. Tree of them, which are the position coordinates (x, y measured by the DGPS system and the ship heading y measured by gyro-compass, were obtained experimentally. Te three remaining variables, which are the velocities in surge u, sway v, and yaw r directions, were estimated by Kalman filter, Kalman-Bucy filter and extended Kalman flter, respectively.

  17. Positional Differences in External On-Field Load During Specific Drill Classifications Over a Professional Rugby League Preseason.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummins, Cloe; McLean, Blake; Halaki, Mark; Orr, Rhonda

    2017-07-01

    To quantify the external training loads of positional groups in preseason training drills. Thirty-three elite rugby league players were categorized into 1 of 4 positional groups: outside backs (n = 9), adjustables (n = 9), wide-running forwards (n = 9), and hit-up forwards (n = 6). Data for 8 preseason weeks were collected using microtechnology devices. Training drills were classified based on drill focus: speed and agility, conditioning, and generic and positional skills. Total, high-speed, and very-high-speed distance decreased across the preseason in speed and agility (moderate, small, and small, respectively), conditioning (large, large, and small) and generic skills (large, large, and large). The duration of speed and generic skills also decreased (77% and 48%, respectively). This was matched by a concomitant increase in total distance (small), high-speed running (small), very-high-speed running (moderate), and 2-dimensional (2D) BodyLoad (small) demands in positional skills. In positional skills, hit-up forwards (1240 ± 386 m) completed less very-high-speed running than outside backs (2570 ± 1331 m) and adjustables (2121 ± 1163 m). Hit-up forwards (674 ± 253 AU) experienced greater 2D BodyLoad demands than outside backs (432 ± 230 AU, P = .034). In positional drills, hit-up forwards experienced greater relative 2D BodyLoad demands than outside backs (P = .015). Conversely, outside backs experienced greater relative high- (P = .007) and very-high-speed-running (P loads between positional groups during positional skills but not in speed and agility, conditioning, and generic skills. This work also highlights the importance of different external-load parameters to adequately quantify workload across different positional groups.

  18. Primary stability of different plate positions and the role of bone substitute in open wedge high tibial osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Ryohei; Woon-Hwa, Jung; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki; Yamaguchi, Yuichiro; Osawa, Katsunari; Akamatsu, Yasushi; Kuroda, Koichi

    2017-10-12

    The purpose of this study was to compare the mechanical fixation strengths of anteromedial and medial plate positions in osteotomy, and clarify the effects of bone substitute placement into the osteotomy site. Twenty-eight sawbone tibia models were used. Four different models were prepared: Group A, the osteotomy site was open and the plate position was anteromedial; Group B, bone substitutes were inserted into the osteotomy site and the plate position was anteromedial; Group C, the osteotomy site was open and the plate position was medial; and Group D, bone substitutes were inserted into the osteotomy site and the plate position was medial. The loading condition ranged from 0 to 800N and one hertz cycles were applied. Changes of the tibial posterior slope angle (TPS), stress on the plate and lateral hinge were measured. The changes in the TPS and the stress on the plate were significantly larger in Group A than in Group C. These were significantly larger in Group A than in Group B, and in Group C than in Group D. There was no significant difference between Group B and Group D, and no significant difference between knee flexion angles of 0° and 10°. Stress on the lateral hinge was significantly smaller when bone substitute was used. A medial plate position was biomechanically superior to an anteromedial position if bone substitute was not used. Bone substitute distributed the stress concentration around the osteotomy gap and prevented an increase in TPS angle regardless of the plate position. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Repeatability in Color Measurements of a Spectrophotometer using Different Positioning Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Michael; Kwon, So Ran; Qian, Fang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability of color measurements of an intraoral spectrophotometer with the use of three different methods by two operators. A total of 60 teeth were obtained, comprising 30 human maxillary teeth [central incisors (n = 10); canines (n = 10); molars (n = 10)] and 30 artificial teeth [lateral incisors (n = 10); premolar (n = 20)]. Multiple repeated color measurements were obtained from each tooth using three measuring methods by each of the two operators. Five typodonts with alternating artificial and human teeth were made. Measurements were taken by two operators with the Vita EasyShade spectrophotometer using the custom tray (CT), custom jig (CJ) and free hand (FH) method, twice, at an interval of 2 to 7 days. Friedman test was used to detect difference among the three color measuring methods. Post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction applied was used for pair-wise comparison of color measurements among the three methods. Additionally, a paired-sample t-test was used to assess a significant difference between the two duplicated measurements made on the same tooth by the same operator for each color parameter and measuring method. For operator A, mean (SD) overall color change-ΔE* (SD) perceived for FH, CT and CJ were 2.21(2.00), 2.39 (1.58) and 2.86 (1.92), respectively. There was statistically significant difference in perceived ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.0107). However, there were no significant differences between FH and CT (p = 0.2829) or between CT and CJ (p = 0.1159). For operator B mean ΔE* (SD) for FH, CT and CJ were 3.24 (3.46), 1.95 (1.19) and 2.45 (1.56), respectively. There was a significant difference between FH and CT (p = 0.0031). However, there were no statistically significant differences in ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.3696) or CT vs CJ (p = 0.0809). The repeatability of color measurements was different among the three measuring methods by operators. Overall, the CT method worked well for both

  20. Risks of permanent disability in low back pain patients associated with different job positions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maribo, Thomas; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit; Jensen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: To present a systematic review on ICF used in the Nordic countries from 2001 to 2013, describing and quantifying the development in utilization of ICF, and describe the extent to which the different components of the ICF have been used. METHOD: A search was conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE a...

  1. The phenotypic profile of CD34-positive peripheral blood stem cells in different mobilization regimens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, F. de; Dräger, A.M.; Haperen, M.J.A.M van; Wall, E. van der; Kessler, F.; Huijgens, P.C.; Pinedo, H. M.; Schuurhuis, G.J.

    2000-01-01

    The type of regimen used might result in mobilization of phenotypically and functionally different CD34+ cells. We compared the phenotype of CD34+ cells in leukapheresis products of three homogeneous groups: I, healthy individuals treated with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone (n

  2. Hand Position Alters Vision by Biasing Processing through Different Visual Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gozli, Davood G.; West, Greg L.; Pratt, Jay

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the mechanisms responsible for the difference between visual processing of stimuli near and far from the observer's hands. The idea that objects near the hands are immediate candidates for action led us to hypothesize that vision near the hands would be biased toward the action-oriented magnocellular visual pathway…

  3. Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns in Women with Positive Urine Culture: Does Menopausal Status Make a Significant Difference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Miotla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Urinary tract infection (UTI is considered one of the most common bacterial infections in women. The aim of this study was to investigate the types of uropathogens present, as well as the degree of antimicrobial drug resistance seen among premenopausal (n=2748 and postmenopausal (n=1705 women with uncomplicated UTI. Methods. Urinary samples (n=4453 collected from women with UTI were analyzed in terms of uropathogens present. These were considered as positive if bacterial growth was ≥105 colony forming units (CFUs/mL. Susceptibility and resistance testing for commonly used antibiotics was subsequently assessed. Results. The most common uropathogens cultured from urine samples were Escherichia coli (65.5%, followed by Enterococcus faecalis (12.2%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (4.7%, and Proteus mirabilis (4.2%. The resistance to ampicillin exceeded 40%, independently of menopausal status. Of note, resistance to ciprofloxacin exceeded 25% among postmenopausal patients. Moreover, resistance of all uropathogens to commonly used antimicrobials was significantly higher in postmenopausal women. Conclusion. Due to the high resistance rate, ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, and the trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole combination should be avoided in treating postmenopausal women affected by UTI without being indicated by initial urine culture report. Finally, cephalexin and cefuroxime are promising alternatives as initial treatment in postmenopausal women.

  4. Different ways of classifying drums with reference to illustrations and positioning of drum illustrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Kjellström

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is on the traditional Saami hunting in relation to the animal and hunting motifs on their drum, more specifially the southern Saami drums. One may wonder if it is possible for anyone to interpret a picture unconditionally. One has a certain ground of one's own to stand on and the question arises of whether this is the correct position, when -as in the present case — we approach another culture. We naturally include the experiences of our own culture in interpretations of another culture. The animal which is the commonest species on the southern Saami drums, is the reindeer. Other animals that occur are elks, wolves, beavers, foxes, snakes, among others. Considering the Saamis' hunting weapons, the most important of these were the bow and arrow, and the spear or spear shaft. Of these weapons it is the bow which is most often portrayed on drums. Also some trapping implement like a gin may appear on a drum, but in general we have little or no information about hunting or trapping methods at all.

  5. Functional connectivity patterns of normal human swallowing: difference among various viscosity swallows in normal and chin-tuck head positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L; Perera, Subashan; Sejdić, Ervin

    2016-12-01

    Consuming thicker fluids and swallowing in the chin-tuck position has been shown to be advantageous for some patients with neurogenic dysphagia who aspirate due to various causes. The anatomical changes caused by these therapeutic techniques are well known, but it is unclear whether these changes alter the cerebral processing of swallow-related sensorimotor activity. We sought to investigate the effect of increased fluid viscosity and chin-down posture during swallowing on brain networks. 55 healthy adults performed water, nectar-thick, and honey thick liquid swallows in the neutral and chin-tuck positions while EEG signals were recorded. After pre-processing of the EEG timeseries, the time-frequency based synchrony measure was used for forming the brain networks to investigate whether there were differences among the brain networks between the swallowing of different fluid viscosities and swallowing in different head positions. We also investigated whether swallowing under various conditions exhibit small-world properties. Results showed that fluid viscosity affects the brain network in the Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands and that swallowing in the chin-tuck head position affects brain networks in the Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands. In addition, we showed that swallowing in all tested conditions exhibited small-world properties. Therefore, fluid viscosity and head positions should be considered in future swallowing EEG investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Functional connectivity patterns of normal human swallowing: difference among various viscosity swallows in normal and chin-tuck head positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jestrović, Iva; Coyle, James L.; Perera, Subashan

    2016-01-01

    Consuming thicker fluids and swallowing in the chin-tuck position has been shown to be advantageous for some patients with neurogenic dysphagia who aspirate due to various causes. The anatomical changes caused by these therapeutic techniques are well known, but it is unclear whether these changes alter the cerebral processing of swallow-related sensorimotor activity. We sought to investigate the effect of increased fluid viscosity and chin-down posture during swallowing on brain networks. 55 healthy adults performed water, nectar-thick, and honey thick liquid swallows in the neutral and chin-tuck positions while EEG signals were recorded. After pre-processing of the EEG timeseries, the time-frequency based synchrony measure was used for forming the brain networks to investigate whether there were differences among the brain networks between the swallowing of different fluid viscosities and swallowing in different head positions. We also investigated whether swallowing under various conditions exhibit small-world properties. Results showed that fluid viscosity affects the brain network in the Delta, Theta, Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands and that swallowing in the chin-tuck head position affects brain networks in the Alpha, Beta, and Gamma frequency bands. In addition, we showed that swallowing in all tested conditions exhibited small-world properties. Therefore, fluid viscosity and head positions should be considered in future swallowing EEG investigations. PMID:27693396

  7. The difference in the position of Mexico, Japan and China as recipients of international tourism and their position in Competitiveness Index Travel and Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Magaña Carrillo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Mexico, as a tourist destination that is recipient of tourists, ranks among the top ten in terms of international arrivals. Nevertheless, in terms of competitiveness, according to the index of Travel and Tourism Competitiveness, its ranking is very low. This research project looks to understand and explain the differences in tourist competitiveness between Mexico and other countries within the Asia-Pacific Basin. This article is preoccupied with the question posed by Mexico’s evident contradicting position as that of being on the one hand, leader in terms of international arrivals, and on the other, having a low competitive performance, according to the index of international tourist competitiveness. Comparing Mexico to Japan and China, helps to understand what aspects, among those considered in the index pillars, should be contemplated in order to strengthen Mexico’s levels of competitiveness, as suggested in the Tourist Sectorial Plan 2007-2012.

  8. Rehabilitation of the atrophic mandible with short implants in different positions: A finite elements study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Hugo E; Camati, Paulo R; Faot, Fernanda; Sotto-Maior, Bruno S; Martinez, Elizabeth F; Peruzzo, Daiane C

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze whether the use of inclined short implants without lower transcortical involvement (test model - SI), thus preserving the mandibular lower cortical bone, could optimize stress distribution. Six identical atrophic mandible models were created featuring 8mm of height at the symphysis. Two study factors were evaluated: implant length and angulation. Implant length was represented either by short implants (7mm) with preservation of the mandibular lower cortical bone or standard implants (9mm) with a bicortical approach and 3 possible implant positioning configurations: 4 distally-inclined implants at 45° (experimental model), all-on-four, 4 vertical implants. All tridimensional (3D) models were analyzed using the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Ansys Workbench software. The maximum stress on the bone at the cervical region of the implants in the experimental model was 132MPa and transcortical involvement with implant inclination yielded higher values (171MPa). Regarding von Mises stress on the retaining screw of the prosthesis, 61MPa was recorded for the experimental model while upright implants had the highest values (223MPa). At the acrylic base, 4MPa was recorded for the experimental model whereas models with upright implants showed the highest stress values (11MPa). Rehabilitation of severely resorbed mandibles with 4 short implants placed distally at 45°, without lower transcortical involvement, were biomechanically more favorable, generating lower stress peaks, than the models with short implants on an all-on-four, or on an upright configuration, with or without lower transcortical involvement. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Asymmetric Supercapacitors Based on Reduced Graphene Oxide with Different Polyoxometalates as Positive and Negative Electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubal, Deepak P; Chodankar, Nilesh R; Vinu, Ajayan; Kim, Do-Heyoung; Gomez-Romero, Pedro

    2017-07-10

    Nanofabrication using a "bottom-up" approach of hybrid electrode materials into a well-defined architecture is essential for next-generation miniaturized energy storage devices. This paper describes the design and fabrication of reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/polyoxometalate (POM)-based hybrid electrode materials and their successful exploitation for asymmetric supercapacitors. First, redox active nanoclusters of POMs [phosphomolybdic acid (PMo12 ) and phosphotungstic acid (PW12 )] were uniformly decorated on the surface of rGO nanosheets to take full advantage of both charge-storing mechanisms (faradaic from POMs and electric double layer from rGO). The as-synthesized rGO-PMo12 and rGO-PW12 hybrid electrodes exhibited impressive electrochemical performances with specific capacitances of 299 (269 mF cm-2 ) and 370 F g-1 (369 mF cm-2 ) in 1 m H2 SO4 as electrolyte at 5 mA cm-2 . An asymmetric supercapacitor was then fabricated using rGO-PMo12 as the positive and rGO-PW12 as the negative electrode. This rGO-PMo12 ∥rGO-PW12 asymmetric cell could be successfully cycled in a wide voltage window up to 1.6 V and hence exhibited an excellent energy density of 39 Wh kg-1 (1.3 mWh cm-3 ) at a power density of 658 W kg-1 (23 mW cm-3 ). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Regional neural response differences in the determination of faces or houses positioned in a wide visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Tianyi; Wu, Jinglong; Chen, Kewei; Imajyo, Satoshi; Ohno, Seiichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    In human visual cortex, the primary visual cortex (V1) is considered to be essential for visual information processing; the fusiform face area (FFA) and parahippocampal place area (PPA) are considered as face-selective region and places-selective region, respectively. Recently, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study showed that the neural activity ratios between V1 and FFA were constant as eccentricities increasing in central visual field. However, in wide visual field, the neural activity relationships between V1 and FFA or V1 and PPA are still unclear. In this work, using fMRI and wide-view present system, we tried to address this issue by measuring neural activities in V1, FFA and PPA for the images of faces and houses aligning in 4 eccentricities and 4 meridians. Then, we further calculated ratio relative to V1 (RRV1) as comparing the neural responses amplitudes in FFA or PPA with those in V1. We found V1, FFA, and PPA showed significant different neural activities to faces and houses in 3 dimensions of eccentricity, meridian, and region. Most importantly, the RRV1s in FFA and PPA also exhibited significant differences in 3 dimensions. In the dimension of eccentricity, both FFA and PPA showed smaller RRV1s at central position than those at peripheral positions. In meridian dimension, both FFA and PPA showed larger RRV1s at upper vertical positions than those at lower vertical positions. In the dimension of region, FFA had larger RRV1s than PPA. We proposed that these differential RRV1s indicated FFA and PPA might have different processing strategies for encoding the wide field visual information from V1. These different processing strategies might depend on the retinal position at which faces or houses are typically observed in daily life. We posited a role of experience in shaping the information processing strategies in the ventral visual cortex.

  11. Comparison of different levels of positive expiratory pressure on chest wall volumes in healthy children and patients with fibrosis

    OpenAIRE

    Brilhante, Silvia Angélica; Florêncio, Rêcio Bento; Gualdi, Lucien Peroni; Resqueti,Vanessa Regiane; Aliverti,Andrea; Andrade, Armele de Fátima Dornelas de; Fregonezi, Guilherme Augusto de Freitas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Positive Expiratory Pressure (PEP) improves lung function, however, PEP-induced changes are not fully established. The aim of this study was to assess the acute effects of different PEP levels on chest wall volumes and the breathing pattern in children with Cystic Fibrosis (CF). Anthropometric data, lung function values, and respiratory muscle strength were collected. Chest wall volumes were assessed by Optoelectronic plethysmography at rest and during the use of different PEP levels...

  12. PEDAGOGY OF DIFFERENCES AND EQUITY...FROM AND TO AN INCLUSIVE EDUCACION-CULTURA OF POSITIVE AND COMPREHENSIVE PEACE

    OpenAIRE

    Anaida Pascual-Morán

    2014-01-01

    A pedagogy of differences and justness is proposed, in order to eradicate inequality, discrimination, and injustice. It is contextualized from a scaffold of positive and integral peace education-culture of inclusive nature, towards which it is also heading. To think about and practice this pedagogy entails seeing justness and inclusion as leading threads and driving force to be forged, together and inseparably, across culture and education. It is envisioned as a personalized and different...

