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Sample records for scans showed c-gan

  1. A case of linear nevus sebaceous syndrome showing abnormalities by head CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yoshio; Kuraya, Kazue; Sumiyoshi, Minoru; Seki, Shuichiro; Murakami, Naoki

    1982-01-01

    A female baby weighing 2,702 g, who was delivered spontaneously after 37 weeks of gestation, showed linear nevus sebaceous syndrome with abnormalities on EEG and head CT scan. Immediately after birth, the baby showed abnormalities of the skin in the left half of the body, especially from the head to the face. At the same time, EEG showed a low voltage on the affected side, and head CT scan showed expansion of the lateral ventricle. Funduscopic findings showed retinochoroidal toxoplasmosis-like degeneration. This disease has been rarely reported. An early diagnosis is seemed to be important since the skin lesion per se was premalignant, and generalized abnormalities including those of the central nervous system occurred concurrently. (Chiba, N.)

  2. Differences in MRI findings in cases showing ring-enhancement on a CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokiwa, Kaichi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Miyasaka, Yoshio; Yada, Kenzoh; Kan, Shinichi; Takagi, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    It is sometimes difficult to differentiate between a brain abscess and a tumor, for both show ring-enhancement on a CT scan. The present authors have studied the benefit of MRI for the differential diagnosis of these two lesions. The subjects of this study were 6 cases of brain abscess and 10 cases of brain tumor, all of them showing ring-enhancement on a CT scan. The MRI findings were compared with those of the CT scan taken at almost the same time, especially focussing on the difference in the ring-enhancement. In 5 out of the 6 cases of brain abscess, T 2 -weighted MRI demonstrated a comparatively thin and homogeneous low-intensity, round rim. In the cases of brain tumor, however, none of the cases demonstrated this typical low-intensity, round rim; rather, in them the rim was thick and irregular. The authors can conclude that those MRI findings can serve as important differential diagnostic findings between brain abscess and tumor; also, MRI may be used as a landmark for terminating the administration of antibiotics in cases of brain abscess. (author)

  3. What Can Computed Tomography Scans of the Thorax Show after Breast Surgery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afsaneh Alikhassi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative breast abnormalities after breast conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy are frequently overlooked and inaccurately assessed or reported using multidetector computed tomography (MDCT. These inaccurate results may have legal ramifications for the clinicians, cause patients avoidable anxiety, and lead to additional unnecessary diagnostic follow-up testing and costs.Methods: The patients with a history of breast cancer who had undergone breast-conserving surgery or modified radical mastectomy up to 6 months prior to undergoing a thoracic MDCT scan consented and enrolled in this study. These patients underwent a thoracic MDCT scan either because of respiratory or cardiac clinical symptoms or as part of breast cancer staging.Results: Forty women were included in this study. Different postoperative breast changes observed on thoracic MDCT scans including fibrous scar tissue, fat necrosis, seroma, abscess, hematoma, and recurrent and residual tumor were described.Conclusions: MDCT scans offer sufficient evidence in many postoperative cases to allow a confident diagnosis. General radiologists who review thoracic MDCT scans should know how to characterize breast lesions incidentally found on MDCT scans after breast surgeries. This information would enhance the value of the radiologist’s report for appropriate case management.

  4. Investigations with FDG-PET Scanning in Prostate Cancer Show Limited Value for Clinical Practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salminen, Eeva [Univ. of Turku (Finland). Department of Oncology and Radiotherapy; Hogg, Annette; Binns, David; Hicks, Rodney [The Peter MacCallum Cancer Institute, East Melbourne, Vic (Australia). Dept. of Diagnostic Imaging; Frydenberg, Mark [Monash Medical Centre, Clayton, Vic (Australia)

    2002-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate FDG-PET (fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography) imaging in the management of prostate cancer. Twenty-two patients were studied during different disease phases of prostate cancer, for staging or restaging to clarify specific clinical questions. FDG-PET was performed encompassing the thorax, abdomen and pelvis using the Penn PET 300H scanner. Scanning was begun 60 min after {sup 18}F fluorodeoxyglucose marker. Patients were catheterized and administered diuretics to minimize urinary activity. Information obtained with FDG-PET was concordant with findings from other investigations in 7/22 (32%) patients, discordant in 15/22 (68%) patients and equivalent in one patient (4%). PET indicated progressive disease in five patients with prostate-specific antigen (PSA) <4 ng/L. The impact on management of the patients was high in 46% of cases, low in 41% and for 14% there was no impact on management. The accuracy of FDG-PET was 72% (95% CI 50-89) as confirmed by invasive diagnostics/follow-up. FDG-PET can provide useful information and improve the clinician's decision on further management procedures in selected patients with low PSA and bone or lymph node changes. A negative PET scan in prostate cancer should be interpreted with caution.

  5. CT-scan-monitored electrical-resistivity measurements show problems achieving homogeneous saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprunt, E.S.; Davis, R.M.; Muegge, E.L.; Desai, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on x-ray computerized tomography (CT) scans obtained during measurement of the electrical resistivity of core samples which revealed some problems in obtaining uniform saturation along the lengths of the samples. The electrical resistivity of core samples is measured as a function of water saturation to determine the saturation exponent used in electric-log interpretation. An assumption in such tests is that the water saturation is uniformly distributed. Failure of this assumption can result in errors in the determination of the saturation exponent. Three problems were identified in obtaining homogeneous water saturation in two samples of a Middle Eastern carbonate grainstone: a stationary front formed in one sample at 1-psi oil/brine capillary pressure, a moving front formed at oil/brine capillary pressure ≤4 psi in samples tested in fresh mixed-wettability and cleaned water-wet states, and the heterogeneous fluid distribution caused by a rapidly moving front did not dissipate when the capillary pressure was eliminated in the samples

  6. CT-scan-monitored electrical resistivity measurements show problems achieving homogeneous saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprunt, E.S.; Coles, M.E.; Davis, R.M.; Muegge, E.L.; Desai, K.P.

    1991-01-01

    X-ray CT scans obtained during measurement of the electrical resistivity of core samples revealed some problems in obtaining uniform saturation along the length of the sample. In this paper the electrical resistivity of core samples is measured as a function of water saturation to determine the saturation exponent, which is used in electric log interpretation. An assumption in such tests is that the water saturation is uniformly distributed. Failure of this assumption can result in errors in the determination of the saturation exponent. Three problems were identified in obtaining homogeneous water saturation in two samples of a Middle Eastern carbonate grainstone. A stationary front formed in one sample at 1 psi oil/brine capillary pressure. A moving front formed at oil/brine capillary pressures of 4 psi or less in both samples tested, in both a fresh mixed-wettability state and in a cleaned water-wet state. In these samples, the heterogeneous fluid distribution caused by a rapidly moving front did not dissipate when the capillary pressure was eliminated

  7. Alveolar architecture of clear cell renal carcinomas (≤5.0 cm) show high attenuation on dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Hiroyuki; Wakao, Fumihiko; Moriyama, Noriyuki; Tobisu, Kenichi; Kakizoe, Tadao; Sakamoto, Michiie

    1999-01-01

    To establish the correlation between tumor appearance on CT and tumor histology in renal cell carcinomas. The density and attenuation patterns of 96 renal cell carcinomas, each ≤5 cm in greatest diameter, were studied by non-enhanced CT and early and late after bolus injection of contrast medium using dynamic CT. The density and attenuation patterns and pathological maps of each tumor were individually correlated. High attenuated areas were present in 72 of the 96 tumors on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. All 72 high attenuated areas were of the clear cell renal cell carcinoma and had alveolar architecture. The remaining 24 tumors that did not demonstrate high attenuated foci on early enhanced scanning included three clear cell, nine granular cell, six papillary, five chromophobe and one collecting duct type. With respect to tumor architecture, all clear cell tumors of alveolar architecture demonstrated high attenuation on early enhanced scanning. Clear cell renal cell carcinomas of alveolar architecture show high attenuation on early enhanced dynamic CT scanning. A larger number of patients are indispensable to obtaining clear results. However, these findings seem to be an important clue to the diagnosis of renal cell carcinomas as having an alveolar structure. (author)

  8. Non-mineralized fibrocartilage shows the lowest elastic modulus in the rabbit supraspinatus tendon insertion: measurement with scanning acoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Hirotaka; Saijo, Yoshifumi; Kokubun, Shoichi

    2006-01-01

    The acoustic properties of rabbit supraspinatus tendon insertions were measured by scanning acoustic microscopy. After cutting parallel to the supraspinatus tendon fibers, specimens were fixed with 10% neutralized formalin, embedded in paraffin, and sectioned. Both the sound speed and the attenuation constant were measured at the insertion site. The 2-dimensional distribution of the sound speed and that of the attenuation constant were displayed with color-coded scales. The acoustic properties reflected both the histologic architecture and the collagen type. In the tendon proper and the non-mineralized fibrocartilage, the sound speed and attenuation constant gradually decreased as the predominant collagen type changed from I to II. In the mineralized fibrocartilage, they increased markedly with the mineralization of the fibrocartilaginous tissue. These results indicate that the non-mineralized fibrocartilage shows the lowest elastic modulus among 4 zones at the insertion site, which could be interpreted as an adaptation to various types of biomechanical stress.

  9. Genome-wide association scan shows genetic variants in the FTO gene are associated with obesity-related traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelo Scuteri

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The obesity epidemic is responsible for a substantial economic burden in developed countries and is a major risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The disease is the result not only of several environmental risk factors, but also of genetic predisposition. To take advantage of recent advances in gene-mapping technology, we executed a genome-wide association scan to identify genetic variants associated with obesity-related quantitative traits in the genetically isolated population of Sardinia. Initial analysis suggested that several SNPs in the FTO and PFKP genes were associated with increased BMI, hip circumference, and weight. Within the FTO gene, rs9930506 showed the strongest association with BMI (p = 8.6 x10(-7, hip circumference (p = 3.4 x 10(-8, and weight (p = 9.1 x 10(-7. In Sardinia, homozygotes for the rare "G" allele of this SNP (minor allele frequency = 0.46 were 1.3 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the common "A" allele. Within the PFKP gene, rs6602024 showed very strong association with BMI (p = 4.9 x 10(-6. Homozygotes for the rare "A" allele of this SNP (minor allele frequency = 0.12 were 1.8 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the common "G" allele. To replicate our findings, we genotyped these two SNPs in the GenNet study. In European Americans (N = 1,496 and in Hispanic Americans (N = 839, we replicated significant association between rs9930506 in the FTO gene and BMI (p-value for meta-analysis of European American and Hispanic American follow-up samples, p = 0.001, weight (p = 0.001, and hip circumference (p = 0.0005. We did not replicate association between rs6602024 and obesity-related traits in the GenNet sample, although we found that in European Americans, Hispanic Americans, and African Americans, homozygotes for the rare "A" allele were, on average, 1.0-3.0 BMI units heavier than homozygotes for the more common "G" allele. In summary, we have completed a whole genome-association scan for

  10. Not all trees sleep the same - High temporal resolution terrestrial laser scanning shows differences in nocturnal plant movement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zlinszky, András; Barfod, Anders; Molnár, Bence

    2017-01-01

    Circadian leaf movements are widely known in plants, but nocturnal movement of tree branches were only recently discovered by using terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), a high resolution three-dimensional surveying technique. TLS uses a pulsed laser emitted in a regular scan pattern for rapid...... surveyed a series of 18 full scans over a 12-h night period to measure nocturnal changes in shape simultaneously for an experimental setup of 22 plants representing different species. Resulting point clouds were evaluated by comparing changes in height percentiles of laser scanning points belonging...... to the canopy. Changes in crown shape were observed for all studied trees, but clearly distinguishable sleep movements are apparently rare. Ambient light conditions were continuously dark between sunset (7:30 p.m.) and sunrise (6:00 a.m.), but most changes in movement direction occurred during this period, thus...

  11. A bi-dimensional genome scan for prolificacy traits in pigs shows the existence of multiple epistatic QTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidanel Jean P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolificacy is the most important trait influencing the reproductive efficiency of pig production systems. The low heritability and sex-limited expression of prolificacy have hindered to some extent the improvement of this trait through artificial selection. Moreover, the relative contributions of additive, dominant and epistatic QTL to the genetic variance of pig prolificacy remain to be defined. In this work, we have undertaken this issue by performing one-dimensional and bi-dimensional genome scans for number of piglets born alive (NBA and total number of piglets born (TNB in a three generation Iberian by Meishan F2 intercross. Results The one-dimensional genome scan for NBA and TNB revealed the existence of two genome-wide highly significant QTL located on SSC13 (P SSC17 (P P P P P Conclusions The complex inheritance of prolificacy traits in pigs has been evidenced by identifying multiple additive (SSC13 and SSC17, dominant and epistatic QTL in an Iberian × Meishan F2 intercross. Our results demonstrate that a significant fraction of the phenotypic variance of swine prolificacy traits can be attributed to first-order gene-by-gene interactions emphasizing that the phenotypic effects of alleles might be strongly modulated by the genetic background where they segregate.

  12. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium

  13. High resolution scanning electron microscopy of rabbit corneal endothelium to show effects of UV-visible irradiation in the presence of chlorpromazine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lea, P.J.; Hollenberg, M.J.; Menon, I.A.; Temkin, R.J.; Persad, S.D.; Basu, P.K. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-01-01

    The ultrastructure of rabbit cornea endothelial cells was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in freeze-cleaved corneas using a Hitachi S-570 scanning electron microscope in the high resolution mode (HRSEM). In order to study phototoxic effects in vitro, rabbit corneas (experimental) were cultured as organ culture in the presence of 5 micrograms/ml chlorpromazine (CPZ) and irradiated. For comparison, control 1 corneas were not irradiated but incubated in the dark without CPZ in the medium; control 2 corneas were also kept in the dark but in the presence of CPZ; control 3 corneas were irradiated with no CPZ in the medium. Cellular damage was not seen in the three types of control corneas, but in the experimental corneas the endothelial cells showed extensive disruption of the cell membrane and some deterioration of the intracellular components. Our study confirmed that HRSEM is a satisfactory new technique for visualizing damage of the intracellular organelles of corneal endothelium.

  14. Bleomycin-Induced Pulmonary Changes on Restaging Computed Tomography Scans in Two Thirds of Testicular Cancer Patients Show No Correlation With Fibrosis Markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hollander, Martha W; Westerink, Nico-Derk L; Lubberts, Sjoukje; Bongaerts, Alfons H H; Wolf, Rienhart F E; Altena, Renska; Nuver, Janine; Oosting, Sjoukje F; de Vries, Elisabeth G E; Walenkamp, Anna M E; Meijer, Coby; Gietema, Jourik A

    2016-08-01

    In metastatic testicular cancer patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin (BEP) chemotherapy, bleomycin-induced pneumonitis is a well-known and potentially fatal side effect. We sought to determine the prevalence of lesions as signs of bleomycin-induced pulmonary changes on restaging computed tomography (CT) scans after treatment and to ascertain whether fibrosis markers were predictive of these changes. This prospective nonrandomized cohort study included metastatic testicular cancer patients, 18-50 years of age, treated with BEP chemotherapy. Restaging CT scans were examined for lesions as signs of bleomycin-induced pulmonary changes by two independent radiologists and graded as minor, moderate, or severe. Plasma samples were collected before, during, and after treatment and were quantified for transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). In total, 66 patients were included: forty-five (68%) showed signs of bleomycin-induced pulmonary changes on the restaging CT scan, 37 of which were classified as minor and 8 as moderate. No differences in TGF-β1, GDF-15, or hs-CRP plasma levels were found between these groups. Bleomycin-induced pulmonary changes are common on restaging CT scans after BEP chemotherapy for metastatic testicular cancer. Changes in TGF-β1, GDF-15, and hs-CRP plasma levels do not differ between patients with and without radiological lesions as signs of bleomycin-induced pulmonary changes and are therefore not helpful as predictive biomarkers. Bleomycin-induced pneumonitis (BIP) is a well-known and potentially fatal side effect in metastatic testicular cancer patients treated with bleomycin, etoposide, and cisplatin chemotherapy. Currently, the decision to discontinue bleomycin administration is made during treatment and is based on clinical signs. An upfront or early marker or biomarker that identifies patients likely to develop BIP would be

  15. Individual Cell Based Traits Obtained by Scanning Flow-Cytometry Show Selection by Biotic and Abiotic Environmental Factors during a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomati, Francesco; Kraft, Nathan J. B.; Posch, Thomas; Eugster, Bettina; Jokela, Jukka; Ibelings, Bas W.

    2013-01-01

    In ecology and evolution, the primary challenge in understanding the processes that shape biodiversity is to assess the relationship between the phenotypic traits of organisms and the environment. Here we tested for selection on physio-morphological traits measured by scanning flow-cytometry at the individual level in phytoplankton communities under a temporally changing biotic and abiotic environment. Our aim was to study how high-frequency temporal changes in the environment influence biodiversity dynamics in a natural community. We focused on a spring bloom in Lake Zurich (Switzerland), characterized by rapid changes in phytoplankton, water conditions, nutrients and grazing (mainly mediated by herbivore ciliates). We described bloom dynamics in terms of taxonomic and trait-based diversity and found that diversity dynamics of trait-based groups were more pronounced than those of identified phytoplankton taxa. We characterized the linkage between measured phytoplankton traits, abiotic environmental factors and abundance of the main grazers and observed weak but significant correlations between changing abiotic and biotic conditions and measured size-related and fluorescence-related traits. We tested for deviations in observed community-wide distributions of focal traits from random patterns and found evidence for both clustering and even spacing of traits, occurring sporadically over the time series. Patterns were consistent with environmental filtering and phenotypic divergence under herbivore pressure, respectively. Size-related traits showed significant even spacing during the peak of herbivore abundance, suggesting that morphology-related traits were under selection from grazing. Pigment distribution within cells and colonies appeared instead to be associated with acclimation to temperature and water chemistry. We found support for trade-offs among grazing resistance and environmental tolerance traits, as well as for substantial periods of dynamics in which

  16. Histochemical study of trans-polyisoprene accumulation by spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy and a specific dye showing fluorescence solvatochromism in the rubber-producing plant, Eucommia ulmoides Oliver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakazawa, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Tsuyoshi; Suzuki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Tatsushi; Harada, Yoko; Bamba, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Akio

    2013-09-01

    A microscopic technique combining spectral confocal laser scanning microscopy with a lipophilic fluorescent dye, Nile red, which can emit trans-polyisoprene specific fluorescence, was developed, and unmixed images of synthesized trans-polyisoprene in situ in Eucommia ulmoides were successfully obtained. The images showed that trans-polyisoprene was initially synthesized as granules in non-articulated laticifers that changed shape to fibers during laticifer maturation. Non-articulated laticifers are developed from single laticiferous cells, which are differentiated from surrounding parenchyma cells in the cambium. Therefore, these observations suggested that trans-polyisoprene biosynthesis first started in laticifer cells as granules and then the granules accumulated and fused in the inner space of the laticifers over time. Finally, laticifers were filled with the synthesized trans-polyisoprene, which formed a fibrous structure fitting the laticifers shape. Both trans- and cis-polyisoprene are among the most important polymers naturally produced by plants, and this microscopic technique combined with histological study should provide useful information in the fields of plant histology, bioindustry and phytochemistry.

  17. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  18. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  19. CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, lung nodules and liver masses Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as cancer treatment Detect ... scan done in a hospital or an outpatient facility. CT scans are painless and, with newer machines, ...

  20. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  1. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  2. Scanning of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr

  3. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  4. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  5. Scanning holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  6. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  7. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  8. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  9. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase......-shift. Experimental results inX-band, in good agreement with the theory, show that it is possible to scan the main lobe an angle ofpm30degby a variation of the frequencypm300MHz, and where the 3 dB beamwidth is less than10deg. The directivity was 14.7 dB, while the gain was 8.1 dB. The efficiency might be improved...

  10. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  11. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  12. Show-Bix &

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The anti-reenactment 'Show-Bix &' consists of 5 dias projectors, a dial phone, quintophonic sound, and interactive elements. A responsive interface will enable the Dias projectors to show copies of original dias slides from the Show-Bix piece ”March på Stedet”, 265 images in total. The copies are...

  13. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive

  14. Radionuclide scan findings in delayed splenic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, F.W.; Jackson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    An initial liver/spleen scan performed on a patient with blunt abdominal trauma was negative 3 days following the accident. A follow-up scan 7 days later showed definite evidence of splenic rupture, proved surgically. The authors conclude that, in such cases, spleen scans may be negative initially because of delayed splenic ruptures

  15. Talking with TV shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Laursen, Ditte

    2014-01-01

    User interaction with radio and television programmes is not a new thing. However, with new cross-media production concepts such as X Factor and Voice, this is changing dramatically. The second-screen logic of these productions encourages viewers, along with TV’s traditional one-way communication...... mode, to communicate on interactive (dialogue-enabling) devices such as laptops, smartphones and tablets. Using the TV show Voice as our example, this article shows how the technological and situational set-up of the production invites viewers to engage in new ways of interaction and communication...

  16. Are environmental scanning units effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbart, C

    1982-06-01

    Many authorities have urged companies to set up environmental scanning to assist corporate planning. Some advocates have recommended a unit at corporate level. This would give breadth of view and penetration into the future. It would arm decision makers with accurate forecasts. The information would be broad in scope and future directed. It could provide also assumptions for long-range planning. The Fahey and King study produced a model of corporate scanning types. The data showed that environmental information was built into the plan. Though the political environment was important, scanning was inadequate. The best location for scanning was not at corporate level and most firms used irregular methods. The Thomas study concluded that effective environmental scanning was permanent and multi level and that 'best practice' was continuous scanning. In 1978 the sample organizations were revisited. Five of the twelve have not changed their practice. The factors which encouraged a continuous model were the attitudes of academics and business media, demonstrated success of the units, the right kind of personnel. Contrary influences were changes in top management, decentralization moves, resource cuts, defining the environment and its significance, the availability of scanning competent personnel, surprise itself, and the availability of alternatives e.g. external forecasts.

  17. Talk Show Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  18. Obesity in show cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbee, R J

    2014-12-01

    Obesity is an important disease with a high prevalence in cats. Because obesity is related to several other diseases, it is important to identify the population at risk. Several risk factors for obesity have been described in the literature. A higher incidence of obesity in certain cat breeds has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine whether obesity occurs more often in certain breeds. The second aim was to relate the increased prevalence of obesity in certain breeds to the official standards of that breed. To this end, 268 cats of 22 different breeds investigated by determining their body condition score (BCS) on a nine-point scale by inspection and palpation, at two different cat shows. Overall, 45.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 5, and 4.5% of the show cats had a BCS > 7. There were significant differences between breeds, which could be related to the breed standards. Most overweight and obese cats were in the neutered group. It warrants firm discussions with breeders and cat show judges to come to different interpretations of the standards in order to prevent overweight conditions in certain breeds from being the standard of beauty. Neutering predisposes for obesity and requires early nutritional intervention to prevent obese conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  20. The energy show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    The Energy Show is a new look at the problems of world energy, where our supplies come from, now and in the future. The programme looks at how we need energy to maintain our standards of living. Energy supply is shown as the complicated set of problems it is - that Fossil Fuels are both raw materials and energy sources, that some 'alternatives' so readily suggested as practical options are in reality a long way from being effective. (author)

  1. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  3. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  5. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  6. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  7. Showing Value (Editorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Koufogiannakis

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available When Su Cleyle and I first decided to start Evidence Based Library and Information Practice, one of the things we agreed upon immediately was that the journal be open access. We knew that a major obstacle to librarians using the research literature was that they did not have access to the research literature. Although Su and I are both academic librarians who can access a wide variety of library and information literature from our institutions, we belong to a profession where not everyone has equal access to the research in our field. Without such access to our own body of literature, how can we ever hope for practitioners to use research evidence in their decision making? It would have been contradictory to the principles of evidence based library and information practice to do otherwise.One of the specific groups we thought could use such an open access venue for discovering research literature was school librarians. School librarians are often isolated and lacking access to the research literature that may help them prove to stakeholders the importance of their libraries and their role within schools. Certainly, school libraries have been in decline and the use of evidence to show value is needed. As Ken Haycock noted in his 2003 report, The Crisis in Canada’s School Libraries: The Case for Reform and Reinvestment, “Across the country, teacher-librarians are losing their jobs or being reassigned. Collections are becoming depleted owing to budget cuts. Some principals believe that in the age of the Internet and the classroom workstation, the school library is an artifact” (9. Within this context, school librarians are looking to our research literature for evidence of the impact that school library programs have on learning outcomes and student success. They are integrating that evidence into their practice, and reflecting upon what can be improved locally. They are focusing on students and showing the impact of school libraries and

  8. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  9. Hepatobiliary scan in neonatal Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Nurun; Hasan, Mizanul; Karim, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Jaundice is more or less common in newborn babies. Through physiological jaundice is most common cause of neonatal jaundice, possibility of obstructive jaundice especially biliary atresia should be kept in mind. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia followed by surgical treatment can save baby's life. Otherwise death is inevitable due to liver failure. Hepatobiliary scan is the imaging study of choice in neonatal jaundice especially when there is persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Total 27 newborn babies of suspected biliary atresia, aged 14 days to 4 months were referred to Institute of Nuclear Medicine for Hepatobiliary scan. All of them had high serum bilirubin ranged from 6.0 mg/dl with an average of 9.35 ng/dl serum bilirubin level. Ultrasonography of hepatobiliary system was performed in 14 cases showing normal sized liver in 4 cases and hepatomegaly in 10 cases. Hepatobiliary scan was done with 99m Tc-Mebrofenin (Br IDA) after preparing the baby with phenobarbitone for 3-5 days. 20 (67%) cases were scan positive suggesting biliary atresia (BA) and 7(27%) cases were scan negative. In BA there will be increased hepatic uptake of the radionuclide without any significant excretion even in 24 hours delayed images. Presence of radiotracer in the bowel exclude the diagnosis of BA. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia is very important because in this condition surgery should be performed early (within 60 days of life). Studies suggest that hepatobiliary scan after hepatic stimulation with phenobarbitone for a period of 3-5 days is highly accurate for differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice. It is very important to perform hepatobiliary scan in a case of neonatal jaundice to exclude biliary atresia for the sake of baby's life.(author)

  10. CT scan of Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, T; Noguchi, S; Nishitani, H [National Sanatorium of Utano, Kyoto (Japan); Kitano, H; Ikegami, Y

    1981-04-01

    In forty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease, we examined the ventricular size and the degree of cortical atrophy which were measured by the photos of CT scan and compared them with their clinical symptoms and side effects of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The ventricular size was expressed as the ventricular ratio which is the percentage of superimposed lateral ventricular area to the white and gray matter area at the slice number 2B of CT scan photos. The degree of the cortical atrophy was expressed as the sulcal numbers which were clearly visualized at the slice number 3B or 4A of CT scan photos. We used the CT scan photos of age-matched other patients which did not show definit central nervous system abnormalities. Our findings were as follows: (1) The ventricular enlargement was observed in the parkinsonian patients who showed dementia and/or Yahr's classification grades IV or V. (2) There was no correlation between the duration of this disease and the L--dopa treatments with the ventricular size and sulcal numbers. (3) The side effects of drugs such as visual hallucination were tended to be observed in the patients who showed the ventricular enlargement. (4) There was no definite correlation between the degree of cortical atrophy with clinical symptoms and side effects of various drugs. These findings suggested that the ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease was an important sign of dementia and the tendency of appearance of side effects of various drugs.

  11. CT scan of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tetsuro; Noguchi, Sadako; Nishitani, Hiroshi; Kitano, Haruo; Ikegami, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    In forty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease, we examined the ventricular size and the degree of cortical atrophy which were measured by the photos of CT scan and compared them with their clinical symptoms and side effects of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The ventricular size was expressed as the ventricular ratio which is the percentage of superimposed lateral ventricular area to the white and gray matter area at the slice number 2B of CT scan photos. The degree of the cortical atrophy was expressed as the sulcal numbers which were clearly visualized at the slice number 3B or 4A of CT scan photos. We used the CT scan photos of age-matched other patients which did not show definit central nervous system abnormalities. Our findings were as follows: (1) The ventricular enlargement was observed in the parkinsonian patients who showed dementia and/or Yahr's classification grades IV or V. (2) There was no correlation between the duration of this disease and the L--dopa treatments with the ventricular size and sulcal numbers. (3) The side effects of drugs such as visual hallucination were tended to be observed in the patients who showed the ventricular enlargement. (4) There was no definite correlation between the degree of cortical atrophy with clinical symptoms and side effects of various drugs. These findings suggested that the ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease was an important sign of dementia and the tendency of appearance of side effects of various drugs. (author)

  12. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  13. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  15. Transverse section scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  16. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  17. Interesting bone scans - unusual findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, M.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    A 59-year-old female with carcinoma of the colon and known liver metastatic disease was referred for bone scan to evaluate for bone metastases. Although no bone metastases were found, there was abnormal uptake noted in the liver corresponding to a metastatic calcified lesion. The only other findings were of degenerative disease in the cervical spine, right shoulder and small joints of the hands. A 69-year-old male with carcinoma of the prostate and right side low back pain was referred for bone scan. No focal abnormalities to suggest metastatic disease were identified; findings within the cervical spine, lumber spine and knees were presumed secondary to degenerative disease. Intermittent pain persisted and the patient was referred for a repeat bone scan six months later. Previous scan findings of degenerative disease and no metastatic disease were confirmed; however, closer inspection revealed an enlarged right kidney with significant retention of tracer in the pelvicalyceal system suggesting possible obstruction. A Retrograde pyelogram was performed, and no obvious obstruction demonstrated. As bone scan findings were very suggestive of obstruction, a DTPA scan with lasix was performed showing a dilated right collecting system with no functional obstruction. Given the degree of dilation, it is possible that the patient experiences intermittent PUJ obstruction causing his symptoms. A 33-year-old male with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and viral arthritis was referred for a bone scan. A three phase revealed increased uptake in the region of the knee and leR proximal tibia. Delayed whole body images revealed multiple focal areas of osteoblastic activity in the leR tibia. Abnormal uptake was also seen in the upper third of the leR femur. The remainder of the skeletal survey was normal. X-ray correlation of the leR tibia and femoral findings was undertaken. Combinating unilateral changes on bone scan and X-ray although very suggestive of sclerotic polyostotic

  18. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  19. GPR scan assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD. The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should ... such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for ...

  3. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to a multiplexer slip ring means for receiving output from the detectors and enabling interfeed to the image reconstruction station. (U.K.)

  4. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are presented of a tomographic scanning apparatus, its rotational assembly, and the control and circuit elements, with particular reference to the amplifier and multiplexing circuits enabling detector signal calibration. (U.K.)

  5. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification relates to a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal, and particularly to the design of the gas-pressurized ionization detection system. (U.K.)

  6. Pediatric CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  8. Heart CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make to decrease the risk of heart disease. Risks Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or ... or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: determine if the gland is ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Scan and Uptake Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information needed to make a diagnosis or to determine appropriate treatment, if any. Nuclear medicine is less expensive and ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also called a scintillation ... high as with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more ...

  17. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of ... an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... painless. However, during the thyroid scan, you may feel uncomfortable when lying completely still with your head ... When the radiotracer is given intravenously, you will feel a slight pin prick when the needle is ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an intravenous line ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for each thyroid ...

  3. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I prepare? You ... You will receive specific instructions based on the type of scan you are undergoing. top of page ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  6. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the adjustable fan beam and its collimator system, together with the facility for taking a conventional x-radiograph without moving the patient. (U.K.)

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... of scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera ...

  8. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I prepare? You ... but is often performed on hospitalized patients as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an ...

  10. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters in epidemiologic data. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of secondary clusters as implemented in SatScan is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set...

  11. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This article shows that the usually applied elimination of secondary clusters as implemented in SatScan is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of a set of confocal elliptic...

  12. Scanning Capacitance Microscopy | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy. Top Right: Image of p-type and n-type material, obtained 'fingers' of light-colored n-type material on a yellow and blue background representing p-type material material, obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy, in a sample semiconductor device; the image shows

  13. Codification of scan path parameters and development of perimeter scan strategies for 3D bowl-shaped laser forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, A.; Naeini, H. Moslemi; Roohi, Amir H.; Gollo, M. Hoseinpour; Shahabad, Sh. Imani

    2018-01-01

    In the 3D laser forming process, developing an appropriate laser scan pattern for producing specimens with high quality and uniformity is critical. This study presents certain principles for developing scan paths. Seven scan path parameters are considered, including: (1) combined linear or curved path; (2) type of combined linear path; (3) order of scan sequences; (4) the position of the start point in each scan; (5) continuous or discontinuous scan path; (6) direction of scan path; and (7) angular arrangement of combined linear scan paths. Regarding these path parameters, ten combined linear scan patterns are presented. Numerical simulations show continuous hexagonal, scan pattern, scanning from outer to inner path, is the optimized. In addition, it is observed the position of the start point and the angular arrangement of scan paths is the most effective path parameters. Also, further experimentations show four sequences due to creat symmetric condition enhance the height of the bowl-shaped products and uniformity. Finally, the optimized hexagonal pattern was compared with the similar circular one. In the hexagonal scan path, distortion value and standard deviation rather to edge height of formed specimen is very low, and the edge height despite of decreasing length of scan path increases significantly compared to the circular scan path. As a result, four-sequence hexagonal scan pattern is proposed as the optimized perimeter scan path to produce bowl-shaped product.

  14. Preoperative bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkes, N.D.; Malmud, L.S.; Caswell, T.; Goldman, L.; Hall, J.; Lauby, V.; Lightfoot, W.; Maier, W.; Rosemond, G.

    1975-01-01

    Strontium nitrate Sr-87m bone scans were made preoperatively in a group of women with suspected breast cancer, 35 of whom subsequently underwent radical mastectomy. In 3 of the 35 (9 percent), the scans were abnormal despite the absence of clinical or roentgenographic evidence of metastatic disease. All three patients had extensive axillary lymph node involvement by tumor, and went on to have additional bone metastases, from which one died. Roentgenograms failed to detect the metastases in all three. Occult bone metastases account in part for the failure of radical mastectomy to cure some patients with breast cancer. It is recommended that all candidates for radical mastectomy have a preoperative bone scan. (U.S.)

  15. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abele, M.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized tomographic scanning apparatus suitable for diagnosis and for improving target identification in stereotactic neurosurgery is described. It consists of a base, a source of penetrating energy, a detector which produces scanning signals and detector positioning means. A frame with top and bottom arms secures the detector and source to the top and bottom arms respectively. A drive mechanism rotates the frame about an axis along which the frame may also be moved. Finally, the detector may be moved relative to the bottom arm in a direction contrary to the rotation of the frame. (U.K.)

  16. Scanning the phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Wuerzinger, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A framework to perform scans in the 19-dimensional phenomenological MSSM is developed and used to re-evaluate the ATLAS experiments' sensitivity to R-parity-conserving supersymmetry with LHC Run 2 data ($\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV), using results from 14 separate ATLAS searches. We perform a $\\tilde{t}_1$ dedicated scan, only considering models with $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<1$ TeV, while allowing both a neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$) and a sneutrino ($\\tilde{\

  17. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  18. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  19. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  20. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Huang, Yunsong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  1. Bone scan and joint scan of hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, N.; Verbeke, S.; Perdrisot, R.; Grilo, R.M.; Quenesson, E.; Bonnet, C.; Vergne, P.; Treves, R.; Bertin, P.; Boutros-Toni, F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of joint scan and bone scan of hands and feet, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, to localize the altered joints. The sensitivity, the specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of joint scan were determined in comparison with clinical joint assessment. Fifteen patients (780 joints) were clinically examined (pain and synovitis); during the same day, a bone scan and a joint scan were realized by oxidronate 99m Tc intravenous injection. Patients were scanned 5 minutes (tissual time, T t ) and 3 hours 1/4 (bone time, T 0 ) after the administration. The uptake of the bi-phosphonate was evaluated with a qualitative method using a grey scale. The uptake of 99m Tc oxidronate was quantitated using an extra-articular region of interest. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the scan at Tt were 46%, 96%, 85% et 78%. The same parameters were 75%, 66%, 53% and 84% for the scan realized at T 0 . The joint scan has showed 22% of false positive. These false positives could be a consequence of an earlier detection of joint alterations by scan. The joint scan should forecast the evolution of joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (author)

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape and position of the thyroid gland. The ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  4. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  5. Scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1970-05-15

    The JSM-11 scanning electron microscope at CRNL has been used extensively for topographical studies of oxidized metals, fracture surfaces, entomological and biological specimens. A non-dispersive X-ray attachment permits the microanalysis of the surface features. Techniques for the production of electron channeling patterns have been developed. (author)

  6. Scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnig, G.; Rohrer, H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on vacuum tunneling, a novel type of microscope, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was developed. It has an unprecedented resolution in real space on an atomic scale. The authors review the important technical features, illustrate the power of the STM for surface topographies and discuss its potential in other areas of science and technology. (Auth.)

  7. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  9. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the means of adjusting the apparent gain of the signal processing means for receiving output signals from the detectors, to compensate for drift in the gain characteristics, including means for passing a reference signal. (U.K.)

  10. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  11. Scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The principle underlying the design of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the design and functioning of SEM are described. Its applications in the areas of microcircuitry and materials science are outlined. The development of SEM in India is reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  12. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you: have had any tests, such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated ... page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x- ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two months. are taking medications or ingesting other substances that contain iodine , including kelp, seaweed, cough syrups, multivitamins or heart medications. have any ...

  16. Precision controlled atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using spiral scan pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xiahan; Lupini, Andrew R.; Ding, Jilai; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2017-03-01

    Atomic-resolution imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can enable direct correlation between atomic structure and materials functionality. The fast and precise control of the STEM probe is, however, challenging because the true beam location deviates from the assigned location depending on the properties of the deflectors. To reduce these deviations, i.e. image distortions, we use spiral scanning paths, allowing precise control of a sub-Å sized electron probe within an aberration-corrected STEM. Although spiral scanning avoids the sudden changes in the beam location (fly-back distortion) present in conventional raster scans, it is not distortion-free. “Archimedean” spirals, with a constant angular frequency within each scan, are used to determine the characteristic response at different frequencies. We then show that such characteristic functions can be used to correct image distortions present in more complicated constant linear velocity spirals, where the frequency varies within each scan. Through the combined application of constant linear velocity scanning and beam path corrections, spiral scan images are shown to exhibit less scan distortion than conventional raster scan images. The methodology presented here will be useful for in situ STEM imaging at higher temporal resolution and for imaging beam sensitive materials.

  17. Scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainsbridge, B.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1959, Richard Feynman observed that manoeuvring atoms was something that could be done in principle but has not been done, 'because we are too big'. In 1982, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented and is now a central tool for the construction of nanoscale devices in what was known as molecular engineering, and now, nanotechnology. The principles of the microscope are outlined and references are made to other scanning devices which have evolved from the original invention. The method of employment of the STM as a machine tool is described and references are made to current speculations on applications of the instrument in nanotechnology. A short bibliography on this topic is included. 27 refs., 7 figs

  18. Scanning probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainsbridge, B [Murdoch Univ., WA (Australia). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

    1994-12-31

    In late 1959, Richard Feynman observed that manoeuvring atoms was something that could be done in principle but has not been done, `because we are too big`. In 1982, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented and is now a central tool for the construction of nanoscale devices in what was known as molecular engineering, and now, nanotechnology. The principles of the microscope are outlined and references are made to other scanning devices which have evolved from the original invention. The method of employment of the STM as a machine tool is described and references are made to current speculations on applications of the instrument in nanotechnology. A short bibliography on this topic is included. 27 refs., 7 figs.

