SDR Input Power Estimation Algorithms
Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.
2013-01-01
The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.
SDR input power estimation algorithms
Briones, J. C.; Nappier, J. M.
The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.
Ahmad, Mukhtar
2012-01-01
State estimation is one of the most important functions in power system operation and control. This area is concerned with the overall monitoring, control, and contingency evaluation of power systems. It is mainly aimed at providing a reliable estimate of system voltages. State estimator information flows to control centers, where critical decisions are made concerning power system design and operations. This valuable resource provides thorough coverage of this area, helping professionals overcome challenges involving system quality, reliability, security, stability, and economy.Engineers are
Sagebrush Biomass Estimation Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning
Olsoy, P.; Glenn, N. F.; Clark, P. E.; Spaete, L.; Mitchell, J.; Shrestha, R.
2012-12-01
LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a proven tool for inventory of many vegetation types. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) has been demonstrated for estimation of biomass of trees, but the relatively low number of laser points (1-10 m-2) typical of ALS datasets makes estimating biomass of shrubs and small stature vegetation challenging. This study uses terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) to estimate sagebrush biomass (Artemisia tridentata subsp. wyomingensis) by relating destructively sampled estimates to TLS-derived volumetric estimates. At close range, TLS can commonly provide in excess of 100,000 3-D points for a single sagebrush of approximately 1 m3 in volume. In this study, thirty sagebrush were scanned and destructively sampled at 6 sites within Reynolds Creek Experimental Watershed in southwestern Idaho, USA. The 3-D point cloud data are converted into 1-cm voxels to give quantitative estimates of shrub volume. The accuracy of the TLS-based metrics for estimating biomass are then compared to several traditional plot sampling methods including point-intercept and simple crown dimension measurements. The findings of this study are expected to provide guidance on methods for data collection and analysis such that biomass can be accurately estimated across plot-scales (e.g., 100 m x 100 m).
Estimation of random bending strain using a scanning laser vibrometer
Miles, R. N.; Xu, Y.; Bao, W.
1993-01-01
Results are presented which were obtained from vibration measurements at discrete locations on a randomly excited structure to estimate the power spectral density of bending strain. The technique is intended to be applied using a scanning laser vibrometer to allow a non-contacting measurement of random bending strain over the surface of a structure. The experimental setup is described along with the data analysis procedure. The results presented here indicate that the method is practical and can lead to reliable estimates.
Power Quality Indices Estimation Platform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eliana I. Arango-Zuluaga
2013-11-01
Full Text Available An interactive platform for estimating the quality indices in single phase electric power systems is presented. It meets the IEEE 1459-2010 standard recommendations. The platform was developed in order to support teaching and research activities in electric power quality. The platform estimates the power quality indices from voltage and current signals using three different algorithms based on fast Fourier transform (FFT, wavelet packet transform (WPT and least squares method. The results show that the algorithms implemented are efficient for estimating the quality indices of the power and the platform can be used according to the objectives established.
A Novel Scan Architecture for Low Power Scan-Based Testing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mahshid Mojtabavi Naeini
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Test power has been turned to a bottleneck for test considerations as the excessive power dissipation has serious negative effects on chip reliability. In scan-based designs, rippling transitions caused by test patterns shifting along the scan chain not only elevate power consumption but also introduce spurious switching activities in the combinational logic. In this paper, we propose a novel area-efficient gating scan architecture that offers an integrated solution for reducing total average power in both scan cells and combinational part during shift mode. In the proposed gating scan structure, conventional master/slave scan flip-flop has been modified into a new gating scan cell augmented with state preserving and gating logic that enables average power reduction in combinational logic during shift mode. The new gating scan cells also mitigate the number of transitions during shift and capture cycles. Thus, it contributes to average power reduction inside the scan cell during scan shifting with low impact on peak power during capture cycle. Simulation results have shown that the proposed gating scan cell saves 28.17% total average power compared to conventional scan cell that has no gating logic and up to 44.79% compared to one of the most common existing gating architectures.
Tidal Power Plant Energy Estimation
Silva–Casarín R.; Hiriart–Le Bert G.; López–González J.
2010-01-01
In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of "flow tide" and the other "flow–ebb tides", with two tidal basin systems operating:...
Tidal Power Plant Energy Estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silva–Casarín R.
2010-04-01
Full Text Available In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of "flow tide" and the other "flow–ebb tides", with two tidal basin systems operating: single and double reservoir systems. To obtain the normalised nomograph the numerical results for simulations of several tidal power plants under differing operational conditions over a period of one year. These conditions were established by varying the electricity installed capacity, the hydraulic conditions in "flow tide", "ebb tides" or both and with single or double reservoir systems and using sea level information taken every 15 minutes. To validate the model information from the tidal power plant at Rance, France, was used, which includes data concerning production, electricity installed capacity, turbine characteristics and tidal ranges. A very good correlation was found between the results of the numerical model and those reported in various technical reports.
Extraction of power lines from mobile laser scanning data
Xiang, Qing; Li, Jonathan; Wen, Chenglu; Huang, Pengdi
2016-03-01
Modern urban life is becoming increasingly more dependent on reliable electric power supply. Since power outages cause substantial financial losses to producers, distributors and consumers of electric power, it is in the common interest to minimize failures of power lines. In order to detect defects as early as possible and to plan efficiently the maintenance activities, distribution networks are regularly inspected. Carrying out foot patrols or climbing the structures to visually inspect transmission lines and aerial surveys (e.g., digital imaging or most recent airborne laser scanning (ALS) are the two most commonly used methods of power line inspection. Although much faster in comparison to the foot patrol inspection, aerial inspection is more expensive and usually less accurate, in complex urban areas particularly. This paper presents a scientific work that is done in the use of mobile laser scanning (MLS) point clouds for automated extraction of power lines. In the proposed method, 2D power lines are extracted using Hough transform in the projected XOY plane and the 3D power line points are visualized after the point searching. Filtering based on an elevation threshold is applied, which is combined with the vehicle's trajectory in the horizontal section.
Lagrange time delay estimation for scanning electron microscope image magnification.
Sim, K-S; Thong, L W; Ting, H Y; Tso, C P
2010-02-01
Interpolation techniques that are used for image magnification to obtain more useful details of the surface such as morphology and mechanical contrast usually rely on the signal information distributed around edges and areas of sharp changes and these signal information can also be used to predict missing details from the sample image. However, many of these interpolation methods tend to smooth or blur out image details around the edges. In the present study, a Lagrange time delay estimation interpolator method is proposed and this method only requires a small filter order and has no noticeable estimation bias. Comparing results with the original scanning electron microscope magnification and results of various other interpolation methods, the Lagrange time delay estimation interpolator is found to be more efficient, more robust and easier to execute.
Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Osvaldo Rodríguez
Full Text Available Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.
Wind power error estimation in resource assessments.
Rodríguez, Osvaldo; Del Río, Jesús A; Jaramillo, Oscar A; Martínez, Manuel
2015-01-01
Estimating the power output is one of the elements that determine the techno-economic feasibility of a renewable project. At present, there is a need to develop reliable methods that achieve this goal, thereby contributing to wind power penetration. In this study, we propose a method for wind power error estimation based on the wind speed measurement error, probability density function, and wind turbine power curves. This method uses the actual wind speed data without prior statistical treatment based on 28 wind turbine power curves, which were fitted by Lagrange's method, to calculate the estimate wind power output and the corresponding error propagation. We found that wind speed percentage errors of 10% were propagated into the power output estimates, thereby yielding an error of 5%. The proposed error propagation complements the traditional power resource assessments. The wind power estimation error also allows us to estimate intervals for the power production leveled cost or the investment time return. The implementation of this method increases the reliability of techno-economic resource assessment studies.
Power Estimation in Multivariate Analysis of Variance
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean François Allaire
2007-09-01
Full Text Available Power is often overlooked in designing multivariate studies for the simple reason that it is believed to be too complicated. In this paper, it is shown that power estimation in multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA can be approximated using a F distribution for the three popular statistics (Hotelling-Lawley trace, Pillai-Bartlett trace, Wilk`s likelihood ratio. Consequently, the same procedure, as in any statistical test, can be used: computation of the critical F value, computation of the noncentral parameter (as a function of the effect size and finally estimation of power using a noncentral F distribution. Various numerical examples are provided which help to understand and to apply the method. Problems related to post hoc power estimation are discussed.
State Estimation in Subway Power Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ryu, Heon Su [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea); HA, Yeon Kwan [Hyosung Industrial PG, Seoul (Korea); Moon, Young Hyun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)
2002-01-01
It is required that the current state of system should be precisely monitored for efficient and safe operation of the subway power system and it is an important problem to secure the high quality data for state estimation. The current state of subway power system is estimation by using data transmitted to control center from every measuring instrument. The high accuracy and trust can be maintained if the measured data have a high quality. But it is difficult to estimate the accurate state of system because of the noises in transmitted data and the inaccuracy of measuring instruments. So the object is to reduce the difference between the real values and the measured values in order to improve considerably the inaccuracy due to instrumental errors and transmission noises using the state estimation method. In this paper, we proposes a new state estimation to estimate the accurate state of the subway power system from the measured values of a Sang-In station in Daegu subway and consider the possibility of application to the real subway power system on the basis of that. The simulation results show to make sure of the possibility to apply to the real system usefully. (author). 9 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.
Subsampling for graph power spectrum estimation
Chepuri, Sundeep Prabhakar
2016-10-06
In this paper we focus on subsampling stationary random signals that reside on the vertices of undirected graphs. Second-order stationary graph signals are obtained by filtering white noise and they admit a well-defined power spectrum. Estimating the graph power spectrum forms a central component of stationary graph signal processing and related inference tasks. We show that by sampling a significantly smaller subset of vertices and using simple least squares, we can reconstruct the power spectrum of the graph signal from the subsampled observations, without any spectral priors. In addition, a near-optimal greedy algorithm is developed to design the subsampling scheme.
Relative linear power contribution with estimation statistics
Lohnberg, P.
1983-01-01
The relative contribution by a noiselessly observed input signal to the power of a possibly disturbed observed stationary output signal from a linear system is expressed into signal spectral densities. Approximations of estimator statistics and derived confidence limits agree fairly well with
Power Spectrum Estimation of Randomly Sampled Signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara M.; Buchhave, Preben; K. George, William
2014-01-01
with high data rate and low inherent bias, respectively, while residence time weighting provides non-biased estimates regardless of setting. The free-running processor was also tested and compared to residence time weighting using actual LDA measurements in a turbulent round jet. Power spectra from...... of alternative methods attempting to produce correct power spectra have been invented andtested. The objective of the current study is to create a simple computer generated signal for baseline testing of residence time weighting and some of the most commonly proposed algorithms (or algorithms which most...... modernalgorithms ultimately are based on), sample-and-hold and the direct spectral estimator without residence time weighting, and compare how they perform in relation to power spectra based on the equidistantly sampled reference signal. The computer generated signal is a Poisson process with a sample rate...
Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.
2009-01-01
Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...
Power Spectrum Estimation of Randomly Sampled Signals
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, C. M.; Buchhave, P.; K. George, W.
. Residence time weighting provides non-biased estimates regardless of setting. The free-running processor was also tested and compared to residence time weighting using actual LDA measurements in a turbulent round jet. Power spectra from measurements on the jet centerline and the outer part of the jet...... sine waves. The primary signal and the corresponding power spectrum are shown in Figure 1. The conventional spectrum shows multiple erroneous mixing frequencies and the peak values are too low. The residence time weighted spectrum is correct. The sample-and-hold spectrum has lower power than...... the correct spectrum, and the f -2-filtering effect appearing for low data densities is evident (Adrian and Yao 1987). The remaining tests also show that sample-and-hold and the free-running processor perform well only under very particular circumstances with high data rate and low inherent bias, respectively...
Risović, Dubravko; Pavlović, Zivko
2013-01-01
Processing of gray scale images in order to determine the corresponding fractal dimension is very important due to widespread use of imaging technologies and application of fractal analysis in many areas of science, technology, and medicine. To this end, many methods for estimation of fractal dimension from gray scale images have been developed and routinely used. Unfortunately different methods (dimension estimators) often yield significantly different results in a manner that makes interpretation difficult. Here, we report results of comparative assessment of performance of several most frequently used algorithms/methods for estimation of fractal dimension. To that purpose, we have used scanning electron microscope images of aluminum oxide surfaces with different fractal dimensions. The performance of algorithms/methods was evaluated using the statistical Z-score approach. The differences between performances of six various methods are discussed and further compared with results obtained by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy on the same samples. The analysis of results shows that the performance of investigated algorithms varies considerably and that systematically erroneous fractal dimensions could be estimated using certain methods. The differential cube counting, triangulation, and box counting algorithms showed satisfactory performance in the whole investigated range of fractal dimensions. Difference statistic is proved to be less reliable generating 4% of unsatisfactory results. The performances of the Power spectrum, Partitioning and EIS were unsatisfactory in 29%, 38%, and 75% of estimations, respectively. The results of this study should be useful and provide guidelines to researchers using/attempting fractal analysis of images obtained by scanning microscopy or atomic force microscopy. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Estimation of pulses in ultrasound B-scan images
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Jørgen Arendt
1991-01-01
It is shown, based on an expression for the received pressure field in pulsed medical ultrasound systems, that a common one-dimensional pulse can be estimated from individual A-lines. An autoregressive moving average (ARMA) model is suggested for the pulse, and an estimator based on the prediction...... error method is derived. The estimator is used on a segment of an A-line, assuming that the pulse does not change significantly inside the segment. Several examples of the use of the estimator on synthetic data measured from a tissue phantom and in vitro data measured from a calf's liver are given....... They show that a pulse can be estimated even at moderate signal-to-noise ratios...
Pixel-wise estimation of noise statistics on iterative CT reconstruction from a single scan.
Wang, Tonghe; Zhu, Lei
2017-07-01
As iterative CT reconstruction continues to advance, the spatial distribution of noise standard deviation (STD) and accurate noise power spectrum (NPS) on the reconstructed CT images become important for method evaluation as well as optimization of algorithm parameters. Using a single CT scan, we propose a practical method for pixel-wise calculation of noise statistics on an iteratively reconstructed CT image, which enables accurate calculation of noise STD for each pixel and NPS. We first derive the noise propagation from measured projections to an iteratively reconstructed CT image provided that the projection noise is known. We then show that the model of noise propagation remains approximately unchanged for extra simulated noise added on the measured projections. To compute the noise STD map and the NPS map on an iteratively reconstructed CT image from a single scan, we first iteratively reconstruct the CT image from the measured projections using an existing reconstruction algorithm. The same measured projections are added by different sets (a total of 32 sets in our implementation) of projection noise simulated from an estimated projection noise model, and are then used to iteratively reconstruct different CT images. The calculations of the noise STD map and the NPS map are finally performed on the entire stack of these different reconstruction images. We evaluate our method on an anthropomorphic head phantom, and demonstrate the clinical utility on a set of head and neck patient CT data, using two iterative CT reconstruction algorithms: the penalized weighted least-square (PWLS) algorithm and the total-variation (TV) regularization. In the head phantom case, repeated scans are acquired to generate the ground truths of noise STD and NPS maps. Using only one single scan, the proposed method accurately calculates the noise STD maps with a root-mean-square error (RMSE) of less than 5HU. In the NPS map estimation, we compare the result of our proposed method with
E. Waarts (Eric); M.A. Carree (Martin); B. Wierenga (Berend)
1991-01-01
textabstractThe authors build on the idea put forward by Shugan to infer product maps from scanning data. They demonstrate that the actual estimation procedure used by Shugan has several methodological problems and may yield unstable estimates. They propose an alternative estimation procedure,
Low Power Design with High-Level Power Estimation and Power-Aware Synthesis
Ahuja, Sumit; Shukla, Sandeep Kumar
2012-01-01
Low-power ASIC/FPGA based designs are important due to the need for extended battery life, reduced form factor, and lower packaging and cooling costs for electronic devices. These products require fast turnaround time because of the increasing demand for handheld electronic devices such as cell-phones, PDAs and high performance machines for data centers. To achieve short time to market, design flows must facilitate a much shortened time-to-product requirement. High-level modeling, architectural exploration and direct synthesis of design from high level description enable this design process. This book presents novel research techniques, algorithms,methodologies and experimental results for high level power estimation and power aware high-level synthesis. Readers will learn to apply such techniques to enable design flows resulting in shorter time to market and successful low power ASIC/FPGA design. Integrates power estimation and reduction for high level synthesis, with low-power, high-level design; Shows spec...
Are local wind power resources well estimated?
Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Troen, Ib; Jørgensen, Hans E.; Mann, Jakob
2013-03-01
Planning and financing of wind power installations require very importantly accurate resource estimation in addition to a number of other considerations relating to environment and economy. Furthermore, individual wind energy installations cannot in general be seen in isolation. It is well known that the spacing of turbines in wind farms is critical for maximum power production. It is also well established that the collective effect of wind turbines in large wind farms or of several wind farms can limit the wind power extraction downwind. This has been documented by many years of production statistics. For the very large, regional sized wind farms, a number of numerical studies have pointed to additional adverse changes to the regional wind climate, most recently by the detailed studies of Adams and Keith [1]. They show that the geophysical limit to wind power production is likely to be lower than previously estimated. Although this problem is of far future concern, it has to be considered seriously. In their paper they estimate that a wind farm larger than 100 km2 is limited to about 1 W m-2. However, a 20 km2 off shore farm, Horns Rev 1, has in the last five years produced 3.98 W m-2 [5]. In that light it is highly unlikely that the effects pointed out by [1] will pose any immediate threat to wind energy in coming decades. Today a number of well-established mesoscale and microscale models exist for estimating wind resources and design parameters and in many cases they work well. This is especially true if good local data are available for calibrating the models or for their validation. The wind energy industry is still troubled by many projects showing considerable negative discrepancies between calculated and actually experienced production numbers and operating conditions. Therefore it has been decided on a European Union level to launch a project, 'The New European Wind Atlas', aiming at reducing overall uncertainties in determining wind conditions. The
Fetal age estimation using MSCT scans of deciduous tooth germs.
Minier, Marie; Maret, Delphine; Dedouit, Fabrice; Vergnault, Marion; Mokrane, Fathima-Zohra; Rousseau, Hervé; Adalian, Pascal; Telmon, Norbert; Rougé, Daniel
2014-01-01
Evaluation of fetal age is an essential element in many fields such as anthropology, odontology, paleopathology, and forensic sciences. This study examines the correlation between fetal age, femoral diaphyseal length (considered as the gold standard), and deciduous tooth germs of fetuses aged 22 to 40 weeks amenorrhea (WA) based on computed tomography (MSCT) reconstructions. Qualitative and quantitative studies of femoral and deciduous tooth germ lengths were performed on 81 fetuses (39 females and 42 males). R software was used for statistical analyses. Intra-observer and inter-observer variabilities and the interclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were calculated. Correlation coefficients (R (2)) and linear regression equations were calculated. Intra- and inter-observer variabilities were very satisfactory (intra-observer ICC ≥ 0.96, inter-observer ICC ≥ 0.95). Femoral length was significantly correlated with age (R (2) = 0.9). The correlation coefficient between age and height, width, and dental volume was R (2) ≥ 0.73. Tooth germs were good indicators of fetal age. Our method appears to be reliable and reproducible, and the results of this study agreed with those of the literature. The dental formula provided a precise estimation of fetal age between 25 and 32 WA. Tooth germs were reliable indicators of fetal age, and multislice computed tomography was shown to be an innovative and reliable technology for this purpose.
Sound Power Estimation by Laser Doppler Vibration Measurement Techniques
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.M. Revel
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose simple and quick methods for the determination of the sound power emitted by a vibrating surface, by using non-contact vibration measurement techniques. In order to calculate the acoustic power by vibration data processing, two different approaches are presented. The first is based on the method proposed in the Standard ISO/TR 7849, while the second is based on the superposition theorem. A laser-Doppler scanning vibrometer has been employed for vibration measurements. Laser techniques open up new possibilities in this field because of their high spatial resolution and their non-intrusivity. The technique has been applied here to estimate the acoustic power emitted by a loudspeaker diaphragm. Results have been compared with those from a commercial Boundary Element Method (BEM software and experimentally validated by acoustic intensity measurements. Predicted and experimental results seem to be in agreement (differences lower than 1 dB thus showing that the proposed techniques can be employed as rapid solutions for many practical and industrial applications. Uncertainty sources are addressed and their effect is discussed.
Accuracy of tree diameter estimation from terrestrial laser scanning by circle-fitting methods
Koreň, Milan; Mokroš, Martin; Bucha, Tomáš
2017-12-01
This study compares the accuracies of diameter at breast height (DBH) estimations by three initial (minimum bounding box, centroid, and maximum distance) and two refining (Monte Carlo and optimal circle) circle-fitting methods The circle-fitting algorithms were evaluated in multi-scan mode and a simulated single-scan mode on 157 European beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.). DBH measured by a calliper was used as reference data. Most of the studied circle-fitting algorithms significantly underestimated the mean DBH in both scanning modes. Only the Monte Carlo method in the single-scan mode significantly overestimated the mean DBH. The centroid method proved to be the least suitable and showed significantly different results from the other circle-fitting methods in both scanning modes. In multi-scan mode, the accuracy of the minimum bounding box method was not significantly different from the accuracies of the refining methods The accuracy of the maximum distance method was significantly different from the accuracies of the refining methods in both scanning modes. The accuracy of the Monte Carlo method was significantly different from the accuracy of the optimal circle method in only single-scan mode. The optimal circle method proved to be the most accurate circle-fitting method for DBH estimation from point clouds in both scanning modes.
Estimation of power system variability due to wind power
Papaefthymiou, G.; Verboomen, J.; Van der Sluis, L.
2007-01-01
The incorporation of wind power generation to the power system leads to an increase in the variability of the system power flows. The assessment of this variability is necessary for the planning of the necessary system reinforcements. For the assessment of this variability, the uncertainty in the
Nondestructive estimates of above-ground biomass using terrestrial laser scanning
Calders, K.; Newnham, G.; Burt, A.; Murphy, S.; Raumonen, P.; Herold, M.; Culvenor, D.; Avitabile, V.; Disney, M.; Armston, J.; Kaasalainen, M.
2015-01-01
Allometric equations are currently used to estimate above-ground biomass (AGB) based on the indirect relationship with tree parameters. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) can measure the canopy structure in 3D with high detail. In this study, we develop an approach to estimate AGB from TLS data, which
Patient dose estimation from CT scans at the Mexican National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alva-Sánchez, Héctor, E-mail: halva@ciencias.unam.mx [Unidad de Imagen Molecular PET/CT, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Insurgentes Sur 3877 Col. La Fama, 14269, México D.F. (Mexico); Reynoso-Mejía, Alberto [Unidad de Imagen Molecular PET/CT, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Insurgentes Sur 3877 Col. La Fama, 14269, México D.F., Mexico and Departamento de Neuroimagen, Instituto Nacional de (Mexico); Casares-Cruz, Katiuzka; Taboada-Barajas, Jesús [Departamento de Neuroimagen, Instituto Nacional de Neurología y Neurocirugía Manuel Velasco Suárez, Insurgentes Sur 3877 Col. La Fama, 14269, México D.F. (Mexico)
2014-11-07
In the radiology department of the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, a dedicated institute in Mexico City, on average 19.3 computed tomography (CT) examinations are performed daily on hospitalized patients for neurological disease diagnosis, control scans and follow-up imaging. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effective dose received by hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan using typical effective dose values for all CT types and to obtain the estimated effective dose distributions received by surgical and non-surgical patients. Effective patient doses were estimated from values per study type reported in the applications guide provided by the scanner manufacturer. This retrospective study included all hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012. A total of 8777 CT scans were performed in this two-year period. Simple brain scan was the CT type performed the most (74.3%) followed by contrasted brain scan (6.1%) and head angiotomography (5.7%). The average number of CT scans per patient was 2.83; the average effective dose per patient was 7.9 mSv; the mean estimated radiation dose was significantly higher for surgical (9.1 mSv) than non-surgical patients (6.0 mSv). Three percent of the patients had 10 or more brain CT scans and exceeded the organ radiation dose threshold set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for deterministic effects of the eye-lens. Although radiation patient doses from CT scans were in general relatively low, 187 patients received a high effective dose (>20 mSv) and 3% might develop cataract from cumulative doses to the eye lens.
Patient dose estimation from CT scans at the Mexican National Neurology and Neurosurgery Institute
Alva-Sánchez, Héctor; Reynoso-Mejía, Alberto; Casares-Cruz, Katiuzka; Taboada-Barajas, Jesús
2014-11-01
In the radiology department of the Mexican National Institute of Neurology and Neurosurgery, a dedicated institute in Mexico City, on average 19.3 computed tomography (CT) examinations are performed daily on hospitalized patients for neurological disease diagnosis, control scans and follow-up imaging. The purpose of this work was to estimate the effective dose received by hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan using typical effective dose values for all CT types and to obtain the estimated effective dose distributions received by surgical and non-surgical patients. Effective patient doses were estimated from values per study type reported in the applications guide provided by the scanner manufacturer. This retrospective study included all hospitalized patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2012. A total of 8777 CT scans were performed in this two-year period. Simple brain scan was the CT type performed the most (74.3%) followed by contrasted brain scan (6.1%) and head angiotomography (5.7%). The average number of CT scans per patient was 2.83; the average effective dose per patient was 7.9 mSv; the mean estimated radiation dose was significantly higher for surgical (9.1 mSv) than non-surgical patients (6.0 mSv). Three percent of the patients had 10 or more brain CT scans and exceeded the organ radiation dose threshold set by the International Commission on Radiological Protection for deterministic effects of the eye-lens. Although radiation patient doses from CT scans were in general relatively low, 187 patients received a high effective dose (>20 mSv) and 3% might develop cataract from cumulative doses to the eye lens.
Scanning high-power continuous wave laser-generated bulk acoustic waves.
Li, Zheng; Yan, Shiling; Xie, Qingnan; Ni, Chenyin; Shen, Zhonghua
2017-05-20
The ultrasonic bulk waves generated by a high-power continuous laser scanning along the surface of aluminum material were theoretically investigated. Although the temperature rise generated by this scanning laser irradiation was small, it provided a large temperature gradient, which was able to generate measurable ultrasonic waves. Detailed discussions were given to the influence of scanning speed on the generation propagation direction and the amplitude of the wavefront. The longitudinal and transverse waves would be generated in the material only when the scanning speeds reached a certain range. What's more, the amplitude of the wavefronts were significantly enhanced if the wavefront angle controlled by the scanning speed matched with the propagation direction of the ultrasound. In summary, it expounded a method to obtain the ultrasonic signal of direction, controlled from the perspective of numerical simulation, as long as the scanning speed met the requirements.
Estimation of the Possible Power of a Wind Farm
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mirzaei, Mahmood; Göçmen Bozkurt, Tuhfe; Giebel, Gregor
2014-01-01
the possible power calculated based on the estimated effective wind speed of a down regulated wind farm (the industry standard) is compared against the calculated possible power based on the algorithm presented in the paper. The latter takes into account the eect of the wakes of down regulated turbines...... and the available power in the farm. The total amount of energy that a wind farm can potentially generate is called possible power. It is very important for a wind farm owner to have a relatively accurate estimate of the possible power of the wind farm in order to be able to trade the reserve power. In this paper...... and therefore gives a more accurate measure of the possible power. It is shown that for an interval of wind speeds the difference between these two can increase the uncertainty in the estimate of the possible power of the down regulated wind farm....
Junction temperature estimation for an advanced active power cycling test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Choi, Uimin; Blaabjerg, Frede; Jørgensen, S.
2015-01-01
estimation method using on-state VCE for an advanced active power cycling test is proposed. The concept of the advanced power cycling test is explained first. Afterwards the junction temperature estimation method using on-state VCE and current is presented. Further, the method to improve the accuracy...
Experimental and Analytical Power Flow in Beams Using a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan D. Blotter
1996-01-01
Full Text Available An experimental spatial power-flow (ESPF method is presented. This method provides a spatially continuous model of the power-flow vector field derived from experimental measurements. The power-flow vector field clearly indicates locations of energy sources and sinks as well as paths of energy transmission. In the ESPF approach, a scanning laser Doppler vibrometer acquires spatially dense measurements of the vibrating test structure. These measurements are used in solving for a spatially continuous 3-dimensional complex-valued model of the steady-state dynamic response. From this experimentally derived dynamics model, a spatial representation of the power flow is computed.
Data Based Parameter Estimation Method for Circular-scanning SAR Imaging
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chen Gong-bo
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The circular-scanning Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is a novel working mode and its image quality is closely related to the accuracy of the imaging parameters, especially considering the inaccuracy of the real speed of the motion. According to the characteristics of the circular-scanning mode, a new data based method for estimating the velocities of the radar platform and the scanning-angle of the radar antenna is proposed in this paper. By referring to the basic conception of the Doppler navigation technique, the mathematic model and formulations for the parameter estimation are firstly improved. The optimal parameter approximation based on the least square criterion is then realized in solving those equations derived from the data processing. The simulation results verified the validity of the proposed scheme.
CT scan range estimation using multiple body parts detection: let PACS learn the CT image content.