  13. Reference and counter electrode positions affect electrochemical characterization of bioanodes in different bioelectrochemical systems

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2014-06-16

    The placement of the reference electrode (RE) in various bioelectrochemical systems is often varied to accommodate different reactor configurations. While the effect of the RE placement is well understood from a strictly electrochemistry perspective, there are impacts on exoelectrogenic biofilms in engineered systems that have not been adequately addressed. Varying distances between the working electrode (WE) and the RE, or the RE and the counter electrode (CE) in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) can alter bioanode characteristics. With well-spaced anode and cathode distances in an MFC, increasing the distance between the RE and anode (WE) altered bioanode cyclic voltammograms (CVs) due to the uncompensated ohmic drop. Electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) also changed with RE distances, resulting in a calculated increase in anode resistance that varied between 17 and 31Ω (-0.2V). While WE potentials could be corrected with ohmic drop compensation during the CV tests, they could not be automatically corrected by the potentiostat in the EIS tests. The electrochemical characteristics of bioanodes were altered by their acclimation to different anode potentials that resulted from varying the distance between the RE and the CE (cathode). These differences were true changes in biofilm characteristics because the CVs were electrochemically independent of conditions resulting from changing CE to RE distances. Placing the RE outside of the current path enabled accurate bioanode characterization using CVs and EIS due to negligible ohmic resistances (0.4Ω). It is therefore concluded for bioelectrochemical systems that when possible, the RE should be placed outside the current path and near the WE, as this will result in more accurate representation of bioanode characteristics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. On the link between different combinations of Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA) and job performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    2003-01-01

    Despite the assumed orthogonality of Negative Affectivity (NA) and Positive Affectivity (PA), the effects of the different combinations of NA and PA on work-related outcomes such as job performance have been neglected. The present study among 42 employees of a local social services department in the

  15. Corrigendum: What Makes a Difference for Disadvantaged Girls? Investigating the Interplay between Group Composition and Positive Youth Development in Sport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hebe Schaillée

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a corrigendum to the article “What makes a difference for disadvantaged girls? Investigating the interplay between group composition and positive youth development in sport”, authored by Hebe Schaillée, Marc Theeboom and Jelle Van Cauwenberg, and published in Social Inclusion, 3(3.

  16. Characterisation of textile shape and position upstream of a wastewater pump under different part load conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Anna Lyhne; Sørensen, Henrik; Rosendahl, Lasse Aistrup

    2018-01-01

    Accumulations of sanitary textile materials often lead to clogging of pumps in the wastewater system. Simulation of clogging phenomena may help to identify means of reducing the risk of clogging. In order to provide realistic initial conditions for clogging simulations, this study characterises...... textiles in artificial wastewater in the suction pipe to a dry-installed pump at nine different operating points. The textiles are recorded approximately 3.5 pipe diameters from the pump inlet and approximately three pipe diameters from the suction pipe bend at pipe Reynolds numbers in the range 300...

  17. Positivity-preserving High Order Finite Difference WENO Schemes for Compressible Euler Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    schemes are preferred, for example, cosmological simulation [5], finite difference WENO scheme [10] is more favored than DG schemes [2, 3] and the...densities, Journal of Computational Physics, 92 (1991), 273-295. [5] L.-L. Feng, C.-W. Shu and M. Zhang, A hybrid cosmological hydrodynamic/N-body code...Cockburn, C. Johnson, C.-W. Shu and E. Tadmor (Editor: A. Quarteroni), Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Springer, 1697 (1998), 325-432. [16] C.-W. Shu and S

  18. The effect of vision elimination during quiet stance tasks with different feet positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarabon, Nejc; Rosker, Jernej; Loefler, Stefan; Kern, Helmut

    2013-09-01

    Literature confirms the effects of vision and stance on body sway and indicates possible interactions between the two. However, no attempts have been made to systematically compare the effect of vision on the different types of stance which are frequently used in clinical and research practice. The biomechanical changes that occur after changing shape and size of the support surface suggest possible sensory re-weighting might take place. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of vision on body sway in relation to different stance configurations and width. Thirty-eight volunteers performed four quiet stance configurations (parallel, semi-tandem, tandem and single leg), repeating them with open and closed eyes. Traditional parameters, recurrence quantification analysis and sample entropy were analyzed from the CoP trajectory signal. Traditional and recurrence quantification analysis parameters were affected by vision removal and stance type. Exceptions were frequency of oscillation, entropy and trapping time. The most prominent effect of vision elimination on traditional parameters was observed for narrower stances. A significant interaction effect between vision removal and stance type was present for most of the parameters observed (pvision removal on the body sway. However, for the medio-lateral traditional parameters, the effects did not increase linearly with the change in width and stance type. This suggests that removal of vision could be more effectively compensated by other sensory systems in semi-tandem stance, tandem and single legged stance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Measuring intergroup ideologies: positive and negative aspects of emphasizing versus looking beyond group differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Adam; Banchefsky, Sarah; Park, Bernadette; Judd, Charles M

    2015-12-01

    Research on interethnic relations has focused on two ideologies, asking whether it is best to de-emphasize social-category differences (colorblind) or emphasize and celebrate differences (multicultural). We argue each of these can manifest with negative outgroup evaluations: Assimilationism demands that subordinate groups adopt dominant group norms to minimize group distinctions; segregationism holds that groups should occupy separate spheres. Parallel versions can be identified for intergender relations. Scales to measure all four ideologies are developed both for ethnicity (Studies 1 and 2) and gender (Studies 3 and 4). Results demonstrate that the ideologies can be reliably measured, that the hypothesized four-factor models are superior to alternative models with fewer factors, and that the ideologies relate as predicted to the importance ascribed to group distinctions, subordinate group evaluations, and solution preferences for intergroup conflict scenarios. We argue that this fourfold model can help clarify theory and measurement, allowing a more nuanced assessment of ideological attitudes. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  20. Fathers make a difference: positive relationships with mother and baby in relation to infant colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, C P; Zhu, J; Paul, I M; Kjerulff, K H

    2017-09-01

    Maternal psychological factors like depression, anxiety and stress have been associated with infant fussiness or colic. However, little research exists on whether positive factors such as social support and the happiness of the mother-partner relationship are associated with lower rates of infant fussiness or colic. We investigated the association between infant colic and three types of maternal support: general maternal social support (during pregnancy and post partum), the happiness of the mother-partner relationship (during pregnancy and post partum) and partner involvement in caring for the newborn. Participants were 3006 women in the First Baby Study, a prospective study of the effect of mode of first delivery on subsequent childbearing. Women were interviewed by telephone during pregnancy and 1 month after first childbirth and asked about social support and if their baby had a variety of problems since birth, including 'Colic - crying or fussiness three or more hours a day'. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to model the association between maternal support and infant colic, controlling for confounders, including maternal race or ethnicity, insurance, marital status, smoking, mode of delivery, maternal post-partum depression, breastfeeding, other neonatal illnesses and newborn gestational age. Infant colic was reported by 11.6% of new mothers. High general maternal social support (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy, was associated with lower reported infant colic (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.40-0.75) and measured post partum (AOR, 0.51, 95% CI, 0.39-0.67); high relationship happiness (in comparison with low), measured during pregnancy (AOR, 0.71, 95% CI, 0.54-0.93), and measured post partum (AOR, 0.22, 95% CI, 0.12-0.40); and high partner involvement with newborn care (in comparison with low) (AOR, 0.60, 95% CI, 0.44-0.81). Higher levels of maternal social support during pregnancy and post

  1. Sport-specific motor fitness tests in water polo: reliability, validity and playing position differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uljevic, Ognjen; Spasic, Miodrag; Sekulic, Damir

    2013-01-01

    Sport-specific motor fitness tests are not often examined in water polo. In this study we examined the reliability, factorial and discriminative validity of 10 water-polo-specific motor-fitness tests, namely: three tests of in-water jumps (thrusts), two characteristic swimming sprints (10 and 20 metres from the water start), three ball-throws (shoots), one test of passing precision (accuracy), and a test of the dynamometric force produced while using the eggbeater kick. The sample of subjects consisted of 54 young male water polo players (15 to 17 years of age; 1.86 ± 0.07 m, and 83.1 ± 9.9 kg). All tests were applied over three testing trials. Reliability analyses included Cronbach Alpha coefficients (CA), inter-item- correlations (IIR) and coefficients of the variation (CV), while an analysis of variance was used to define any systematic bias between the testing trials. All tests except the test of accuracy (precision) were found to be reliable (CA ranged from 0.83 to 0.97; IIR from 0.62 to 0.91; CV from 2% to 21%); with small and irregular biases between the testing trials. Factor analysis revealed that jumping capacities as well as throwing and sprinting capacities should be observed as a relatively independent latent dimensions among young water polo players. Discriminative validity of the applied tests is partially proven since the playing positions significantly (p fitness capacities in comparison to their teammates. This study included players from one of the world's best junior National leagues, and reported values could be used as fitness standards for such an age. Further studies are needed to examine the applicability of the proposed test procedures to older subjects and females. Key PointsHere presented and validated sport specific water polo motor fitness tests are found to be reliable in the sample of young male water polo players.Factor analysis revealed existence of three inde-pendent latent motor dimensions, namely, in-water jumping capacity

  2. n examination of risk propensities in an orginizational context: differences by discipline and position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Walls

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies of risk-taking suggest there are significant variations across individuals' willingness to take financial risk within the organisational context. For example, a decision maker's propensity to take risk may be more aligned with his unique planning horizon. Previous research also suggests that division and lower level managers are typically more risk averse than top managers in the organisation. In this case study we investigate differences in risk propensity across managerial and functional designations in a major oil company, BP Exploration, Inc. We present a model for measuring risk propensity, examine the results of a survey of 39 staff and supervisory personnel, and explore the implications of a divergence between individual risk propensities and the firm's corporate risk policy.

  3. Activity Profiles and Positional Differences of Handball Players During the World Championships in Qatar 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinale, Marco; Whiteley, Rodney; Hosny, Ahmed Abdelrahman; Popovic, Nebojsa

    2017-08-01

    Handball is an Olympic sport played indoors by 6 court players and 1 goalkeeper with rolling substitutions. Limited data exist on elite players competing in a world championship, and virtually no information exists on the evolution of time-motion performance over the course of a long tournament. To analyze time-motion characteristics of elite male handball players of the last world championships, played in Qatar in 2015. 384 handball players from 24 national teams. The athletes were analyzed during 88 matches using a tracking camera system and bespoke software (Prozone Handball v. 1.2, Prozone, Leeds, UK). The average time on court (N = 2505) during the world championships for all players was 36:48 ± 20:27 min. Goalkeepers and left and right wings were on court most of the playing time (GK 43.00 ± 25:59 min; LW 42:02 ± 21:07 min; RW 43:44 ± 21:37 min). The total distance covered during each game (2607.5 ± 1438.4 m) consisted mostly of walking and jogging. The cumulative distance covered during the tournament was 16,313 ± 9423.3 m. Players performed 857.2 ± 445.7 activity changes with a recovery time of 124.3 ± 143 s. The average running pace was 78.2 ± 10.8 m/min. There was no significant difference between high-ranked and lower-ranked teams in terms of distance covered in different locomotion categories. Specific physical conditioning is necessary to maximize performance of handball players and minimize the occurrence of fatigue when performing in long tournaments.

  4. Objective classification of different head and neck positions and their influence on the radiographic pharyngeal diameter in sport horses

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Various head and neck positions in sport horses are significant as they can interfere with upper airway flow mechanics during exercise. Until now, research has focused on subjectively described head and neck positions. The objective of this study was to develop an objective, reproducible method for quantifying head and neck positions accurately. Results Determining the angle between the ridge of the nose and the horizontal plane (ground angle) together with the angle between the ridge of nose and the line connecting the neck and the withers (withers angle) has provided values that allow precise identification of three preselected head and neck positions for performing sport horses. The pharyngeal diameter, determined on lateral radiographs of 35 horses, differed significantly between the established flexed position and the remaining two head and neck positions (extended and neutral). There was a significant correlation between the pharyngeal diameter and the ground angle (Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient −0.769, p horses. The ground angle and the withers angle show significant correlation with the measured pharyngeal diameter in resting horses. Hence, these angles provide an appropriate method for assessing the degree of head and neck flexion. Further research is required to examine the influence of increasing head and neck flexion and the related pharyngeal diameter on upper airway function in exercising horses. PMID:24886564

  5. Integrating different tracking systems in football: multiple camera semi-automatic system, local position measurement and GPS technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Allen, Adam; Poon, Tsz Kit; Modonutti, Mattia; Gregson, Warren; Di Salvo, Valter

    2014-12-01

    Abstract During the past decade substantial development of computer-aided tracking technology has occurred. Therefore, we aimed to provide calibration equations to allow the interchangeability of different tracking technologies used in soccer. Eighty-two highly trained soccer players (U14-U17) were monitored during training and one match. Player activity was collected simultaneously with a semi-automatic multiple-camera (Prozone), local position measurement (LPM) technology (Inmotio) and two global positioning systems (GPSports and VX). Data were analysed with respect to three different field dimensions (small, 14.4 km · h-1) was slightly-to-moderately greater when tracked with Prozone, and accelerations, small-to-very largely greater with LPM. For most of the equations, the typical error of the estimate was of a moderate magnitude. Interchangeability of the different tracking systems is possible with the provided equations, but care is required given their moderate typical error of the estimate.

  6. Positive periodic solution of a general discrete non-autonomous difference system of plankton allelopathy with delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhijun; Chen, Lansun

    2006-12-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to investigate a discrete time non-autonomous difference system of plankton allelopathy with delays. By employing continuous theorem proposed by Gains and Mawhin and some new techniques, a set of verifiable sufficient criteria are established for the existence of at least one strictly positive (componentwise) periodic solution, and as an application, we also examine some special case, showing that these conditions are similar to those of continuous differential system. It is also shown that the time delays are harmless for the existence of positive periodic solutions of system.

  7. Linking the Positivity Effect in Attention with Affective Outcomes: Age Group Differences and the Role of Arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappes, Cathleen; Streubel, Berit; Droste, Kezia L; Folta-Schoofs, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Despite its assumed importance for emotional well-being, studies investigating the positivity effect (PE) in older adults' information processing rarely tested its relationship with immediate or general affective outcome measures like emotional reactivity or emotional well-being. Moreover, the arousal level of the to-be-processed emotional stimuli has rarely been taken into account as a moderator for the occurrence of the PE and its relationship with affective outcomes. Age group differences (young vs. old) in attention (i.e., fixation durations using eye tracking) and subjective emotional reactions (i.e., pleasantness ratings) were investigated in response to picture stimuli systematically varied in valence (positive vs. negative) and arousal (low vs. high). We examined whether there is a link between age group differences in fixation durations and affective outcomes (i.e., subjective emotional reactions as well as emotional well-being). Older compared to young adults fixated less on the most emotional part in negative but not in positive low-arousing pictures. This age difference did not occur under high arousal. While age group differences in fixation duration did not translate into age group differences in subjective emotional reactions, we found a positive relationship between fixation duration on negative low-arousing pictures and emotional well-being, i.e., negative affect. The present study replicated the well-known PE in attention and emotional reactivity. In line with the idea that the PE reflects top-down-driven processing of affective information, age group differences in fixation durations decreased under high arousal. The present findings are consistent with the idea that age-related changes in the processing of emotional information support older adults' general emotional well-being.

  8. Multiparameter Electromyography Analysis of the Masticatory Muscle Activities in Patients with Brainstem Stroke at Different Head Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Chuyao; Wei, Miaoluan; Luo, Jie; Lin, Jiayin; Zeng, Wen; Huang, Weitian; Song, Rong

    2017-01-01

    The performance of the masticatory muscle is frequently affected and presents high heterogeneity poststroke. Surface electromyography (EMG) is widely used to quantify muscle movement patterns. However, only a few studies applied EMG analysis on the research of masticatory muscle activities poststroke, and most of which used single parameter—root mean squares (RMS). The aim of this study was to fully investigate the performance of masticatory muscle at different head positions in healthy subjects and brainstem stroke patients with multiparameter EMG analysis. In this study, 15 healthy subjects and six brainstem stroke patients were recruited to conduct maximum voluntary clenching at five different head positions: upright position, left rotation, right rotation, dorsal flexion, and ventral flexion. The EMG signals of bilateral temporalis anterior and masseter muscles were recorded, and parameters including RMS, median frequency, and fuzzy approximate entropy of the EMG signals were calculated. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures and Bonferroni post hoc test were used to evaluate the effects of muscle and head position on EMG parameters in the healthy group, and the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was conducted in the patient group. The Welch–Satterthwaite t-test was used to compare the between-subject difference. We found a significant effect of subject and muscles but no significant effect of head positions, and the masticatory muscles of patients after brainstem stroke performed significantly different from healthy subjects. Multiparameter EMG analysis might be an informative tool to investigate the neural activity related movement patterns of the deficient masticatory muscles poststroke. PMID:28611725

  9. Multiparameter Electromyography Analysis of the Masticatory Muscle Activities in Patients with Brainstem Stroke at Different Head Positions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuyao Jian

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The performance of the masticatory muscle is frequently affected and presents high heterogeneity poststroke. Surface electromyography (EMG is widely used to quantify muscle movement patterns. However, only a few studies applied EMG analysis on the research of masticatory muscle activities poststroke, and most of which used single parameter—root mean squares (RMS. The aim of this study was to fully investigate the performance of masticatory muscle at different head positions in healthy subjects and brainstem stroke patients with multiparameter EMG analysis. In this study, 15 healthy subjects and six brainstem stroke patients were recruited to conduct maximum voluntary clenching at five different head positions: upright position, left rotation, right rotation, dorsal flexion, and ventral flexion. The EMG signals of bilateral temporalis anterior and masseter muscles were recorded, and parameters including RMS, median frequency, and fuzzy approximate entropy of the EMG signals were calculated. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA with repeated measures and Bonferroni post hoc test were used to evaluate the effects of muscle and head position on EMG parameters in the healthy group, and the non-parametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was conducted in the patient group. The Welch–Satterthwaite t-test was used to compare the between-subject difference. We found a significant effect of subject and muscles but no significant effect of head positions, and the masticatory muscles of patients after brainstem stroke performed significantly different from healthy subjects. Multiparameter EMG analysis might be an informative tool to investigate the neural activity related movement patterns of the deficient masticatory muscles poststroke.