  19. 67Ga lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate 67 Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the 67 Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of 67 Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of 67 Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography

  20. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    for a joint horizon scanning system (HSS).  We propose to create a central “horizon scanning unit” to perform the joint HS activities (a newly established unit, an existing HS unit, or a third party commissioned and financed by the collaborating countries). The unit will be responsible for the identification...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...... will collect country-specific information, liaise between the central HS unit and country-specific clinical and other experts, coordinate the national prioritization process (to select products for early assessment), and communicate the output of the HSS to national decision makers.  The outputs of the joint...

  1. Multichannel scanning spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    A spectrophotometer designed in the Crimea astrophysical observatory is described. The spectrophotometer is intended for the installation at the telescope to measure energy distribution in the star spectra in the 3100-8550 A range. The device is made according to the scheme with a fixed diffraction lattice. The choice of the optical kinematic scheme is explained. The main design elements are shown. Some singularities of the scanning drive kinematics are considered. The device performance is given

  2. Scanning drop sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  3. Scanning drop sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  4. IMEF gamma scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs.

  5. IMEF gamma scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum.

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs

  6. Special raster scanning for reduction of charging effects in scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Oho, Eisaku

    2014-01-01

    A special raster scanning (SRS) method for reduction of charging effects is developed for the field of SEM. Both a conventional fast scan (horizontal direction) and an unusual scan (vertical direction) are adopted for acquiring raw data consisting of many sub-images. These data are converted to a proper SEM image using digital image processing techniques. About sharpness of the image and reduction of charging effects, the SRS is compared with the conventional fast scan (with frame-averaging) and the conventional slow scan. Experimental results show the effectiveness of SRS images. By a successful combination of the proposed scanning method and low accelerating voltage (LV)-SEMs, it is expected that higher-quality SEM images can be more easily acquired by the considerable reduction of charging effects, while maintaining the resolution. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Scanning unit for collectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaige, Yves.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a measurement scanning assembly for collectron type detectors. It is used in measuring the neutron flux in nuclear reactors. As the number of these detectors in a reactor can be very great, they are not usually all connected permanently to the measuring facility but rather in turn by means of a scanning device which carries out, as it were, multiplexing between all the collectrons and the input of a single measuring system. The object of the invention is a scanning assembly which is of relative simplicity through an original organisation. Specifically, according to this organisation, the collectrons outputs are grouped together in bunches, each of these bunches being processed by a multiplexing sub-assembly belonging to a first stage, the different outputs of these multiplexing subassemblies of this first stage being grouped together yet again in bunches processed by multiplexors forming a new stage and so forth. Further, this structure is specially adapted for use with collectrons by utilising a current amplifier at each multiplexing level so that from one end to the other of the multiplexing system, the commutations are carried out on currents and not on voltages [fr

  8. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  9. Diagnostic value of the coronary CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke

    1982-01-01

    Using high-resolution computed tomography, coronary scanning has been made to investigate the radiographical details of the middle and inner ear organs. Twenty patients with chronic otitis media, secondary cholesteatoma, sensorineural hearing loss, facial spasm, and suspected meningitis, were evaluated. In 26 of 40 ears in this series, the coronary scans sharply outlined almost all of the bony structures, and showed also the eardrum as a clearly defined soft tissue, but no abnormal radiographical findings were recognized. In the remaining ears with chronic otitis media, the scans were valuable in demonstration of mucosal thickening, granulation tissue, and destruction of the auditory ossicles. (author)

  10. Gallium-67 citrate scan in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wanyu

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Whole-body gallium scan was performed to evaluate the usefulness of gallium scan for detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with extrapulmonary TB were included in this study. Four patients were found to have two lesions. Totally, 41 lesions were identified, including 19 TB arthritis, 8 spinal TB, 5 TB meningitis, 3 TB lymphadenopathy, 2 TB pericarditis, 1 TB peritonitis, 1 intestinal TB, 1 skin TB and 1 renal TB. Results: Of the 41 extrapulmonary TB lesions, gallium scan detected 32 lesions with a sensitivity of 78%. All the patients with TB meningitis showed negative gallium scan. When the five cases of TB meningitis were excluded, the detection sensitivity of gallium scan increased to 88.9% (32/36). Conclusion: Our data revealed that gallium scan is a convenient and useful method for evaluating extrapulmonary TB lesions other than TB-meningitis. We suggest that gallium scan be included in the clinical routine for patients with suspected extrapulmonary TB. (orig.) [de

  11. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  12. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  13. Spinal CT scan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Methods of CT of the cervical and thoracic spines were explained, and normal CT pictures of them were described. Spinal CT was evaluated in comparison with other methods in various spinal diseases. Plain CT revealed stenosis due to spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and hernia of intervertebral disc. CT took an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with calcification and destruction of the bone. CT scan in combination with other methods was also useful for the diagnosis of spinal injuries, congenital anomalies and infections. (Ueda, J.)

  14. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  15. Scanning apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnett, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    A novel method is described for processing the analogue signals from the photomultiplier tubes in a tomographic X-ray scanner. The system produces a series of pulses whose instantaneous frequency depends on the detected intensity of the X-radiation. A timer unit is used to determine the segment scan intervals and also to deduce the average radiation intensity detected during this interval. The overall system is claimed to possess the advantageous properties of low time delay, wide bandwidth and relative low cost. (U.K.)

  16. Effects of Optimizing the Scan-Path on Scanning Keyboards with QWERTY-Layout for English Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandnes, Frode Eika; Medola, Fausto Orsi

    2017-01-01

    Scanning keyboards can be essential tools for individuals with reduced motor function. However, most research addresses layout optimization. Learning new layouts is time-consuming. This study explores the familiar QWERTY layout with alternative scanning paths intended for English text. The results show that carefully designed scan-paths can help QWERTY nearly match optimized layouts in performance.

  17. Three phase bone scan , Ga-67 and Tc-99m nanocoll scan in detection of osteomyelitis caused by war injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banek, T.; Reljica-Kostic, Z.; Kurnik, G.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty three injured soldiers were surgically treated because of pierce wounds of extremities. Treatment was either osteosynthesis or external fixation. Two to four weeks post treatment clinical signs of osteomyelitis appeared. X-ray was negative in all patients. Three-phase bone scan was performed in order to establish diagnosis. Bone scan was positive in all patients. For 11 patients only bone scan was sufficient for decision of further treatment. In 22 patients Ga-67 or Tc-99m- nanocoll or both examinations were performed on surgeon's request. In 2 patients out of 5 with additional Ga-67 scan, Ga-67 scan showed more lesions than it was seen on bone scan. In 3 patients out of 5 with additional Tc-99m-nanocoll scan, Tc-99m-nanocoll scan showed more lesions than it was seen on bone scan. In 12 patients with positive bone scan and negative or unclear Ga-67, Tc-99m-nanocoll scan was performed. In 5 out of 12 patients Tc-99m- nanocoll scan established diagnosis in others confirmed finding on bone and Ga-67 scan. Our results showed that in one third of our causes bone scan was sufficient for diagnosing of osteomyelitis caused by war injuries. In selected cases where bone scan was not sufficient for diagnosis and decision for treatment Tc-99m-nanocoll was more sensitive than Ga-67. In our experience three-phase bone scan is more sensitive than Ga-67. In our opinion three-phase bone scan is the method of choice for diagnosing osteomyelitis in war situation with a lot of casualties. (author)

  18. NEW SCANNING DEVICE FOR SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAWATZKY, GA; Koops, Karl Richard

    A small, single piezo XYZ translator has been developed. The device has been used as a scanner for a scanning tunneling microscope and has been tested successfully in air and in UHV. Its simple design results in a rigid and compact scanning unit which permits high scanning rates.

  19. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  20. Diagnostic value of axial CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke

    1983-01-01

    Axial CT scan was used to investigate the radiological details of the temporal bone of 33 patients with chronic otitis media, secondary cholesteatoma, sensorineural hearing loss, Meniere disease, vertigo, facial spasm, and neoplasma. The axial scans showed anatomic details of the temporal bone, and at the same time clearly demonstrated the extent of the soft-tissue masses in the middle ears, as well as the destructions of the ossicles. Bone changes of the anterior walls of the epitympanum and external auditory meatus were more clearly demonstrated than by coronary CT scan. However, the axial scan had the disadvantages in demonstrating the stapes, crista transversa, and the mastoid portion of the facial canal. (author)

  1. Scanning device for a spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The invention belongs to scanning devices and is intended for spectrum scanning in spectral devices. The purpose of the invention is broadening of spectral scanning range. The device construction ensures the spectrum scanning range determined from revolution fractions to several revolutions of the monochromator drum head, any number of the drum head revolutions determined by integral number with addition of the drum revolution fractions with high degree of accuracy being possible

  2. Risk Aversion in Game Shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten I.

    2008-01-01

    We review the use of behavior from television game shows to infer risk attitudes. These shows provide evidence when contestants are making decisions over very large stakes, and in a replicated, structured way. Inferences are generally confounded by the subjective assessment of skill in some games......, and the dynamic nature of the task in most games. We consider the game shows Card Sharks, Jeopardy!, Lingo, and finally Deal Or No Deal. We provide a detailed case study of the analyses of Deal Or No Deal, since it is suitable for inference about risk attitudes and has attracted considerable attention....

  3. Measuring performance at trade shows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kåre

    2004-01-01

    Trade shows is an increasingly important marketing activity to many companies, but current measures of trade show performance do not adequately capture dimensions important to exhibitors. Based on the marketing literature's outcome and behavior-based control system taxonomy, a model is built...... that captures a outcome-based sales dimension and four behavior-based dimensions (i.e. information-gathering, relationship building, image building, and motivation activities). A 16-item instrument is developed for assessing exhibitors perceptions of their trade show performance. The paper presents evidence...

  4. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  5. CT scans in encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masami; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Iida, Noriyuki; Hisanaga, Manabu; Kinugawa, Kazuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Generally, CT scans reveal a decrease in the volume of the ventricular system, sylvian fissures and cortical sulci in the acute stage of encephalitis, and softening of the cerebral lobes with dilatation of the lateral ventricles and subarachnoidian dilated spaces in the chronic stage. We encountered three cases of encephalitis: mumps (case 1), herpes simplex (case 2), and syphilis (case 3). In case 1, brain edema was seen in the acute stage and brain atrophy in the chronic stage. In case 2, necrosis of the temporal pole, which is pathognomonic in herpes simplex encephalitis, was recognized. And in case 3, multiple lesions whose CT appearance was enhanced by contrast materials were found scattered over the whole brain. These lesions were diagnosed as inflammatory granuloma by histological examination. (author)

  6. Isotope scanning for tumor localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-09-15

    At the request of the Government of the United Arab Republic, the Agency provided the services of an expert for the establishment in the UAR of a tumor localization program using photoscanning techniques and appropriate radioactive tracers. Photoscanning is a recently developed technique whereby the differences in isotope concentrations are enhanced on the record, and this facilitates the interpretation of the record. A variety of brain tumors were located, using a suitable radioactive tracer (Hg-203 - labelled Neohydrin) obtained from the USA. In some other investigations, processes in the kidney were scanned. Further, radioactive gold was used to demonstrate the normal and pathological spleen and liver and these tests showed various types of space occupying lesions resulting from malignancy and the parasitic infections endemic to the area. While the localization of brain tumors by scanning techniques is extremely useful, it does not always establish the precise extent of the tumor which should be known at the time of surgery. Dr. Bender, therefore, thought it advisable to instruct personnel in the use of what is known as an in-vivo needle scintillation probe - a technique for the investigation of the isotope concentration in a particular tissue during operation. The necessary instrument was obtained for this purpose and demonstrations were given; one patient was examined in this way at the time of surgery at the University of Alexandria Hospital.

  7. Differential scanning calorimetry of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C A; Mackey, B M; Parsons, S E

    1986-04-01

    Thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimetry of a range of bacteria of different heat resistances were compared. Equations were derived to calculate the rate at which the numbers of viable organisms in a calorimeter decline as the temperature is raised at a constant rate. Vegetative bacteria scanned at 10 degrees C min-1 showed multi-peaked thermograms with four major peaks (denoted m, n, p and q) occurring in the regions 68-73, 77-84, 89-99 and 105-110 degrees C respectively. Exceptions were that peak m (the largest peak) occurred at 79-82 degrees C in Bacillus stearothermophilus and an additional peak, r, was detected in Escherichia coli at 119 degrees C. At temperatures below the main peak m there were major differences in thermograms between species. There was a direct relationship between the onset of thermal denaturation and the thermoresistance of different organisms. Heat-sensitive organisms displayed thermogram features which were absent in the more heat-resistant types. When samples were cooled to 5 degrees C and re-heated, a small endothermic peak, pr, was observed at the same temperature as p. Peaks p and pr were identified as the melting endotherms of DNA. In all vegetative organisms examined, maximum death rates, computed from published D and z values, occurred at temperatures above the onset of thermal denaturation, i.e. cell death and irreversible denaturation of cell components occurred within the same temperature range.

  8. Scanning device for scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, R.

    1975-01-01

    A device is described for the scintigraphic scanning according to a horizontal plane, comprising: (a) A support provided with two guides horizontally and longitudinally located, one of which is located in the upper part of the support, while the second guide is located in the lower part of the support; (b) A carriage, movable with respect to the support along the two guides, provided in its upper part, projecting above the support, with rolling means suitable to support and to cause to slide along its axis a support rod for the first detector, horizontally and transversely located, said carriage being further provided in its lower part with a recess with possible rolling means suitable to support and to cause to slide along its axis a second support rod for the second detector, said second rod being located parallel to the first rod and below it; (c) One or two support rods for the detectors, the first of said rods being supported above the support in a sliding way along its axis, by the rolling means located in the upper part of the carriage, and the second rod if present is supported slidingly along its axis by the possible rolling means contained in the suitable recess which is provided in the lower part of the carriage, and (d) A vertical shaft supported by said carriage on which is mounted a toothed wheel for each rod, each toothed wheel engaging a positive drive belt or the like, which is connected to each said rod so that rotation of the shaft determines the simultaneous displacement of the two rods along their axes; and single motor means for driving said shaft during a scanning operation. (U.S.)

  9. Scanning the periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, George S; Schoemaker, Paul J H

    2005-11-01

    Companies often face new rivals, technologies, regulations, and other environmental changes that seem to come out of left field. How can they see these changes sooner and capitalize on them? Such changes often begin as weak signals on what the authors call the periphery, or the blurry zone at the edge of an organization's vision. As with human peripheral vision, these signals are difficult to see and interpret but can be vital to success or survival. Unfortunately, most companies lack a systematic method for determining where on the periphery they should be looking, how to interpret the weak signals they see, and how to allocate limited scanning resources. This article provides such a method-a question-based framework for helping companies scan the periphery more efficiently and effectively. The framework divides questions into three categories: learning from the past (What have been our past blind spots? What instructive analogies do other industries offer? Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them?); evaluating the present (What important signals are we rationalizing away? What are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking?); and envisioning the future (What future surprises could really hurt or help us? What emerging technologies could change the game? Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business?). Answering these questions is a good first step toward anticipating problems or opportunities that may appear on the business horizon. The article concludes with a self-test that companies can use to assess their need and capability for peripheral vision.

  10. Tokyo Motor Show 2003; Tokyo Motor Show 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joly, E.

    2004-01-01

    The text which follows present the different techniques exposed during the 37. Tokyo Motor Show. The report points out the great tendencies of developments of the Japanese automobile industry. The hybrid electric-powered vehicles or those equipped with fuel cells have been highlighted by the Japanese manufacturers which allow considerable budgets in the research of less polluting vehicles. The exposed models, although being all different according to the manufacturer, use always a hybrid system: fuel cell/battery. The manufacturers have stressed too on the intelligent systems for navigation and safety as well as on the design and comfort. (O.M.)

  11. Role of bone scan in rheumatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Young

    2003-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases can be categorized by pathology into several specific types of musculoskeletal problems, including synovitis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), enthesopathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis) and cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis). Skeletal radiographs have contributed to the diagnosis of these articular diseases, and some disease entities need typical radiographic changes as a factor of the diagnostic criteria. However, they sometimes show normal radiographic findings in the early stage of disease, when there is demineralization of less than 30-50%. Bone scans have also been used in arthritis, but not widely because the findings are nonspecific and it is thought that bone scans do not add significant information to routine radiography. Bone scans do however play a different role than simple radiography, and it is a complementary imaging method in the course of management of arthritis. The image quality of bone scans can be improved by obtaining regional views and images under al pin-hole collimator, and through a variety of scintigraphic techniques including the three phase bone scan and bone SPECT. Therefore, bone scans could improve the diagnostic value, and answer multiple clinical questions, based on the pathophysiology of various forms of arthritis

  12. Positive findings on bone scan in multiple myeloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Lin

    2004-01-01

    We report a case of multiple myeloma in which the CT only shows osteolytic lesions and MRI only shows compressive fractrue, but the scan shows some interesting imaging that make us to think of multiple myeloma. (authors)

  13. Reality show: um paradoxo nietzschiano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilana Feldman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available

    O fenômeno dos reality shows - e a subseqüente relação entre imagem e verdade - assenta-se sobre uma série de paradoxos. Tais paradoxos podem ser compreendidos à luz do pensamento do filósofo alemão Friedrich Nietzsche, que, através dos usos de formulações paradoxais, concebia a realidade como um mundo de pura aparência e a verdade como um acréscimo ficcional, como um efeito. A ficção é então tomada, na filosofia de Nietzsche, não em seu aspecto falsificante e desrealizador - como sempre pleiteou nossa tradição metafísica -, mas como condição necessária para que certa espécie de invenção possa operar como verdade. Sendo assim, a própria expressão reality show, através de sua formulação paradoxal, engendra explicitamente um mundo de pura aparência, em que a verdade, a parte reality da proposição, é da ordem do suplemento, daquilo que se acrescenta ficcionalmente - como um adjetivo - a show. O ornamento, nesse caso, passa a ocupar o lugar central, apontando para o efeito produzido: o efeito-de-verdade. Seguindo, então, o pensamento nietzschiano e sua atualização na contemporaneidade, investigaremos de que forma os televisivos “shows de realidade” operam paradoxalmente, em consonância com nossas paradoxais práticas culturais.

  14. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  15. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  16. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  17. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  18. Substernal thyroid carcinoma detected by 67Ga scan in a patient with normal 131I scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, e.E.; Maruyama, Y.; Deland, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    A patient with a superior mediastinal mass on an admission chest radiograph was initially evaluated by an 131 I thyroid scan which failed to demonstrate a substernal thyroid. However, the tomographic 67 Ga scan clearly showed an abnormal uptake in the area corresponding to the mass lesion on radiographic examination. Subsequent resection and biopsy of the substernal mass revealed a poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with foci of anaplastic carcinoma. The differential diagnosis of the anterior mediastinal mass and the usefullness of the tomographic gallium scan are briefly discussed

  19. Internal scanning method as unique imaging method of optical vortex scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2018-06-01

    The internal scanning method is specific for the optical vortex microscope. It allows to move the vortex point inside the focused vortex beam with nanometer resolution while the whole beam stays in place. Thus the sample illuminated by the focused vortex beam can be scanned just by the vortex point. We show that this method enables high resolution imaging. The paper presents the preliminary experimental results obtained with the first basic image recovery procedure. A prospect of developing more powerful tools for topography recovery with the optical vortex scanning microscope is discussed shortly.

  20. Hyperchromatic laser scanning cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárnok, Attila; Mittag, Anja

    2007-02-01

    In the emerging fields of high-content and high-throughput single cell analysis for Systems Biology and Cytomics multi- and polychromatic analysis of biological specimens has become increasingly important. Combining different technologies and staining methods polychromatic analysis (i.e. using 8 or more fluorescent colors at a time) can be pushed forward to measure anything stainable in a cell, an approach termed hyperchromatic cytometry. For cytometric cell analysis microscope based Slide Based Cytometry (SBC) technologies are ideal as, unlike flow cytometry, they are non-consumptive, i.e. the analyzed sample is fixed on the slide. Based on the feature of relocation identical cells can be subsequently reanalyzed. In this manner data on the single cell level after manipulation steps can be collected. In this overview various components for hyperchromatic cytometry are demonstrated for a SBC instrument, the Laser Scanning Cytometer (Compucyte Corp., Cambridge, MA): 1) polychromatic cytometry, 2) iterative restaining (using the same fluorochrome for restaining and subsequent reanalysis), 3) differential photobleaching (differentiating fluorochromes by their different photostability), 4) photoactivation (activating fluorescent nanoparticles or photocaged dyes), and 5) photodestruction (destruction of FRET dyes). With the intelligent combination of several of these techniques hyperchromatic cytometry allows to quantify and analyze virtually all components of relevance on the identical cell. The combination of high-throughput and high-content SBC analysis with high-resolution confocal imaging allows clear verification of phenotypically distinct subpopulations of cells with structural information. The information gained per specimen is only limited by the number of available antibodies and by sterical hindrance.

  1. Gallium scans in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swick, H.M.; Preston, D.F.; McQuillen, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether 67 Ga scans could be used for the detection of thymomas and to investigate the activity of the thymus gland in patients with myasthenia gravis. Scans of the anterior mediastinum proved to be a reliable way to detect thymomas. The scans were positive in eight patients including three with myasthenia gravis and histologically proved thymomas, three others with severe myasthenia gravis and thymic tumors, and two with histologically proved thymomas not associated with myasthenia. Activity on 67 Ga scans was not directly related to the increased activity of the thymus gland that is presumed to be associated with myasthenia gravis

  2. Gallium scans in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swick, H.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington); Preston, D.F.; McQuillen, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether /sup 67/Ga scans could be used for the detection of thymomas and to investigate the activity of the thymus gland in patients with myasthenia gravis. Scans of the anterior mediastinum proved to be a reliable way to detect thymomas. The scans were positive in eight patients including three with myasthenia gravis and histologically proved thymomas, three others with severe myasthenia gravis and thymic tumors, and two with histologically proved thymomas not associated with myasthenia. Activity on /sup 67/Ga scans was not directly related to the increased activity of the thymus gland that is presumed to be associated with myasthenia gravis. (HLW)

  3. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF MULTIFOCAL STOCHASTIC SCANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIXIN LIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM has greatly improved the utilization of excitation light and imaging speed due to parallel multiphoton excitation of the samples and simultaneous detection of the signals, which allows it to perform three-dimensional fast fluorescence imaging. Stochastic scanning can provide continuous, uniform and high-speed excitation of the sample, which makes it a suitable scanning scheme for MMM. In this paper, the graphical programming language — LabVIEW is used to achieve stochastic scanning of the two-dimensional galvo scanners by using white noise signals to control the x and y mirrors independently. Moreover, the stochastic scanning process is simulated by using Monte Carlo method. Our results show that MMM can avoid oversampling or subsampling in the scanning area and meet the requirements of uniform sampling by stochastically scanning the individual units of the N × N foci array. Therefore, continuous and uniform scanning in the whole field of view is implemented.

  4. Large Scale Scanning Probe Microscope "Making Shear Force Scanning visible."

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; van der Veen, Jan T.; van der Veen, J.T.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Wessel, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a demonstration of a scanning probe microscope with shear-force tuning fork feedback. The tuning fork is several centimeters long, and the rigid fiber is replaced by a toothpick. By scaling this demonstration to visible dimensions the accessibility of shear-force scanning and tuning fork

  5. Detection of Arthritis by Joint Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, W. S. [Dept, of Radiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Weiss, T. E.; Tutton, R. H.; Hidalgo, J. U. [Ochsner Clinic and Ochsner Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1969-05-15

    Detection and identification of early arthritis is frequently difficult with routine methods. Several tracers, {sup 131}I human serum albumin (25 {mu}Ci/10 lb), {sup 99m}Tc human serum albumin (1-3 mCi), {sup 131}I iodipamide (40 {mu}Ci/10 lb), and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate (10 mCi), have been employed for joint scanning to detect synovitis produced by arthritis in joints of the extremities. When administered intravenously, the 25% increase in localization of these tracers in the synovial membrane, if there is active synovitis, can be demonstrated by scintillation scanning. This ability to detect synovitis at an early stage enables the joint scan to show areas of active synovitis not demonstrated on roentgenograms. The scan may objectively confirm or disprove questionable physical findings. From this standpoint the technique has been useful in determining whether joint pain is functional or due to arthritis as a negative localization tends to rule out active synovitis as the cause of the pain. The scan demonstration of a positive localization of the tracer in several joints when only one area is symptomatic is evidence that joint pain is due to systemic disease. The short half-life tracera permit serial studies to follow the course of an arthritis process. Use of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate and an Anger camera have made joint scanning a practical technique for clinical use. A review of the accuracy of joint scanning in 130 cases as compared to roentgenograms is presented. (author)

  6. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  7. CT scanning in pediatric head trauma: correlation of clinical features with CT scan diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkoncel, Mary Ann P.; Posadas, Ma. Belen A.

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective review was conducted on 205 cases of pediatric head trauma for which cranial computed tomography scans were done at the Makati Medical Center, to determine which clinical features might positively predict an abnormality on CT scan. The clinical findings of loss of consciousness, GCS < 12, vomiting headache, seizures, and focal abnormalities on Neurologic Examination were significantly associated with abnormal findings on CT scan. However, a significant discrepancy does exist as to how accurately clinical findings do in fact predict normal and abnormal CT scan findings. Such a discrepancy allows us to conclude that a more liberal use of CT Scanning in cases of pediatric head trauma must be stressed to insure proper diagnosis. This study shows that when a patient presents with the aforementioned positive signs and symptoms, or with a focal neurologic deficit, or in combination, a 60-100 % positive prediction of abnormal CT Scan can be made. However, prediction of normal CT Scan is only 0-40%. (Author)

  8. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  9. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  10. Bone scans in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: local experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiong, S.

    2004-01-01

    scans (both treated), 2 had false positive bone scans (1 newly diagnosed and 1 treated), and 2 (both treated) had true negative bone scan with no increased radio-tracer uptake and no confirmed X ray imagings for metastasis.In the true positive group of patients, the radiologists were correct in their reports of consistency of bone metastasis in 3 patients and uncertain in their reports of differential causes of the increased uptake in 1 patient. In the false positive group of patients, the radiologist were correct in their reports of causes other than bone metastasis in 3 patients, incorrect in their reports of consistency of bone metastasis in 2 patients, and uncertain in their reports of differential causes of the increased uptake in 13 patients. Showing the positive bone scans are 7 patients having degenerative spine disease on Xray imagings and 3 dental diseases on clinical findings.The ages of the patients range from 18 to 88 years, with a mean age being 50.5. In the 41 patients, 35 patients had advanced stages ( Stages III and IV ) and 6 early stages ( Stages I and II). Among the patients of advanced stages, 3 having true positive and 13 false positives, whereas among the patients of early stages, 1 true positive and 1 false positive. Discussion: The results show that 44% of the patients had positive bone scans and this could be due to large number of patients (10/41)having degenerative spine diseases and dental diseases.These show that the bone scans have high sensitivity. However they do not have high specificity as only 9.8% of total or 2.2% (4/18) of the positive bone scans patients have true positives. The specificity in the treated group of patients appear to be higher being 25% (3/12 treated patients)The bone scans are therefore regarded as a screening test and if positive, they help guide and target the Xray imaging studies to confirm the bone metastasis one way or another. It is therefore useful in NPC management. The radiologists were most of the times

  11. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  12. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-10-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  13. Bone scan in mastocytosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, W.M.; Bonventre, M.V.; Camera, A.

    1976-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with well-documented systemic mastocytosis showed generalized symmetric increased activity on bone imaging. These scan findings are grossly indistinguishable from those of patients with renal osteodystrophy or secondary hyperparathyroidism. The images of the hands, however, failed to show the changes observed in secondary hyperparathyroidism. The mechanism for this intense activity is thought to be due to aberrant new-bone formation

  14. Usefulness of Thallium Scan for Differential Diagnosis of Breast Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Yum, Ha Yong; Lee, Chung Han; Choi, Kyung Hyun [Kosin University College of Medicine, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-07-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate thallium scanning as a potential test in differentiating malignant from benign lesions of breast. Thirty-one female patients underwent thallium scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq(2-3 mCi)of thallium-201, anterior and lateral images were obtained. We compared thallium scans with pathological results. Of 11 patients with breast cancers, 10 cases (90.9%) were detected using thallium scan. Thallium scan obtained in one patient who had breast cancer but received several cycles of chemotherapy did not show thallium uptake. The smallest detectable cancer was 1.5 cm in diameter. In contrast, there is no thallium accumulation in breasts of 17 of 20 patients with benign disease (85%), Three cases of 13 fibrocystic disease show thallium uptake in their breast. In conclusion, thallium scan is an effective test in differentiating benign from malignant lesion.

  15. Usefulness of Thallium Scan for Differential Diagnosis of Breast Mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sang Kyun; Yum, Ha Yong; Lee, Chung Han; Choi, Kyung Hyun

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate thallium scanning as a potential test in differentiating malignant from benign lesions of breast. Thirty-one female patients underwent thallium scan of the breast. After intravenous injection of 74-111 MBq(2-3 mCi)of thallium-201, anterior and lateral images were obtained. We compared thallium scans with pathological results. Of 11 patients with breast cancers, 10 cases (90.9%) were detected using thallium scan. Thallium scan obtained in one patient who had breast cancer but received several cycles of chemotherapy did not show thallium uptake. The smallest detectable cancer was 1.5 cm in diameter. In contrast, there is no thallium accumulation in breasts of 17 of 20 patients with benign disease (85%), Three cases of 13 fibrocystic disease show thallium uptake in their breast. In conclusion, thallium scan is an effective test in differentiating benign from malignant lesion.

  16. Breast MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or breast ultrasound Evaluate for possible rupture of breast implants Find any cancer that remains after surgery or chemotherapy Show blood ... Mean Abnormal results may be due to: Breast cancer Cysts Leaking or ruptured breast implants Abnormal breast tissue that is not cancer Scar ...

  17. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10 −7 T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K

  18. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Ling, D. C. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  19. Rapid-scan EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sandra S; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J; Eaton, Gareth R

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Three phase bone scan in sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, M.S.; Chowhan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Sports injuries are common in individual who participate in sports and exercise related activities. In majority of sports related injuries such as stress fracture, periosteitits, acute stress reaction of bone, the radiological investigations are usually normal in early stages. These injuries can lead to serious complications if not detected early and managed properly. This study was jointly carried out in premier medical institutes. All patients were referred from premier sports institute of the country and also by orthopedic surgeons. All patients were subjected for relevant radiological investigations and 3 phase bone scan. Total number of cases included in this study was 70 (N=70) among which bone scan was positive for stress fracture in 45 patients and shin splint was detected in 15 patients and avulsion injury seen in 3 patients. However, only one patient showed features of avulsion injury in X ray and in 1 patient X-ray was inconclusive. Conclusion:-The study shows that 3 phase bone scan is the most sensitive and relatively an inexpensive study. Bone scan has the ability for early detection of sports injuries and provide physiological information and evaluate multiple sites in single examination.SPECT study will help in the diagnostic specificity. (author)

  1. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  2. Scanning by use of TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevermann, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of TV read out for scanning and measuring holographic pictures seems to give less problems than the use of optical projection as is usual for conventional bubble chamber photos. Whereas the measuring of conventional bubble chamber pictures seems to give no problems, it is not clear whether scanning by use of TV is possible. Therefore scanning pictures from experiment NA16 (taken in LEBC) with TV only was tried using the TV system of ERASME, where the CRT system is used as a camera. It should be mentioned that this system, being a flying spot device, cannot be adapted for holography. (author)

  3. Tomography system having axial scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus has been invented for the transaxial tomographic scanning of a patient to determine mass distribution internal to the patient. A scanning system is provided having a rotatably mounted X-ray radiation source/detector assembly which orbits and scans the patient in plane of orbit. The source provides a plurality of beams of radiation in the orbital plane. Beams pass through the patient to an array of detectors which are spaced in the plane of orbit and respectively aligned with one of the beams. Radiation intensity data is collected at predetermined orientations of each beam-detector pair as the assembly orbits about the patient

  4. Scanning the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Preceding a study on the long-term prospects for the Dutch economy, this book contains the results of a study concerning long-term developments of the world economy. The ideas propounded in this study by the Central Planning Bureau (CPB) are described. Three perspectives are distinguished which provide a relatively complete picture of the driving forces behind economic development: the Equilibrium perspective (neoclassical and new-classical economic theory), the Coordination perspective (views of Keynes), and the Free-Market perspective (the neo-Austrian school of economic thought). The combination of the three perspectives leads to the prosperity circle. The strengths and weaknesses of various regions in the world economy are analysed. The regions discussed are the United States, Japan, Western Europe, dynamic Asian economies, less-developed countries, the Commonwealth of Independent States (former Soviet Union), and Central Europe. A summary is presented of the most important long-term trends with regard to demography, non-renewable resources, the environment, world food supply, technology, internationalization and market structures, international cooperation, and social and political trends. The core of the study, four scenarios for the world economy are presented: Balanced Growth, which shows that an annual growth rate of the world economy of more than 3,5%, which is ecologically sustainable and embraces all the major regions of the world, is still a quite realistic possibility, although not easy; Global Crisis explores the risks and changes of an unintentional neglect of, and a late response to, regional and global changes; Global Shift and European Renaissance explore divergent developments with respect to Western Europe and North America. An attempt is made to show how the scenarios can contribute towards the ultimate goal of strategic policymaking

  5. Nuclear scanning in necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parisier, S.C.; Lucente, F.E.; Som, P.M.; Hirschman, S.Z.; Arnold, L.M.; Roffman, J.D.

    1982-01-01

    The usefulness of radionuclear scanning in the treatment of 18 patients with necrotizing progressive ''malignant'' external otitis is discussed. A Tc 99-m bone scan, a valuable test since results are positive in early cases of osteomyelitis of the temporal bone and base of skull, showed increased uptake in all 18 patients. In 6 patients, Ga-67 citrate scans were obtained at the start of therapy and at 5-6 week intervals thereafter. The serial gallium scans were useful in evaluating the effectiveness of therapy since the uptake decrease with control of infection

  6. Design of Test Wrapper Scan Chain Based on Differential Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aijun Zhu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Integrated Circuit has entered the era of design of the IP-based SoC (System on Chip, which makes the IP core reuse become a key issue. SoC test wrapper design for scan chain is a NP Hard problem, we propose an algorithm based on Differential Evolution (DE to design wrapper scan chain. Through group’s mutation, crossover and selection operations, the design of test wrapper scan chain is achieved. Experimental verification is carried out according to the international standard benchmark ITC’02. The results show that the algorithm can obtain shorter longest wrapper scan chains, compared with other algorithms.

  7. Gallium-67 citrate scan in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wanyu [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hsieh Jihfang [Chi-Mei Foundation Hospital, Tainan (Taiwan)

    1999-07-01

    Aim: Whole-body gallium scan was performed to evaluate the usefulness of gallium scan for detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with extrapulmonary TB were included in this study. Four patients were found to have two lesions. Totally, 41 lesions were identified, including 19 TB arthritis, 8 spinal TB, 5 TB meningitis, 3 TB lymphadenopathy, 2 TB pericarditis, 1 TB peritonitis, 1 intestinal TB, 1 skin TB and 1 renal TB. Results: Of the 41 extrapulmonary TB lesions, gallium scan detected 32 lesions with a sensitivity of 78%. All the patients with TB meningitis showed negative gallium scan. When the five cases of TB meningitis were excluded, the detection sensitivity of gallium scan increased to 88.9% (32/36). Conclusion: Our data revealed that gallium scan is a convenient and useful method for evaluating extrapulmonary TB lesions other than TB-meningitis. We suggest that gallium scan be included in the clinical routine for patients with suspected extrapulmonary TB. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es wurden Ganzkoerper-Gallium-Szintigramme angefertigt, um den Nutzen der Gallium-Szintigraphie zur Erfassung von extrapulmonalen Tuberkuloseherden (TB) zu erfassen. Methoden: 37 Patienten mit extrapulmonaler TB wurden eingeschlossen. 4 Patienten hatten 2 Laesionen. Insgesamt wurden 41 Laesionen identifiziert, hierunter 19 TB-Arthritis, 8 spinale TB, 5 TB-Meningitis, 3 TB-Lymphadenopathie, 2 TB-Perikarditis, 1 TB-Peritonitis, 1 intestinale TB, 1 Haut-TB und eine Nieren-TB. Ergebnisse: Von den 41 extrapulmonalen TB-Herden erfasste die Gallium-Szintigraphie 32 Herde mit einer Sensitivitaet von 78%. Alle Patienten mit TB-Meningitis zeigten einen negativen Gallium-Scan. Wenn die 5 Faelle mit TB-Meningitis ausgeschlossen wurden, stieg die Sensitivititaet der Gallium-Szintigraphie auf 88,9% (32/36). Schlussfolgerung: Die Daten zeigen, dass die Gallium-Szintigraphie eine einfache und nuetzliche Methode zur Erfassung extrapulmonaler TB-Herde ist

  8. Rapid line scan MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, J.; Merboldt, K.D.; Hanicke, W.; Bruhn, H.

    1987-01-01

    Direct MR angiography may be performed using line scan imaging techniques combined with presaturation of stationary spins. Thus, a single line scan echo yields a projection of vessels due to the signal from reflowing unsaturated spins. Reconstruction of an angiographic image is performed line by line at slightly incremented positions. In particular, line scan angiography is direct and fast without a sensitivity to artifacts even for high flow rates. Image resolution and field of view may be chosen without restrictions, and zoom images using enhanced gradients may be recorded without aliasing artifacts. The method is robust with respect to eddy currents and pulsatile flow. Line scan MR angiograms of phantoms, animals, and human volunteers have been recorded using 90 0 radio frequency pulses and gradient-recalled echoes

  9. Security scanning at 35 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Coward, Peter R.; Kent, P. J.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Wasley, Matthew R. M.

    2001-08-01

    It has been known for some time that millimeter waves can pas through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at Ka band can be an advantage. The penetration through clothing is increased and the cost of the equipment when compared to operation at W band. In this paper a Ka band mechanically scanned imager designed for security scanning is discussed. This imager is based on the folded conical scan technology previously reported. It is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene and printed circuit board. The trade off between image spatial resolution and the number of receivers will be described and solutions, which minimize this number discussed.

  10. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  11. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  12. Dynamic Flaps Electronic Scan Antenna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    A dynamic FLAPS(TM) electronic scan antenna was the focus of this research. The novelty S of this SBIR resides in the use of plasma as the main component of this dynamic X-Band phased S array antenna...

  13. Scan analysis in myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P J [Landesunfallkrankenhaus, Feldkirch (Austria). Inst. fuer Strahlenmedizin

    1976-08-01

    Myocardial scans with sup(99m)Tc-labelled phosphates are reported to be useful in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. A retrospective survey of 205 patients referred for sup(99m)Tc-phophate bone scanning and with no evidence of recent heart disease revealed an occurrence of 10% of false positive images, that is to say, uptake of phosphate in non-infarcted mayocardium. These striking findings stress the need for critical assessment of the usefulness of this diagnostic technique.