Wang, Chunliang; Lundström, Claes
2016-02-01
The aim of this study was to develop an efficient CT scan range estimation method that is based on the analysis of image data itself instead of metadata analysis. This makes it possible to quantitatively compare the scan range of two studies. In our study, 3D stacks are first projected to 2D coronal images via a ray casting-like process. Trained 2D body part classifiers are then used to recognize different body parts in the projected image. The detected candidate regions go into a structure grouping process to eliminate false-positive detections. Finally, the scale and position of the patient relative to the projected figure are estimated based on the detected body parts via a structural voting. The start and end lines of the CT scan are projected to a standard human figure. The position readout is normalized so that the bottom of the feet represents 0.0, and the top of the head is 1.0. Classifiers for 18 body parts were trained using 184 CT scans. The final application was tested on 136 randomly selected heterogeneous CT scans. Ground truth was generated by asking two human observers to mark the start and end positions of each scan on the standard human figure. When compared with the human observers, the mean absolute error of the proposed method is 1.2% (max: 3.5%) and 1.6% (max: 5.4%) for the start and end positions, respectively. We proposed a scan range estimation method using multiple body parts detection and relative structure position analysis. In our preliminary tests, the proposed method delivered promising results.
Influence of anterior segment power on the scan path and RNFL thickness using SD-OCT.
Patel, Nimesh B; Garcia, Brenda; Harwerth, Ronald S
2012-08-24
Retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measures with spectral domain-optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) provide important information on the health of the optic nerve. As with most retinal imaging technologies, ocular magnification characteristics of the eye must be considered for accurate analysis. While effects of axial length have been reported, the effects of anterior segment optical power on RNFL thickness measures have not been described fully to our knowledge. The purpose of our study was to determine the influence of the optical power change at the anterior corneal surface, using contact lenses, on the location of the scan path and measurements of RNFL thickness in normal healthy eyes. We recruited 15 normal subjects with less than 6 diopters (D) of ametropia and no ocular pathology. One eye of each subject was selected randomly for scanning. Baseline SD-OCT scans included raster cubes centered on the optic nerve and macula, and a standard 12-degree diameter RNFL scan. Standard 12-degree RNFL scans were repeated with 10 separate contact lenses, (Proclear daily, Omafilcon A/60%) ranging from +8 to -12 D in 2-D steps. The extent of the retinal scan, and RNFL thickness and area measures were quantified using custom MATLAB programs that included ocular biometry measures (IOL Master). RNFL thickness decreased (0.52 μm/D, r = -0.33, P optics of the eye, including anterior segment power and axial length. The relationships between RNFL thickness measures and optical power are a direct reflection of scan path location with respect to the optic nerve head rim, caused by relative magnification. An incorporation of transverse scaling to RNFL area measures, based on individualized ocular biometry, eliminated the magnification effect.
Georeferenced Scanning System to Estimate the Leaf Wall Area in Tree Crops
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ignacio del-Moral-Martínez
2015-04-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR system to scan the vegetation of tree crops to estimate the so-called pixelated leaf wall area (PLWA. Scanning rows laterally and considering only the half-canopy vegetation to the line of the trunks, PLWA refers to the vertical projected area without gaps detected by LiDAR. As defined, PLWA may be different depending on the side from which the LiDAR is applied. The system is completed by a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU sensor for positioning. At the end, a total leaf wall area (LWA is computed and assigned to the X, Y position of each vertical scan. The final value of the area depends on the distance between two consecutive scans (or horizontal resolution, as well as the number of intercepted points within each scan, since PLWA is only computed when the laser beam detects vegetation. To verify system performance, tests were conducted related to the georeferencing task and synchronization problems between GPS time and central processing unit (CPU time. Despite this, the overall accuracy of the system is generally acceptable. The Leaf Area Index (LAI can then be estimated using PLWA as an explanatory variable in appropriate linear regression models.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede
2015-01-01
As a key component in the wind turbine system, the power electronic converter and its power semiconductors suffer from complicated power loadings related to environment, and are proven to have high failure rates. Therefore, correct lifetime estimation of wind power converter is crucial...... for the reliability improvement and also for cost reduction of wind power technology. Unfortunately, the existing lifetime estimation methods for the power electronic converter are not yet suitable in the wind power application, because the comprehensive mission profiles are not well specified and included....... Consequently, a relative more advanced approach is proposed in this paper, which is based on the loading and strength analysis of devices and takes into account different time constants of the thermal behaviors in power converter. With the established methods for loading and lifetime estimation for power...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ozonoff Al
2010-07-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background A common, important problem in spatial epidemiology is measuring and identifying variation in disease risk across a study region. In application of statistical methods, the problem has two parts. First, spatial variation in risk must be detected across the study region and, second, areas of increased or decreased risk must be correctly identified. The location of such areas may give clues to environmental sources of exposure and disease etiology. One statistical method applicable in spatial epidemiologic settings is a generalized additive model (GAM which can be applied with a bivariate LOESS smoother to account for geographic location as a possible predictor of disease status. A natural hypothesis when applying this method is whether residential location of subjects is associated with the outcome, i.e. is the smoothing term necessary? Permutation tests are a reasonable hypothesis testing method and provide adequate power under a simple alternative hypothesis. These tests have yet to be compared to other spatial statistics. Results This research uses simulated point data generated under three alternative hypotheses to evaluate the properties of the permutation methods and compare them to the popular spatial scan statistic in a case-control setting. Case 1 was a single circular cluster centered in a circular study region. The spatial scan statistic had the highest power though the GAM method estimates did not fall far behind. Case 2 was a single point source located at the center of a circular cluster and Case 3 was a line source at the center of the horizontal axis of a square study region. Each had linearly decreasing logodds with distance from the point. The GAM methods outperformed the scan statistic in Cases 2 and 3. Comparing sensitivity, measured as the proportion of the exposure source correctly identified as high or low risk, the GAM methods outperformed the scan statistic in all three Cases. Conclusions The GAM
Micro-scanning mirrors for high-power laser applications in laser surgery
Sandner, Thilo; Kimme, Simon; Grasshoff, Thomas; Todt, Ulrich; Graf, Alexander; Tulea, Cristian; Lenenbach, Achim; Schenk, Harald
2014-03-01
We present two novel micro scanning mirrors with large aperture and HR dielectric coatings suitable for high power laser applications in a miniaturized laser-surgical instrument for neurosurgery to cut skull tissue. An electrostatic driven 2D-raster scanning mirror with 5x7.1mm aperture is used for dynamic steering of a ps-laser beam of the laser cutting process. A second magnetic 2D-beam steering mirror enables a static beam correction of a hand guided laser instrument. Optimizations of a magnetic gimbal micro mirror with 6 mm x 8 mm mirror plate are presented; here static deflections of 3° were reached. Both MEMS devices were successfully tested with a high power ps-laser at 532nm up to 20W average laser power.
[Progress in thin layer CT scan technology in estimating skeletal age of sternal end of clavicle].
Wang, Ya-Hui; Wei, Hua; Ying, Chong-Liang; Wan, Lei; Zhu, Guang-You
2013-04-01
It is practical value for determination the teenagers whether the age is full of the legal responsibility age of 18 years old or not by estimating skeletal age of sternal end of clavicle. The traditional methods mainly based on X-ray radiography. However, sternal end of clavicle and adjacent lung, bronchus, sternum, rib, transverse process of thoracic vertebra are overlapped each other. As a result of overlapping, there will be obtained false negative or positive film reading results when according to X-ray observation of epiphyseal growth of sternal end of clavicle, which directly affect the scientificalness and accuracy of estimating of skeletal age. In recent years, the scholars at home and abroad have started to use thin layer CT scan technology to estimate skeletal age of the sternal end of clavicle. With the 2D and 3D CT recombination technology, the accuracy of the film reading distinctly improves by making the shape, size and position of epiphysis displayed clearly. This article reviews the application and research progress of thin layer CT scanning technology in estimating skeletal age of sternal end of clavicle at home and abroad, analyzes the superiority and value of thin layer CT scan technology, which applied to skeletal age of sternal end of clavicle.
Beam Size Estimation from Luminosity Scans at the LHC During 2015 Proton Physics Operation
Hostettler, Michael
2016-01-01
As a complementary method for measuring the beam size for high-intensity beams at 6.5 TeV flat-top energy, beam separation scans were done regularly at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) during 2015 proton physics operation. The luminosities measured by the CMS experiment during the scans were used to derive the convoluted beam size and orbit offset bunch-by-bunch. This contribution will elaborate on the method used to derive plane-by-plane, bunch-by-bunch emittances from the scan data, including uncertainties and corrections. The measurements are then compared to beam size estimations from absolute luminosity, synchrotron light telescopes, and wire scanners. In particular, the evolution of the emittance over the course of several hours in collisions is studied and bunch-by-bunch differences are highlighted.
Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Locations data set combines information from a global data set developed by Declan Butler of...
Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 127; Issue 3. Coefficient estimates of negative powers and inverse coefficients for certain starlike functions. MD FIROZ ALI A ... Keywords. Univalent; starlike; meromorphic functions; subordination; coefficient bounds; inverse coefficient bounds ...
Power system static state estimation using Kalman filter algorithm
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saikia Anupam
2016-01-01
Full Text Available State estimation of power system is an important tool for operation, analysis and forecasting of electric power system. In this paper, a Kalman filter algorithm is presented for static estimation of power system state variables. IEEE 14 bus system is employed to check the accuracy of this method. Newton Raphson load flow study is first carried out on our test system and a set of data from the output of load flow program is taken as measurement input. Measurement inputs are simulated by adding Gaussian noise of zero mean. The results of Kalman estimation are compared with traditional Weight Least Square (WLS method and it is observed that Kalman filter algorithm is numerically more efficient than traditional WLS method. Estimation accuracy is also tested for presence of parametric error in the system. In addition, numerical stability of Kalman filter algorithm is tested by considering inclusion of zero mean errors in the initial estimates.
Energy parameter estimation in solar powered wireless sensor networks
Mousa, Mustafa
2014-02-24
The operation of solar powered wireless sensor networks is associated with numerous challenges. One of the main challenges is the high variability of solar power input and battery capacity, due to factors such as weather, humidity, dust and temperature. In this article, we propose a set of tools that can be implemented onboard high power wireless sensor networks to estimate the battery condition and capacity as well as solar power availability. These parameters are very important to optimize sensing and communications operations and maximize the reliability of the complete system. Experimental results show that the performance of typical Lithium Ion batteries severely degrades outdoors in a matter of weeks or months, and that the availability of solar energy in an urban solar powered wireless sensor network is highly variable, which underlines the need for such power and energy estimation algorithms.
Computational Error Estimate for the Power Series Solution of Odes ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
This paper compares the error estimation of power series solution with recursive Tau method for solving ordinary differential equations. From the computational viewpoint, the power series using zeros of Chebyshevpolunomial is effective, accurate and easy to use. Keywords: Lanczos Tau method, Chebyshev polynomial, ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eriksen, Nanna; Rostrup, E; Andersen, K
2010-01-01
applied stereological techniques to representative CT and MRI brain scans from five patients to describe how stereological methods, when applied to scans of trauma patients, can provide a useful supplement to the estimation of structural brain changes in head injuries. The reliability of the estimates...... traditional imaging methods are not always applicable and automatic methods may not be able to match the individual observer. Stereological techniques are alternative tools in the quantitative description of biological structures, and have been increasingly applied to the human brain. In the present study, we......Severe brain damage is often followed by serious complications. Quantitative measurements, such as regional volume and surface area under various conditions, are essential for understanding functional changes in the brain and assessing prognosis. The affected brain tissue is variable, hence...
Gupta, Vaibhav; Reinke, Karin; Jones, Simon; Wallace, Luke; Holden, Lucas
2015-01-01
Quantifying post-fire effects in a forested landscape is important to ascertain burn severity, ecosystem recovery and post-fire hazard assessments and mitigation planning. Reporting of such post-fire effects assumes significance in fire-prone countries such as USA, Australia, Spain, Greece and Portugal where prescribed burns are routinely carried out. This paper describes the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to estimate and map change in the forest understorey following a prescribed bu...
Scanning probe microscopy estimation of the wear resistance of the surface of a modified PVC film
Kochetkova, A. S.; Gorbushin, P. N.; Sosnov, E. A.; Kolert, K.; Malygin, A. A.
2017-04-01
An atomic force microscopy technique is proposed to determine the wear resistance of a protective coating deposited by the sol-gel method on the surface of a polyvinylchloride film. The force of action of a probe on a sample is estimated under various scanning conditions. It is shown that the obtained data on the resistance of a coating to the action of a probe in the contact mode can be used to qualitatively estimate the adhesion of the coating to the surface of a polymer matrix.
Sim, Kok Swee; NorHisham, Syafiq
2016-11-01
A technique based on linear Least Squares Regression (LSR) model is applied to estimate signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. In order to test the accuracy of this technique on SNR estimation, a number of SEM images are initially corrupted with white noise. The autocorrelation function (ACF) of the original and the corrupted SEM images are formed to serve as the reference point to estimate the SNR value of the corrupted image. The LSR technique is then compared with the previous three existing techniques known as nearest neighbourhood, first-order interpolation, and the combination of both nearest neighborhood and first-order interpolation. The actual and the estimated SNR values of all these techniques are then calculated for comparison purpose. It is shown that the LSR technique is able to attain the highest accuracy compared to the other three existing techniques as the absolute difference between the actual and the estimated SNR value is relatively small. SCANNING 38:771-782, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
A simplified method of estimating noise power spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hanson, K.M.
1998-12-01
A technique to estimate the radial dependence of the noise power spectrum of images is proposed in which the calculations are conducted solely in the spatial domain of the noise image. The noise power spectrum averaged over a radial spatial-frequency interval is obtained form the variance of a noise image that has been convolved with a small kernel that approximates a Laplacian operator. Recursive consolidation of the image by factors of two in each dimension yields estimates of the noise power spectrum over that full range of spatial frequencies.
Optimization of an Adaptive SPECT System with the Scanning Linear Estimator.
Ghanbari, Nasrin; Clarkson, Eric; Kupinski, Matthew; Li, Xin
2017-09-01
A method for optimization of an adaptive Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system is presented. Adaptive imaging systems can quickly change their hardware configuration in response to data being generated in order to improve image quality for a specific task. In this work we simulate an adaptive SPECT system and propose a method for finding the adaptation that maximizes the performance on a signal estimation task. To start with, a simulated object model containing a spherical signal is imaged with a scout configuration. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique utilizes the scout data to generate an ensemble of possible objects consistent with the scout data. This object ensemble is imaged by numerous simulated hardware configurations and for each system estimates of signal activity, size and location are calculated via the Scanning Linear Estimator (SLE). A figure of merit, based on a Modified Dice Index (MDI), quantifies the performance of each imaging configuration and it allows for optimization of the adaptive SPECT. This figure of merit is calculated by multiplying two terms: the first term uses the definition of the Dice similarity index to determine the percent of overlap between the actual and the estimated spherical signal, the second term utilizes an exponential function that measures the squared error for the activity estimate. The MDI combines the error in estimates of activity, size, and location, in one convenient metric and it allows for simultaneous optimization of the SPECT system with respect to all the estimated signal parameters. The results of our optimizations indicate that the adaptive system performs better than a non-adaptive one in conditions where the diagnostic scan has a low photon count - on the order of thousand photons per projection. In a statistical study, we optimized the SPECT system for one hundred unique objects and demonstrated that the average MDI on an estimation task is 0.84 for the adaptive system and 0
Estimating Discrete Power Angular Spectra in Multiprobe OTA Setups
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fan, Wei; Nielsen, Jesper Ødum; Pedersen, Gert Frølund
2014-01-01
The letter discusses over-the-air (OTA) testing for multiple-input–multiple-output (MIMO) capable terminals with emphasis on estimating discrete power angular spectrum modeled at the receiver (Rx) side in the test zone. Two techniques based on a uniform circular array (UCA) are proposed to obtain...... accurate direction-of-arrival estimates as well as power estimates of the impinging signals in the test zone. Simulation results match well with the target, as expected. Measurement results based on a virtual UCA in a practical 3-D multiprobe setup further support the simulation results. Possible reasons...... for the deviations between simulations and measurements are also investigated....
Reliability/Cost Evaluation on Power System connected with Wind Power for the Reserve Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lee, Go-Eun; Cha, Seung-Tae; Shin, Je-Seok
2012-01-01
Wind power is ideally a renewable energy with no fuel cost, but has a risk to reduce reliability of the whole system because of uncertainty of the output. If the reserve of the system is increased, the reliability of the system may be improved. However, the cost would be increased. Therefore...... the reserve needs to be estimated considering the trade-off between reliability and economic aspects. This paper suggests a methodology to estimate the appropriate reserve, when wind power is connected to the power system. As a case study, when wind power is connected to power system of Korea, the effects...
Plot-scale soil loss estimation with laser scanning and photogrammetry methods
Szabó, Boglárka; Szabó, Judit; Jakab, Gergely; Centeri, Csaba; Szalai, Zoltán; Somogyi, Árpád; Barsi, Árpád
2017-04-01
Structure from Motion (SfM) is an automatic feature-matching algorithm, which nowadays is widely used tool in photogrammetry for geoscience applications. SfM method and parallel terrestrial laser scanning measurements are widespread and they can be well accomplished for quantitative soil erosion measurements as well. Therefore, our main scope was soil erosion characterization quantitatively and qualitatively, 3D visualization and morphological characterization of soil-erosion-dynamics. During the rainfall simulation, the surface had been measured and compared before and after the rainfall event by photogrammetry (SfM - Structure from Motion) and laser scanning (TLS - Terrestrial Laser Scanning) methods. The validation of the given results had been done by the caught runoff and the measured soil-loss value. During the laboratory experiment, the applied rainfall had 40 mm/h rainfall intensity. The size of the plot was 0.5 m2. The laser scanning had been implemented with Faro Focus 3D 120 S type equipment, while the SfM shooting had been carried out by 2 piece SJCAM SJ4000+ type, 12 MP resolution and 4K action cams. The photo-reconstruction had been made with Agisoft Photoscan software, while evaluation of the resulted point-cloud from laser scanning and photogrammetry had been implemented partly in CloudCompare and partly in ArcGIS. The resulted models and the calculated surface changes didn't prove to be suitable for estimating soil-loss, only for the detection of changes in the vertical surface. The laser scanning resulted a quite precise surface model, while the SfM method is affected by errors at the surface model due to other factors. The method needs more adequate technical laboratory preparation.
An adaptive low-power LDPC decoder using SNR estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Park Joo-Yul
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Owing to advancement in 4 G mobile communication and mobile TV, the throughput requirement in digital communication has been increasing rapidly. Thus, the need for efficient error-correcting codes is increasing. Furthermore, since most mobile devices operate with limited battery power, low-power communication techniques are attracting considerable attention lately. In this article, we propose a novel low-power, low-density parity check (LDPC decoder. The LDPC code is one of the most common error-correcting codes. In mobile TV, SNR estimation is required for the adaptive coding and modulation technique. We apply the SNR estimation result to the proposed LDPC decoding to minimize power consumption due to unnecessary operations. The SNR estimation value is used for predicting the iteration count until the completion of the successful LDPC decoding. When the SNR value is low, we omit computing the parity check and the tentative decision. We implemented the proposed decoder which is capable of adaptively skipping unnecessary operations based on the SNR estimation. The power consumption was measured to show the efficiency of our approach. We verified that, by using our proposed method, power consumption is reduced by 10% for the SNR range of 1.5-2.5 dB.
METHODS FOR ESTIMATING THE PARAMETERS OF THE POWER FUNCTION DISTRIBUTION.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
azam zaka
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE In this paper, we present some methods for estimating the parameters of the two parameter Power function distribution. We used the least squares method (LSM, relative least squares method (RELS and ridge regression method (RR. Sampling behavior of the estimates is indicated by a Monte Carlo simulation. The objective of identifying the best estimator amongst them we use the Total Deviation (T.D and Mean Square Error (M.S.E as performance index. We determined the best method for estimation using different values for the parameters and different sample sizes.
Estimation of MSAD values in computed tomography scans using radiochromic films
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oliveira, Bruno Beraldo; Teogenes Augusto da, E-mail: bbo@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mourao, Arnaldo Prata [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Minas Gerais (CEFET-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)
2013-03-15
Objective: To evaluate the feasibility of using radiochromic films as an alternative dosimeter to estimate the multiple scan average dose on the basis on kerma profiles. Materials and Methods: The radiochromic films were distributed in cylinders positioned in the center and in four peripheral bores of a standard abdominal phantom utilized for computed tomography dosimetry. Results: Values for multiple scan average dose values corresponded to 13.6 {+-} 0.7, 13.5 {+-} 0.7 and 18.7 {+-} 1.0 mGy for pitch of 0.75, 1.00 and 1.50, respectively. Conclusion: In spite of results showing lower values than the reference level for radiodiagnosis (25 mGy) established by the Brazilian regulations for abdominal studies, it is suggested that there is room to optimize procedures and review the reference level for radiodiagnosis in Brazil. (author)
Estimates of individual muscle power production in normal adult walking.
Bogey, Ross A; Barnes, Lee A
2017-09-11
The purpose of this study was to determine the contribution of individual hip muscles to the net hip power in normal adult self-selected speed walking. A further goal was to examine each muscle's role in propulsion or support of the body during that task. An EMG-to-force processing (EFP) model was developed which scaled muscle-tendon unit (MTU) force output to gait EMG. Active muscle power was defined as the product of MTU forces (derived from EFP) and that muscle's contraction velocity. Passive hip power was estimated from passive moments associates with hip position (angle of flexion (extension)) and the hip's angular velocity. Net hip EFP power was determined by summing individual active hip muscle power plus the net passive hip power at each percent gait cycle interval. Net hip power was also calculated for these study participants via inverse dynamics (kinetics plus kinematics, KIN). The inverse dynamics technique - well accepted in the biomechanics literature - was used as a "gold standard" for validation of this EFP model. Closeness of fit of the power curves of the two methods was used to validate the model. The correlation between the EFP and KIN methods was sufficiently close, suggesting validation of the model's ability to provide reasonable estimates of power produced by individual hip muscles. Key findings were that (1) most muscles undergo a stretch-shorten cycle of muscle contraction, (2) greatest power was produced by the hip abductors, and (3) the hip adductors contribute to either hip adduction or hip extension (but not both). The EMG-to-force processing approach provides reasonable estimates of individual hip muscle forces in self-selected speed walking in neurologically-intact adults.
Beat the Deviations in Estimating Maximum Power of Thermoelectric Modules
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gao, Junling; Chen, Min
2013-01-01
Under a certain temperature difference, the maximum power of a thermoelectric module can be estimated by the open-circuit voltage and the short-circuit current. In practical measurement, there exist two switch modes, either from open to short or from short to open, but the two modes can give...... different estimations on the maximum power. Using TEG-127-2.8-3.5-250 and TEG-127-1.4-1.6-250 as two examples, the difference is about 10%, leading to some deviations with the temperature change. This paper analyzes such differences by means of a nonlinear numerical model of thermoelectricity, and finds out...... that the main cause is the influence of various currents on the produced electromotive potential. A simple and effective calibration method is proposed to minimize the deviations in specifying the maximum power. Experimental results validate the method with improved estimation accuracy....
Li, A.; Glenn, N. F.
2012-12-01
Biomass of vegetation is critical for carbon cycle research. Estimating biomass from field survey data is laborious and/or destructive and thus retrieving biomass from remote sensing data may be advantageous. Most remote sensing biomass studies have focused on forest ecosystems, while few have focused on low stature vegetation, such as grasses in semi-arid environments. Biomass estimates for grass are significant for studying wildlife habitat, assessing fuel loads, and studying climate change response in semi-arid regions. Recent research has demonstrated the ability of small footprint airborne laser scanning (ALS) data to extract sagebrush height characteristics and the ability of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data to estimate vegetation volume over semi-arid rangelands. ALS has somewhat lower resolution than TLS, but has improved spatial coverage over TLS. Combining ALS and TLS is a powerful tool to estimate biomass on regional scales. Bayesian geostatistics, also known as Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME), can fuse multiple data sources across scales and provide estimation uncertainties for the integration of ALS and TLS data for grass biomass. Regression models are used to approximately delineate the relationship between field biomass measurements and TLS derived height and shape metrics. We then consider TLS plot-level data at the point scale with ALS data at the area scale. The regularization method is utilized to establish the scaling relations between TLS-derived and ALS-derived metrics. The metric maps from the ALS level are reconstructed using a BME method based on regularized variograms. We gain biomass and estimation uncertainty on the regional scale by introducing updated metrics into the model. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the BME method, we develop simple independent regression models by assuming the TLS-derived metrics as ground reference data. Therefore, the regression model is used to correct the ALS-estimated values and we retrieve
Sex estimation in a contemporary Turkish population based on CT scans of the calcaneus.
Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Inci, Ercan; Palabiyik, Figen Bakirtas; Can, Ismail Ozgur; Er, Ali; Bozdag, Mustafa; Kacmaz, Ismail Eralp; Kranioti, Elena F
2017-10-01
Building a reliable biological profile from decomposed remains depends heavily on the accurate estimation of sex. A variety of methods based on every single skeletal element have been developed over the years for different populations employing both osteological and virtual methods. The latter seem to be a reasonable alternative in countries lacking osteological reference collections. The current study used 3D virtual models of calcanei from CT scans of living adults to develop a sex estimation method for contemporary Turkish. Four hundred and twenty eight calcanei CT scans were analysed. The sample was divided in two subsamples: an original (N=348) and a validation sample (N=80) with similar distribution of males and females. Nine classical measurements were taken using the 3D models of the calcanei and two different statistical methods (Discriminant function analysis and Binary logistic regression) were used. Classification accuracy ranged from 82% to 98% for the validation sample and it was consistently high using any of the two methods. Sex bias seems to be lower for most of the logistic regression equations compared to the discriminant functions. These results, however, need further testing to be verified. Based on the results of this study we recommend the use of both methods for sex estimation from the measurements of the calcaneus bone in a Turkish population. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alyssa Kosturakis
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Previous studies have used varying methods to estimate the depth of the epidural space prior to placement of an epidural catheter. We aim to use computed tomography scans, patient demographics, and vertebral level to estimate the depth of the loss of resistance for placement of thoracic epidural catheters. Methods. The records of consecutive patients who received a thoracic epidural catheter were reviewed. Patient demographics, epidural placement site, and technique were collected. Preoperative computed tomography scans were reviewed to measure the skin to epidural space distance. Linear regression was used for a multivariate analysis. Results. The records of 218 patients were reviewed. The mean loss of resistance measurement was significantly larger than the mean computed tomography epidural space depth measurement by 0.79 cm (p<0.001. Our final multivariate model, adjusted for demographic and epidural technique, showed a positive correlation between the loss of resistance and the computed tomography epidural space depth measurement (R2=0.5692, p<0.0001. Conclusions. The measured loss of resistance is positively correlated with the computed tomography epidural space depth measurement and patient demographics. For patients undergoing thoracic or abdominal surgery, estimating the loss of resistance can be a valuable tool.
Joint DOA and Polarization Estimation for Unequal Power Sources
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qingyuan Fang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available For most joint direction of arrival (DOA and polarization estimation methods, the performances of proposed methods in dealing with unequal power sources are not discussed. However, sources with unequal powers apparently exist widely in actual applications. In this study, we propose a joint DOA and polarization estimation method for unequal power sources by utilizing the invariance property of noise subspace (IPNS to the power of sources. This work extends the IPNS method to the dual polarized antenna array for joint DOA and polarization estimation. Moreover, we theoretically prove that the IPNS remains valid even when the sources are correlated. The computer simulations illustrate that the proposed method can effectively estimate the DOA and polarization parameters as the power difference between sources increases, as opposed to the polarimetric multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm, which suffers from degradation in resolution probability. In addition, the performances of the proposed method are provided, as well the Cramer Rao Bound (CRB, which show approximate performance as the polarimetric MUSIC algorithm.
Estimation of Faults in DC Electrical Power System
Gorinevsky, Dimitry; Boyd, Stephen; Poll, Scott
2009-01-01
This paper demonstrates a novel optimization-based approach to estimating fault states in a DC power system. Potential faults changing the circuit topology are included along with faulty measurements. Our approach can be considered as a relaxation of the mixed estimation problem. We develop a linear model of the circuit and pose a convex problem for estimating the faults and other hidden states. A sparse fault vector solution is computed by using 11 regularization. The solution is computed reliably and efficiently, and gives accurate diagnostics on the faults. We demonstrate a real-time implementation of the approach for an instrumented electrical power system testbed, the ADAPT testbed at NASA ARC. The estimates are computed in milliseconds on a PC. The approach performs well despite unmodeled transients and other modeling uncertainties present in the system.
Wireless Power Transfer for Distributed Estimation in Sensor Networks
Mai, Vien V.; Shin, Won-Yong; Ishibashi, Koji
2017-04-01
This paper studies power allocation for distributed estimation of an unknown scalar random source in sensor networks with a multiple-antenna fusion center (FC), where wireless sensors are equipped with radio-frequency based energy harvesting technology. The sensors' observation is locally processed by using an uncoded amplify-and-forward scheme. The processed signals are then sent to the FC, and are coherently combined at the FC, at which the best linear unbiased estimator (BLUE) is adopted for reliable estimation. We aim to solve the following two power allocation problems: 1) minimizing distortion under various power constraints; and 2) minimizing total transmit power under distortion constraints, where the distortion is measured in terms of mean-squared error of the BLUE. Two iterative algorithms are developed to solve the non-convex problems, which converge at least to a local optimum. In particular, the above algorithms are designed to jointly optimize the amplification coefficients, energy beamforming, and receive filtering. For each problem, a suboptimal design, a single-antenna FC scenario, and a common harvester deployment for colocated sensors, are also studied. Using the powerful semidefinite relaxation framework, our result is shown to be valid for any number of sensors, each with different noise power, and for an arbitrarily number of antennas at the FC.
Estimation on the switching losses at IGBT bridges power converter
Stefanov, Goce; Karacinov, Ljupco; Cundev, Dobri
2011-01-01
ABSTRACT. In the paper estimation on the switching losses at IGBT bridge converter with the output serial resonant load is given. The converter works on frequency higher than resonant frequency and supports the work of IGBT transistors in the bridge with zero voltage turn on. In the analysis of the converter, PowerSim and SemiSiel simulation programs is used. The results to the switching losses estimated by simulation are compared with the results in a practical realized converter.