  10. Positive Rates of Preliminary Crossmatches Among Transplantation Candidates Waitlisted for Different Organs in the Korean Network for Organ Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M H; Kim, S; Hwang, H; Park, H; Kwak, J; Kwon, E K; Sung, H Y; Han, B

    2016-09-01

    For deceased-donor organ transplantations, negative T cell crossmatches (XMs) are mandatory for kidney and pancreas allocation in the Korean Network for Organ Sharing (KONOS) organ allocation system. Submission and periodic renewal of serum to the KONOS is required for all transplantation candidates of kidney or pancreas and these sera are distributed to 23 laboratories for preliminary XMs. We have investigated how sensitization status varies among transplantation candidates waitlisted for different organs. Positive rates of T cell XMs performed during recent 1-year period (from March 2014 to February 2015) in the Korea Organ Donation Agency laboratory have been analyzed according to different organs. For 163 cases of deceased donors, 3605 recipients (22.1 recipients per one donor) were crossmatched using both of National Institutes of Health and antihuman globulin complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) methods and flow cytometry method. T cell XM positive rates varied among transplantation candidates for different organs. The positive rate was high for kidney (485/3,145, 15.4%), and low for pancreas or kidney/pancreas (7/200, 3.5%), lung (0/41, 0%), and heart (11/221, 5.0%). Among XM-positive individuals, nearly two-thirds of the kidney transplantation candidates showed strong sensitization status with CDC+/flow+ results (64.5%), whereas pancreas or kidney/pancreas transplantation candidates more commonly showed weaker sensitization status with CDC-/flow+ results (85.7%). Kidney transplantation candidates show a much higher positive rate and stronger sensitization status than candidates for other organs. The results of this study would be useful for determining the number of candidates to be crossmatched for different organs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Health, sexuality and place: the different geographies of HIV-positive gay men in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Jason

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs interview narratives alongside participant-led photography and caption writing to examine the different daily geographies of 15 HIV-positive gay men in Auckland, New Zealand. Difference for these men is rooted in both their HIV status and their sexuality, and this difference has implications for their engagement with the world at a range of spatial and temporal scales. Giving voice to such experiences begins to answer calls for geographers to consider more deeply the connections between health, sexuality and place.

  12. Scapular kinematics pre- and post-thoracic thrust manipulation in individuals with and without shoulder impingement symptoms: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haik, Melina N; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Silva, Caroline Z; Siqueira-Junior, Aristides L; Ribeiro, Ivana L; Camargo, Paula R

    2014-07-01

    Randomized controlled trial with immediate follow-up. To evaluate the immediate effects of a low-amplitude, high-velocity thrust thoracic spine manipulation (TSM) on pain and scapular kinematics during elevation and lowering of the arm in individuals with shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). The secondary objective was to evaluate the immediate effects of TSM on scapular kinematics during elevation and lowering of the arm in individuals without symptoms. Considering the regional interdependence among the shoulder and the thoracic and cervical spines, TSM may improve pain and function in individuals with SIS. Comparing individuals with SIS to those without shoulder pathology may provide information on the effects of TSM specifically in those with SIS. Fifty subjects (mean ± SD age, 31.8 ± 10.9 years) with SIS and 47 subjects (age, 25.8 ± 5.0 years) asymptomatic for shoulder dysfunction were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 interventions: TSM or a sham intervention. Scapular kinematics were analyzed during elevation and lowering of the arm in the sagittal plane, and a numeric pain rating scale was used to assess shoulder pain during arm movement at preintervention and postintervention. For those in the SIS group, shoulder pain was reduced immediately after TSM and the sham intervention (mean ± SD preintervention, 2.9 ± 2.5; postintervention, 2.3 ± 2.5; PShoulder pain in individuals with SIS immediately decreased after a TSM. The observed changes in scapular kinematics following TSM were not considered clinically important. Therapy, level 4. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2014;44(7):475-487. Epub 22 May 2014. doi:10.2519/jospt.2014.4760.

  13. Analysis of C3 suggests three periods of positive selection events and different evolutionary patterns between fish and mammals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanxing Meng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The third complement component (C3 is a central protein of the complement system conserved from fish to mammals. It also showed distinct characteristics in different animal groups. Striking features of the fish complement system were unveiled, including prominent levels of extrahepatic expression and isotypic diversity of the complement components. The evidences of the involvement of complement system in the enhancement of B and T cell responses found in mammals indicated that the complement system also serves as a bridge between the innate and adaptive responses. For the reasons mentioned above, it is interesting to explore the evolutionary process of C3 genes and to investigate whether the huge differences between aquatic and terrestrial environments affected the C3 evolution between fish and mammals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis revealed that these two groups of animals had experienced different evolution patterns. The mammalian C3 genes were under purifying selection pressure while the positive selection pressure was detected in fish C3 genes. Three periods of positive selection events of C3 genes were also detected. Two happened on the ancestral lineages to all vertebrates and mammals, respectively, one happened on early period of fish evolutionary history. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Three periods of positive selection events had happened on C3 genes during history and the fish and mammals C3 genes experience different evolutionary patterns for their distinct living environments.

  14. p16 and p53 in HPV-positive versus HPV-negative oral squamous cell carcinoma: do pathways differ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Vineeta; Husain, Nuzhat; Akhtar, Naseem; Khan, Mohammad Yahia; Sonkar, Abhinav A; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-10-01

    p16 overexpression and wild-type p53 expression are associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) in cervical and oropharyngeal cancer. Role of HPV-related carcinogenesis in the etiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still vague in Indian population. We aimed to explore the expression pattern of p16 and p53 in HPV-positive and HPV-negative OSCC to elicit differences, if any. Further their effect on survival of patients was studied. Thirty-one consecutive HPV-positive as well as 31 age and sex-matched HPV-negative OSCC cases from a case series of 369 histologically diagnosed cases of OSCC were included in this study. HPV was detected by two methods, viz. real-time PCR and conventional PCR in biopsy samples. p16 and p53 protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, and p16 mRNA expression was quantified with real-time PCR using SYBR Green assay. p16 was expressed in six (19.4%) HPV-positive and in four (12.9%) HPV-negative cases. Overall mutant-type p53 expression in 62 OSCC cases was 54.8%. Out of ten p16-positive cases, eight expressed mutant-type p53 and only two cases expressed wild-type p53. Risk factors including oral tobacco consumption and alcohol were present in all these ten p16-positive cases. Survival of patients was not affected by HPV, p16 and p53 status. Presence of mutant-type p53 and exposure to tobacco-related risk factors in both HPV-positive and negative cases suggest existence of p53-related carcinogenesis in HPV-positive cases in Indian population. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Function and position determine relative proportions of different fiber types in limb muscles of the lizard Tropidurus psammonastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Anieli G; Abdala, Virginia; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2015-02-01

    Skeletal muscles can be classified as flexors or extensors according to their function, and as dorsal or ventral according to their position. The latter classification evokes their embryological origin from muscle masses initially divided during limb development, and muscles sharing a given position do not necessarily perform the same function. Here, we compare the relative proportions of different fiber types among six limb muscles in the lizard Tropidurus psammonastes. Individual fibers were classified as slow oxidative (SO), fast glycolytic (FG) or fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) based on mitochondrial content; muscles were classified according to position and function. Mixed linear models considering one or both effects were compared using likelihood ratio tests. Variation in the proportion of FG and FOG fibers is mainly explained by function (flexor muscles have on average lower proportions of FG and higher proportions of FOG fibers), while variation in SO fibers is better explained by position (they are less abundant in ventral muscles than in those developed from a dorsal muscle mass). Our results clarify the roles of position and function in determining the relative proportions of the various muscle fibers and provide evidence that these factors may differentially affect distinct fiber types. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Comparison of virtual reality exergaming and home exercise programs in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome and scapular dyskinesis: Short term effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pekyavas, Nihan Ozunlu; Ergun, Nevin

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the short term effects of home exercise program and virtual reality exergaming in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS). A total of 30 patients with SAIS were randomized into two groups which are Home Exercise Program (EX Group) (mean age: 40.6 ± 11.7 years) and Virtual Reality Exergaming Program (WII Group) (mean age: 40.33 ± 13.2 years). Subjects were assessed at the first session, at the end of the treatment (6 weeks) and at 1 month follow-up. The groups were assessed and compared with Visual Analogue Scale (based on rest, activity and night pain), Neer and Hawkins Tests, Scapular Retraction Test (SRT), Scapular Assistance Test (SAT), Lateral Scapular Slide Test (LSST) and shoulder disability (Shoulder Pain and Disability Index (SPADI)). Intensity of pain was significantly decreased in both groups with the treatment (p < 0.05). The WII Group had significantly better results for all Neer test, SRT and SAT than the EX Group (p < 0.05). Virtual reality exergaming programs with these programs were found more effective than home exercise programs at short term in subjects with SAIS. Level I, Therapeutic study. Copyright © 2017 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Adaptive myoelectric pattern recognition for arm movement in different positions using advanced online sequential extreme learning machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anam, Khairul; Al-Jumaily, Adel

    2016-08-01

    The performance of the myoelectric pattern recognition system sharply decreases when working in various limb positions. The issue can be solved by cumbersome training procedure that can anticipate all possible future situations. However, this procedure will sacrifice the comfort of the user. In addition, many unpredictable scenarios may be met in the future. This paper proposed a new adaptive myoelectric pattern recognition using advance online sequential extreme learning (AOS-ELM) for classification of the hand movements to five different positions. AOS-ELM is an improvement of OS-ELM that can verify the adaptation validity using entropy. The proposed adaptive MPR was able to classify eight different classes from eleven subjects by accuracy of 95.42 % using data from one position. After learning the data from whole positions, the performance of the proposed system is 86.13 %. This performance was better than the MPR that employed original OS-ELM, but it was worse than the MPR that utilized the batch classifiers. Nevertheless, the adaptation mechanism of AOS-ELM is preferred in the real-time application.

  18. How bumblebees use lateral and ventral optic flow cues for position control in environments of different proximity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linander, Nellie; Baird, Emily; Dacke, Marie

    2017-05-01

    Flying insects frequently navigate through environments of different complexity. In this study, buff-tailed bumblebees (Bombus terrestris L.) were trained to fly along tunnels of different widths, from 60 to 240 cm. In tunnel widths of 60 and 120 cm, bumblebees control their lateral position by balancing the magnitude of translational optic flow experienced in the lateral visual field of each eye. In wider tunnels, bumblebees use translational optic flow cues in the ventral visual field to control their lateral position and to steer along straight tracks. Our results also suggest that bumblebees prefer to fly over surfaces that provide strong ventral optic flow cues, rather than over featureless ones. Together, these strategies allow bumblebees to minimize the risk of collision and to maintain relatively straight flight paths in a broad range of environments.

  19. Differences in the origins of kinetochore-positive and kinetochore-negative micronuclei: A live cell imaging study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Erkang, E-mail: erkangj@ustc.edu.cn

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Most Kinetochore-negative micronuclei were derived from kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes and fragments of broken chromosome bridges in mitosis of MN-free cells. • Most Kinetochore-positive micronuclei were derived from kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-positive lagging chromosomes and fragments of broken chromosome bridges in mitosis of MN-free cells. • Kinetochore-positive lagging chromosomes developed into kinetochore-positive micronuclei at the higher frequency than kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes, kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes developed into kinetochore-negative micronuclei at the higher rate than kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes and broken chromosome bridges produced K−MNi and/or K+MNi. - Abstract: Micronuclei (MNi) are extensively used to evaluate genotoxicity and chromosomal instability. Classification of kinetochore-negative (K−MNi) and kinetochore-positive micronuclei (K+MNi) improves the specificity and sensitivity of the micronucleus (MN) test; however, the fundamental differences in the origins of K−MNi and K+MNi have not been addressed due to the limitations of traditional methods. In the current study, HeLa CENP B-GFP H2B-mCherry cells were constructed in which histone 2B (H2B) and centromere protein B (CENP B) were expressed as fusion proteins to monomeric Cherry (mCherry) and EGFP, respectively. MNi were identified using H2B-mCherry; K+MN contained CENP B-GFP, while K−MN did not. Long-term live cell imaging was conducted to examine MN formation in the dual-color fluorescent HeLa cells. The results suggested that K−MNi were derived from kinetochore-negative displaced chromosomes (K−DCs), kinetochore-negative lagging chromosomes (K−LCs) and fragments of broken chromosome bridges (CBs) during late mitotic stages. The results also indicated that K+MNi are derived from kinetochore-positive displaced chromosomes (K

  20. Linking the Positivity Effect in Attention with Affective Outcomes: Age Group Differences and the Role of Arousal

    OpenAIRE

    Cathleen Kappes; Berit Streubel; Kezia L. Droste; Kristian Folta-Schoofs

    2017-01-01

    Despite its assumed importance for emotional well-being, studies investigating the positivity effect (PE) in older adults’ information processing rarely tested its relationship with immediate or general affective outcome measures like emotional reactivity or emotional well-being. Moreover, the arousal level of the to-be-processed emotional stimuli has rarely been taken into account as a moderator for the occurrence of the PE and its relationship with affective outcomes. Age group differences ...

  1. Repeated-Sprint Ability in Division I Collegiate Male Soccer Players: Positional Differences and Relationships with Performance Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Moreno, Matthew R; Orjalo, Ashley J; Stage, Alyssa A; Liu, Tricia M; Birmingham-Babauta, Samantha A; Hurley, Jillian M; Torne, Ibett A; Beiley, Megan D; Risso, Fabrice G; Davis, DeShaun L; Lazar, Adrina; Stokes, John J; Giuliano, Dominic V

    2017-10-16

    Repeated-sprint ability (RSA) in essential for soccer. Important considerations when assessing RSA is whether there are differences between positions (defenders, midfielders, forwards), and what physiological characteristics may contribute to RSA. This has not been assessed in collegiate male players. Eighteen Division I male field players from one school performed several performance tests. The RSA test involved 7 x 30-m sprints completed on 20-s cycles. Measurements included total time (TT), and performance decrement (percent change in time from the first to last sprint; PD). Subjects also completed tests of lower-body power (vertical [VJ] and standing broad [SBJ] jump); linear (30-m sprint; 0-5, 0-10, 0-30 m intervals) and change-of-direction (505) speed; and soccer-specific endurance (Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 2; YYIRT2). A one-way ANOVA (p RSA TT and PD with the other tests. There were no significant between-position differences for any test. There were large effects for the faster right-leg 505 and greater YYIRT2 distance for midfielders compared to defenders and forwards. Nonetheless, no between-position differences in RSA TT and PD were documented. There were relationships between RSA TT and the VJ (r = -0.59), SBJ (r = -0.61), 0-10 m (r = 0.64) and 0-30 m (r = 0.83) sprint intervals. There were no significant correlations for RSA PD. Male field players from one collegiate soccer team can demonstrate similar RSA across different positions. Greater lower-body power and sprinting speed could augment RSA.

  2. Positive solutions of boundary value problem for singular positone and semi-positone third-order difference equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai Gongqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article studies the boundary value problems for the third-order nonlinear singular difference equations Δ 3 u ( i - 2 + λ a ( i f ( i , u ( i = 0 , i ∈ [ 2 , T + 2 ] , satisfying five kinds of different boundary value conditions. This article shows the existence of positive solutions for positone and semi-positone type. The nonlinear term may be singular. Two examples are also given to illustrate the main results. The arguments are based upon fixed point theorems in a cone. MSC [2008]: 34B15; 39A10.

  3. Different proximal thoracic curve patterns have different relative positions of esophagus to spine in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Mao, Saihu; Zhao, Qinghua; Liu, Zhen; Qian, Bangping; Zhu, Feng; Qiu, Yong

    2012-02-01

    A computed tomography (CT) study. To evaluate the changed relative positions of esophagus in proximal thoracic (PT) curves of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients and analyze the potential risks of esophageal injuries from thoracic pedicle screw (TPS) insertion. Translation and rotation of the vertebrae could lead to altered relative positions of surrounding vital structures in AIS patients. The changed positions of aorta and spinal cord in main thoracic (MT) curve have been comprehensively investigated; however, no studies have analyzed the relative position of esophagus in PT curve. Twenty patients with complete proximal thoracic (CPT group) curve, 22 patients with fractional proximal thoracic (FPT group) curve, and 14 normal patients with a straight spine (normal group) were included. Axial CT images from T2 to T5 at the midvertebral body level were obtained to evaluate esophagus-vertebral angle (EVA, defined as 0° when the esophagus was located directly lateral to the left, 90° when strictly anterior, and 180° when directly lateral to the right). The percentages of esophagus in the direction of screw passage were calculated to analyze potential risks of esophageal injuries during TPS insertion. EVA in the FPT group was significantly smaller than that in the normal group (P spine and result in different potential risks of esophageal injuries during TPS insertion. Spine surgeons should choose appropriate pedicle screw length to avoid anterior cortical perforation in the PT region of AIS patients.

  4. Irreproducible positive results on the Cobas AmpliPrep/Cobas TaqMan HIV-1 Qual test are different qualitatively from confirmed positive results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maritz, Jean; van Zyl, Gert U; Preiser, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Criteria that define low positive results on the COBAS® AmpliPrep/COBAS® TaqMan (CAP/CTM) HIV-1 Qual test as inconclusive have been adopted by all academic centres in South Africa that conduct infant HIV PCR, following previous investigations that showed poor specificity of these results. Retesting all inconclusive specimens has considerable cost implications. Therefore, it was attempted to characterise such inconclusive results, by comparing those that prove to be either negative or positive on follow-up testing. This retrospective, laboratory-based study found that 193 of 211 (91.5%) patients with previous inconclusive results (defined as reported positive by CAP/CTM but with cycle threshold [Ct ] values of >32 and/or fluorescence intensity [FI] values of positive using independently obtained follow-up samples after a median of 28 days. The only significant independent predictor of a later positive result was a higher FI value (3.326 vs. 0.495, P positives. As the lower FI values in false-positive compared to true-positive results probably are indicative of a non-specific signal, the incorporation of stringent amplification slope criteria in the assay's test definition file may improve correct classification and thus reduce the need for repeat testing of a large number of inconclusive specimens. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparison of Conductor-Temperature Calculations Based on Different Radial-Position-Temperature Detections for High-Voltage Power Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Yang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the calculation of the conductor temperature is related to the temperature sensor position in high-voltage power cables and four thermal circuits—based on the temperatures of insulation shield, the center of waterproof compound, the aluminum sheath, and the jacket surface are established to calculate the conductor temperature. To examine the effectiveness of conductor temperature calculations, simulation models based on flow characteristics of the air gap between the waterproof compound and the aluminum are built up, and thermocouples are placed at the four radial positions in a 110 kV cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE insulated power cable to measure the temperatures of four positions. In measurements, six cases of current heating test under three laying environments, such as duct, water, and backfilled soil were carried out. Both errors of the conductor temperature calculation and the simulation based on the temperature of insulation shield were significantly smaller than others under all laying environments. It is the uncertainty of the thermal resistivity, together with the difference of the initial temperature of each radial position by the solar radiation, which led to the above results. The thermal capacitance of the air has little impact on errors. The thermal resistance of the air gap is the largest error source. Compromising the temperature-estimation accuracy and the insulation-damage risk, the waterproof compound is the recommended sensor position to improve the accuracy of conductor-temperature calculation. When the thermal resistances were calculated correctly, the aluminum sheath is also the recommended sensor position besides the waterproof compound.