  14. Bone graft viability evaluated by three phase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic

    2004-01-01

    Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)

  15. Comparison of dimensional accuracy of digital dental models produced from scanned impressions and scanned stone casts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeihi, Haitham

    dimensional accuracy, which is defined as the absolute value of deviation in micrometers from the reference model. A two-way analysis of analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to calculate if the measurements for the six test groups were statistically significantly different from the original reference model as well as between test groups (p Results: The mean (± SD) RMS was 29.42 ± 5.80 microns for digital models produced from polyether impression scans, 27.58 ± 5.85 microns for digital models from PVS impressions scans, and 24.08 ± 4.89 microns for digital models produced from VPES impressions scans. 26.08 ± 6.58 microns for digital models produced by scanning stone casts poured from PE, 31.67 ± 9.95 microns for digital models produced by scanning stone casts poured from PVS and 22.58 ± 2.84 microns for digital models produced by scanning stone casts poured from VPES. In the Two-Way ANOVA, the p-value for the material factor was 0.004, reflecting a statistically significant difference between the accuracy of the three impression materials, with VPES showing the highest accuracy (mean RMS = 23.33 ± 3.99 microns) followed by PE (mean RMS = 27.75 ± 6.3 microns) and PVS (mean RMS = 29.63 ± 8.25 microns). For the technique factor, the p-value was 0.870 reflecting no statistically significant difference between the accuracy of the two techniques (impression scan and stone cast scan). The mean RMS values were 27.03 ± 5.82 microns and 26.78 ± 7.85 microns, respectively. In the post-hoc tests for the material factor, a significant difference was found between the accuracy of VPES and PVS (p-value = 0.004) with VPES having the higher accuracy (lower mean RMS). No significant difference was found between the accuracies of PE and PVS (p-value = 0.576), and between the accuracies of PE and VPES (p-value = 0.054). Conclusions: Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it can be concluded that: 1. There is no statistically significant difference in dimensional accuracy

  16. Periodic and uniform nanogratings formed on cemented carbide by femtosecond laser scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lian, Yunsong; Deng, Jianxin; Xing, Youqiang; Lei, Shuting; Yu, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Periodic and uniform nanogratings are fabricated by femtosecond laser scanning on cemented carbide. Specifically, three experiments are designed to study the influence of single pulse energy, scanning speed, and scanning spacing on the period and the uniformity of the formed nanogratings. The results show that the sample with single pulse energy of 2 μJ, scanning speed of 1000 μm/s, and scanning spacing of 5 μm shows the best quality of nanogratings among all the tested samples at different processing parameters. The uniformity of the nanogratings is largely determined by single pulse energy, scanning speed, and scanning spacing. Single pulse energy and scanning speed significantly affect the period of the nanogratings, whereas the period of the nanogratings maintains a fixed value under different scanning spacings. The period of the nanogratings increases gradually with the decrease of the single pulse energy and the increase of the scanning speed, respectively.

  17. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  18. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Y K; Ahn, S B [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-09-15

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  19. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Y. K.; Ahn, S. B.

    1969-01-01

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  20. Obstacles to Industrial Implementation of Scanning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders Astrom; Olog Broman; John Graffman; Anders Gronlund; Armas Jappinene; Jari Luostarinen; Jan Nystrom; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Initially the group discussed what is meant by scanning systems. An operational definition was adopted to consider scanning system in the current context to be nontraditional scanning. Where, traditional scanning is defined as scanning that has been industrially operational and relatively common for several years-a mature technology. For example,...

  1. Usefulness of lung scanning in the evaluation of patients with pulmonary hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powe, J.; McCarthy, K.; Palevsky, H.; Fishman, A.P.; Alavi, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ventilation-perfusion scans of 30 patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension and established final diagnoses were blindly classified as to the probability of showing pulmonary embolism. Eleven of 12 patients with primary pulmonary hypertension had normal or low-probability scans; one had an intermediate-probability scan. All six patients with thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension had high-probability scans. However, three of 12 patients with nonembolic secondary pulmonary hypetension also had high-probability scans. Although a normal or low-probability scan excludes the possibility of emboli as a cause, a high-probability scan may often be associated with nonembolic causes of secondary pulmonary hypertension

  2. The boundary-scan handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Kenneth P

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at electronics industry professionals, this 4th edition of the Boundary Scan Handbook describes recent changes to the IEEE1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture. This updated edition features new chapters on the possible effects of the changes on the work of the practicing test engineers and the new 1149.8.1 standard. Anyone needing to understand the basics of boundary scan and its practical industrial implementation will need this book. Provides an overview of the recent changes to the 1149.1 standard and the effect of the changes on the work of test engineers;   Explains the new IEEE 1149.8.1 subsidiary standard and applications;   Describes the latest updates on the supplementary IEEE testing standards. In particular, addresses: IEEE Std 1149.1                      Digital Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.4                      Analog Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.6                      Advanced I/O Testing IEEE Std 1149.8.1           �...

  3. CAMAC gamma ray scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible gamma-ray scanning system, based on a LeCroy 3500 multichannel analyzer and CAMAC modules, is described. The system is designed for making simultaneous passive and active scans of objects of interest to nuclear safeguards. The scanner is a stepping-motor-driven carriage; the detectors, a bismuth-germanate scintillator and a high-purity germanium detector. A total of sixteen peaks in the two detector-produced spectra can be integrated simultaneously, and any scan can be viewed during data acquisition. For active scanning, the 2615-keV gamma-ray line from a 232 U source and the 4439-keV gamma-ray line from 9 Be(α,n) 12 C were selected. The system can be easily reconfigured to accommodate up to seven detectors because it is based on CAMAC modules and FORTRAN. The system is designed for field use and is easily transported. Examples of passive and active scans are presented

  4. Security scanning at 94GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Beale, John E.; Coward, Peter R.; Price, Sean

    2006-05-01

    It is well known that millimetre waves can pass through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at W band can be an advantage. The size of the equipment is decreased when compared to operation at Ka band and the equipments have similar performance. In this paper a W band mechanically scanned imager designed for imaging weapons and contraband hidden under clothing is discussed. This imager is based on a modified folded conical scan technology previously reported. In this design an additional optical element is added to give a Cassegrain configuration in image space. This increases the effective focal length and enables improved sampling of the image and provides more space for the receivers. This imager is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene, polythene and printed circuit board materials. The trade off between image spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity is discussed.

  5. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  6. Scanning vector Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V.; Gregusova, D.; Fedor, J.; Kudela, R.; Bending, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a scanning vector Hall probe microscope for mapping magnetic field vector over magnetic samples. The microscope is based on a micromachined Hall sensor and the cryostat with scanning system. The vector Hall sensor active area is ∼5x5 μm 2 . It is realized by patterning three Hall probes on the tilted faces of GaAs pyramids. Data from these 'tilted' Hall probes are used to reconstruct the full magnetic field vector. The scanning area of the microscope is 5x5 mm 2 , space resolution 2.5 μm, field resolution ∼1 μT Hz -1/2 at temperatures 10-300 K

  7. Footwear scanning systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Justin L.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2017-07-25

    Methods and apparatus for scanning articles, such as footwear, to provide information regarding the contents of the articles are described. According to one aspect, a footwear scanning system includes a platform configured to contact footwear to be scanned, an antenna array configured to transmit electromagnetic waves through the platform into the footwear and to receive electromagnetic waves from the footwear and the platform, a transceiver coupled with antennas of the antenna array and configured to apply electrical signals to at least one of the antennas to generate the transmitted electromagnetic waves and to receive electrical signals from at least another of the antennas corresponding to the electromagnetic waves received by the others of the antennas, and processing circuitry configured to process the received electrical signals from the transceiver to provide information regarding contents within the footwear.

  8. Double-polarizating scanning radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, D.N.; Nazyrski, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The double-polarizating single-channel scanning radiometer comprises the following serial connected parts: a scanning double-polarizating aerial, a block for polarization separation, a radiometer receiver, an analog-to-digit converter and an information flow forming block. The low frequency input of the radiometer receiver is connected with a control block, which is also connected with a first bus of a microprocessor, the second bus of which is connected with the A-D converter. The control input of the scanning double-polarizating aerial is connected with the first microprocessor bus. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are linked by an electronic switch with the output of the forming block, the input of which is connected to the first input of the control block. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are connected with the second and the third input of the information flow forming block. 2 cls

  9. Scanning probe microscopy competency development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M.E.; Reagor, D.W.; Jia, Quan Xi [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project collaborators developed an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (UHV-STM) capability, integrated it with existing scanning probe microscopes, and developed new, advanced air-based scanning force techniques (SPMs). Programmatic, basic, and industrially related laboratory research requires the existence of SPMs, as well as expertise capable of providing local nano-scale information. The UHV-STM capability, equipped with load-lock system and several surface science techniques, will allow introduction, examination, and reaction of surfaces prepared under well-controlled vacuum conditions, including the examination of morphology and local bonding associated with the initial stages of film growth under controlled growth conditions. The resulting capabilities will enable the authors to respond to a variety of problems requiring local characterization of conducting and nonconducting surfaces in liquids, air, and UHV.

  10. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  11. Linking world scan and image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, H.; Alcamo, J.; Bollen, J.; Gielen, A.; Gerlach, R.; Den Ouden, A.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    In march 1994 the Central Planning Bureau (CPB) in the Hague, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in Bilthoven and the Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) in Amsterdam started the first phase of a joint research program aimed at creating integrated scenarios of the global economy, GHG emissions, and climate impacts. The goal of the first phase of this project was to design and test a linked version of the economic model WORLD SCAN of the former, and the climate model IMAGE 2 of the latter institute. This first phase has resulted in the planned test runs with an operational version of the linked models by May 1995. The experiences in the first year were encouraging, both in the scientific and the organizational sense. In a sense, a link was made between scientific disciplines: a coupling of disciplines concerning with global economic development and the global physical climate system is difficult and novel. The goal of the project was to integrate long-term economic developments and effects of climate change. Both the WORLD SCAN model and IMAGE 2 provide a consistent analysis of the global system, but from different perspectives. IMAGE 2 simulates climate change and its effects in a global context but treats the economic system as exogenous. WORLD SCAN covers the world economic system in a consistent manner but does not take into account the global environment. The links are constructed in the area of agriculture and energy. The basic idea is that WORLD SCAN determines demand and supply on economic principles, while IMAGE 2 provides information on changes of land area and average quality of productive land, and other damage costs based on its three sub-systems. The demand for energy is fed into IMAGE 2's Energy Industry subsystem (EIS), which in turn determines emissions of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, some additional output from WORLD SCAN on activity levels, prices and capital structure can be used to determine

  12. Advanced HEDL gamma scan system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.C.; Olson, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    The design of an advanced state-of-the-art gamma scan system built for the purpose of measuring the point-by-point gamma activity of irradiated fuel rods is described. The emphasis of the system design was to achieve the highest rate of throughput with the minimum per rod cost while maintaining system accuracy and reliability. Preliminary tests demonstrate that all system requirements were met or exceeded. The system provides improved throughput, precision, automation, flexibility, and data processing capability over previous gamma scan systems

  13. Solving LR Conflicts Through Context Aware Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, C. Rodriguez; Forte, L. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm to compute the exact list of tokens expected by any LR syntax analyzer at any point of the scanning process. The lexer can, at any time, compute the exact list of valid tokens to return only tokens in this set. In the case than more than one matching token is in the valid set, the lexer can resort to a nested LR parser to disambiguate. Allowing nested LR parsing requires some slight modifications when building the LR parsing tables. We also show how LR parsers can parse conflictive and inherently ambiguous languages using a combination of nested parsing and context aware scanning. These expanded lexical analyzers can be generated from high level specifications.

  14. Copying of holograms by spot scanning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Makoto; Wakunami, Koki; Oi, Ryutaro; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2018-05-20

    To replicate holograms, contact copying has conventionally been used. In this approach, a photosensitive material is fixed together with a master hologram and illuminated with a coherent beam. This method is simple and enables high-quality copies; however, it requires a large optical setup for large-area holograms. In this paper, we present a new method of replicating holograms that uses a relatively compact optical system even for the replication of large holograms. A small laser spot that irradiates only part of the hologram is used to reproduce the hologram by scanning the spot over the whole area of the hologram. We report on the results of experiments carried out to confirm the copy quality, along with a guide to design scanning conditions. The results show the potential effectiveness of the large-area hologram replication technology using a relatively compact apparatus.

  15. Implantation annealing by scanning electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaussaud, C.; Biasse, B.; Cartier, A.M.; Bontemps, A.

    1983-11-01

    Samples of ion implanted silicon (BF 2 , 30keV, 10 15 ions x cm -2 ) have been annealed with a multiple scan electron beam, at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1200 0 C. The curves of sheet resistance versus time show a minimum. Nuclear reaction measurements of the amount of boron remaining after annealing show that the increase in sheet resistance is due to a loss of boron. The increase in junction depths, measured by spreading resistance on bevels is between a few hundred A and 1000 A [fr

  16. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  17. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  18. High Resolution Scanning Ion Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the thesis is the following. The first chapter is an introduction to scanning microscopy, where the path that led to the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is described and the main differences between electrons and ion beams are highlighted. Chapter 2 is what is normally referred to (which I

  19. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made of metal. Objects such as keys or wallets that would be in the area being scanned should be removed. You will ... and are often available in drugstores and on mobile health vans in the community. The pDEXA device is much smaller than ...

  20. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard s...

  1. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  2. Introduction to scanning tunneling microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Julian

    2008-01-01

    The scanning tunneling and the atomic force microscope, both capable of imaging individual atoms, were crowned with the Physics Nobel Prize in 1986, and are the cornerstones of nanotechnology today. This is a thoroughly updated version of this 'bible' in the field.

  3. Bone scan indications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Marquiotti, M.

    1986-01-01

    The scintigraphic method is described and a critical analysis of its value in the research of bone metastases is presented. The method validity, the positivity of bone scan for metastases at the first examination and the preferencial distribution metastases in skeleton are related.Bone pain and the results of bone scintigram are correlated. (M.A.C.) [pt

  4. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stop eating (fast), be on a special diet, or take any medicines before the test. A chest x-ray is usually done before or after a ventilation and perfusion scan. You wear a hospital gown or comfortable clothing that does not have ...

  5. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  6. ComPoScan: Adaptive Scanning for Efficient Concurrent Communications and Positioning with 802.11

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King, Thomas; Kjærgaard, Mikkel Baun

    2008-01-01

    and by validation in several real-world deployments. Results from the emulation show that the system can realize different trade-offs by changing parameters. Furthermore, the emulation shows that the system works independently of the environment, the network card, the signal strength measurement technology......Using 802.11 concurrently for communications and positioning is problematic, especially if location-based services (e.g., indoor navigation) are concurrently executed with real-time applications (e.g., VoIP, video conferencing). Periodical scanning for measuring the signal strength interrupts......, and number and placement of access points. We also show that ComPoScan does not harm the positioning accuracy of a positioning system. By validation in several real-world deployments, we provided evidence for that the real system works as predicted by the emulation. In addition, we provide results for Com...

  7. Evaluation of /sup 111/In leukocyte whole body scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-11-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with /sup 111/In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

  8. Reappraisal of radionuclide liver scans for preoperative gastric cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Makoto; Yonahara, Yoshio; Yamashita, Shoji; Ando, Yutaka; Mohri, Makoto [National Second Hospital of Tokyo (Japan)

    1983-04-01

    Radionuclide liver scans were obtained in 89 preoperative patients with gastric cancer. Eight showed definite defects on liver scans. At laparotomy, 14 patients were found to have liver involvement secondary to gastric cancer. The sensitivity of liver scans to predict liver involvement is 57% (8/14), and the specificity is 100% (75/75). The patients with definite defects on liver scans had a lower rate of palliative resection of the primary tumors (2/8) than the patients with liver involvement and no scan abnormality (4/6). The patients with advanced lesions but without liver involvement had the highest probability of resecting the primary tumors (57/63 : 47 radical, and 10 palliative). Normal serum levels of liver chemistries did not preclude the presence of defects on liver scans. Additional three patients were found to have cirrhosis of the liver solely based on liver scans, which was confirmed at laparotomy. Radionuclide liver scans can predict liver involvement with very few false positives, and may discriminate patients unsuitable for laparotomy even with palliative intent.

  9. Evaluation of 111In leukocyte whole body scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with 111 In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes

  10. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of semicrystalline polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C

    2009-11-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an effective analytical tool to characterize the physical properties of a polymer. DSC enables determination of melting, crystallization, and mesomorphic transition temperatures, and the corresponding enthalpy and entropy changes, and characterization of glass transition and other effects that show either changes in heat capacity or a latent heat. Calorimetry takes a special place among other methods. In addition to its simplicity and universality, the energy characteristics (heat capacity C(P) and its integral over temperature T--enthalpy H), measured via calorimetry, have a clear physical meaning even though sometimes interpretation may be difficult. With introduction of differential scanning calorimeters (DSC) in the early 1960s calorimetry became a standard tool in polymer science. The advantage of DSC compared with other calorimetric techniques lies in the broad dynamic range regarding heating and cooling rates, including isothermal and temperature-modulated operation. Today 12 orders of magnitude in scanning rate can be covered by combining different types of DSCs. Rates as low as 1 microK s(-1) are possible and at the other extreme heating and cooling at 1 MK s(-1) and higher is possible. The broad dynamic range is especially of interest for semicrystalline polymers because they are commonly far from equilibrium and phase transitions are strongly time (rate) dependent. Nevertheless, there are still several unsolved problems regarding calorimetry of polymers. I try to address a few of these, for example determination of baseline heat capacity, which is related to the problem of crystallinity determination by DSC, or the occurrence of multiple melting peaks. Possible solutions by using advanced calorimetric techniques, for example fast scanning and high frequency AC (temperature-modulated) calorimetry are discussed.

  11. /sup 67/Ga lung scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-03-21

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate /sup 67/Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the /sup 67/Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography.

  12. Automation of BESSY scanning tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanton, J.; Kesteman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A micro processor M6800 is used for the automation of scanning and premeasuring BESSY tables. The tasks achieved by the micro processor are: 1. control of spooling of the four asynchronous film winding devices and switching on and off the 4 projections lamps, 2. pre-processing of the data coming from a bi-polar coordinates measuring device, 3. bi-directional interchange of informations between the operator, the BESSY table and the DEC PDP 11/34 mini computer controling the scanning operations, 4. control of the magnification on the table by swapping the projection lenses of appropriate focal lengths and the associated light boxes (under development). In connection with point 4, study is being made for the use of BESSY tables for accurate measurements (+/-5 microns), by encoding the displacements of the projections lenses. (orig.)

  13. Tumor scanning with /sup 57/Co-bleomycin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakano, S; Hasegawa, Y; Matsuda, Minoru; Ho, T; Doi, O [Osaka Prefectural Center for Adult Diseases (Japan)

    1975-06-01

    The clinical application of /sup 57/Co-bleomycin as a tumor scanning radiopharmaceutical was firstly reported by Nouel and Maeda respectively. The authors conducted studies on the diagnostic significance of this tumor scanning agent and presented the results obtained in 40 patients with malignant and non malignant lesions. Six hours and 24 hours after the injection of 500 ..mu..Ci of /sup 57/Co-bleomycin, scintigrams were taken with a 3-inch scintiscanner. Positive scans were found in 20 out of 36 patients with various malignant tumors. Of 20 patients with lung cancer, positive scans were obtained in 17 cases (85%) and of 6 with breast cancer, 3 cases showed positive scans. False negative scans were obtained in another 10 cases of malignant tumors (3 cases of thyroid carcinoma, 4 cases of hepatoma, and 1 case each of gastric carcinoma, peritoneal carcinomatosis, and reticulum cell sarcoma). Of 4 patients with non malignant disease, one case of pulmonary tuberculosis showed a positive scan. In 8 cases of lung cancer and 6 of breast cancer, the relationship between the size of the excised tumor and the scintigram findings was studied. The smallest tumors detected by scintigram were 2 cm in lung cancer and 3.2 cm in breast cancer.

  14. A Study for Reappearance According to the Scan Type, the CT Scanning by a Moving Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyock; Jeong, Do Hyeong; Choi, Gye Suk; Jang, Yo Jong; Kim, Jae Weon; Lee, Hui Seok

    2007-01-01

    CT scan shows that significant tumor movement occurs in lesions located in the proximity of the heart, diaphragm, and lung hilus. There are differences concerning three kinds of type to get images following the Scan type called Axial, Helical, Cine (4D-CT) mode, when the scanning by CT. To know how each protocol describe accurately, this paper is going to give you reappearance using the moving phantom. To reconstruct the movement of superior-inferior and anterior-posterior, the manufactured moving phantom and the motor following breathing were used. To distinguish movement from captured images by CT scanning, a localizer adhered to the marker on the motor. The moving phantom fixed the movement of superior-inferior upon 1.3 cm /1 min. The motor following breathing fixed the movement of anterior-posterior upon 0.2 cm /1 min. After fixing each movement, CT scanning was taken by following the CT protocols. The movement of A localizer and volume-reappearance analyzed by RTP machine. Total volume of a marker was 88.2 cm 3 considering movement of superior-inferior. Total volume was 184.3 cm 3 . Total volume according to each CT scan protocol were 135 cm 3 by axial mode, 164.9 cm 3 by helical mode, 181.7 cm 3 by cine (4D-CT) mode. The most closely describable protocol about moving reappearance was cine mode, the marker attached localizer as well. CT scan should reappear concerning a exact organ-description and target, when the moving organ is being scanned by three kinds of CT protocols. The cine (4D-CT) mode has the advantage of the most highly reconstructible ability of the three protocols in reappearance of the marker using a moving phantom. The marker on the phantom has always regular motion but breathing patients don't move like a phantom. Breathing education and devices setting patients were needed so that images reconstruct breathing as exactly as possible. Users should also consider that an amount of radiation to patients is being bombed.

  15. Fast-scan NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaoka, Hideto; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Hirata, Takaaki

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Fast Recovery (FR) method for fast-scan Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging. The FR method uses a sequence of four radio frequency pulses - alternating selective 90 deg nutation pulses and nonselective 180 deg pulses. One free induction decay (FID) signal and one echo signal are detected and averaged to compute a 2-D image. In the modified FR method, extra 180 deg pulses are applied between 90 deg pulses to cause refocusing and the resultant spin echo signals are averaged to improve the signal to noise ratio. For the FR and modified FR sequences, the macroscopic magnetization is restored to equilibrium quickly and exactly; scan time can consequently be less than that for conventional pulse sequences, such as used in the saturation recovery method, without any penalty in signal to noise ratio. This paper derives expressions for the signal to noise ratio, scan time ratio and contrast noise ratio, compares the FR and modified FR methods with the saturation recovery method and presents experimental results for human body images. In theory and practice, the signal to noise ratio for the FR method is larger than that for the modified FR method. For a given signal to noise ratio the scan time is between one half and one fourth that for the saturation recovery method. The optimum repetition period, T r , is 0.07 ∼ 0.25 s for the FR method, and 0.1 ∼ 0.5 s for the modified FR method. Contrast noise ratio is low for high speed imaging, T r = 0.07 ∼ 0.25 s, but, high contrast noise ratio image is obtained for T r > 0.5 s. (author)

  16. First PET scans in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    First PET scans in Estonia were performed on 25th November 2002 in North Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn. Six patients with melanoma underwent scanning with FDG. This event was a result of thorough extensive preparations first started in 2000 during the European Association of Nuclear Medicine congress in Paris. During the congress first contacts were made with providers of mobile PET units. At the same time negotiations were begun with potential FDG suppliers. For the introduction of PET in Estonia mobile truckmounted scanning technology was chosen due to low level of initial investments. Of particular importance was also availability of maintenance personnel from the device providers. A significant prerequisite was potential availability of FDG from the neighbourhood - Finland and Sweden. The latter avoided the necessity for investments into local cyclotrons and local FDG production. For the first scanning experience the dedicated truckmounted PET-camera Accel, Siemens was brought by the International Hospital Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The device arrived by ferry from Stockholm to Tallinn harbour at 10 o'clock in the morning and left by ferry for Helsinki at 23 o'clock. The team-on-truck consisted of one technician for device operation, two drivers and two company representatives. North Estonia Regional Hospital provided three additional technicians for patient preparation and FDG injection, one nuclear medicine doctor and one specialist of biomedical engineering and medical physics. The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, Helsinki, Finland. The shipments were made by air. This was possible due to small distance between Tallinn and Helsinki of approximately 80 km due to the regular flight connections between the two cities. The FDG was shipped in two lots with a time interval of 4 hours. The patient selection was based on clinical and histopathology data. In all six patients the exam was justified for detailied staging and

  17. A new ultrasensitive scanning calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, V V; Brandts, J M; Lin, L N; Brandts, J F

    1997-08-01

    A new ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimeter is described, having a number of novel features arising from integration between hardware and software. It is capable of high performance in either a scanning or isothermal mode of operation. Upscanning is carried out adiabatically while downscanning is nonadiabatic. By using software-controlled signals sent continuously to appropriate hardware devices, it is possible to improve adiabaticity and constancy of scan rate through use of empirical prerun information stored in memory rather than by using feedback systems which respond in real time and generate thermal noise. Also, instrument response time is software-selectable, maximizing performance for both slow- and fast-transient systems. While these and other sophisticated functionalities have been introduced into the instrument to improve performance and data analysis, they are virtually invisible and add no additional complexities into operation of the instrument. Noise and baseline repeatability are an order of magnitude better than published raw data from other instruments so that high-quality results can be obtained on protein solutions, for example, using as little as 50 microg of protein in the sample cell.

  18. New Snail Mail Scanning Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Modernisation does not stop at the CERN postal service (GS/PS). “With more and more digitisation and the prevalence of e-mail throughout the site, we were hoping to provide more timely delivery of letters and make further saving in resources”, said Tueri Datta, head of GS/PS.   Instead of the standard delivery to your P.O. box, the CERN postal service will digitally scan all letters and books up to 100 pages on reception. These scans will subsequently be sent via e-mail to the corresponding recipient as PDF (Portable Data Format - you will need to install “Acrobat Reader” on your PC). Express mail will be handled with priority. Users without a valid CERN mailbox can register at mail.scan.service@cern.ch in order to have their letters read to them via the phone line (we are currently investigating whether we can use the voices of the last five DGs).   This service will start on 1st April 2012 on the Meyrin site and will gradually replace th...

  19. Distillation columns inspection through gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marco

    1999-09-01

    The application of nuclear energy is very wide and it allows the saving of economic resources since the investigation of a certain process is carried out without stop the plant. The gamma scanning of oil c racking c olumns are practical examples, they allow to determine the hydraulic operation of the inspected columns. A source of Co-60 22mCi and a detector with a crystal of INa(TI) are used. This paper shows the results got from a profile carried out in a column distillation

  20. CT scanning in patients with amputated legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, K.H.; Ahlemann, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    CT scanning after above-knee amputation and below-knee amputation helps to determine the calcium salt content of the examined bones, and to differentiate changes in the surrounding soft parts. By comaring the sides, it is quite easy to detect osteoporotic changes shortly after amputation which would otherwise remain undetected by X-ray film examination. It is equally easy to verify muscular changes, whereas characteristic changes in density allow to determine the share of vacant fat in muscular atrophy. Initial examinations proved the usefulness of CT diagnosis for early detection of dystrophic osseous and muscular changes and also show the possibilities of early therapy control of dystrophy treatment. (orig.) [de

  1. Bone Marrow Scans with Colloidal {sup 198}Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Sung Soo; Whang, Kee Suk [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The bone marrow scans with colloidal {sup 198}Au were performed on 33 cases with hematologically normal patients and patients with various blood dyscrasia. Bone marrow aspirations were done at iliac crest in all cases but one. A correlation between the scan findings and an erythroid cellularity was evaluated. The following results were obtained. 1) Out of 33 cases, 23 (about 70%) showed a correlation between {sup 198}Au marrow uptakes on the scans and the erythroid cellularity. 2) The diseases in which no correlation existed between {sup 198}Au uptake and erythroid cellularity were aplastic anemia, acute leukemia and chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  2. Multiple myeloma: radiology or bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.C.F.; Owen, J.P.; Proctor, S.J.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study of radionuclide bone scanning and skeletal radiology in patients with multiple myeloma revealed four principal findings: (i) There were no cases of negative bone scans with positive skeletal radiographs. (ii) Lytic bone lesions were seriously underestimated by bone scans. (iii) Bone scans tended to pick up lesions in ribs missed on the skeletal surveys. (iv) Patients with bone pain were more likely to have positive bone scans and skeletal radiographs than asymptomatic patients. (author)

  3. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  4. Studies in radioaerosol lung scanning in urban health survey subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, V.B.; Gregat, I.K.; Kamat, S.R.; Papewar, V.N.; Raikar, U.R.; Sharma, S.M.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1984-01-01

    As a part of health survey in relation to air pollution, 16 smokers(11 from 'high' and 5 from 'low' zone) were studied with extensive serial lung functions, chest radiography and radioaerosol lung scanning. The clinical diagnosis were chronic bronchitis(COPD) in 9 subjects; but others (4 'High' and 3 'Low') were considered normal. The values of FVC, FEV were normal in most of these three groups, but FEV 1 /FVC percent values were lower in subjects from 'high' zone.The functional declines were higher in normals of 'high' zone. Radioaerosol (ventilation) scans (with technetium 99 ) showed a normal picture in 2 COPD and 3 normal subjects; in 3 COPD and 1 normal subjects the abnormalities were definite. For perfusion scans, 2 COPD and 3 normal subjects showed a normal pattern while definite abnormalities were seen in 1 COPD and 1 normal subjects. Lung scans may pick up abnormalities in normal smokers at an early stage. (author)

  5. Contrast enhanced CT-scans are not comparable to non-enhanced scans in emphysema quantification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussel, C.P.; Kappes, J.; Hantusch, R.; Hartlieb, S.; Weinheimer, O.; Kauczor, H.-U.; Eberhardt, R.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic, interventional and surgical treatments have gone new ways in treatment of emphysema. For longitudinal therapy monitoring and as end-points for clinical trials, quantification of the disease is necessary. Sensitive, easy to measure, as well as stable and reproducible parameters have to be characterized. One parameter that might affect emphysema quantification is IV contrast enhancement, which might also be indicated. Whether or not the contrast enhanced scan is also suited for emphysema quantification or an additional scan is necessary, a retrospective analysis of 12 adult patients undergoing clinically indicated both, a non-enhanced and enhanced thin section MSCT within a week (median 0 days, range 0-4 days) was done. The in-house YACTA software was used for automatic quantification of lung and emphysema volume, emphysema index, mean lung density, and 5th, 10th, 15th percentile. After IV contrast administration, the median CT derived lung volume decreased mild by 1.1%, while median emphysema volume decreased by relevant 11%. This results in a decrease of median emphysema index by 9%. The median lung density (15th percentile) increased after contrast application by 18 HU (9 HU). CT quantification delivers emphysema values that are clearly affected by IV contrast application. The detected changes after contrast application show the results of higher density in the lung parenchyma. Therefore the amount of quantified emphysema is reduced and the lung density increased after contrast enhancement. In longitudinal analyses, non-enhanced scans should be the reference, while enhanced scans cannot be used.

  6. Comparison of MRI fast SPGR single slice scan and continuous dynamic scan in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Xinyu [Department of Radiology, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003 (China)], E-mail: myginny2@sina.com; Yang Xue [Department of Radiology, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003 (China)], E-mail: yangxueqyfy@126.com; Hua Hui [Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, Qingdao (China)], E-mail: huahuisky@163.com; Chen Jingjing [Department of Radiology, Medical School Hospital of Qingdao University, 16 Jiangsu Road, Qingdao 266003 (China)], E-mail: chenjingjingsky@126.com

    2009-07-15

    Objective: To evaluate the application value of MRI fast SPGR single slice scan in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome when comparing the images between fast SPGR single slice scan and continuous dynamic scan. Methods: Eighteen patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome were examined by fast SPGR single slice scan and continuous dynamic scan in turn. Fast SPGR single slice scans were conducted when the phases of apnea, inspiration and expiration appeared on the respiratory wave of the subjects. Fast SPGR continuous dynamic scans were conducted when the patients were awake and apneic. The scan planes were median sagittal plane and axial planes (the slice of middle part of palate, the slice of inferior part of palate, the slice of middle part of lingual root and the slice of 0.5 cm beneath the free margin of epiglottis). The obstructed sites and the cross-sectional areas of upper airway were compared between the two scan methods. Results: Seven cases showed complete obstruction at the narrowest sites of upper airway when apnea appeared; eleven cases showed marked decrease in cross-sectional areas at the narrowest sites compared with the areas when the patients were awake; two cases manifested multiple narrowness. The obstructed sites showed by the two scan methods were same. The difference of the cross-sectional areas of upper airway between the two scan methods was insignificant (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Fast SPGR single slice scan can accurately reflect the obstructed sites of upper airway when the breath breaks off and is the complementary method of continuous dynamic scan. Sometimes, single slice scan can replace continuous dynamic scan.

  7. Manipulation of magnetic Skyrmions with a Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Wieser, R.

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics of a single magnetic Skyrmion in an atomic spin system under the influence of Scanning Tunneling Microscope is investigated by computer simulations solving the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. Two possible scenarios are described: manipulation with aid of a spin-polarized tunneling current and by an electric field created by the scanning tunneling microscope. The dynamics during the creation and annihilation process is studied and the possibility to move single Skyrmions is showed.

  8. Comparison of supine, upright, and prone positions for liver scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harolds, J.A.; Brill, A.B.; Patton, J.A.; Touya, J.J.

    1983-01-01

    We compared liver scan interpretations based on anterior images obtained in the upright, prone, and supine positions. Receiver-operating-characteristic curves were generated for three well trained observers. Results showed that reading the three different views together was more accurate than the reading of any individual image. Furthermore, interpretations based on either the prone or upright view were superior to those using the supine view alone. The prone and upright views should be used more often in liver scanning

  9. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jeong Soo; Park, Yong Ha; Kyo, Chung Soo; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary

  10. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jeong Soo; Park, Yong Ha; Chung Soo Kyo; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of 99m Tc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with 99m Tc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary emphysema was

  11. Detection of Myocardial Infarcts by In-Vivo Scanning using Mercurascan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vavrejn, B. [Research Institute for the Medical Use of Radioisotopes, Prague, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech Republic); Malek, P.; Kolc, J. [Institute for Clinical and Experimental Surgery, Prague, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech Republic); Ratusky, J. [Institute of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, Czechoslovak Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech Republic); Kronrad, L. [Institute for Nuclear Research, Rez near Prague, Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (Czech Republic)

    1969-05-15

    A method is described in which mercurascan (a hydroxymercury derivative of fluorescein) is injected intravenously into dogs before scanning so as to detect myocardial infarction as a 'hot' area on the scan. Experiments with some 150 dogs show that myocardial ischaemia could be demonstrated by in-vivo scanning within a short period of time after administration of mercurascan. (author)

  12. Scan for sustainability in higher education 2010 [in the Netherlands]; Scan duurzaamheid ICT in hoger onderwijs 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Westrienen, G. [SURFfoundation, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-12-15

    A scan among nine higher education institutions in 2010 shows that much can be gained by using sustainable ICT. The higher education can save at least 44 percent on energy use of ICT equipment at work stations and in data centers. [Dutch] Een scan in 2010 bij negen hogeronderwijsinstellingen toont dat met duurzame ICT nog veel winst is te behalen. Het hoger onderwijs kan zeker 44 procent besparen op het energieverbruik van ICT-apparatuur op werkplekken en in datacenters.

  13. Structural analysis and dimerization profile of the SCAN domain of the pluripotency factor Zfp206

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Yu; Huimei Hong, Felicia; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Jiang, Sizun; Jauch, Ralf; Stanton, Lawrence W.; Kolatkar, Prasanna R.

    2012-01-01

    Zfp206 (also named as Zscan10) belongs to the subfamily of C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors, which is characterized by the N-terminal SCAN domain. The SCAN domain mediates self-association and association between the members of SCAN family transcription factors, but the structural basis and selectivity determinants for complex formation is unknown. Zfp206 is important for maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells presumably by combinatorial assembly of itself or other SCAN family members on enhancer regions. To gain insights into the folding topology and selectivity determinants for SCAN dimerization, we solved the 1.85 crystal structure of the SCAN domain of Zfp206. In vitro binding studies using a panel of 20 SCAN proteins indicate that the SCAN domain Zfp206 can selectively associate with other members of SCAN family transcription factors. Deletion mutations showed that the N-terminal helix 1 is critical for heterodimerization. Double mutations and multiple mutations based on the Zfp206SCAN-Zfp110SCAN model suggested that domain swapped topology is a possible preference for Zfp206SCAN-Zfp110SCAN heterodimer. Together, we demonstrate that the Zfp206SCAN constitutes a protein module that enables C2H2 transcription factor dimerization in a highly selective manner using a domain-swapped interface architecture and identify novel partners for Zfp206 during embryonal development. 2012 The Author(s).

  14. Structural analysis and dimerization profile of the SCAN domain of the pluripotency factor Zfp206

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Yu

    2012-06-26

    Zfp206 (also named as Zscan10) belongs to the subfamily of C2H2 zinc finger transcription factors, which is characterized by the N-terminal SCAN domain. The SCAN domain mediates self-association and association between the members of SCAN family transcription factors, but the structural basis and selectivity determinants for complex formation is unknown. Zfp206 is important for maintaining the pluripotency of embryonic stem cells presumably by combinatorial assembly of itself or other SCAN family members on enhancer regions. To gain insights into the folding topology and selectivity determinants for SCAN dimerization, we solved the 1.85 crystal structure of the SCAN domain of Zfp206. In vitro binding studies using a panel of 20 SCAN proteins indicate that the SCAN domain Zfp206 can selectively associate with other members of SCAN family transcription factors. Deletion mutations showed that the N-terminal helix 1 is critical for heterodimerization. Double mutations and multiple mutations based on the Zfp206SCAN-Zfp110SCAN model suggested that domain swapped topology is a possible preference for Zfp206SCAN-Zfp110SCAN heterodimer. Together, we demonstrate that the Zfp206SCAN constitutes a protein module that enables C2H2 transcription factor dimerization in a highly selective manner using a domain-swapped interface architecture and identify novel partners for Zfp206 during embryonal development. 2012 The Author(s).

  15. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-08-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  16. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the 'Needleman-Wunsch' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  17. NGA/Insulin receptor scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtaran, A.; Virgolini, I.