Estimation of kidney and bladder radionuclide activity for patients undergoing bone scan
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luc T. Bambara
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Radionuclide activities in the kidney and bladder have been estimated experimentally from practical data 3 h after injection of Tc-99m MDP, using conjugate view methodology. The study involved sixty-five patient images from the database of a nuclear medicine department in Ghana. Time–activity curve was stimulated with MatLab computer program using biokinetic model published in MIRD Report 13. The model was used to determine theoretical activities in kidney and bladder, which were compared with the experimental data. Estimated radionuclide activities for the kidney and bladder were both minimal in the experimental case comparative to the theoretical. The fraction of injected activity in kidney and bladder were less than 1% of injected activity, and hence kidney and bladder could be seen to receive very low doses during bone scans.
Comparison of the scanning linear estimator (SLE) and ROI methods for quantitative SPECT imaging
Könik, Arda; Kupinski, Meredith; Hendrik Pretorius, P.; King, Michael A.; Barrett, Harrison H.
2015-08-01
In quantitative emission tomography, tumor activity is typically estimated from calculations on a region of interest (ROI) identified in the reconstructed slices. In these calculations, unpredictable bias arising from the null functions of the imaging system affects ROI estimates. The magnitude of this bias depends upon the tumor size and location. In prior work it has been shown that the scanning linear estimator (SLE), which operates on the raw projection data, is an unbiased estimator of activity when the size and location of the tumor are known. In this work, we performed analytic simulation of SPECT imaging with a parallel-hole medium-energy collimator. Distance-dependent system spatial resolution and non-uniform attenuation were included in the imaging simulation. We compared the task of activity estimation by the ROI and SLE methods for a range of tumor sizes (diameter: 1-3 cm) and activities (contrast ratio: 1-10) added to uniform and non-uniform liver backgrounds. Using the correct value for the tumor shape and location is an idealized approximation to how task estimation would occur clinically. Thus we determined how perturbing this idealized prior knowledge impacted the performance of both techniques. To implement the SLE for the non-uniform background, we used a novel iterative algorithm for pre-whitening stationary noise within a compact region. Estimation task performance was compared using the ensemble mean-squared error (EMSE) as the criterion. The SLE method performed substantially better than the ROI method (i.e. EMSE(SLE) was 23-174 times lower) when the background is uniform and tumor location and size are known accurately. The variance of the SLE increased when a non-uniform liver texture was introduced but the EMSE(SLE) continued to be 5-20 times lower than the ROI method. In summary, SLE outperformed ROI under almost all conditions that we tested.
Estimation of burst-mode LDA power spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K.; Buchhave, Preben
2014-01-01
The estimation of power spectra from LDA data provides signal processing challenges for fluid dynamicists for several reasons: acquisition is dictated by randomly arriving particles, the registered particle velocities tend to be biased toward higher values, and the signal is highly intermittent...
Myopia Glasses and Optical Power Estimation: An Easy Experiment
Ribeiro, Jair Lúcio Prados
2015-01-01
Human eye optics is a common high school physics topic and students usually show a great interest during our presentation of this theme. In this article, we present an easy way to estimate a diverging lens' optical power from a simple experiment involving myopia eyeglasses and a smartphone flashlight.
Stature estimation from scapular measurements by CT scan evaluation in an Italian population.
Giurazza, Francesco; Del Vescovo, Riccardo; Schena, Emilano; Cazzato, Roberto Luigi; D'Agostino, Francesco; Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Silvestri, Sergio; Zobel, Bruno Beomonte
2013-07-01
This study evaluated the correlation between scapula size and stature and developed standard equations in order to estimate stature by CT scan evaluation. A total of 200 healthy Italian subjects (100 men and 100 women, mean age 64.2±12.8years) underwent thoracic CT scan evaluation during pulmonary screening in our department; we measured the stature of each patient with standard anthropometric instruments and then analyzed images to calculate the longitudinal scapular length (LSL) and the transverse scapular length (TSL). The correlation between stature and each parameter measured was analyzed by dividing the population into two groups, males and females, and was examined by simple regression analysis using Pearson's correlation coefficient (r). Each anthropometric variable showed a significant difference between males and females (p value stature and LSL. Our study demonstrates that scapulae can be used for stature estimation; in our sample LSL was found to have a better correlation with stature then TSL. hm=4.247*LSL+93.74 and hf=4.031*LSL+92.38 are the formulae that provide the most accurate stature assessment in males and females respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Estimation of gestational age from tooth germs: Biometric study of DentaScan images.
Lalys, Loïc; Ruquet, Michel; Tardivo, Delphine; Laibi, Salim; Bartoli, Christophe; Adalian, Pascal; Panuel, Michel; Leonetti, Georges; Foti, Bruno
2011-01-01
The few available studies on fetal age estimation concern very small samples, and statistical analysis is sometimes inadequate. In this survey, we used germs of deciduous teeth to estimate fetal age. Forty-nine fetuses and 40 mandibles were scanned, and observations and measurements were made on DentaScan images. After checking their repeatability and reproducibility (analysis of variance), we defined thresholds using Fisher's linear discriminant analysis to calculate the probability that a fetus was over or below a predefined age threshold. The forensic threshold which is of particular interest in France is 22 weeks amenorrhea. Relationships between fetal age and deciduous germ measurements were then sought by multiple linear regression. The thresholds gave very good results: 91.84% of good probability for the threshold of 22 weeks amenorrhea with no chance of error. The most precise age evaluation obtained nevertheless gave a range of ±4.6 weeks amenorrhea, so greater accuracy is still needed. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vaibhav Gupta
2015-06-01
Full Text Available Quantifying post-fire effects in a forested landscape is important to ascertain burn severity, ecosystem recovery and post-fire hazard assessments and mitigation planning. Reporting of such post-fire effects assumes significance in fire-prone countries such as USA, Australia, Spain, Greece and Portugal where prescribed burns are routinely carried out. This paper describes the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS to estimate and map change in the forest understorey following a prescribed burn. Eighteen descriptive metrics are derived from bi-temporal TLS which are used to analyse and visualise change in a control and fire-altered plot. Metrics derived are Above Ground Height-based (AGH percentiles and heights, point count and mean intensity. Metrics such as AGH50change, mean AGHchange and point countchange are sensitive enough to detect subtle fire-induced change (28%–52% whilst observing little or no change in the control plot (0–4%. A qualitative examination with field measurements of the spatial distribution of burnt areas and percentage area burnt also show similar patterns. This study is novel in that it examines the behaviour of TLS metrics for estimating and mapping fire induced change in understorey structure in a single-scan mode with a minimal fixed reference system. Further, the TLS-derived metrics can be used to produce high resolution maps of change in the understorey landscape.
Automatic Regionalization Algorithm for Distributed State Estimation in Power Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Dexin; Yang, Liuqing; Florita, Anthony; Alam, S.M. Shafiul; Elgindy, Tarek; Hodge, Bri-Mathias
2017-04-24
The deregulation of the power system and the incorporation of generation from renewable energy sources recessitates faster state estimation in the smart grid. Distributed state estimation (DSE) has become a promising and scalable solution to this urgent demand. In this paper, we investigate the regionalization algorithms for the power system, a necessary step before distributed state estimation can be performed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first investigation on automatic regionalization (AR). We propose three spectral clustering based AR algorithms. Simulations show that our proposed algorithms outperform the two investigated manual regionalization cases. With the help of AR algorithms, we also show how the number of regions impacts the accuracy and convergence speed of the DSE and conclude that the number of regions needs to be chosen carefully to improve the convergence speed of DSEs.
Can we estimate precipitation rate during snowfall using a scanning terrestrial LiDAR?
LeWinter, A. L.; Bair, E. H.; Davis, R. E.; Finnegan, D. C.; Gutmann, E. D.; Dozier, J.
2012-12-01
Accurate snowfall measurements in windy areas have proven difficult. To examine a new approach, we have installed an automatic scanning terrestrial LiDAR at Mammoth Mountain, CA. With this LiDAR, we have demonstrated effective snow depth mapping over a small study area of several hundred m2. The LiDAR also produces dense point clouds by detecting falling and blowing hydrometeors during storms. Daily counts of airborne detections from the LiDAR show excellent agreement with automated and manual snow water equivalent measurements, suggesting that LiDAR observations have the potential to directly estimate precipitation rate. Thus, we suggest LiDAR scanners offer advantages over precipitation radars, which could lead to more accurate precipitation rate estimates. For instance, uncertainties in mass-diameter and mass-fall speed relationships used in precipitation radar, combined with low reflectivity of snow in the microwave spectrum, produce errors of up to 3X in snowfall rates measured by radar. Since snow has more backscatter in the near-infrared wavelengths used by LiDAR compared to the wavelengths used by radar, and the LiDAR detects individual hydrometeors, our approach has more potential for directly estimating precipitation rate. A key uncertainty is hydrometeor mass. At our study site, we have also installed a Multi Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) to measure size, fallspeed, and mass of individual hydrometeors. By combining simultaneous MASC and LiDAR measurements, we can estimate precipitation density and rate.
Hadaś, E.; Borkowski, A.; Estornell, J.
2016-06-01
The estimation of dendrometric parameters has become an important issue for the agricultural planning and management. Since the classical field measurements are time consuming and inefficient, Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) data can be used for this purpose. Point clouds acquired for orchard areas allow to determine orchard structures and geometric parameters of individual trees. In this research we propose an automatic method that allows to determine geometric parameters of individual olive trees using ALS data. The method is based on the α-shape algorithm applied for normalized point clouds. The algorithm returns polygons representing crown shapes. For points located inside each polygon, we select the maximum height and the minimum height and then we estimate the tree height and the crown base height. We use the first two components of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) as the estimators for crown diameters. The α-shape algorithm requires to define the radius parameter R. In this study we investigated how sensitive are the results to the radius size, by comparing the results obtained with various settings of the R with reference values of estimated parameters from field measurements. Our study area was the olive orchard located in the Castellon Province, Spain. We used a set of ALS data with an average density of 4 points m-2. We noticed, that there was a narrow range of the R parameter, from 0.48 m to 0.80 m, for which all trees were detected and for which we obtained a high correlation coefficient (> 0.9) between estimated and measured values. We compared our estimates with field measurements. The RMSE of differences was 0.8 m for the tree height, 0.5 m for the crown base height, 0.6 m and 0.4 m for the longest and shorter crown diameter, respectively. The accuracy obtained with the method is thus sufficient for agricultural applications.
Dynamic state estimation assisted power system monitoring and protection
Cui, Yinan
The advent of phasor measurement units (PMUs) has unlocked several novel methods to monitor, control, and protect bulk electric power systems. This thesis introduces the concept of "Dynamic State Estimation" (DSE), aided by PMUs, for wide-area monitoring and protection of power systems. Unlike traditional State Estimation where algebraic variables are estimated from system measurements, DSE refers to a process to estimate the dynamic states associated with synchronous generators. This thesis first establishes the viability of using particle filtering as a technique to perform DSE in power systems. The utility of DSE for protection and wide-area monitoring are then shown as potential novel applications. The work is presented as a collection of several journal and conference papers. In the first paper, we present a particle filtering approach to dynamically estimate the states of a synchronous generator in a multi-machine setting considering the excitation and prime mover control systems. The second paper proposes an improved out-of-step detection method for generators by means of angular difference. The generator's rotor angle is estimated with a particle filter-based dynamic state estimator and the angular separation is then calculated by combining the raw local phasor measurements with this estimate. The third paper introduces a particle filter-based dual estimation method for tracking the dynamic states of a synchronous generator. It considers the situation where the field voltage measurements are not readily available. The particle filter is modified to treat the field voltage as an unknown input which is sequentially estimated along with the other dynamic states. The fourth paper proposes a novel framework for event detection based on energy functions. The key idea is that any event in the system will leave a signature in WAMS data-sets. It is shown that signatures for four broad classes of disturbance events are buried in the components that constitute the
Parniakov, Oleksii; Bals, Olivier; Barba, Francisco J; Mykhailyk, Viacheslav; Lebovka, Nikolai; Vorobiev, Eugene
2016-05-31
Over the past years, both food researchers and food industry have shown an increased interest in finding techniques that can estimate modifications in quality, nutritional, and thermophysical properties of food products during processing and/or storage. For instance, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has attracted the interest of scientific community because only a small amount of sample is needed for analysis. Moreover, it does not require any specific sample preparation, and is a repeatable and reliable method. In addition, DSC methodology needs a short time for experiments compared with other techniques used for the same purpose. At this stage of investigation, there is a need to evaluate the commonly accepted and new emerging DSC applications to establish the optimum conditions of emerging processing. This paper reviews the current and new insights of DSC technique for the estimation of quality, nutritional, and thermophysical properties of food products during conventional and emerging processing and/or subsequent storage. The estimation of different properties in several food matrices after processing and/or storage is also discussed.
Meteosat-6 Rapid Scan IR/WV technique for estimating precipitation
Berger, F. H.
2003-04-01
In August 2002, the heaviest flood since more than 100 years occurred in Central Europe, starting in Austria, then in Czech Republic and finally in Germany (Vb cyclonic system). For this specific event remotely sensed data with a 10 minute time resolution, especially Meteosat-6 rapid scan data, were used to develop a IR/WV technique for estimating precipitation. This technique is based on the IR and WV temperatures, measured at the satellite and converted to cloud top temperatures. It considers also temperature differences (IR-WV) to distinguish between high dense ice clouds and non-precipitating areas with cold cloud top temperatures. A significant part of this technique is the use of the high temporal information about changing cloud top structures based on variable cloud top temperatures, which correspond to the cloud life cycle. To quantify the cloud life cycle, the temporal changes of cloud top temperatures for each pixel as well as the spatial changes of temperatures in time for the surrounding pixels are considered. Applying this technique, precipitation estimates could be achieved with a sufficient accuracy. To quantify the uncertainty of these precipitation estimates, the inferred rain rates are compared with ground based observations, where e.g. the maximum precipitation was measured with 312 mm in 24h in Zinnwald, Germany (new German record!).
Suebmee, Patcharawan; Foocharoen, Chingching; Mahakkanukrauh, Ajanee; Suwannaroj, Siraphop; Theerakulpisut, Daris; Nanagara, Ratanavadee
2016-08-01
Renal involvement in scleroderma is life-threatening. Early detection of a deterioration of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is needed to preserve kidney function. To (A) determine the correlation between (1) estimated GFR (eGFR) using 4 different formulae and (2) measured GFR (mGFR) using isotopic renal scan in Thai patients with scleroderma with normal serum creatinine and (B) to define the factors influencing eGFR. A cross-sectional study was performed in adult Thai patients with scleroderma at Srinagarind Hospital, Khon Kaen University, between December 2013 and April 2015. GFR was measured using the gold standard Tc-99m DTPA (Tc-99m diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid) renal scan. We compared the latter with the eGFR, calculated using the Cockroft-Gault formula, Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation and creatinine clearance equation. A total of 76 patients with scleroderma (50 women and 26 men) with median age 54.8 years (interquartile range: 47.4 to 58.9) were enrolled. Mean disease duration was 5.6 ± 4.5 years. Median value of mGFR was 100.1 ± 27.6mL/minute/1.73m². There was a correlation between mGFR from the Tc-99m DTPA renal scan and the eGFR using the Cockroft-Gault formula, MDRD and CKD-EPI equation (P = 0.01, formula, MDRD study equation and CKD-EPI were useful formulae for assessing GFR in Thai patients with scleroderma. Higher SBP was associated with a lower GFR. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Age estimation by 3D CT-scans of the Borremose Woman, a Danish bog body
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Villa, Chiara; Møller Rasmussen, Maria; Lynnerup, Niels
2011-01-01
been visualized from CT-scans using the Mimics software from Materialise. Extensive manual editing was necessary, as is common with bog bodies, since the bones were severely degraded and the ordinary range of Hounsfield Units (HU), used for clinical work, is not suitable. Only the cranium, the left...... ribs and the right auricular surface were 3D visualized. Based on these visualizations, the age was estimated by applying macroscopic methods routinely used for skeletal remains: the cranial sutures closure (Meindl & Lovejoy 1985), the sternal rib end (Iscan & Loth 1986) and the auricular surface...... was 16 to 24 years. Many problems had to be addressed. First of all, the degradation of the skeletal tissue does not allow a complete visualization: the bones are demineralized because of the acidic bog environment. Another problem is the subjectivity that can arise during manual editing, especially...
Digital Filter Design with Harmonics Estimation for Power Supplies
Shah, P. J.; Saxena, R.; Chawla, M. P. S.
2012-06-01
The quality of voltage waveforms is nowadays an issue of the utmost importance for power utilities and electronic equipment. Modern frequency power converters generate a wide spectrum of harmonic components, which deteriorate the quality of the delivered energy, increase the energy losses as well as decrease their liability of a power supplies. In large converters systems not only harmonics, but also considerable interharmonics strongly deteriorate the quality of the power supply voltage. The estimation of the components parameters is very important for control and protection tasks. Digital low pass filter overcome the voltage drift, temperature drift and time drift problems and can be used for harmonic detection for better utilization in real-time. Real-time detection of harmonics can be implemented using MATLAB software and developing simulation circuit set up. With the appropriate cutoff frequency f c and nth order of filter, low pass filter and band-pass filter for real-time harmonic detection can be analyzed. In this paper the aim is to design filters using different methods including Prony analysis. The monitoring of power system harmonics an important issue in the frame of modern power system management and control can be achieved easily using digital filters.
ESTIMATION OF DRIVER’S POWER EXPENSES OF CAR BRAKE MANAGEMENT
A. Turenko; S. Shuklinov
2010-01-01
The estimation method of driver’s power expenses for the brake management is offered. The estimation method takes into account power expenses at driving in action of the brake system and power expenses at holding the pressed brake pedal
Frins, E.; Bobrowski, N.; Osorio, M.; Casaballe, N.; Belsterli, G.; Wagner, T.; Platt, U.
2014-12-01
In March 2012 the emissions of NO2 and SO2 from a power station located on the east side of Montevideo Bay (34° 53‧ 10″ S, 56° 11‧ 49″ W) were quantified by simultaneously using mobile and scanning multi-axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (in the following mobile DOAS and scanning DOAS, respectively). The facility produces electricity by means of two technologies: internal combustion motors and steam generators. The motors are powered with centrifuged heavy oil and produce a maximum power of 80 MW approximately. The steam generators produce approximately 305 MW and are powered with heavy fuel oil. We compare the emissions obtained from the measured slant column densities (mobile DOAS and scanning DOAS) with the emissions estimated from fuel mass balance. On one occasion it was possible to distinguish between the two types of sources, observing two plumes with different SO2 and NO2 emission rates. During the period of the campaign the mean SO2 emission flux was determined to be 0.36 (±0.12) kg s-1 and 0.26 (±0.09) kg s-1 retrieved from mobile and scanning DOAS respectively, while the calculated SO2 flux from the sulphur content of the fuel was 0.34 (±0.03) kg s-1. The average NO2 flux calculated from mobile DOAS was determined to be 11 (±3) × 10-3 kg s-1. Using the scanning DOAS approach a mean NO2 flux of 5.4 (±1.7) × 10-3 kg s-1 was obtained, which is significantly lower than by the mobile measurements. The differences between the results of mobile MAX-DOAS measurements and scanning DOAS measurements are most probably caused by the variability and the limited knowledge of the wind speed and direction.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E. Hadaś
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The estimation of dendrometric parameters has become an important issue for the agricultural planning and management. Since the classical field measurements are time consuming and inefficient, Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS data can be used for this purpose. Point clouds acquired for orchard areas allow to determine orchard structures and geometric parameters of individual trees. In this research we propose an automatic method that allows to determine geometric parameters of individual olive trees using ALS data. The method is based on the α-shape algorithm applied for normalized point clouds. The algorithm returns polygons representing crown shapes. For points located inside each polygon, we select the maximum height and the minimum height and then we estimate the tree height and the crown base height. We use the first two components of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA as the estimators for crown diameters. The α-shape algorithm requires to define the radius parameter R. In this study we investigated how sensitive are the results to the radius size, by comparing the results obtained with various settings of the R with reference values of estimated parameters from field measurements. Our study area was the olive orchard located in the Castellon Province, Spain. We used a set of ALS data with an average density of 4 points m−2. We noticed, that there was a narrow range of the R parameter, from 0.48 m to 0.80 m, for which all trees were detected and for which we obtained a high correlation coefficient (> 0.9 between estimated and measured values. We compared our estimates with field measurements. The RMSE of differences was 0.8 m for the tree height, 0.5 m for the crown base height, 0.6 m and 0.4 m for the longest and shorter crown diameter, respectively. The accuracy obtained with the method is thus sufficient for agricultural applications.
Precise plant height monitoring and biomass estimation with Terrestrial Laser Scanning in paddy rice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
N. Tilly
2013-10-01
Full Text Available Optimizing crop management is a major topic in the field of precision agriculture as the growing world population puts pressure on the efficiency of field production. Accordingly, methods to measure plant parameters with the needed precision and within-field resolution are required. Studies show that Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is a suitable method to capture small objects like crop plants. In this contribution, the results of multi-temporal surveys on paddy rice fields with the TLS system Riegl LMS-Z420i are presented. Three campaigns were carried out during the key vegetative stage of rice plants in the growing period 2012 to monitor the plant height. The TLS-derived point clouds are interpolated to visualize plant height above ground as crop surface models (CSMs with a high resolution of 0.01 m. Spatio-temporal differences within the data of one campaign and between consecutive campaigns can be detected. The results were validated against manually measured plant heights with a high correlation (R2 = 0.71. Furthermore, the dependence of actual biomass from plant height was evaluated. To the present, no method for the non-destructive determination of biomass is found yet. Thus, plant parameters, like the height, have to be used for biomass estimations. The good correlation (R2 = 0.66 leads to the assumption that biomass can be estimated from plant height measurements. The results show that TLS can be considered as a very promising tool for precision agriculture.
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Rash, Clarence
2002-01-01
...) technology based on scanning lasers. Under this program, Microvision, Inc., Bothell, Washington, has developed a scanning laser HMD prototype for use with the Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS...
Segmentation-free direct tumor volume and metabolic activity estimation from PET scans.
Taghanaki, Saeid Asgari; Duggan, Noirin; Ma, Hillgan; Hou, Xinchi; Celler, Anna; Benard, Francois; Hamarneh, Ghassan
2018-01-01
Tumor volume and metabolic activity are two robust imaging biomarkers for predicting early therapy response in F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET), which is a modality to image the distribution of radiotracers and thereby observe functional processes in the body. To date, estimation of these two biomarkers requires a lesion segmentation step. While the segmentation methods requiring extensive user interaction have obvious limitations in terms of time and reproducibility, automatically estimating activity from segmentation, which involves integrating intensity values over the volume is also suboptimal, since PET is an inherently noisy modality. Although many semi-automatic segmentation based methods have been developed, in this paper, we introduce a method which completely eliminates the segmentation step and directly estimates the volume and activity of the lesions. We trained two parallel ensemble models using locally extracted 3D patches from phantom images to estimate the activity and volume, which are derivatives of other important quantification metrics such as standardized uptake value (SUV) and total lesion glycolysis (TLG). For validation, we used 54 clinical images from the QIN Head and Neck collection on The Cancer Imaging Archive, as well as a set of 55 PET scans of the Elliptical Lung-Spine Body Phantom™with different levels of noise, four different reconstruction methods, and three different background activities, namely; air, water, and hot background. In the validation on phantom images, we achieved relative absolute error (RAE) of 5.11 % ±3.5% and 5.7 % ±5.25% for volume and activity estimation, respectively, which represents improvements of over 20% and 6% respectively, compared with the best competing methods. From the validation performed using clinical images, we found that the proposed method is capable of obtaining almost the same level of agreement with a group of trained experts, as a single trained
Power estimation on functional level for programmable processors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Schneider
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In diesem Beitrag werden verschiedene Ansätze zur Verlustleistungsschätzung von programmierbaren Prozessoren vorgestellt und bezüglich ihrer Übertragbarkeit auf moderne Prozessor-Architekturen wie beispielsweise Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW-Architekturen bewertet. Besonderes Augenmerk liegt hierbei auf dem Konzept der sogenannten Functional-Level Power Analysis (FLPA. Dieser Ansatz basiert auf der Einteilung der Prozessor-Architektur in funktionale Blöcke wie beispielsweise Processing-Unit, Clock-Netzwerk, interner Speicher und andere. Die Verlustleistungsaufnahme dieser Bl¨ocke wird parameterabhängig durch arithmetische Modellfunktionen beschrieben. Durch automatisierte Analyse von Assemblercodes des zu schätzenden Systems mittels eines Parsers können die Eingangsparameter wie beispielsweise der erzielte Parallelitätsgrad oder die Art des Speicherzugriffs gewonnen werden. Dieser Ansatz wird am Beispiel zweier moderner digitaler Signalprozessoren durch eine Vielzahl von Basis-Algorithmen der digitalen Signalverarbeitung evaluiert. Die ermittelten Schätzwerte für die einzelnen Algorithmen werden dabei mit physikalisch gemessenen Werten verglichen. Es ergibt sich ein sehr kleiner maximaler Schätzfehler von 3%. In this contribution different approaches for power estimation for programmable processors are presented and evaluated concerning their capability to be applied to modern digital signal processor architectures like e.g. Very Long InstructionWord (VLIW -architectures. Special emphasis will be laid on the concept of so-called Functional-Level Power Analysis (FLPA. This approach is based on the separation of the processor architecture into functional blocks like e.g. processing unit, clock network, internal memory and others. The power consumption of these blocks is described by parameter dependent arithmetic model functions. By application of a parser based automized analysis of assembler codes of the systems to be estimated
VOXEL-BASED APPROACH FOR ESTIMATING URBAN TREE VOLUME FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING DATA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
C. Vonderach
2012-07-01
Full Text Available The importance of single trees and the determination of related parameters has been recognized in recent years, e.g. for forest inventories or management. For urban areas an increasing interest in the data acquisition of trees can be observed concerning aspects like urban climate, CO2 balance, and environmental protection. Urban trees differ significantly from natural systems with regard to the site conditions (e.g. technogenic soils, contaminants, lower groundwater level, regular disturbance, climate (increased temperature, reduced humidity and species composition and arrangement (habitus and health status and therefore allometric relations cannot be transferred from natural sites to urban areas. To overcome this problem an extended approach was developed for a fast and non-destructive extraction of branch volume, DBH (diameter at breast height and height of single trees from point clouds of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS. For data acquisition, the trees were scanned with highest scan resolution from several (up to five positions located around the tree. The resulting point clouds (20 to 60 million points are analysed with an algorithm based on voxel (volume elements structure, leading to an appropriate data reduction. In a first step, two kinds of noise reduction are carried out: the elimination of isolated voxels as well as voxels with marginal point density. To obtain correct volume estimates, the voxels inside the stem and branches (interior voxels where voxels contain no laser points must be regarded. For this filling process, an easy and robust approach was developed based on a layer-wise (horizontal layers of the voxel structure intersection of four orthogonal viewing directions. However, this procedure also generates several erroneous "phantom" voxels, which have to be eliminated. For this purpose the previous approach was extended by a special region growing algorithm. In a final step the volume is determined layer-wise based on the
Efficient estimation of burst-mode LDA power spectra
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Velte, Clara Marika; George, William K
2010-01-01
and correlations is included, as well as one regarding the statistical convergence of the spectral estimator for random sampling. Further, the basic representation of the burst-mode LDA signal has been revisited due to observations in recent years of particles not following the flow (e.g., particle clustering......The estimation of power spectra from LDA data provides signal processing challenges for fluid dynamicists for several reasons. Acquisition is dictated by randomly arriving particles which cause the signal to be highly intermittent. This both creates self-noise and causes the measured velocities...... to be biased due to the statistical dependence on the velocity and when the particle arrives. This leads to incorrect moments when the data are evaluated by arithmetically averaging. The signal can be interpreted correctly, however, by applying residence time weighting to all statistics, which eliminates...
Mean Power Output Estimation of WECs in Simulated Sea
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saulnier, J.-B.; Clement, A.H. [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides, Ecole Centrale de Nantes, Nantes (France); Ricci, P. [TECNALIA ENERGIA, Sede de ROBOTIKER-TECNALIA, Parque tecnologico, Zamudio, Vizcaya (Spain); Falcao, A.F. de O. [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)
2009-07-01
Based on linear wave theory, two ways of simulating wave records from target spectral densities are implemented in order to assess their impact on the estimation of the mean power extracted from waves by a resonant Wave Energy Converter (WEC). The first one directly comes from the random Gaussian wave representation, while the second - widely used - derives from this latter by abusively neglecting the random nature of the individual wave amplitudes in the frequency-domain. This study investigates the consequences of such an abuse upon the device's response estimation through the consideration of various - linear and non-linear - numerical models, and the possible improvements of the simulation time/precision compromise for further WEC design projects.
Estimating single-tree branch biomass of Norway spruce by airborne laser scanning
Hauglin, Marius; Dibdiakova, Janka; Gobakken, Terje; Næsset, Erik
2013-05-01
The use of forest biomass for bioenergy purposes, directly or through refinement processes, has increased in the last decade. One example of such use is the utilization of logging residues. Branch biomass constitutes typically a considerable part of the logging residues, and should be quantified and included in future forest inventories. Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is widely used when collecting data for forest inventories, and even methods to derive information at the single-tree level has been described. Procedures for estimation of single-tree branch biomass of Norway spruce using features derived from ALS data are proposed in the present study. As field reference data the dry weight branch biomass of 50 trees were obtained through destructive sampling. Variables were further derived from the ALS echoes from each tree, including crown volume calculated from an interpolated crown surface constructed with a radial basis function. Spatial information derived from the pulse vectors were also incorporated when calculating the crown volume. Regression models with branch biomass as response variable were fit to the data, and the prediction accuracy assessed through a cross-validation procedure. Random forest regression models were compared to stepwise and simple linear least squares models. In the present study branch biomass was estimated with a higher accuracy by the best ALS-based models than by existing allometric biomass equations based on field measurements. An improved prediction accuracy was observed when incorporating information from the laser pulse vectors into the calculation of the crown volume variable, and a linear model with the crown volume as a single predictor gave the best overall results with a root mean square error of 35% in the validation.