  6. Cognitive "babyness": developmental differences in the power of young children's supernatural thinking to influence positive and negative affect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Periss, Virginia; Blasi, Carlos Hernández; Bjorklund, David F

    2012-09-01

    Perceptions of maturational status may play an important role in facilitating caretaking and resources toward children expressing them. Previous work has revealed evidence that cues of cognitive immaturity foster positive perceptions in adults toward young children at a time during their lives when they are most dependent on adult care. In the current series of studies, the authors investigated when during development these biases emerge. They tested American and Spanish adolescents ranging from 10 to 17 years of age. Each participant rated a series of vignettes presenting different expressions of immature and mature thinking attributed to young children. Results revealed that older adolescents performed similarly to adults tested in previous studies (D. F. Bjorklund, C. Hernández Blasi, & V. A. Periss, 2010), rating positively expressions of supernatural thinking (e.g., animism) compared with other forms of immature cognition labeled as natural (e.g., overestimation). Both male and female participants 14 years and older favored children expressing the immature supernatural cognition on traits reflecting positive affect (e.g., endearing, likeable), while associating greater negative affect (e.g., sneaky, impatient with) with children expressing immature natural cognition. However, younger adolescents consistently rated all forms of immature thinking less positively than mature thinking, suggesting that a positive bias for some forms of immature thinking develops during adolescence. Based on an evolutionary developmental framework, the authors suggest that supernatural thinking may have a unique role in humans, fostering positive perceptions of young children in older adolescents (and adults) as they prepare themselves for the possible role of parenthood. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Autonomic activity and biomarker behavior in supine position and after passive postural stress in different orthostatic intolerance syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, João; Azevedo, Elsa; Santos, Rosa; Maciel, Maria Júlia; Rocha-Gonçalves, Francisco

    2015-09-01

    Orthostatic intolerance (OI) syndromes are a confusing topic and determining a specific diagnosis to achieve optimal treatment can be troublesome. We sought to assess biomarker, hemodynamic and autonomic variables in OI patients (autonomic dysfunction [AD], postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome [POTS] and neurally mediated syncope [NMS]) and healthy controls during supine and head-up tilt position in order to achieve a better diagnosis. In response to head-up tilt, patients with AD presented a marked decrease in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (p=0.002), and a blunted increase in heart rate (HR) (p=0.04). Baroreceptor gain was almost absent in supine position and did not change in response to tilt. Patients with POTS had lower values of atrial natriuretic peptide (p=0.03) but similar neurohormonal biomarkers and hemodynamic and baroreceptor function in supine position compared to healthy subjects. However, in response to head-up tilting greater reductions in stroke volume (p=0.008) and baroreceptor gain (p=0.002) and greater rises in HR (p=0.001), total peripheral resistance (p=0.008), low frequency component of SBP variability (LF-SBP) (p=0.003) and plasma noradrenaline (p=0.03) were observed. Patients with NCS had similar biomarkers and autonomic indices to healthy subjects in supine position, but a larger decrease in baroreceptor gain (p=0.007) and a greater rise in LF-SBP (p=0.004) and plasma adrenaline (p=0.003) response to head-up tilting. Although different OI syndromes share similar symptoms, including blurred vision, syncope and dizziness particularly during orthostatism, they differ markedly regarding biochemical, autonomic and hemodynamic parameters. Assessment of these differences may be helpful for better diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  8. Pelvic floor muscle strength evaluation in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Orsi Gameiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The aim of this study was to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM strength in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity. Materials and Methods Fifty healthy nulliparous women with mean age of 23 years were prospectively studied. Subjective evaluation of PFM was assessed by transvaginal digital palpation (TDP of anterior and posterior areas regarding the vaginal introitus. A perineometer with inflatable vaginal probe was used to assess the PFM strength in four different positions: supine with extended lower limbs (P1; bent-knee supine (P2; sitting (P3; standing (P4. Results Physical activity, 3 times per week, was reported by 58% of volunteers. Sexual activity was observed in 80% of women and 82% of them presented orgasm. The average body mass index (BMI was 21.76 kg/m2, considered as normal according World Health Organization (WHO. We observed that 68% of volunteers were conscious about the PFM contraction. TDP showed concordance of 76% when anterior and posterior areas were compared (p = 0.00014. There was not correlation between PFM strength and orgasm in subjective evaluation. The PFM strength was significantly higher in standing position when compared with the other positions (p < 0.000. No statistical difference was observed between orgasm and PFM strength when objective evaluations were performed. Conclusions There was concordance between anterior and posterior areas in 76% of cases when subjective PFM strength was assessed. In objective evaluation, higher PFM strength was observed when volunteers were standing. No statistical correlation was observed between PFM strength and orgasm in nulliparous healthy women.

  9. Different distribution of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like in children’s urinary bladders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Danilewicz

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available We describe the presence of c-kit positive interstitial cells of Cajal-like (ICCs-like in the walls of the urinary bladders of children. An immunohistochemical study of specimens, obtained at autopsy from either the trigonum (Group A or the corpus (Group B, was performed using antibodies against c-kit (CD 117. Histological morphometry of the immunoexpression of c-kit positive ICCs-like was performed by means of image analysis system. The c-kit positive ICCs-like were identified by their morphology and counted in the vesical muscle layer in ten adjacent high power fields, each of 0.0479 mm2. The areas of the epithelial and subepithelial layers containing c-kit positive mast cells (rounded body with no dendritic processes were neglected. The results were expressed as the number of ICCs-like cells per mm2. Differences between groups were tested using unpaired Student’s t-test preceded by evaluation of normality and Levene’s test. Results were considered statistically significant if p < 0.05. In Group A, the mean number of ICCs-like cells was statistically significantly higher (41.5 cells/mm2 than in Group B (30.4 cells/mm2, p < 0.05. ICCs-like cells were found within the smooth muscle layer of the urinary bladder. There was a different distribution of these cells in particular parts of the bladder, which was probably due to the different roles of the trigonum and the corpus in the bladders of children. (Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica 2011; Vol. 49, No. 3, pp. 431–435

  10. Pelvic floor muscle strength evaluation in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Mônica Orsi; Miraglia, Luciana; Gameiro, Luiz Felipe Orsi; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Amaro, João Luiz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess pelvic floor muscle (PFM) strength in different body positions in nulliparous healthy women and its correlation with sexual activity. Fifty healthy nulliparous women with mean age of 23 years were prospectively studied. Subjective evaluation of PFM was assessed by transvaginal digital palpation (TDP) of anterior and posterior areas regarding the vaginal introitus. A perineometer with inflatable vaginal probe was used to assess the PFM strength in four different positions: supine with extended lower limbs (P1); bent-knee supine (P2); sitting (P3); standing (P4). Physical activity, 3 times per week, was reported by 58% of volunteers. Sexual activity was observed in 80% of women and 82% of them presented orgasm. The average body mass index (BMI) was 21.76 kg/m2, considered as normal according World Health Organization (WHO). We observed that 68% of volunteers were conscious about the PFM contraction. TDP showed concordance of 76% when anterior and posterior areas were compared (p = 0.00014). There was not correlation between PFM strength and orgasm in subjective evaluation. The PFM strength was significantly higher in standing position when compared with the other positions (p < 0.000). No statistical difference was observed between orgasm and PFM strength when objective evaluations were performed. There was concordance between anterior and posterior areas in 76% of cases when subjective PFM strength was assessed. In objective evaluation, higher PFM strength was observed when volunteers were standing. No statistical correlation was observed between PFM strength and orgasm in nulliparous healthy women.

  11. Direct comparison of the different conventional laparoscopic positions with the ethos surgical platform in a laparoscopic pelvic surgery simulation setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gözen, Ali Serdar; Tokas, Theodoros; Tschada, Alexandra; Jalal, Akbar; Klein, Jan; Rassweiler, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Laparoscopic surgery can be harmful to surgeons requiring a prolonged learning curve due to significant ergonomic drawbacks. Based on preliminary clinical experience, we present an experimental evaluation of the second-generation ETHOS™ operating chair by comparing it with two different operating positions of conventional laparoscopic pelvic surgery. The ETHOS operation platform consists of a seat like a saddle and five more parts that can be adjusted individually to support the surgeon's trunk and extremities. This operation platform was tested in 30 trainees who performed three standard suturing exercises in a pelvitrainer, approximating a linear and a U-shaped incision, made on the skin of a chicken leg, and completing an urethrovesical anastomosis, on a pig bladder specimen model, using interrupted sutures. The trainees performed each exercise in standing laterally to pelvitrainer (torero position) vs standing behind pelvi-trainer and sitting on ETHOS. The mean values, from all times and for each exercise and position, were documented, and the participants filled out a validated questionnaire focusing on ergonomic issues. There were no significant differences among the different training modalities, in step 1 and step 2. However, in step 3, which mimics the urethrovesical anastomosis, the mean times were statistically significant significantly less by using ETHOS (pETHOS. The position that was maintained, during the exercises, was mainly responsible for the improvement noted in the ergonomic scores. The new operating platform (ETHOS chair) can significantly improve ergonomics in laparoscopy particularly concerning difficult steps like intracorporeal suturing. This may also improve the urethrovesical anastomosis times in a clinical setting.

  12. Adaptive evolution of the spike gene of SARS coronavirus: changes in positively selected sites in different epidemic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Shao-Heng

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is believed that animal-to-human transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS coronavirus (CoV is the cause of the SARS outbreak worldwide. The spike (S protein is one of the best characterized proteins of SARS-CoV, which plays a key role in SARS-CoV overcoming species barrier and accomplishing interspecies transmission from animals to humans, suggesting that it may be the major target of selective pressure. However, the process of adaptive evolution of S protein and the exact positively selected sites associated with this process remain unknown. Results By investigating the adaptive evolution of S protein, we identified twelve amino acid sites (75, 239, 244, 311, 479, 609, 613, 743, 765, 778, 1148, and 1163 in the S protein under positive selective pressure. Based on phylogenetic tree and epidemiological investigation, SARS outbreak was divided into three epidemic groups: 02–04 interspecies, 03-early-mid, and 03-late epidemic groups in the present study. Positive selection was detected in the first two groups, which represent the course of SARS-CoV interspecies transmission and of viral adaptation to human host, respectively. In contrast, purifying selection was detected in 03-late group. These indicate that S protein experiences variable positive selective pressures before reaching stabilization. A total of 25 sites in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group and 16 sites in 03-early-mid epidemic group were identified under positive selection. The identified sites were different between these two groups except for site 239, which suggests that positively selected sites are changeable between groups. Moreover, it was showed that a larger proportion (24% of positively selected sites was located in receptor-binding domain (RBD than in heptad repeat (HR1-HR2 region in 02–04 interspecies epidemic group (p = 0.0208, and a greater percentage (25% of these sites occurred in HR1–HR2 region than in RBD in 03-early

  13. Ability of different screening tools to predict positive effect on nutritional intervention among the elderly in primary health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Anne Marie; Beermann, Tina; Kjær, Stine; Rasmussen, Henrik Højgaard

    2013-01-01

    Routine identification of nutritional risk screening is paramount as the first stage in nutritional treatment of the elderly. The major focus of former validation studies of screening tools has been on the ability to predict undernutrition. The aim of this study was to validate Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form (MNA-SF), the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST), the Nutritional Risk Screening 2002 (NRS-2002), Body Mass Index (BMI) nutritional intervention among old people in primary health care, in order to evaluate whether they were capable of distinguishing those with a positive benefit from those that showed no benefit of nutritional intervention. The methods used were a literature search; classification of participants with respect to nutritional risk according to the different nutritional screening tools; and validation (i.e., evaluation of whether the different tools were capable of distinguishing those with a positive benefit from those that showed no benefit of nutritional intervention by assessing the positive [PPV] and negative [NPV] predictive values). MNA-SF, NRS-2002, BMI nutritional intervention. The findings should be confirmed in further validation and intervention studies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mortality risk and social network position in resident killer whales: sex differences and the importance of resource abundance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, S; Franks, D W; Nattrass, S; Cant, M A; Weiss, M N; Giles, D; Balcomb, K C; Croft, D P

    2017-10-25

    An individual's ecological environment affects their mortality risk, which in turn has fundamental consequences for life-history evolution. In many species, social relationships are likely to be an important component of an individual's environment, and therefore their mortality risk. Here, we examine the relationship between social position and mortality risk in resident killer whales ( Orcinus orca ) using over three decades of social and demographic data. We find that the social position of male, but not female, killer whales in their social unit predicts their mortality risk. More socially integrated males have a significantly lower risk of mortality than socially peripheral males, particularly in years of low prey abundance, suggesting that social position mediates access to resources. Male killer whales are larger and require more resources than females, increasing their vulnerability to starvation in years of low salmon abundance. More socially integrated males are likely to have better access to social information and food-sharing opportunities which may enhance their survival in years of low salmon abundance. Our results show that observable variation in the social environment is linked to variation in mortality risk, and highlight how sex differences in social effects on survival may be linked to sex differences in life-history evolution. © 2017 The Authors.

  15. Rehabilitation Exercises to Induce Balanced Scapular Muscle Activity in an Anti-gravity Posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishigaki, Tomonobu; Yamanaka, Masanori; Hirokawa, Motoki; Tai, Keita; Ezawa, Yuya; Samukawa, Mina; Tohyama, Harukazu; Sugawara, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to compare the intramuscular balance ratios of the upper trapezius muscle (UT) and the lower trapezius muscle (LT), and the intermuscular balance ratios of the UT and the serratus anterior muscle (SA) among prone extension (ProExt), prone horizontal abduction with external rotation (ProHAbd), forward flexion in the side-lying position (SideFlex), side-lying external rotation (SideEr), shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal abduction load (FlexBand), and shoulder flexion with glenohumeral horizontal adduction load (FlexBall) in the standing posture. [Methods] The electromyographic (EMG) activities of the UT, LT and SA were measured during the tasks. The percentage of maximum voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC) was calculated for each muscle, and the UT/LT ratios and the UT/SA ratios were compared among the tasks. [Results] The UT/LT ratio with the FlexBand was not significantly different from those of the four exercises in the side-lying and prone postures. The UT/SA ratio with the FlexBall demonstrated appropriate balanced activity. [Conclusion] In an anti-gravity posture, we recommend the FlexBand and the FlexBall for inducing balanced UT/LT and UT/SA ratios, respectively.

  16. Influence of patient position and other inherent factors on image quality in two different cone beam computed tomography (CBCT devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninita Lindfors

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate how a deviation from the horizontal plane, affects the image quality in two different CBCT-devices. Methods: A phantom head SK150 (RANDO, The Phantom Laboratory, Salem, NY, USA was examined in two CBCT-units: Accuitomo 80 and Veraviewepocs 3D R100 (J. Morita Mfg. Corp. Kyoto, Japan. The phantom head was placed with the hard palate parallel to the horizontal plane and tilted 20 ° backwards. Exposures were performed with different field of views (FOVs, voxel sizes, slice thicknesses and exposure settings. Effective dose was calculated using PCXMC 2.0 (STUK, Helsinki, Finland. Image quality was assessed using contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR. Region of interest (ROI was set at three different levels of the mandibular bone and soft tissue, uni- and bilaterally in small and large FOVs, respectively. CNR values were calculated by CT-value and standard deviation for each ROI. Factor analysis was used to analyze the material. Results: Tilting the phantom head backwards rendered significantly higher mean CNR values regardless of FOV. The effective dose was lower in small than in large FOVs and varied to a larger extent between CBCT-devices in large FOVs. Conclusions: Head position can affect the image quality. Tilting the head backward improved image quality in the mandibular region. However, if influenced by other variables e.g. motion artifacts in a clinical situation, remains to be further investigated. Advances in knowledge: Image quality assessed using CNR values to investigate the influence of different patient positions and FOVs. Keywords: Image quality, CBCT, Radiation dose, Patient position, FOV

  17. Effect of different substitution position on the switching behavior in single-molecule device with carbon nanotube electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingjuan; Han, Xiaoxiao; Yuan, Peipei; Bian, Baoan; Wang, Yixiang

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the electronic transport properties of dihydroazulene (DHA) and vinylheptafulvene (VHF) molecule sandwiched between two carbon nanotubes using density functional theory and non-equilibrium Green's function. The device displays significantly switching behavior between DHA and VHF isomerizations. It is found the different substitution position of F in the molecule influences the switching ratio of device, which is analyzed by transmission spectra and molecular projected self-consistent Hamiltonian. The observed negative differential resistance effect is explained by transmission spectra and transmission eigenstates of transmission peak in the bias window. The observed reverse of current in VHF form in which two H atoms on the right side of the benzene ring of the molecule are replaced by F is explained by transmission spectra and molecule-electrode coupling with the varied bias. The results suggest that the reasonable substitution position of molecule may improve the switching ratio, displaying a potential application in future molecular circuit.