    1994-01-01

    Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) is one of the first receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals which specifically recognizes the hepatic binding protein (HBP) located on the surface of the hepatocytes. The exclusive interactin of NGA with HBP provided the basis for a kinetic model for the evaluation hepatocellular function. During the last years we have used NGA in more than 300 patients with various liver diseases including liver cirrhosis (Stages Child A to Child C), viral hepatitis, and carcinomas. In these studies, the calculated HBP densities, after i.v.-injection of Tc-99m-NGA, significantly correlated with the clinical course of the diseases. Furthermore, similar to conventional Tc-colloid, NGA provided excellent demonstration of 'cold spots' for hepatic masses. In a further approach we used another hepatocyte receptor-seeking radioligand, I-123-Tyr-A14- insulin, and found, that its in vitro-binding to hepatocellular carcinomas is greatly enhanced over normal hepatic tissue. On this basis, we developed a double-tracer method using NGA and insulin in a single study. Thus, areas of 'cold spots' identifying hepatic masses on NGA scans, take up I-123-Tyr-A14-insulin immediately after i.v.-injection. This was true for hepatocellular hepatomas, but not for adenocarcinomas. In conclusion, NGA/insulin receptor scanning could be a novel and save method for the demonstration of hepatocellular hepatomas. (author)

  18. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ashley; Unwin, Patrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential–time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science. PMID:28484332

  19. NGA/Insulin receptor scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtaran, A; Virgolini, I [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Angelberger, P [Ludwig Boltzmann-Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin, Vienna (Austria)

    1994-10-01

    Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) is one of the first receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals which specifically recognizes the hepatic binding protein (HBP) located on the surface of the hepatocytes. The exclusive interactin of NGA with HBP provided the basis for a kinetic model for the evaluation hepatocellular function. During the last years we have used NGA in more than 300 patients with various liver diseases including liver cirrhosis (Stages Child A to Child C), viral hepatitis, and carcinomas. In these studies, the calculated HBP densities, after i.v.-injection of Tc-99m-NGA, significantly correlated with the clinical course of the diseases. Furthermore, similar to conventional Tc-colloid, NGA provided excellent demonstration of `cold spots` for hepatic masses. In a further approach we used another hepatocyte receptor-seeking radioligand, I-123-Tyr-A14- insulin, and found, that its in vitro-binding to hepatocellular carcinomas is greatly enhanced over normal hepatic tissue. On this basis, we developed a double-tracer method using NGA and insulin in a single study. Thus, areas of `cold spots` identifying hepatic masses on NGA scans, take up I-123-Tyr-A14-insulin immediately after i.v.-injection. This was true for hepatocellular hepatomas, but not for adenocarcinomas. In conclusion, NGA/insulin receptor scanning could be a novel and save method for the demonstration of hepatocellular hepatomas. (author).

  20. Assessment of breast tumor size in electrical impedance scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sungwhan

    2012-01-01

    Electrical impedance scanning (EIS) is a newly introduced imaging technique for early breast cancer detection. In EIS, we apply a sinusoidal voltage between a hand-held electrode and a scanning probe placed on the breast skin to make current travel through the breast. We measure induced currents (Neumann data) through the scanning probe. In this paper, we investigate the frequency-dependent behavior of the induced complex potential and show how the frequency differential of the current measurement on the scanning probe reflects the contrast in complex conductivity values between surrounding and cancerous tissues. Furthermore, we develop the formula for breast tumor size using the frequency differential of the current measurement and provide its feasibility. (paper)

  1. Gallium-67 scanning in patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Takashi; Maeda, Juichiro; Iwahashi, Noriaki; Tamura, Shinsuke; Hada, Toshikazu; Higashino, Kazuya

    1990-01-01

    The findings of gallium-67 scans in eleven patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma were reviewed and compared to those of chest CT findings. All patients had an abnormal thoracic Ga-67 accumulation. Six out of 11 showed a diffuse accumulation over the entire involved hemithorax and a localized uptake was shown in 5. A marked diffuse thickening of pleura in the absence of adequate gallium accumulation was observed in one patient. Two out of 11 had a reduction of gallium uptake after having combination chemotherapy. These results suggest that a diffusely increased uptake over the entire involved hemithorax is the most characteristic finding of Ga-67 scan in malignant pleural mesothelioma, and that Ga-67 scans may be helpful as a valuable indicator of the proper therapy. However, the superiority of Ga-67 scan to thoracic CT as a means of determining the extent of disease process could not be verified. (author)

  2. Hot spots on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2001-01-01

    A 61 year-old woman underwent perfusion and inhalation lung scan for the evaluation of pulmonary thromboembolism. Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan showed multiple round hot spots in both lung fields. Tc-99m DTPA aerosol inhalation lung scan and chest radiography taken at the same time showed normal findings. A repeated perfusion lung scan taken 24 hours later demonstrated no abnormalities. Hot spots on perfusion lung scan can be caused by microsphere clumping due to faulty injection technique by radioactive embolization from upper extremity thrombophlebitis after injection. Focal hot spots can signify zones of atelectasis, where the hot spots probably represent a failure of hypoxic vasoconstriction. Artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping usually appear to be round and in peripheral location, and the lesions due to a loss of hypoxic vasoconstriction usually appear to be hot uptakes having linear borders. Although these artifactual hot spots have been well-known, we rarely encounter them. This report presents a case with artifactual hot spots due to microsphere clumping on Tc-99m MAA perfusion lung scan

  3. PET-scan shows peripherally increased neurokinin 1 receptor availability in chronic tennis elbow: visualizing neurogenic inflammation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Peterson

    Full Text Available In response to pain, neurokinin 1 (NK1 receptor availability is altered in the central nervous system. The NK1 receptor and its primary agonist, substance P, also play a crucial role in peripheral tissue in response to pain, as part of neurogenic inflammation. However, little is known about alterations in NK1 receptor availability in peripheral tissue in chronic pain conditions and very few studies have been performed on human beings. Ten subjects with chronic tennis elbow were therefore examined by positron emission tomography (PET with the NK1 specific radioligand [(11C]GR205171 before and after treatment with graded exercise. The radioligand signal intensity was higher in the affected arm as compared with the unaffected arm, measured as differences between the arms in volume of voxels and signal intensity of this volume above a reference threshold set as 2.5 SD above mean signal intensity of the unaffected arm before treatment. In the eight subjects examined after treatment, pain ratings decreased in all subjects but signal intensity decreased in five and increased in three. In conclusion, NK1 receptors may be activated, or up-regulated in the peripheral, painful tissue of a chronic pain condition. This up-regulation does, however, have moderate correlation to pain ratings. The increased NK1 receptor availability is interpreted as part of ongoing neurogenic inflammation and may have correlation to the pathogenesis of chronic tennis elbow.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00888225 http://clinicaltrials.gov/

  4. Evaluation of the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Alexia J; White, Melinda; Viani, Karina; Mosby, Terezie T

    2016-02-01

    Malnutrition is a serious concern for children with cancer and nutrition screening may offer a simple alternative to nutrition assessment for identifying children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. The present paper aimed to evaluate the nutrition screening tool for childhood cancer (SCAN). SCAN was developed after an extensive review of currently available tools and published screening recommendation, consideration of pediatric oncology nutrition guidelines, piloting questions, and consulting with members of International Pediatric Oncology Nutrition Group. In Study 1, the accuracy and validity of SCAN against pediatric subjective global nutrition assessment (pediatric SGNA) was determined. In Study 2, subjects were classified as 'at risk of malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN and measures of height, weight, body mass index (BMI) and body composition were compared between the groups. The validation of SCAN against pediatric SGNA showed SCAN had 'excellent' accuracy (0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.00; p malnutrition' and 'not at risk of malnutrition' according to SCAN, the 'at risk of malnutrition' group had significantly lower values for weight Z score (p = 0.001), BMI Z score (p = 0.001) and fat mass index (FMI) (p = 0.04), than the 'not at risk of malnutrition' group. This study shows that SCAN is a simple, quick and valid tool which can be used to identify children with cancer who are at risk of malnutrition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  5. A Study on Pancreas Scanning with Selenium75-Selenomethionine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hyun Chan; Toh, Sang Hee; Ra, Woo Youn; Suh, Chul Sung

    1968-01-01

    Radiographic visualization of the pancreas is a difficult problem, but the direct visualization of the pancreas is possible by the injection of the amino-acid methionine tagged with selenium 75 (Se 75 ). In order to know the diagnostic value of pancreas scanning, scans were performed on 23 cases using selenium 75 -Selenomethionine. These cases were also given egg white, probanthine and morphine. 1) Good visualization of the pancreas scanning was observed on 19 cases, presumably with normal pancreas. 2) A case which showed diffusely decreased uptake on pancreas scanning was proven to have lesions in the bile duct and the gall bladder. 3) Of those two cases which showed localized cold area, one had pancreas cyst and the other one was not explored. 4) A case which showed no visualization of the pancreas was proven to have pancreatic carcinoma. 5) Two cases which showed widened duodenal loop by upper gastro-intestinal series revealed normal pancreas scanning, and no pancreatic disease was found in both cases.

  6. Mouse manipulation through single-switch scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstien-Adler, Susie; Shein, Fraser; Quintal, Janet; Birch, Shae; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Given the current extensive reliance on the graphical user interface, independent access to computer software requires that users be able to manipulate a pointing device of some type (e.g., mouse, trackball) or be able to emulate a mouse by some other means (e.g., scanning). The purpose of the present study was to identify one or more optimal single-switch scanning mouse emulation strategies. Four alternative scanning strategies (continuous Cartesian, discrete Cartesian, rotational, and hybrid quadrant/continuous Cartesian) were selected for testing based on current market availability as well as on theoretical considerations of their potential speed and accuracy. Each strategy was evaluated using a repeated measures study design by means of a test program that permitted mouse emulation via any one of four scanning strategies in a motivating environment; response speed and accuracy could be automatically recorded and considered in view of the motor, cognitive, and perceptual demands of each scanning strategy. Ten individuals whose disabilities required them to operate a computer via single-switch scanning participated in the study. Results indicated that Cartesian scanning was the preferred and most effective scanning strategy. There were no significant differences between results from the Continuous Cartesian and Discrete Cartesian scanning strategies. Rotational scanning was quite slow with respect to the other strategies, although it was equally accurate. Hybrid Quadrant scanning improved access time but at the cost of fewer correct selections. These results demonstrated the importance of testing and comparing alternate single-switch scanning strategies.

  7. SCANNING AND TRACKING MONITORING APPARATUS AND METHOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed is a scanning monitoring apparatus for medical imaging, the scanning monitoring apparatus comprising a controller unit and a display, wherein the controller unit during a scanning session is configured to obtain tracking data (102) of a subject in a medical scanner, obtain scanner data ...

  8. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-11-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  9. QUANTITATIVE CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Krog Raarup

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM for imaging of 3D structure as well as quantitative characterization of biomolecular interactions and diffusion behaviour by means of one- and two-photon excitation. The use of CLSM for improved stereological length estimation in thick (up to 0.5 mm tissue is proposed. The techniques of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching are introduced and their applicability for quantitative imaging of biomolecular (co-localization and trafficking in live cells described. The advantage of two-photon versus one-photon excitation in relation to these techniques is discussed.

  10. Radiopharmaceutical agents for skeletal scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.E.; Van Aswegen, A.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Otto, A.C.; Goedhals, L.; Dedekind, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of bone scan images obtained with a locally produced and with an imported radiopharmaceutical bone agent, methylene diphosphonate (MDP), was compared visually. Standard skeletal imaging was carried out on 10 patients using both agents, with a period of 2 to 7 days between studies with alternate agents. Equal amounts of activity were administered for both agents. All images were acquired on Polaroid film for subsequent evaluation. The acquisition time for standard amount of counts per study was recorded. Three physicians with applicable experience evaluated image quality (on a 4 point scale) and detectability of metastasis (on a 3 point scale). There was no statistically significant difference (p 0,05) between the two agents by paired t-test of Hotelling's T 2 analysis. It is concluded that the imaging properties of the locally produced and the imported MDP are similar

  11. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM). In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  12. CT scan of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, K.; Mukada, K.; Yonezawa, M.; Matsumura, S.; Yoshimoto, H.; Mori, S.; Uozumi, T.

    1981-01-01

    CT scan is an extremely useful, almost harmless means of diagnosing pituitary adenomas. Growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas tend to have higher absorption coefficent in plain CT than the nonfunctioning and prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenomas. The absorption coefficent on contrast-enhanced CT does not identify the specific type of adenoma. Ring-like enhancement was observed in five nonfunctioning and four PRL-secreting adenomas with suprasellar extension, while cystic components were observed in four nonfunctioning and four PRL-secreting adenomas. In three of ten cases of PRL-secreting microadenomas, the site corresponding to the adenoma was not enhanced, whereas the normal pituitary was. A correlation exists between the size of PRL-secreting adenoma and the serum PRL level, but not between the size of GH-secreting adenomas and the serum GH level. (orig.)

  13. Scan Order in Gibbs Sampling: Models in Which it Matters and Bounds on How Much.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Bryan; De Sa, Christopher; Mitliagkas, Ioannis; Ré, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Gibbs sampling is a Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling technique that iteratively samples variables from their conditional distributions. There are two common scan orders for the variables: random scan and systematic scan. Due to the benefits of locality in hardware, systematic scan is commonly used, even though most statistical guarantees are only for random scan. While it has been conjectured that the mixing times of random scan and systematic scan do not differ by more than a logarithmic factor, we show by counterexample that this is not the case, and we prove that that the mixing times do not differ by more than a polynomial factor under mild conditions. To prove these relative bounds, we introduce a method of augmenting the state space to study systematic scan using conductance.

  14. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on superconducting proximity nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapelier, C; Vinet, M; Lefloch, F

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the local density of states (LDOS) of a normal metal (N) in good electrical contact with a superconductor (S) as a function of the distance x to the NS interface. The sample consists of a pattern of alternate L = 1 mm wide strips of Au and Nb made by UV lithography. We used a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope and a lock-in detection technique to record simultaneously dI/dV(V,x) curves and the topographic profile z(x) at 1.5 K. We scanned along lines perpendicular to the strips. All the spectra show a dip near the Fermi energy, which spectral extension decreases from the superconducting gap Δ at the NS interface to zero at distances x >> ξ N where ξ N ≅ √hD N /2Δ ≅ 53nm is the coherence length in the normal metal. Our measurements are correctly described in the framework of the quasi-classical Green's function formalism. We numerically solved the 1D Usadel equation and extracted a decoherence time in gold of 4 ps. We also investigated the LDOS of small ridges of Au deposited on the top of the Nb lines. In this case, L ≤ ξ N and the spatial variations of the spectra depend on the exact shape of the Au ridge. However, our results are consistent with a predicted minigap related to the Thouless energy. (4. mesoscopic superconductivity)

  15. Multi-parameters scanning in HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil

    2014-08-05

    Building credible anisotropy models is crucial in imaging. One way to estimate anisotropy parameters is to relate them analytically to traveltime, which is challenging in inhomogeneous media. Using perturbation theory, we develop traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with horizontal symmetry axis (HTI) as explicit functions of the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ in inhomogeneous background media. Specifically, our expansion assumes an inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium, which may be obtained from well information and stacking velocity analysis in HTI media. This formulation has advantages on two fronts: on one hand, it alleviates the computational complexity associated with solving the HTI eikonal equation, and on the other hand, it provides a mechanism to scan for the best fitting parameters η and ϕ without the need for repetitive modeling of traveltimes, because the traveltime coefficients of the expansion are independent of the perturbed parameters η and ϕ. The accuracy of our expansion is further enhanced by the use of shanks transform. We show the effectiveness of our scheme with tests on a 3D model and we propose an approach for multi-parameters scanning in TI media.

  16. Multi-parameters scanning in HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Building credible anisotropy models is crucial in imaging. One way to estimate anisotropy parameters is to relate them analytically to traveltime, which is challenging in inhomogeneous media. Using perturbation theory, we develop traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with horizontal symmetry axis (HTI) as explicit functions of the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ in inhomogeneous background media. Specifically, our expansion assumes an inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium, which may be obtained from well information and stacking velocity analysis in HTI media. This formulation has advantages on two fronts: on one hand, it alleviates the computational complexity associated with solving the HTI eikonal equation, and on the other hand, it provides a mechanism to scan for the best fitting parameters η and ϕ without the need for repetitive modeling of traveltimes, because the traveltime coefficients of the expansion are independent of the perturbed parameters η and ϕ. The accuracy of our expansion is further enhanced by the use of shanks transform. We show the effectiveness of our scheme with tests on a 3D model and we propose an approach for multi-parameters scanning in TI media.

  17. The utility of bone scans in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, I.; Dorai-Raj, A.; Khoo, K.; Tymans, K.; Brook, A.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Bone scans are the commonest diagnostic imaging services requested by Australian rheumatologists. Medicare figures suggest that an average rheumatologist orders about $50 000 (AUS) of bone scans annually. Aims: To ascertain the reasons why rheumatologists request bone scans and how it affects their patient management. Methods: A two-part prospective survey was administered before and after every bone scan ordered by four rheumatologists over a six-month period in 1996. Results: A total of 136 bone scans were requested (66.2% whole body; 33.8% regional; 6% SPECT). The primary indications for scanning were (1) to confirm a clinical diagnosis (38%); (2) to exclude a diagnosis (34%); (3) to localize site of pain (17%); and (4) to assist in management (6%). The common diseases that rheumatologists were attempting to confirm/exclude with bone scanning were inflammatory arthritis, malignancy, and fracture. However, the commonest provisional and final diagnosis was soft tissue rheumatism (18%) followed by inflammatory arthritis (15%) and osteoarthritis (11%). In 24% of patients with a provisional diagnosis of soft tissue rheumatism the diagnosis was changed by the bone scan. The scan was successful in excluding a diagnosis in 88 per cent where this was the primary indication for the test. It was successful in confirming a diagnosis in 79 per cent where this was the primary indication. In 32 per cent the bone scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 43 per cent it altered management. The bone scan result prevented further investigations in 60 per cent. Conclusions: The commonest pre-scan and post-scan diagnosis is soft tissue rheumatism. Rheumatologists predominantly request bone scanning to confirm or exclude their clinical suspicion of inflammatory arthritis, malignancy, and fracture. Bone scans were successful in achieving these objectives in at least 79 per cent of cases

  18. Handbook of optical and laser scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Gerald F

    2011-01-01

    From its initial publication titled Laser Beam Scanning in 1985 to Handbook of Optical and Laser Scanning, now in its second edition, this reference has kept professionals and students at the forefront of optical scanning technology. Carefully and meticulously updated in each iteration, the book continues to be the most comprehensive scanning resource on the market. It examines the breadth and depth of subtopics in the field from a variety of perspectives. The Second Edition covers: Technologies such as piezoelectric devices Applications of laser scanning such as Ladar (laser radar) Underwater

  19. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Fumio; Andoh, Tadashi; Une, Koji; Takamatsu, Tsurukichi

    1981-01-01

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed. (author)

  20. Analysis of cranial CT-scan findings in cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, F.; Andoh, T.; Une, K.; Takamatsu, T. (Kitakyushu Municipal Sogo-Ryoiku Center (Japan))

    1981-06-01

    CT-scan findings of 87 cerebral palsied children were studied. They consist of 23 cases of spastic quadriplegia, 9 cases of diplegia, 12 cases of paraplegia, 24 cases of athetosis and mixed type, and 19 cases of hemiplegia. In the former four types, ventricular dilatation and cortical atrophy were measured and abnormal changes in cerebral substance and cerebellar atrophy were observed. Spastic quadriplegia showed most intense changes in every aspect of the abnormalities, while paraplegia had almost normal appearance. Athetosis and mixed type had moderate changes. Hemiplegia always showed asymmetrical view on CT-scan, dilatation of lateral ventricle or atrophy of hemisphere in contralateral side being observed.

  1. Scanning the business external environment for information: evidence from Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kourteli

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This paper examines the business external environment scanning theory for information in the context of Greece. Method. A questionnaire was developed to explore the relationships between general and task business environment, perceived uncertainty, scanning strategy, and sources of information with respect to type of environment, size and industry.The research was based on a sample of 144 private organizations operating in North Greece. Analysis. Data collected were analysed using SPSS. The statistical procedures of chi-squared homogeneity test, ANOVA, Duncan's test of homogeneity of means, and related samples t-test were followed for testing the hypotheses developed. Results. The results show that perceived uncertainty of the general and task business external environment factors depend on the type of the environment, size of organization, and industry where the organizations operate; organizations adapt their scanning strategy to the complexity of the environment; personal sources of information seem to be more important than impersonal sources; external sources of information are equally important with internal sources; and higher levels of environmental uncertainty are associated with higher levels of scanning the various sources. Conclusion. Business external environment scanning of information is influenced by the characteristics of the organizations themselves and by the characteristics of the external environment within which the organizations operate. The study contributes to both environmental scanning theory and has important messages for practitioners.

  2. A laser sheet self-calibration method for scanning PIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Anna N.; Lawson, John M.; Dawson, James R.; Worth, Nicholas A.

    2017-10-01

    Knowledge of laser sheet position, orientation, and thickness is a fundamental requirement of scanning PIV and other laser-scanning methods. This paper describes the development and evaluation of a new laser sheet self-calibration method for stereoscopic scanning PIV, which allows the measurement of these properties from particle images themselves. The approach is to fit a laser sheet model by treating particles as randomly distributed probes of the laser sheet profile, whose position is obtained via a triangulation procedure enhanced by matching particle images according to their variation in brightness over a scan. Numerical simulations and tests with experimental data were used to quantify the sensitivity of the method to typical experimental error sources and validate its performance in practice. The numerical simulations demonstrate the accurate recovery of the laser sheet parameters over range of different seeding densities and sheet thicknesses. Furthermore, they show that the method is robust to significant image noise and camera misalignment. Tests with experimental data confirm that the laser sheet model can be accurately reconstructed with no impairment to PIV measurement accuracy. The new method is more efficient and robust in comparison with the standard (self-) calibration approach, which requires an involved, separate calibration step that is sensitive to experimental misalignments. The method significantly improves the practicality of making accurate scanning PIV measurements and broadens its potential applicability to scanning systems with significant vibrations.

  3. Technetium 99mTc Pertechnetate Brain Scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhee, Sang Min; Park, Jin Yung; Lee, Ahn Ki; Chung, Choo Il; Hong, Chang Gi; Rhee, Chong Heon; Koh, Chang Soon

    1968-01-01

    Technetium 99 mTc pertechnetate brain scanning were performed in 3 cases of head injury (2 chronic subdural hematomas and 1 acute epidural hematoma), 2 cases of brain abscess and 1 case of intracerebral hematoma associated with arteriovenous anomaly. In all the cases brain scintigrams showed 'hot areas.' Literatures on radioisotope scanning of intracranial lesions were briefly reviewed. With the improvement of radioisotope scanner and development of new radiopharmaceuticals brain scanning became a safe and useful screening test for diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Brain scanning can be easily performed even to a moribund patient without any discomfort and risk to the patient which are associated with cerebral angiography or pneumoencephalography. Brain scanning has been useful in diagnosis of brain tumor, brain abscess, subdural hematoma, and cerebral vascular diseases. In 80 to 90% of brain tumors positive scintigrams can be expected. Early studies were done with 203 Hg-Neohydrin or 131 I-serum albumin. With these agents, however, patients receive rather much radiation to the whole body and kidneys. In 1965 Harper introduced 99 mTc to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve statistical variation in isotope scanning.

  4. Technetium {sup 99m}Tc Pertechnetate Brain Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Sang Min; Park, Jin Yung; Lee, Ahn Ki; Chung, Choo Il; Hong, Chang Gi [Capital Army Hospital, ROKA, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Chong Heon; Koh, Chang Soon [Radiological Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1968-03-15

    Technetium {sup 99}mTc pertechnetate brain scanning were performed in 3 cases of head injury (2 chronic subdural hematomas and 1 acute epidural hematoma), 2 cases of brain abscess and 1 case of intracerebral hematoma associated with arteriovenous anomaly. In all the cases brain scintigrams showed 'hot areas.' Literatures on radioisotope scanning of intracranial lesions were briefly reviewed. With the improvement of radioisotope scanner and development of new radiopharmaceuticals brain scanning became a safe and useful screening test for diagnosis of intracranial lesions. Brain scanning can be easily performed even to a moribund patient without any discomfort and risk to the patient which are associated with cerebral angiography or pneumoencephalography. Brain scanning has been useful in diagnosis of brain tumor, brain abscess, subdural hematoma, and cerebral vascular diseases. In 80 to 90% of brain tumors positive scintigrams can be expected. Early studies were done with 203 Hg-Neohydrin or {sup 131}I-serum albumin. With these agents, however, patients receive rather much radiation to the whole body and kidneys. In 1965 Harper introduced {sup 99}mTc to reduce radiation dose to the patient and improve statistical variation in isotope scanning.

  5. Bone scanning in severe external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, W.J.; Shary, J.H. III; Nichols, L.T.; Lucente, F.E.

    1986-01-01

    Technetium99 Methylene Diphosphate bone scanning has been considered an early valuable tool to diagnose necrotizing progressive malignant external otitis. However, to our knowledge, no formal studies have actually compared bone scans of otherwise young, healthy patients with severe external otitis to scans of patients with clinical presentation of malignant external otitis. Twelve patients with only severe external otitis were studied with Technetium99 Diphosphate and were compared to known cases of malignant otitis. All scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists with no prior knowledge of the clinical status of the patients. Nine of the 12 patients had positive bone scans with many scans resembling those reported with malignant external otitis. Interestingly, there was no consistent correlation between the severity of clinical presentation and the amount of Technetium uptake. These findings suggest that a positive bone scan alone should not be interpreted as indicative of malignant external otitis

  6. Early appearance of SARS on chest CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Xiaoguang; Feng Suchen; Xia Guoguang; Zhao Tao; Gu Xiang; Qu Hui

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the early appearance of SARS on chest CT scan and its role in the early diagnosis. Methods: Forty cases of SARS in keeping with the criteria of the Ministry of Health had chest CT scans within 7 days of onset of symptoms, and CR chest X-ray films were available as well. These chest X-rays and CT images were retrospectively reviewed to determine if there were any abnormalities on the images. The lesions on the chest CT images were then further analyzed in terms of the number, location, size, and density. Results: Positive abnormalities on chest CT scans were revealed in all 40 SARS cases. Positive findings on CR chest films were showed in only 25 cases, equivocal in 6, and normal in 9 cases. The main abnormalities seen on CT and X-rays were pulmonary infiltrations varied markedly in severity. 70 % cases had 1 or 2 lesions on chest CT scan, 30 % cases had 3 or more lesions. The lesions seen on chest CT scan tended to be ground-glass opacification, sometimes with consolidation which was very faint and inhomogeneous, easily missed on chest X-rays. Typically the lesions were located in the periphery of the lung, or both central and peripheral lung, but very rare in a pure central location. They were commonly in the shape of patch or ball. Conclusions: Chest CT scan is much more sensitive in detecting the lesions of the lung in SARS. The early appearance of SARS on chest CT scan is characteristic but non-specific, indicating that chest CT scan plays a very important role in the early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of SARS

  7. Fast-scan, beam-profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    A minimodular, data-acquisition system can be used to rapidly interrogate a 45-point matrix of beam-current sampling targets over the 3- x 12-in. rectangular, output beam cross section of a 50-A, neutral-beam ion source. This system, operating at a throughput rate of 12 μs per channel, can make several complete scans during the 10- to 25-ms-duration beam pulse. Data obtained are available in both analog and digital form. The analog signal is used to create an immediately interpretable CRT display of the beam-current density profile that shows how well the source is aimed. The digital data are held in buffer memory until transfer to a minicomputer for software processing and plotting

  8. Scanning ion irradiation of polyimide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecken, Stefan; Koval, Yuri; Mueller, Paul [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials (ICMM), Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Recently we found, that the surface of nearly any polymer can be converted into conductive material by low energy ion irradiation. The graphitized layer consists of nanometer sized graphene and graphite flakes. In order to enhance the conductivity and to increase the size of the flakes we applied a novel method of scanning irradiation. We investigated the influence of various irradiation parameters on the conductivity of the graphitized layer. We show, that the conductance vs. temperature can be described in terms of weak Anderson localization. At approximately 70 K, a crossover occurs from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional behavior. This can be explained by a decrease of the Thouless length with increasing temperature. The crossover temperature can be used to estimate the thickness of the graphitized layer.

  9. Compressed-sensing wavenumber-scanning interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yulei; Zhou, Yanzhou; He, Zhaoshui; Ye, Shuangli; Dong, Bo; Xie, Shengli

    2018-01-01

    The Fourier transform (FT), the nonlinear least-squares algorithm (NLSA), and eigenvalue decomposition algorithm (EDA) are used to evaluate the phase field in depth-resolved wavenumber-scanning interferometry (DRWSI). However, because the wavenumber series of the laser's output is usually accompanied by nonlinearity and mode-hop, FT, NLSA, and EDA, which are only suitable for equidistant interference data, often lead to non-negligible phase errors. In this work, a compressed-sensing method for DRWSI (CS-DRWSI) is proposed to resolve this problem. By using the randomly spaced inverse Fourier matrix and solving the underdetermined equation in the wavenumber domain, CS-DRWSI determines the nonuniform sampling and spectral leakage of the interference spectrum. Furthermore, it can evaluate interference data without prior knowledge of the object. The experimental results show that CS-DRWSI improves the depth resolution and suppresses sidelobes. It can replace the FT as a standard algorithm for DRWSI.

  10. Liver scanning in diffuse liver disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aiginger, P.; Atefie, K.; Scherak, O.; Wolf, A.; Hoefer, R.; Seyfried, H.

    1975-01-01

    The results of liver scans performed with sup(99m)Tc-sulphur colloid in 169 patients suffering from diffuse liver diseases and in 48 normal controls were evaluated. The patients with reactive hepatitis, acute hepatitis, chronic persistent hepatitis, fatty liver and fibrosis of the liver show only minimal deviations from the scintigraphic pattern. On the contrary, highly increased colloid uptake in the spleen is found in cases of chronic aggressive hepatitis, whilst the intrahepatic distribution of the colloid is approximately normal. In cases of liver cirrhosis, increased colloid uptake is found in the left lobe of the liver as well as in the spleen and in the bone marrow. Either normal findings or cirrhosis-like changes of the colloid distribution are observed in patients with alcoholic hepatitis. (orig.) [de

  11. Robust Adaptive Thresholder For Document Scanning Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsing, To R.

    1982-12-01

    In document scanning applications, thresholding is used to obtain binary data from a scanner. However, due to: (1) a wide range of different color backgrounds; (2) density variations of printed text information; and (3) the shading effect caused by the optical systems, the use of adaptive thresholding to enhance the useful information is highly desired. This paper describes a new robust adaptive thresholder for obtaining valid binary images. It is basically a memory type algorithm which can dynamically update the black and white reference level to optimize a local adaptive threshold function. The results of high image quality from different types of simulate test patterns can be obtained by this algorithm. The software algorithm is described and experiment results are present to describe the procedures. Results also show that the techniques described here can be used for real-time signal processing in the varied applications.

  12. Scanning electron microscopy of coal macerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, M.R.; White, A.; Deegan, M.D.

    1986-02-01

    Individual macerals separated from some United Kingdom coals of Carboniferous age and bituminous rank were examined by scanning electron microscopy. In each case a specific morphology characteristic of the macerals studied could be recognized. Collinite (a member of the vitrinite maceral group) was recognizable in all samples by its angular shape and characteristic fracture patterns, the particles (30-200 ..mu..m) frequently showing striated or laminated surface. Sporinite particles had no well defined shape and were associated with more detrital material than were the other macerals studied. This detritus was shown by conventional light microscopy to be the maceral micrinite. Fusinite was remarkable in having a chunky needle form, with lengths of up to 200 ..mu..m. 8 references.

  13. Fiber coupled ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Jensen, Jacob Riis; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1997-01-01

    We report on a scanning tunneling microscope with a photoconductive gate in the tunneling current circuit. The tunneling tip is attached to a coplanar transmission line with an integrated photoconductive switch. The switch is illuminated through a fiber which is rigidly attached to the switch...... waveguide. The measurements show that the probe works as a transient voltage detector in contact and a capacitively coupled transient field detector in tunneling mode. We do not measure the transient voltage change in the ohmic tunneling current. In this sense, the spatial resolution for propagating...... substrate. By using a firmly attached fiber we achieve an excellent reproducibility and unconstrained positioning of the tip. We observe a transient signal with 2.9 ps pulse width in tunneling mode and 5 ps in contact mode. The instrument is applied to investigating the mode structure on a coplanar...

  14. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically tunneling current

  15. Investigation of the Scanning Microarc Oxidation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingqin Xia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scanning microarc oxidation (SMAO is a coating process which is based on conventional microarc oxidation (MAO. The key difference is that deposition in SMAO is achieved by using a stainless steel nozzle to spray an electrolyte stream on the substrate surface as opposed to immersing the workpiece in an electrolyzer. In the present study, SMAO discharge characteristics, coating morphology, and properties are analyzed and compared to results obtained from MAO under similar conditions. Results show that MAO and SMAO have comparable spark and microarc lifetimes and sizes, though significant differences in incubation time and discharge distribution were evident. Results also showed that the voltage and current density for MAO and SMAO demonstrate similar behavior but have markedly different transient and steady-state values. Results obtained from coating A356 aluminum sheet show that oxide thickness and growth rate in SMAO are strongly dependent on interelectrode spacing and travel speed. Analysis of the SMAO coating morphology and structure showed that a denser and slightly harder layer was deposited in comparison to MAO and is attributed to reduced porosity and increased formation of α-Al2O3. Preliminary results indicate that SMAO represents a viable process for coating of aluminum surfaces.

  16. Lung uptake in bone scan - Two case reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, N.; Kabir, F.; Islam, N.; Karim, M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Breast cancer is the 2nd most common cancer in female in our country. When a case of breast cancer is diagnosed a base line bone scan is asked for to exclude skeletal metastasis. This helps for treatment planning and future follow up. Scan pattern in bone metastasis is usually multiple, randomly distributed foci of intensely increased tracer accumulation. Uptake of radio pharmaceutical in breast tissue is frequently observed. Kidneys are another extra skeletal organs through which 99m Tc-MDP is excreted and that's why normal kidneys are faintly visualized in delayed views suggesting normal exertion of tracer. If there is any outflow obstruction in any kidney, it will show hold up of radiotracer on that side. Often radiopharmaceuticals are seen to accumulate in other organs like lungs. Here two cases of breast cancer are discussed where bone scan shows significant uptake of tracer in lungs

  17. Automated image quality assessment for chest CT scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Anthony P; Xie, Yiting; Liu, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Medical image quality needs to be maintained at standards sufficient for effective clinical reading. Automated computer analytic methods may be applied to medical images for quality assessment. For chest CT scans in a lung cancer screening context, an automated quality assessment method is presented that characterizes image noise and image intensity calibration. This is achieved by image measurements in three automatically segmented homogeneous regions of the scan: external air, trachea lumen air, and descending aorta blood. Profiles of CT scanner behavior are also computed. The method has been evaluated on both phantom and real low-dose chest CT scans and results show that repeatable noise and calibration measures may be realized by automated computer algorithms. Noise and calibration profiles show relevant differences between different scanners and protocols. Automated image quality assessment may be useful for quality control for lung cancer screening and may enable performance improvements to automated computer analysis methods. © 2017 American Association of Physicists in Medicine.

  18. Osmotic blood-brain barrier modification: clinical documentation by enhanced CT scanning and/or radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neuwelt, E.A.; Specht, H.D.; Howieson, J.; Haines, J.E.; Bennett, M.J.; Hill, S.A.; Frenkel, E.P.

    1983-01-01

    Results of initial clinical trials of brain tumor chemotherapy after osmotic blood-brain barrier disruption are promising. In general, the procedure is well tolerated. The major complication has been seizures. In this report, data are presented which indicate that the etiology of these seizures is related to the use of contrast agent (meglumine iothalamate) to monitor barrier modification. A series of 19 patients underwent a total of 85 barrier modification procedures. Documentation of barrier disruption was monitored by contrast-enhanced computed tomographic (CT) scanning, radionuclide brain scanning, or a combination of both techniques. In 56 procedures (19 patients) monitored by enhanced CT, seizures occurred a total of 10 times in eight patients. Twenty-three barrier modification procedures (in nine of these 19 patients) documented by nuclear brain scans alone, however, resulted in only one focal motor seizure in each of two patients. In eight of the 19 patients who had seizures after barrier disruption and enhanced CT scan, four subsequently had repeat procedures monitored by radionuclide scan alone. In only one of these patients was further seizure activity noted; a single focal motor seizure was observed. Clearly, the radionuclide brain scan does not have the sensitivity and spatial resolution of enhanced CT, but at present it appears safer to monitor barrier modification by this method and to follow tumor growth between barrier modifications by enhanced CT. Four illustrative cases showing methods, problems, and promising results are presented

  19. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseyev, S A; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N; Petrunin, V V; Chekalin, S V

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ, was measured by the conical probe operating in shear force mode. In shear force regime, the dielectric capillary has been used as a "classical" SPM tip, which provided images reflecting the surface topology. In a photoelectron regime photoelectrons passed through hollow tip and entered a detector. The spatial distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element resolution using the combination of a hollow-tip scanner with time-of-flight technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Monochromated scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechberger, W.; Kothleitner, G.; Hofer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has developed into an established technique for chemical and structural analysis of thin specimens in the (scanning) transmission electron microscope (S)TEM. The energy resolution in EELS is largely limited by the stability of the high voltage supply, by the resolution of the spectrometer and by the energy spread of the source. To overcome this limitation a Wien filter monochromator was recently introduced with commercially available STEMs, offering the advantage to better resolve EELS fine structures, which contain valuable bonding information. The method of atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging within an STEM, utilizing a high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) detector can perfectly complement the excellent energy resolution, since EELS spectra can be collected simultaneously. In combination with a monochromator microscope not only high spatial resolution images can be recorded but also high energy resolution EELS spectra are attainable. In this work we investigated the STEM performance of a 200 kV monochromated Tecnai F20 with a high resolution Gatan Imaging Filter (HR-GIF). (author)

  1. Clinical role of skeletal scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P J

    1975-12-01

    Malignant disease very often spreads to the skeleton. This is particularly true for carcinomas of the breast, the lungs, the prostate, and the thyroid. Knowledge of the state of the skeleton in these disorders is therefore desirable since patient management will largely depend on the early detection of bony deposits. Primary bone disease often spreads to soft tissue (lungs), and the early detection of this may alter significantly the therapeutic approach to the primary lesion. Traditionally, x-ray skeletal surveys and serum enzyme measurements provide indices which can be used in the staging of these disorders. Complementary techniques such as mammography, xeroradiography, thermography, and radionuclide imaging have been used to provide further relevant information. A number of benign bone diseases need early assessment in order to institute the best form of treatment. It is of importance to assess the circulation in localized areas of bone and to predict the appearance of avascular necrosis, to understand the healing mechanisms involved in fractures, and to predict the outcome of bone grafting. In this paper the clinical role of bone scanning is reviewed, particular attention being given to the recent advances brought about by the introduction of the /sup 99m/Tc compounds. It is important that the non-specialist should be aware of the great improvement in the results obtained and in the help they can give him in deciding on the best management of each patient as an individual.

  2. Scanning electron microscopy of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter described methods for Scanning Electron Microscopical imaging of bone and bone cells. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging is by far the most useful in the bone field, followed by secondary electrons (SE) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analytical modes. This chapter considers preparing and imaging samples of unembedded bone having 3D detail in a 3D surface, topography-free, polished or micromilled, resin-embedded block surfaces, and resin casts of space in bone matrix. The chapter considers methods for fixation, drying, looking at undersides of bone cells, and coating. Maceration with alkaline bacterial pronase, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium or potassium hydroxide to remove cells and unmineralised matrix is described in detail. Attention is given especially to methods for 3D BSE SEM imaging of bone samples and recommendations for the types of resin embedding of bone for BSE imaging are given. Correlated confocal and SEM imaging of PMMA-embedded bone requires the use of glycerol to coverslip. Cathodoluminescence (CL) mode SEM imaging is an alternative for visualising fluorescent mineralising front labels such as calcein and tetracyclines. Making spatial casts from PMMA or other resin embedded samples is an important use of this material. Correlation with other imaging means, including microradiography and microtomography is important. Shipping wet bone samples between labs is best done in glycerol. Environmental SEM (ESEM, controlled vacuum mode) is valuable in eliminating -"charging" problems which are common with complex, cancellous bone samples.