Nazarenko, Maxim; Rosamond, Mark C.; Gallant, Andrew J.; Kolosov, Oleg V.; Dubrovskii, Vladimir G.; Zeze, Dagou A.
2017-12-01
Scanning thermal microscopy (SThM) is an attractive technique for nanoscale thermal measurements. Multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) can be used to enhance a SThM probe in order to drastically increase spatial resolution while keeping required thermal sensitivity. However, an accurate prediction of the thermal resistance at the interface between the MWCNT-enhanced probe tip and a sample under study is essential for the accurate interpretation of experimental measurements. Unfortunately, there is very little literature on Kapitza interfacial resistance involving carbon nanotubes under SThM configuration. We propose a model for heat conductance through an interface between the MWCNT tip and the sample, which estimates the thermal resistance based on phonon and geometrical properties of the MWCNT and the sample, without neglecting the diamond-like carbon layer covering the MWCNT tip. The model considers acoustic phonons as the main heat carriers and account for their scattering at the interface based on a fundamental quantum mechanical approach. The predicted value of the thermal resistance is then compared with experimental data available in the literature. Theoretical predictions and experimental results are found to be of the same order of magnitude, suggesting a simplified, yet realistic model to approximate thermal resistance between carbon nanotube and sample in SThM, albeit low temperature measurements are needed to achieve a better match between theory and experiment. As a result, several possible avenues are outlined to achieve more accurate predictions and to generalize the model.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, David Christoffer; Seco, Joao; Sørensen, Thomas Sangild
2015-01-01
development) have both been proposed as methods for obtaining patient stopping power maps. The purpose of this work was to assess the accuracy of proton CT using dual energy CT scans of phantoms to establish reference accuracy levels. Material and methods. A CT calibration phantom and an abdomen cross section...... phantom containing inserts were scanned with dual energy and single energy CT with a state-of-the-art dual energy CT scanner. Proton CT scans were simulated using Monte Carlo methods. The simulations followed the setup used in current prototype proton CT scanners and included realistic modeling...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Quinn Brian
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study is to explore how a patient's height and weight can be used to predict the effective dose to a reference phantom with similar height and weight from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan when machine-based parameters are unknown. Since machine-based scanning parameters can be misplaced or lost, a predictive model will enable the medical professional to quantify a patient's cumulative radiation dose. Methods One hundred mathematical phantoms of varying heights and weights were defined within an x-ray Monte Carlo based software code in order to calculate organ absorbed doses and effective doses from a chest abdomen pelvis scan. Regression analysis was used to develop an effective dose predictive model. The regression model was experimentally verified using anthropomorphic phantoms and validated against a real patient population. Results Estimates of the effective doses as calculated by the predictive model were within 10% of the estimates of the effective doses using experimentally measured absorbed doses within the anthropomorphic phantoms. Comparisons of the patient population effective doses show that the predictive model is within 33% of current methods of estimating effective dose using machine-based parameters. Conclusions A patient's height and weight can be used to estimate the effective dose from a chest abdomen pelvis computed tomography scan. The presented predictive model can be used interchangeably with current effective dose estimating techniques that rely on computed tomography machine-based techniques.
Regression and kriging analysis for grid power factor estimation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rajesh Guntaka
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The measurement of power factor (PF in electrical utility grids is a mainstay of load balancing and is also a critical element of transmission and distribution efficiency. The measurement of PF dates back to the earliest periods of electrical power distribution to public grids. In the wide-area distribution grid, measurement of current waveforms is trivial and may be accomplished at any point in the grid using a current tap transformer. However, voltage measurement requires reference to ground and so is more problematic and measurements are normally constrained to points that have ready and easy access to a ground source. We present two mathematical analysis methods based on kriging and linear least square estimation (LLSE (regression to derive PF at nodes with unknown voltages that are within a perimeter of sample nodes with ground reference across a selected power grid. Our results indicate an error average of 1.884% that is within acceptable tolerances for PF measurements that are used in load balancing tasks.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Schumacher, Johannes
2012-01-01
Airborne laser scanning may provide a means for assessing local forest biomass resources. In this study, national forest inventory (NFI) data was used as reference data for modeling forest basal area, volume, aboveground biomass, and total biomass from laser scanning data obtained in a countrywide...
The Use of CT Scans in Estimating Age at Death by Examining the Extent of Ectocranial Suture Closure
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boyd, Kristen Leigh; Villa, Chiara; Lynnerup, Niels
2015-01-01
-aged individuals. ANOVA test revealed no difference between two groups of scans and between left and right sides (p > 0.05). Interobserver agreement was good, especially considering the score by sides. The results of this study create the base for developing a robust and simple method to estimate the age at death...
Chen, Jian; Yan, Hong; Peng, Yizhi; Li, Xiaolu; Hu, Jianian; Wu, Jun
2012-09-01
Three cases of skull osteomyelitis due to electrical burn and delayed wound closure are presented. For better estimating skull damage before operation, 3-dimensional reconstruction of computed tomography scan images were used. Three-dimensional computed tomography could provide superior and visible stereoscopic images and help clinicians "see" the damage before operation and make more detailed therapeutic planning.
Rosado-Mendez, Ivan M.; Nam, Kibo; Hall, Timothy J.; Zagzebski, James A.
2013-01-01
Reported here is a phantom-based comparison of methods for determining the power spectral density of ultrasound backscattered signals. Those power spectral density values are then used to estimate parameters describing α(f), the frequency dependence of the acoustic attenuation coefficient. Phantoms were scanned with a clinical system equipped with a research interface to obtain radiofrequency echo data. Attenuation, modeled as a power law α(f)=α0fβ, was estimated using a reference phantom method. The power spectral density as estimated using the short-time Fourier transform (STFT), Welch's periodogram, and Thomson's multitaper technique, and performance was analyzed when limiting the size of the parameter estimation region. Errors were quantified by the bias and standard deviation of the α0 and β estimates, and by the overall power-law fit error. For parameter estimation regions larger than ~34 pulse lengths (~1cm for this experiment), an overall power-law fit error of 4% was achieved with all spectral estimation methods. With smaller parameter estimation regions as in parametric image formation, the bias and standard deviation of the α0 and β estimates depended on the size of the parameter estimation region. Here the multitaper method reduced the standard deviation of the α0 and β estimates compared to those using the other techniques. Results provide guidance for choosing methods for estimating the power spectral density in quantitative ultrasound. PMID:23858055
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carsten Hess
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Accurate estimates of the wood volume or biomass of individual trees have gained considerable importance in recent years. The accuracy of wood volume estimation by terrestrial laser scanning (TLS point cloud data may differ between individual trees due to species-specific differences in tree architecture. We selected three common and ecologically important central European deciduous tree species, which differ considerably in tree architectural complexity in early ontogenetic stages: Acer pseudoplatanus (simple, Sorbus aucuparia (intermediate and Betula pendula (complex. We scanned six single young trees for each species (18 trees in total under optimal scan conditions (single tree stand, leafless state, four scanning positions, high resolution. TLS-based volume estimates were derived for the total tree as well as for the two compartments; trunk and branches, using a voxel-based bounding box method. These estimates were compared with highly accurate xyolmetric (water displacement volume measurements. Coefficients of determination between xylometric measurements and bounding box estimates were very high for total trees (R2adj = 0.99, trunks (R2adj = 0.99, and high for branches (R2adj = 0.78. The accuracy of estimations for total tree and trunk volume was highly similar among the three tree species. In contrast, significant differences were found for branch volume estimates: the accuracy was very high for Sorbus aucuparia, intermediate for Betula pendula, and low for Acer pseudoplatanus. A stepwise multiple regression showed that the accuracy of branch volume estimates was negatively related to the number of the first-order branches within diameter sizes of D ≤ 5 mm and crown surface area (R2adj = 0.61. We conclude that the accuracy in total tree and trunk volume estimates was not affected by the studied types of tree architectural complexity. The impact of the structural variability of branches and occlusion by branches was, thus, not as high as
Taasti, Vicki T.; Michalak, Gregory J.; Hansen, David C.; Deisher, Amanda J.; Kruse, Jon J.; Krauss, Bernhard; Muren, Ludvig P.; Petersen, Jørgen B. B.; McCollough, Cynthia H.
2018-01-01
Dual energy CT (DECT) has been shown, in theoretical and phantom studies, to improve the stopping power ratio (SPR) determination used for proton treatment planning compared to the use of single energy CT (SECT). However, it has not been shown that this also extends to organic tissues. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the accuracy of SPR estimation for fresh pork and beef tissue samples used as surrogates of human tissues. The reference SPRs for fourteen tissue samples, which included fat, muscle and femur bone, were measured using proton pencil beams. The tissue samples were subsequently CT scanned using four different scanners with different dual energy acquisition modes, giving in total six DECT-based SPR estimations for each sample. The SPR was estimated using a proprietary algorithm (syngo.via DE Rho/Z Maps, Siemens Healthcare, Forchheim, Germany) for extracting the electron density and the effective atomic number. SECT images were also acquired and SECT-based SPR estimations were performed using a clinical Hounsfield look-up table. The mean and standard deviation of the SPR over large volume-of-interests were calculated. For the six different DECT acquisition methods, the root-mean-square errors (RMSEs) for the SPR estimates over all tissue samples were between 0.9% and 1.5%. For the SECT-based SPR estimation the RMSE was 2.8%. For one DECT acquisition method, a positive bias was seen in the SPR estimates, having a mean error of 1.3%. The largest errors were found in the very dense cortical bone from a beef femur. This study confirms the advantages of DECT-based SPR estimation although good results were also obtained using SECT for most tissues.
Digital Power Consumption Estimations for CHIPIX65 Pixel Readout Chip
Marcotulli, Andrea
2016-01-01
New hybrid pixel detectors with improved resolution capable of dealing with hit rates up to 3 GHz/cm2 will be required for future High Energy Physics experiments in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. Given this, the RD53 collaboration works on the design of the next generation pixel readout chip needed for both the ATLAS and CMS detector phase 2 pixel upgrades. For the RD53 demonstrator chip in 65nm CMOS technology, different architectures are considered. In particular the purpose of this work is estimating the power consumption of the digital architecture of the readout ASIC developed by CHIPIX65 project of the INFN National Scientific Committee. This has been done with modern chip design tools integrated with the VEPIX53 simulation framework that has been developed within the RD53 collaboration in order to assess the performance of the system in very high rate, high energy physics experiments.
A power function method for estimating base flow.
Lott, Darline A; Stewart, Mark T
2013-01-01
Analytical base flow separation techniques are often used to determine the base flow contribution to total stream flow. Most analytical methods derive base flow from discharge records alone without using basin-specific variables other than basin area. This paper derives a power function for estimating base flow, the form being aQ(b) + cQ, an analytical method calibrated against an integrated basin variable, specific conductance, relating base flow to total discharge, and is consistent with observed mathematical behavior of dissolved solids in stream flow with varying discharge. Advantages of the method are being uncomplicated, reproducible, and applicable to hydrograph separation in basins with limited specific conductance data. The power function relationship between base flow and discharge holds over a wide range of basin areas. It better replicates base flow determined by mass balance methods than analytical methods such as filters or smoothing routines that are not calibrated to natural tracers or empirical basin and gauge-specific variables. Also, it can be used with discharge during periods without specific conductance values, including separating base flow from quick flow for single events. However, it may overestimate base flow during very high flow events. Application of geochemical mass balance and power function base flow separation methods to stream flow and specific conductance records from multiple gauges in the same basin suggests that analytical base flow separation methods must be calibrated at each gauge. Using average values of coefficients introduces a potentially significant and unknown error in base flow as compared with mass balance methods. © 2012, The Author(s). Groundwater © 2012, National Ground Water Association.
Rank-1 accelerated illumination recovery in scanning diffractive imaging by transparency estimation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Hau-Tieng
2014-08-07
Illumination retrieval in scanning diffractive imaging a.k.a. ptychography is challenging when the specimen is weakly scattering or surrounded by empty space. We describe a rank-1 acceleration method for weakly scattering or piecewise smooth specimens.
Estimation of crank angle for cycling with a powered prosthesis.
Lawson, B E; Shultz, A; Ledoux, E; Goldfarb, M
2014-01-01
In order for a prosthesis to restore power generation during cycling, it must supply torque in a manner that is coordinated with the motion of the bicycle crank. This paper outlines an algorithm for the real time estimation of the angular position of a bicycle crankshaft using only measurements internal to an intelligent knee and ankle prosthesis. The algorithm assumes that the rider/prosthesis/bicycle system can be modeled as a four-bar mechanism. Assuming that a prosthesis can generate two independent angular measurements of the mechanism (in this case the knee angle and the absolute orientation of the shank), Freudenstein's equation can be used to synthesize the mechanism continuously. A recursive least-squares algorithm is implemented to estimate the Freudenstein coefficients, and the resulting link lengths are used to reformulate the equation in terms of input-output relationships mapping both measured angles to the crank angle. Using two independent measurements allows the algorithm to uniquely determine the crank angle from multi-valued functions. In order to validate the algorithm, a bicycle was mounted on a trainer and configured with the prosthesis using an artificial hip joint attached to the seat post. Motion capture was used to monitor the mechanism for forward and backward pedaling and the results are compared to the output of the presented algorithm. Once the parameters have converged, the algorithm is shown to predict the crank angle within 15° of the externally measured value throughout the entire crank cycle during forward rotation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kidoh, Masafumi; Utsunomiya, Daisuke; Oda, Seitaro; Nakaura, Takeshi; Yuki, Hideaki; Hirata, Kenichiro; Namimoto, Tomohiro; Sakabe, Daisuke; Hatemura, Masahiro; Yamashita, Yasuyuki [Kumamoto University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Faculty of Life Sciences, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan); Funama, Yoshinori [Kumamoto University, Department of Medical Physics, Faculty of Life Sciences, Honjo, Kumamoto (Japan)
2017-06-15
To investigate the usefulness of modifying scanning parameters based on the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) for a breast-dose reduction for chest CT. We scanned 26 women with a fixed volume CT dose index (CTDI{sub vol}) (15 mGy) and another 26 with a fixed SSDE (15 mGy) protocol (protocol 1 and 2, respectively). In protocol 2, tube current was calculated based on the patient habitus obtained on scout images. We compared the mean breast dose and the inter-patient breast dose variability and performed linear regression analysis of the breast dose and the body mass index (BMI) of the two protocols. The mean breast dose was about 35 % lower under protocol 2 than protocol 1 (10.9 mGy vs. 16.8 mGy, p < 0.01). The inter-patient breast dose variability was significantly lower under protocol 2 than 1 (1.2 mGy vs. 2.5 mGy, p < 0.01). We observed a moderate negative correlation between the breast dose and the BMI under protocol 1 (r = 0.43, p < 0.01); there was no significant correlation (r = 0.06, p = 0.35) under protocol 2. The SSDE-based protocol achieved a reduction in breast dose and in inter-patient breast dose variability. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Amoiridis, Anastasios; Anurag, Anup; Ghimire, Pramod
2015-01-01
Temperature estimation is of great importance for performance and reliability of IGBT power modules in converter operation as well as in active power cycling tests. It is common to be estimated through Thermo-Sensitive Electrical Parameters such as the forward voltage drop (Vce) of the chip....... This experimental work evaluates the validity and accuracy of two Vce based methods applied on high power IGBT modules during power cycling tests. The first method estimates the chip temperature when low sense current is applied and the second method when normal load current is present. Finally, a correction factor...
Alexander, D G; Unger, E C; Seeger, S J; Karmann, S; Krupinski, E A
1996-01-01
We developed a technique for estimating the volumes of distribution and intratumoral ethanol concentrations using computed tomography (CT) scanning in patients undergoing percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) treatment of malignant hepatic tumors. A phantom containing anhydrous ethanol diluted with deionized distilled water to concentrations of 0-100% ethanol was scanned by CT. Thirty-seven treatment sessions were performed on eight patients with malignant hepatic tumors undergoing PEI under CT guidance. The patients were scanned pre- and post-PEI, and a region of interest containing the treated hepatic tissue was selected for pixels between -250 and 15 Hounsfield units (H). The mean density of the pixels in this range was computed and the concentration of ethanol estimated. Volumes of distribution of ethanol and intratumoral concentration were then correlated with volume of ethanol injected during PEI. The ratios of volumes of distribution of ethanol to ethanol injected (adjusted in-range [IR]/volume injected) were compared for responders (n = 4) and nonresponders (n = 4). CT numbers in the phantom scaled linearly with ethanol concentration; 100% ethanol measured -234 H. On CT scans after PEI, the volume of distribution of ethanol correlated positively with the volume injected. Calculated intratumoral ethanol concentrations ranged from 4% to 31%. The adjusted IR/volume injected was significantly higher for responders than nonresponders (p ethanol distribution in tissue; a larger relative intratumoral distribution of alcohol appears to correlate with a favorable response to PEI. However, CT measurement of intratumoral ethanol concentrations may require more complex computational techniques.
Estimated radiation exposure and cancer risk from CT and PET/CT scans in patients with lymphoma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guttikonda, Ravi [Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Herts, Brian R., E-mail: hertsb@ccf.org [Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Dong, Frank [Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Baker, Mark E. [Imaging Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Fenner, Kathleen B.; Pohlman, Brad [Taussig Cancer Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States)
2014-06-15
Introduction: The purpose of this study was to estimate total effective dose and cancer risk related to treatment monitoring and surveillance computed tomography (CT) scans in a cohort of patients diagnosed with lymphoma. Methods: 76 patients with head, neck, chest, abdomen or pelvis CT and whole-body positron emission tomography (PET)/CT were identified from an institutional lymphoma database; this included 54 (71%) patients with non-Hodgkin and 22 (29%) patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma. Average treatment and surveillance periods were 8 months (range, 3–14 mo) and 23 months (range, 1–40 mo), respectively. Radiation exposure was estimated from the dose-length product (DLP) for CT scans and milli-Curies and DLP for PET/CT scans. Cancer risk was estimated using the Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation model. Results: During their treatment period, 45 patients had 161 CT exams and 39 patients had 73 PET/CT exams. Mean effective dose was 39.3 mSv (range, 7.1–100 mSv). During the surveillance period, 60 patients had 378 CT exams and 25 patients had 39 PET/CT exams. Mean effective dose was 53.2 mSv (range, 2.6–154 mSv). Seventeen of 76 (22.4%) patients had total cumulative doses greater than 100 mSv. The mean increase in estimated cancer risk was 0.40%; the greatest estimated risk to any one patient was 1.19%. Conclusion: Mean total effective dose and mean estimated cancer risk were low in patients with lymphoma undergoing serial imaging, suggesting that theoretical risks of radiation-induced cancer need not be a major consideration in radiologic follow-up.
Turbulence estimation from a continuous-wave scanning lidar (SpinnerLidar)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Barnhoorn, J.G.; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh
2017-01-01
measurements has earlier been shown to provide unfiltered, un-truncated line-of-sight turbulence measurements [1], [2]. Turbulence measurements from a continuous-wave scanning lidar, i.e. the DTU SpinnerLidar, mounted on the nacelle of the CART3 turbine at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind...
Estimating the SCAN*PRO model of store sales : HB, FM or just OLS?
Andrews, Rick L.; Currim, Imran S.; Leeflang, Peter; Lim, Jooseop
In this paper we investigate whether consideration of store-level heterogeneity in marketing mix effects improves the accuracy of the marketing mix elasticities, fit, and forecasting accuracy of the widely-applied SCAN*PRO model of store sales. Models with continuous and discrete representations of
Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)
1996-12-31
While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.
Efficient Spectral Power Estimation on an Arbitrary Frequency Scale
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
F. Zaplata
2015-04-01
Full Text Available The Fast Fourier Transform is a very efficient algorithm for the Fourier spectrum estimation, but has the limitation of a linear frequency scale spectrum, which may not be suitable for every system. For example, audio and speech analysis needs a logarithmic frequency scale due to the characteristic of a human’s ear. The Fast Fourier Transform algorithms are not able to efficiently give the desired results and modified techniques have to be used in this case. In the following text a simple technique using the Goertzel algorithm allowing the evaluation of the power spectra on an arbitrary frequency scale will be introduced. Due to its simplicity the algorithm suffers from imperfections which will be discussed and partially solved in this paper. The implementation into real systems and the impact of quantization errors appeared to be critical and have to be dealt with in special cases. The simple method dealing with the quantization error will also be introduced. Finally, the proposed method will be compared to other methods based on its computational demands and its potential speed.
Multi-point scanning two-photon excitation microscopy by utilizing a high-peak-power 1042-nm laser.
Otomo, Kohei; Hibi, Terumasa; Murata, Takashi; Watanabe, Hirotaka; Kawakami, Ryosuke; Nakayama, Hiroshi; Hasebe, Mitsuyasu; Nemoto, Tomomi
2015-01-01
The temporal resolution of a two-photon excitation laser scanning microscopy (TPLSM) system is limited by the excitation laser beam's scanning speed. To improve the temporal resolution, the TPLSM system is equipped with a spinning-disk confocal scanning unit. However, the insufficient energy of a conventional Ti:sapphire laser source restricts the field of view (FOV) for TPLSM images to a narrow region. Therefore, we introduced a high-peak-power Yb-based laser in order to enlarge the FOV. This system provided three-dimensional imaging of a sufficiently deep and wide region of fixed mouse brain slices, clear four-dimensional imaging of actin dynamics in live mammalian cells and microtubule dynamics during mitosis and cytokinesis in live plant cells.
ESTIMATION OF DRIVER’S POWER EXPENSES OF CAR BRAKE MANAGEMENT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Turenko
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The estimation method of driver’s power expenses for the brake management is offered. The estimation method takes into account power expenses at driving in action of the brake system and power expenses at holding the pressed brake pedal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imhan Khalil Ibraheem
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Laser tube bending is a new technique of laser material forming to produce a complex and accurate shape due to its flexibility and high controllability. Moreover, the defects during conventional tube forming such as thinning, wrinkling, spring back and ovalization can be avoided in laser tube bending process, because there is no external force used. In this paper an analytical investigation has been conducted to analyses the effects of average laser power and laser scanning speed on laser tube bending process, the analytical results have been verified experimentally. The model used in this study is in the same trend of the experiment. The results show that the bending angle increased with the increasing of average laser power and decreased with the increasing of angular scanning speed.
Tree STEM and Canopy Biomass Estimates from Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data
Olofsson, K.; Holmgren, J.
2017-10-01
In this study an automatic method for estimating both the tree stem and the tree canopy biomass is presented. The point cloud tree extraction techniques operate on TLS data and models the biomass using the estimated stem and canopy volume as independent variables. The regression model fit error is of the order of less than 5 kg, which gives a relative model error of about 5 % for the stem estimate and 10-15 % for the spruce and pine canopy biomass estimates. The canopy biomass estimate was improved by separating the models by tree species which indicates that the method is allometry dependent and that the regression models need to be recomputed for different areas with different climate and different vegetation.
TREE STEM AND CANOPY BIOMASS ESTIMATES FROM TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING DATA
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Olofsson
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this study an automatic method for estimating both the tree stem and the tree canopy biomass is presented. The point cloud tree extraction techniques operate on TLS data and models the biomass using the estimated stem and canopy volume as independent variables. The regression model fit error is of the order of less than 5 kg, which gives a relative model error of about 5 % for the stem estimate and 10–15 % for the spruce and pine canopy biomass estimates. The canopy biomass estimate was improved by separating the models by tree species which indicates that the method is allometry dependent and that the regression models need to be recomputed for different areas with different climate and different vegetation.
Mahamood, Rasheedat M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.; Akinlabi, Stephen
2015-03-01
The influence of the laser power and the scanning speed on the microhardness of the Laser Metal Deposited Ti6Al4V, an aerospace Titanium-alloy, was studied. Ti6Al4V powder was deposited on the Ti6Al4V substrate using the Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process, an Additive Manufacturing (AM) manufacturing technology. The laser power was varied between 1.8 kW 3 kW and the scanning speed was varied between 0.05 m/s and 0.1 m/s. The powder flow rate and the gas flow rate were kept at constant values of 2 g/min and 2 l/min respectively. The full factorial design of experiment was used to design the experiment and to also analyze the results in the Design Expert 9 software environment. The microhardness profiling was studied using Microhardness indenter performed at a load of 500 g and at a dwelling time of 15 s. The distance between indentations was maintained at a distance of 15 μm. The study revealed that as the laser power was increased, the microhardness was found to decrease and as the scanning speed was increased, the microhardness was found to also increase. The results are presented and fully discussed.
Kusuma, Chandrakanth; Ahmed, Sazzad H.; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan
2017-07-01
Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique that creates complex parts by selectively melting metal powder layer-by-layer using a laser. In SLM, the process parameters decide the quality of the fabricated component. In this study, single beads of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) were melted on a substrate of the same material using an in-house built SLM machine. Multiple combinations of laser power and scan speed were used for single bead fabrication, while the laser beam diameter and powder layer thickness were kept constant. This experimental study investigated the influence of laser power, scan speed, and laser energy density on the melt pool formation, surface morphology, geometry (width and height), and hardness of solidified beads. In addition, the observed unfavorable effect such as inconsistency in melt pool width formation is discussed. The results show that the quality, geometry, and hardness of solidified melt pool are significantly affected by laser power, scanning speed, and laser energy density.
Erić, Mirela; Anderla, Andraš; Stefanović, Darko; Drapšin, Miodrag
2014-01-01
Preoperative breast volume estimation is very important for the success of the breast surgery. In the present study, two different breast volume determination methods, Cavalieri principle and 3D reconstruction were compared. Consecutive sections were taken in slice thickness of 5 mm. Every 2nd breast section in a set of consecutive sections was selected. We marked breast tissue with blue line on each selected section, and so prepared CT scans used for breast volume estimation. The volumes of the 60 breasts were estimated using the Cavalieri principle and 3D reconstruction. The mean breast volume value was established to be 467.79 ± 188.90 cm(3) with Cavalieri method and 465.91 ± 191.41 cm(3) with 3D reconstruction. The mean CE for the estimates in this study was calculated as 0.25%. Skin-sparing volume was about 91.64% of the whole breast volume. Both methods are very accurate and have a strong linear association. Our results suggest that the calculation of breast volume or its part in vivo from systematic series of CT scans using the Cavalieri principle or 3D breast reconstruction is accurate enough to have a significant clinical benefit in planning reconstructive breast surgery. These methods can help the surgeon guide the choice of the most appropriate implant or/and flap preoperatively. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lee, Haw-Long; Chang, Win-Jin; Chen, Wen-Lih; Yang, Yu-Ching
2007-08-01
A conjugate gradient method based on inverse algorithm is applied in this study to estimate the unknown space- and time-dependent heat source in aluminum-coated tapered optical fibers for scanning near-field optical microscopy, by reading the transient temperature data at the measurement positions. No prior information is available on the functional form of the unknown heat source in the present study; thus, it is classified as the function estimation in inverse calculation. The accuracy of the inverse analysis is examined by using the simulated exact and inexact temperature measurements. Results show that an excellent estimation on the heat source and temperature distributions in the tapered optical fiber can be obtained for all the test cases considered in this study.
Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good opportunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode
Estimation of Standby Power Consumption for Typical Appliances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Philomen-D-Anand Raj
2009-01-01
Full Text Available In the past days, many consumers could simply unplug their appliances and go on holidays, assuming that their electricitymeter would just stop. Standby power is a power consumed by an appliance when switched off or not performing its primaryfunctions. Standby power consumption provides good oppourtunity for reducing both energy consumption and green housegas emissions. Through co-operation among governments, industry and consumers and the co-ordination of internationalpolicies, standby modes can be made more efficient, thereby reducing the overall demand for power.In this paper, standby power consumption of various domestic appliances was determined using an energy cost meter. Theexperimental results shows that the standby power of various house hold electrical appliances is consuming more electricityduring standby mode.
Electric Power Consumption Coefficients for U.S. Industries: Regional Estimation and Analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Boero, Riccardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-07-21
Economic activity relies on electric power provided by electrical generation, transmission, and distribution systems. This paper presents a method developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory to estimate electric power consumption by different industries in the United States. Results are validated through comparisons with existing literature and benchmarking data sources. We also discuss the limitations and applications of the presented method, such as estimating indirect electric power consumption and assessing the economic impact of power outages based on input-output economic models.
Model-based x-ray energy spectrum estimation algorithm from CT scanning data with spectrum filter
Li, Lei; Wang, Lin-Yuan; Yan, Bin
2016-10-01
With the development of technology, the traditional X-ray CT can't meet the modern medical and industry needs for component distinguish and identification. This is due to the inconsistency of X-ray imaging system and reconstruction algorithm. In the current CT systems, X-ray spectrum produced by X-ray source is continuous in energy range determined by tube voltage and energy filter, and the attenuation coefficient of object is varied with the X-ray energy. So the distribution of X-ray energy spectrum plays an important role for beam-hardening correction, dual energy CT image reconstruction or dose calculation. However, due to high ill-condition and ill-posed feature of system equations of transmission measurement data, statistical fluctuations of X ray quantum and noise pollution, it is very hard to get stable and accurate spectrum estimation using existing methods. In this paper, a model-based X-ray energy spectrum estimation method from CT scanning data with energy spectrum filter is proposed. First, transmission measurement data were accurately acquired by CT scan and measurement using phantoms with different energy spectrum filter. Second, a physical meaningful X-ray tube spectrum model was established with weighted gaussian functions and priori information such as continuity of bremsstrahlung and specificity of characteristic emission and estimation information of average attenuation coefficient. The parameter in model was optimized to get the best estimation result for filtered spectrum. Finally, the original energy spectrum was reconstructed from filtered spectrum estimation with filter priori information. Experimental results demonstrate that the stability and accuracy of X ray energy spectrum estimation using the proposed method are improved significantly.