  18. Different Roles of Negative and Positive Components of the Circadian Clock in Oncogene-induced Neoplastic Transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katamune, Chiharu; Koyanagi, Satoru; Shiromizu, Shoya; Matsunaga, Naoya; Shimba, Shigeki; Shibata, Shigenobu; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2016-05-13

    In mammals, circadian rhythms in physiological function are generated by a molecular oscillator driven by transcriptional-translational feedback loop consisting of negative and positive regulators. Disruption of this circadian clock machinery is thought to increase the risk of cancer development, but the potential contributions of each component of circadian clock to oncogenesis have been little explored. Here we reported that negative and positive transcriptional regulators of circadian feedback loop had different roles in oncogene-induced neoplastic transformation. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from animals deficient in negative circadian clock regulators, Period2 (Per2) or Cryptochrome1/2 (Cry1/2), were prone to transformation induced by co-expression of H-ras(V12) and SV40 large T antigen (SV40LT). In contrast, mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from mice deficient in positive circadian clock regulators, Bmal1 or Clock, showed resistance to oncogene-induced transformation. In Per2 mutant and Cry1/2-null cells, the introduction of oncogenes induced expression of ATF4, a potent repressor of cell senescence-associated proteins p16INK4a and p19ARF. Elevated levels of ATF4 were sufficient to suppress expression of these proteins and drive oncogenic transformation. Conversely, in Bmal1-null and Clock mutant cells, the expression of ATF4 was not induced by oncogene introduction, which allowed constitutive expression of p16INK4a and p19ARF triggering cellular senescence. Although genetic ablation of either negative or positive transcriptional regulators of the circadian clock leads to disrupted rhythms in physiological functions, our findings define their different contributions to neoplastic cellular transformation. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Different Roles of Negative and Positive Components of the Circadian Clock in Oncogene-induced Neoplastic Transformation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katamune, Chiharu; Koyanagi, Satoru; Shiromizu, Shoya; Matsunaga, Naoya; Shimba, Shigeki; Shibata, Shigenobu; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, circadian rhythms in physiological function are generated by a molecular oscillator driven by transcriptional-translational feedback loop consisting of negative and positive regulators. Disruption of this circadian clock machinery is thought to increase the risk of cancer development, but the potential contributions of each component of circadian clock to oncogenesis have been little explored. Here we reported that negative and positive transcriptional regulators of circadian feedback loop had different roles in oncogene-induced neoplastic transformation. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from animals deficient in negative circadian clock regulators, Period2 (Per2) or Cryptochrome1/2 (Cry1/2), were prone to transformation induced by co-expression of H-rasV12 and SV40 large T antigen (SV40LT). In contrast, mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from mice deficient in positive circadian clock regulators, Bmal1 or Clock, showed resistance to oncogene-induced transformation. In Per2 mutant and Cry1/2-null cells, the introduction of oncogenes induced expression of ATF4, a potent repressor of cell senescence-associated proteins p16INK4a and p19ARF. Elevated levels of ATF4 were sufficient to suppress expression of these proteins and drive oncogenic transformation. Conversely, in Bmal1-null and Clock mutant cells, the expression of ATF4 was not induced by oncogene introduction, which allowed constitutive expression of p16INK4a and p19ARF triggering cellular senescence. Although genetic ablation of either negative or positive transcriptional regulators of the circadian clock leads to disrupted rhythms in physiological functions, our findings define their different contributions to neoplastic cellular transformation. PMID:26961881

  20. Detection of Placental Proteomes at Different Uterine Positions in Large White and Meishan Gilts on Gestational Day 90.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Che

    Full Text Available Within-litter uniformity in pigs is a major factor affecting piglet survival and growth performance. We know that Meishan (MS gilts have higher piglet survival rate than Large White (LW gilts because their foetal weight is less varied. To understand the molecular basis for placental nutritional transport during the late stages of gestation in LW and MS, we employed the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ method to investigate alterations in the placental proteomes of LW and MS gilts on gestational day 90. Investigation of foetal weight at different uterine positions revealed that the foetal and placental weights as well as the foetal concentration of glucose were significantly higher in LW gilts positioned towards the utero-tubal junction than in those positioned toward the cervix; however, no such differences were observed in MS gilts, and MS gilts had a greater uniformity in foetal weight on day 90 of gestation. Comparisons of the proteomes between placentas positioned toward the cervix and those positioned toward the utero-tubal junction identified 38 differentially expressed proteins in the two breeds. These proteins play a central role in nutrient transport and metabolism, as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation. Of particular interest is the finding that the placentas of LW gilts showed 14 differential expression of proteins mainly related to lipid transport and energy metabolism (including solute carrier family 27, mitochondrial trifunctional protein, and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 2, but only 2 proteins in MS gilts. In contrast, the differentially expressed proteins in MS gilts were primarily involved in transcriptional and translational regulation (such as ribosome-sec61 and 40S ribosomal protein S23, with a few related to glucose and coenzyme transport and metabolism (including glucose transport protein and ferrochelatase. Our results revealed that placental lipid and

  1. Detection of Placental Proteomes at Different Uterine Positions in Large White and Meishan Gilts on Gestational Day 90.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Long; Xu, Mengmeng; Yang, Zhenguo; Xu, Shengyu; Che, Lianqiang; Lin, Yan; Fang, Zhengfeng; Feng, Bin; Li, Jian; Chen, Daiwen; Wu, De

    2016-01-01

    Within-litter uniformity in pigs is a major factor affecting piglet survival and growth performance. We know that Meishan (MS) gilts have higher piglet survival rate than Large White (LW) gilts because their foetal weight is less varied. To understand the molecular basis for placental nutritional transport during the late stages of gestation in LW and MS, we employed the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) method to investigate alterations in the placental proteomes of LW and MS gilts on gestational day 90. Investigation of foetal weight at different uterine positions revealed that the foetal and placental weights as well as the foetal concentration of glucose were significantly higher in LW gilts positioned towards the utero-tubal junction than in those positioned toward the cervix; however, no such differences were observed in MS gilts, and MS gilts had a greater uniformity in foetal weight on day 90 of gestation. Comparisons of the proteomes between placentas positioned toward the cervix and those positioned toward the utero-tubal junction identified 38 differentially expressed proteins in the two breeds. These proteins play a central role in nutrient transport and metabolism, as well as in transcriptional and translational regulation. Of particular interest is the finding that the placentas of LW gilts showed 14 differential expression of proteins mainly related to lipid transport and energy metabolism (including solute carrier family 27, mitochondrial trifunctional protein, and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 2), but only 2 proteins in MS gilts. In contrast, the differentially expressed proteins in MS gilts were primarily involved in transcriptional and translational regulation (such as ribosome-sec61 and 40S ribosomal protein S23), with a few related to glucose and coenzyme transport and metabolism (including glucose transport protein and ferrochelatase). Our results revealed that placental lipid and energy metabolism

  2. Dorsal Scapular Artery Variations and Relationship to the Brachial Plexus, and a Related Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verenna, Anne-Marie A; Alexandru, Daniela; Karimi, Afshin; Brown, Justin M; Bove, Geoffrey M; Daly, Frank J; Pastore, Anthony M; Pearson, Helen E; Barbe, Mary F

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Knowledge of the relationship of the dorsal scapular artery (DSA) with the brachial plexus is limited. Objective We report a case of a variant DSA path, and revisit DSA origins and under-investigated relationship with the plexus in cadavers. Methods The DSA was examined in a male patient and 106 cadavers. Results In the case, we observed an unusual DSA compressing the lower plexus trunk, that resulted in intermittent radiating pain and paresthesia. In the cadavers, the DSA originated most commonly from the subclavian artery (71%), with 35% from the thyrocervical trunk. Nine sides of eight cadavers (seven females) had two DSA branches per side, with one branch from each origin. The most typical DSA path was a subclavian artery origin before passing between upper and middle brachial plexus trunks (40% of DSAs), versus between middle and lower trunks (23%), or inferior (4%) or superior to the plexus (1%). Following a thyrocervical trunk origin, the DSA passed most frequently superior to the plexus (23%), versus between middle and lower trunks (6%) or upper and middle trunks (4%). Bilateral symmetry in origin and path through the brachial plexus was observed in 13 of 35 females (37%) and 6 of 17 males (35%), with the most common bilateral finding of a subclavian artery origin and a path between upper and middle trunks (17%). Conclusion Variability in the relationship between DSA and trunks of the brachial plexus has surgical and clinical implications, such as diagnosis of thoracic outlet syndrome.

  3. [Case control study on postoperative rehabilitation of patellar fracture by modified seated position of different knee flexion angles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Bing; Xu, Qiang; Zheng, Jin-Wen; Tang, Cheng-Jie; Chen, Xing-Yu

    2015-04-01

    To explore the clinical results of postoperative rehabilitation of patellar fracture by modified seated position of different knee flexion angles, thereby enrich the therapeutic tool of orthopaedics of traditional Chinese and western medicine and provide the evidences for refinement and modernization of traditional Chinese exercise therapy. From January 2009 to June 2012,90 patients with patellar transverse fractures were treated with open reduction and internal fixation by tension band wire and rehabilitation exercises. There were 52 males and 38 females, aged from 21 to 77 years old with an average of 50.0 years old. Three methods of rehabilitation exercises were adopted in the patients after fractures clinical union. There were 21 males and 14 females in group A (trained by modified seated position of knee flexion about 60 degree), 21 males and 14 females in group B (trained by modified seated position of knee flexion about 30 degree), 10 males and 10 females in group C (trained by walk). The rehabilitation-training time was 1 month. Fracture healing informations were observed by X-ray films. The Böstman patellar fracture function scores were compared before and after training among three groups. Postoperative follow-up time was 6 months. All fractures obtained bone union and the average healing time was 3 months (ranged,2 to 4 months). Böstman patellar fracture function scores in group A, B, C before training were 18.89 ± 2.19, 18.74 ± 2.03, 18.85 ± 2.92, respectively; there was no significant differences in among three groups (P > 0.05). After training, Böstman patellar fracture function scores in group A, B, C were 29.40 ± 1.14, 26.09 ± 3.86, 25.70 ± 4.09, respectively; group A was highest than other two groups; and there was no significant differences between group A and group B. Modified seated position of knee flexion about 60 degree was practical and effective training in postoperative rehabilitation for the treatment of patellar fracture, it can

  4. Positive body image: inter-ethnic and rural-urban differences among an indigenous sample from Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Kannan, Kumaraswami; Furnham, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Previous studies examining body image from a cross-cultural perspective have tended to neglect samples from different ethnic groups or along a rural-urban continuum. To overcome this limitation, the present study examined positive body image among rural and urban women from three major indigenous ethnic groups in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 202 women completed the Body Appreciation Scale, as well as measures of media exposure and financial security, and provided their demographic details. s showed that there were significant rural-urban differences in body appreciation, with rural participants having significantly higher body appreciation than urban participants. A comparison with a previous data set of West Malaysian women (Swami & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2008) showed that the current urban sample had significantly lower body appreciation and that the rural group had significantly higher body appreciation. Further results showed that research site (urban vs rural) explained 11.0% of the variance in body appreciation. Participant body mass index and exposure to western forms of media explained an additional 2.0% of the variance. These results suggest that there are differences in body image between rural and urban women. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of positive body image, particularly in developing societies where health care resources may be limited.

  5. No differences in ventral striatum responsivity between adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Kathrin U; Gan, Gabriela; Banaschewski, Tobias; Barker, Gareth J; Bokde, Arun L W; Büchel, Christian; Conrod, Patricia; Fauth-Bühler, Mira; Flor, Herta; Gallinat, Jürgen; Garavan, Hugh; Gowland, Penny; Heinz, Andreas; Ittermann, Bernd; Lawrence, Claire; Loth, Eva; Mann, Karl; Martinot, Jean-Luc; Nees, Frauke; Paus, Tomáš; Pausova, Zdenka; Rietschel, Marcella; Ströhle, Andreas; Struve, Maren; Schumann, Gunter; Smolka, Michael N

    2015-05-01

    Individuals with alcohol-dependent parents show an elevated risk of developing alcohol-related problems themselves. Modulations of the mesolimbic reward circuit have been postulated as a pre-existing marker of alcoholism. We tested whether a positive family history of alcoholism is correlated with ventral striatum functionality during a reward task. All participants performed a modified version of the monetary incentive delay task while their brain responses were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared 206 healthy adolescents (aged 13-15) who had any first- or second-degree relative with alcoholism to 206 matched controls with no biological relative with alcoholism. Reward anticipation as well as feedback of win recruited the ventral striatum in all participants, but adolescents with a positive family history of alcoholism did not differ from their matched peers. Also we did not find any correlation between family history density and reward anticipation or feedback of win. This finding of no differences did not change when we analyzed a subsample of 77 adolescents with at least one parent with alcohol use disorder and their matched controls. Because this result is in line with another study reporting no differences between children with alcohol-dependent parents and controls at young age, but contrasts with studies of older individuals, one might conclude that at younger age the effect of family history has not yet exerted its influence on the still developing mesolimbic reward circuit. © 2014 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Amygdala responses to positively and negatively valenced baby faces in healthy female volunteers: influences of individual differences in harm avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeken, Chris; De Raedt, Rudi; Ramsey, Nick; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; Hermes, Dora; Bossuyt, Axel; Leyman, Lemke; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Mey, Johan; Luypaert, Robert

    2009-11-03

    Research regarding the lateralization of processing emotional visual stimuli suggests various roles for affective information-processing by the amygdalae. However, individual differences seem to influence outcome results. In this study we re-investigate this question, paying special attention to the salient nature of the mood inducing stimuli. We presented blocks of happy looking baby faces and sad looking baby faces (disfigured by severe dermatological conditions), as well as blurred isoluminescent neutral pictures to a 'homogeneous' group of 40 healthy female subjects during fMRI. We used the temperament dimension harm avoidance (HA), extracted from the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), to evaluate the impact of this personality feature on 'emotional' amygdala responses. HA is related to behavioral inhibition and it implies a genetically determined bias towards being cautious, apprehensive and overly pessimistic. Because emotional valence and arousal may be controlled by different neural systems, the positively and negatively valenced baby faces were selected to be equal in arousal levels. Viewing blocks of negatively valenced baby faces evoked bilateral amygdala activity, whereas viewing positively valenced ones resulted in left amygdala activity only. Globally, we found no evidence of lateralized amygdala specialization. When taking into account individual differences in HA, only in female subjects who score high on this dimension did we find predominantly left amygdala activation when viewing blocks of negatively valenced baby faces. HA did not influence amygdala activity when processing positively valenced images. Our results might indicate that personality features, such as HA, could be of importance in 'emotional' fMRI paradigms examining amygdala lateralization patterns.

  7. Association between implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy and different lead positions in patients with cardiac resynchronization therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kronborg, Mads Brix; Johansen, Jens Brock; Haarbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the impact of different right and left ventricular lead positions (RV-LP and LV-LP) on the risk of therapy for ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in patients with a cardiac resynchronization therapy device (CRT-D). Methods and results: We performed a large nationwide...... ratios (aHR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Following variables were included in the analysis: gender, age, heart failure aetiology, New York heart association class, left ventricular ejection fraction, QRS duration, indication (secondary or primary prophylactic), RV-LP, LV-LP, and antiarrhythmic...

  8. [Comparison of the effect of different diagnostic criteria of subclinical hypothyroidism and positive TPO-Ab on pregnancy outcomes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yiping; He, Tongqiang; Wang, Yanxia; Xu, Zhao; Xu, Yehong; Wu, Yiqing; Ji, Jing; Mi, Yang

    2014-11-01

    To explore the effect of different diagnositic criteria of subclinical hypothyroidism using thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and positive thyroid peroxidase antibodies (TPO-Ab) on the pregnancy outcomes. 3 244 pregnant women who had their antenatal care and delivered in Child and Maternity Health Hospital of Shannxi Province August from 2011 to February 2013 were recruited prospectively. According to the standard of American Thyroid Association (ATA), pregnant women with normal serum free thyroxine (FT4) whose serum TSH level> 2.50 mU/L were diagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy (foreign standard group). According to the Guideline of Diagnosis and Therapy of Prenatal and Postpartum Thyroid Disease made by Chinese Society of Endocrinology and Chinese Society of Perinatal Medicine in 2012, pregnant women with serum TSH level> 5.76 mU/L, and normal FT4 were diagnosed as subclinical hypothyroidism in pregnancy(national standard group). Pregnant women with subclinical hypothyroidism whose serum TSH levels were between 2.50-5.76 mU/L were referred as the study observed group; and pregnant women with serum TSH levelTPO- Ab were referred as the control group. Positive TPO-Ab results and the pregnancy outcomes were analyzed. (1) There were 635 cases in the foreign standard group, with the incidence of 19.57% (635/3 244). And there were 70 cases in the national standard group, with the incidence of 2.16% (70/3 244). There were statistically significant difference between the two groups (P 0.05) when compared with the foreign standard group. (2) Among the 3 244 cases, 402 cases had positive TPO-Ab. 318 positive cases were in the foreign standard group, and the incidence of subclinical hypothyroidism was 79.10% (318/402). There were 317 negative cases in the foreign standard group, with the incidence of 11.15% (317/2 842). The difference was statistically significant (P TPO-Ab, with the incidence of 11.44% (46/402), and 24 cases had negative result, with the

  9. Differences in treatment outcome between male alcohol dependent offenders of domestic violence with and without positive drug screens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Caroline J; Mandel, Dolores; Babuscio, Theresa; Rounsaville, Bruce J; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2007-10-01

    Men who are violent toward their partners tend to have a dual problem with alcohol and drug use, yet little is known about differences between men with single rather than dual problems. This study was one of the first to evaluate differences between alcohol dependent men who were arrested for Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) with and without concurrent illicit drug use. Seventy-eight participants were randomly assigned to manual-guided group behavioral therapies (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy or Twelve Step Facilitation) and assessed across 12 weeks of treatment. Despite denying drug use at baseline, thirty-two clients (43%) tested positive for illicit drug use (cocaine and marijuana) during the 12 weeks of treatment. The study specifically addressed whether there were differences between clients using alcohol only versus individuals using both alcohol + drugs in terms of 1) baseline characteristics; 2) treatment compliance (e.g., attendance and substance use during treatment; and 3) treatment outcomes (alcohol, drug use, anger management, and aggression at the completion of treatment). The results showed that there were comparatively few differences between the alcohol versus the alcohol + drug using groups at baseline. Regarding treatment compliance and retention, alcohol + drug using participants attended significantly fewer sessions, had significantly fewer percent days abstinence from alcohol use, significantly more total days of positive breathalyzer results. Regarding treatment outcomes across anger management and aggression scores, the alcohol + drug using participants had significantly more impairments in anger management styles from pre- to post-treatment. However, there were no differences between the groups across verbal or physical aggression. Both groups improved in their verbal aggression from pre- to post-treatment. The findings suggest that alcohol dependent men who continue to use illicit drugs may require additional interventions to effectively

  10. Evaluation of different confirmatory algorithms using seven treponemal tests on Architect Syphilis TP-positive/RPR-negative sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonckheere, S; Berth, M; Van Esbroeck, M; Blomme, S; Lagrou, K; Padalko, E

    2015-10-01

    The Architect Syphilis TP is considered to be a suitable screening test due to its high sensitivity and full automation. According to the International Union against Sexually Transmitted Infections (IUSTI) 2014 guidelines, however, positive screening tests need confirmation with Treponema pallidum particle agglutination (TP.PA). Among Architect-positive results, samples with a negative non-treponemal test present the major diagnostic challenge. In this multicenter study, we investigated if other, preferable less labor-intensive treponemal tests could replace TP.PA. A total of 178 rapid plasma reagin (RPR)-negative sera with an Architect value between 1 and 15 S/CO were prospectively selected in three centers. These sera were analyzed with TP.PA and six alternative treponemal tests: three immunoblots and three tests on random-access analyzers. The diagnostic performance of the treponemal tests differed substantially, with the overall agreement between the six alternative tests ranging from 44.6 to 82.0%. Based on TP.PA as the gold standard, the INNO-LIA IgG blot, the BioPlex 2200 IgG, and the Syphilis TPA showed a high sensitivity, while the EUROLINE-WB IgG blot, recomLine Treponema IgG blot, and the Chorus Syphilis screen showed a high specificity. However, an Architect cut-off of 5.6 S/CO can serve as an alternative for these confirmatory treponemal tests in case of an RPR-negative result. Treponemal tests show poor agreement in this challenging group of Architect-positive/RPR-negative sera. The most optimal algorithm is obtained by assigning sera with an Architect value >5.6 S/CO as true-positives and sera with a value between 1 and 5.6 S/CO as undetermined, requiring further testing with TP.PA.