  3. Volumetric measurement of the maxillary sinus by coronal CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Atsuko

    1996-01-01

    The volume of the maxillary sinus was estimated by coronal CT scan. The purpose of this study was to compare the estimated volume of the normal maxillary sinus with that of the inflamed maxillary sinus. Patients were classified following evaluation by CT scan of the paranasal sinuses into 3 categories. Group A (n=12): Patients suffered from headache, facial pain and epistaxis, but CT scans of their nasal cavity and paranasal sinus were within normal limits without inflammatory change. Group B (n=69): Patients with bilateral chronic maxillary sinusitis, CT scans of whom showed inflammatory changes in both maxillary sinuses. All of the patients in this group underwent sinus surgery after coronal CT scans. Group C (n=14): Patients with unilateral chronic maxillary sinusitis, CT scans of whom showed inflammatory change in unilateral maxillary sinuses. CT scans of these patients were measured by Plannimeter to take the area of each image of the maxillary sinus. Consecutively imaged areas were summated by integral calculus to obtain an estimate of the sinus volume. The mean maxillary sinus volume in the affected sinuses was significantly smaller than those in the contralateral normal sinuses (p<0.05, Wilcoxon-test). The various volumes of the maxillary sinuses and the developmental cause were discussed. Comparison of groups A with B suggested three distinct patterns; the maxillary sinus volume has decreased due to inflammatory changes in the bone. The small sinuses have a tendency to develop chronic inflammatory change. The aeration in the maxillary sinus may be decreased when anatomic variations that may obstruct the ethmoid infundibulum exist. (K.H.)

  4. Volumetric measurement of the maxillary sinus by coronal CT scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, Atsuko [Tokyo Medical and Dental Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1996-08-01

    The volume of the maxillary sinus was estimated by coronal CT scan. The purpose of this study was to compare the estimated volume of the normal maxillary sinus with that of the inflamed maxillary sinus. Patients were classified following evaluation by CT scan of the paranasal sinuses into 3 categories. Group A (n=12): Patients suffered from headache, facial pain and epistaxis, but CT scans of their nasal cavity and paranasal sinus were within normal limits without inflammatory change. Group B (n=69): Patients with bilateral chronic maxillary sinusitis, CT scans of whom showed inflammatory changes in both maxillary sinuses. All of the patients in this group underwent sinus surgery after coronal CT scans. Group C (n=14): Patients with unilateral chronic maxillary sinusitis, CT scans of whom showed inflammatory change in unilateral maxillary sinuses. CT scans of these patients were measured by Plannimeter to take the area of each image of the maxillary sinus. Consecutively imaged areas were summated by integral calculus to obtain an estimate of the sinus volume. The mean maxillary sinus volume in the affected sinuses was significantly smaller than those in the contralateral normal sinuses (p<0.05, Wilcoxon-test). The various volumes of the maxillary sinuses and the developmental cause were discussed. Comparison of groups A with B suggested three distinct patterns; the maxillary sinus volume has decreased due to inflammatory changes in the bone. The small sinuses have a tendency to develop chronic inflammatory change. The aeration in the maxillary sinus may be decreased when anatomic variations that may obstruct the ethmoid infundibulum exist. (K.H.)

  5. UV Photography Shows Hidden Sun Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c UV photography shows hidden sun damage A UV photograph gives ... developing skin cancer and prematurely aged skin. Normal photography UV photography 18 months of age: This boy's ...

  6. Data acquisition and control for gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.K.; Murray, A.S.; Quintana, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    A new computer-based data acquisition and control unit has been installed in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) system for scanning irradiated reactor fuel pins. The scanning mechanism is controlled by a commercial multichannel analyzer via a CAMAC link with an intelligent crate controller. The scanning and control unit consists of three linked LSI-11 computers. The multitasking capability of the commercial operation system allows control decisions to be based upon currently acquiring data

  7. The use of radionuclides in brain scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Brain scanning is easy to perform, safe and well tolerated by the patient. It has a high sensitivity, and accuracy (85-90%) in detecting focal lesions with a minimal size of 1.5-2cm, located superior to the brain stem; however, it lacks specificity. It does not compete with other procedures such as CT scan and angiography bit they rather complement one another. The brain scan is useful as a screening exam. (Author) [pt

  8. Intrathoracic kidney. Diagnostic value of CT scan imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baillet, A.M.; Escure, M.N.

    1988-01-01

    Two cases are reported of an ectopic right kidney that was partially intrathoracic in position. Diagnosis was simple from CT scan imaging appearances, the examination being performed to investigate an intrathoracic mass. Images showed a tissular mass within a fatty zone in sections without contrast and the typical appearance of the kidney on sections with contrast [fr

  9. Bone scan findings in hypervitaminosis D: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; McKillop, J.H.; Cowden, E.A.; Fine, A.; Boyce, B.; Boyle, I.T.; Greig, W.R.

    1977-01-01

    Bone scans in three patients showed generalized symmetrical increased uptake of radiopharmaceutical by the skeleton and absent or faint kidney images. It is thought that these appearances may be attributable to excess vitamin D, and other possible contributing factors, including the presence of renal osteodystrophy, are discussed

  10. Metastatic calcification of the stomach imaged on a bone scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, R.; Ryo, U.Y.; Pinsky, S.M.

    1984-10-01

    A whole body bone scan obtained on a 21-year-old woman with sickle cell disease and chronic renal failure showed localization of the radionuclide diffusely in the stomach. The localization of the radionuclide represented metastatic calcification of the stomach caused by secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  11. Electromigration of single metal atoms observed by scanning tunneling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braun, K.-F.; Soe, W.H.; Flipse, C.F.J.

    2007-01-01

    The authors show in this letter that single metal atoms on a Ni(111) surface can be pushed by electromigration forces from a scanning tunneling microscope tip. This repulsive interaction is obsd. over a length scale of 6 nm. While for voltages above -300 mV the atoms are pulled by the microscope

  12. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in himematsutake was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). The atomic percentage of the metals was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Results show that the accumulation of ...

  13. Towards vortex imaging with scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Dan T.

    1994-02-01

    A low temperature, Besocke beetle type scanning tunneling microscope, with a scan range of 10 by 10 microns was built. The scanning tunneling microscope was calibrates for various temperatures and tested on several samples. Gold monolayers evaporated at 400 deg C were resolved and their dynamic behavior observed. Atomic resolution images of graphite were obtained. The scanning tunneling microscope was designed for future applications of vortex imaging in superconductors. The special design considerations for this application are discussed and the physics underlying it reviewed. (author)

  14. Scanning Tunneling Microscope For Use In Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Phillip B.

    1993-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope with subangstrom resolution developed to study surface structures. Although instrument used in air, designed especially for use in vacuum. Scanning head is assembly of small, mostly rigid components made of low-outgassing materials. Includes coarse-positioning mechanical-translation stage, on which specimen mounted by use of standard mounting stub. Tunneling tip mounted on piezoelectric fine-positioning tube. Application of suitable voltages to electrodes on piezoelectric tube controls scan of tunneling tip across surface of specimen. Electronic subsystem generates scanning voltages and collects data.

  15. Human Digital Modeling & Hand Scanning Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory incorporates specialized scanning equipment, computer workstations and software applications for the acquisition and analysis of digitized models of...

  16. Status of automated nuclear scanning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.; McNeece, J.P.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1983-07-01

    Present day minicomputers and microprocessors enable a range of automation, from partial to total, of tasks once thought beyond approach. The status of three computer controlled systems for quantitative track measurements is reviewed. Two systems, the Hanford optical track scanner (HOTS) and an automated scanning electron microscope (ASEM) are used for scanning solid state track recorders (SSTR). The third systems, the emulsion scanning processor (ESP), is an interactive system used to measure the length of proton tracks in nuclear research emulsions (NRE). Current limitations of these systems for quantitative track scanning are presented. Experimental uncertainties attained with these computer controlled systems are described using results obtained from reactor neutron dosimetry

  17. Statistical image reconstruction methods for simultaneous emission/transmission PET scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdogan, H.; Fessler, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Transmission scans are necessary for estimating the attenuation correction factors (ACFs) to yield quantitatively accurate PET emission images. To reduce the total scan time, post-injection transmission scans have been proposed in which one can simultaneously acquire emission and transmission data using rod sources and sinogram windowing. However, since the post-injection transmission scans are corrupted by emission coincidences, accurate correction for attenuation becomes more challenging. Conventional methods (emission subtraction) for ACF computation from post-injection scans are suboptimal and require relatively long scan times. We introduce statistical methods based on penalized-likelihood objectives to compute ACFs and then use them to reconstruct lower noise PET emission images from simultaneous transmission/emission scans. Simulations show the efficacy of the proposed methods. These methods improve image quality and SNR of the estimates as compared to conventional methods

  18. High-speed X-ray phase tomography with Talbot interferometer and fringe scanning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibayashi, Shunsuke; Harasse, Sébastien; Yashiro, Wataru; Momose, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    High-speed X-ray phase tomography based on the Fourier-transform method has been demonstrated with an X-ray Talbot interferometer using white synchrotron radiation. We report the experimental results of high-speed X-ray phase tomography with fringe-scanning method instead of Fourier-transform method to improve spatial resolution without a considerable increase of scan time. To apply fringe-scanning method to high speed tomography, we tested a scan that is a synchronous combination of one-way continuous movements of the sample rotation and the grating displacement. When this scanning method was combined with X-ray phase tomography, we were able to obtain a scan time of 5 s. A comparison of the image quality derived with the conventional approach and with the proposed approach using the fringe-scanning method showed that the latter had better spatial resolution.

  19. Educational Outreach: The Space Science Road Show

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, N. L. J.

    2002-01-01

    The poster presented will give an overview of a study towards a "Space Road Show". The topic of this show is space science. The target group is adolescents, aged 12 to 15, at Dutch high schools. The show and its accompanying experiments would be supported with suitable educational material. Science teachers at schools can decide for themselves if they want to use this material in advance, afterwards or not at all. The aims of this outreach effort are: to motivate students for space science and engineering, to help them understand the importance of (space) research, to give them a positive feeling about the possibilities offered by space and in the process give them useful knowledge on space basics. The show revolves around three main themes: applications, science and society. First the students will get some historical background on the importance of space/astronomy to civilization. Secondly they will learn more about novel uses of space. On the one hand they will learn of "Views on Earth" involving technologies like Remote Sensing (or Spying), Communication, Broadcasting, GPS and Telemedicine. On the other hand they will experience "Views on Space" illustrated by past, present and future space research missions, like the space exploration missions (Cassini/Huygens, Mars Express and Rosetta) and the astronomy missions (Soho and XMM). Meanwhile, the students will learn more about the technology of launchers and satellites needed to accomplish these space missions. Throughout the show and especially towards the end attention will be paid to the third theme "Why go to space"? Other reasons for people to get into space will be explored. An important question in this is the commercial (manned) exploration of space. Thus, the questions of benefit of space to society are integrated in the entire show. It raises some fundamental questions about the effects of space travel on our environment, poverty and other moral issues. The show attempts to connect scientific with

  20. Marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings obtained using different digital scanning methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Oliveira PEDROCHE

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the marginal and internal fit of zirconia copings obtained with different digital scanning methods. A human mandibular first molar was set in a typodont with its adjacent and antagonist teeth and prepared for an all-ceramic crown. Digital impressions were made using an intraoral scanner (3Shape. Polyvinyl siloxane impressions and Type IV gypsum models were also obtained and scanned with a benchtop laboratory scanner (3Shape D700. Ten zirconia copings were fabricated for each group using CAD-CAM technology. The marginal and internal fit of the zirconia copings was assessed by the silicone replica technique. Four sections of each replica were obtained, and each section was evaluated at four points: marginal gap (MG, axial wall (AW, axio-occlusal edge (AO and centro-occlusal wall (CO, using an image analyzing software. The data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test (α = 0.05. They showed statistically significant differences for MG, AO and CO. Regarding MG, intraoral scanning showed lower gap values, whereas gypsum model scanning showed higher gap values. Regarding AO and CO, intraoral digital scanning showed lower gap values. Polyvinyl siloxane impression scanning and gypsum model scanning showed higher gap values and were statistically similar. It can be concluded that intraoral digital scanning provided a lower mean gap value, in comparison with conventional impressions and gypsum casts scanned with a standard benchtop laboratory scanner.

  1. Fast differential scanning calorimetry of liquid samples with chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Splinter, R.; van Herwaarden, A. W.; van Wetten, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Based on a modified version of standard chips for fast differential scanning calorimetry, DSC of liquid samples has been performed at temperature scan rates of up to 1000 °C/s. This paper describes experimental results with the protein lysozyme, bovine serum, and olive oil. The heating and cooling....... The bovine serum measurements show two main peaks, in good agreement with standard DSC measurements. Olive oil has been measured, with good agreement for the cooling curve and qualitative agreement for the heater curve, compared to DSC measurements....

  2. Using a laser scanning camera for reactor inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, I.A.; Adrain, R.S.; Klewe, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Inspection of nuclear reactors is normally carried out using TV or film cameras. There are, however, several areas where these cameras show considerable shortcomings. To overcome these difficulties, laser scanning cameras have been developed. This type of camera can be used for general visual inspection as well as the provision of high resolution video images with high ratio on and off-axis zoom capability. In this paper, we outline the construction and operation of a laser scanning camera and give examples of how it has been used in various power stations, and indicate future potential developments. (author)

  3. An improved segmented gamma scanning for radioactive waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Cheng; Wang Dezhong; Bai Yunfei; Qian Nan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the equivalent radius of radioactive sources in each segment is determined by analyzing the different responses of the two identical detectors, and an improved segmented gamma scanning is used to assay waste drums containing mainly organic materials, and proved by an established simulation model. The simulated radioactivity distributions in homogenous waste drum and an experimental heterogeneous waste drum were compared with those of traditional segmented gamma scanning. The results show that our method is good in performance and can be used for analyzing the waste drums. (authors)

  4. Scanning microscopies of superconductors at very low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crespo, V.; Maldonado, A.; Galvis, J.A.; Kulkarni, P.; Guillamon, I.; Rodrigo, J.G.; Suderow, H.; Vieira, S.; Banerjee, S.; Rodiere, P.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss basics of Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy (STM/S) of the superconducting state with normal and superconducting tips. We present a new method to measure the local variations in the Andreev reflection amplitude between a superconducting tip and the sample. This method is termed Scanning Andreev Reflection Spectroscopy (SAS). We also briefly discuss vortex imaging with STM/S under an applied current through the sample, and show the vortex lattice as a function of the angle between the magnetic field and sample’s surface.

  5. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy under large current flow through the sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, A; Guillamón, I; Suderow, H; Vieira, S

    2011-07-01

    We describe a method to make scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy imaging at very low temperatures while driving a constant electric current up to some tens of mA through the sample. It gives a new local probe, which we term current driven scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy. We show spectroscopic and topographic measurements under the application of a current in superconducting Al and NbSe(2) at 100 mK. Perspective of applications of this local imaging method includes local vortex motion experiments, and Doppler shift local density of states studies.

  6. 2008 LHC Open Days Physics: the show

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    A host of events and activities await visitors to the LHC Open Days on 5 and 6 April. A highlight will be the physics shows funded by the European Physical Society (EPS), which are set to surprise and challenge children and adults alike! School children use their experience of riding a bicycle to understand how planets move around the sun (Copyright : Circus Naturally) Participating in the Circus Naturally show could leave a strange taste in your mouth! (Copyright : Circus Naturally) The Rino Foundation’s experiments with liquid nitrogen can be pretty exciting! (Copyright: The Rino Foundation)What does a bicycle have in common with the solar system? Have you ever tried to weigh air or visualise sound? Ever heard of a vacuum bazooka? If you want to discover the answers to these questions and more then come to the Physics Shows taking place at the CERN O...

  7. Online Italian fandoms of American TV shows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Benecchi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Internet has changed media fandom in two main ways: it helps fans connect with each other despite physical distance, leading to the formation of international fan communities; and it helps fans connect with the creators of the TV show, deepening the relationship between TV producers and international fandoms. To assess whether Italian fan communities active online are indeed part of transnational online communities and whether the Internet has actually altered their relationship with the creators of the original text they are devoted to, qualitative analysis and narrative interviews of 26 Italian fans of American TV shows were conducted to explore the fan-producer relationship. Results indicated that the online Italian fans surveyed preferred to stay local, rather than using geography-leveling online tools. Further, the sampled Italian fans' relationships with the show runners were mediated or even absent.

  8. Multiphoton minimal inertia scanning for fast acquisition of neural activity signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuck, Renaud; Go, Mary Ann; Garasto, Stefania; Reynolds, Stephanie; Dragotti, Pier Luigi; Schultz, Simon R.

    2018-04-01

    Objective. Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy provides a powerful tool for monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural circuit activity. It is, however, intrinsically a point scanning technique. Standard raster scanning enables imaging at subcellular resolution; however, acquisition rates are limited by the size of the field of view to be scanned. Recently developed scanning strategies such as travelling salesman scanning (TSS) have been developed to maximize cellular sampling rate by scanning only select regions in the field of view corresponding to locations of interest such as somata. However, such strategies are not optimized for the mechanical properties of galvanometric scanners. We thus aimed to develop a new scanning algorithm which produces minimal inertia trajectories, and compare its performance with existing scanning algorithms. Approach. We describe here the adaptive spiral scanning (SSA) algorithm, which fits a set of near-circular trajectories to the cellular distribution to avoid inertial drifts of galvanometer position. We compare its performance to raster scanning and TSS in terms of cellular sampling frequency and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Main Results. Using surrogate neuron spatial position data, we show that SSA acquisition rates are an order of magnitude higher than those for raster scanning and generally exceed those achieved by TSS for neural densities comparable with those found in the cortex. We show that this result also holds true for in vitro hippocampal mouse brain slices bath loaded with the synthetic calcium dye Cal-520 AM. The ability of TSS to ‘park’ the laser on each neuron along the scanning trajectory, however, enables higher SNR than SSA when all targets are precisely scanned. Raster scanning has the highest SNR but at a substantial cost in number of cells scanned. To understand the impact of sampling rate and SNR on functional calcium imaging, we used the Cramér-Rao Bound on evoked calcium traces recorded

  9. Duchenne muscular dystrophy models show their age

    OpenAIRE

    Chamberlain, Jeffrey S.

    2010-01-01

    The lack of appropriate animal models has hampered efforts to develop therapies for Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). A new mouse model lacking both dystrophin and telomerase (Sacco et al., 2010) closely mimics the pathological progression of human DMD and shows that muscle stem cell activity is a key determinant of disease severity.

  10. Show Them You Really Want the Job

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlmutter, David D.

    2012-01-01

    Showing that one really "wants" the job entails more than just really wanting the job. An interview is part Broadway casting call, part intellectual dating game, part personality test, and part, well, job interview. When there are 300 applicants for a position, many of them will "fit" the required (and even the preferred) skills listed in the job…

  11. A Talk Show from the Past.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Arlene F.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a two-day activity in which elementary students examine voting rights, the right to assemble, and women's suffrage. Explains the game, "Assemble, Reassemble," and a student-produced talk show with five students playing the roles of leaders of the women's suffrage movement. Profiles Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Lucretia Mott, Susan…

  12. Laser entertainment and light shows in education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabaratnam, Andrew T.; Symons, Charles

    2002-05-01

    Laser shows and beam effects have been a source of entertainment since its first public performance May 9, 1969, at Mills College in Oakland, California. Since 1997, the Photonics Center, NgeeAnn Polytechnic, Singapore, has been using laser shows as a teaching tool. Students are able to exhibit their creative skills and learn at the same time how lasers are used in the entertainment industry. Students will acquire a number of skills including handling three- phase power supply, operation of cooling system, and laser alignment. Students also acquire an appreciation of the arts, learning about shapes and contours as they develop graphics for the shows. After holography, laser show animation provides a combination of the arts and technology. This paper aims to briefly describe how a krypton-argon laser, galvanometer scanners, a polychromatic acousto-optic modulator and related electronics are put together to develop a laser projector. The paper also describes how students are trained to make their own laser animation and beam effects with music, and at the same time have an appreciation of the operation of a Class IV laser and the handling of optical components.

  13. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  14. CT-scanning of ancient Greenlandic Inuit temporal bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homoe, P.; Videbaek, H.

    1992-01-01

    Additional morphological evidence of former infectious middle ear disease (IMED) was found by CT-scanning in 5 of 6 Greenlandic Inuit crania strongly suspected for former IMED due to earlier examination revealing either bilateral hypocellularity or asymmetry of the pneumatized area of the temporal bones. The CT-scans showed sclerosing and obliteration of the air cells and even destruction of the cellular septae, and a high degree of irregularity of the cells. Sclerosing of the surrounding bone tissue was also found. The findings in one cranium were dubious and could both be regarded as a congenital malformation or an infection in infanthood. CT-scan confirms and even adds to the results of conventional X-ray of temporal bones making hypotheses of paleopathology more reliable. The findings also support the environmental theory of pneumatization of the air cell system in the temporal bones. (13 refs., 10 figs.)

  15. CT-scanning of ancient Greenlandic Inuit temporal bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homoe, P [Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark). Lab. of Biological Anthropology and Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery; Lynnerup, N [Copenhagen Univ., Lab. of Biological Anthropology and Univ. Inst. of Ferensic Medicine, Copenhagen (Denmark); Videbaek, H [Hvidovre Univ. Hospital, Copenhagen (Denmark). Dept. of Radiology

    1992-01-01

    Additional morphological evidence of former infectious middle ear disease (IMED) was found by CT-scanning in 5 of 6 Greenlandic Inuit crania strongly suspected for former IMED due to earlier examination revealing either bilateral hypocellularity or asymmetry of the pneumatized area of the temporal bones. The CT-scans showed sclerosing and obliteration of the air cells and even destruction of the cellular septae, and a high degree of irregularity of the cells. Sclerosing of the surrounding bone tissue was also found. The findings in one cranium were dubious and could both be regarded as a congenital malformation or an infection in infanthood. CT-scan confirms and even adds to the results of conventional X-ray of temporal bones making hypotheses of paleopathology more reliable. The findings also support the environmental theory of pneumatization of the air cell system in the temporal bones. (13 refs., 10 figs.).

  16. [Microinjection Monitoring System Design Applied to MRI Scanning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yongfeng

    2017-09-30

    A microinjection monitoring system applied to the MRI scanning was introduced. The micro camera probe was used to stretch into the main magnet for real-time video injection monitoring of injection tube terminal. The programming based on LabVIEW was created to analysis and process the real-time video information. The feedback signal was used for intelligent controlling of the modified injection pump. The real-time monitoring system can make the best use of injection under the condition that the injection device was away from the sample which inside the magnetic room and unvisible. 9.4 T MRI scanning experiment showed that the system in ultra-high field can work stability and doesn't affect the MRI scans.

  17. An Error Analysis of Structured Light Scanning of Biological Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; Wilm, Jakob; Aanæs, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an error analysis and correction model for four structured light methods applied to three common types of biological tissue; skin, fat and muscle. Despite its many advantages, structured light is based on the assumption of direct reflection at the object surface only......, statistical linear model based on the scan geometry. As such, scans can be corrected without introducing any specially designed pattern strategy or hardware. We can effectively reduce the error in a structured light scanner applied to biological tissue by as much as factor of two or three........ This assumption is violated by most biological material e.g. human skin, which exhibits subsurface scattering. In this study, we find that in general, structured light scans of biological tissue deviate significantly from the ground truth. We show that a large portion of this error can be predicted with a simple...

  18. Efficacy of brain scanning in epilepsy of late onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, A.N.; Ramanathan, P.; Ganatra, R.D.

    1978-01-01

    Brain scans of 513 patients with epilepsy of late onset were analysed with reference to the patient's age and sex and to the nature of convulsion. Only 17 of them showed an abnormal concentration of radionuclide indicating a space-occupying lesion in the brain. The findings of those patients who had positive brain scans were correlated with EEG findings. It was found that the incidence of epilepsy of late onset is almost 3 times higher in males than in females and that the age cannot be considered as a criterion for screening the patients for brain scan investigation as far as epilepsy of late onset is concerned. In the authors' opinion, the incidence of 3.3% is not too low. A positive brain scan finding calls for further investigation and helps in deciding the management and further line of treatment of the patients. Moreover, a normal scan rules out the presence of a space-occupying lesion and helps as a screening procedure. (orig.) 891 MG [de

  19. Nitrogen implantation with a scanning electron microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, S; Raatz, N; Jankuhn, St; John, R; Meijer, J

    2018-01-08

    Established techniques for ion implantation rely on technically advanced and costly machines like particle accelerators that only few research groups possess. We report here about a new and surprisingly simple ion implantation method that is based upon a widespread laboratory instrument: The scanning electron microscope. We show that it can be utilized to ionize atoms and molecules from the restgas by collisions with electrons of the beam and subsequently accelerate and implant them into an insulating sample by the effect of a potential building up at the sample surface. Our method is demonstrated by the implantation of nitrogen ions into diamond and their subsequent conversion to nitrogen vacancy centres which can be easily measured by fluorescence confocal microscopy. To provide evidence that the observed centres are truly generated in the way we describe, we supplied a 98% isotopically enriched 15 N gas to the chamber, whose natural abundance is very low. By employing the method of optically detected magnetic resonance, we were thus able to verify that the investigated centres are actually created from the 15 N isotopes. We also show that this method is compatible with lithography techniques using e-beam resist, as demonstrated by the implantation of lines using PMMA.

  20. Use of routine computed tomography brain scanning of psychiatry patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agzarian, M.J.; Chryssidis, S.; Davies, R.P.; Pozza, C.H.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of CT of the brain in patients presenting with a psychiatric condition without focal neurological signs. The reports of 397 consecutive CT brain scans of patients presenting to two acute tertiary hospital psychiatric services over a 2-year period were assessed retrospectively. Of the 397 patients, 241 had psychosis, 87 had depression, 44 had bipolar affective disorder, seven had alcohol dependence, five had dementia, and the remaining 13 had a variety of diagnoses including personality disorder and transient ischaemic attack. Findings on 377 (95%) of the CT scans showed no abnormality. Specific abnormalities were described in 20 (5%) of the CT scans. Three scans showed non-specific minor abnormalities, which, when followed up by MRI, showed no relevant abnormality. All the abnormalities shown on CT were considered to be clinically unrelated to the patient's psychiatric condition. In conclusion, the pretest probability of finding a space-occupying lesion or other pertinent abnormality in patients presenting with psychiatric illnesses in this retrospective study appears not to be greater than that of the general population. The outcome of this study could be implemented to develop a clinical pathway for limiting assessment by CT for possible organic pathology in acute psychiatric illness. Copyright (2006) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Tumor markers and bone scan in breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ugrinska, A.; Vaskova, O.; Kraleva, S.; Petrova, D.; Smickova, S.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this study was to compare the levels of CA15-3 and CEA with the bone scan findings in patients with breast cancer. Retrospective analysis of 76 bone scans from 61 patients diagnosed with breast cancer in the last 5 years was performed by two nuclear medicine specialists. All bone scans were performed after surgical treatment of the disease. Patients with loco-regional residual disease or distant metastases in the liver, lung or the brain were excluded from the study. According to the bone scan the patients were divided in 5 groups: normal bone scan (N), equivocal bone scan (E), single metastasis (1MS), three metastases (3MS) and multiple metastases (MMS). Tumor markers were determined within a month before or after the bone scan was performed. Cut-off value for CA 15-3 was 35 U/ml, and for CEA 3 ng/ml. Statistical analysis was performed using descriptive statistic and Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Bone metastases were revealed in 38% of the patients referred for bone scintigraphy out of which 26% had MMS, 7.8% had single MS and 4% had 3MS. The results of 6.5% of the patients were determined as equivocal. The values of CA15-3 were higher in all patient groups compared with the group that had normal bone scan, but this difference reached statistical significance only in groups with 3MS and MMS (p < 0.01). The values of CEA were significantly higher only in patients with multiple metastases when compared with group N (p < 0.01). Values higher than cut-off value for CA 15-3 was found in 9 patients out of 42 in the group with normal bone scan. The highest value of CA 15-3 in this group was 47 U/ml. Only one patient in this group showed elevated levels for CEA. Three patients in the group with single metastasis had normal CA 15-3, while CEA was elevated only in one patient. All patients in the group with 3MS had elevated levels of CA 15-3 while CEA was in the normal range. All patients with MMS had elevated CA 15-3 values while CEA was elevated in

  2. Diagnosis of pituitary adenoma by dynamic CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanabe, Sumiyoshi; Uede, Teiji; Daibo, Masahiko; Niwa, Jun; Hashi, Kazuo

    1988-01-01

    The advantage of high resolution CT in the diagnosis of pituitary microadenomas has been established, but the diagnosis becomes more difficult when the pituitary microadenoma is less than 5 mm in diameter. We have studied the usefulness of dynamic CT scans particularly for diagnosis of small microadenomas. The dynamic CT scans were performed for 61 normal pituitary glands and 68 pituitary adenomas (36 microadenomas, 32 macroadenomas) with a GECT/T 9800 scanner. Coronal sections of 1.5 mm thickness were taken at the plane just in front of the pituitary stalk of the pituitary gland. Following a bolus intra-venous injection of 40 - 60 ml of contrast media using an automatic injector, ten consecutive CT scans of 2 seconds scan time were obtained, beginning 2 seconds from the start of intravenous injection. The first seven scans were taken with an interval of 2.3 seconds, and the last three scans with an interval of 10 seconds. Then, time-density curves were obtained at the ROI which were set on the anterior pituitary gland, the vascular bed of the pituitary gland, the pituitary stalk and the area of the pituitary adenoma respectively. In a normal pituitary gland, the density increases gradually and makes an S shaped curve, then attains the maximum density value (92.3 CT number) approximately 60 seconds after the administration of contrast media. The pituitary vascular bed is located in midline on the upper surface of the pituitary gland, and shows a symmetrical square, triangular or rhomboid shape. In case of pituitary adenoma, the time-density curve makes a plateau curve and attains the maximum density value (60.1 CT number) approximately 60 seconds after the administration of contrast media. In microadenoma, the pituitary vascular bed is either deformed or compressed, showing an asymmetrical shape. (author)

  3. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  4. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  5. Automation of scanning technique by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamira, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    The gamma scan technique is a nuclear test allowing the analysis of the internal mechanical properties of distillation columns used in petrochemical industries. Such technique is performed manually. So we propose in this work to automate the gamma scan procedure test by using a PLC. In addition, supervision and data acquisition interfaces are proposed.

  6. Security scanning of Web sites at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    As of early 2010, the CERN Computer Security Team will start regular scanning of all Web sites and Web applications at CERN, visible on the Internet, or on the General Purpose Network (office network). The goal of this scanning is to improve the quality of CERN Web sites. All deficits found will be reported by e-mail to the relevant Web site owners, and must be fixed in a timely manner. Web site owners may also request one-off scans of their Web site or Web application, by sending an e-mail to Computer.Security@cern.ch. These Web scans are designed to limit the impact on the scanned Web sites. Nevertheless, in very rare cases scans may cause undesired side-effects, e.g. generate a large number of log entries, or cause particularly badly designed or less robust Web applications to crash. If a Web site is affected by these security scans, it will also be susceptible to any more aggressive scan that can be performed any time by a malicious attacker. Such Web applications should be fixed, and also additionally...

  7. A Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1995-01-01

    The Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer (SMRR) is a line scanner featuring a combined radar and radiometer system operating around 35 and 94 GHz. The layout of the SMRR is shown. The 2 offset antenna parabolas scan in synchronism, the receiver antenna has the highest gain in order to ensure...

  8. From Cooperative Scans to Predictive Buffer Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Switakowski; P.A. Boncz (Peter); M. Zukowski (Marcin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn analytical applications, database systems often need to sustain workloads with multiple concurrent scans hitting the same table. The Cooperative Scans (CScans) framework, which introduces an Active Buer Manager (ABM) component into the database architecture, has been the most

  9. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español ...

  10. Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houselt, Arie; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has revolutionized our ability to image, study, and manipulate solid surfaces on the size scale of atoms. One important limitation of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is, however, its poor time resolution. Recording a standard image with a STM typically takes

  11. Reality, ficción o show

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Ruíz Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Para tener un punto de vista claro y objetivo frente a la polémica establecida en torno al programa “Protagonistas de novela” y la tendiente proliferación de los reality show en las parrillas de programación de la televisión colombiana, se realizó un análisis de texto y contenido de dicho programa, intentando definirlo desde sus posibilidades de realidad, ficción y show. Las unidades de análisis y el estudio de su tratamiento arrojaron un alto contenido que gira en torno a las emociones del ser humano relacionadas con la convivencia, tratadas a manera de show y con algunos aportes textuales de ficción, pero sin su elemento mediador básico, el actor, quitándole toda la posibilidad de tener un tratamiento con la profundidad, distancia y ética que requieren los temas de esta índole. El resultado es un formato que sólo busca altos índices de sintonía y que pertenece más a la denominada televisión “trash”, que a una búsqueda de realidad del hombre y mucho menos de sociedad.

  12. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance (RS EPR) is a continuous-wave (CW) method that combines narrowband excitation and broadband detection. Sinusoidal magnetic field scans that span the entire EPR spectrum cause electron spin excitations twice during the scan period. Periodic transient RS signals are digitized and time-averaged. Deconvolution of absorption spectrum from the measured full-cycle signal is an ill-posed problem that does not have a stable solution because the magnetic field passes the same EPR line twice per sinusoidal scan during up- and down-field passages. As a result, RS signals consist of two contributions that need to be separated and postprocessed individually. Deconvolution of either of the contributions is a well-posed problem that has a stable solution. The current version of the RS EPR algorithm solves the separation problem by cutting the full-scan signal into two half-period pieces. This imposes a constraint on the experiment; the EPR signal must completely decay by the end of each half-scan in order to not be truncated. The constraint limits the maximum scan frequency and, therefore, the RS signal-to-noise gain. Faster scans permit the use of higher excitation powers without saturating the spin system, translating into a higher EPR sensitivity. A stable, full-scan algorithm is described in this paper that does not require truncation of the periodic response. This algorithm utilizes the additive property of linear systems: the response to a sum of two inputs is equal the sum of responses to each of the inputs separately. Based on this property, the mathematical model for CW RS EPR can be replaced by that of a sum of two independent full-cycle pulsed field-modulated experiments. In each of these experiments, the excitation power equals to zero during either up- or down-field scan. The full-cycle algorithm permits approaching the upper theoretical scan frequency limit; the transient spin system response must decay within the scan

  13. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  14. Diagnosis of Stomach Carcinoma by Radioisotope Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, P.; Meytes, E.; Sinkover, A.; Bank, H. [Tel-Hashomer Government Hospital, University of Tel Aviv School of Medicine (Israel)

    1969-05-15

    Scanning of the stomach after administration of {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc is presented. Experiments on 20 dogs were performed and 105 patients were examined. The studies with {sup 131}I are only mentioned briefly as they have been summarized in a previous publication and we have concentrated on our experience with {sup 99m}Tc and on stomach carcinoma. The turnover of the nuclide in blood, urine, gastric juice and gastric mucosa was tested: in-vivo and post-operative scannings were performed. The scans are classified in four groups. Carcinoma of the stomach results in space-occupying lesions or foggy scans. A correlation of 85 - 90% between scan results and clinical findings is noted. A special group of 10 volunteers was examined to establish the possibility of a screening examination for the detection of stomach cancer using the technique presented. (author)

  15. Significance of leukocyte scanning in infected endoprostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Pasurka, B.; Boerner, W.

    1989-03-01

    31 patients with suspected septic loosening of an endoprosthesis (hip endoprosthesis n=30; knee endoprosthesis n=1) were examined with leukocyte scans (10 MBq /sup 111/In-oxine: n=22; 300 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO: n=9). The results were compared with results of the bacterial growth (n=22), the histology (n=12) and of the bone scans (/sup 99m/Tc-MDP: n=20) which were performed within 4 days. The sensitivity of the bone scan was 100%, the specificity 30% and the diagnostic accuracy regarding a septic loosening of the arthroplasty was 55%. For the leukocyte scans a comparable sensitivity of 100%, but a higher specificity (86%) and accuracy (91%) could be calculated. A false positive leukocyte scan could be observed in a periprosthetic granuloma, an ossifying periarthritis and in a patient with negative bacterial growth with the histological proof of an inflammation.

  16. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  17. Mössbauer Magnetic Scan experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquevich, G.A., E-mail: gpasquev@fisica.unlp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, P.O. Box 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET, P.O. Box 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, P.O. Box 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Mendoza Zélis, P. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, P.O. Box 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET, P.O. Box 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, P.O. Box 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Lencina, A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, P.O. Box 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas (CONICET La Plata – CIC), P.O. Box 3, 1897 Gonnet (Argentina); Veiga, A. [Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET, P.O. Box 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, P.O. Box 91, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Fernández van Raap, M.B.; Sánchez, F.H. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, P.O. Box 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Física La Plata, CONICET, P.O. Box 67, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)

    2014-06-01

    We report an application of the Mössbauer Effect designed to retrieve specific information on the magnetic response of iron-containing materials. It consists in the measurement of the nuclear absorption of gamma-rays as a function of an external magnetic field for a specific nuclear transition between magnetically-split nuclear levels. The experiments, here termed Mössbauer Magnetic Scan experiments, were carried out recording the absorption of {sup 57}Fe 14.4 keV gamma-ray in α-Fe at constant Doppler energies coincident with some of the spectral lines of the magnetically split Mössbauer spectrum. Due to the dependence of the transition probabilities on the relative orientation between the nuclear magnetic moment and the gamma-ray direction, the present application results in a useful method to study the magnetic-field evolution of the distribution of atomic-magnetic-moment orientations. The proposed technique inherit from the Mössbauer Spectroscopy the chemical-element selectiveness as well as the ability to differentiate responses from iron atoms located at inequivalent site or at different phases. In this work, we show that the data analysis for these experiments depends on the sample thickness that the gamma-ray has to cross. For thin samples (i.e.samples with Mössbauer effective thicknesses lower than one) the magnetic-field dependence of the second-order-moment of the orientation distribution in the direction of the gamma ray is obtained. On the other hand, for thicker samples, although the data analysis is more complex, the dependences of the three second-order-moments of the orientation distribution are obtained. The experiments were performed on two α-Fe foils of different Mössbauer effective thicknesses. They were chosen to represent the cases of thin and thick Mössbauer absorbers. The magnetic evolution of the orientations distribution is compared with results obtained from magnetometric measurements showing a good agreement as well indicating

  18. Mössbauer Magnetic Scan experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquevich, G. A.; Mendoza Zélis, P.; Lencina, A.; Veiga, A.; Fernández van Raap, M. B.; Sánchez, F. H.