Channel Estimation and Optimal Power Allocation for a Multiple-Antenna OFDM System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao Kung
2002-01-01
Full Text Available We propose combining channel estimation and optimal power allocation approaches for a multiple-antenna orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system in high-speed transmission applications. We develop a least-square channel estimation approach, derive the performance bound of the estimator, and investigate the optimal training sequences for initial channel acquisition. Based on the channel estimates, the optimal power allocation solution which maximizes the bandwidth efficiency is derived under power and quality of service (Qos (symbol error rate constraints. It is shown that combining channel tracking and adaptive power allocation can dramatically enhance the outage capacity of an OFDM multiple-antenna system when severing fading occurs.
Liu, Jing; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Jones, Simon; Wang, Tiejun; Heurich, Marco; Zhu, Xi; Shi, Yifang
2018-02-01
Gap fraction (Pgap) and vertical gap fraction profile (vertical Pgap profile) are important forest structural metrics. Accurate estimation of Pgap and vertical Pgap profile is therefore critical for many ecological applications, including leaf area index (LAI) mapping, LAI profile estimation and wildlife habitat modelling. Although many studies estimated Pgap and vertical Pgap profile from airborne LiDAR data, the scan angle was often overlooked and a nadir view assumed. However, the scan angle can be off-nadir and highly variable in the same flight strip or across different flight strips. In this research, the impact of off-nadir scan angle on Pgap and vertical Pgap profile was evaluated, for several forest types. Airborne LiDAR data from nadir (0°∼7°), small off-nadir (7°∼23°), and large off-nadir (23°∼38°) directions were used to calculate both Pgap and vertical Pgap profile. Digital hemispherical photographs (DHP) acquired during fieldwork were used as references for validation. Our results show that angular Pgap from airborne LiDAR correlates well with angular Pgap from DHP (R2 = 0.74, 0.87, and 0.67 for nadir, small off-nadir and large off-nadir direction). But underestimation of Pgap from LiDAR amplifies at large off-nadir scan angle. By comparing Pgap and vertical Pgap profiles retrieved from different directions, it is shown that scan angle impact on Pgap and vertical Pgap profile differs amongst different forest types. The difference is likely to be caused by different leaf angle distribution and canopy architecture in these forest types. Statistical results demonstrate that the scan angle impact is more severe for plots with discontinuous or sparse canopies. These include coniferous plots, and deciduous or mixed plots with between-crown gaps. In these discontinuous plots, Pgap and vertical Pgap profiles are maximum when observed from nadir direction, and then rapidly decrease with increasing scan angle. The results of this research have many
Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Country-Level Aggregates
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Population Exposure Estimates in Proximity to Nuclear Power Plants, Country-Level Aggregates data set consists of country-level estimates of total, urban, and...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gary T Smith
Full Text Available To use clinically measured reproducibility of volumetric CT (vCT of lung nodules to estimate error in nodule growth rate in order to determine optimal scan interval for patient follow-up.We performed quantitative vCT on 89 stable non-calcified nodules and 49 calcified nodules measuring 3-13 mm diameter in 71 patients who underwent 3-9 repeat vCT studies for clinical evaluation of pulmonary nodules. Calculated volume standard deviation as a function of mean nodule volume was used to compute error in estimated growth rate. This error was then used to determine the optimal patient follow-up scan interval while fixing the false positive rate at 5%.Linear regression of nodule volume standard deviation versus the mean nodule volume for stable non-calcified nodules yielded a slope of 0.057 ± 0.002 (r2 = 0.79, p<0.001. For calcified stable nodules, the regression slope was 0.052 ± 0.005 (r2 = 0.65, p = 0.03. Using this with the error propagation formula, the optimal patient follow-up scan interval was calculated to be 81 days, independent of initial nodule volume.Reproducibility of vCT is excellent, and the standard error is proportional to the mean calculated nodule volume for the range of nodules examined. This relationship constrains statistical certainty of vCT calculated doubling times and results in an optimal scan interval that is independent of the initial nodule volume.
Active Power Deficit Estimation in Presence of Renewable Energy Sources
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hoseinzadeh, Bakhtyar; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth
2015-01-01
The inertia of the power system is reduced in the presence of Renewable Energy Sources (RESs) due to their low or even no contribution in the inertial response as it is inherently available in the Synchronous Machines (SMs). The total inertia of the grid becomes unknown or at least uncertain foll......Silent PowerFactory software demonstrates the accuracy of the proposed method....
Estimation and reduction of harmonic currents from power converters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Asiminoaei, Lucian
power supplies. Although their design takes into account a certain level of harmonic voltage distortion, there are many real-life cases when the equipments experience abnormal operation, malfunction or failure. One such case appeared at a local company in Denmark, a Heat Power Station where due...... to the existing large power Adjustable Speed Drives (ASD), a fault-trip is reported at one of the control equipments. The fault-trip does not allow the operation of the plant at a loading further than 80 % of the total designed power. This case shaped the research directions of the project, to study methods....... Such a topology, in essence a harmonic trap filter customized for ASD's installation, is investigated and analytically modelled here. Its design and performance are analyzed, which indicate a better stability compared to classical PPF's. Based on simulations it is found, that for the given Heat Power Station case...
Lifetime Estimation of MMC for Offshore Wind Power HVDC Application
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Hui; Ma, Ke; Qin, Zian
2016-01-01
Due to a series of unique merits, Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) have been developing dramatically in the last decade. However in some applications like offshore power transmission the MMC modules are subjected to a variety of tough temperature profiles with adverse working condition, all...... of these could lead to thermomechanical fatigues in the components and joints of the power modules and thereby causing reliability challenge. This study focuses on the lifetime evaluation of MMC based on power cycling and thermal cycling considering the mission profiles in the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC......) application for offshore wind power. The mission profiles as well as the topology of the MMC are first analyzed in order to better understand the loading characteristics of MMC. Then the power loss calculation along with the electro-thermal simulation is conducted to uncover the thermal loading of MMC...
Lifetime Estimation of MMC for Offshore Wind Power HVDC Application
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Liu, Hui; Ma, Ke; Loh, Poh Chiang
2014-01-01
Due to a series of unique merits, Modular Multilevel Converters (MMCs) have been developing dramatically in the last decade. However in some applications like offshore power transmission the MMC modules are subjected to a variety of tough temperature profiles with adverse working condition, all...... of these could lead to thermo-mechanical fatigues in the components and joints of the power modules and thereby causing reliability challenge. This study focuses on the lifetime evaluation of MMC based on power cycling and thermal cycling considering the mission profiles in the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC......) application for offshore wind power. The mission profiles as well as the topology of the MMC are first analyzed in order to better understand the loading profiles of MMC. Then the power loss calculation along with the electro-thermal simulation is conducted to uncover the thermal loading of MMC. At last...
Amiri, Nina; Yao, Wei; Heurich, Marco; Krzystek, Peter; Skidmore, Andrew K.
2016-10-01
Forest understory and regeneration are important factors in sustainable forest management. However, understanding their spatial distribution in multilayered forests requires accurate and continuously updated field data, which are difficult and time-consuming to obtain. Therefore, cost-efficient inventory methods are required, and airborne laser scanning (ALS) is a promising tool for obtaining such information. In this study, we examine a clustering-based 3D segmentation in combination with ALS data for regeneration coverage estimation in a multilayered temperate forest. The core of our method is a two-tiered segmentation of the 3D point clouds into segments associated with regeneration trees. First, small parts of trees (super-voxels) are constructed through mean shift clustering, a nonparametric procedure for finding the local maxima of a density function. In the second step, we form a graph based on the mean shift clusters and merge them into larger segments using the normalized cut algorithm. These segments are used to obtain regeneration coverage of the target plot. Results show that, based on validation data from field inventory and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), our approach correctly estimates up to 70% of regeneration coverage across the plots with different properties, such as tree height and tree species. The proposed method is negatively impacted by the density of the overstory because of decreasing ground point density. In addition, the estimated coverage has a strong relationship with the overstory tree species composition.
Neural estimation of kinetic rate constants from dynamic PET-scans
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fog, Torben L.; Nielsen, Lars Hupfeldt; Hansen, Lars Kai
1994-01-01
A feedforward neural net is trained to invert a simple three compartment model describing the tracer kinetics involved in the metabolism of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose in the human brain. The network can estimate rate constants from positron emission tomography sequences and is about 50 times faster...... than direct fitting of rate constants using the parametrized transients of the compartment model...
A Model-Driven Approach for Hybrid Power Estimation in Embedded Systems Design
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ben Atitallah Rabie
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract As technology scales for increased circuit density and performance, the management of power consumption in system-on-chip (SoC is becoming critical. Today, having the appropriate electronic system level (ESL tools for power estimation in the design flow is mandatory. The main challenge for the design of such dedicated tools is to achieve a better tradeoff between accuracy and speed. This paper presents a consumption estimation approach allowing taking the consumption criterion into account early in the design flow during the system cosimulation. The originality of this approach is that it allows the power estimation for both white-box intellectual properties (IPs using annotated power models and black-box IPs using standalone power estimators. In order to obtain accurate power estimates, our simulations were performed at the cycle-accurate bit-accurate (CABA level, using SystemC. To make our approach fast and not tedious for users, the simulated architectures, including standalone power estimators, were generated automatically using a model driven engineering (MDE approach. Both annotated power models and standalone power estimators can be used together to estimate the consumption of the same architecture, which makes them complementary. The simulation results showed that the power estimates given by both estimation techniques for a hardware component are very close, with a difference that does not exceed 0.3%. This proves that, even when the IP code is not accessible or not modifiable, our approach allows obtaining quite accurate power estimates that early in the design flow thanks to the automation offered by the MDE approach.
Estimating reverberation time in classrooms by the power method
Godfrey, Richard D.
2003-10-01
The Sabin equation relates reverberation time to room volume and absorption. If an acoustic source of known power is placed in a room, the absorption is also related to the power per bandwidth, volume, and pressure. Combining the Sabin equation with the power equation and solving for reverberation time yields a relationship for reverberation time as a function of volume, pressure, and the power of the source. This approach has been reported to deviate from the decay method at low frequency. In a laboratory reverberation room, it yielded reasonable results in the frequency range of interest in classrooms. Reasonable results were also achieved in real classrooms in the 500- to 2000-Hz frequency range. Based on these findings, it may be possible to make acceptable reverberation time measurements in less time with less sophisticated instrumentation than the decay method.
Jalonen, Johanna
2015-01-01
In modelling vegetated flows and the associated processes, the flow resistance of riparian vegetation growing along riverbanks and floodplains has received substantial attention. This has led to the development of new resistance or drag force models and the concomitant proposal of several alternative parameters for the resistance estimation. However, the reliability of these models, the effect of reconfiguration (i.e. streamlining and bending of the specimens), and the suitability of differen...
Estimation of structural attributes of walnut trees based on terrestrial laser scanning
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Estornell
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Juglans regia L. (walnut is a tree of significant economic importance, usually cultivated for its seed used in the food market, and for its wood used in the furniture industry. The aim of this work was to develop regression models to predict crown parameters for walnut trees using a terrestrial laser scanner. A set of 30 trees was selected and the total height, crown height and crown diameter were measured in the field. The trees were also measured by a laser scanner and algorithms were applied to compute the crown volume, crown diameter, total and crown height. Linear regression models were calculated to estimate walnut tree parameters from TLS data. Good results were obtained with values of R2 between 0.90 and 0.98. In addition, to analyze whether coarser point cloud densities might affect the results, the point clouds for all trees were subsampled using different point densities: points every 0.005 m, 0.01 m, 0.05 m, 0.1 m, 0.25 m, 0.5 m, 1 m, and 2 m. New regression models were calculated to estimate field parameters. For total height and crown volume good estimations were obtained from TLS parameters derived for all subsampled point cloud (0.005 m – 2 m.
Sim, K S; Lim, M S; Yeap, Z X
2016-07-01
A new technique to quantify signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) value of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) images is proposed. This technique is known as autocorrelation Levinson-Durbin recursion (ACLDR) model. To test the performance of this technique, the SEM image is corrupted with noise. The autocorrelation function of the original image and the noisy image are formed. The signal spectrum based on the autocorrelation function of image is formed. ACLDR is then used as an SNR estimator to quantify the signal spectrum of noisy image. The SNR values of the original image and the quantified image are calculated. The ACLDR is then compared with the three existing techniques, which are nearest neighbourhood, first-order linear interpolation and nearest neighbourhood combined with first-order linear interpolation. It is shown that ACLDR model is able to achieve higher accuracy in SNR estimation. © 2016 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2016 Royal Microscopical Society.
Kim, Sangroh; Yoshizumi, Terry T; Toncheva, Greta; Frush, Donald P; Yin, Fang-Fang
2010-03-01
The purpose of this study was to establish a dose estimation tool with Monte Carlo (MC) simulations. A 5-y-old paediatric anthropomorphic phantom was computed tomography (CT) scanned to create a voxelised phantom and used as an input for the abdominal cone-beam CT in a BEAMnrc/EGSnrc MC system. An X-ray tube model of the Varian On-Board Imager((R)) was built in the MC system. To validate the model, the absorbed doses at each organ location for standard-dose and low-dose modes were measured in the physical phantom with MOSFET detectors; effective doses were also calculated. In the results, the MC simulations were comparable to the MOSFET measurements. This voxelised phantom approach could produce a more accurate dose estimation than the stylised phantom method. This model can be easily applied to multi-detector CT dosimetry.
Siddiqui, Akhtar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Khan, Mansoor A
2015-06-01
The focus of this study was to evaluate the applicability of chemometrics to differential scanning calorimetry data (DSC) to evaluate nimodipine polymorphs. Multivariate calibration models were built using DSC data from known mixtures of the nimodipine modification. The linear baseline correction treatment of data was used to reduce dispersion in thermograms. Principal component analysis of the treated and untreated data explained 96% and 89% of the data variability, respectively. Score and loading plots correlated variability between samples with change in proportion of nimodipine modifications. The R(2) for principal component regression (PCR) and partial lease square regression (PLS) were found to be 0.91 and 0.92. The root mean square of standard error of the treated samples for calibration and validation in PCR and PLS was found to be lower than the untreated sample. These models were applied to samples recrystallized from a cosolvent system, which indicated different proportion of modifications in the mixtures than those obtained by placing samples under different storage conditions. The model was able to predict the nimodipine modifications with known margin of error. Therefore, these models can be used as a quality control tool to expediently determine the nimodipine modification in an unknown mixture.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aaron Smith
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The accurate characterization of three-dimensional (3D root architecture, volume, and biomass is important for a wide variety of applications in forest ecology and to better understand tree and soil stability. Technological advancements have led to increasingly more digitized and automated procedures, which have been used to more accurately and quickly describe the 3D structure of root systems. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS have successfully been used to describe aboveground structures of individual trees and stand structure, but have only recently been applied to the 3D characterization of whole root systems. In this study, 13 recently harvested Norway spruce root systems were mechanically pulled from the soil, cleaned, and their volumes were measured by displacement. The root systems were suspended, scanned with TLS from three different angles, and the root surfaces from the co-registered point clouds were modeled with the 3D Quantitative Structure Model to determine root architecture and volume. The modeling procedure facilitated the rapid derivation of root volume, diameters, break point diameters, linear root length, cumulative percentages, and root fraction counts. The modeled root systems underestimated root system volume by 4.4%. The modeling procedure is widely applicable and easily adapted to derive other important topological and volumetric root variables.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wydra Michał
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Power system state estimation is a process of real-time online modeling of an electric power system. The estimation is performed with the application of a static model of the system and current measurements of electrical quantities that are encumbered with an error. Usually, a model of the estimated system is also encumbered with an uncertainty, especially power line resistances that depend on the temperature of conductors. At present, a considerable development of technologies for dynamic power line rating can be observed. Typically, devices for dynamic line rating are installed directly on the conductors and measure basic electric parameters such as the current and voltage as well as non-electric ones as the surface temperature of conductors, their expansion, stress or the conductor sag angle relative to the plumb line. The objective of this paper is to present a method for power system state estimation that uses temperature measurements of overhead line conductors as supplementary measurements that enhance the model quality and thereby the estimation accuracy. Power system state estimation is presented together with a method of using the temperature measurements of power line conductors for updating the static power system model in the state estimation process. The results obtained with that method have been analyzed based on the estimation calculations performed for an example system - with and without taking into account the conductor temperature measurements. The final part of the article includes conclusions and suggestions for the further research.
Recursive Estimation of π-Line Parameters for Electric Power Distribution Grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena
2016-01-01
Electrical models of power distribution grids are used in applications such as state estimation and Optimal Power Flow (OPF), the reliability of which depends on the accuracy of the model. This work presents an approach for estimating distribution line parameters from Remote Terminal Unit (RTU...
Estimating Carbon Storage of a Temperate North American Forest with Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS)
Stovall, A. E.; Shugart, H. H.
2013-12-01
Secondary forests in North America act as one of the largest active carbon sinks in the world, yet current estimates of forest biomass are widely varied when based on allometric equations alone. Remote sensing data such as LIDAR offers an excellent method of quantifying biomass, but information on structural heterogeneity is often lost, even with postings of approximately 0.5 meters. In order to inform estimates of biomass and carbon storage the use of a high-precision Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) can be employed and three-dimensional structure of the forest can be resolved with sub-centimeter accuracy, improving current allometric equations. This technology is utilized on 16 15-meter radius plots within the temperate forest of the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute outside of Front Royal, VA with a Faro Focus 3D. A stem map of this forest has recently been created, allowing a direct comparison between manual measurement methods and TLS. Standard measurements such as DBH, tree height, and basal area can then quickly be calculated within the three-dimensional point cloud. A DEM at the plot scale is developed with the point cloud data and the structure of the forest can be resolved. Volumetric calculations can be used to determine biomass at the plot level, a fine-scale variable that is otherwise not obtainable without destruction of the sample. The calculation of biomass will inform current estimates of carbon storage that have been made with course 30 m resolution data (i.e. Landsat). Canopy and understory structure can be analyzed with these methods, helping inform current knowledge of habitat suitability and complexity.
A large deviation based splitting estimation of power flow reliability
W.S. Wadman (Wander); D.T. Crommelin (Daan); A.P. Zwart (Bert)
2016-01-01
htmlabstractGiven the continued integration of intermittent renewable generators in electrical power grids, connection overloads are of increasing concern for grid operators. The risk of an overload due to injection variability can be described mathematically as a barrier crossing probability of a
Possible Power Estimation of Down-Regulated Offshore Wind Power Plants
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gögmen, Tuhfe
power plant. The developed procedure, the PossPOW algorithm, can also be used in the wind farm control as it yields a real-time wind farm power curve. The modern wind turbines have a possible power signal at the turbine level and the current state of the art is to aggregate those signals to achieve...
Man power/cost estimation model: Automated planetary projects
Kitchen, L. D.
1975-01-01
A manpower/cost estimation model is developed which is based on a detailed level of financial analysis of over 30 million raw data points which are then compacted by more than three orders of magnitude to the level at which the model is applicable. The major parameter of expenditure is manpower (specifically direct labor hours) for all spacecraft subsystem and technical support categories. The resultant model is able to provide a mean absolute error of less than fifteen percent for the eight programs comprising the model data base. The model includes cost saving inheritance factors, broken down in four levels, for estimating follow-on type programs where hardware and design inheritance are evident or expected.
Multichannel 2-D power spectral estimation and applications.
El-Shaer, Hamdy Taha M.
1987-01-01
Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Spectral estimation for multiple 2-D signals by model-based methods is developed. The procedures compute the entire spectral matrix of autospectra and cross spectra for the set of 2-D signals. Spectral analysis by autoregressive (AR) modeling is studied extensively. Specific differences between AR models for this problem and those for lower dimensional problems are highlighted. An extension of the Jackson-Chien method for combining...
Renewable Energy Power Generation Estimation Using Consensus Algorithm
Ahmad, Jehanzeb; Najm-ul-Islam, M.; Ahmed, Salman
2017-08-01
At the small consumer level, Photo Voltaic (PV) panel based grid tied systems are the most common form of Distributed Energy Resources (DER). Unlike wind which is suitable for only selected locations, PV panels can generate electricity almost anywhere. Pakistan is currently one of the most energy deficient countries in the world. In order to mitigate this shortage the Government has recently announced a policy of net-metering for residential consumers. After wide spread adoption of DERs, one of the issues that will be faced by load management centers would be accurate estimate of the amount of electricity being injected in the grid at any given time through these DERs. This becomes a critical issue once the penetration of DER increases beyond a certain limit. Grid stability and management of harmonics becomes an important consideration where electricity is being injected at the distribution level and through solid state controllers instead of rotating machinery. This paper presents a solution using graph theoretic methods for the estimation of total electricity being injected in the grid in a wide spread geographical area. An agent based consensus approach for distributed computation is being used to provide an estimate under varying generation conditions.
Estimation of Power Quality Indicators During a Real Wind Farm Islanding Experiment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Terzija, Vladimir; Stanojević, V.; Štrbac, G.
2008-01-01
The two-stage Newton Type Algorithm for the tracking of the power quality indicators, frequency and rate of frequency changes is presented in the paper. By this definitions for power quality indicators according to the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 were used. In the first algorithm stage the spectra...... of voltages and currents are estimated. Frequency and its rate of change are directly estimated from voltage input signals. In the second algorithm stage the power quality indicators are calculated. The algorithm considers frequency as an unknown model parameter simultaneously estimated with the voltage...
Pilot power optimization for AF relaying using maximum likelihood channel estimation
Wang, Kezhi
2014-09-01
Bit error rates (BERs) for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems with two different pilot-symbol-aided channel estimation methods, disintegrated channel estimation (DCE) and cascaded channel estimation (CCE), are derived in Rayleigh fading channels. Based on these BERs, the pilot powers at the source and at the relay are optimized when their total transmitting powers are fixed. Numerical results show that the optimized system has a better performance than other conventional nonoptimized allocation systems. They also show that the optimal pilot power in variable gain is nearly the same as that in fixed gain for similar system settings. andcopy; 2014 IEEE.
Estimates of power requirements for a Manned Mars Rover powered by a nuclear reactor
Morley, Nicholas J.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Cataldo, Robert; Bloomfield, Harvey
1991-01-01
This paper assesses the power requirement for a Manned Mars Rover vehicle. Auxiliary power needs are fulfilled using a hybrid solar photovoltaic/regenerative fuel cell system, while the primary power needs are meet using an SP-100 type reactor. The primary electric power needs, which include 30-kW(e) net user power, depend on the reactor thermal power and the efficiency of the power conversion system. Results show that an SP-100 type reactor coupled to a Free Piston Stirling Engine yields the lowest total vehicle mass and lowest specific mass for the power system. The second lowest mass was for a SP-100 reactor coupled to a Closed Brayton Cycle using He/Xe as the working fluid. The specific mass of the nuclear reactor power system, including a man-rated radiation shield, ranged from 150-kg/kW(e) to 190-kg/KW(e) and the total mass of the Rover vehicle varied depend upon the cruising speed.
Optimization Algorithms for Catching Data Manipulators in Power System Estimation Loops
Liao, Mang; Chakrabortty, Aranya
2016-01-01
In this paper we develop a set of algorithms that can detect the identities of malicious data-manipulators in distributed optimization loops for estimating oscillation modes in large power system models. The estimation is posed in terms of a consensus problem among multiple local estimators that jointly solve for the characteristic polynomial of the network model. If any of these local estimates are compromised by a malicious attacker, resulting in an incorrect value of the consensus variable...
DC Link Current Estimation in Wind-Double Feed Induction Generator Power Conditioning System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MARIAN GAICEANU
2010-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper the implementation of the DC link current estimator in power conditioning system of the variable speed wind turbine is shown. The wind turbine is connected to double feed induction generator (DFIG. The variable electrical energy parameters delivered by DFIG are fitted with the electrical grid parameters through back-to-back power converter. The bidirectional AC-AC power converter covers a wide speed range from subsynchronous to supersynchronous speeds. The modern control of back-to-back power converter involves power balance concept, therefore its load power should be known in any instant. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation at the load changes can be reduced. In this paper the load power is estimated from the dc link, indirectly, through a second order DC link current estimator. The load current estimator is based on the DC link voltage and on the dc link input current of the rotor side converter. This method presents certain advantages instead of using measured method, which requires a low pass filter: no time delay, the feedforward current component has no ripple, no additional hardware, and more fast control response. Through the numerical simulation the performances of the proposed DC link output current estimator scheme are demonstrated.
Parameter Estimation in Electrical Power Systems Using Prony's Method
Ortbandt, Claudius; Dzienis, Cezary; Matussek, Robert; Schulte, Horst
2015-11-01
This paper presents the basic principle of Prony's method, which is used for determining electrical power system parameters such as phasors, angular speeds as well as damping factors in a large frequency range. For fixed sampling frequencies, the approach to finding an optimal model order and to extracting transient parameters for further identification of different system effects is shown. Furthermore, it is shown that the method can be applied to the diverse plausibility checks for a confirmation of the result obtained using a conventional Fourier based approach. It will be presented that the significant advantage of the Prony algorithm in comparison to Fourier based methods is the possibility of computing an accurate frequency and in determining a damping factor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Zhao
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Continuous development of urban road traffic system requests higher standards of road ecological environment. Ecological benefits of street trees are getting more attention. Carbon sequestration of street trees refers to the carbon stocks of street trees, which can be a measurement for ecological benefits of street trees. Estimating carbon sequestration in a traditional way is costly and inefficient. In order to solve above problems, a carbon sequestration estimation approach for street trees based on 3D point cloud from vehicle-borne laser scanning system is proposed in this paper. The method can measure the geometric parameters of a street tree, including tree height, crown width, diameter at breast height (DBH, by processing and analyzing point cloud data of an individual tree. Four Chinese scholartree trees and four camphor trees are selected for experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE of tree height is 0.11m for Chinese scholartree and 0.02m for camphor. Crown widths in X direction and Y direction, as well as the average crown width are calculated. And the RMSE of average crown width is 0.22m for Chinese scholartree and 0.10m for camphor. The last calculated parameter is DBH, the RMSE of DBH is 0.5cm for both Chinese scholartree and camphor. Combining the measured geometric parameters and an appropriate carbon sequestration calculation model, the individual tree’s carbon sequestration will be estimated. The proposed method can help enlarge application range of vehicle-borne laser point cloud data, improve the efficiency of estimating carbon sequestration, construct urban ecological environment and manage landscape.
Zhao, Y.; Hu, Q.
2017-09-01
Continuous development of urban road traffic system requests higher standards of road ecological environment. Ecological benefits of street trees are getting more attention. Carbon sequestration of street trees refers to the carbon stocks of street trees, which can be a measurement for ecological benefits of street trees. Estimating carbon sequestration in a traditional way is costly and inefficient. In order to solve above problems, a carbon sequestration estimation approach for street trees based on 3D point cloud from vehicle-borne laser scanning system is proposed in this paper. The method can measure the geometric parameters of a street tree, including tree height, crown width, diameter at breast height (DBH), by processing and analyzing point cloud data of an individual tree. Four Chinese scholartree trees and four camphor trees are selected for experiment. The root mean square error (RMSE) of tree height is 0.11m for Chinese scholartree and 0.02m for camphor. Crown widths in X direction and Y direction, as well as the average crown width are calculated. And the RMSE of average crown width is 0.22m for Chinese scholartree and 0.10m for camphor. The last calculated parameter is DBH, the RMSE of DBH is 0.5cm for both Chinese scholartree and camphor. Combining the measured geometric parameters and an appropriate carbon sequestration calculation model, the individual tree's carbon sequestration will be estimated. The proposed method can help enlarge application range of vehicle-borne laser point cloud data, improve the efficiency of estimating carbon sequestration, construct urban ecological environment and manage landscape.
Kaynak Tezel, Burcak; Firatli, Ertug
2016-04-01
SO2 pollution has still been a problem for parts of Turkey, especially regions with large scale coal power plants. In this study, 10 year Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) SO2 observations are used for estimating SO2 emissions from large point sources in Turkey. We aim to estimate SO2 emissions from coal power plants where no online monitoring is available and improve the emissions given in current emission inventories with these top-down estimates. High-resolution yearly averaged maps are created on a domain over large point sources by oversampling SO2 columns for each grid for the years 2005-2014. This method reduced the noise and resulted in a better signal from large point sources and it was used for coal power plants in U.S and India, previously. The SO2 signal over selected power plants are observed with this method, and the spatiotemporal changes of SO2 signal are analyzed. With the assumption that OMI SO2 observations are correlating with emissions, long-term OMI SO2 observation averages can be used to estimate emission levels of significant point sources. Two-dimensional Gaussian function is used for explaining the relationships between OMI SO2 observations and emissions. Afsin Elbistan Power Plant, which is the largest capacity coal power plant in Turkey, is investigated in detail as a case study. The satellite scans within 50 km of the power plant are selected and averaged over a 2 x 2 km2 gridded domain by smoothing method for 2005-2014. The yearly averages of OMI SO2 are calculated to investigate the magnitude and the impact area of the SO2 emissions of the power plant. A significant increase in OMI SO2 observations over Afsin Elbistan from 2005 to 2009 was observed (over 2 times) possibly due to the capacity increase from 1715 to 2795 MW in 2006. Comparison between the yearly gross electricity production of the plant and OMI SO2 observations indicated consistency until 2009, but OMI SO2 observations indicated a rapid increase while gross electricity
Type I Error Rates and Power Estimates of Selected Parametric and Nonparametric Tests of Scale.