  11. TRPV1 expression level in isolectin B4-positive neurons contributes to mouse strain difference in cutaneous thermal nociceptive sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Kentaro; Ye, Yi; Viet, Chi T.; Dang, Dongmin

    2015-01-01

    Differential thermal nociception across inbred mouse strains has genetic determinants. Thermal nociception is largely attributed to the heat/capsaicin receptor transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1); however, the contribution of this channel to the genetics of thermal nociception has not been revealed. In this study we compared TRPV1 expression levels and electrophysiological properties in primary sensory neurons and thermal nociceptive behaviors between two (C57BL/6 and BALB/c) inbred mouse strains. Using immunofluorescence and patch-clamp physiology methods, we demonstrated that TRPV1 expression was significantly higher in isolectin B4 (IB4)-positive trigeminal sensory neurons of C57BL/6 relative to BALB/c; the expression in IB4-negative neurons was similar between the strains. Furthermore, using electrophysiological cell classification (current signature method), we showed differences between the two strains in capsaicin sensitivity in IB4-positive neuronal cell types 2 and 13, which were previously reported as skin nociceptors. Otherwise electrophysiological membrane properties of the classified cell types were similar in the two mouse strains. In publicly available nocifensive behavior data and our own behavior data from the using the two mouse strains, C57BL/6 exhibited higher sensitivity to heat stimulation than BALB/c, independent of sex and anatomical location of thermal testing (the tail, hind paw, and whisker pad). The TRPV1-selective antagonist JNJ-17203212 inhibited thermal nociception in both strains; however, removing IB4-positive trigeminal sensory neurons with IB4-conjugated saporin inhibited thermal nociception on the whisker pad in C57BL/6 but not in BALB/c. These results suggest that TRPV1 expression levels in IB4-positive type 2 and 13 neurons contributed to differential thermal nociception in skin of C57BL/6 compared with BALB/c. PMID:25787958

  12. Individual differences in timing of peak positive subjective responses to d-amphetamine: Relationship to pharmacokinetics and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher T; Weafer, Jessica; Cowan, Ronald L; Kessler, Robert M; Palmer, Abraham A; de Wit, Harriet; Zald, David H

    2016-04-01

    Rate of delivery of psychostimulants has been associated with their positive euphoric effects and potential addiction liability. However, information on individual differences in onset of d-amphetamine's effects remains scarce. We examined individual differences in the time to peak subjective and physiological effects and the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of oral d-amphetamine. We considered two independent studies that used different dosing regimens where subjects completed the drug effects questionnaire at multiple time points post d-amphetamine. Based on the observation of distinct individual differences in time course of drug effects questionnaire "feel", "high", and "like" ratings (DEQH+L+F) in Study 1, subjects in both studies were categorized as early peak responders (peak within 60 minutes), late peak responders (peak > 60 minutes) or nonresponders; 20-25% of participants were categorized as early peak responders, 50-55% as late peak responders and 20-30% as nonresponders. Physiological (both studies) and plasma d-amphetamine (Study 1) were compared among these groups. Early peak responders exhibited an earlier rise in plasma d-amphetamine levels and more sustained elevation in heart rate compared to late peak responders. The present data illustrate the presence of significant individual differences in the temporal pattern of responses to oral d-amphetamine, which may contribute to heightened abuse potential. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. PEDAGOGY OF DIFFERENCES AND EQUITY...FROM AND TO AN INCLUSIVE EDUCACION-CULTURA OF POSITIVE AND COMPREHENSIVE PEACE

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    Anaida Pascual-Morán

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A pedagogy of differences and justness is proposed, in order to eradicate inequality, discrimination, and injustice. It is contextualized from a scaffold of positive and integral peace education-culture of inclusive nature, towards which it is also heading. To think about and practice this pedagogy entails seeing justness and inclusion as leading threads and driving force to be forged, together and inseparably, across culture and education. It is envisioned as a personalized and differentiated pedagogy, centered on human dignity, human rights and the richness of the different and the diverse. Like-minded paradigms and approaches are shared stemming from differentiated ducation, active nonviolence and conflict transcendence. Emphasis is placed on liberating education and projects of possibility as a normative-formative framework to differentiate and democratize education. This pedagogy is grounded on seven premises and the principles, values and practices derived from them.

  14. DJ Pairing during VDJ Recombination Shows Positional Biases That Vary among Individuals with Differing IGHD Locus Immunogenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Marie J; Jackson, Katherine J L; Boyd, Scott D; Collins, Andrew M

    2016-02-01

    Human IgH diversity is influenced by biases in the pairing of IGHD and IGHJ genes, but these biases have not been described in detail. We used high-throughput sequencing of VDJ rearrangements to explore DJ pairing biases in 29 individuals. It was possible to infer three contrasting IGHD-IGHJ haplotypes in nine of these individuals, and two of these haplotypes include deletion polymorphisms involving multiple contiguous IGHD genes. Therefore, we were able to explore how the underlying genetic makeup of the H chain locus influences the formation of particular DJ pairs. Analysis of nonproductive rearrangements demonstrates that 3' IGHD genes tend to pair preferentially with 5' IGHJ genes, whereas 5' IGHD genes pair preferentially with 3' IGHJ genes; the relationship between IGHD gene pairing frequencies and IGHD gene position is a near linear one for each IGHJ gene. However, striking differences are seen in individuals who carry deletion polymorphisms in the D locus. The absence of different blocks of IGHD genes leads to increases in the utilization frequencies of just a handful of genes, and these genes have no clear positional relationships to the deleted genes. This suggests that pairing frequencies may be influenced by additional complex positional relationships that perhaps arise from chromatin structure. In contrast to IGHD gene usage, IGHJ gene usage is unaffected by the IGHD gene-deletion polymorphisms. Such an outcome would be expected if the recombinase complex associates with an IGHJ gene before associating with an IGHD gene partner. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  15. DJ pairing during VDJ recombination shows positional biases that vary between individuals with differing IGHD locus immunogenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Marie J.; Jackson, Katherine J. L.; Boyd, Scott D.; Collins, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunoglobulin heavy chain diversity is influenced by biases in the pairing of IGHD and IGHJ genes, but these biases have not been described in detail. We have used high throughput sequencing of VDJ rearrangements to explore DJ pairing biases in twenty-nine individuals. It was possible to infer three contrasting IGHD-IGHJ haplotypes in nine of these individuals, and two of these haplotypes include deletion polymorphisms involving multiple contiguous IGHD genes. We were therefore able to explore how the underlying genetic makeup of the heavy chain locus influences the formation of particular DJ pairs. Analysis of non-productive rearrangements demonstrates that 3′ IGHD genes tend to pair preferentially with 5′ IGHJ genes, while 5′ IGHD genes pair preferentially with 3′ IGHJ genes, and the relationship between IGHD gene pairing frequencies and IGHD gene position is a near linear one for each IGHJ gene. Striking differences are seen, however, in individuals who carry deletion polymorphisms in the D locus. The absence of different blocks of IGHD genes lead to increases in the utilization frequencies of just a handful of genes, and these genes have no clear positional relationships to the deleted genes. This suggests that pairing frequencies may be influenced by additional complex positional relationships that arise perhaps from chromatin structure. In contrast to IGHD gene usage, IGHJ gene usage is unaffected by the IGHD gene deletion polymorphisms. Such an outcome would be expected if the recombinase complex associates first with an IGHJ gene, before associating with an IGHD gene partner. PMID:26700767

  16. The role of histological subtype in hormone receptor positive metastatic breast cancer: similar survival but different therapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbezoo, Dorien; Truin, Wilfred; Voogd, Adri; Roumen, Rudi; Vreugdenhil, Gerard; Dercksen, Marcus Wouter; van den Berkmortel, Franchette; Smilde, Tineke; van de Wouw, Agnes; van Kampen, Roel; van Riel, Johanna; Peters, Natascha; Peer, Petronella; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C G

    2016-05-17

    This study describes the differences between the two largest histological breast cancer subtypes (invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) and invasive (mixed) lobular carcinoma (ILC) with respect to patient and tumor characteristics, treatment-choices and outcome in metastatic breast cancer. Patients with ILC were older at diagnosis of primary breast cancer and had more often initial bone metastasis (46.5% versus 34.8%, P = 0.01) and less often multiple metastatic sites compared to IDC (23.7% versus 30.9%, P = 0.11). Six months after diagnosis of metastatic breast cancer, 28.1% of patients with ILC and 39.8% of patients with IDC had received chemotherapy with a longer median time to first chemotherapy for those with ILC (P = 0.001). After six months 84.8% of patients with ILC had received endocrine therapy versus 72.5% of patients with IDC (P = 0.0001). Median overall survival was 29 months for ILC and 25 months for IDC (P = 0.53). We included 437 patients with hormone receptor-positive IDC and 131 patients with hormone receptor-positive ILC, all diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer between 2007-2009, irrespective of date of the primary diagnosis. Patient and tumor characteristics and data on treatment and outcome were collected. Survival curves were obtained using the Kaplan-Meier method. Treatment strategies of hormone receptor-positive metastatic breast cancer were remarkably different for patients with ILC and IDC. Further research is required to understand tumor behavior and treatment-choices in real-life.

  17. Comparison of Anthropometry and Lower Limb Power Qualities According to Different Levels and Ranking Position of Competitive Surfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gamboa, Iosu; Yanci, Javier; Granados, Cristina; Camara, Jesus

    2017-08-01

    Fernandez-Gamboa, I, Yanci, J, Granados, C, and Camara, J. Comparison of anthropometry and lower limb power qualities according to different levels and ranking position of competitive surfers. J Strength Cond Res 31(8): 2231-2237, 2017-The aim of this study was to compare competitive surfers' lower limb power output depending on their competitive level, and to evaluate the association between competition rankings. Twenty competitive surfers were divided according to the competitive level as follows: international (INT) or national (NAT), and competitive ranking (RANK1-50 or RANK51-100). Vertical jump and maximal peak power of the lower limbs were measured. No differences were found between INT and NAT surfers in the anthropometric variables, in the vertical jump, or in lower extremity power; although the NAT group had higher levels on the elasticity index, squat jumps (SJs), and counter movement jumps (CMJs) compared with the INT group. The RANK1-50 group had a lower biceps skinfold (p < 0.01), lower skinfolds in the legs (Front thigh: p ≤ 0.05; medial calf: p < 0.01), lower sum of skinfolds (p ≤ 0.05), higher SJ (p < 0.01), CMJ (p < 0.01), and 15 seconds vertical CMJ (p ≤ 0.05); also, maximal peak power of the right leg (MPPR) and left leg (MPPL) were higher in the RANK1-50 group. Moderate to large significant correlations were obtained between the surfers' ranking position and some skinfolds, the sum of skinfolds, and vertical jump. Results demonstrate that surfers' physical performance seems to be an accurate indicator of ranking positioning, also revealing that vertical jump capacity and anthropometric variables play an important role in their competitive performance, which may be important when considering their power training.

  18. Performance of Reinforced Concrete Beam with Differently Positioned Replacement Zones of Block Infill under Low Impact Loads

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    Mokhatar Shahrul Niza

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reveals a study performed on reinforced concrete with artificial aggregate concrete block infill composite beams to innovate a lightweight reinforced concrete utilizing polyethylene (PE waste materials, such as waste plastic bags. Six beam specimens of normal reinforced concrete (NRC and different block infill replacement zone positions RCAI (RZ1 beams containing 100% MAPEA with 50, 95, and 1,000 mm width, height, and length, respectively, were provided for the block infill, whereas RCAI (RZ2 with different block infill positions containing a 100% MAPEA with 50, 115, and 1000 mm width, height, and length were provided and tested under low impact load. The steel impactor with blunt nose dropped at 0.6 m height which equivalent to 3.5 m/s. The behaviors of the beams were studied relative to the impact force-time and displacement-time histories, the flexural/ bending cracks, and the impact failure. Results show that the overall failure modes of all the beam specimens were successfully recorded. In addition, the residual displacements of the RZ2 was almost same than those of the RZ1 and the significantly lower than those of the NRC. In the reinforced concrete beams, less stressed concrete near the neutral axis can be replaced by certain light weight material like waste plastic bags as modified artificial polyethylene aggregates to serve as an artificial aggregate.

  19. Finite element analysis of the stability of transverse acetabular fractures in standing and sitting positions by different fixation options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Ahmet Ozgur; Alemdaroglu, Kadir Bahadir; Yuksel, Halil Yalcin; Öken, Özdamar Fuad; Ucaner, Ahmet

    2015-07-01

    Treatment of a transverse acetabular fracture type is possible from an anterior approach, a posterior approach or both. Different fixation methods have been described but whether one is superior to the other is still under debate. The aim of the current study was to test the different fixation alternatives of stabilization of transverse acetabular fractures under two basic physiological loading conditions: standing and sitting utilizing a finite element model. A transtectal transverse fracture model was fixed in five different alternatives: an anterior column plate; a posterior column plate; an anterior column plate combined with a posterior column screw; a posterior column plate combined with an anterior column screw; and a posterior column plate and an anterior column plate. In these models, a load of 400N was applied at standing and sitting positions and the displacements were analyzed by using three-dimensional finite element stress analysis method. In the model simulating standing human position, overall motion at the posterior column was minimum when two columns were plated (0.071mm). The second best fixation was posterior column plate with an anterior column screw (0.077mm). Overall motion at the anterior column was minimum by posterior column plate with an anterior column screw (0.0326mm). The plating of two columns was associated with motion of (0.0333mm). In the model that simulates sitting position, the motion at the posterior column was minimum when two columns were plated (0.0478mm), and (0.0517mm) when a posterior column plate with an anterior column screw was used. Overall motion in the anterior column was minimum when posterior column plate with an anterior column screw (0.0198mm) was used, whereas the motion was (0.0203mm) when plating of both columns was examined. Posterior column plating combined with an anterior column screw has quite comparable results to a both column plating in transverse fractures, suggesting that two column fixations might

  20. Supra-scapular nerve entrapment by ganglion cyst. Value of imaging modalities; Compression kystique du nerf sus-scapulaire. Interet de l`imagerie. A propos de 6 cas et revue de la litterature

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    Levy, Ph.; Roger, B.; Tardieu, M.; Ghebontni, L.; Thelen, Ph.; Richard, O.; Grenier, Ph. [Hopital Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France)

    1997-09-01

    Six cases of supra-scapular nerve entrapment by a ganglion cyst within the spino-glenoid notch or developed from the glenoid labrum are reported. Causes of injury or entrapment of the supra-scapular nerve are described including traction or kinking of the nerve, trauma, repetitive exercise, or compression by ganglion cyst. The patients had non specific pain, weakness, and atrophy of the spinatus musculature. Electromyography showed evidence of denervation atrophy. Patients had plain radiographs, arthrography, CT-arthrography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR-arthrography. Masses that caused supra-scapular nerve entrapment were well localized and characterized with magnetic resonance imaging, reflecting the superior soft-tissue contrast of this modality. In addition, MRI may demonstrate atrophy of the spinatus muscles. MR-arthrography allows to visualize lesions of the glenoid labrum and in some cases, demonstrates cysts filling. (authors). 35 refs.