    2014-06-01

    We report an application of the Mössbauer Effect designed to retrieve specific information on the magnetic response of iron-containing materials. It consists in the measurement of the nuclear absorption of gamma-rays as a function of an external magnetic field for a specific nuclear transition between magnetically-split nuclear levels. The experiments, here termed Mössbauer Magnetic Scan experiments, were carried out recording the absorption of 57Fe 14.4 keV gamma-ray in α-Fe at constant Doppler energies coincident with some of the spectral lines of the magnetically split Mössbauer spectrum. Due to the dependence of the transition probabilities on the relative orientation between the nuclear magnetic moment and the gamma-ray direction, the present application results in a useful method to study the magnetic-field evolution of the distribution of atomic-magnetic-moment orientations. The proposed technique inherit from the Mössbauer Spectroscopy the chemical-element selectiveness as well as the ability to differentiate responses from iron atoms located at inequivalent site or at different phases. In this work, we show that the data analysis for these experiments depends on the sample thickness that the gamma-ray has to cross. For thin samples (i.e.samples with Mössbauer effective thicknesses lower than one) the magnetic-field dependence of the second-order-moment of the orientation distribution in the direction of the gamma ray is obtained. On the other hand, for thicker samples, although the data analysis is more complex, the dependences of the three second-order-moments of the orientation distribution are obtained. The experiments were performed on two α-Fe foils of different Mössbauer effective thicknesses. They were chosen to represent the cases of thin and thick Mössbauer absorbers. The magnetic evolution of the orientations distribution is compared with results obtained from magnetometric measurements showing a good agreement as well indicating the

  19. BENCHMARKING MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS USING A PERMANENT TEST FIELD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaartinen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to benchmark the geometric accuracy of mobile laser scanning (MLS systems using a permanent test field under good coverage of GNSS. Mobile laser scanning, also called mobile terrestrial laser scanning, is currently a rapidly developing area in laser scanning where laser scanners, GNSS and IMU are mounted onboard a moving vehicle. MLS can be considered to fill the gap between airborne and terrestrial laser scanning. Data provided by MLS systems can be characterized with the following technical parameters: a point density in the range of 100-1000 points per m2 at 10 m distance, b distance measurement accuracy of 2-5 cm, and c operational scanning range from 1 to 100 m. Several commercial, including e.g. Riegl, Optech and others, and some research mobile laser scanning systems surveyed the test field using predefined driving speed and directions. The acquired georeferenced point clouds were delivered for analyzing. The geometric accuracy of the point clouds was determined using the reference targets that could be identified and measured from the point cloud. Results show that in good GNSS conditions most systems can reach an accuracy of 2 cm both in plane and elevation. The accuracy of a low cost system, the price of which is less than tenth of the other systems, seems to be within a few centimetres at least in ground elevation determination. Inaccuracies in the relative orientation of the instruments lead to systematic errors and when several scanners are used, in multiple reproductions of the objects. Mobile laser scanning systems can collect high density point cloud data with high accuracy. A permanent test field suits well for verifying and comparing the performance of different mobile laser scanning systems. The accuracy of the relative orientation between the mapping instruments needs more attention. For example, if the object is seen double in the point cloud due to imperfect boresight calibration between two

  20. RubiShort: Reducing scan time in 82Rb heart scans to minimize movements artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jeppe; Vraa, Kaspar J.; Harms, Hans

    .013x, R2=0.98; %Reversible: y=1.008x, R2=0.95; TPD: y=1.000x, R2=0.99). Conclusion:, Scan time of myocardial perfusion scans using 82Rb can be reduced from 7 min. to 5 min. without loss of quantitative accuracy. Since patient motion is frequent in the last minutes of the scans, scan time reduction...

  1. Early clinical experience in CT scanning of the abdomen using a third generation scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Love, L.; Churchill, R.J.; Reynes, C.J.; Marsan, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    Five-second scanning offers an improvement over second generation scanners. There is no need for glucagon administration since there is virtually no objectionable artifact secondary to motion. Scans with the Photrax 4000 show resolution of structures such as gallbladder wall and renal fascia routinely. The anatomic structures visualized are more clearly identified than on second generation scans. Representative normal and pathological anatomy will be shown. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB [de

  2. Myopes show increased susceptibility to nearwork aftereffects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciuffreda, K J; Wallis, D M

    1998-09-01

    Some aspects of accommodation may be slightly abnormal (or different) in myopes, compared with accommodation in emmetropes and hyperopes. For example, the initial magnitude of accommodative adaptation in the dark after nearwork is greatest in myopes. However, the critical test is to assess this initial accommodative aftereffect and its subsequent decay in the light under more natural viewing conditions with blur-related visual feedback present, if a possible link between this phenomenon and clinical myopia is to be considered. Subjects consisted of adult late- (n = 11) and early-onset (n = 13) myopes, emmetropes (n = 11), and hyperopes (n = 9). The distance-refractive state was assessed objectively using an autorefractor immediately before and after a 10-minute binocular near task at 20 cm (5 diopters [D]). Group results showed that myopes were most susceptible to the nearwork aftereffect. It averaged 0.35 D in initial magnitude, with considerably faster posttask decay to baseline in the early-onset (35 seconds) versus late-onset (63 seconds) myopes. There was no myopic aftereffect in the remaining two refractive groups. The myopes showed particularly striking accommodatively related nearwork aftereffect susceptibility. As has been speculated and found by many others, transient pseudomyopia may cause or be a precursor to permanent myopia or myopic progression. Time-integrated increased retinal defocus causing axial elongation is proposed as a possible mechanism.

  3. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    -term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  4. Microbiological and environmental issues in show caves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo

    2012-07-01

    Cultural tourism expanded in the last half of the twentieth century, and the interest of visitors has come to include caves containing archaeological remains. Some show caves attracted mass tourism, and economical interests prevailed over conservation, which led to a deterioration of the subterranean environment and the rock art. The presence and the role of microorganisms in caves is a topic that is often ignored in cave management. Knowledge of the colonisation patterns, the dispersion mechanisms, and the effect on human health and, when present, over rock art paintings of these microorganisms is of the utmost importance. In this review the most recent advances in the study of microorganisms in caves are presented, together with the environmental implications of the findings.

  5. Assessment of myocardial perfusion using a new scanning agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, M.N

    1987-01-01

    This work assessed a new compound: Tc-99m tertiary butyl isonitrile (T-BIN) in scanning the normal myocardium in dogs. Experimentally induced myocardial infarcts (M.I.) were detected. The compound cleared significantly from the blood within 15 minutes and from the lungs within an hour after intravenous administration. Liver uptake was high and remained so. Cardiac uptake occurred quickly and continued for 6 hours. Comparable results were obtained in normal humans and patients. Myocardial scanning was best after 60 minutes at rest or 30 minutes after exercise. Liver uptake sometimes obscured the detection of inferior M.I. but this problem was reduced using a 45/sup 0/ left anterior oblique view with a 20/sup 0/ cranial tilt. At rest 9/10 patients with M.I. showed defects corresponding to the infarct sites. In 20 patients with angina pectoris 16 had perfusion defects on exercise. In 15/16 patients reversible ischaemia was demonstrated. The reperfusion scans were best obtained at 4 hours post exercise. Both Tl-201 and T-BIN detected equally the infarcts (3/3) but in patients with angina 8/10 with T-BIN and 6/10 with Tl-201 showed defects. ECG gating of the T-BIN scans was also studied.

  6. A negative bone scan leads to an unusual diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, L.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A bone scan looking for osteomyelitis or a more sinister pathology was performed on a 7-year-old boy with Von Willebrand''s disease. He presented with symptoms of pain in the left groin and a lump, although there had been no history of direct trauma, and an X-ray report stating that there was an irregular ill-defined area of bony destruction seen in the lower aspect of the left ischium. Blood pool images of the pelvis were acquired soon after an injection of MDP and three hours later a whole body bone scan was done. Results of the bone scan showed that the radiolucent lesion in the left ilium seen on the plain radiographs was not metabolically active on the technetium MDP study. Features compatible with a response to an intraosseous or sub-periosteal haematoma were seen when reviewing the original X-rays and, as there was a spontaneous resolution of the patient''s symptoms, this was considered to be the diagnosis. This study shows that a negative bone scan, which rules out an active bone lesion, is of value in making a diagnosis when used in conjunction with X-rays and a knowledge of the patient''s history

  7. FR4-Based Electromagnetic Scanning Micromirror Integrated with Angle Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Lei

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flame retardant 4 (FR4-based electromagnetic scanning micromirror, which aims to overcome the limitations of conventional microelectromechanical systems (MEMS micromirrors for the large-aperture and low-frequency scanning applications. This micromirror is fabricated through a commercial printed circuit board (PCB technology at a low cost and with a short process cycle, before an aluminum-coated silicon mirror plate with a large aperture is bonded on the FR4 platform to provide a high surface quality. In particular, an electromagnetic angle sensor is integrated to monitor the motion of the micromirror in real time. A prototype has been assembled and tested. The results show that the micromirror can reach the optical scan angle of 11.2 ∘ with a low driving voltage of only 425 mV at resonance (361.8 Hz. At the same time, the signal of the integrated angle sensor also shows good signal-to-noise ratio, linearity and sensitivity. Finally, the reliability of the FR4 based micro-mirror has been tested. The prototype successfully passes both shock and vibration tests. Furthermore, the results of the long-term mechanical cycling test (50 million cycles suggest that the maximum variations of resonant frequency and scan angle are less than 0.3% and 6%, respectively. Therefore, this simple and robust micromirror has great potential in being useful in a number of optical microsystems, especially when large-aperture or low-frequency is required.

  8. Volumetry of human taste buds using laser scanning microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Just, T; Srur, E; Stachs, O; Pau, H W

    2009-10-01

    In vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy is a relatively new, non-invasive method for assessment of oral cavity epithelia. The penetration depth of approximately 200-400 microm allows visualisation of fungiform papillae and their taste buds. This paper describes the technique of in vivo volumetry of human taste buds. Confocal laser scanning microscopy used a diode laser at 670 nm for illumination. Digital laser scanning confocal microscopy equipment consisted of the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph HRTII and the Rostock Cornea Module. Volume scans of fungiform papillae were used for three-dimensional reconstruction of the taste bud. This technique supplied information on taste bud structure and enabled measurement and calculation of taste bud volume. Volumetric data from a 23-year-old man over a nine-day period showed only a small deviation in values. After three to four weeks, phenomenological changes in taste bud structures were found (i.e. a significant increase in volume, followed by disappearance of the taste bud and appearance of a new taste bud). The data obtained indicate the potential application of this non-invasive imaging modality: to evaluate variation of taste bud volume in human fungiform papillae with ageing; to study the effects of chorda tympani nerve transection on taste bud volume; and to demonstrate recovery of taste buds in patients with a severed chorda tympani nerve who show recovery of gustatory sensibility after surgery.

  9. Precursor and Neutral Loss Scans in an RF Scanning Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Szalwinski, Lucas J.; Schrader, Robert L.; Pirro, Valentina; Hilger, Ryan; Cooks, R. Graham

    2018-03-01

    Methodology for performing precursor and neutral loss scans in an RF scanning linear quadrupole ion trap is described and compared to the unconventional ac frequency scan technique. In the RF scanning variant, precursor ions are mass selectively excited by a fixed frequency resonance excitation signal at low Mathieu q while the RF amplitude is ramped linearly to pass ions through the point of excitation such that the excited ion's m/z varies linearly with time. Ironically, a nonlinear ac frequency scan is still required for ejection of the product ions since their frequencies vary nonlinearly with the linearly varying RF amplitude. In the case of the precursor scan, the ejection frequency must be scanned so that it is fixed on a product ion m/z throughout the RF scan, whereas in the neutral loss scan, it must be scanned to maintain a constant mass offset from the excited precursor ions. Both simultaneous and sequential permutation scans are possible; only the former are demonstrated here. The scans described are performed on a variety of samples using different ionization sources: protonated amphetamine ions generated by nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI), explosives ionized by low-temperature plasma (LTP), and chemical warfare agent simulants sampled from a surface and analyzed with swab touch spray (TS). We lastly conclude that the ac frequency scan variant of these MS/MS scans is preferred due to electronic simplicity. In an accompanying manuscript, we thus describe the implementation of orthogonal double resonance precursor and neutral loss scans on the Mini 12 using constant RF voltage. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Novel scanning probe microscope instrumentation with applications in nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphry, M.J.

    2000-10-01

    A versatile scanning probe microscope controller has been constructed. Its suitability for the control of a range of different scanning probe microscope heads has been demonstrated. These include an ultra high vacuum scanning tunnelling microscope, with which atomic resolution images of Si surfaces was obtained, a custom-built atomic force microscope, and a custom-built photon emission scanning tunnelling microscope. The controller has been designed specifically to facilitate data acquisition during molecular manipulation experiments. Using the controller, the fullerene molecule C 60 has been successfully manipulated on Si(100)-2x1 surfaces and detailed data has been acquired during the manipulation process. Evidence for two distinct modes of manipulation have been observed. A repulsive mode with success rates up to 90% was found to occur with tunnel gap impedances below 2GΩ, while between 2GΩ and 8GΩ attractive manipulation events were observed, with a maximum success rate of ∼8%. It was also found that the step size between feedback updates had a significant effect on tip stability, and that dwell time of the STM tip at each data point had a critical effect on manipulation probability. A multi-function scanning probe microscope head has been developed capable of operation as a scanning tunnelling microscope and an atomic force microscope in vacuum and a magnetic field of 7T. The custom-built controller also presented here was used to control the head. A three-axis inertial sliding motor was developed for the head, capable of reproducible step sizes of <1000A. In addition, an optical fibre interferometer was constructed with a sensitivity of 0.2A/√Hz. Preliminary development of a magnetic resonance force microscope mode has also been performed, with initial results showing such a system to be feasible. (author)

  11. The Usefulness of Bone Scan in Electric Burns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae Hyung; So, Yong Seon; Kweon, Ki Hyeon; Han, Sang Woong; Kim, Seok Hwan; Kim, Jong Soon; Han, Seung Soo

    1996-01-01

    Bone scan is known to be an effective tool for observing the state of soft tissues and bones of electric burn patients. It is also used for observing the progress of patients after debridement or skin graft as well as determining to amputate specific body parts. To evaluate bone scan's role in electric burn, we analyzed bone scan 37 patients with electric burn. Among the 37 patients, 8 of 37 were injured in low voltage and 29 of them in high voltage. 27 patients received the electrical input through the hand, 6 through the scalp, 2 through the shoulder, 1 through the left chest wall and 1 through the left inguinal area. Among 29 patients received high voltage, 22 patients had the electrical output through the foot, 3 through the hand, 2 through the shoulder, 1 through the buttock and 1 through the left chest wall. Bone scans revealed cellulitis in 37 patients with 47 sites, osteomyelitis in 15 patients with 15 sites and bone defects in 4 patients with 4 sites. In 4 patients with skin graft or skin flap, follow up bone scan showed improvements of bony uptake in preoperatively bony defect area and all of them were healed without complication There were 2 cases in which uptake increased in the myocardium, 1 in the liver and 6 in the kidney, however, scrum calcium level, EKG, cardiac enzyme, liver and renal function tests were normal. In conclusion, bone scans are helpful in the assessment of injury sites after electrical insult and in differential diagnosis of cellulitis and osteomyelitis. It is also useful tool of assessment after skin graft or skin flap, however, it should be further evaluated about internal organ damage.

  12. The Usefulness of Bone Scan in Electric Burns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Hyung; So, Yong Seon; Kweon, Ki Hyeon; Han, Sang Woong; Kim, Seok Hwan; Kim, Jong Soon; Han, Seung Soo [Hanil Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-15

    Bone scan is known to be an effective tool for observing the state of soft tissues and bones of electric burn patients. It is also used for observing the progress of patients after debridement or skin graft as well as determining to amputate specific body parts. To evaluate bone scan's role in electric burn, we analyzed bone scan 37 patients with electric burn. Among the 37 patients, 8 of 37 were injured in low voltage and 29 of them in high voltage. 27 patients received the electrical input through the hand, 6 through the scalp, 2 through the shoulder, 1 through the left chest wall and 1 through the left inguinal area. Among 29 patients received high voltage, 22 patients had the electrical output through the foot, 3 through the hand, 2 through the shoulder, 1 through the buttock and 1 through the left chest wall. Bone scans revealed cellulitis in 37 patients with 47 sites, osteomyelitis in 15 patients with 15 sites and bone defects in 4 patients with 4 sites. In 4 patients with skin graft or skin flap, follow up bone scan showed improvements of bony uptake in preoperatively bony defect area and all of them were healed without complication There were 2 cases in which uptake increased in the myocardium, 1 in the liver and 6 in the kidney, however, scrum calcium level, EKG, cardiac enzyme, liver and renal function tests were normal. In conclusion, bone scans are helpful in the assessment of injury sites after electrical insult and in differential diagnosis of cellulitis and osteomyelitis. It is also useful tool of assessment after skin graft or skin flap, however, it should be further evaluated about internal organ damage.

  13. Dental Wear: A Scanning Electron Microscope Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Levrini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dental wear can be differentiated into different types on the basis of morphological and etiological factors. The present research was carried out on twelve extracted human teeth with dental wear (three teeth showing each type of wear: erosion, attrition, abrasion, and abfraction studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The study aimed, through analysis of the macro- and micromorphological features of the lesions (considering the enamel, dentin, enamel prisms, dentinal tubules, and pulp, to clarify the different clinical and diagnostic presentations of dental wear and their possible significance. Our results, which confirm current knowledge, provide a complete overview of the distinctive morphology of each lesion type. It is important to identify the type of dental wear lesion in order to recognize the contributing etiological factors and, consequently, identify other more complex, nondental disorders (such as gastroesophageal reflux, eating disorders. It is clear that each type of lesion has a specific morphology and mechanism, and further clinical studies are needed to clarify the etiological processes, particularly those underlying the onset of abfraction.

  14. Elemental mapping in scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, L J; D'Alfonso, A J; Lugg, N R; Findlay, S D; LeBeau, J M; Stemmer, S

    2010-01-01

    We discuss atomic resolution chemical mapping in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) based on core-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and also on energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) imaging. Chemical mapping using EELS can yield counterintuitive results which, however, can be understood using first principles calculations. Experimental chemical maps based on EDX bear out the thesis that such maps are always likely to be directly interpretable. This can be explained in terms of the local nature of the effective optical potential for ionization under those imaging conditions. This is followed by an excursion into the complementary technique of elemental mapping using energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) in a conventional transmission electron microscope. We will then consider the widely used technique of Z-contrast or high-angle annular dark field (HAADF) imaging, which is based on phonon excitation, where it has recently been shown that intensity variations can be placed on an absolute scale by normalizing the measured intensities to the incident beam. Results, showing excellent agreement between theory and experiment to within a few percent, are shown for Z-contrast imaging from a sample of PbWO 4 .

  15. Video-rate resonant scanning multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkpatrick, Nathaniel D.; Chung, Euiheon; Cook, Daniel C.; Han, Xiaoxing; Gruionu, Gabriel; Liao, Shan; Munn, Lance L.; Padera, Timothy P.; Fukumura, Dai; Jain, Rakesh K.

    2013-01-01

    The abnormal tumor microenvironment fuels tumor progression, metastasis, immune suppression, and treatment resistance. Over last several decades, developments in and applications of intravital microscopy have provided unprecedented insights into the dynamics of the tumor microenvironment. In particular, intravital multiphoton microscopy has revealed the abnormal structure and function of tumor-associated blood and lymphatic vessels, the role of aberrant tumor matrix in drug delivery, invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, the dynamics of immune cell trafficking to and within tumors, and gene expression in tumors. However, traditional multiphoton microscopy suffers from inherently slow imaging rates—only a few frames per second, thus unable to capture more rapid events such as blood flow, lymphatic flow, and cell movement within vessels. Here, we report the development and implementation of a video-rate multiphoton microscope (VR-MPLSM) based on resonant galvanometer mirror scanning that is capable of recording at 30 frames per second and acquiring intravital multispectral images. We show that the design of the system can be readily implemented and is adaptable to various experimental models. As examples, we demonstrate the utility of the system to directly measure flow within tumors, capture metastatic cancer cells moving within the brain vasculature and cells in lymphatic vessels, and image acute responses to changes in a vascular network. VR-MPLSM thus has the potential to further advance intravital imaging and provide new insight into the biology of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:24353926

  16. Scanning probe methods applied to molecular electronics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavlicek, Niko

    2013-08-01

    Scanning probe methods on insulating films offer a rich toolbox to study electronic, structural and spin properties of individual molecules. This work discusses three issues in the field of molecular and organic electronics. An STM head to be operated in high magnetic fields has been designed and built up. The STM head is very compact and rigid relying on a robust coarse approach mechanism. This will facilitate investigations of the spin properties of individual molecules in the future. Combined STM/AFM studies revealed a reversible molecular switch based on two stable configurations of DBTH molecules on ultrathin NaCl films. AFM experiments visualize the molecular structure in both states. Our experiments allowed to unambiguously determine the pathway of the switch. Finally, tunneling into and out of the frontier molecular orbitals of pentacene molecules has been investigated on different insulating films. These experiments show that the local symmetry of initial and final electron wave function are decisive for the ratio between elastic and vibration-assisted tunneling. The results can be generalized to electron transport in organic materials.

  17. A dark mode in scanning thermal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramiandrisoa, Liana; Allard, Alexandre; Joumani, Youssef; Hay, Bruno; Gomés, Séverine

    2017-12-01

    The need for high lateral spatial resolution in thermal science using Scanning Thermal Microscopy (SThM) has pushed researchers to look for more and more tiny probes. SThM probes have consequently become more and more sensitive to the size effects that occur within the probe, the sample, and their interaction. Reducing the tip furthermore induces very small heat flux exchanged between the probe and the sample. The measurement of this flux, which is exploited to characterize the sample thermal properties, requires then an accurate thermal management of the probe-sample system and to reduce any phenomenon parasitic to this system. Classical experimental methodologies must then be constantly questioned to hope for relevant and interpretable results. In this paper, we demonstrate and estimate the influence of the laser of the optical force detection system used in the common SThM setup that is based on atomic-force microscopy equipment on SThM measurements. We highlight the bias induced by the overheating due to the laser illumination on the measurements performed by thermoresistive probes (palladium probe from Kelvin Nanotechnology). To face this issue, we propose a new experimental procedure based on a metrological approach of the measurement: a SThM "dark mode." The comparison with the classical procedure using the laser shows that errors between 14% and 37% can be reached on the experimental data exploited to determine the heat flux transferred from the hot probe to the sample.

  18. NASA GIBS Use in Live Planetarium Shows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmart, C. B.

    2015-12-01

    The American Museum of Natural History's Hayden Planetarium was rebuilt in year 2000 as an immersive theater for scientific data visualization to show the universe in context to our planet. Specific astrophysical movie productions provide the main daily programming, but interactive control software, developed at AMNH allows immersive presentation within a data aggregation of astronomical catalogs called the Digital Universe 3D Atlas. Since 2006, WMS globe browsing capabilities have been built into a software development collaboration with Sweden's Linkoping University (LiU). The resulting Uniview software, now a product of the company SCISS, is operated by about fifty planetariums around that world with ability to network amongst the sites for global presentations. Public presentation of NASA GIBS has allowed authoritative narratives to be presented within the range of data available in context to other sources such as Science on a Sphere, NASA Earth Observatory and Google Earth KML resources. Specifically, the NOAA supported World Views Network conducted a series of presentations across the US that focused on local ecological issues that could then be expanded in the course of presentation to national and global scales of examination. NASA support of for GIBS resources in an easy access multi scale streaming format like WMS has tremendously enabled particularly facile presentations of global monitoring like never before. Global networking of theaters for distributed presentations broadens out the potential for impact of this medium. Archiving and refinement of these presentations has already begun to inform new types of documentary productions that examine pertinent, global interdependency topics.

  19. Bone scanning in patients with breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Nishi, T.; Hirose, T.; Schichijo, Y.; Ibukuro, K.

    1985-01-01

    Skeletal imaging using radionuclides has proved to be a sensitive method for the detection of early bony metastases from breast carcinoma. Recent studies have found a relatively low rate of abnormal scans in patients with stage I and II breast cancers, and therefore it is open to question whether bone scanning should be part of the preoperative evaluation of any patient prior to breast surgery. We reviewed our experience with bone scans in 329 patients out of 406 histologically proven breast cancer patients to determine if any or all patients should have this procedure done routinely prior to breast surgery. (orig.) [de

  20. Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandian, M.H.; Mortazavi, H.; Behvad, A.; Haghigat, H.; Lessani, M.; Youssefian, B.

    1979-01-01

    Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatrics patients as follow: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 7 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases, and other different diseases 9 cases [fr

  1. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Eirini, Liodaki; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Emmanouil, Liodakis; Papadopoulos, Othonas; Othonas, Papadopoulos; Machens, Hans-Günther; Hans-Günther, Machens; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Nikolaos, Papadopulos A

    2012-02-01

    In this report we highlight the use of PET scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge.

  2. Gamma scanning of the irradiated HANARO fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, K. S.; Park, D. G.; Baik, S. Y.; Song, W. S.; Kim, T. Y.; Seo, C. K.

    1997-02-01

    To conform the burnup state of the fuels, we have transported the irradiated HANARO fuels from the reactor to IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility), and executed gamma scanning for the fuels. By measuring the gamma-rays from the irradiated fuels we could see the features of the relative burnup distributions in the fuel bundles. All of 17 fuel bundles were taken in and out between HANARO and IMEF from March till August in 1996, and we carried out the related regulations. Longitudinal gamma scanning and angular gamma scanning are done for each fuel bundle without dismantlement of the bundles. (author). 5 tabs., 25 figs

  3. Confocal scanning microscope for nuclear photoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, Yu.S.; Soroko, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the confocal scanning microscope to the objects in the nuclear photoemulsion is described. An array of 27 microtomograms of single silver grain is shown. The cross sections of the same particle track of diameter 1 μm, detected by means of the confocal scanning microscope with open and annular apertures, are presented. It was shown that the confocal scanning microscope opens indeed new opportunities for the nuclear photoemulsion technique to get previously inaccessible information for physics of the short-living particles

  4. The usefulness of measurement of whole body count in assessing bone marrow metastasis in cancer patients with increased periarticular bone uptake on follow-up bone scan: a comparison with bone marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Seong Chan; Choi, Yun Young; Cho, Suk Shin

    2003-01-01

    Increased periarticular uptake could be associated with peripheral bone marrow expansion in cancer patients with axial bone marrow metastasis. We compared bone scan and bone marrow scan to investigate whether the increased whole body count in patients with increased periarticular uptake on bone scan is useful in the diagnosis of axial marrow metastasis, and evaluate the role of additional bone marrow scan in these cases. Twelve patients with malignant diseases who showed increased periarticular uptake on bone scan were included. Whole body count was measured on bone scan and it is considered to be increased when the count is more than twice of other patients. Bone marrow scan was taken within 3-7 days. Five hematologic malignancy, 3 stomach cancer, 2 breast cancer, 1 prostate cancer and 1 lung canner were included. All three patients with increased whole body count on bone scan showed axial marrow suppression and peripheral marrow expansion. Eight of 9 patients without increased whole body count showed axial marrow suppression and peripheral marrow expansion. One turned out to be blastic crisis of chronic myelogeneous leukemia, and seven showed normal axial marrow with peripheral marrow expansion in chronic anemia of malignancy. The last one without increased whole body count showed normal bone marrow scan finding. Increased whole body count on bone scan could be a clue to axial bone marrow metastasis in cancer patients with increased periarticular uptake, and bone marrow scan is a valuable method for differential diagnosis in these cases

  5. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Guo, Tengfei; Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Jing; Meng, Wenjie; Lu, Qingyou

    2017-01-01

    A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans) coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan). They are fixed at one end (called common end). A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY -scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  6. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan. They are fixed at one end (called common end. A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY-scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  7. The utility of repeat sestamibi scans in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after an initial negative scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vikram D; Sound, Sara; Okoh, Alexis K; Yazici, Pinar; Yigitbas, Hakan; Neumann, Donald; Doshi, Krupa; Berber, Eren

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed the utility of repeated sestambi scans in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and its effects on operative referral. We carried out a retrospective review of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent repeated sestambi scans exclusively within our health system between 1996-2015. Patient demographic, presentation, laboratory, imaging, operative, and pathologic data were reviewed. Univariate analysis with JMP Pro v12 was used to identify factors associated with conversion from an initial negative to a subsequent positive scan. After exclusion criteria (including reoperations), we identified 49 patients in whom 59% (n = 29) of subsequent scans remained negative and 41% (n = 20) converted to positive. Factors associated with an initial negative to a subsequent positive scan included classic presentation and second scans with iodine subtraction (P = .04). Nonsurgeons were less likely to order an iodine-subtraction scan (P < .05). Fewer patients with negative imaging were referred to surgery (33% vs 100%, P = .005), and median time to operation after the first negative scan was 25 months (range 1.4-119). Surgeon-performed ultrasonography had greater sensitivity and positive predictive value than repeated sestamibi scans. Negative sestambi scans decreased and delayed operative referral. Consequently, we identified several process improvement initiatives, including education regarding superior institutional imaging. Combining all findings, we created an algorithm for evaluating patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after initially negative sestamibi scans, which incorporates surgeon-performed ultrasonography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Geoscience is Important? Show Me Why

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, M. A.

    2017-12-01

    "The public" is not homogenous and no single message or form of messaging will connect the entire public with the geosciences. One approach to promoting trust in, and engagement with, the geosciences is to identify specific sectors of the public and then develop interactions and communication products that are immediately relevant to that sector's interests. If the content and delivery are appropriate, this approach empowers people to connect with the geosciences on their own terms and to understand the relevance of the geosciences to their own situation. Federal policy makers are a distinct and influential subgroup of the general public. In preparation for the 2016 presidential election, the American Geosciences Institute (AGI) in collaboration with its 51 member societies prepared Geoscience for America's Critical Needs: Invitation to a National Dialogue, a document that identified major geoscience policy issues that should be addressed in a national policy platform. Following the election, AGI worked with eight other geoscience societies to develop Geoscience Policy Recommendations for the New Administration and the 115th Congress, which outlines specific policy actions to address national issues. State and local decision makers are another important subgroup of the public. AGI has developed online content, factsheets, and case studies with different levels of technical complexity so people can explore societally-relevant geoscience topics at their level of technical proficiency. A related webinar series is attracting a growing worldwide audience from many employment sectors. Partnering with government agencies and other scientific and professional societies has increased the visibility and credibility of these information products with our target audience. Surveys and other feedback show that these products are raising awareness of the geosciences and helping to build reciprocal relationships between geoscientists and decision makers. The core message of all

  9. Bacteriophages show promise as antimicrobial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alisky, J; Iczkowski, K; Rapoport, A; Troitsky, N

    1998-01-01

    The emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria has prompted interest in alternatives to conventional drugs. One possible option is to use bacteriophages (phage) as antimicrobial agents. We have conducted a literature review of all Medline citations from 1966-1996 that dealt with the therapeutic use of phage. There were 27 papers from Poland, the Soviet Union, Britain and the U.S.A. The Polish and Soviets administered phage orally, topically or systemically to treat a wide variety of antibiotic-resistant pathogens in both adults and children. Infections included suppurative wound infections, gastroenteritis, sepsis, osteomyelitis, dermatitis, empyemas and pneumonia; pathogens included Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Klebsiella, Escherichia, Proteus, Pseudomonas, Shigella and Salmonella spp. Overall, the Polish and Soviets reported success rates of 80-95% for phage therapy, with rare, reversible gastrointestinal or allergic side effects. However, efficacy of phage was determined almost exclusively by qualitative clinical assessment of patients, and details of dosages and clinical criteria were very sketchy. There were also six British reports describing controlled trials of phage in animal models (mice, guinea pigs and livestock), measuring survival rates and other objective criteria. All of the British studies raised phage against specific pathogens then used to create experimental infections. Demonstrable efficacy against Escherichia, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus spp. was noted in these model systems. Two U.S. papers dealt with improving the bioavailability of phage. Phage is sequestered in the spleen and removed from circulation. This can be overcome by serial passage of phage through mice to isolate mutants that resist sequestration. In conclusion, bacteriophages may show promise for treating antibiotic resistant pathogens. To facilitate further progress, directions for future research are discussed and a directory of authors from the reviewed

  10. Scanning transmission ion microscopy of polycarbonate nanocapillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal, G.A.B.; Rajta, I.; Szilasi, S.Z.; Juhasz, Z.; Biri, S.; Csik, A.; Sulik, B.; Cserhati, Cs.

    2011-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. Nanochanneled materials are of a great interest due to their peculiar properties and high potential impact for the fabrication of nanostructures and nanodevices. Polycarbonate membranes are produced by heavy ion irradiation followed by chemical etching of the ion tracks. The irradiation parameters determine the porosity (areal density of the capillaries) and angular spread, while the channel diameters and shapes depend on the chemical process parameters. Such polycarbonate (and other materials) membranes are commercially available from a few manufacturers. The primary use of the filters involves packaging and filtering applications. Moreover, they are used for collecting atmospheric aerosols for environmental research. The nanocapillaries formed in membranes are particularly suitable for ion and electron guiding studies of a recently discovered, but not yet completely understood capillary guiding phenomenon. This interesting guiding effect is very promising for patterning by parallel writing with ions and/or electrons through masks. In order to get a better understanding of this phenomenon, we need a better characterization of the capillaries themselves. This study is addressing the angular distribution of the nanochannels in the polycarbonate filters by using a nuclear microprobe facility and the method of scanning transmission ion microscopy (STIM). The STIM experiments in this work have been performed at ATOMKI. The proton energy was 2 MeV, the beam intensity was about 1000 protons s -1 , the beam spot size was about 1 x 1 μm, the scan size was 100 x 100 μm and the beam divergence was smaller than 0.07 deg. A scanning electron microscope (SEM, Hitachi S4300 CFE) was used to measure the capillary diameters and the membrane porosity. The sample thickness was determined by a profilometer (AMBIOS XP-I). We have investigated two different pieces of Millipore Isopore TM samples. A typical SEM image showed several overlapping

  11. Role of Postmortem Multislice Computed Tomography Scan in Close Blunt Head Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prijo Sidipratomo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Conventional autopsy in Indonesia is not well accepted as it is contrary to religion and culture. New radiological imaging method such as multislice computed tomography (MSCT scan has potential to be a diagnostic tool in forensic pathology. The purpose of this study is to determine the ability of MSCT scan in finding abnormalities in close blunt head injury compared with autopsy. METHODS: This study used descriptive qualitative method. Postmortem cases in Department of Forensic Medicine and Radiology of Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital were selected based on inclusion criteria. Then MSCT scan and autopsy were conducted. MSCT scan and autopsy results were compared and analyzed. RESULTS: There were 491 postmortem cases of blunt head injury. However, only 10 cases fulfilled inclusion criteria. Subarachnoid haemorrhages were identified 100% with MSCT scan and 80% with autopsy. Cerebral oedemas were identified 100% either with MSCT scan and autopsy. Subdural haemorrhages were identified 100% with MSCT scan, while 50% with autopsy. Multiple fractures were identified 80% with MSCT scan, while 40% with auto. CONCLUSIONS: MSCT scan showed a sensitive detection in finding abnormalities in close blunt head injury. Therefore it could be as an alternative choice of examination in close blunt head injury cases. KEYWORDS: multislice computed tomography scan, postmortem, blunt head injury, autopsy.

  12. Transverse scan-field imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, F.T.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of an array of opposed pairs of radiation detectors which could be used in tomography or scintiscanning. The opposed detectors scan in opposite tangential directions in a pre-programmed fashion. The associated control system receives the detector outputs into a buffer store and also provides an address for each element of information detected. The addresses are such that information from one buffer store is read into the RAM of a central processing unit in the opposite direction to that from the store associated with the opposite detector, thus effectively reversing the scan direction of one detector of each pair. Also described are the detectors themselves with focussed collimators, the scan drive mechanism, and the method of calculating radioactive emission intensity at discrete points throughout the scan-field. (author)

  13. Technical errors in planar bone scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Sleiman Y; Collier, B David; Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Khalil, Magdy M

    2004-09-01

    Optimal technique for planar bone scanning improves image quality, which in turn improves diagnostic efficacy. Because planar bone scanning is one of the most frequently performed nuclear medicine examinations, maintaining high standards for this examination is a daily concern for most nuclear medicine departments. Although some problems such as patient motion are frequently encountered, the degraded images produced by many other deviations from optimal technique are rarely seen in clinical practice and therefore may be difficult to recognize. The objectives of this article are to list optimal techniques for 3-phase and whole-body bone scanning, to describe and illustrate a selection of deviations from these optimal techniques for planar bone scanning, and to explain how to minimize or avoid such technical errors.

  14. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & ... stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means a scanner takes computer pictures of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself ...

  15. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, I.-H.; Lee, T.-H.; Yin, G.-C.; Wei, D.-H.; Juang, J.-M.; Dann, T.-E.; Klauser, R.; Chuang, T. J.; Chen, C. T.; Tsang, K.-L.

    2001-07-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed.

  16. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, I.-H.; Lee, T.-H.; Yin, G.-C.; Wei, D.-H.; Juang, J.-M.; Dann, T.-E.; Klauser, R.; Chuang, T.J.; Chen, C.T.; Tsang, K.-L.

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed

  17. Minimising medically unwarranted computed tomography scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    As computed tomography (CT) is such a superb diagnostic tool and individual CT risks are small, whenever a CT scan is clinically warranted, the CT benefit/risk balance is by far in the patient’s favour. However, if a CT scan is not clinically warranted, this balance shifts dramatically. It is likely that at least 25% of CT scans fall into this latter category, in that they could either be replaced with alternative imaging modalities or could be avoided entirely. Use of clinical decision rules for CT usage represents a powerful approach for slowing down the increase in CT usage, because they have the potential to overcome some of the major factors that result in some CT scans being undertaken when they may not be clinically helpful.

  18. Laser scanning of experimental solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, B. C.; Lasswell, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a laser scanning instrument which makes it possible to display and measure the spatial response of a solar cell. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of generated micrographs in the isolation of flaws and features of the cell. The laser scanner system uses a 4 mW, CW helium-neon laser, operating a wavelength of 0.633 micrometers. The beam is deflected by two mirror galvanometers arranged to scan in orthogonal directions. After being focused on the solar cell by the beam focusing lens, the moving light spot raster scans the specimen. The current output of the photovoltaic device under test, as a function of the scan dot position, can be displayed in several modes. The laser scanner has proved to be a very useful diagnostic tool in optimizing the process design of transparent metal film photovoltaic devices on Zn3P2, a relatively new photovoltaic material.

  19. Electron Beam Scanning in Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Yves; Herer, Arnold

    1996-05-01

    Scanned electron beams are used within many industries for applications such as sterilization of medical disposables, crosslinking of wire and cables insulating jackets, polymerization and degradation of resins and biomaterials, modification of semiconductors, coloration of gemstones and glasses, removal of oxides from coal plant flue gasses, and the curing of advanced composites and other molded forms. X-rays generated from scanned electron beams make yet other applications, such as food irradiation, viable. Typical accelerators for these applications range in beam energy from 0.5MeV to 10 MeV, with beam powers between 5 to 500kW and scanning widths between 20 and 300 cm. Since precise control of dose delivery is required in many of these applications, the integration of beam characteristics, product conveyance, and beam scanning mechanisms must be well understood and optimized. Fundamental issues and some case examples are presented.

  20. Multicolor Scanning Laser Imaging in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad S Z; Carrim, Zia Iqbal

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common cause of blindness in individuals younger than 60 years. Screening for retinopathy is undertaken using conventional color fundus photography and relies on the identification of hemorrhages, vascular abnormalities, exudates, and cotton-wool spots. These can sometimes be difficult to identify. Multicolor scanning laser imaging, a new imaging modality, may have a role in improving screening outcomes, as well as facilitating treatment decisions. Observational case series comprising two patients with known diabetes who were referred for further examination after color fundus photography revealed abnormal findings. Multicolor scanning laser imaging was undertaken. Features of retinal disease from each modality were compared. Multicolor scanning laser imaging provides superior visualization of retinal anatomy and pathology, thereby facilitating risk stratification and treatment decisions. Multicolor scanning laser imaging is a novel imaging technique offering the potential for improving the reliability of screening for diabetic retinopathy. Validation studies are warranted.