Olejnik, Stephen F.; Algina, James
1987-01-01
Estimated Type I Error rates and power are reported for the Brown-Forsythe, O'Brien, Klotz, and Siegal-Tukey procedures. The effect of aligning the data using deviations from group means or group medians is investigated. (RB)
Estimation of average annual streamflows and power potentials for Alaska and Hawaii
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Verdin, Kristine L. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Lab. (INEEL)
2004-05-01
This paper describes the work done to develop average annual streamflow estimates and power potential for the states of Alaska and Hawaii. The Elevation Derivatives for National Applications (EDNA) database was used, along with climatic datasets, to develop flow and power estimates for every stream reach in the EDNA database. Estimates of average annual streamflows were derived using state-specific regression equations, which were functions of average annual precipitation, precipitation intensity, drainage area, and other elevation-derived parameters. Power potential was calculated through the use of the average annual streamflow and the hydraulic head of each reach, which is calculated from the EDNA digital elevation model. In all, estimates of streamflow and power potential were calculated for over 170,000 stream segments in the Alaskan and Hawaiian datasets.
Dunn, Abe; Liebman, Eli; Pack, Sarah; Shapiro, Adam Hale
2013-06-01
Commonly observed shifts in the utilization of medical care services to treat diseases may pose problems for official price indexes at the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) that do not account for service shifts. We examine how these shifts may lead to different price estimates than those observed in official price statistics at the BLS. We use a convenience sample of enrollees with employer-provided insurance from the MarketScan database for the years 2003 to 2007. Population weights that consider the age, sex, and geographic distribution of enrollees are assigned to construct representative estimates. We compare two types of price indexes: (1) a Service Price Index (SPI) that is similar to the BLS index, which holds services fixed and measures the prices of the underlying treatments; (2) a Medical Care Expenditure Index (MCE) that measures the cost of treating diseases and allows for utilization shifts. Over the entire period of study the CAGR of the SPI grows 0.7 percentage points faster than the preferred MCE index. Our findings suggest that the health component of inflation may be overstated by 0.7 percentage points per year, and real GDP growth may be understated by a similar amount. However, more work may be necessary to precisely replicate the indexes of the BLS to obtain a more accurate measure of these price differences. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Swain, Sushree Diptimayee; Ray, Pravat Kumar; Mohanty, K. B.
2016-06-01
This research paper discover the design of a shunt Passive Power Filter (PPF) in Hybrid Series Active Power Filter (HSAPF) that employs a novel analytic methodology which is superior than FFT analysis. This novel approach consists of the estimation, detection and classification of the signals. The proposed method is applied to estimate, detect and classify the power quality (PQ) disturbance such as harmonics. This proposed work deals with three methods: the harmonic detection through wavelet transform method, the harmonic estimation by Kalman Filter algorithm and harmonic classification by decision tree method. From different type of mother wavelets in wavelet transform method, the db8 is selected as suitable mother wavelet because of its potency on transient response and crouched oscillation at frequency domain. In harmonic compensation process, the detected harmonic is compensated through Hybrid Series Active Power Filter (HSAPF) based on Instantaneous Reactive Power Theory (IRPT). The efficacy of the proposed method is verified in MATLAB/SIMULINK domain and as well as with an experimental set up. The obtained results confirm the superiority of the proposed methodology than FFT analysis. This newly proposed PPF is used to make the conventional HSAPF more robust and stable.
The use of energy pattern factor (EPF) in estimating wind power ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The Energy Pattern Factor (EPF) method is a less computational method of estimating the available wind power density of an area and wind speed variation account for the energy power density throughout a given period. Using the Average daily wind speed data for an 11 year period (2004-2014) obtained from the ...
Shadow Radiation Shield Required Thickness Estimation for Space Nuclear Power Units
Voevodina, E. V.; Martishin, V. M.; Ivanovsky, V. A.; Prasolova, N. O.
The paper concerns theoretical possibility of visiting orbital transport vehicles based on nuclear power unit and electric propulsion system on the Earth's orbit by astronauts to maintain work with payload from the perspective of radiation safety. There has been done estimation of possible time of the crew's staying in the area of payload of orbital transport vehicles for different reactor powers, which is a consistent part of nuclear power unit.
Power Curve Estimation With Multivariate Environmental Factors for Inland and Offshore Wind Farms
Lee, Giwhyun
2015-04-22
In the wind industry, a power curve refers to the functional relationship between the power output generated by a wind turbine and the wind speed at the time of power generation. Power curves are used in practice for a number of important tasks including predicting wind power production and assessing a turbine’s energy production efficiency. Nevertheless, actual wind power data indicate that the power output is affected by more than just wind speed. Several other environmental factors, such as wind direction, air density, humidity, turbulence intensity, and wind shears, have potential impact. Yet, in industry practice, as well as in the literature, current power curve models primarily consider wind speed and, sometimes, wind speed and direction. We propose an additive multivariate kernel method that can include the aforementioned environmental factors as a new power curve model. Our model provides, conditional on a given environmental condition, both the point estimation and density estimation of power output. It is able to capture the nonlinear relationships between environmental factors and the wind power output, as well as the high-order interaction effects among some of the environmental factors. Using operational data associated with four turbines in an inland wind farm and two turbines in an offshore wind farm, we demonstrate the improvement achieved by our kernel method.
An asymptotically unbiased minimum density power divergence estimator for the Pareto-tail index
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dierckx, Goedele; Goegebeur, Yuri; Guillou, Armelle
2013-01-01
We introduce a robust and asymptotically unbiased estimator for the tail index of Pareto-type distributions. The estimator is obtained by fitting the extended Pareto distribution to the relative excesses over a high threshold with the minimum density power divergence criterion. Consistency...
Tracking of Nonstationary Noise Based on Data-Driven Recursive Noise Power Estimation
Erkelens, J.S.; Heusdens, R.
2008-01-01
This paper considers estimation of the noise spectral variance from speech signals contaminated by highly nonstationary noise sources. The method can accurately track fast changes in noise power level (up to about 10 dB/s). In each time frame, for each frequency bin, the noise variance estimate is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Myers, M.L.; Fuller, L.C.
1979-01-01
Revised guidelines are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance costs for large steam-electric power plants, specifically light-water-reactor plants and coal-fired plants. Previous guidelines were published in October 1975 in ERDA 76-37, a Procedure for Estimating Nonfuel Operating and Maintenance Costs for Large Steam-Electric Power Plants. Estimates for coal-fired plants include the option of limestone slurry scrubbing for flue gas desulfurization. A computer program, OMCOST, is also presented which covers all plant options.
Methods for estimating water consumption for thermoelectric power plants in the United States
Diehl, Timothy H.; Harris, Melissa; Murphy, Jennifer C.; Hutson, Susan S.; Ladd, David E.
2013-01-01
Water consumption at thermoelectric power plants represents a small but substantial share of total water consumption in the U.S. However, currently available thermoelectric water consumption data are inconsistent and incomplete, and coefficients used to estimate consumption are contradictory. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has resumed the estimation of thermoelectric water consumption, last done in 1995, based on the use of linked heat and water budgets to complement reported water consumption. This report presents the methods used to estimate freshwater consumption at a study set of 1,284 power plants based on 2010 plant characteristics and operations data.
Fitting Power-laws in empirical data with estimators that work for all exponents
Hanel, Rudolf; Liu, Bo; Thurner, Stefan
2016-01-01
It has been repeatedly stated that maximum likelihood (ML) estimates of exponents of power-law distributions can only be reliably obtained for exponents smaller than minus one. The main argument that power laws are otherwise not normalizable, depends on the underlying sample space the data is drawn from, and is true only for sample spaces that are unbounded from above. Here we show that power-laws obtained from bounded sample spaces (as is the case for practically all data related problems) are always free of such limitations and maximum likelihood estimates can be obtained for arbitrary powers without restrictions. Here we first derive the appropriate ML estimator for arbitrary exponents of power-law distributions on bounded discrete sample spaces. We then show that an almost identical estimator also works perfectly for continuous data. We implemented this ML estimator and discuss its performance with previous attempts. We present a general recipe of how to use these estimators and present the associated com...
Estimation of the electrical power needed for LHC magnets and radiofrequency at 7 TeV
Thiesen, H; Burnet, J P
2012-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to provide the electrical power needed from the grid for the power converters feeding the magnets (superconducting, warm and experiments) and the radiofrequency of the LHC. At 4 TeV, the active power required for the magnets is 17.6MW and the estimation is 25.5MW at 7 TeV. The active power needed for the radiofrequency depends on the beam intensity and on the bunch spacing. It will grow from 7MW to 10MW with 25ns bunch spacing operation. This does not include the power needed for the cryogenic and magnet auxiliary systems. This paper gives also the instantaneous profile of the power needed from the grid during the ramp and the reactive power which needs to be compensated by the static VAR compensators.
Estimation method of input power spectrum to satellite transponder in SCPC system
Wakana, H.; Isobe, S.; Sasaoka, H.
The paper presents a method for estimating the input power of individual signals to a satellite transponder from the output power spectrum. This method can be used to monitor the performance of the satellite transponder in single-channel-per-carrier (SCPC) systems. For this purpose, nonlinearity of a traveling wave tube, commonly used in a satellite transponder, is analyzed with newly proposed transfer functions, and a formula which can easily represent the output power spectrum for arbitrary input power and carrier frequency assignment is derived. Using this estimation method, the monitoring station in SCPC systems can readily decide whether the input power of each signal to the satellite transponder is normal or not.
Joint Estimation of the Epoch of Reionization Power Spectrum and Foregrounds
Sims, Peter; Pober, Jonathan
2018-01-01
Bright astrophysical foregrounds present a significant impediment to the detection of redshifted 21-cm emission from the Epoch of Reionization on large spatial scales. In this talk I present a framework for the joint modeling of the power spectral contamination by astrophysical foregrounds and the power spectrum of the Epoch of Reionization. I show how informative priors on the power spectral contamination by astrophysical foregrounds at high redshifts, where emission from both the Epoch of Reionization and its foregrounds is present in the data, can be obtained through analysis of foreground-only emission at lower redshifts. Finally, I demonstrate how, by using such informative foreground priors, joint modeling can be employed to mitigate bias in estimates of the power spectrum of the Epoch of Reionization signal and, in particular, to enable recovery of more robust power spectral estimates on large spatial scales.
Majasalmi, Titta; Korhonen, Lauri; Korpela, Ilkka; Vauhkonen, Jari
2017-07-01
We propose 3D triangulations of airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) point clouds as a new approach to derive 3D canopy structures and to estimate forest canopy effective LAI (LAIe). Computational geometry and topological connectivity were employed to filter the triangulations to yield a quasi-optimal relationship with the field measured LAIe. The optimal filtering parameters were predicted based on ALS height metrics, emulating the production of maps of LAIe and canopy volume for large areas. The LAIe from triangulations was validated with field measured LAIe and compared with a reference LAIe calculated from ALS data using logarithmic model based on Beer's law. Canopy transmittance was estimated using All Echo Cover Index (ACI), and the mean projection of unit foliage area (β) was obtained using no-intercept regression with field measured LAIe. We investigated the influence species and season on the triangulated LAIe and demonstrated the relationship between triangulated LAIe and canopy volume. Our data is from 115 forest plots located at the southern boreal forest area in Finland and for each plot three different ALS datasets were available to apply the triangulations. The triangulation approach was found applicable for both leaf-on and leaf-off datasets after initial calibration. Results showed the Root Mean Square Errors (RMSEs) between LAIe from triangulations and field measured values agreed the most using the highest pulse density data (RMSE = 0.63, the coefficient of determination (R2) = 0.53). Yet, the LAIe calculated using ACI-index agreed better with the field measured LAIe (RMSE = 0.53 and R2 = 0.70). The best models to predict the optimal alpha value contained the ACI-index, which indicates that within-crown transmittance is accounted by the triangulation approach. The cover indices may be recommended for retrieving LAIe only, but for applications which require more sophisticated information on canopy shape and volume, such as radiative transfer models, the
Zhou, Yunfei; Cai, Hongzhi; Zhong, Liyun; Qiu, Xiang; Tian, Jindong; Lu, Xiaoxu
2017-05-01
In white light scanning interferometry (WLSI), the accuracy of profile measurement achieved with the conventional zero optical path difference (ZOPD) position locating method is closely related with the shape of interference signal envelope (ISE), which is mainly decided by the spectral distribution of illumination source. For a broadband light with Gaussian spectral distribution, the corresponding shape of ISE reveals a symmetric distribution, so the accurate ZOPD position can be achieved easily. However, if the spectral distribution of source is irregular, the shape of ISE will become asymmetric or complex multi-peak distribution, WLSI cannot work well through using ZOPD position locating method. Aiming at this problem, we propose time-delay estimation (TDE) based WLSI method, in which the surface profile information is achieved by using the relative displacement of interference signal between different pixels instead of the conventional ZOPD position locating method. Due to all spectral information of interference signal (envelope and phase) are utilized, in addition to revealing the advantage of high accuracy, the proposed method can achieve profile measurement with high accuracy in the case that the shape of ISE is irregular while ZOPD position locating method cannot work. That is to say, the proposed method can effectively eliminate the influence of source spectrum.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Kai; Qi, Junjian; Kang, Wei
2016-08-01
Growing penetration of intermittent resources such as renewable generations increases the risk of instability in a power grid. This paper introduces the concept of observability and its computational algorithms for a power grid monitored by the wide-area measurement system (WAMS) based on synchrophasors, e.g. phasor measurement units (PMUs). The goal is to estimate real-time states of generators, especially for potentially unstable trajectories, the information that is critical for the detection of rotor angle instability of the grid. The paper studies the number and siting of synchrophasors in a power grid so that the state of the system can be accurately estimated in the presence of instability. An unscented Kalman filter (UKF) is adopted as a tool to estimate the dynamic states that are not directly measured by synchrophasors. The theory and its computational algorithms are illustrated in detail by using a 9-bus 3-generator power system model and then tested on a 140-bus 48-generator Northeast Power Coordinating Council power grid model. Case studies on those two systems demonstrate the performance of the proposed approach using a limited number of synchrophasors for dynamic state estimation for stability assessment and its robustness against moderate inaccuracies in model parameters.
Fourier band-power E/B-mode estimators for cosmic shear
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Becker, Matthew R.; Rozo, Eduardo
2016-01-20
We introduce new Fourier band-power estimators for cosmic shear data analysis and E/B-mode separation. We consider both the case where one performs E/B-mode separation and the case where one does not. The resulting estimators have several nice properties which make them ideal for cosmic shear data analysis. First, they can be written as linear combinations of the binned cosmic shear correlation functions. Secondly, they account for the survey window function in real-space. Thirdly, they are unbiased by shape noise since they do not use correlation function data at zero separation. Fourthly, the band-power window functions in Fourier space are compact and largely non-oscillatory. Fifthly, they can be used to construct band-power estimators with very efficient data compression properties. In particular, we find that all of the information on the parameters Ωm, σ8 and ns in the shear correlation functions in the range of ~10–400 arcmin for single tomographic bin can be compressed into only three band-power estimates. Finally, we can achieve these rates of data compression while excluding small-scale information where the modelling of the shear correlation functions and power spectra is very difficult. Given these desirable properties, these estimators will be very useful for cosmic shear data analysis.
Energy-efficient power allocation of two-hop cooperative systems with imperfect channel estimation
Amin, Osama
2015-06-08
Recently, much attention has been paid to the green design of wireless communication systems using energy efficiency (EE) metrics that should capture all energy consumption sources to deliver the required data. In this paper, we formulate an accurate EE metric for cooperative two-hop systems that use the amplify-and-forward relaying scheme. Different from the existing research that assumes the availability of perfect channel state information (CSI) at the communication cooperative nodes, we assume a practical scenario, where training pilots are used to estimate the channels. The estimated CSI can be used to adapt the available resources of the proposed system in order to maximize the EE. Two estimation strategies are assumed namely disintegrated channel estimation, which assumes the availability of channel estimator at the relay, and cascaded channel estimation, where the relay is not equipped with channel estimator and only forwards the received pilot(s) in order to let the destination estimate the cooperative link. The channel estimation cost is reflected on the EE metric by including the estimation error in the signal-to-noise term and considering the energy consumption during the estimation phase. Based on the formulated EE metric, we propose an energy-aware power allocation algorithm to maximize the EE of the cooperative system with channel estimation. Furthermore, we study the impact of the estimation parameters on the optimized EE performance via simulation examples.
A Simple Load Power Estimator For Quasi-Direct AC-AC Converter System
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marian GAICEANU
2003-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a simple load power estimator for the three-phase quasi-direct acac converter system is reported. Since the ac-ac converter control by means of pulsewidth modulation (PWM is based on the power balance concept, its load power should be known. Two control boards, based on the dSMC (digital Smart Motion Controller 30 MIPS 32-bit fixed-point digital signal processor (DSP, were involved in the ac-ac system driving. By using the power balance control, the DC link voltage variation at the load changes can be reduced. In this way a small DC link capacitor is required to handle the dc voltage error control. The feed-forward (Sul and Lipo, 1990 current component provides fast correction of the reference control to load power variation. In order to obtain the feed-forward current component, the load power must to be known. In this paper the load power is estimated from the dc link, indirectly, through a dc load current estimator. In this way the author overcomes the use of the serial communication between control boards (Gaiceanu, 2004 in order to deliver the load power information from the inverter side. The load current estimator is based on the DC link voltage and on the load current of the supply converter. This method presents certain advantages instead of using measured method, which requires a low pass filter: no time delay, the feed-forward current component has no ripple, no additional hardware, and more fast control response. Through simulation and experimental results the performances of the proposed load current estimator scheme are demonstrated.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Issahaku Shirazu
2015-08-01
Full Text Available The study is to estimate renal and effective dose during abdominal MDCT scan using image data for dose optimization for purposes of radiation protection in Ghana. In addition dose influencing parameters including CTDIVOL DLP and MSAD were recorded and compared with ICRPICRU AAPM EU and IAEA dose optimization recommendations. All the measurements were done during abdominal MDCT examination. The measured parameters were part of image data on the MeVisLab DICOM application software platform. The total photon fluence mAs per area and the photon energy fluence kVp per area on the abdominal and renal surface was also determined. Renal and effective dose were estimated using ICRP publication 103 recommendations. The results of the measured parameters based on the average renal surface area of 29.52cm2 and 30.67cm2 for the right and left kidney respectively shows that The mean dose parameters were 6.33mGy 7.78mGy 936.25mGy cm 5.76mGy 10.99mSv and 14.09mSv for CTDIV CTDIW DLP MSAD RD and E respectively. The average values were lower than the general recommended average critical values but this seems misleading based on the fact that 37 of the individual dose and exposure parameters exceeded the recommended critical values. A tradeoff between patient radiation dose and image quality in abdominal CT has been established. Where at a mean SNR of 6.6 decibels an adequate images were produce to answer all the clinical questions with an average effective dose of 14.09mSv and renal dose of 10.99mSv. Radiation dose during x-ray CT imaging is an important patient safety concern. Reducing radiation dose result in a reduction of the risk to patient however reducing dose also reduces the signal strength and thereby reduces the signal to noise ratio in the resulting CT image hence the image quality is affected. It is recommended that the established reference values be use as clinical advisory mechanism to protect patience and clinicians. It is also recommended that
Real Mission Profile Based Lifetime Estimation of Fuel-cell Power Converter
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
. This paper describes a lifetime prediction method for the power semiconductors used in the power conditioning of a fuel cell based backup system, considering both the long-term standby mode and active operation mode. The annual ambient temperature profile is taken into account to estimate its impact...... on the degradation of MOSFETs during the standby mode. At the presence of power outages, the backup system is activated into the operation mode and the MOSFETs withstand additional thermal stresses due to power losses. A study case of a 1 kW backup system is presented with two annual mission profiles in Denmark...... and India, respectively. The ambient temperature, occurrence frequency of power outages, active operation time and power levels are considered for the lifetime prediction of the applied MOSFETs. Comparisons of the accumulated lifetime consumptions are performed between standby mode and operation mode...
Estimating the Impact (Energy, Emissions and Economics) of the US Fluid Power Industry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Love, Lonnie J [ORNL
2012-12-01
The objective of this report is to estimate the impact (energy, emissions and economics) of United Fluid power (hydraulic and pneumatic actuation) is the generation, control, and application of pumped or compressed fluids when this power is used to provide force and motion to mechanisms. This form of mechanical power is an integral part of United States (U.S.) manufacturing and transportation. In 2008, according to the U.S. Census Bureau, sales of fluid power components exceeded $17.7B, sales of systems using fluid power exceeded $226B. As large as the industry is, it has had little fundamental research that could lead to improved efficiency since the late 1960s (prior to the 1970 energy crisis). While there have been some attempts to replace fluid powered components with electric systems, its performance and rugged operating condition limit the impact of simple part replacement. Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the National Fluid Power Association (NFPA) collaborated with 31 industrial partners to collect and consolidate energy specific measurements (consumption, emissions, efficiency) of deployed fluid power systems. The objective of this study was to establish a rudimentary order of magnitude estimate of the energy consumed by fluid powered systems. The analysis conducted in this study shows that fluid powered systems consumed between 2.0 and 2.9 Quadrillion (1015) Btus (Quads) of energy per year; producing between 310 and 380 million metric tons (MMT) of Carbon Dioxide (CO2). In terms of efficiency, the study indicates that, across all industries, fluid power system efficiencies range from less than 9% to as high as 60% (depending upon the application), with an average efficiency of 22%. A review of case studies shows that there are many opportunities to impact energy savings in both the manufacturing and transportation sectors by the development and deployment of energy efficient fluid power components and systems.
Method for estimating power outages and restoration during natural and man-made events
Omitaomu, Olufemi A.; Fernandez, Steven J.
2016-01-05
A method of modeling electric supply and demand with a data processor in combination with a recordable medium, and for estimating spatial distribution of electric power outages and affected populations. A geographic area is divided into cells to form a matrix. Within the matrix, supply cells are identified as containing electric substations and demand cells are identified as including electricity customers. Demand cells of the matrix are associated with the supply cells as a function of the capacity of each of the supply cells and the proximity and/or electricity demand of each of the demand cells. The method includes estimating a power outage by applying disaster event prediction information to the matrix, and estimating power restoration using the supply and demand cell information of the matrix and standardized and historical restoration information.
Genetic Spot Optimization for Peak Power Estimation in Large VLSI Circuits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael S. Hsiao
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Estimating peak power involves optimization of the circuit's switching function. The switching of a given gate is not only dependent on the output capacitance of the node, but also heavily dependent on the gate delays in the circuit, since multiple switching events can result from uneven circuit delay paths in the circuit. Genetic spot expansion and optimization are proposed in this paper to estimate tight peak power bounds for large sequential circuits. The optimization spot shifts and expands dynamically based on the maximum power potential (MPP of the nodes under optimization. Four genetic spot optimization heuristics are studied for sequential circuits. Experimental results showed an average of 70.7% tighter peak power bounds for large sequential benchmark circuits was achieved in short execution times.
Simulation methods to estimate design power: an overview for applied research
2011-01-01
Background Estimating the required sample size and statistical power for a study is an integral part of study design. For standard designs, power equations provide an efficient solution to the problem, but they are unavailable for many complex study designs that arise in practice. For such complex study designs, computer simulation is a useful alternative for estimating study power. Although this approach is well known among statisticians, in our experience many epidemiologists and social scientists are unfamiliar with the technique. This article aims to address this knowledge gap. Methods We review an approach to estimate study power for individual- or cluster-randomized designs using computer simulation. This flexible approach arises naturally from the model used to derive conventional power equations, but extends those methods to accommodate arbitrarily complex designs. The method is universally applicable to a broad range of designs and outcomes, and we present the material in a way that is approachable for quantitative, applied researchers. We illustrate the method using two examples (one simple, one complex) based on sanitation and nutritional interventions to improve child growth. Results We first show how simulation reproduces conventional power estimates for simple randomized designs over a broad range of sample scenarios to familiarize the reader with the approach. We then demonstrate how to extend the simulation approach to more complex designs. Finally, we discuss extensions to the examples in the article, and provide computer code to efficiently run the example simulations in both R and Stata. Conclusions Simulation methods offer a flexible option to estimate statistical power for standard and non-traditional study designs and parameters of interest. The approach we have described is universally applicable for evaluating study designs used in epidemiologic and social science research. PMID:21689447
Refining Estimates of Bird Collision and Electrocution Mortality at Power Lines in the United States
Loss, Scott R.; Will, Tom; Marra, Peter P.
2014-01-01
Collisions and electrocutions at power lines are thought to kill large numbers of birds in the United States annually. However, existing estimates of mortality are either speculative (for electrocution) or based on extrapolation of results from one study to all U.S. power lines (for collision). Because national-scale estimates of mortality and comparisons among threats are likely to be used for prioritizing policy and management strategies and for identifying major research needs, these estimates should be based on systematic and transparent assessment of rigorously collected data. We conducted a quantitative review that incorporated data from 14 studies meeting our inclusion criteria to estimate that between 12 and 64 million birds are killed each year at U.S. power lines, with between 8 and 57 million birds killed by collision and between 0.9 and 11.6 million birds killed by electrocution. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the majority of uncertainty in our estimates arises from variation in mortality rates across studies; this variation is due in part to the small sample of rigorously conducted studies that can be used to estimate mortality. Little information is available to quantify species-specific vulnerability to mortality at power lines; the available literature over-represents particular bird groups and habitats, and most studies only sample and present data for one or a few species. Furthermore, additional research is needed to clarify whether, to what degree, and in what regions populations of different bird species are affected by power line-related mortality. Nonetheless, our data-driven analysis suggests that the amount of bird mortality at U.S. power lines is substantial and that conservation management and policy is necessary to reduce this mortality. PMID:24991997
Armstrong, G; Carlier, S.; Fukamachi, K; Thomas, J; Marwick, T
1999-01-01
OBJECTIVES—To validate a simplified estimate of peak power (SPP) against true (invasively measured) peak instantaneous power (TPP), to assess the feasibility of measuring SPP during exercise and to correlate this with functional capacity. DESIGN—Development of a simplified method of measurement and observational study. SETTING—Tertiary referral centre for cardiothoracic disease. SUBJECTS—For validation of SPP with TPP, seven normal dogs and four dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy were studied. ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jörgen Wallerman
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Individual tree crowns may be delineated from airborne laser scanning (ALS data by segmentation of surface models or by 3D analysis. Segmentation of surface models benefits from using a priori knowledge about the proportions of tree crowns, which has not yet been utilized for 3D analysis to any great extent. In this study, an existing surface segmentation method was used as a basis for a new tree model 3D clustering method applied to ALS returns in 104 circular field plots with 12 m radius in pine-dominated boreal forest (64°14'N, 19°50'E. For each cluster below the tallest canopy layer, a parabolic surface was fitted to model a tree crown. The tree model clustering identified more trees than segmentation of the surface model, especially smaller trees below the tallest canopy layer. Stem attributes were estimated with k-Most Similar Neighbours (k-MSN imputation of the clusters based on field-measured trees. The accuracy at plot level from the k-MSN imputation (stem density root mean square error or RMSE 32.7%; stem volume RMSE 28.3% was similar to the corresponding results from the surface model (stem density RMSE 33.6%; stem volume RMSE 26.1% with leave-one-out cross-validation for one field plot at a time. Three-dimensional analysis of ALS data should also be evaluated in multi-layered forests since it identified a larger number of small trees below the tallest canopy layer.
Marimuthu, Parthiban; Singaravelu, Kalaimathy
2018-01-18
Myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that plays central role in apoptosis regulation. Also, Mcl1 has the potency to resist apoptotic cues resulting in up-regulation and cancer cell protection. A molecular probe that has the potential to specifically target Mcl1, and thereby provoke its down-regulatory activity is very essential. The aim of the current study is to probe the internal conformational dynamics of protein motions and potential binding mechanism in response to a series of picomolar range Mcl1 inhibitors using explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Subsequently, the domain cross-correlation and principal component analysis was performed on the snapshots obtained from the MD simulations. Our results showed significant differences in the internal conformational dynamics of Mcl1 w.r.t binding affinity values of inhibitors. Further, the binding free energy estimation -using three different samples- was performed on the MD simulations, which revealed the predicted energies (ΔGmmgbsa) were in good correlation with the experimental values (ΔGexpt). Also, the energies obtained using all sampling models were efficiently ranked. Subsequently, the decomposition energy analysis highlighted the major energy-contributing residues at the Mcl1 binding pocket. Computational alanine scanning performed on high energy-contributing residues predicted the hot spot residues. The dihedral angle analysis using MD snapshots on the predicted hot spot residue exhibited consistency in side chain conformational motion that ultimately led to contribute strong binding affinity values. The findings from the present study might provide valuable guidelines for the design of novel Mcl1 inhibitors that might significantly improve the specificity for new-generation chemotherapeutic agents.