  1. Stress-induced differences in the limbic system Fos expression are more pronounced in rats differing in responsiveness to novelty than social position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkutewicz, Irena; Myślińska, Dorota; Jerzemowska, Grażyna; Plucińska, Karolina; Listowska, Magdalena; Grembecka, Beata; Podlacha, Magdalena; Wrona, Danuta

    2012-10-01

    We determined the interaction between such individual behavioural profiles as locomotor response to novelty or social position and the activation (Fos expression) of the brain's limbic regions following chronic laboratory and social interaction stress. Male Wistar rats (n=45), housed separately and handled for 2 weeks, were divided into high (HR) and low (LR) responders to novelty. Seven days later, 12 HRs and 12 LRs were subjected to a chronic 23 consecutive day social interaction test (Nov/SocI group), 5 HRs and 5 LRs were subjected to chronic laboratory stress: carrying from the vivarium to the laboratory for 23 consecutive days (Nov/Carr group) while the remaining rats stayed in the vivarium in their home cages (Nov/Home group). The highest limbic system activation was found 7 days later in the Nov/SocI rats. In comparison with the LRs, the HRs showed a higher number of Fos(+) cells in most of the limbic prosencephalic structures (24 areas) in the Nov/SocI group, and in 12 areas, especially in the amygdala and the hypothalamus, in the Nov/Carr group. There were no HR/LR differences in the limbic system's activity in the Nov/Home group. Within dominance/submission differences, a higher Fos expression was found in 6 structures, especially in the limbic cortex, in the dominant rather than the subordinate HRs. We conclude that chronic social and laboratory stress persistently activates the limbic system, with the largest effects in the brains of rats responding maximally to novelty. Social position was less predictive of Fos expression than was activity to novelty. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Negative and positive childhood experiences across developmental periods in psychiatric patients with different diagnoses – an explorative study

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    Schauer Margarete

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high frequency of childhood abuse has often been reported in adult psychiatric patients. The present survey explores the relationship between psychiatric diagnoses and positive and negative life events during childhood and adulthood in psychiatric samples. Methods A total of 192 patients with diagnoses of alcohol-related disorders (n = 45, schizophrenic disorders (n = 52, affective disorders (n = 54, and personality disorders (n = 41 completed a 42-item self-rating scale (Traumatic Antecedents Questionnaire, TAQ. The TAQ assesses personal positive experiences (competence and safety and negative experiences (neglect, separation, secrets, emotional, physical and sexual abuse, trauma witnessing, other traumas, and alcohol and drugs abuse during four developmental periods, beginning from early childhood to adulthood. Patients were recruited from four Psychiatric hospitals in Germany, Switzerland, and Romania; 63 subjects without any history of mental illness served as controls. Results The amount of positive experiences did not differ significantly among groups, except for safety scores that were lower in patients with personality disorders as compared to the other groups. On the other side, negative experiences appeared more frequently in patients than in controls. Emotional neglect and abuse were reported in patients more frequently than physical and sexual abuse, with negative experiences encountered more often in late childhood and adolescence than in early childhood. The patients with alcohol-related and personality disorders reported more negative events than the ones with schizophrenic and affective disorders. Conclusions The present findings add evidence to the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences and psychiatric diagnoses, and emphasize the fact that a emotional neglect and abuse are the most prominent negative experiences, b adolescence is a more 'sensitive' period for negative

  3. Analysis of carotid artery deformation in different head and neck positions for maxillofacial catheter navigation in advanced oral cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohya Takashi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To improve the accuracy of catheter navigation, it is important to develop a method to predict shifts of carotid artery (CA bifurcations caused by intraoperative deformation. An important factor affecting the accuracy of electromagnetic maxillofacial catheter navigation systems is CA deformations. We aimed to assess CA deformation in different head and neck positions. Methods Using two sets of computed tomography angiography (CTA images of six patients, displacements of the skull (maxillofacial segments, C1–C4 cervical vertebrae, mandible (mandibular segment, and CA along with its branches were analyzed. Segmented rigid bones around CA were considered the main causes of CA deformation. After superimposition of maxillofacial segments, C1–C4 and mandible segments were superimposed separately for displacement measurements. Five bifurcation points (vA–vE were assessed after extracting the CA centerline. A new standardized coordinate system, regardless of patient-specific scanning positions, was employed. It was created using the principal axes of inertia of the maxillofacial bone segments of patients. Position and orientation parameters were transferred to this coordinate system. CA deformation in different head and neck positions was assessed. Results Absolute shifts in the center of gravity in the bone models for different segments were C1, 1.02 ± 0.9; C2, 2.18 ± 1.81; C3, 4.25 ± 3.85; C4, 5.90 ± 5.14; and mandible, 1.75 ± 2.76 mm. Shifts of CA bifurcations were vA, 5.52 ± 4.12; vB, 4.02 ± 3.27; vC, 4.39 ± 2.42; vD, 4.48 ± 1.88; and vE, 2.47 ± 1.32. Displacements, position changes, and orientation changes of C1–C4 segments as well as the displacements of all CA bifurcation points were similar in individual patients. Conclusions CA deformation was objectively proven as an important factor contributing to errors in maxillofacial navigation. Our study results suggest that

  4. Rapid HIV testing using Determine™ HIV 1/2 antibody tests: is there a difference between the visual appearance of true- and false-positive tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacks, R; Omodele-Lucien, A; Whitbread, N; Muir, D; Smith, A

    2012-09-01

    HIV point-of-care tests (POCTs) give occasional false positive results, causing unnecessary patient anxiety. We aimed to elicit whether false- and true-positive POCTs differed visually. Seventeen false- and 17 true-positive serum samples were randomized into pairs, comprising one false- and one true-positive sample. Two independent readers identified each POCT as negative or positive and compared line strength between pairs. Six further readers graded line strength, 0-5, from POCT photographs. All true-positive samples were identified positive and 8/17 false-positive samples negative, on repeat testing of stored sera. Eight out of the 9 remaining false-positive tests were described as having weaker pigment uptake than their paired true-positive POCT. Mean grade of line strength was 4.2 in true- and 0.9 in false-positive samples, on photographic evaluation. These results suggest false-positive POCTs may differ visually from true-positive POCTs. If larger studies confirm these findings, we may be able to alleviate anxiety in low risk patients with faintly positive POCTs awaiting their confirmatory laboratory result, where the possibility of a false-positive result could be emphasized.

  5. Glycosaminoglycans are involved in pathogen adherence to corneal epithelial cells differently for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

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    Beatriz García

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The epithelium of the cornea is continuously exposed to pathogens, and adhesion to epithelial cells is regarded as an essential first step in bacterial pathogenesis. In this article, the involvement of glycosaminoglycans in the adhesion of various pathogenic bacteria to corneal epithelial cells is analyzed. All microorganisms use glycosaminoglycans as receptors, but arranged in different patterns depending on the Gram-type of the bacterium. The heparan sulfate chains of syndecans are the main receptors, though other molecular species also seem to be involved, particularly in Gram-negative bacteria. Adherence is inhibited differentially by peptides, including heparin binding sequences, indicating the participation of various groups of Gram-positive and -negative adhesins. The length of the saccharides produces a major effect, and low molecular weight chains inhibit the binding of Gram-negative microorganisms but increase the adherence of Gram-positives. Pathogen adhesion appears to occur preferentially through sulfated domains, and is very dependent on N- and 6-O-sulfation of the glucosamine residue and, to a lesser extent, 2-O sulfation of uronic acid. These data show the differential use of corneal receptors, which could facilitate the development of new anti-infective strategies.

  6. Different Use of Cell Surface Glycosaminoglycans As Adherence Receptors to Corneal Cells by Gram Positive and Gram Negative Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Beatriz; Merayo-Lloves, Jesús; Rodríguez, David; Alcalde, Ignacio; García-Suárez, Olivia; Alfonso, José F.; Baamonde, Begoña; Fernández-Vega, Andrés; Vazquez, Fernando; Quirós, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    The epithelium of the cornea is continuously exposed to pathogens, and adhesion to epithelial cells is regarded as an essential first step in bacterial pathogenesis. In this article, the involvement of glycosaminoglycans in the adhesion of various pathogenic bacteria to corneal epithelial cells is analyzed. All microorganisms use glycosaminoglycans as receptors, but arranged in different patterns depending on the Gram-type of the bacterium. The heparan sulfate chains of syndecans are the main receptors, though other molecular species also seem to be involved, particularly in Gram-negative bacteria. Adherence is inhibited differentially by peptides, including heparin binding sequences, indicating the participation of various groups of Gram-positive, and -negative adhesins. The length of the saccharides produces a major effect, and low molecular weight chains inhibit the binding of Gram-negative microorganisms but increase the adherence of Gram-positives. Pathogen adhesion appears to occur preferentially through sulfated domains, and is very dependent on N- and 6-O-sulfation of the glucosamine residue and, to a lesser extent, 2-O sulfation of uronic acid. These data show the differential use of corneal receptors, which could facilitate the development of new anti-infective strategies. PMID:27965938

  7. Measuring polyethylene wear in total knee arthroplasty by RSA: differences between weight-bearing and non-weight-bearing positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ijsseldijk, Emiel A; Valstar, Edward R; Stoel, Berend C; de Ridder, Ruud; Nelissen, Rob G H H; Kaptein, Bart L

    2014-04-01

    Measuring the minimum-joint-space-width (mJSW) in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in Roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA) provides valuable information on polyethylene wear, a leading cause for TKA failure. Most existing studies use non-weight-bearing (NWB) patient positioning. The latter may compromise mJSW measurements due to knee laxity with subsequent non-contact between the TKA components. We investigated the difference in mJSW between weight-bearing (WB) and NWB images and the association with mediolateral (ML) knee stability. At one-year follow-up, 23 TKAs were included from an ongoing RSA study, and ML stability was evaluated. For each examination, the mJSW and femoral-tibial contact locations were measured. A linear regression model was used to analyze the association between the mJSW difference (NWB-WB) with the ML stability and contact locations. The mean mJSW difference was 0.28 mm medially and 0.20 mm laterally. Four TKAs had medium (5-9°) and 19 TKAs had high (RSA studies are influenced by knee laxity, but may still provide information on wear progression based on TKA with high ML stability. A direct comparison of mJSW measurements from WB and NWB data is not possible. © 2014 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Titration effectiveness of two autoadjustable continuous positive airway pressure devices driven by different algorithms in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damiani, Mario Francesco; Quaranta, Vitaliano Nicola; Tedeschi, Ersilia; Drigo, Riccardo; Ranieri, Teresa; Carratù, Pierluigi; Resta, Onofrio

    2013-08-01

    Nocturnal application of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is the standard treatment for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). Determination of the therapeutic pressure (CPAP titration) is usually performed by a technician in the sleep laboratory during attended polysomnography. One possible alternative to manual titration is automated titration. Indeed, during the last 15 years, devices have been developed that deliver autoadjustable CPAP (A-CPAP). The aim of the present study was to compare the titration effectiveness of two A-CPAP devices using different flow-based algorithms in patients with OSA. This is a randomized study; 79 subjects underwent two consecutive unattended home A-CPAP titration nights with two different devices (Autoset Resmed; Remstar Auto Respironics); during the third and the fourth night, patients underwent portable monitoring in the sleep laboratory during fixed CPAP at the A-CPAP recommended pressure. Bland Altman plots showed good agreement between the recommended median and maximal pressure levels obtained with the two devices. A significant improvement was observed in all the sleep parameters by both A-CPAP machines to a similar degree. It was observed that the two A-CPAP devices using different algorithms are equally effective in initial titration of CPAP. © 2013 The Authors. Respirology © 2013 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. The long-term outcome of displaced mid-third clavicle fractures on scapular and shoulder function: variations between immediate surgery, delayed surgery, and nonsurgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Daniel M; McKay, Bartholomew P; Jaarsma, Ruurd L

    2015-05-01

    Conservative management for uncomplicated displaced clavicle fractures is common practice. Delay of surgical fixation may result in less favorable outcomes. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 60 patients with a closed mid-third clavicle fracture that did not meet current operative or nonoperative guidelines; 20 primary (plate fixation plate fixation >6 weeks), and 20 matched conservative patients were included. Each patient completed 2 questionnaires, the Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand and the American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons, as well as visual analog scales for pain, cosmetic satisfaction, and overall satisfaction. In addition, 10 patients from each group underwent clinical review of scapular rotation by the lateral scapular slide test, clinical impingement, range of motion assessment, and radiologic review of clavicle union and length. The American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons patient self-reported questionnaire demonstrated a median score of 5.5 for the delayed group, 2 for the primary group, and 1 for the conservative group (P = .032). The median Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score was 7.92 for the delayed group, 3.32 for the primary group, and 1.67 for the conservative group (P = .212). Six patients in the delayed group had scapular malrotation compared with 2 in the primary group and none in the conservative group (P = .008). Flexion and external rotation in 90° abduction were decreased in the conservative group (P = .049 and .041, respectively). We support the conservative management of uncomplicated displaced clavicle fractures but recognize that a lower threshold for early surgery should be considered where optimal shoulder function is required. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Microneurolysis and decompression of long thoracic nerve injury are effective in reversing scapular winging: Long-term results in 50 cases

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    Lyons Andrew B

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Long thoracic nerve injury leading to scapular winging is common, often caused by closed trauma through compression, stretching, traction, direct extrinsic force, penetrating injury, or neuritides such as Parsonage-Turner syndrome. We undertook the largest series of long thoracic nerve decompression and neurolysis yet reported to demonstrate the usefulness of long thoracic nerve decompression. Methods Winging was bilateral in 3 of the 47 patients (26 male, 21 female, yielding a total of 50 procedures. The mean age of the patients was 33.4 years, ranging from 24–57. Causation included heavy weight-lifting (31 patients, repetitive throwing (5 patients, deep massage (2 patients, repetitive overhead movement (1 patient, direct trauma (1 patient, motor bike accident (1 patient, and idiopathic causes (9 patients. Decompression and microneurolysis of the long thoracic nerve were performed in the supraclavicular space. Follow-up (average of 25.7 months consisted of physical examination and phone conversations. The degree of winging was measured by the operating surgeon (RKN. Patients also answered questions covering 11 quality-of-life facets spanning four domains of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire. Results Thoracic nerve decompression and neurolysis improved scapular winging in 49 (98% of the 50 cases, producing "good" or "excellent" results in 46 cases (92%. At least some improvement occurred in 98% of cases that were less than 10 years old. Pain reduction through surgery was good or excellent in 43 (86% cases. Shoulder instability affected 21 patients preoperatively and persisted in 5 of these patients after surgery, even in the 5 patients with persistent instability who experienced some relief from the winging itself. Conclusion Surgical decompression and neurolysis of the long thoracic nerve significantly improve scapular winging in appropriate patients, for whom these techniques should be considered

  11. To tweet, or not to tweet: gender differences and potential positive and negative health outcomes of adolescents' social internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujazon-Zazik, Melissa; Park, M Jane

    2010-03-01

    Adolescents and young adults are avid Internet users. Online social media, such as social networking sites (e.g., Facebook, MySpace), blogs, status updating sites (e.g., Twitter) and chat rooms, have become integral parts of adolescents' and young adults' lives. Adolescents are even beginning to enter the world of online dating with several websites dedicated to "teenage online dating." This paper reviews recent peer-reviewed literature and national data on 1) adolescents use of online social media, 2) gender differences in online social media and 3) potential positive and negative health outcomes from adolescents' online social media use. We also examine parental monitoring of adolescents' online activities. Given that parental supervision is a key protective factor against adolescent risk-taking behavior, it is reasonable to hypothesize that unmonitored Internet use may place adolescents' at significant risk, such as cyberbullying, unwanted exposure to pornography, and potentially revealing personal information to sexual predators.

  12. Effect of scapular function training on chronic pain in the neck/shoulder region: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Andersen, Lars L; Zebis, Mette K; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2014-06-01

    Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments and active treatments have often been divided into either training of the painful area or the surrounding musculature avoiding direct training of the painful area. Our study investigates the effect of the latter approach. The purpose of this study was in a randomised controlled trial to investigate if intensive scapular function training (SFT)-in terms of training of the lower trapezius and the serratus anterior muscle while minimizing direct training of the upper trapezius-is effective in reducing pain in adults with chronic non-specific pain in the neck/shoulder region. 47 office workers with chronic non-specific pain in the neck/shoulder region were randomized to 10 weeks 3 × 20 min SFT with training supervision or to a control group. At baseline and at follow-up the participants were tested for maximum isometric shoulder strength by a blinded tester. Further, once a week participants reported pain intensity of the neck/shoulder during the previous week. In intention-to-treat analysis neck- and shoulder pain decreased 2.0 (95 % CI 0.35; 3.64) in SFT compared with control group (p Shoulder elevation strength increased 7.7 kg in SFT compared with the control group (p shoulder protraction strength. SFT reduces pain intensity and increases shoulder elevation strength in adults with chronic non-specific pain in the neck/shoulder region. The magnitude of improvement in pain intensity was clinically relevant.

  13. [Efficacy of quick repositioning maneuver for posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo in different age groups].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Jinrang; Guo, Pengfei; Tian, Shiyu; Li, Keliang

    2015-12-01

    To observe the short and long-term efficacy of quick repositioning maneuver for posterior semicircular canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (PC-BPPV) in different age groups. The clinical data of 113 adult patients with single PC-BPPV who underwent quick repositioning maneuver from July 2009 to February 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The quick repositioning maneuver was to roll the patient from involved side to healthy side in the coronal plane for 180° as quickly as possible. The patients were divided into 3 groups according to different ages: young group (age group (45 ≤ age group (≥ 60 years). The short and long term outcomes of the three groups were observed. The left ear was involved in 58 cases (51.3%) and the right ear in 55 cases (48.7%). The short term improvement rates of the young, middle-age and the old groups were 92.5%, 93.6% and 92.3% respectively, and the long term improvement rate was 90.0%, 85.1% and 73.1% respectively. There was no significant difference among the three groups in short and long term outcomes (P > 0.05). The recurrence rate of the three groups was 5.0%, 6.4% and 15.4% respectively, also no significant difference (P > 0.05). The quick repositioning maneuver along the coronal plane for PC-BPPV has a definite effect for every age groups. The method is simple, rapid and easy to master, and the patients are tolerated the maneuver well without evident side effect.