  1. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, I H; Yin, G C; Wei, D H; Juang, J M; Dann, T E; Klauser, R; Chuang, T J; Chen, C T; Tsang, K L

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed.

  2. Scanning probe lithography for nanoimprinting mould fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Gang; Xie Guoyong; Zhang Yongyi; Zhang Guoming; Zhang Yingying; Carlberg, Patrick; Zhu Tao; Liu Zhongfan

    2006-01-01

    We propose a rational fabrication method for nanoimprinting moulds by scanning probe lithography. By wet chemical etching, different kinds of moulds are realized on Si(110) and Si(100) surfaces according to the Si crystalline orientation. The structures have line widths of about 200 nm with a high aspect ratio. By reactive ion etching, moulds with patterns free from the limitation of Si crystalline orientation are also obtained. With closed-loop scan control of a scanning probe microscope, the length of patterned lines is more than 100 μm by integrating several steps of patterning. The fabrication process is optimized in order to produce a mould pattern with a line width about 10 nm. The structures on the mould are further duplicated into PMMA resists through the nanoimprinting process. The method of combining scanning probe lithography with wet chemical etching or reactive ion etching (RIE) provides a resistless route for the fabrication of nanoimprinting moulds

  3. Study of 67Ga scan in sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lijun; Qu Wanyin; Liu Xiuqin

    1997-01-01

    Gallium scan and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme assay (SACE) were compared in patients with sarcoidosis. The examination of 67 Ga scan, SACE determination, pulmonary function test, chest CT and chest X-ray in 24 cases with sarcoidosis were studied. The results revealed that 4 of 24 cases had obviously high uptake of 67 Ga exceeding hepatic activity (3+) in clinical active stage, 3 patients had resembling the Greek letter lambda, symmetrically located in bilateral hilar lymph nodes, and among them two had an uptake of 67 Ga in the bilateral lacrimal and parotid gland simulating 'Panda Face'. 8 of 20 cases with inactive sarcoidosis had an abnormal 67 Ga scan (1+). In those patients with normal SACE level but increased uptake of 67 Ga, active stage of disease was demonstrated and steroid therapy was indicated. Gallium scan is a valuable method for the staging of its activity and evaluation of the therapeutic effect in the follow-up patients with sarcoidosis

  4. A modular scanning tunneling microscope with an interchangeable elastic closed cell and external actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjarnason, Elias H.; Arnalds, Unnar B.; Olafsson, Sveinn

    2006-01-01

    We introduce a novel modular cell based scanning tunneling microscope with external piezoelectric actuators. A tip and a sample are contained in a closed interchangeable cell, consisting of a stiff top plate and a bottom part, fastened together by an elastic material. The bottom part, containing a scanning tip, is fastened to a base unit while the top plate, containing a sample, is capable of scanning motion by external piezoelectric actuators mounted in the same base unit. The actuators are pre-loaded by the deformation of the elastic material of the cell, giving an increased stability. This design is expected to simplify the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) operation in difficult environments greatly by enclosing only the tip and sample in a small cell-module, which is pluggable to a scanning mechanism and other supportive functionalities. A frequency characterization and an image scan showing atomic resolution of highly oriented graphite in air, at room temperature, is presented

  5. Magnetic scanning of LWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Moodenbaugh, A.

    1980-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are available both for fresh and spent fuel, but generally are too time consuming and do not uniquely identify an assembly. A new method is reported to obtain a signature from a magnetic scan of each assembly. This scan is an NDA technique that detects magnetic inclusions. It is potentially fast (5 min/assembly), and may provide a unique signature from the magnetic properties of each fuel assembly

  6. Admittance Scanning for Whole Column Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Brian N; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Ohira, Shin-Ichi

    2017-07-05

    Whole column detection (WCD) is as old as chromatography itself. WCD requires an ability to interrogate column contents from the outside. Other than the obvious case of optical detection through a transparent column, admittance (often termed contactless conductance) measurements can also sense changes in the column contents (especially ionic content) from the outside without galvanic contact with the solution. We propose here electromechanically scanned admittance imaging and apply this to open tubular (OT) chromatography. The detector scans across the column; the length resolution depends on the scanning velocity and the data acquisition frequency, ultimately limited by the physical step resolution (40 μm in the present setup). Precision equal to this step resolution was observed for locating an interface between two immiscible liquids inside a 21 μm capillary. Mechanically, the maximum scanning speed was 100 mm/s, but at 1 kHz sampling rate and a time constant of 25 ms, the highest practical scan speed (no peak distortion) was 28 mm/s. At scanning speeds of 0, 4, and 28 mm/s, the S/N for 180 pL (zone length of 1.9 mm in a 11 μm i.d. column) of 500 μM KCl injected into water was 6450, 3850, and 1500, respectively. To facilitate constant and reproducible contact with the column regardless of minor variations in outer diameter, a double quadrupole electrode system was developed. Columns of significant length (>1 m) can be readily scanned. We demonstrate its applicability with both OT and commercial packed columns and explore uniformity of retention along a column, increasing S/N by stopped-flow repeat scans, etc. as unique applications.

  7. An image scanning device using radiating energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Said invention relates to an image scanning device using radiating energy. More particularly, it relates to a device for generating a scanning beam of rectangular cross section from a γ or X-ray source. Said invention can be applied to radiographic units of the 'microdose' type used by airline staffs and others for the fast efficient inspection of luggage and parcels in view of detecting hidden things [fr

  8. Thalassemia paravertebral tumors and bone marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huglo, D.; Rose, C.; Deveaux, M.; Bauters, F.; Marchandise, X.

    1995-01-01

    Two first cousins with thalassemia and with a paravertebral mass had had an indium 111 chloride bone marrow scan. Result of scan influenced therapy: medical treatment in one case where an extramedullary erythropoiesis was confirmed, surgical treatment in the other case. The use of dual-isotope SPECT (indium 111 chloride, HDP -99 Tc) constitutes a contribution to the establishment of diagnosis of extramedullary erythropoiesis, giving to bone marrow scintigraphy a merited importance, avoiding the biopsy. (authors). 15 refs., 5 figs

  9. Linking IMAGE 2 and WORLD SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelauff, G.; Geurts, B.; Gielen, A.; Den Ouden, A.; Alcamo, J.; Gerlagh, R.

    1995-01-01

    The links between the climate model IMAGE 2 and the economic model WORLD SCAN, which are set up to obtain an integrated scenario instrument for comprehensive and consistent climate-economy scenarios, are presented and discussed. The links are made with respect to energy (in WORLD SCAN) and agriculture (in IMAGE 2), thus providing a consistent linkage with feedbacks running both ways. 2 figs., 1 tab

  10. Computer graphic display of cardiac CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.; Carlsson, E.

    1982-01-01

    In order to improve spatial conception and quantitative assessment of the cardiac structures based on cardiac computed tomography, methods for computer graphic display were developed. Excised hearts and living dogs with myocardial infarctions were subjected to CT scanning. The data on the scanner tapes were processed to provide isodensity plots, linear section plots, time-weighted integrated isodensity plots as well as topographical density displays and three-dimensional spatial reconstructions of single and multi-layer scans. (orig.)

  11. Radionuclide bone scanning of medullary chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, T.M.; Chew, F.S.; Manaster, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans of 18 medullary chondrosarcomas of bone were correlated with pathologic macrosections of the resected tumors. There was increased scan intake by all 18 tumors, and the uptake in 15 scans corresponded accurately to the anatomic extent of the tumors. Only three scans displayed increased uptake beyond the true tumor margins; thus, the ''extended pattern of uptake'' beyond the true tumor extent is much less common in medullary chondrosarcomas than in many other primary bone tumors. Therefore, increased uptake beyond the apparent radiographic margin of the tumor suggests possible occult tumor spread. Pathologically, there was intense reactive new bone formation and hyperemia around the periphery of all 18 tumors, and there were foci of enchondral ossification, hyperemia, or calcification within the tumor itself in nearly every tumor. Three scans displayed less uptake in the center of the tumors than around their peripheries. One of these tumors was necrotic in the center, but the other two were pathologically no different from tumors that displayed homogenous uptake on the scan

  12. Radionuclide bone scanning of medullary chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, T.M.; Chew, F.S.; Manaster, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate bone scans of 18 medullary chondrosarcomas of bone were correlated with pathologic macrosections of the resected tumors. There was increased scan uptake by all 18 tumors, and the uptake in 15 scans corresponded accurately to the anatomic extent of the tumors. Only three scans displayed increased uptake beyond the true tumor margins; thus, the extended pattern of uptake beyond the true tumor extent is much less common in medullary chondrosarcomas than in many other primary bone tumors. Therefore, increased uptake beyond the apparent radiographic margin of the tumor suggests possible occult tumor spread. Pathologically, there was intense reactive new bone formation and hyperemia around the periphery of all 18 tumors, and there were foci of enchondral ossification, hyperemia, or calcification within the tumor itself in nearly every tumor. Three scans displayed less uptake in the center of the tumors than around their peripheries. One of these tumors was necrotic in the center, but the other two were pathologically no different from tumors that displayed homogeneous uptake on the scan

  13. Value and pitfalls of the lateral lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, W.M.; Krol, G.; Faunce, H.; Bay, R.

    1975-01-01

    Two hundred eighty-one of 443 lung scans composed of anterior, posterior, and lateral projections (done in our hospital) demonstrated defects. In 3.9 percent of them (11 cases), the defects were delineated in the lateral views only, while in 29.2 percent (82 cases), the lateral views either outlined additional defects not appreciated on the straight views, or showed more extensive lung involvement. In the majority of instances, 56.6 percent (159 cases), the lateral views showed comparable findings and also tended to segmentally localize the defects better. However, in 10.3 percent (29 cases), defects present on the straight projections were not detected on the lateral views. Various causes that could give rise to artefactual abnormalities in the lateral lung scan and therefore inhibit its proper interpretation are reviewed and discussed. Despite these problems, the lateral may be the only view to demonstrate abnormalities and, in fact, frequently provides additional useful information

  14. A carbon nanofibre scanning probe assembled using an electrothermal microgripper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Kenneth; Dyvelkov, Karin Nordström; Eicchorn, V.

    2007-01-01

    Functional devices can be directly assembled using microgrippers with an in situ electron microscope. Two simple and compact silicon microgripper designs are investigated here. These are operated by electrothermal actuation, and are used to transfer a catalytically grown multi-walled carbon...... nanofibre from a fixed position on a substrate to the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever, inside a scanning electron microscope. Scanning of high aspect ratio trenches using the nanofibre supertip shows a significantly better performance than that with standard pyramidal silicon tips. Based...... on manipulation experiments as well as a simple analysis, we show that shear pulling (lateral movement of the gripper) is far more effective than tensile pulling (vertical movement of gripper) for the mechanical removal of carbon nanotubes from a substrate....

  15. Multifrequency scanning probe microscopy study of nanodiamond agglomerates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravind, Vasudeva; Lippold, Stephen; Li, Qian; Strelcov, Evgheny; Okatan, Baris; Legum, Benjamin; Kalinin, Sergei; Clarion University Team; Oak Ridge National Laboratory Team

    Due to their rich surface chemistry and excellent mechanical properties and non-toxic nature, nanodiamond particles have found applications such as biomedicine, tribology and lubrication, targeted drug delivery systems, tissue scaffolds and surgical implants. Although single nanodiamond particles have diameters about 4-5nm, they tend to form agglomerates. While these agglomerates can be useful for some purposes, many applications of nanodiamonds require single particle, disaggregated nanodiamonds. This work is oriented towards studying forces and interactions that contribute to agglomeration in nanodiamonds. In this work, using multifrequency scanning probe microscopy techniques, we show that agglomerate sizes can vary between 50-100nm in raw nanodiamonds. Extremeties of particles and Interfaces between agglomerates show dissipative forces with scanning probe microscope tip, indicating agglomerates could act as points of increased adhesion, thus reducing lubricating efficiency when nanodiamonds are used as lubricant additives. This research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  16. A carbon nanofibre scanning probe assembled using an electrothermal microgripper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, K; Andersen, K N; Eichorn, V; Petersen, D H; Moelhave, K; Bu, I Y Y; Teo, K B K; Milne, W I; Fatikow, S; Boeggild, P

    2007-01-01

    Functional devices can be directly assembled using microgrippers with an in situ electron microscope. Two simple and compact silicon microgripper designs are investigated here. These are operated by electrothermal actuation, and are used to transfer a catalytically grown multi-walled carbon nanofibre from a fixed position on a substrate to the tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever, inside a scanning electron microscope. Scanning of high aspect ratio trenches using the nanofibre supertip shows a significantly better performance than that with standard pyramidal silicon tips. Based on manipulation experiments as well as a simple analysis, we show that shear pulling (lateral movement of the gripper) is far more effective than tensile pulling (vertical movement of gripper) for the mechanical removal of carbon nanotubes from a substrate

  17. A multipoint feedback control system for scanned focussed ultrasound hyperthermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.; Kress, R.; Roemer, R.; Hynynen, K.

    1987-01-01

    A multipoint feedback control system has been developed and tested for use with a scanned focussed ultrasound hyperthermia system. Extensive in-vivo tests (using a perfused organ model) have been made to evaluate the basic performance characteristics of the feedback control scheme for control of temperature in perfused media. The results of these tests are presented and compared with the predictions of a simulation routine. The control scheme was also tested in vivo using dogs' thighs and kidneys. Thigh experiments show the control scheme responds well to the affects of vasodilation and is able to maintain the targeted temperatures. In kidney experiments, where the rate of perfusion was controllable, the power adjusting algorithm successfully maintained uniform temperature distributions across regions of varying rates of perfusion. As a conclusion, the results show that this multipoint feedback controller scheme induces uniform temperature distributions when used with scanned focussed ultrasound systems

  18. Focal depth measurement of scanning helium ion microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Hongxuan; Itoh, Hiroshi; Wang, Chunmei; Zhang, Han; Fujita, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    When facing the challenges of critical dimension measurement of complicated nanostructures, such as of the three dimension integrated circuit, characterization of the focal depth of microscopes is important. In this Letter, we developed a method for characterizing the focal depth of a scanning helium ion microscope (HIM) by using an atomic force microscope tip characterizer (ATC). The ATC was tilted in a sample chamber at an angle to the scanning plan. Secondary electron images (SEIs) were obtained at different positions of the ATC. The edge resolution of the SEIs shows the nominal diameters of the helium ion beam at different focal levels. With this method, the nominal shapes of the helium ion beams were obtained with different apertures. Our results show that a small aperture is necessary to get a high spatial resolution and high depth of field images with HIM. This work provides a method for characterizing and improving the performance of HIM.

  19. Fractal Analysis of Radiologists Visual Scanning Pattern in Screening Mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alamudun, Folami T [ORNL; Yoon, Hong-Jun [ORNL; Hudson, Kathy [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Morin-Ducote, Garnetta [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Several investigators have investigated radiologists visual scanning patterns with respect to features such as total time examining a case, time to initially hit true lesions, number of hits, etc. The purpose of this study was to examine the complexity of the radiologists visual scanning pattern when viewing 4-view mammographic cases, as they typically do in clinical practice. Gaze data were collected from 10 readers (3 breast imaging experts and 7 radiology residents) while reviewing 100 screening mammograms (24 normal, 26 benign, 50 malignant). The radiologists scanpaths across the 4 mammographic views were mapped to a single 2-D image plane. Then, fractal analysis was applied on the derived scanpaths using the box counting method. For each case, the complexity of each radiologist s scanpath was estimated using fractal dimension. The association between gaze complexity, case pathology, case density, and radiologist experience was evaluated using 3 factor fixed effects ANOVA. ANOVA showed that case pathology, breast density, and experience level are all independent predictors of the visual scanning pattern complexity. Visual scanning patterns are significantly different for benign and malignant cases than for normal cases as well as when breast parenchyma density changes.

  20. Uninformative polymorphisms bias genome scans for signatures of selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roesti Marius

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the establishment of high-throughput sequencing technologies and new methods for rapid and extensive single nucleotide (SNP discovery, marker-based genome scans in search of signatures of divergent selection between populations occupying ecologically distinct environments are becoming increasingly popular. Methods and Results On the basis of genome-wide SNP marker data generated by RAD sequencing of lake and stream stickleback populations, we show that the outcome of such studies can be systematically biased if markers with a low minor allele frequency are included in the analysis. The reason is that these ‘uninformative’ polymorphisms lack the adequate potential to capture signatures of drift and hitchhiking, the focal processes in ecological genome scans. Bias associated with uninformative polymorphisms is not eliminated by just avoiding technical artifacts in the data (PCR and sequencing errors, as a high proportion of SNPs with a low minor allele frequency is a general biological feature of natural populations. Conclusions We suggest that uninformative markers should be excluded from genome scans based on empirical criteria derived from careful inspection of the data, and that these criteria should be reported explicitly. Together, this should increase the quality and comparability of genome scans, and hence promote our understanding of the processes driving genomic differentiation.

  1. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutrakon, G; Wang, N; Miller, D W; Yang, Y

    2010-01-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 x 10 x 8 cm 3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  2. Serial CT scans and Menkes' kinky hair disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakada, Eizo; Kameyama, Junji; Yoshimitsu, Hajime; Mori, Mikio; Tanaka, Mutsuo; Yoshimitsu, Kazunori.

    1988-01-01

    Menkes' kinky hair disease is a sex-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism, characterized by progressive psychomotor deterioration, seizures, and peculiar hair structure. We examined serial CT scans of patients with this disease. A 2,210-g male infant was delivered after an uneventful gestation of 36 weeks. His one-minute Apgar score was 9. His uncle had died at 1 year of age. His first cousin was also diagnosed as having Menkes' kinky hair disease when our patient was 2 years old. Shortly after birth he had mild respiratory distress. At 5 days of age, he developed setting-sun signs. The first CT scan, at 10 days of age, revealed mild posterior fossa hemorrhages. At 3 months of age, myoclonic seizures began, and the CT scan revealed subdural effusion and mild brain atrophy. The seizures were controllable by using phenobarbital, valproic acid, and nitrazepam. He did not follow light or a fixate, but the fundi were normal. He was diffusely hypotonic. At 9 months of age, the seizures became uncontrollable. The CT scans at 15 and 31 months of age showed subdural hemorrhage and/or brain atrophy. At 15 months of age, the serum copper level was 42 μ g/dl, while the serum ceruloplasmin level was 3.2 mg/dl. He exhibited severe developmental failure. At 4 years of age, he died. (author)

  3. Serial CT scans and Menkes' kinky hair disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakada, Eizo; Kameyama, Junji; Yoshimitsu, Hajime; Mori, Mikio; Tanaka, Mutsuo; Yoshimitsu, Kazunori.

    1988-02-01

    Menkes' kinky hair disease is a sex-linked recessive disorder of copper metabolism, characterized by progressive psychomotor deterioration, seizures, and peculiar hair structure. We examined serial CT scans of patients with this disease. A 2,210-g male infant was delivered after an uneventful gestation of 36 weeks. His one-minute Apgar score was 9. His uncle had died at 1 year of age. His first cousin was also diagnosed as having Menkes' kinky hair disease when our patient was 2 years old. Shortly after birth he had mild respiratory distress. At 5 days of age, he developed setting-sun signs. The first CT scan, at 10 days of age, revealed mild posterior fossa hemorrhages. At 3 months of age, myoclonic seizures began, and the CT scan revealed subdural effusion and mild brain atrophy. The seizures were controllable by using phenobarbital, valproic acid, and nitrazepam. He did not follow light or a fixate, but the fundi were normal. He was diffusely hypotonic. At 9 months of age, the seizures became uncontrollable. The CT scans at 15 and 31 months of age showed subdural hemorrhage and/or brain atrophy. At 15 months of age, the serum copper level was 42 ..mu.. g/dl, while the serum ceruloplasmin level was 3.2 mg/dl. He exhibited severe developmental failure. At 4 years of age, he died.

  4. Characterization of Visual Scanning Patterns in Air Traffic Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClung, Sarah N; Kang, Ziho

    2016-01-01

    Characterization of air traffic controllers' (ATCs') visual scanning strategies is a challenging issue due to the dynamic movement of multiple aircraft and increasing complexity of scanpaths (order of eye fixations and saccades) over time. Additionally, terminologies and methods are lacking to accurately characterize the eye tracking data into simplified visual scanning strategies linguistically expressed by ATCs. As an intermediate step to automate the characterization classification process, we (1) defined and developed new concepts to systematically filter complex visual scanpaths into simpler and more manageable forms and (2) developed procedures to map visual scanpaths with linguistic inputs to reduce the human judgement bias during interrater agreement. The developed concepts and procedures were applied to investigating the visual scanpaths of expert ATCs using scenarios with different aircraft congestion levels. Furthermore, oculomotor trends were analyzed to identify the influence of aircraft congestion on scan time and number of comparisons among aircraft. The findings show that (1) the scanpaths filtered at the highest intensity led to more consistent mapping with the ATCs' linguistic inputs, (2) the pattern classification occurrences differed between scenarios, and (3) increasing aircraft congestion caused increased scan times and aircraft pairwise comparisons. The results provide a foundation for better characterizing complex scanpaths in a dynamic task and automating the analysis process.

  5. Distinction of nuclear spin states with the scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natterer, Fabian Donat; Patthey, François; Brune, Harald

    2013-10-25

    We demonstrate rotational excitation spectroscopy with the scanning tunneling microscope for physisorbed H(2) and its isotopes HD and D(2). The observed excitation energies are very close to the gas phase values and show the expected scaling with the moment of inertia. Since these energies are characteristic for the molecular nuclear spin states we are able to identify the para and ortho species of hydrogen and deuterium, respectively. We thereby demonstrate nuclear spin sensitivity with unprecedented spatial resolution.

  6. Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Tarhini, Ahmad

    2017-11-06

    The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.

  7. Logarithmic axicon characterized by scanning optical probe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhaolou; Wang, Keyi; Wu, Qinglin

    2013-05-15

    A scanning optical probe system is proposed to measure a logarithmic axicon (LA) with subwavelength resolution. Multiple plane intensity profiles measured by a fiber probe are interpreted by solving an optimization problem to get the phase retardation function (PRF) of the LA. Experimental results show that this approach can accurately obtain the PRF with which the optical path difference of the generated quasi-nondiffracting beam in the propagation is calculated.

  8. Extension of Seismic Scanning Tunneling Macroscope to Elastic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    Tarhini, Ahmad; Guo, Bowen; Dutta, Gaurav; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-01-01

    The theory for the seismic scanning tunneling macroscope is extended from acoustic body waves to elastic body-wave propagation. We show that, similar to the acoustic case, near-field superresolution imaging from elastic body waves results from the O(1/R) term, where R is the distance between the source and near-field scatterer. The higher-order contributions R−n for n>1 are cancelled in the near-field region for a point source with normal stress.

  9. Scan path entropy and Arrow plots: Capturing scanning behavior of multiple observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignace T C Hooge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Designers of visual communication material want their material to attract and retain attention. In marketing research, heat maps, dwell time, and time to AOI first hit are often used as evaluation parameters. Here we present two additional measures 1 scan path entropy to quantify gaze guidance and 2 the arrow plot to visualize the average scan path. Both are based on string representations of scan paths. The latter also incorporates transition matrices and time required for 50% of the observers to first hit AOIs (T50. The new measures were tested in an eye tracking study (48 observers, 39 advertisements. Scan path entropy is a sensible measure for gaze guidance and the new visualization method reveals aspects of the average scan path and gives a better indication in what order global scanning takes place.

  10. Postprocessing Algorithm for Driving Conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope at Fast Scan Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Xianqi; Chen, Yunmei; Park, Jewook; Li, An-Ping; Zhang, X-G

    2017-01-01

    We present an image postprocessing framework for Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) to reduce the strong spurious oscillations and scan line noise at fast scan rates and preserve the features, allowing an order of magnitude increase in the scan rate without upgrading the hardware. The proposed method consists of two steps for large scale images and four steps for atomic scale images. For large scale images, we first apply for each line an image registration method to align the forward and backward scans of the same line. In the second step we apply a "rubber band" model which is solved by a novel Constrained Adaptive and Iterative Filtering Algorithm (CIAFA). The numerical results on measurement from copper(111) surface indicate the processed images are comparable in accuracy to data obtained with a slow scan rate, but are free of the scan drift error commonly seen in slow scan data. For atomic scale images, an additional first step to remove line-by-line strong background fluctuations and a fourth step of replacing the postprocessed image by its ranking map as the final atomic resolution image are required. The resulting image restores the lattice image that is nearly undetectable in the original fast scan data.

  11. Postprocessing Algorithm for Driving Conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope at Fast Scan Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an image postprocessing framework for Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM to reduce the strong spurious oscillations and scan line noise at fast scan rates and preserve the features, allowing an order of magnitude increase in the scan rate without upgrading the hardware. The proposed method consists of two steps for large scale images and four steps for atomic scale images. For large scale images, we first apply for each line an image registration method to align the forward and backward scans of the same line. In the second step we apply a “rubber band” model which is solved by a novel Constrained Adaptive and Iterative Filtering Algorithm (CIAFA. The numerical results on measurement from copper(111 surface indicate the processed images are comparable in accuracy to data obtained with a slow scan rate, but are free of the scan drift error commonly seen in slow scan data. For atomic scale images, an additional first step to remove line-by-line strong background fluctuations and a fourth step of replacing the postprocessed image by its ranking map as the final atomic resolution image are required. The resulting image restores the lattice image that is nearly undetectable in the original fast scan data.

  12. Bone scan and red blood cell scan in a patient with epidermal naevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Wolf, F.; Stosiek, N.; Peters, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    A bone scan and red blood cell scan in the rare epidermal naevus syndrome, associated with multiple haemangiomes of the bone and hypophosphataemic osteomalacia in a 20-year-old man are reported. The typical pattern of osteomalacia on the bone scan was associated with lesions of increased bone metabolism in the peripheral bones. The haemangiomas did not pool labelled red blood cells. Thus, the bone scan seems to be suited for diagnosing the complete extent of haemangiomas in bone, but they could not be specifically proven by red blood cell pooling. (orig.)

  13. Scanning-time evaluation of Digimarc Barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Rebecca; Pinard, Dan; Weaver, Matt; Alattar, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a speed comparison between the use of Digimarc® Barcodes and the Universal Product Code (UPC) for customer checkout at point of sale (POS). The recently introduced Digimarc Barcode promises to increase the speed of scanning packaged goods at POS. When this increase is exploited by workforce optimization systems, the retail industry could potentially save billions of dollars. The Digimarc Barcode is based on Digimarc's watermarking technology, and it is imperceptible, very robust, and does not require any special ink, material, or printing processes. Using an image-based scanner, a checker can quickly scan consumer packaged goods (CPG) embedded with the Digimarc Barcode without the need to reorient the packages with respect to the scanner. Faster scanning of packages saves money and enhances customer satisfaction. It reduces the length of the queues at checkout, reduces the cost of cashier labor, and makes self-checkout more convenient. This paper quantifies the increase in POS scanning rates resulting from the use of the Digimarc Barcode versus the traditional UPC. It explains the testing methodology, describes the experimental setup, and analyzes the obtained results. It concludes that the Digimarc Barcode increases number of items per minute (IPM) scanned at least 50% over traditional UPC.

  14. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1974-03-15

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  15. The Diagnostic Value of Brain Scanning in the Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kwang Won; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Chang, Kee Hyun; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Su; Son, Hyo Chung; Cho, Byung Kyu

    1974-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning and compare the diagnostic accuracy between the scan and carotid angiography. 109 cases which are proved by specific method to each disease, are analyzed to evaluate the diagnostic value of the brain scanning. The 70 cases among the proven 109 case are performed both the scanning and the arteriography and analyzed to compare the accuracy between the scanning and the arteriography. The results are as follows; 1) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the diseases of the central nervous system is 64.2%. 2) The diagnostic accuracy of the brain scanning in the brain tumor is 88%, especially brain abscess, glioma, glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma and metastic tumor show high positive rate. 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessels is 54%. The comparison of the diagnostic value between the scanning and the arteriography is as follows;1) The diagnostic value in all diseases of the central nervous system is nearly equal. 2) The diagnostic accuracy in the intracranial tumor is slightly higher in the brain scanning (90. 9%) than in the arteriography (81.8%). 3) The diagnostic accuracy in the disease of the brain vessel is higher in the arteriography (77.3%) than in the scanning (54.5%). 5) The diagnostic value when combining the scanning and the arteriography, is 83% in the all central nervous system-lesions, 97% in the cranial tumor and 81.8% in the disease of the central nervous system-vessel. The brain scanning is simple and safe procedure, and moreover has excellent diagnostic value in the diagnosis of the central nervous system lesion.

  16. F-18 FDG PET scan findings in patients with pulmonary involvement in the hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-08-15

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is an infiltrative disease of eosinophils affecting multiple organs including the lung. F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection, making interpretation of whole body PET scan difficult in patients with cancer. This study was to evaluate the PET findings of HES with lung involvement and to find out differential PET features between lung malignancy and HES with lung involvement. F-18 FDG PET and low dose chest CT scan was performed for screening of lung cancer. Eight patients who showed ground-glass attenuation (GGA) and consolidation on chest CT scan with peripheral blood eosinophilia were included in this study. The patients with history of parasite infection, allergy and collagen vascular disease were excluded. CT features and FDG PET findings were meticulously evaluated for the distribution of GGA and consolidation and nodules on CT scan and mean and maximal SUV of abnormalities depicted on F-18 FDG PET scan. In eight patients, follow-up chest CT scan and FDG PET scan were done one or two weeks after initial study. F-18 FDG PET scan identified metabolically active lesions in seven out of eight patients. Maximal SUV was ranged from 2.8 to 10.6 and mean SUV was ranged from 2.2 to 7.2. Remaining one patient had maximal SUV of 1.3. On follow-up FDG PET scan taken on from one to four weeks later showed decreased degree of initially noted FDG uptakes or migration of previously noted abnormal FDG uptakes. Lung involvement in the HES might be identified as abnormal uptake foci on FDG PET scan mimicking lung cancer. Follow-up FDG PET and CT scan for the identification of migration or resolution of abnormalities and decrement of SUV would be of help for the differentiation between lung cancer and HES with lung involvement.

  17. F-18 FDG PET scan findings in patients with pulmonary involvement in the hypereosinophilic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin

    2005-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is an infiltrative disease of eosinophils affecting multiple organs including the lung. F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection, making interpretation of whole body PET scan difficult in patients with cancer. This study was to evaluate the PET findings of HES with lung involvement and to find out differential PET features between lung malignancy and HES with lung involvement. F-18 FDG PET and low dose chest CT scan was performed for screening of lung cancer. Eight patients who showed ground-glass attenuation (GGA) and consolidation on chest CT scan with peripheral blood eosinophilia were included in this study. The patients with history of parasite infection, allergy and collagen vascular disease were excluded. CT features and FDG PET findings were meticulously evaluated for the distribution of GGA and consolidation and nodules on CT scan and mean and maximal SUV of abnormalities depicted on F-18 FDG PET scan. In eight patients, follow-up chest CT scan and FDG PET scan were done one or two weeks after initial study. F-18 FDG PET scan identified metabolically active lesions in seven out of eight patients. Maximal SUV was ranged from 2.8 to 10.6 and mean SUV was ranged from 2.2 to 7.2. Remaining one patient had maximal SUV of 1.3. On follow-up FDG PET scan taken on from one to four weeks later showed decreased degree of initially noted FDG uptakes or migration of previously noted abnormal FDG uptakes. Lung involvement in the HES might be identified as abnormal uptake foci on FDG PET scan mimicking lung cancer. Follow-up FDG PET and CT scan for the identification of migration or resolution of abnormalities and decrement of SUV would be of help for the differentiation between lung cancer and HES with lung involvement

  18. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Abelquist, E.W.

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor's performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors' performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments

  19. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eirini, L.; Emmanouil, L.; Othonas, P.; Hans-Guenther, M.; Nikolaos, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we highlight the use of position emission tomography (PET) scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge. (author)

  20. Scanning probe microscopy experiments in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobek, Tanja; Reiter, Michael; Heckl, Wolfgang M.

    2004-01-01

    The scanning probe microscopy setups are small, lightweight and do not require vacuum or high voltage supply. In addition, samples can be investigated directly without further preparation. Therefore, these techniques are well-suited for applications in space, in particular, for operation on the International Space Station (ISS) or for high resolution microscopy on planetary missions. A feasibility study for a scanning tunneling microscopy setup was carried out on a parabolic flight campaign in November 2001 in order to test the technical setup for microgravity applications. With a pocket-size design microscope, a graphite surface was imaged under ambient conditions. Atomic resolution was achieved although the quality of the images was inferior in comparison to laboratory conditions. Improvements for future scanning probe microscopy experiments in microgravity are suggested

  1. The new scanning nuclear microprobe in Uppsala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunde, T.; Nystroem, J.; Lindh, U.

    1991-01-01

    During 1989/90 a scanning microprobe, developed for 2-4 MeV protons and submicron resolution, is being installed at the EN-tandem accelerator at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. The probe-forming units (object diaphragm, aperture diaphragm and triplet of spark-eroded quadrupoles), the scanning unit of current-controlled ferrite cores and a current digitizer are of Oxford design. The other parts are commercial products or are constructed by ourselves. The latter includes the equipment for optical alignment by interference, a feedback-controlled magnetic beam steerer and stabiliser, a fast beam deflector, specially designed mechanical vibration reducers and dedicated AT expansion cards for scanning control and data acquisition. (orig.)

  2. Cooling system for baby EBM scanning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Halim Baijan; Muhammad Zahidee Taat; Abu Bakar Ghazali; Mohd Rizal Md Chulan; Rokiah Mohd Sabri; Leo Kwee Wah; Mohd Rizal Ibrahim; Lojius Lombigit; Azaman Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Heat exchange of the scanning window of baby EBM is a critical factor for maintaining the integrity of the window material structure. As the titanium foil which was used as the scanning window, the maximum temperature accepted for the foil should be 200 degree C. This paper will discuss a simple method of Bernoulli principle to obtain the correct air blower capacity in order to reduce the heat of the scanning window of Baby EBM. It was found that the required air pressure and air speed of the blower are 2613.6 Pascal and 237.6 m3/h respectively for the electron accelerator of 0.14 MeV energy and 10 mA beam current. (Author)

  3. Optical vortex scanning inside the Gaussian beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masajada, J; Leniec, M; Augustyniak, I

    2011-01-01

    We discussed a new scanning method for optical vortex-based scanning microscopy. The optical vortex is introduced into the incident Gaussian beam by a vortex lens. Then the beam with the optical vortex is focused by an objective and illuminates the sample. By changing the position of the vortex lens we can shift the optical vortex position at the sample plane. By adjusting system parameters we can get 30 times smaller shift at the sample plane compared to the vortex lens shift. Moreover, if the range of vortex shifts is smaller than 3% of the beam radius in the sample plane the amplitude and phase distribution around the phase dislocation remains practically unchanged. Thus we can scan the sample topography precisely with an optical vortex

  4. Value of gallbladder B-scan ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrisky, J; Lindstrom, R R; Herman, M W; Castagna, J; Sarti, D

    1975-05-01

    The gallbladder B-scans of 20 patients who had subsequent surgery were separated into three categories based upon certain sonographic criteria. Our data, in this limited series, revealed gallbladder pathology in each patient who had any one or combination of the following scan characteristics: (1) internal echos, (2) irregular wall, or (3) absence of recognizable gallbladder sonolucency. The category which demonstrated a normal sonographic gallbladder, namely a smooth wall and no internal echos, contained a number of false negatives which proved to have either small stone cholelithiasis or extraphepatic ductal obstruction. Within the described limitations, the B-scan can be a valuable test in confirming the significance of a radiographically nonvisualized gallbladder or in detecting a biliary tract lesion in a patient with a disease entity that precludes radiographic visualization by conventional techniques.

  5. Polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Chien; Lyu, C.-W.; Peng, L.-C.

    2001-01-01

    A polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope, which combines a polarized optical heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a differential amplifier to scan the topographic image of a surface, is proposed. In the experiment the differential amplifier, which acts as a PM-AM converter, in the experiment, converting phase modulation (PM) into amplitude modulation (AM). Then a novel, to our knowledge, phase demodulator was proposed and implemented for the differential-phase laser scanning microscope. An optical grating (1800 lp/mm) was imaged. The lateral and the depth resolutions of the imaging system were 0.5 μm and 1 nm, respectively. The detection accuracy, which was limited by the reflectivity variation of the test surface, is discussed

  6. Molecular excited states from the SCAN functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, David J.; Peach, Michael J. G.

    2018-06-01

    The performance of the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalised gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional is investigated for the calculation of time-dependent density-functional theory molecular excitation energies of local, charge-transfer and Rydberg character, together with the excited ? potential energy curve in H2. The SCAN results frequently resemble those obtained using a global hybrid functional, with either a standard or increased fraction of exact orbital exchange. For local excitations, SCAN can exhibit significant triplet instability problems, resulting in imaginary triplet excitation energies for a number of cases. The Tamm-Dancoff approximation offers a simple approach to improve the situation, but the excitation energies are still significantly underestimated. Understanding the origin of these (near)-triplet instabilities may provide useful insight into future functional development.

  7. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abelquist, E.W. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor`s performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors` performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments.

  8. MutScan: fast detection and visualization of target mutations by scanning FASTQ data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shifu; Huang, Tanxiao; Wen, Tiexiang; Li, Hong; Xu, Mingyan; Gu, Jia

    2018-01-22

    Some types of clinical genetic tests, such as cancer testing using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), require sensitive detection of known target mutations. However, conventional next-generation sequencing (NGS) data analysis pipelines typically involve different steps of filtering, which may cause miss-detection of key mutations with low frequencies. Variant validation is also indicated for key mutations detected by bioinformatics pipelines. Typically, this process can be executed using alignment visualization tools such as IGV or GenomeBrowse. However, these tools are too heavy and therefore unsuitable for validating mutations in ultra-deep sequencing data. We developed MutScan to address problems of sensitive detection and efficient validation for target mutations. MutScan involves highly optimized string-searching algorithms, which can scan input FASTQ files to grab all reads that support target mutations. The collected supporting reads for each target mutation will be piled up and visualized using web technologies such as HTML and JavaScript. Algorithms such as rolling hash and bloom filter are applied to accelerate scanning and make MutScan applicable to detect or visualize target mutations in a very fast way. MutScan is a tool for the detection and visualization of target mutations by only scanning FASTQ raw data directly. Compared to conventional pipelines, this offers a very high performance, executing about 20 times faster, and offering maximal sensitivity since it can grab mutations with even one single supporting read. MutScan visualizes detected mutations by generating interactive pile-ups using web technologies. These can serve to validate target mutations, thus avoiding false positives. Furthermore, MutScan can visualize all mutation records in a VCF file to HTML pages for cloud-friendly VCF validation. MutScan is an open source tool available at GitHub: https://github.com/OpenGene/MutScan.

  9. Spatio-temporal imaging of voltage pulses with an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jacob Riis; Keil, Ulrich Dieter Felix; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1997-01-01

    Measurements on an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope with simultaneous spatial and temporal resolution are presented. We show images of picosecond pulses propagating on a coplanar waveguide and resolve their mode structures. The influence of transmission line discontinuities on the mode...