Lithium-Ion Battery Online Rapid State-of-Power Estimation under Multiple Constraints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shun Xiang
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The paper aims to realize a rapid online estimation of the state-of-power (SOP with multiple constraints of a lithium-ion battery. Firstly, based on the improved first-order resistance-capacitance (RC model with one-state hysteresis, a linear state-space battery model is built; then, using the dual extended Kalman filtering (DEKF method, the battery parameters and states, including open-circuit voltage (OCV, are estimated. Secondly, by employing the estimated OCV as the observed value to build the second dual Kalman filters, the battery SOC is estimated. Thirdly, a novel rapid-calculating peak power/SOP method with multiple constraints is proposed in which, according to the bisection judgment method, the battery’s peak state is determined; then, one or two instantaneous peak powers are used to determine the peak power during T seconds. In addition, in the battery operating process, the actual constraint that the battery is under is analyzed specifically. Finally, three simplified versions of the Federal Urban Driving Schedule (SFUDS with inserted pulse experiments are conducted to verify the effectiveness and accuracy of the proposed online SOP estimation method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hossein Soleymani
2017-08-01
Full Text Available Interconnection of the power system utilities and grids offers a formidable dispute in front of design engineers. With the interconnections, power system has emerged as a more intricate and nonlinear system. Recent years small signal stability problems have achieved much significance along with the conventional transient constancy problems. Transient stability of the power system can be attained with high gain and fast acting Automatic Voltage Regulators (AVRs. Yet, AVRs establish negative damping in the system. Propagation of small signals is hazardous for system’s health and offers a potential threat to system’s oscillatory stability. These small signals have magnitude of 0.2 to 2 Hz. The professional control tactic to develop system damping is Power System Stabilizer (PSS.This paper presents application of swarm intelligence for PSS parameter estimation issue on standard IEEE 10 Generator 39 Bus power network (New England. Realization of the objective function is done with the help of interpolation investigation using MATLAB. The system performance is compared with the conventional optimization algorithms like Genetic Algorithm (GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO based PSS controller. The strength of proposed controller is tested by examining various operating conditions. An Eigen property analysis is done on this system i.e. before installing PSS, and after the employment of GA and PSO tuned PSSs. A significant comparison is carried out with GA and PSO on the basis of convergence uniqueness and dynamic response of speed deviation curves of various generators.
Wang, Yujie; Pan, Rui; Liu, Chang; Chen, Zonghai; Ling, Qiang
2018-01-01
The battery power capability is intimately correlated with the climbing, braking and accelerating performance of the electric vehicles. Accurate power capability prediction can not only guarantee the safety but also regulate driving behavior and optimize battery energy usage. However, the nonlinearity of the battery model is very complex especially for the lithium iron phosphate batteries. Besides, the hysteresis loop in the open-circuit voltage curve is easy to cause large error in model prediction. In this work, a multi-parameter constraints dynamic estimation method is proposed to predict the battery continuous period power capability. A high-fidelity battery model which considers the battery polarization and hysteresis phenomenon is presented to approximate the high nonlinearity of the lithium iron phosphate battery. Explicit analyses of power capability with multiple constraints are elaborated, specifically the state-of-energy is considered in power capability assessment. Furthermore, to solve the problem of nonlinear system state estimation, and suppress noise interference, the UKF based state observer is employed for power capability prediction. The performance of the proposed methodology is demonstrated by experiments under different dynamic characterization schedules. The charge and discharge power capabilities of the lithium iron phosphate batteries are quantitatively assessed under different time scales and temperatures.
Estimating the vibration level of an L-shaped beam using power flow techniques
Cuschieri, J. M.; Mccollum, M.; Rassineux, J. L.; Gilbert, T.
1986-01-01
The response of one component of an L-shaped beam, with point force excitation on the other component, is estimated using the power flow method. The transmitted power from the source component to the receiver component is expressed in terms of the transfer and input mobilities at the excitation point and the joint. The response is estimated both in narrow frequency bands, using the exact geometry of the beams, and as a frequency averaged response using infinite beam models. The results using this power flow technique are compared to the results obtained using finite element analysis (FEA) of the L-shaped beam for the low frequency response and to results obtained using statistical energy analysis (SEA) for the high frequencies. The agreement between the FEA results and the power flow method results at low frequencies is very good. SEA results are in terms of frequency averaged levels and these are in perfect agreement with the results obtained using the infinite beam models in the power flow method. The narrow frequency band results from the power flow method also converge to the SEA results at high frequencies. The advantage of the power flow method is that detail of the response can be retained while reducing computation time, which will allow the narrow frequency band analysis of the response to be extended to higher frequencies.
Villa, Chiara; Brůžek, Jaroslav
2017-01-01
Background Estimating volumes and masses of total body components is important for the study and treatment monitoring of nutrition and nutrition-related disorders, cancer, joint replacement, energy-expenditure and exercise physiology. While several equations have been offered for estimating total body components from MRI slices, no reliable and tested method exists for CT scans. For the first time, body composition data was derived from 41 high-resolution whole-body CT scans. From these data, we defined equations for estimating volumes and masses of total body AT and LT from corresponding tissue areas measured in selected CT scan slices. Methods We present a new semi-automatic approach to defining the density cutoff between adipose tissue (AT) and lean tissue (LT) in such material. An intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to validate the method. The equations for estimating the whole-body composition volume and mass from areas measured in selected slices were modeled with ordinary least squares (OLS) linear regressions and support vector machine regression (SVMR). Results and Discussion The best predictive equation for total body AT volume was based on the AT area of a single slice located between the 4th and 5th lumbar vertebrae (L4-L5) and produced lower prediction errors (|PE| = 1.86 liters, %PE = 8.77) than previous equations also based on CT scans. The LT area of the mid-thigh provided the lowest prediction errors (|PE| = 2.52 liters, %PE = 7.08) for estimating whole-body LT volume. We also present equations to predict total body AT and LT masses from a slice located at L4-L5 that resulted in reduced error compared with the previously published equations based on CT scans. The multislice SVMR predictor gave the theoretical upper limit for prediction precision of volumes and cross-validated the results. PMID:28533960
Effect of laser power and scanning speed on laser deposited Ti6Al4V/TiB2 matrix composites
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Mokgalaka, MN
2012-10-01
Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing in Industry Conference, Kwa Maritane, Pilanesberg National Park, 31 October-2 November 2012 EFFECT OF LASER POWER AND SCANNING SPEED ON LASER DEPOSITED Ti6Al4V/TiB2 MATRIX COMPOSITES M.N. Mokgalaka2,1, S.L. Pityana1,2, A.P.I...
Estimating Energy Consumption of Mobile Fluid Power in the United States
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lynch, Lauren [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zigler, Bradley T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
2017-11-02
This report estimates the market size and energy consumption of mobile off-road applications utilizing hydraulic fluid power, and summarizes technology gaps and implementation barriers. Mobile fluid power is the use of hydraulic fluids under pressure to transmit power in mobile equipment applications. The mobile off-road fluid power sector includes various uses of hydraulic fluid power equipment with fundamentally diverse end-use application and operational requirements, such as a skid steer loader, a wheel loader or an agriculture tractor. The agriculture and construction segments dominate the mobile off-road fluid power market in component unit sales volume. An estimated range of energy consumed by the mobile off-road fluid power sector is 0.36 - 1.8 quads per year, which was 1.3 percent - 6.5 percent of the total energy consumed in 2016 by the transportation sector. Opportunities for efficiency improvements within the fluid power system result from needs to level and reduce the peak system load requirements and develop new technologies to reduce fluid power system level losses, both of which may be facilitated by characterizing duty cycles to define standardized performance test methods. There are currently no commonly accepted standardized test methods for evaluating equipment level efficiency over a duty cycle. The off-road transportation sector currently meets criteria emissions requirements, and there are no efficiency regulations requiring original equipment manufacturers (OEM) to invest in new architecture development to improve the fuel economy of mobile off-road fluid power systems. In addition, the end-user efficiency interests are outweighed by low equipment purchase or lease price concerns, required payback periods, and reliability and durability requirements of new architecture. Current economics, low market volumes with high product diversity, and regulation compliance challenge OEM investment in commercialization of new architecture development.
Maximum-magnitude estimation of the object's power spectrum in stellar speckle interferometry.
Granrath, D J
1984-11-01
The maximum Fourier magnitude taken over a set of speckle images is proposed as a replacement for the standard power-spectrum average. This new statistic estimates the diffraction-limited object-times-telescope magnitude values in a statistically unbiased and sufficient fashion and has a variance that decreases with sample size faster than the average magnitude's variance. Simultaneous imaging of a nearby point source is unnecessary with this technique, and any object that lies within a single isoplanatic patch of the atmosphere can be estimated. Magnitude-estimation results of the double star Capella are shown to corroborate these claims.
Estimating trend precision and power to detect trends across grouped count data.
Gray, Brian R; Burlew, Michele M
2007-09-01
Ecologists commonly use grouped or clustered count data to estimate temporal trends in counts, abundance indices, or abundance. For example, the U.S. Breeding Bird Survey data represent multiple counts of birds from within each of multiple, spatially defined routes. Despite a reliance on grouped counts, analytical methods for prospectively estimating precision of trend estimates or statistical power to detect trends that explicitly acknowledge the characteristics of grouped count data are undescribed. These characteristics include the fact that the sampling variance is an increasing function of the mean, and that sampling and group-level variance estimates are generally estimated on different scales (the sampling and log scales, respectively). We address these issues for repeated sampling of a single population using an analytical approach that has the flavor of a generalized linear mixed model, specifically that of a negative binomial-distributed count variable with random group effects. The count mean, including grand intercept, trend, and random group effects, is modeled linearly on the log scale, while sampling variance of the mean is estimated on the log scale via the delta method. Results compared favorably with those derived using Monte Carlo simulations. For example, at trend = 5% per temporal unit, differences in standard errors and in power were modest relative to those estimated by simulation ( or = 0.50. Similar findings were obtained using data from nine surveys of fingernail clams in the Mississippi River. The proposed method is suggested (1) where simulations are not practical and relative precision or power is desired, or (2) when multiple precision or power calculations are required and where the accuracy of a fraction of those calculations will be confirmed using simulations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhou, Dao; Wang, Huai; Blaabjerg, Frede
2016-01-01
based lifetime expectancy of the individual capacitor and the capacitor bank is estimated in a fuel cell backup power converter operating in both standby mode and operation mode. The lifetime prediction of the capacitor banks at different confidence levels is also obtained....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ma, Ke; Blaabjerg, Frede; Liserre, Marco
2013-01-01
The Foster type electro-thermal RC network inside power semiconductor device is normally provided by manufacturers for junction temperature estimation. However it will result in inaccuracy or error when further attaching the Foster network with thermal impedances of heat sink or thermal grease...
Estimating the power of a Mycobacterium bovis vaccine trial in Irish badgers
Aznar, I.; More, S.J.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.
2013-01-01
The aim of this study was to estimate the power, using simulation techniques, of a group randomized vaccine field trial designed to assess the effect of vaccination on Mycobacterium bovis transmission in badgers. The effects of sample size (recapture percentage), initial prevalence, sensitivity and
Using simulation to estimate the power of a badger vaccine trial
Aznar, I.; More, S.J.; Frankena, K.; Jong, de M.C.M.
2011-01-01
The aim of this study was to estimate the power of a badger vaccine field trial using simulation techniques. The effects of sample size, sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic test, transmission rate between unvaccinated badgers, Vaccine Efficacy for Susceptibility (VES) and Vaccine Efficacy
Energy expenditure of constant- and variable-intensity cycling: power meter estimates.
Haakonssen, Eric C; Martin, David T; Burke, Louise M; Jenkins, David G
2013-09-01
The objective of this study is to compare the effects of constant- and variable-intensity cycling on gross efficiency (GE) and to compare estimates of energy expenditure (EE) made using indirect calorimetry (CAL) with estimates derived from commercially available power meters. Nine national team female road cyclists completed a GE test (GEtest = 4 min at approximately 45%, approximately 55%, approximately 65%, and approximately 75% maximal aerobic power (MAP)) before and after 10.5 min of either constant- (CON)- or variable- (VAR)-intensity cycling averaging approximately 55% MAP. GE measured before, after, and during CON and VAR cycling was compared. Total EE (kJ) for 10.5 min of VAR cycling was estimated using indirect CAL and compared with estimates on the basis of mechanical power [Schoberer Rad Messtechnik (SRM)] using the group mean GE, each athlete's mean GE, and each athlete's power to GE regression. There was no effect of VAR on GEtests (P = 0.74). GE reduced from 19.1% ± 0.4% (mean ± SE) during the pretrial GEtests to 18.7% ± 0.4% during the posttrial GEtests (P Equation is included in full-text article.)(%) ± 90% CI, 0.3 ± 0.8; R 0.98, P intensity cycling <75% MAP, although determining each athlete's GE improves accuracy greatly.
Real-time measurements and their effects on state estimation of distribution power system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Han, Xue; You, Shi; Thordarson, Fannar
2013-01-01
This paper aims at analyzing the potential value of using different real-time metering and measuring instruments applied in the low voltage distribution networks for state-estimation. An algorithm is presented to evaluate different combinations of metering data using a tailored state estimator....... It is followed by a case study based on the proposed algorithm. A real distribution grid feeder with different types of meters installed either in the cabinets or at the customer side is selected for simulation and analysis. Standard load templates are used to initiate the state estimation. The deviations...... between the estimated values (voltage and injected power) and the measurements are applied to evaluate the accuracy of the estimated grid states. Eventually, some suggestions are provided for the distribution grid operators on placing the real-time meters in the distribution grid....
Automatic Regionalization Algorithm for Distributed State Estimation in Power Systems: Preprint
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Dexin; Yang, Liuqing; Florita, Anthony; Alam, S.M. Shafiul; Elgindy, Tarek; Hodge, Bri-Mathias
2016-08-01
The deregulation of the power system and the incorporation of generation from renewable energy sources recessitates faster state estimation in the smart grid. Distributed state estimation (DSE) has become a promising and scalable solution to this urgent demand. In this paper, we investigate the regionalization algorithms for the power system, a necessary step before distributed state estimation can be performed. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first investigation on automatic regionalization (AR). We propose three spectral clustering based AR algorithms. Simulations show that our proposed algorithms outperform the two investigated manual regionalization cases. With the help of AR algorithms, we also show how the number of regions impacts the accuracy and convergence speed of the DSE and conclude that the number of regions needs to be chosen carefully to improve the convergence speed of DSEs.
Joint sensor location/power rating optimization for temporally-correlated source estimation
Bushnaq, Osama M.
2017-12-22
The optimal sensor selection for scalar state parameter estimation in wireless sensor networks is studied in the paper. A subset of N candidate sensing locations is selected to measure a state parameter and send the observation to a fusion center via wireless AWGN channel. In addition to selecting the optimal sensing location, the sensor type to be placed in these locations is selected from a pool of T sensor types such that different sensor types have different power ratings and costs. The sensor transmission power is limited based on the amount of energy harvested at the sensing location and the type of the sensor. The Kalman filter is used to efficiently obtain the MMSE estimator at the fusion center. Sensors are selected such that the MMSE estimator error is minimized subject to a prescribed system budget. This goal is achieved using convex relaxation and greedy algorithm approaches.
Armstrong, G. P.; Carlier, S. G.; Fukamachi, K.; Thomas, J. D.; Marwick, T. H.
1999-01-01
OBJECTIVES: To validate a simplified estimate of peak power (SPP) against true (invasively measured) peak instantaneous power (TPP), to assess the feasibility of measuring SPP during exercise and to correlate this with functional capacity. DESIGN: Development of a simplified method of measurement and observational study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre for cardiothoracic disease. SUBJECTS: For validation of SPP with TPP, seven normal dogs and four dogs with dilated cardiomyopathy were studied. To assess feasibility and clinical significance in humans, 40 subjects were studied (26 patients; 14 normal controls). METHODS: In the animal validation study, TPP was derived from ascending aortic pressure and flow probe, and from Doppler measurements of flow. SPP, calculated using the different flow measures, was compared with peak instantaneous power under different loading conditions. For the assessment in humans, SPP was measured at rest and during maximum exercise. Peak aortic flow was measured with transthoracic continuous wave Doppler, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were derived from brachial sphygmomanometry. The difference between exercise and rest simplified peak power (Delta SPP) was compared with maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2)max), measured from expired gas analysis. RESULTS: SPP estimates using peak flow measures correlated well with true peak instantaneous power (r = 0.89 to 0.97), despite marked changes in systemic pressure and flow induced by manipulation of loading conditions. In the human study, VO(2)max correlated with Delta SPP (r = 0.78) better than Delta ejection fraction (r = 0.18) and Delta rate-pressure product (r = 0.59). CONCLUSIONS: The simple product of mean arterial pressure and peak aortic flow (simplified peak power, SPP) correlates with peak instantaneous power over a range of loading conditions in dogs. In humans, it can be estimated during exercise echocardiography, and correlates with maximum oxygen uptake better than ejection
Power Estimation for Gene-Longevity Association Analysis Using Concordant Twins
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tan, Qihua; Zhao, Jing Hua; Kruse, Torben A
2014-01-01
Statistical power is one of the major concerns in genetic association studies. Related individuals such as twins are valuable samples for genetic studies because of their genetic relatedness. Phenotype similarity in twin pairs provides evidence of genetic control over the phenotype variation...... in a population. The genetic association study on human longevity, a complex trait that is under control of both genetic and environmental factors, has been confronted by the small sample sizes of longevity subjects which limit statistical power. Twin pairs concordant for longevity have increased probability...... for carrying beneficial genes and thus are useful samples for gene-longevity association analysis. We conducted a computer simulation to estimate the power of association study using longevity concordant twin pairs. We observed remarkable power increases in using singletons from longevity concordant twin pairs...
Estimation of wake propagation behind the rotors of wind-powered generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Okulov, Valery
2016-01-01
The objectives of this work are to develop the experimental model of wake behind the wind-power generator rotor to estimate its propagation distance and the impact on the average and pulsation characteristics of incident flow with the possibility of further use of these data in the calculation...... models of wind and climate changes in the regions and to determine the optimal operation of wind turbines. For experimental modeling, the laboratory model of wind-powered generator with a horizontal axis was used that operated as wind turbine in optimal mode. The kinematic characteristics of flow...... in the experimental research in order to define the degree of self-damping of perturbations generated by oneself wind-powered generator. The obtained experimental data for the wake dynamics behind the model of wind-powered generator allowed ascertaining its impact on slowing down of incident vortex flow...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rupcich, Franco; Badal, Andreu; Kyprianou, Iacovos; Schmidt, Taly Gilat [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States); Division of Imaging and Applied Mathematics (OSEL/CDRH), US Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20905 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233 (United States)
2012-09-15
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to develop a database for estimating organ dose in a voxelized patient model for coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT acquisitions with any spectra and angular tube current modulation setting. The database enables organ dose estimation for existing and novel acquisition techniques without requiring Monte Carlo simulations. Methods: The study simulated transport of monoenergetic photons between 5 and 150 keV for 1000 projections over 360 Degree-Sign through anthropomorphic voxelized female chest and head (0 Degree-Sign and 30 Degree-Sign tilt) phantoms and standard head and body CTDI dosimetry cylinders. The simulations resulted in tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs quantifying the organ dose per emitted photon for each incident photon energy and projection angle for coronary angiography and brain perfusion acquisitions. The values in a table can be multiplied by an incident spectrum and number of photons at each projection angle and then summed across all energies and angles to estimate total organ dose. Scanner-specific organ dose may be approximated by normalizing the database-estimated organ dose by the database-estimated CTDI{sub vol} and multiplying by a physical CTDI{sub vol} measurement. Two examples are provided demonstrating how to use the tables to estimate relative organ dose. In the first, the change in breast and lung dose during coronary angiography CT scans is calculated for reduced kVp, angular tube current modulation, and partial angle scanning protocols relative to a reference protocol. In the second example, the change in dose to the eye lens is calculated for a brain perfusion CT acquisition in which the gantry is tilted 30 Degree-Sign relative to a nontilted scan. Results: Our database provides tables of normalized dose deposition for several radiosensitive organs irradiated during coronary angiography and brain perfusion CT scans. Validation results indicate
UD-WCMA: An Energy Estimation and Forecast Scheme for Solar Powered Wireless Sensor Networks
Dehwah, Ahmad H.
2017-04-11
Energy estimation and forecast represents an important role for energy management in solar-powered wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In general, the energy in such networks is managed over a finite time horizon in the future based on input solar power forecasts to enable continuous operation of the WSNs and achieve the sensing objectives while ensuring that no node runs out of energy. In this article, we propose a dynamic version of the weather conditioned moving average technique (UD-WCMA) to estimate and predict the variations of the solar power in a wireless sensor network. The presented approach combines the information from the real-time measurement data and a set of stored profiles representing the energy patterns in the WSNs location to update the prediction model. The UD-WCMA scheme is based on adaptive weighting parameters depending on the weather changes which makes it flexible compared to the existing estimation schemes without any precalibration. A performance analysis has been performed considering real irradiance profiles to assess the UD-WCMA prediction accuracy. Comparative numerical tests to standard forecasting schemes (EWMA, WCMA, and Pro-Energy) shows the outperformance of the new algorithm. The experimental validation has proven the interesting features of the UD-WCMA in real time low power sensor nodes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ana-Sofía Hincapié
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Minimum Norm Estimation (MNE is an inverse solution method widely used to reconstruct the source time series that underlie magnetoencephalography (MEG data. MNE addresses the ill-posed nature of MEG source estimation through regularization (e.g., Tikhonov regularization. Selecting the best regularization parameter is a critical step. Generally, once set, it is common practice to keep the same coefficient throughout a study. However, it is yet to be known whether the optimal lambda for spectral power analysis of MEG source data coincides with the optimal regularization for source-level oscillatory coupling analysis. We addressed this question via extensive Monte-Carlo simulations of MEG data, where we generated 21,600 configurations of pairs of coupled sources with varying sizes, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and coupling strengths. Then, we searched for the Tikhonov regularization coefficients (lambda that maximize detection performance for (a power and (b coherence. For coherence, the optimal lambda was two orders of magnitude smaller than the best lambda for power. Moreover, we found that the spatial extent of the interacting sources and SNR, but not the extent of coupling, were the main parameters affecting the best choice for lambda. Our findings suggest using less regularization when measuring oscillatory coupling compared to power estimation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kurt James Werner
2016-10-01
Full Text Available The magnitude of the Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT of a discrete-time signal has a limited frequency definition. Quadratic interpolation over the three DFT samples surrounding magnitude peaks improves the estimation of parameters (frequency and amplitude of resolved sinusoids beyond that limit. Interpolating on a rescaled magnitude spectrum using a logarithmic scale has been shown to improve those estimates. In this article, we show how to heuristically tune a power scaling parameter to outperform linear and logarithmic scaling at an equivalent computational cost. Although this power scaling factor is computed heuristically rather than analytically, it is shown to depend in a structured way on window parameters. Invariance properties of this family of estimators are studied and the existence of a bias due to noise is shown. Comparing to two state-of-the-art estimators, we show that an optimized power scaling has a lower systematic bias and lower mean-squared-error in noisy conditions for ten out of twelve common windowing functions.
Estimating workload using EEG spectral power and ERPs in the n-back task
Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Hogervorst, Maarten A.; van Erp, Jan B. F.; Heffelaar, Tobias; Zimmerman, Patrick H.; Oostenveld, Robert
2012-08-01
Previous studies indicate that both electroencephalogram (EEG) spectral power (in particular the alpha and theta band) and event-related potentials (ERPs) (in particular the P300) can be used as a measure of mental work or memory load. We compare their ability to estimate workload level in a well-controlled task. In addition, we combine both types of measures in a single classification model to examine whether this results in higher classification accuracy than either one alone. Participants watched a sequence of visually presented letters and indicated whether or not the current letter was the same as the one (n instances) before. Workload was varied by varying n. We developed different classification models using ERP features, frequency power features or a combination (fusion). Training and testing of the models simulated an online workload estimation situation. All our ERP, power and fusion models provide classification accuracies between 80% and 90% when distinguishing between the highest and the lowest workload condition after 2 min. For 32 out of 35 participants, classification was significantly higher than chance level after 2.5 s (or one letter) as estimated by the fusion model. Differences between the models are rather small, though the fusion model performs better than the other models when only short data segments are available for estimating workload.
Analysis and Estimation of Electric Power Demand in Russian Far East
Oleinik, E. B.; Sidorova, N. G.
2017-10-01
This article reviews the current situation in the fuel and energy complex (FEC) of the Russian Far East, distinguishes its specific features, estimates the volume of investments required for further development of FEC in the Russian Far East. The use of econometric models makes it possible to get a forecast of electric power production, which serves as a basis of evaluation of the region’s electric power demand. It is noted that the main problem of the region development is surplus of energy production and a continuous population decline. The authors offer major strategic directions of development and mechanisms of energy policy implementation.
Power Control and Coding Formulation for State Estimation with Wireless Sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Quevedo, Daniel; Østergaard, Jan; Ahlen, Anders
2014-01-01
additional links. The GW decides on the coding scheme and the transmitter power levels of the wireless nodes. The decision process is carried out online and adapts to varying channel conditions to improve the tradeoff between state estimation accuracy and energy expenditure. In combination with predictive...... savings of around 50 power levels and bit-rates are governed by simple logic. In particular, ZEC is preferable at time instances with high channel gains, whereas MDC is superior for time instances with low gains. When channels between the sensors and the GW are in deep fades, network coding improves...
Tyson L. Swetnam; Donald A. Falk; Ann M. Lynch; Stephen R. Yool
2014-01-01
Limitations inherent to airborne laser scanning (ALS) technology and the complex sorting and packing relationships of forests complicate accurate remote sensing of mid- and understory trees, especially in denser forest stands. Self-similarities in rank-sized individual tree distributions (ITD), e.g. bole diameter or height, are a well-understood property of natural,...
Application of beam deconvolution technique to power spectrum estimation for CMB measurements
Keihänen, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Reinecke, M.
2017-04-01
We present two novel methods for the estimation of the angular power spectrum of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies. We assume an absolute CMB experiment with arbitrary asymmetric beams and arbitrary sky coverage. The methods differ from the earlier ones in that the power spectrum is estimated directly from the time-ordered data, without first compressing the data into a sky map, and they take into account the effect of asymmetric beams. In particular, they correct the beam-induced leakage from temperature to polarization. The methods are applicable to a case where part of the sky has been masked out to remove foreground contamination, leaving a pure CMB signal, but incomplete sky coverage. The first method (deconvolution quadratic maximum likelihood) is derived as the optimal quadratic estimator, which simultaneously yields an unbiased spectrum estimate and minimizes its variance. We successfully apply it to multipoles up to ℓ = 200. The second method is derived as a weak-signal approximation from the first one. It yields an unbiased estimate for the full multipole range, but relaxes the requirement of minimal variance. We validate the methods with simulations for the 70 GHz channel of Planck surveyor, and demonstrate that we are able to correct the beam effects in the TT, EE, BB and TE spectra up to multipole ℓ = 1500. Together, the two methods cover the complete multipole range with no gap in between.
NREL Triples Previous Estimates of U.S. Wind Power Potential (Fact Sheet)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
2011-07-01
The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently released new estimates of the U.S. potential for wind-generated electricity, using advanced wind mapping and validation techniques to triple previous estimates of the size of the nation's wind resources. The new study, conducted by NREL and AWS TruePower, finds that the contiguous 48 states have the potential to generate up to 37 million gigawatt-hours annually. In comparison, the total U.S. electricity generation from all sources was roughly 4 million gigawatt-hours in 2009.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — QuinStar Technology proposes to develop a 4-watt Solid-State Power Amplifier (SSPA) operating at F-band (106-114 GHz) with a power-added efficiency (PAE) of greater...
Schyska, Bruno U.; Couto, António; von Bremen, Lueder; Estanqueiro, Ana; Heinemann, Detlev
2017-05-01
Europe is facing the challenge of increasing shares of energy from variable renewable sources. Furthermore, it is heading towards a fully integrated electricity market, i.e. a Europe-wide electricity system. The stable operation of this large-scale renewable power system requires detailed information on the amount of electricity being transmitted now and in the future. To estimate the actual amount of electricity, upscaling algorithms are applied. Those algorithms - until now - however, only exist for smaller regions (e.g. transmission zones and single wind farms). The aim of this study is to introduce a new approach to estimate Europe-wide wind power generation based on spatio-temporal clustering. We furthermore show that training the upscaling model for different prevailing weather situations allows to further reduce the number of reference sites without losing accuracy.
Accurate dynamic power estimation for CMOS combinational logic circuits with real gate delay model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omnia S. Fadl
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Dynamic power estimation is essential in designing VLSI circuits where many parameters are involved but the only circuit parameter that is related to the circuit operation is the nodes’ toggle rate. This paper discusses a deterministic and fast method to estimate the dynamic power consumption for CMOS combinational logic circuits using gate-level descriptions based on the Logic Pictures concept to obtain the circuit nodes’ toggle rate. The delay model for the logic gates is the real-delay model. To validate the results, the method is applied to several circuits and compared against exhaustive, as well as Monte Carlo, simulations. The proposed technique was shown to save up to 96% processing time compared to exhaustive simulation.
Accurate dynamic power estimation for CMOS combinational logic circuits with real gate delay model.
Fadl, Omnia S; Abu-Elyazeed, Mohamed F; Abdelhalim, Mohamed B; Amer, Hassanein H; Madian, Ahmed H
2016-01-01
Dynamic power estimation is essential in designing VLSI circuits where many parameters are involved but the only circuit parameter that is related to the circuit operation is the nodes' toggle rate. This paper discusses a deterministic and fast method to estimate the dynamic power consumption for CMOS combinational logic circuits using gate-level descriptions based on the Logic Pictures concept to obtain the circuit nodes' toggle rate. The delay model for the logic gates is the real-delay model. To validate the results, the method is applied to several circuits and compared against exhaustive, as well as Monte Carlo, simulations. The proposed technique was shown to save up to 96% processing time compared to exhaustive simulation.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhou, Ning [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Huang, Zhenyu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Meng, Da [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Elbert, Stephen T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Shaobu [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diao, Ruisheng [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2014-03-31
With the increasing complexity resulting from uncertainties and stochastic variations introduced by intermittent renewable energy sources, responsive loads, mobile consumption of plug-in vehicles, and new market designs, more and more dynamic behaviors are observed in everyday power system operation. To operate a power system efficiently and reliably, it is critical to adopt a dynamic paradigm so that effective control actions can be taken in time. The dynamic paradigm needs to include three fundamental components: dynamic state estimation; look-ahead dynamic simulation; and dynamic contingency analysis (Figure 1). These three components answer three basic questions: where the system is; where the system is going; and how secure the system is against accidents. The dynamic state estimation provides a solid cornerstone to support the other 2 components and is the focus of this study.