  14. Association between socioeconomic position and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Ghanaians in different geographic locations: the RODAM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addo, Juliet; Agyemang, Charles; de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Beune, Erik; Schulze, Matthias B; Danquah, Ina; Galbete, Cecilia; Nicolaou, Mary; Meeks, Karlijn; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Bahendaka, Silver; Mockenhaupt, Frank P; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Kunst, Anton; Stronks, Karien; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-07-01

    The prevalence of diabetes has been shown to be socially patterned but the direction of the association in low-income countries and among migrant populations in Europe has varied in the literature. This study examined the association between socioeconomic position (SEP) and diabetes in Ghanaians in Europe and in Ghana. Data were derived from the multicentre Research on Obesity and Diabetes among African Migrants (RODAM) study of Ghanaian adults aged 25-70 years residing in Europe (Amsterdam, Berlin and London) and in urban and rural Ghana. Educational attainment (elementary, secondary or higher) and occupational class (low or high) were used as indicators of SEP. Age-standardised prevalence of diabetes and prevalence ratios were evaluated separately for men and women of different SEP in Ghana and Europe. A total of 5290 participants were included in the analyses. The prevalence of diabetes decreased with increasing level of education in Ghanaian men and women in Europe and in men in urban Ghana, whereas diabetes prevalence increased with increasing level of education in men and women in rural Ghana. The association between occupational class and the prevalence of diabetes followed a less consistent pattern in men and women in the different locations. The association of diabetes and SEP differed in rural Ghana compared with urban settings in Ghana and Europe and comparing men and women, highlighting the complex interaction of SEP and the development of diabetes. These findings have important implications for diabetes prevention strategies in Ghanaians in different locations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  15. Interobserver variability of patient positioning using four different CT datasets for image registration in lung stereotactic body radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oechsner, Markus [Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Technical University of Munich, Zentrum fuer Stereotaxie und personalisierte Hochpraezisionsstrahlentherapie (StereotakTUM), Munich (Germany); Chizzali, Barbara; Devecka, Michal; Muench, Stefan [Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Combs, Stephanie Elisabeth; Wilkens, Jan Jakob; Duma, Marciana Nona [Technical University of Munich, Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Technical University of Munich, Zentrum fuer Stereotaxie und personalisierte Hochpraezisionsstrahlentherapie (StereotakTUM), Munich (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Munich (Germany)

    2017-10-15

    To assess the impact of different reference CT datasets on manual image registration with free-breathing three-dimensional (3D) cone beam CTs (FB-CBCT) for patient positioning by several observers. For 48 patients with lung lesions, manual image registration with FB-CBCTs was performed by four observers. A slow planning CT (PCT), average intensity projection (AIP), maximum intensity projection (MIP), and midventilation CT (MidV) were used as reference images. Couch shift differences between the four reference CT datasets for each observer as well as shift differences between the observers for the same reference CT dataset were determined. Statistical analyses were performed and correlations between the registration differences and the 3D tumor motion and the CBCT score were calculated. The mean 3D shift difference between different reference CT datasets was the smallest for AIPvsMIP (range 1.1-2.2 mm) and the largest for MidVvsPCT (2.8-3.5 mm) with differences >10 mm. The 3D shifts showed partially significant correlations to 3D tumor motion and CBCT score. The interobserver comparison for the same reference CTs resulted in the smallest ∇3D mean differences and mean ∇3D standard deviation for ∇AIP (1.5 ± 0.7 mm, 0.7 ± 0.4 mm). The maximal 3D shift difference between observers was 10.4 mm (∇MidV). Both 3D tumor motion and mean CBCT score correlated with the shift differences (R{sub s} = 0.336-0.740). The applied reference CT dataset impacts image registration and causes interobserver variabilities. The 3D tumor motion and CBCT quality affect shift differences. The smallest differences were found for AIP which might be the most appropriate CT dataset for image registration with FB-CBCT. (orig.) [German] Untersuchung des Einflusses verschiedener Referenz-CT-Datensaetze auf die manuelle Bildregistrierung mit dreidimensionaler (3D) ConeBeam-Computertomographie in freier Atmung (FB-CBCT) zur Patientenpositionierung durch verschiedene Observer. Bei 48 Patienten

  16. Effect of lip position and gingival display on smile and esthetics as perceived by college students with different educational backgrounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zawawi KH

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Khalid H Zawawi,1 Ghadah A Malki,2 Mohammad S Al-Zahrani,3 Yaser M Alkhiary4 1Department of Preventive Dental Science, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, 2Consultant Pediatric Dentist, North Jeddah Dental Specialty Center, 3Department of Oral Basic and Clinical Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry, 4Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Rehabilitation, Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of education on the perception of female college students on the effect of lip position and gingival display upon smiling and esthetics. Methods: A photograph of a smiling subject was altered to show varying degrees of gingival display. Female students, who were studying in different colleges, assessed a total of five images, using a numerical rating scale. Results: A total of 440 college students from eight educational faculties (dentistry, dental assistants, medicine, medical technology, nursing, science, arts, and pharmacology participated in this study. There was no difference found between students' ratings of the altered images (P<0.05. The perception of a gummy smile was found to be similar among the participants. There was agreement between all participants that 2 mm of gingival display was the most attractive smile, while a 4 mm covering of the teeth by the upper lip was the least attractive. Conclusion: Educational influence did not have an effect of the perception of a gummy smile. Keywords: smile, gingival display, gummy smile, smile esthetic, perception, educational background

  17. Effect of lip position and gingival display on smile and esthetics as perceived by college students with different educational backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H; Malki, Ghadah A; Al-Zahrani, Mohammad S; Alkhiary, Yaser M

    2013-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of education on the perception of female college students on the effect of lip position and gingival display upon smiling and esthetics. Methods A photograph of a smiling subject was altered to show varying degrees of gingival display. Female students, who were studying in different colleges, assessed a total of five images, using a numerical rating scale. Results A total of 440 college students from eight educational faculties (dentistry, dental assistants, medicine, medical technology, nursing, science, arts, and pharmacology) participated in this study. There was no difference found between students’ ratings of the altered images (Pperception of a gummy smile was found to be similar among the participants. There was agreement between all participants that 2 mm of gingival display was the most attractive smile, while a 4 mm covering of the teeth by the upper lip was the least attractive. Conclusion Educational influence did not have an effect of the perception of a gummy smile. PMID:24204173

  18. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Moria; Hagay, Noa; Tamir, Snait

    2014-01-01

    Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5) participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups vs. mono-gender groups.

  19. Gender related differences in response to "in favor of myself" wellness program to enhance positive self & body image among adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moria Golan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Physical, neurological and psychological changes are often experienced differently by male and female adolescents. Positive self-esteem, emotional well-being, school achievements, and family connectedness are considered as protective factors against health-compromising behaviors. This study examines the gender differences in respect to the effect of a school-based interactive wellness program--"In Favor of Myself"--on self-image, body image, eating attitudes and behaviors of young adolescents. METHODS: Two hundred and ten adolescents (mean age 13.5 participated in the intervention group, 55% were girls and 45% boys. Program consisted of eight 90-minutes structured sessions integrated into a regular school coping skills curriculum. The program focused on self-esteem, self-image, body image, media literacy and cognitive dissonance. The overall impact of the program and the study protocol were previously published. RESULTS: Overall, there are gender related differences in respect to body image and self-image in young adolescents in response to "In Favor of Myself". Compared to boys, girls reported at baseline higher self-esteem, being more contingent by appearance, and their self-image was more influenced by popularity, appearance, interpersonal communication and admired people. Furthermore girls presented greater gap between current body figure and perceived ideal figure. Not only were girls more dissatisfied with their body, but they were more active in attempts to become and/or remain "thin". At program termination, gender × time effect was detected in reduction of self-worth contingent by others, change in importance given to achievements at schools, parents' perceptions, as well as the impact of comparisons to friends and family members on self-image. CONCLUSIONS: Girls exhibited more gains than boys from 'In Favor of Myself' which raise the questions about how effective would be the program when delivered in mixed gender groups

  20. Gender Differences in Performance on the DTM Subtest in the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test as a Function of Item Position and Cognitive Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makitalo, Asa

    1996-01-01

    A subtest of the Swedish Scholastic Aptitude Test dealing with interpretation of diagrams, tables, and maps (DTM) was studied to see whether the position or other characteristics of test items affected the noted gender differences in results. Results with 116,017 students show an effect of position on gender differences. (SLD)

  1. [Differences in Measured Values among Homogenous Assay Reagents of LDL-C in LP-X Positive Serum Samples].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Misako; Kurosawa, Hideo; Sato, Ryo; Ito, Kumie; Tomono, Yoshiharu; Manita, Daisuke; Hirowatari, Yuji; Yoshida, Hiroshi

    2015-03-01

    The LDL-C level measures with homogeneous (direct) assays in almost of clinical laboratories. Several reports however showed differences in measured values among the assay reagents. We investigated the differences in LDL-C values among direct assays and Friedewald formula (F-f) in 58 LP-X positive serum samples from jaundice patients by comparing LDL-C values measured by anion-exchange chromatography (AEX-HPLC), largely comparable to ultracentrifugation method. Changes in LDL-C values during the treatment of 8 patients were also investigated. Direct assay reagents from Sekisui Medical (S-r), Denka-Seiken (D-r), Wako Chemical (W-r), and Kyowa Medics (K-r) were used for comparison. F-f, S-r, and D-r correlated with AEX-HPLC with r values 0.6. Two samples in which F-f values provided 500 mg/dL plus bias to AEX-HPLC (LDL-C value of 220 mg/dL) demonstrated increased levels of IDL-C before treatment. LDL-C values (S-r and D-r) of the 2 samples were relatively high and near to F-f data while LDL-C values (W-r and K-r) were relatively low and close to AEX-HPLC data. The jaundice treatment decreased LDL-C values (S-r and D-r) and converged to 220 mg/dL, indicating that S-r and D-r might react markedly to IDL. These changes were consistent with decreases in serum free cholesterol and phospholipid in support of LP-X. By contrast, W-r and K-r data showed upward tendency and also converged to 220 mg/dL. These results suggest that LDL-C direct assay reagents would be classified into 2 groups with respect to the reagent reactivity to LP-X.

  2. Numerical simulations of porous medium with different permeabilities and positions in a laterally-heated cylindrical enclosure for crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enayati, Hooman; Braun, Minel J.; Chandy, Abhilash J.

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents an investigation of flow and heat transfer in a large diameter (6.25 in) cylindrical enclosure heated laterally and containing a porous block that simulates the basket of nutrients used in a crystal growth reactor. The numerical model entails the use of a commercially available computational engine provided by ANSYS FLUENT, and based on a two-dimensional (2D) axisymmetric Reynolds-averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) equations. The porous medium is simulated using the Brinkman-extended model accounting for the Darcy and Forchheimer induced pressure drops. The porous 'plug' effects are analyzed as both its permeability/inertial resistance and locations in the reactor are changed on a parametric basis, while the Rayleigh number (Ra = gβΔTL3/να) is kept constant at 1.98 × 109. Additionally, the effect of different ratios of the hot to the cold zone lengths are investigated as a part of the current effort. For all cases, the velocity and temperature distributions in the reactor are analyzed together with the flow patterns in, and around the porous block. A comprehensive discussion is provided with regard to the effects of the position of the porous block and its permeability on both the immediately adjacent, and far flows. The consequences on the temperature distribution in the enclosure, when the ratio of the length of the hot-to-cold zones is changed, are also analyzed.

  3. Analysis of Different Positions of Fiber-Reinforced Composite Retainers versus Multistrand Wire Retainers Using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Jahanbin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of this study was to evaluate root displacement of the lower incisors fixed with FRC in different positions versus FSW retainers using the finite element method. Materials and Methods. 3D finite element models were designed for a mandibular anterior segment: Model 1: flexible spiral wire bonded to the lingual teeth surfaces, Model 2: FRC bonded to the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces, and Model 3: FRC bonded to the middle third. FE analysis was performed for three models and then tooth displacements were evaluated. Results. In contrast to lateral incisors and canines, the FSW retainer caused the central teeth to move more than the teeth bonded with FRC in both loadings. Comparison between Models 2 and 3 (in vertical loading showed that FRC retainers that bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces made central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite. Conclusion. FRC retainers bonded at the upper third of lingual teeth surfaces make central and canine teeth move less than FRC retainers bonded at the middle third in vertical loading; however, for lateral teeth it was the opposite.

  4. Objective classification of different head and neck positions and their influence on the radiographic pharyngeal diameter in sport horses

    OpenAIRE

    Go, Li-mei; Barton, Ann Kristin; Ohnesorge, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Background Various head and neck positions in sport horses are significant as they can interfere with upper airway flow mechanics during exercise. Until now, research has focused on subjectively described head and neck positions. The objective of this study was to develop an objective, reproducible method for quantifying head and neck positions accurately. Results Determining the angle between the ridge of the nose and the horizontal plane (ground angle) together with the angle between the ri...

  5. Colgajo libre osteocutáneo escapular en el tratamiento diferido de herida por arma de fuego Scapular osteocutaneous free flap in the deferred treatment of firearm wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Durán Moreno

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Las heridas por arma de fuego de velocidad alta o intermedia, provocan importantes pérdidas de tejido óseo y blando. El tratamiento diferido de estos casos (tratamiento reconstructivo requiere el aporte de tejido sano de regiones distantes mediante técnicas microquirúrgicas en la mayoría de las ocasiones. Exponemos la utilidad del colgajo osteocutáneo escapular (COE para la reconstrucción de defectos óseos mandibulares laterales con amplio defecto cutáneomucoso. Citamos detalles técnicos de la realización del colgajo ilustrados con la presentación de un caso clínico de un varón de 19 años con herida por arma de fuego en tercio inferior de la región lateral izquierda. Pérdida ósea del cuerpo mandibular y cutánea de la mejilla y región yugal ipsilateral. El tratamiento inicial consistió en traqueotomía, desbridamiento de tejidos desvitalizados, ferulización dentaria, bloqueo intermaxilar, colocación de placa de reconstrucción mandibular y colgajo de avance cervico-facial para cierre del defecto cutáneo. La necrosis del colgajo de avance cervicofacial produjo comunicación orofacial. La retracción cicatricial limitó la apertura oral a 0,8 cm. De forma diferida se procedió a colgajo osteomiocutáneo escapular-paraescapular del brazo izquierdo para reconstrución mandibular y de partes blandas intra y extraorales. Resultados satisfactorios estética y funcionalmente. Complicaciones producidas: fístula salival, desinserción del brazo largo del tríceps, y dehiscencia de herida de zona donante escapular que necesitó intervención para cierre mediante colgajo local.Firearm wounds caused by high-velocity projectiles cause enormous losses of bone and soft tissue. The deferred treatment of these cases (delayed reconstruction in most cases requires the transfer of free tissue from other areas of the body. The use of scapular and parascapular free flaps with scapular bone for the reconstruction of large lateral mandibular

  6. Influence of different infracardial positions of central venous catheters in hemodynamic monitoring using the transpulmonal thermodilution method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, Patrick; Schleusener, Viola; Bauerfeind, Frank; Soukup, Jens

    2016-10-01

    Hemodynamic measurements are often conducted by the transpulmonary thermodilution (TPTD)-based PiCCO(®)-system. This requires a central-venous (CVC) and a thermistor-tipped arterial catheter, usually placed in the femoral artery. In certain clinical situations, CVC devices have to be placed in the inferior vena cava. However, little is known about the influence of different CVC positions (i.e. ipsi- vs. contra-lateral to the arterial catheter) on the accuracy of the TPTD measurement results. In this prospective observational study surgical intensive care unit patients who had been inserted with CVCs either into the superior (CVCVCS) or the inferior vena cava (CVCinf) in addition to an arterial PiCCO(®)-catheter, were enrolled. Patients were then divided into two groups: Group I was provided with a CVC in the contralateral (CVCcontra) and Group II in the ipsilateral (CVCipsi) inferior vena cava. Thermodilution via injection of ice-cold saline was then performed via CVCsup and CVCinf. Bland-Altman analysis for cardiac index (CI), extra-vascular lung water index (EVLWI) and global end-diastolic volume index (GEDVI) were employed. Additional correction formulas for femorally assed parameters were determined. In a total of 28 patients, bias (limits of agreement) for measurements of CI in CVCcontra was found to be +0.2 (-0.4; +0.9) and +0.3 (-0.4; +1.0) L/min/m(2) in CVCipsi. GEDVI showed a bias of +274.8 (-47.3; +596.9) mL/m(2) in CVCcontra and +274.7 (-100.7; +650.1) mL/m(2) in CVCipsi. The mean EVLWI were 9.4 ± 4.3 mL/kg for EVLWIVCS and 10.7 ± 5.2 mL/kg for EVLWIinf. The LoA yielded at -3.4 and +6.1 mL/kg with a bias of +1.3 mL/kg. Percentage errors revealed clinically acceptable limits for CI and GEDVI, but not for EVLWI. Using TPTD via an infracardial central vein, measurements of CI showed high accuracy and precision while GEDVI measurements were precise with a lower accuracy, irrespective of the position of the infracardial CVC.

  7. Pupils Making a Difference: Enhancing the Power of the Student Peer Group to Promote Positive Social, Emotional and Behavioural Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Paul; Jacobs, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors review empirical evidence on the effects of peer groups on social, emotional and behavioural functioning. The paper shows that an understanding of the ways in which peer groups can influence the development of deviance and subvert the positive effects of interventions can be exploited in the promotion of positive social…

  8. Phylogenetically close group I introns with different positions among Paramecium bursaria photobionts imply a primitive stage of intron diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshina, Ryo; Imamura, Nobutaka

    2009-06-01

    Group I introns are a distinct RNA group that catalyze their excision from precursor RNA transcripts and ligate the exons. Group I introns have a sporadic and highly biased distribution due to the two intron transfer mechanisms of homing and reverse splicing. These transfer pathways recognize assigned sequences even when introns are transferred beyond the species level. Consequently, introns at homologous gene sites between different host organisms are more related than those at heterologous sites within an organism. We describe the subgroup IE introns of two Chlorella species that are symbiotic green algae (photobionts) of a ciliate, Paramecium bursaria. One strain Chlorella sp. SW1-ZK (Csw.) had two IE introns at S651 and L2449, and the other strain Chlorella sp. OK1-ZK (Cok.) had four IE introns at S943, L1688, L1926, and L2184 (numbering reflects their homologous position in Escherichia coli rRNA gene: S = small subunit rRNA, L = large subunit rRNA). Despite locating on six heterologous sites, the introns formed a monophyletic clade independent of other groups. Phylogenetic and structural analyses of the introns indicated that Csw.L2449 has an archaic state, and the other introns are assumed to be originated from this intron. Some of the introns shared common internal guide sequences, which are necessary for misdirected transfer (i.e., transposition) via reverse splicing. Other introns, however, shared similar sequence fragments further upstream, after the insertions. We propose a hypothetical model to explain how these intron transpositions may have occurred in these photobionts; they transposed by a combination of homing-like event requiring relaxed sequence homology of recognition sequences and reverse splicing. This case study may represent a key to describe how group I intron explores new insertion sites.

  9. Minimum Clinically Important Difference In The Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale Using Data From The CATIE Schizophrenia Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermes, Eric D.A.; Sokoloff, Daniel M.; Stroup, T. Scott; Rosenheck, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Context Establishing the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) in the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) is important to the interpretation of the research and clinical work conducted with this scale. Method This study employed both anchor-based and distributive methods to estimate the MCID for the PANSS using data from the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Schizophrenia trial, a large, multicenter trial for patients with schizophrenia. Data from 1442 individuals linked PANSS scores with both clinician and patient ratings on the Clinical Global Impressions Scale (CGI) using an equipercentile method. Data were also used to investigate the magnitude of the standard error measurement (SEM), offering another estimate of the MCID. Results Cross-sectional clinician rated CGI scores of 1 through 7 linked to PANSS scores of 32.4, 42.2, 57.5, 74.5, 93.0, 110.9, and 131.0 respectively. The MCID for PANSS scores using this scale equaled a 15.3 point (34.0%) change from baseline. A 1.96 SEM on the PANSS corresponded to a 16.5 point (36.2%) change from baseline. The MCID for a subsample with above-median baseline PANSS scores was 38% higher than a sample with lower baseline scores. With the patient-rated CGI as the anchor, PANSS scores were higher for CGI scores of 1 through 4 and the MCID was lower, 11.2 points (24.6%). Conclusion MCID estimates from a longer-term effectiveness trial were consistent with previous efforts from shorter-term efficacy trials. MCID estimates can help clinicians and researchers design future studies and interpret treatment change in future research and clinical work. PMID:22579152

  10. Differences in joint-position sense and vibratory threshold in runners with and without a history of overuse injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switlick, Tiffany; Kernozek, Thomas W; Meardon, Stacey

    2015-02-01

    A relationship between altered postural co