  10. Diagnosis of epidural hematoma by brain scan and perfusion study: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buozas, D.J.; Barrett, I.R.; Mishkin, F.S.

    1976-01-01

    By using the arterial and venous phases of an anterior cerebral perfusion study, which showed downward displacement of the sagittal sinus, and the finding of a rim on the delayed scans, the specific diagnosis of epidural hematoma was established

  11. Adrenocortical Carcinoma: False Positive in an I-123 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, Cristina Rodriguez; Candil, Aida Ortega; Galvan, Eliseo Vano; Martin, Maria Nieves Cabrera; Delgado, Jose Luis Carreras [Clinico San Carlos Hospital, Madrid (Spain)

    2016-06-15

    A 55-year-old man with a personal his history of left pheochromocytoma 2 years previously presented with an abdominal ultrasound showed a large left upper quadrant solid mass (calipers), with heterogeneous echogenicity and central cystic degeneration areas or necrosis. F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT was performed as ACC was suspected. ACC is an uncommon malignant neoplasm of unknown cause; however, smoking and oral contraceptives may be risk factors. Patients usually present with advanced-stage disease and have poor prognosis, with a 2-year recurrence rate that ranges form 73 to 86 %. An MIBG scan was performed after injection of 185 MBq of I-123 MIBG intravenously. Single photon emission tomography (SPECT)/CT scan showed abnormal isotope accumulation in the tumor region. The patient underwent total resection of the tumor. The histology was of ACC, with areas of necrosis and cystic areas, so the result of the MIBG scan was a false positive. Authors divided false-positive MIBG studies into three categories. The first category is neuroendocrine lesions other than pheochromocytomas (tumors of the APUD series). the second category consists in adrenal lesions other than pheochromocytomas (adenomas, ACC) the reasons for this abnormal uptake are unclear. The third category consists of tracer uptake adjacent to the adrenal due to abnormalities in the route of excretion.

  12. A scanning tunneling microscope for a dilution refrigerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marz, M; Goll, G; Löhneysen, H v

    2010-04-01

    We present the main features of a home-built scanning tunneling microscope that has been attached to the mixing chamber of a dilution refrigerator. It allows scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy measurements down to the base temperature of the cryostat, T approximately 30 mK, and in applied magnetic fields up to 13 T. The topography of both highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and the dichalcogenide superconductor NbSe(2) has been imaged with atomic resolution down to T approximately 50 mK as determined from a resistance thermometer adjacent to the sample. As a test for a successful operation in magnetic fields, the flux-line lattice of superconducting NbSe(2) in low magnetic fields has been studied. The lattice constant of the Abrikosov lattice shows the expected field dependence proportional to 1/square root of B and measurements in the scanning tunneling spectroscopy mode clearly show the superconductive density of states with Andreev bound states in the vortex core.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of catheter radiopacity by fiber optic scanning densitometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, D.D.; Byron, M.P.; Lipton, M.J.

    1989-01-01

    A rapid accurate method has been developed utilizing fiber optic scanning densitometry to quantify the radiopacity of vascular catheters. The technique provides for computerized calculation of relative catheter radiopacity and an appropriate control standard. A densitometer with a 180 degree collection angle for diffuse transmission density measurements was selected based on the diffusing nature of X-ray film (Q-factor 1.80). A benchmark catheter and 2 mil thick brass shim stock were selected as control standards for evaluation of mono-and multilumen tubing using standard X-ray conditions and an aluminum block attenuator. The authors present results from reproducibility studies which show scan-to-scan repeatability is within ±1%, and day-to-day variability is less than 5%. Application studies demonstrate a linear relationship between percent barium sulfate loading and the radiopaqueness of 16 gauge monolumen tubing. Results were also obtained from a clinical chest X-ray film showing good in-vivo/in-vitro correlation

  14. Quality Assurance By Laser Scanning And Imaging Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    SchmalfuB, Harald J.; Schinner, Karl Ludwig

    1989-03-01

    Laser scanning systems are well established in the world of fast industrial in-process quality inspection systems. The materials inspected by laser scanning systems are e.g. "endless" sheets of steel, paper, textile, film or foils. The web width varies from 50 mm up to 5000 mm or more. The web speed depends strongly on the production process and can reach several hundred meters per minute. The continuous data flow in one of different channels of the optical receiving system exceeds ten Megapixels/sec. Therefore it is clear that the electronic evaluation system has to process these data streams in real time and no image storage is possible. But sometimes (e.g. first installation of the system, change of the defect classification) it would be very helpful to have the possibility for a visual look on the original, i.e. not processed sensor data. At first we show the principle set up of a standard laser scanning system. Then we will introduce a large image memory especially designed for the needs of high-speed inspection sensors. This image memory co-operates with the standard on-line evaluation electronics and provides therefore an easy comparison between processed and non-processed data. We will discuss the basic system structure and we will show the first industrial results.

  15. Automated SmartPrep tracker positioning in liver MRI scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Takao; Kabasawa, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for automated SmartPrep tracker positioning in liver MRI scans. SmartPrep is used to monitor the contrast bolus signal in order to detect the arrival time of the bolus. Accurately placing the tracker in the aorta while viewing three planar scout images is a difficult task for the operator and is an important problem from the workflow standpoint. The development of an automated SmartPrep tracker would therefore help to improve workflow in liver MRI scans. In our proposed method, the aorta is detected using AdaBoost (which is a machine learning technique) by searching around the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) in the spinal cord. Analysis of scout scan images showed that our detection method functioned properly for a variety of axial MR images without intensity correction. A total of 234 images reconstructed from the datasets of 64 volunteers were analyzed, and the results showed that the detection error for the aorta was approximately 3 mm. (author)

  16. Exploring the Nuclear Phase Diagram with Beam Energy Scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The nuclear phase diagram is mapped using beam energy scans of relativistic heavy-ion collisions. This mapping is possible because different collision energies develop along different trajectories through the phase diagram. High energy collisions will evolve though a crossover phase transition according to lattice QCD, but lower collision energies may traverse a first order phase transition. There are hints for this first order phase transition and its critical endpoint, but further measurements and theoretical guidance is needed. In addition to mapping the phase transition, beam energy scans allow us to see if we can turn off the signatures of deconfinement. If an observable is a real signature for the formation of the deconfined state called quark-gluon plasma, then it should turn off at sufficiently low collision energies. In this summary talk I will show the current state of the field using beam energy scan results from RHIC and SPS, I will show where precise theoretical guidance is needed for understanding recent measurements, and I will motivate the need for more data and new measurements from FAIR, NICA, RHIC, and the SPS. (paper)

  17. Role of technetium-99m planar bone scanning in the evaluation of low back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdez, D.C.; Johnson, R.G.

    1994-01-01

    The records of 1018 patients with low back pain in a tertiary spine referral practice were reviewed. One hundred thirty-nine out of 1018 (13.6%) underwent technetium-99m planar bone scannings as part of their investigation. Seventy-three out of 139 scans (52%) showed increased uptake in some area, but only 27 out of 139 (19.4%) showed increased uptake specifically in the low back. Scans consistently yielded no findings with reference to the back when the prescan diagnosis was spinal stenosis, lumbar pain syndrome, herniated nucleus pulposus, or postlaminectomy syndrome. Some scans gave positive findings in patients with a diagnosis of degenerative disc disease, pseudoarthrosis, spondylolisthesis, fracture, infection, metabolic disorder, or tumor. Positive scans were generally obtained early after presentation (within 3 months) and negative scans obtained later (after 6 months), suggesting that clinical suspicion is still the main indication for early scanning. Planar bone scanning was helpful in both diagnosis and therapeutic decision-making in many conditions. (orig.)

  18. Effect of blood glucose levels on image quality in 18F fluorodeoxyglucose scanning - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, E.; Keane, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In December last year, a 71-year-old gentleman presented to the Nuclear Medicine Department at St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney for an FDG coincidence detection positron emission scan. The patient had cancer of the lung with a large lesion in the left upper lobe and a small lesion in the right middle lobe. On initial investigation, this patient had a blood sugar level of 17mmol/L which was eventually reduced to 6.7mmol/L just prior to scanning. The patient was then asked to return to be rescanned without his blood sugar levels being adjusted. Just prior to his second scan, his blood sugar level was 15.4mmollL. The aim of the initial scan being repeated was to see just how important a role blood sugar levels play in the quality of a Co Pet scan. The first scan showed excellent image quality while the repeated scan showed markedly inferior image quality due to unwanted soft tissue FDG uptake. In conclusion, blood sugar levels play a significant role in output image quality in FDG coincidence detection positron emission scanning. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  19. A comparison of bone scanning and radiology in the evaluation of patients with metabolic bone disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Carr, D.

    1980-01-01

    Bone scan and radiographs were evaluated in 80 patients with metabolic bone disease (27 with osteoporosis, 14 with primary hyperparathyroidism, 24 with renal osteodystrophy and 15 with osteomalacia). The bone scan did not suggest a metabolic bone disorder in any of 27 patients with histologically proven osteoporosis. In 22 (81%) patients radiographs were reported as showing osteoporosis. In 19 (70%) vertebral fractures were seen on X-ray while these were noted in 11 (41%) patients on the bone scan. Vertebral fractures were usually visualised on the bone scan when these had occurred less than one year previously. In primary hyperparathyroidism the bone scan was suggestive of a metabolic bone disorder in 7 of 14 (50%) patients, while radiographs were reported as showing evidence of hyperparathyrodism in three (21%) cases. The bone scan suggested the presence of a metabolic bone disorder in all 24 patients with renal osteodystrophy and 15 patients with osteomalacia while the correct diagnosis was obtained in 14 (58%) and nine (60%) of these patients on X-ray. It is concluded that the bone scan is the more sensitive investigation in patients with osteomalacia, primary hyperparathyroidism and renal osteodystrophy. For osteoporosis radiology is the investigation of choice but the bone scan may be of value in assessing the duration of vertebral collapse. (author)

  20. Incidental apical disease at CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Satoh, K.; Shepard, J.O.; Moore, E.H.; Kosiuk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Apical caps are commonly noted on standard radiographs. This paper determines how often abnormalities in the extreme apex of the lung could be identified on CT scans obtained for other reasons. A total of 158 consecutive CT scans were reviewed prospectively. Excluded were patients with obvious upper lobe pleural or parenchymal disease. Apical abnormalities were identified in 74 (46.8%) of the 158 cases. The prevalence increased with age (19% in the 8-39-year age group and 82% in patients older than 80 years). Opacities were unilateral in 44.5% and bilateral in 55.5%. The most common abnormality was linear opacities (95%)

  1. Indigenous development of scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambastha, K.P.; Chaudhari, Y.V.; Pal, Suvadip; Tikaria, Amit; Pious, Lizy; Dubey, B.P.; Chadda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a precision instrument and plays very important role in scientific studies. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has taken up the job of development of SEM indigenously. Standard and commercially available components like computer, high voltage power supply, detectors etc. shall be procured from market. Focusing and scanning coils, vacuum chamber, specimen stage, control hardware and software etc. shall be developed at BARC with the help of Indian industry. Procurement, design and fabrication of various parts of SEM are in progress. (author)

  2. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope design with adaptive optics

    OpenAIRE

    Laut, SP; Jones, SM; Olivier, SS; Werner, JS

    2005-01-01

    A design for a high-resolution scanning instrument is presented for in vivo imaging of the human eye at the cellular scale. This system combines adaptive optics technology with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) to image structures with high lateral (∼2 μm) resolution. In this system, the ocular wavefront aberrations that reduce the resolution of conventional SLOs are detected by a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, and compensated with two deformable mirrors in a closed-loop for dynamic cor...

  3. Developments in Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Taras; Chu, Ricky; David, Nigel; Broun, David

    2009-05-01

    Low temperature scanning Hall probe microscopy is a sensitive means of imaging magnetic structures with high spatial resolution and magnetic flux sensitivity approaching that of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device. We have developed a scanning Hall probe microscope with novel features, including highly reliable coarse positioning, in situ optimization of sensor-sample alignment and capacitive transducers for linear, long range positioning measurement. This has been motivated by the need to reposition accurately above fabricated nanostructures such as small superconducting rings. Details of the design and performance will be presented as well as recent progress towards time-resolved measurements with sub nanosecond resolution.

  4. Bone scan features in spontaneous knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Merlo, F; Bertelli, P; Burroni, L

    1992-01-01

    In 21 patients with "spontaneous" knee pain, 99mTc-MDP bone scan was found to be more sensitive than clinical and radiographic examination in detecting alterations of the joint components. These alterations were shown by increased radionuclide uptake in the compartments where pain was present, which was most commonly the medial femorotibial compartment, although the femoropatellar compartment was also frequently affected. The authors conclude that bone scan should be the first imaging study performed on the knee in order to establish if further tests are necessary.

  5. What expects orthopedic surgeon from bone scan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, B.; Cazenave, A.

    2003-01-01

    The isotope bone scan continues to be one of the 'lost widely performed nuclear medicine investigations. Beyond the common clinical indication like detection of skeletal metastases, bone scan use is increasing in benign orthopedic conditions, and after orthopedic surgery, despite development of new investigations modalities (US, MRI). Three (or two) phase bone scintigraphy, Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography have increased its value and provided new clinical roles. This review emphasizes through some practical clinical examples how to increase diagnostic value of the method and to offer an adapted response to the orthopedic surgeon's attempts. (author)

  6. Radiochemicals used to scan the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for heart scanning using 201 Tl and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate are discussed. Thallium-201, produced artificially in a cyclotron, concentrates in normal heart muscle but not in abnormal tissue. Technetium-99m is deposited in mitochondria of heart cells that are irreversibly damaged. The combined use of 201 Tl and /sup 99m/Tc makes it possible to identify regions of recent heart damage as well as older heart damage. Advantages of using 129 Cs for heart scanning are also discussed

  7. Bone scanning in Shin Splint evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, M.; Lamoureux, F.; Lamoureux, J.; Danais, S.; Lacoste, P.; Duranceau, J.

    1983-01-01

    Jogging is increasingly popular; in U.S.A., in 1979 more than 25 millions people were considered joggers. Lesions of the locomotive system of the lower limbs are very frequent in athletes and the Shin Splint syndrome, for one, is very frequent. However this precise clinical entity, usually X-Ray negative, is ill-known. A bone scan study in a series of 30 athletes suffering from Shin Splints is presented. The bone scans being positive and typical were highly useful in confirming the clinical diagnosis. Moreover, follow-up studies were done in a number of these patients and results correlated well with the clinical evolution [fr

  8. Dexter: Data Extractor for scanned graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demleitner, Markus

    2011-12-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template.

  9. Role of bone scanning in osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; McKillop, J.H.; Bessent, R.G.; Boyle, I.T.; Turner, J.G.; Greig, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    The presence of eight ''metabolic features'' was assessed on the bone scintigrams of ten patients with osteomalacia. In all of these bone images, sufficient features were present to strongly suggest a metabolic disorder. These scintiphotos were included in a controlled blind study using 30 normal bone scans and 20 scans of metastatic disease. Nine of the ten metabolic bone images were correctly identified by two independent observers. Skeletal uptake of radiotracer, expressed as bone-to-soft-tissue ratio, was significantly higher in the osteomalacic patients than in a group of 80 controls

  10. Unit-cell refinement from powder diffraction scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawley, G.S.

    1981-01-01

    A procedure for the refinement of the crystal unit cell from a powder diffraction scan is presented. In this procedure knowledge of the crystal structure is not required, and at the end of the refinement a list of indexed intensities is produced. This list may well be usable as the starting point for the application of direct methods. The problems of least-squares ill-conditioning due to overlapping reflections are overcome by constraints. An example using decafluorocyclohexene, C 6 F 10 , shows the quality of fit obtained in a case which may even be a false minimum. The method should become more relevant as powder scans of improved resolution become available, through the use of pulsed neutron sources. (Auth.)

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of graphite edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niimi, Y.; Matsui, T.; Kambara, H.; Tagami, K.; Tsukada, M.; Fukuyama, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    We studied experimentally and theoretically the electronic local density of states (LDOS) near single-step edges at the surface of exfoliated graphite. In scanning tunneling microscopy measurements, we observed the (3x3)R30 o and honeycomb superstructures extending over 3-4-bar nm both from the zigzag and armchair edges. Calculations based on a density-functional-derived non-orthogonal tight-binding model show that these superstructures can coexist if the two types of edges admix each other in real graphite step edges. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy measurements near the zigzag edge reveal a clear peak in the LDOS at an energy below the Fermi energy by 20-bar meV. No such a peak was observed near the armchair edge. We concluded that this peak corresponds to the 'edge state' theoretically predicted for graphene ribbons, since a similar prominent LDOS peak due to the edge state is obtained by the first principles calculations

  12. Brain atrophy in Huntington's disease: A CT-scan study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starkstein, S.E.; Folstein, S.E.; Brandt, J.; McDonnell, A.; Folstein, M.

    1989-01-01

    CT-scan measurements of cortical and subcortical atrophy were carried out in 34 patients with Huntington's disease (HD). While a significant correlation was observed between parameters of subcortical atrophy (bicaudate ratio, bifrontal ratio and third ventricular ratio) and duration of the disease, there was no significant correlation between these parameters and age. On the other hand, measurements of cortical atrophy (frontal fissure ratio and cortical sulci ratio) correlated significantly with age but not with duration of the disease. When a group of 24 HD patients were compared on CT-scan measurements with a group of 24 age-matched normal controls, significant differences were obtained for all the variables examined, but the bicaudate ratio showed the highest sensitivity and specificity. Even mildly affected patients, with duration of motor symptoms less than 3 years had higher bicaudate ratios than age-matched controls. (orig.)

  13. Scanning gate microscopy on graphene: charge inhomogeneity and extrinsic doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalilian, Romaneh; Tian Jifa; Chen, Yong P; Jauregui, Luis A; Lopez, Gabriel; Roecker, Caleb; Jovanovic, Igor; Yazdanpanah, Mehdi M; Cohn, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    We have performed scanning gate microscopy (SGM) on graphene field effect transistors (GFET) using a biased metallic nanowire coated with a dielectric layer as a contact mode tip and local top gate. Electrical transport through graphene at various back gate voltages is monitored as a function of tip voltage and tip position. Near the Dirac point, the response of graphene resistance to the tip voltage shows significant variation with tip position, and SGM imaging displays mesoscopic domains of electron-doped and hole-doped regions. Our measurements reveal substantial spatial fluctuation in the carrier density in graphene due to extrinsic local doping from sources such as metal contacts, graphene edges, structural defects and resist residues. Our scanning gate measurements also demonstrate graphene's excellent capability to sense the local electric field and charges.

  14. Surpassing digital holography limits by lensless object scanning holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micó, Vicente; Ferreira, Carlos; García, Javier

    2012-04-23

    We present lensless object scanning holography (LOSH) as a fully lensless method, capable of improving image quality in reflective digital Fourier holography, by means of an extremely simplified experimental setup. LOSH is based on the recording and digital post-processing of a set of digital lensless holograms and results in a synthetic image with improved resolution, field of view (FOV), signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and depth of field (DOF). The superresolution (SR) effect arises from the generation of a synthetic aperture (SA) based on the linear movement of the inspected object. The same scanning principle enlarges the object FOV. SNR enhancement is achieved by speckle suppression and coherent artifacts averaging due to the coherent addition of the multiple partially overlapping bandpass images. And DOF extension is performed by digital refocusing to different object's sections. Experimental results showing an impressive image quality improvement are reported for a one-dimensional reflective resolution test target. © 2012 Optical Society of America

  15. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Elastic simulations and Arizona mine test

    KAUST Repository

    Hanafy, Sherif M.; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-01-01

    Elastic seismic simulations and field data tests are used to validate the theory of a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM). For nearfield elastic simulation, the SSTM results show superresolution to be better than λ/8 if the only scattered data are used as input data. If the direct P and S waves are muted then the resolution of the scatterer locations are within about λ/5. Seismic data collected in an Arizona tunnel showed a superresolution limit of at least λ/19. These test results are consistent with the theory of the SSTM and suggest that the SSTM can be a tool used by geophysicists as a probe for near-field scatterers.

  16. Poster - 25: Neutron Spectral Measurements around a Scanning Proton Beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kildea, John; Enger, Shirin; Maglieri, Robert; Mirzakhanian, Lalageh; Dahlgren, Christina Vallhagen; Dubeau, Jacques; Witharana, Sanjeeva [Medical Physics Unit, McGill University Health Centre, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Medical Physics Unit, McGill University, Skandion Clinic, Detec Inc., Gatineau, Quebec, Detec Inc., Gatineau, Quebec (Canada)

    2016-08-15

    We describe the measurements of neutron spectra that we undertook around a scanning proton beam at the Skandion proton therapy clinic in Uppsala, Sweden. Measurements were undertaken using an extended energy range Nested Neutron Spectrometer (NNS, Detec Inc., Gatineau, QC) operated in pulsed and current mode. Spectra were measured as a function of location in the treatment room and for various Bragg peak depths. Our preliminary unfolded data clearly show the direct, evaporation and thermal neutron peaks and we can show the effect on the neutron spectrum of a water phantom in the primary proton beam.

  17. Show Horse Welfare: Horse Show Competitors' Understanding, Awareness, and Perceptions of Equine Welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, Melissa A; Hiney, Kristina; Richardson, Jennifer C; Waite, Karen; Borron, Abigail; Brady, Colleen M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain a better understanding of stock-type horse show competitors' understanding of welfare and level of concern for stock-type show horses' welfare. Data were collected through an online questionnaire that included questions relating to (a) interest and general understanding of horse welfare, (b) welfare concerns of the horse show industry and specifically the stock-type horse show industry, (c) decision-making influences, and (d) level of empathic characteristics. The majority of respondents indicated they agree or strongly agree that physical metrics should be a factor when assessing horse welfare, while fewer agreed that behavioral and mental metrics should be a factor. Respondent empathy levels were moderate to high and were positively correlated with the belief that mental and behavioral metrics should be a factor in assessing horse welfare. Respondents indicated the inhumane practices that most often occur at stock-type shows include excessive jerking on reins, excessive spurring, and induced excessive unnatural movement. Additionally, respondents indicated association rules, hired trainers, and hired riding instructors are the most influential regarding the decisions they make related to their horses' care and treatment.

  18. Scan posture definition and hip girth measurement: the impact on clothing design and body scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simeon; Parker, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic measurement is central to product design and development; especially for body worn products and clothing. However, there is a large variation in measurement definitions, complicated by new body scanning technology that captures measurements in a posture different to traditional manual methods. Investigations of hip measurement definitions in current clothing measurement practices supports analysis of the effect of scan posture and hip measurement definition on the circumferences of the hip. Here, the hip girth is a key clothing measurement that is not defined in current body scanning measurement standards. Sixty-four participants were scanned in the standard scan posture of a [TC] 2 body scanner, and also in a natural posture similar to that of traditional manual measurement collection. Results indicate that scan posture affects hip girth circumferences, and that some current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. Recommendations are made concerning how the hip is defined in measurement practice and within body scanning for clothing product development. Practitioner Summary: The hip girth is an important measurement in garment design, yet its measurement protocol is not currently defined. We demonstrate that body posture during body scanning affects hip circumferences, and that current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. This paper also provides future measurement practice recommendations.

  19. The Scanning Theremin Microscope: A Model Scanning Probe Instrument for Hands-On Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quardokus, Rebecca C.; Wasio, Natalie A.; Kandel, S. Alex

    2014-01-01

    A model scanning probe microscope, designed using similar principles of operation to research instruments, is described. Proximity sensing is done using a capacitance probe, and a mechanical linkage is used to scan this probe across surfaces. The signal is transduced as an audio tone using a heterodyne detection circuit analogous to that used in…

  20. DepositScan, a Scanning Program to Measure Spray Deposition Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DepositScan, a scanning program was developed to quickly measure spray deposit distributions on water sensitive papers or Kromekote cards which are widely used for determinations of pesticide spray deposition quality on target areas. The program is installed in a portable computer and works with a ...

  1. Evolution of traumatic intracerebral hematoma. Analysis of sequential CT scans since per-acute stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaseki, Yoshishige; Horikoshi, Satoru [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Tamura, Masaru

    1984-05-01

    To clarify the evolution of traumatic intracerebral hematoma (TICH), initial computerized tomography (CT) scans of 28 TICH cases performed within one hour after head trauma were studied along with their follow-up CT scans. They were classified into the following two groups; per-acute group included seven cases in which TICH was completed on the initial CT scans taken within one hour after head injury and acute group included 21 cases in which the initial CT scans revealed isodensity or high density spot and repeat CT scans disclosed TICH by 48 hours after injury. In the per-acute group, initial CT scans showed a homogeneous, well defined, and high density mass (1.5-6.5 cm in diameter). In sequential CT scans of the three cases, the hematoma did not increase but spontaneously disappeared. Other four cases died early after head trauma. Their initial CT scans revealed a large high density mass (3-6.5 cm in diameter) combined with other extracerebral hemorrhages. In the acute group, initial CT scans demonstrated isodensity or high density spot and sequential CT scans showed mottled appearance of salt and pepper appearance, and after a while showed fusion of small high density areas to become a massive high density area (contusional hematoma) by 48 hours after injury. In six cases of this group, the contusional hematoma was removed within 24 hours after injury and in one case at 3.5 days. In other 14 cases, the hematomas shrank or disappeared spontaneously. From these results, it was considered that evolution of TICH's were classified into the two groups; per-acute group resulting from rupture of vessels and acute group resulting from contusion.

  2. Automatic Stem Mapping by Merging Several Terrestrial Laser Scans at the Feature and Decision Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Hyyppä

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Detailed up-to-date ground reference data have become increasingly important in quantitative forest inventories. Field reference data are conventionally collected at the sample plot level by means of manual measurements, which are both labor-intensive and time-consuming. In addition, the number of attributes collected from the tree stem is limited. More recently, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, using both single-scan and multi-scan techniques, has proven to be a promising solution for efficient stem mapping at the plot level. In the single-scan method, the laser scanner is placed at the center of the plot, creating only one scan, and all trees are mapped from the single-scan point cloud. Consequently, the occlusion of stems increases as the range of the scanner increases, depending on the forest’s attributes. In the conventional multi-scan method, several scans are made simultaneously inside and outside of the plot to collect point clouds representing all trees within the plot, and these scans are accurately co-registered by using artificial reference targets manually placed throughout the plot. The additional difficulty of applying the multi-scan method is due to the point-cloud registration of several scans not being fully automated yet. This paper proposes a multi-single-scan (MSS method to map the sample plot. The method does not require artificial reference targets placed on the plot or point-level registration. The MSS method is based on the fully automated processing of each scan independently and on the merging of the stem positions automatically detected from multiple scans to accurately map the sample plot. The proposed MSS method was tested on five dense forest plots. The results show that the MSS method significantly improves the stem-detection accuracy compared with the single-scan approach and achieves a mapping accuracy similar to that achieved with the multi-scan method, without the need for the point-level registration.

  3. Quantitative measurement of ventricular dilatation on CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okita, Naoshi; Mochizuki, Hiroshi; Takase, Sadao

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral atrophy might be judged from the ventricular dilatation with some indices, calculated from various ventricular width. But, there is no general agreement on what index is the most reliable. In this paper, we attempted to establish the index, easy to measure and most reliable. Our method is as follow. 1) We carried out the CT scan (EMI 1010) on 89 neurologically intact patients. Scans were parallel to orbito-meatal line (OML), and were 10 mm in thickness. On CT scan films, various width, area of anterior horns and area of bodies of lateral ventricles were measured. Measurement about the anterior horns of lateral ventricles were carried out on image the most clearly showed the foramen of Monro. And measurements about the bodies of lateral ventricles were on image, 20 mm above the image of anterior horn. Correlations of various width and areas were calculated. Then we proposed new indices with high correlations (over 0.9) with ventricular area; Anterior horn CVI (Cerebro-Ventricular Index) and Body CVI. 2) Patients with myotonic dystrophy show cerebral atrophy. We carried out the CT scan (GECT/T 8800) on 17 myotonic dystrophy patients and 30 controls. Between the two groups, age and sex were almost matched. In the two groups, we calculated our new indices as well as various indices which have been reported; Huckman number, Bifrontal CVI, Bicaudal CVI, Anterior horn index, Hirajima's index, and Cella-media index. The data were analyzed statistically. The ventricular dilatation of myotonic dystrophy patients is more definite with Anterior horn CVI, Bicaudal CVI and Body CVI (p<0.01). These indices have higher correlations with the ventricular area (about 0.9). (J.P.N.)

  4. An incidental finding of myocardial uptake on HDP bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: A 75 year old male referred with a history of wrist pain for a HDP bone scan(700Mbq) had dynamic and blood pool images. A posterior sweep and planar images were performed after 2 hours. The scan demonstrated a fracture of the left radial styloid, other degenerative arthritis and diffuse tracer uptake throughout the myocardium. The differential diagnoses included cardiac amyloid, myocardial infarction (MI) and calcific pericarditis. The patient, a non insulin dependent diabetic with previous MI in 1978 and hypertension had nocturnal dyspnoea and no chest pain. Chest X-ray was normal. ECG revealed old inferior infarct. Echocardiography showed mild hypokinesis of the inferior wall, low normal LV contractility, normal pericardium and no evidence of amyloid. A Rest (400Mbq) / Stress(1200Mbq) Sestamibi(MIBI) was performed to assess status of ischaemic heart disease (IHD). The patient experienced leg fatigue and shortness of breath but no chest pain. Rest ECG showed sinus bradycardia with ST/T wave changes. Stress ECG showed ST segment depression (0.5mm). Planar and SPECT studies showed reversible perfusion defects in the anterior wall and apex with a fixed inferolateral defect. Gated SPECT showed normal wall motion apart from the inferolateral infarct. The exact cause of the HDP uptake in the myocardium is unknown. The echo findings exclude amyloid or pericarditis. The MIBI study confirmed a small inferolateral infarct and myocardial ischaemia in the anterior wall and apex. The scan has affected patient management by diagnosing a fracture of the radial styloid and confirming previous infarction and myocardial ischaemia. An open view must be taken of the cardiac HDP uptake. The most likely diagnosis in this patient is silent IHD, which has been demonstrated in one other case known to us

  5. Best in show but not best shape: a photographic assessment of show dog body condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Such, Z R; German, A J

    2015-08-01

    Previous studies suggest that owners often wrongly perceive overweight dogs to be in normal condition. The body shape of dogs attending shows might influence owners' perceptions, with online images of overweight show winners having a negative effect. This was an observational in silico study of canine body condition. 14 obese-prone breeds and 14 matched non-obese-probe breeds were first selected, and one operator then used an online search engine to identify 40 images, per breed, of dogs that had appeared at a major national UK show (Crufts). After images were anonymised and coded, a second observer subjectively assessed body condition, in a single sitting, using a previously validated method. Of 1120 photographs initially identified, 960 were suitable for assessing body condition, with all unsuitable images being from longhaired breeds. None of the dogs (0 per cent) were underweight, 708 (74 per cent) were in ideal condition and 252 (26 per cent) were overweight. Pugs, basset hounds and Labrador retrievers were most likely to be overweight, while standard poodles, Rhodesian ridgebacks, Hungarian vizslas and Dobermanns were least likely to be overweight. Given the proportion of show dogs from some breeds that are overweight, breed standards should be redefined to be consistent with a dog in optimal body condition. British Veterinary Association.

  6. Scanning reference electrode techniques in localized corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Vyas, B.

    1979-04-01

    The principles, advantages, and implementations of scanning reference electrode techniques are reviewed. Data related to pitting, intergranular corrosion, welds and stress corrosion cracking are presented. The technique locates the position of localized corrosion and can be used to monitor the development of corrosion and changes in the corrosion rate under a wide range of conditions

  7. Exabyte helical scan devices at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Kaczar, K.; Oleynik, G.; Petravick, D.; Votava, M.; White, V.; Hockney, G.; Bracker, S.; de Miranda, J.M.

    1989-05-01

    Exabyte 8mm helical scan storage devices are in use at Fermilab in a number of applications. These devices have the functionality of magnetic tape, but use media which is much more economical and much more dense than conventional 9 track tape. 6 refs., 3 figs

  8. High resolution RGB color line scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Theodore E.; Huettig, Fred

    1998-04-01

    A color line scan camera family which is available with either 6000, 8000 or 10000 pixels/color channel, utilizes off-the-shelf lenses, interfaces with currently available frame grabbers, includes on-board pixel by pixel offset correction, and is configurable and controllable via RS232 serial port for computer controlled or stand alone operation is described in this paper. This line scan camera is based on an available 8000 element monochrome line scan camera designed by AOA for OEM use. The new color version includes improvements such as better packaging and additional user features which make the camera easier to use. The heart of the camera is a tri-linear CCD sensor with on-chip color balancing for maximum accuracy and pinned photodiodes for low lag response. Each color channel is digitized to 12 bits and all three channels are multiplexed together so that the resulting camera output video is either a 12 or 8 bit data stream at a rate of up to 24Megpixels/sec. Conversion from 12 to 8 bit, or user-defined gamma, is accomplished by on board user-defined video look up tables. The camera has two user-selectable operating modes; lows speed, high sensitivity mode or high speed, reduced sensitivity mode. The intended uses of the camera include industrial inspection, digital archiving, document scanning, and graphic arts applications.

  9. Electrochemical gating in scanning electrochemical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahonen, P.; Ruiz, V.; Kontturi, K.; Liljeroth, P.; Quinn, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) can be used to determine the conductivity of nanoparticle assemblies as a function of assembly potential. In contrast to conventional electron transport measurements, this method is unique in that electrical connection to the film is not

  10. Role of bone scanning in neonatal rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saul, P.D.; Lloyd, D.J.; Smith, F.W.

    1983-03-01

    Preterm infants are at increased risk from rickets. Radionuclide bone scanning is a useful aid in suspected cases. It offers advantages over conventional radiology in terms of sensitivity, radiation dose and extent of examination. Unsuspected fractures of clinical or medicolegal significance may be detected. Two cases are described in which the technique confirmed the diagnosis and assisted management.

  11. Fast rendering of scanned room geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Room acoustics are rendered in Virtual Realities based on models of the real world. These are typically rather coarse representations of the true geometry resulting in room impulse responses with a lack of natural detail. This problem can be overcome by using data scanned by sensors, such as e...

  12. Algorithms for coding scanned halftone pictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Forchhammer, Morten

    1988-01-01

    A method for coding scanned documents containing halftone pictures, e.g. newspapers and magazines, for transmission purposes is proposed. The halftone screen is estimated and the grey value of each dot is found, thus giving a compact description. At the receiver the picture is rescreened. A novel...

  13. Plague and the gallium scan: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahly, T.L.; Shoop, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Inflammation in the right axillary lymph nodes and the meninges was detected by 67 Ga-citrate scans in an 11-year-old boy with Yersinia pestis infection. This case provides another example of 67 Ga localizing to areas of infection, indicating potential utility in future cases of bubonic plague

  14. Study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A.J.; Pancarobo, M.; Denisenko, N.; Aguilar, M.; Rejon, V.; Pena, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics is made. The knowledge of its behaviour allows us to determine accurately the region where the unstable operation could effect the measurements, and also to set the optimal working parameters. Each feedback circuitry compound is discussed as well as their mutual interaction. Different working conditions analysis and results are presented. (Author) 12 refs

  15. Investigation into scanning tunnelling luminescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson-Smith, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    This work reports on the development of a scanning tunnelling luminescence (STL) microscope and its application to the study of Ill-nitride semiconductor materials used in the production of light emitting devices. STL microscopy is a technique which uses the high resolution topographic imaging capabilities of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to generate high resolution luminescence images. The STM tunnelling current acts as a highly localised source of electrons (or holes) which generates luminescence in certain materials. Light generated at the STM tunnelling junction is collected concurrently with the height variation of the tunnelling probe as it is scanned across a sample surface, producing simultaneous topographic and luminescence images. Due to the very localised excitation source, high resolution luminescence images can be obtained. Spectroscopic resolution can be obtained by using filters. Additionally, the variation of luminescence intensity with tunnel current and with bias voltage can provide information on recombination processes and material properties. The design and construction of a scanning tunnelling luminescence microscope is described in detail. Operating under ambient conditions, the microscope has several novel features, including a new type of miniature inertial slider-based approach motor, large solid-angle light collection optical arrangement and a tip-height regulation system which requires the minimum of operator input. (author)

  16. Eye scanning activity influenced by temperament traits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2005), s. 121 ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception 2005. 22.08.2005-26.08.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Eye movements * scanning * temperament * TCI-R * Rorschach test Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  17. High-pressure differential scanning microcalorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, A A; Dzhavadov, L N; Potekhin, S A

    2016-03-01

    A differential scanning microcalorimeter for studying thermotropic conformational transitions of biopolymers at high pressure has been designed. The calorimeter allows taking measurements of partial heat capacity of biopolymer solutions vs. temperature at pressures up to 3000 atm. The principles of operation of the device, methods of its calibration, as well as possible applications are discussed.

  18. Multiplatform Mobile Laser Scanning: Usability and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning is an emerging technology capable of capturing three-dimensional data from surrounding objects. With state-of-the-art sensors, the achieved point clouds capture object details with good accuracy and precision. Many of the applications involve civil engineering in urban areas, as well as traffic and other urban planning, all of which serve to make 3D city modeling probably the fastest growing market segment in this field. This article outlines multiplatform mobile laser scanning solutions such as vehicle- and trolley-operated urban area data acquisition, and boat-mounted equipment for fluvial environments. Moreover, we introduce a novel backpack version of mobile laser scanning equipment for surveying applications in the field of natural sciences where the requirements include precision and mobility in variable terrain conditions. In addition to presenting a technical description of the systems, we discuss the performance of the solutions in the light of various applications in the fields of urban mapping and modeling, fluvial geomorphology, snow-cover characterization, precision agriculture, and in monitoring the effects of climate change on permafrost landforms. The data performance of the mobile laser scanning approach is described by the results of an evaluation of the ROAMER on a permanent MLS test field. Furthermore, an in situ accuracy assessment using a field of spherical 3D targets for the newly-introduced Akhka backpack system is conducted and reported on.

  19. Laser scanning camera inspects hazardous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryatt, A.; Miprode, C.

    1985-01-01

    Main operational characteristics of a new laser scanning camera are presented. The camera is intended primarily for low level high resolution viewing inside nuclear reactors. It uses a He-Ne laser beam raster; by detecting the reflected light by means of a phomultiplier, the subject under observation can be reconstructed in an electronic video store and reviewed on a conventional monitor screen

  20. Efficient scanning of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Meenakshisundaram, V.

    1978-01-01

    Lead containers fabricated for transport of radioactive materials need to be evaluated for their shielding integrity. The common method of locating a strong gamma source inside the vessel and scanning the external surface by conventional detectors suffers from high radiation dose and low sensitivity. A new method has been proposed and tried. It is found to be more efficient. In the new method, 60 Co source is loaded at the centre of the lead vessel and the outer surface is scanned by NaI(Tl) detector. The transmitted virgin flux is scanned under the 60 Co channel in a single channel analyser. An area of 25 cm 2 is scanned for 10 to 20 seconds each time. The source strength required is considerably reduced by a factor of 10 or more as compared to the common method and external dose rates do not exceed 50 mR/h (130 nC. kg -1 h -1 ) on the vessel surface. The advantages are improved sensitivity, no interference from scattered radiation and assurance in repeatability of measurements. (M.G.B.)