Spatial Distribution of Estimated Wind-Power Royalties in West Texas
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christian Brannstrom
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Wind-power development in the U.S. occurs primarily on private land, producing royalties for landowners through private contracts with wind-farm operators. Texas, the U.S. leader in wind-power production with well-documented support for wind power, has virtually all of its ~12 GW of wind capacity sited on private lands. Determining the spatial distribution of royalty payments from wind energy is a crucial first step to understanding how renewable power may alter land-based livelihoods of some landowners, and, as a result, possibly encourage land-use changes. We located ~1700 wind turbines (~2.7 GW on 241 landholdings in Nolan and Taylor counties, Texas, a major wind-development region. We estimated total royalties to be ~$11.5 million per year, with mean annual royalty received per landowner per year of $47,879 but with significant differences among quintiles and between two sub-regions. Unequal distribution of royalties results from land-tenure patterns established before wind-power development because of a “property advantage,” defined as the pre-existing land-tenure patterns that benefit the fraction of rural landowners who receive wind turbines. A “royalty paradox” describes the observation that royalties flow to a small fraction of landowners even though support for wind power exceeds 70 percent.
Turner, Adam C; Zankl, Maria; DeMarco, John J; Cagnon, Chris H; Zhang, Di; Angel, Erin; Cody, Dianna D; Stevens, Donna M; McCollough, Cynthia H; McNitt-Gray, Michael F
2010-04-01
Monte Carlo radiation transport techniques have made it possible to accurately estimate the radiation dose to radiosensitive organs in patient models from scans performed with modern multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT) scanners. However, there is considerable variation in organ doses across scanners, even when similar acquisition conditions are used. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of a technique to estimate organ doses that would be scanner independent. This was accomplished by assessing the ability of CTDIvol measurements to account for differences in MDCT scanners that lead to organ dose differences. Monte Carlo simulations of 64-slice MDCT scanners from each of the four major manufacturers were performed. An adult female patient model from the GSF family of voxelized phantoms was used in which all ICRP Publication 103 radiosensitive organs were identified. A 120 kVp, full-body helical scan with a pitch of 1 was simulated for each scanner using similar scan protocols across scanners. From each simulated scan, the radiation dose to each organ was obtained on a per mA s basis (mGy/mA s). In addition, CTDIvol values were obtained from each scanner for the selected scan parameters. Then, to demonstrate the feasibility of generating organ dose estimates from scanner-independent coefficients, the simulated organ dose values resulting from each scanner were normalized by the CTDIvol value for those acquisition conditions. CTDIvol values across scanners showed considerable variation as the coefficient of variation (CoV) across scanners was 34.1%. The simulated patient scans also demonstrated considerable differences in organ dose values, which varied by up to a factor of approximately 2 between some of the scanners. The CoV across scanners for the simulated organ doses ranged from 26.7% (for the adrenals) to 37.7% (for the thyroid), with a mean CoV of 31.5% across all organs. However, when organ doses are normalized by CTDIvo
Estimating Economic and Logistic Utility of Connecting to Unreliable Power Grids
2016-06-17
grids. The economic and logistic utility costs and benefits of connecting the facility to the grid can be quantified. A rigorous simulation model, the...Lexington, MA 02420 USA (e-mail: vanbroekhoven@ll.mit.edu) Estimating Economic and Logistic Utility of Connecting to Unreliable Power Grids Franz... logistics and base security. The fourth bar graph shows base endurance, i.e. if the fuel supply were disrupted, this is how long the base could
Yang, Que; Wang, Shanshan; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Lu; Meng, Qingyu; Zhu, Qiudong
2015-08-01
For normal eyes without history of any ocular surgery, traditional equations for calculating intraocular lens (IOL) power, such as SRK-T, Holladay, Higis, SRK-II, et al., all were relativley accurate. However, for eyes underwent refractive surgeries, such as LASIK, or eyes diagnosed as keratoconus, these equations may cause significant postoperative refractive error, which may cause poor satisfaction after cataract surgery. Although some methods have been carried out to solve this problem, such as Hagis-L equation[1], or using preoperative data (data before LASIK) to estimate K value[2], no precise equations were available for these eyes. Here, we introduced a novel intraocular lens power estimation method by accurate ray tracing with optical design software ZEMAX. Instead of using traditional regression formula, we adopted the exact measured corneal elevation distribution, central corneal thickness, anterior chamber depth, axial length, and estimated effective lens plane as the input parameters. The calculation of intraocular lens power for a patient with keratoconus and another LASIK postoperative patient met very well with their visual capacity after cataract surgery.
Czirjak, Daniel
2017-04-01
Remote sensing platforms have consistently demonstrated the ability to detect, and in some cases identify, specific targets of interest, and photovoltaic solar panels are shown to have a unique spectral signature that is consistent across multiple manufacturers and construction methods. Solar panels are proven to be detectable in hyperspectral imagery using common statistical target detection methods such as the adaptive cosine estimator, and false alarms can be mitigated through the use of a spectral verification process that eliminates pixels that do not have the key spectral features of photovoltaic solar panel reflectance spectrum. The normalized solar panel index is described and is a key component in the false-alarm mitigation process. After spectral verification, these solar panel arrays are confirmed on openly available literal imagery and can be measured using numerous open-source algorithms and tools. The measurements allow for the assessment of overall solar power generation capacity using an equation that accounts for solar insolation, the area of solar panels, and the efficiency of the solar panels conversion of solar energy to power. Using a known location with readily available information, the methods outlined in this paper estimate the power generation capabilities within 6% of the rated power.
Artificial neural network-based all-sky power estimation and fault detection in photovoltaic modules
Jazayeri, Kian; Jazayeri, Moein; Uysal, Sener
2017-04-01
The development of a system for output power estimation and fault detection in photovoltaic (PV) modules using an artificial neural network (ANN) is presented. Over 30,000 healthy and faulty data sets containing per-minute measurements of PV module output power (W) and irradiance (W/m2) along with real-time calculations of the Sun's position in the sky and the PV module surface temperature, collected during a three-month period, are fed to different ANNs as training paths. The first ANN being trained on healthy data is used for PV module output power estimation and the second ANN, which is trained on both healthy and faulty data, is utilized for PV module fault detection. The proposed PV module-level fault detection algorithm can expectedly be deployed in broader PV fleets by taking developmental considerations. The machine-learning-based automated system provides the possibility of all-sky real-time monitoring and fault detection of PV modules under any meteorological condition. Utilizing the proposed system, any power loss caused by damaged cells, shading conditions, accumulated dirt and dust on module surface, etc., is detected and reported immediately, potentially yielding increased reliability and efficiency of the PV systems and decreased support and maintenance costs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Makoana, N. W.
2016-11-01
Full Text Available In Selective Laser Melting, the initial units produced are single tracks that overlap to create a single layer; from the sequence of layers, a 3D object is manufactured. The properties of the parts produced by SLM depend heavily on the properties of each single track and each layer formed by these tracks. This study evaluates the effect of processing parameters on the geometrical characteristics of single tracks manufactured from 17-4PH stainless steel powder. A single-mode continuous-wave ytterbium fibre laser was used to manufacture single tracks at laser powers in the range of 100-300 W with a constant spot size of ∼80μm. The single tracks produced were subjected to standard metallographic preparation techniques for further analysis with an optical microscope. Deep molten pool shapes were observed at low scan speeds, while shallow molten pool shapes were observed at high scan speeds. At higher laser power densities, under-cutting and humping effects were also observed. The dimensions of single tracks processed without powder generally decrease with increasing scan speed at constant laser power. However, the geometrical features of the single tracks processed with powder revealed pronounced irregularities believed to be caused by non-homogeneity in the deposited powder layer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patel Kamlesh
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the effects of the input quantity representations in linear and complex forms are analyzed to estimate mismatch uncertainty separately for one-port and two-port components. The mismatch uncertainties in power and attenuation measurements are evaluated for direct, ratio and substitution techniques with the use of a vector network analyzer system in the range of 1 to 18 GHz. The estimated mismatch uncertainties were compared for the same device under test and these values have verified that their evaluation is dependent on the representations of input quantities. In power measurements, the mismatch uncertainty is reduced when evaluating from the voltage standing wave ratio or reflection coefficient magnitudes in comparison to the complex reflection coefficients. The mismatch uncertainty in the attenuation measurements, are found higher and linearly increasing while estimating from the linear magnitude values than those from the S-parameters of the attenuator. Thus in practice, the mismatch uncertainty is estimated more accurately using the quantities measured in the same representations as of measuring quantity.
Estimates of Power Plant NOx Emissions and Lifetimes from OMI NO2 Satellite Retrievals
de Foy, Benjamin; Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G.; Lamsal, Lok N.; Duncan, Bryan N.
2015-01-01
Isolated power plants with well characterized emissions serve as an ideal test case of methods to estimate emissions using satellite data. In this study we evaluate the Exponentially-Modified Gaussian (EMG) method and the box model method based on mass balance for estimating known NOx emissions from satellite retrievals made by the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We consider 29 power plants in the USA which have large NOx plumes that do not overlap with other sources and which have emissions data from the Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS). This enables us to identify constraints required by the methods, such as which wind data to use and how to calculate background values. We found that the lifetimes estimated by the methods are too short to be representative of the chemical lifetime. Instead, we introduce a separate lifetime parameter to account for the discrepancy between estimates using real data and those that theory would predict. In terms of emissions, the EMG method required averages from multiple years to give accurate results, whereas the box model method gave accurate results for individual ozone seasons.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sonia Aïssa
2008-05-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the effects of channel estimation error at the receiver on the achievable rate of distributed space-time block coded transmission. We consider that multiple transmitters cooperate to send the signal to the receiver and derive lower and upper bounds on the mutual information of distributed space-time block codes (D-STBCs when the channel gains and channel estimation error variances pertaining to different transmitter-receiver links are unequal. Then, assessing the gap between these two bounds, we provide a limiting value that upper bounds the latter at any input transmit powers, and also show that the gap is minimum if the receiver can estimate the channels of different transmitters with the same accuracy. We further investigate positioning the receiving node such that the mutual information bounds of D-STBCs and their robustness to the variations of the subchannel gains are maximum, as long as the summation of these gains is constant. Furthermore, we derive the optimum power transmission strategy to achieve the outage capacity lower bound of D-STBCs under arbitrary numbers of transmit and receive antennas, and provide closed-form expressions for this capacity metric. Numerical simulations are conducted to corroborate our analysis and quantify the effects of imperfect channel estimation.
Joint Parameter Estimation for the Two-Wave with Diffuse Power Fading Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jesus Lopez-Fernandez
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks deployed within metallic cavities are known to suffer from a very severe fading, even in strong line-of-sight propagation conditions. This behavior is well-captured by the Two-Wave with Diffuse Power (TWDP fading distribution, which shows great fit to field measurements in such scenarios. In this paper, we address the joint estimation of the parameters K and Δ that characterize the TWDP fading model, based on the observation of the received signal envelope. We use a moment-based approach to derive closed-form expressions for the estimators of K and Δ, as well as closed-form expressions for their asymptotic variance. Results show that the estimation error is close to the Cramer-Rao lower bound for a wide range of values of the parameters K and Δ. The performance degradation due to a finite number of observations is also analyzed.
Ishii, Tetsuyuki; Sato, Ritsuko; Choi, Sungwoo; Chiba, Yasuo; Masuda, Atsushi
2017-08-01
The purpose of this study is to develop a method of estimating the electric power from various photovoltaic technologies with high precision. The actual outdoor performance of eight kinds (12 types) of photovoltaic (PV) modules has been measured since January 2012 in order to verify the precision of the method. Using ambient climatic datasets including solar irradiance, module temperature, and solar spectrum, the performance of these PV modules is corrected to the performance under standard test conditions (STC), which should be constant ideally. The results indicate that the performance of bulk crystalline silicon (c-Si) and copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) PV modules can be estimated with high precision (approximately less than ±2%). However, the estimation precision of thin-film Si and cadmium telluride (CdTe) PV modules is low because of the initial light-induced degradation and seasonal variation due to metastability.
Growth in NOx emissions from power plants in China: bottom-up estimates and satellite observations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Lei
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Using OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument tropospheric NO2 columns and a nested-grid 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, we investigated the growth in NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants and their contributions to the growth in NO2 columns in 2005–2007 in China. We first developed a unit-based power plant NOx emission inventory for 2005–2007 to support this investigation. The total capacities of coal-fired power generation have increased by 48.8% in 2005–2007, with 92.2% of the total capacity additions coming from generator units with size ≥300 MW. The annual NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants were estimated to be 8.11 Tg NO2 for 2005 and 9.58 Tg NO2 for 2007, respectively. The modeled summer average tropospheric NO2 columns were highly correlated (R2 = 0.79–0.82 with OMI measurements over grids dominated by power plant emissions, with only 7–14% low bias, lending support to the high accuracy of the unit-based power plant NOx emission inventory. The ratios of OMI-derived annual and summer average tropospheric NO2 columns between 2007 and 2005 indicated that most of the grids with significant NO2 increases were related to power plant construction activities. OMI had the capability to trace the changes of NOx emissions from individual large power plants in cases where there is less interference from other NOx sources. Scenario runs from GEOS-Chem model suggested that the new power plants contributed 18.5% and 10% to the annual average NO2 columns in 2007 in Inner Mongolia and North China, respectively. The massive new power plant NOx emissions significantly changed the local NO2 profiles, especially in less polluted areas. A sensitivity study found that changes of NO2 shape factors due to including new power plant emissions increased the summer average OMI tropospheric NO2 columns by 3.8–17.2% for six selected locations, indicating that the updated emission information could help to improve the satellite
Growth in NOx emissions from power plants in China: bottom-up estimates and satellite observations
Wang, S. W.; Zhang, Q.; Streets, D. G.; He, K. B.; Martin, R. V.; Lamsal, L. N.; Chen, D.; Lei, Y.; Lu, Z.
2012-05-01
Using OMI (Ozone Monitoring Instrument) tropospheric NO2 columns and a nested-grid 3-D global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem), we investigated the growth in NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants and their contributions to the growth in NO2 columns in 2005-2007 in China. We first developed a unit-based power plant NOx emission inventory for 2005-2007 to support this investigation. The total capacities of coal-fired power generation have increased by 48.8% in 2005-2007, with 92.2% of the total capacity additions coming from generator units with size ≥300 MW. The annual NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants were estimated to be 8.11 Tg NO2 for 2005 and 9.58 Tg NO2 for 2007, respectively. The modeled summer average tropospheric NO2 columns were highly correlated (R2 = 0.79-0.82) with OMI measurements over grids dominated by power plant emissions, with only 7-14% low bias, lending support to the high accuracy of the unit-based power plant NOx emission inventory. The ratios of OMI-derived annual and summer average tropospheric NO2 columns between 2007 and 2005 indicated that most of the grids with significant NO2 increases were related to power plant construction activities. OMI had the capability to trace the changes of NOx emissions from individual large power plants in cases where there is less interference from other NOx sources. Scenario runs from GEOS-Chem model suggested that the new power plants contributed 18.5% and 10% to the annual average NO2 columns in 2007 in Inner Mongolia and North China, respectively. The massive new power plant NOx emissions significantly changed the local NO2 profiles, especially in less polluted areas. A sensitivity study found that changes of NO2 shape factors due to including new power plant emissions increased the summer average OMI tropospheric NO2 columns by 3.8-17.2% for six selected locations, indicating that the updated emission information could help to improve the satellite retrievals.
Estimation of power losses in a high-frequency planar transformer using a thermal camera
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barlik Roman
2016-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a thermal camera for the quantitative estimation of power losses in a high frequency planar transformer (100 kHz/ 5600 VA. The methodology is based on the observation of the transient temperature rise and determination of the power losses by means of curves representing the derivative of temperature as a function of power losses dissipated in the transformer. First, the thermal calibration characteristics had to be obtained from a simple experiment, where power losses are generated by DC current in the ferrite core and windings. Next, experimental investigations focused on the determination of the transformer power losses for a short circuit and no load, with a resistive load and with the rectifier as a load were carried out. Finally, to verify the obtained results, analytical calculations based on Dowell’s and modified Steinmetz’s equations were additionally made, which showed a good convergence. The proposed method is easy to implement and can be used as an alternative to the calorimetric method which is time-consuming and requires a complicated measurement setup.
Conceptual design of the cryogenic system and estimation of the recirculated power for CFETR
Liu, Xiaogang; Qiu, Lilong; Li, Junjun; Wang, Zhaoliang; Ren, Yong; Wang, Xianwei; Li, Guoqiang; Gao, Xiang; Bi, Yanfang
2017-01-01
The China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR) is the next tokamak in China’s roadmap for realizing commercial fusion energy. The CFETR cryogenic system is crucial to creating and maintaining operational conditions for its superconducting magnet system and thermal shields. The preliminary conceptual design of the CFETR cryogenic system has been carried out with reference to that of ITER. It will provide an average capacity of 75 to 80 kW at 4.5 K and a peak capacity of 1300 kW at 80 K. The electric power consumption of the cryogenic system is estimated to be 24 MW, and the gross building area is about 7000 m2. The relationships among the auxiliary power consumed by the cryogenic system, the fusion power gain and the recirculated power of CFETR are discussed, with the suggestion that about 52% of the electric power produced by CFETR in phase II must be recirculated to run the fusion test reactor.
Power Source Status Estimation and Drive Control Method for Autonomous Decentralized Hybrid Train
Furuya, Takemasa; Ogawa, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Takamitsu; Hasegawa, Hitoshi
A hybrid control system has two main functions: power sharing and equipment protection. In this paper, we discuss the design, construction and testing of a drive control method for an autonomous decentralized hybrid train with 100-kW-class fuel cells (FC) and 36-kWh lithium-ion batteries (Li-Batt). The main objectives of this study are to identify the operation status of the power sources on the basis of the input voltage of the traction inverter and to estimate the maximum traction power control basis of the power-source status. The proposed control method is useful in preventing overload operation of the onboard power sources in an autonomous decentralized hybrid system that has a flexible main circuit configuration and a few control signal lines. Further, with this method, the initial cost of a hybrid system can be reduced and the retrofit design of the hybrid system can be simplified. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimentally confirmed by using a real-scale hybrid train system.
Power Estimation for Gene-Longevity Association Analysis Using Concordant Twins
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qihua Tan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Statistical power is one of the major concerns in genetic association studies. Related individuals such as twins are valuable samples for genetic studies because of their genetic relatedness. Phenotype similarity in twin pairs provides evidence of genetic control over the phenotype variation in a population. The genetic association study on human longevity, a complex trait that is under control of both genetic and environmental factors, has been confronted by the small sample sizes of longevity subjects which limit statistical power. Twin pairs concordant for longevity have increased probability for carrying beneficial genes and thus are useful samples for gene-longevity association analysis. We conducted a computer simulation to estimate the power of association study using longevity concordant twin pairs. We observed remarkable power increases in using singletons from longevity concordant twin pairs as cases in comparison with cases of sporadic proband. A similar power would require doubled sample sizes for fraternal twins than for identical twins who are concordant for longevity suggesting that longevity concordant identical twins are more efficient samples than fraternal twins. We also observed an approximate of 2- to 3-fold increase in sample sizes needed for longevity cutoff at age 90 as compared with that at age 95. Overall, our results showed high value of twins in genetic association studies on human longevity.
Power Estimation for Gene-Longevity Association Analysis Using Concordant Twins
Kruse, Torben; Christensen, Kaare
2014-01-01
Statistical power is one of the major concerns in genetic association studies. Related individuals such as twins are valuable samples for genetic studies because of their genetic relatedness. Phenotype similarity in twin pairs provides evidence of genetic control over the phenotype variation in a population. The genetic association study on human longevity, a complex trait that is under control of both genetic and environmental factors, has been confronted by the small sample sizes of longevity subjects which limit statistical power. Twin pairs concordant for longevity have increased probability for carrying beneficial genes and thus are useful samples for gene-longevity association analysis. We conducted a computer simulation to estimate the power of association study using longevity concordant twin pairs. We observed remarkable power increases in using singletons from longevity concordant twin pairs as cases in comparison with cases of sporadic proband. A similar power would require doubled sample sizes for fraternal twins than for identical twins who are concordant for longevity suggesting that longevity concordant identical twins are more efficient samples than fraternal twins. We also observed an approximate of 2- to 3-fold increase in sample sizes needed for longevity cutoff at age 90 as compared with that at age 95. Overall, our results showed high value of twins in genetic association studies on human longevity. PMID:25309757
Mirzaei, Mansore; Yasini, Esmaeil; Tavakoli, Atefeh; Chiniforush, Nasim
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare microhybride composite treated by bur and different power of Erbium, Chromium doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). 21 microhybride composite blocks (DiaFil TM, DiaDent, Korea) with 2 × 4 × 4 mm dimensions were made. The bonding surface of these blocks were polished, The samples were put into 6 groups for laser irradiation as follows: Group 1 (power: 1W, Energy: 50 mJ); Group 2(power: 2 W, Energy: 100mJ); Group 3 (power: 3W, Energy: 150mJ); Group 4 (power: 4W, Energy: 200mJ); Group 5 (power: 5W, Energy: 250mJ) and Group 6(power:6 W, Energy:300mJ). One group prepared by bur- treated. All samples were prepared by repetition rate of 20 Hz. Then, the samples were prepared for SEM examination. Some irregularities were seen in Er,Cr:YSGG laser samples in comparison to Bur group that produced favorable surface for adhesion of repair composite. Among different lasers, Er;Cr:YSGG laser can be chosen as a suitable technique for surface treatment of unsatisfactory composites.
Patient Alignment Estimation in Six Degrees of Freedom Using a CT-scan and a Single X-ray Image
Selby, B. P.; Sakas, G.; Walter, S.; Groch, W.-D.; Stilla, U.
Particle beam treatment allows accurate dose delivery onto carcinogen tissue. The reachable accuracy is limited by patient alignment errors relative to the beam source. Errors can be corrected manually or by automatic comparison of two X-ray images to a CT-scan but correction mostly does not cover all degrees of freedom (DoF). In this contribution we present a solution that makes use of one X-ray image and computes full 6 DoF alignment correction by gray value based comparison to a CT. By using regions of interest, we are able to increase performance and reliability.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, Insu [Korea Institute of construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woojung [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
Estimation of decommissioning cost, decommissioning strategy, and decommissioning quantity at the time when entering into any decommissioning plans are some elements whose inputs are mandatory for nuclear power plant decommissioning. Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. This study aims at analyzing whether required resources for decommissioning nuclear power plants can be estimated, applying BIM. To achieve this goal, this study analyzed the status quo of BIM such as definition, characteristics, and areas applied, and made use of them when drawing out study results by examining types and features of the tools realizing BIM. In order to review how BIM could be used for decommissioning nuclear power plants, the definition, characteristics and applied areas of BIM were discussed. BIM designs objects of the structures (walls, slabs, pillars, stairs, windows and doors, etc.) by 3D technology and endows attribute (function, structure and usage) information for each object, thereby providing visualized information of structures for participants in construction projects. Major characteristics of BIM attribute information are as follows: - Geometry: The information of objects is represented by measurable geometric information - Extensible object attributes: Objects include pre-defined attributes, and allow extension of other attributes. Any model that includes these attributes forms relationships with other various attributes in order to perform analysis and simulation. - All information including the attributes are integrated to ensure continuity, accuracy and accessibility, and all information used during the life cycle of structures are supported. This means that when information of required resources is added as another attributes other than geometric
Francy, Reshma C; Farid, Amro M; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal
2015-05-01
For many decades, state estimation (SE) has been a critical technology for energy management systems utilized by power system operators. Over time, it has become a mature technology that provides an accurate representation of system state under fairly stable and well understood system operation. The integration of variable energy resources (VERs) such as wind and solar generation, however, introduces new fast frequency dynamics and uncertainties into the system. Furthermore, such renewable energy is often integrated into the distribution system thus requiring real-time monitoring all the way to the periphery of the power grid topology and not just the (central) transmission system. The conventional solution is two fold: solve the SE problem (1) at a faster rate in accordance with the newly added VER dynamics and (2) for the entire power grid topology including the transmission and distribution systems. Such an approach results in exponentially growing problem sets which need to be solver at faster rates. This work seeks to address these two simultaneous requirements and builds upon two recent SE methods which incorporate event-triggering such that the state estimator is only called in the case of considerable novelty in the evolution of the system state. The first method incorporates only event-triggering while the second adds the concept of tracking. Both SE methods are demonstrated on the standard IEEE 14-bus system and the results are observed for a specific bus for two difference scenarios: (1) a spike in the wind power injection and (2) ramp events with higher variability. Relative to traditional state estimation, the numerical case studies showed that the proposed methods can result in computational time reductions of 90%. These results were supported by a theoretical discussion of the computational complexity of three SE techniques. The work concludes that the proposed SE techniques demonstrate practical improvements to the computational complexity of
Sensitivity Evaluation of AP1000 Nuclear Power Plant Best Estimation Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hao Shi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The best estimation process of AP1000 Nuclear Power Plant (NPP requires proper selections of parameters and models so as to obtain the most accurate results compared with the actual design parameters. Therefore, it is necessary to identify and evaluate the influences of these parameters and modeling approaches quantitatively and qualitatively. Based on the best estimate thermal-hydraulic system code RELAP5/MOD3.2, sensitivity analysis has been performed on core partition methods, parameters, and model selections in AP1000 Nuclear Power Plant, like the core channel number, pressurizer node number, feedwater temperature, and so forth. The results show that core channel number, core channel node number, and the pressurizer node number have apparent influences on the coolant temperature variation and pressure drop through the reactor. The feedwater temperature is a sensitive factor to the Steam Generator (SG outlet temperature and the Steam Generator outlet pressure. In addition, the cross-flow model nearly has no effects on the coolant temperature variation and pressure drop in the reactor, in both the steady state and the loss of power transient. Furthermore, some fittest parameters with which the most accurate results could be obtained have been put forward for the nuclear system simulation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng-Ting Shih
Full Text Available Polymer gels are regarded as a potential dosimeter for independent validation of absorbed doses in clinical radiotherapy. Several imaging modalities have been used to convert radiation-induced polymerization to absorbed doses from a macro-scale viewpoint. This study developed a novel dose conversion mechanism by texture analysis of scanning electron microscopy (SEM images. The modified N-isopropyl-acrylamide (NIPAM gels were prepared under normoxic conditions, and were administered radiation doses from 5 to 20 Gy. After freeze drying, the gel samples were sliced for SEM scanning with 50×, 500×, and 3500× magnifications. Four texture indices were calculated based on the gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM. The results showed that entropy and homogeneity were more suitable than contrast and energy as dose indices for higher linearity and sensitivity of the dose response curves. After parameter optimization, an R (2 value of 0.993 can be achieved for homogeneity using 500× magnified SEM images with 27 pixel offsets and no outlier exclusion. For dose verification, the percentage errors between the prescribed dose and the measured dose for 5, 10, 15, and 20 Gy were -7.60%, 5.80%, 2.53%, and -0.95%, respectively. We conclude that texture analysis can be applied to the SEM images of gel dosimeters to accurately convert micro-scale structural features to absorbed doses. The proposed method may extend the feasibility of applying gel dosimeters in the fields of diagnostic radiology and radiation protection.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Guanguan; Zhou, Dao; Yang, Jian
2017-01-01
In respect to a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, its corresponding time scale varies from microsecond level of power semiconductor switching to second level of the mechanical response. In order to map annual thermal profile of the power semiconductors, different approaches have been...... adopted to handle the fundamental-frequency thermal cycles and load-varying thermal cycles. Their effects on lifetime estimation of the power device in the Back-to-Back (BTB) power converter are evaluated....
Assessing a learning process with functional ANOVA estimators of EEG power spectral densities.
Gutiérrez, David; Ramírez-Moreno, Mauricio A
2016-04-01
We propose to assess the process of learning a task using electroencephalographic (EEG) measurements. In particular, we quantify changes in brain activity associated to the progression of the learning experience through the functional analysis-of-variances (FANOVA) estimators of the EEG power spectral density (PSD). Such functional estimators provide a sense of the effect of training in the EEG dynamics. For that purpose, we implemented an experiment to monitor the process of learning to type using the Colemak keyboard layout during a twelve-lessons training. Hence, our aim is to identify statistically significant changes in PSD of various EEG rhythms at different stages and difficulty levels of the learning process. Those changes are taken into account only when a probabilistic measure of the cognitive state ensures the high engagement of the volunteer to the training. Based on this, a series of statistical tests are performed in order to determine the personalized frequencies and sensors at which changes in PSD occur, then the FANOVA estimates are computed and analyzed. Our experimental results showed a significant decrease in the power of [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] rhythms for ten volunteers during the learning process, and such decrease happens regardless of the difficulty of the lesson. These results are in agreement with previous reports of changes in PSD being associated to feature binding and memory encoding.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sobczyk Tadeusz J.
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Energy based approach was used in the study to formulate a set of functions approximating the magnetic flux linkages versus independent currents. The simplest power series that approximates field co-energy and linked fluxes for a two winding core of an induction machine are described by a set of common unknown coefficients. The authors tested three algorithms for the coefficient estimation using Weighted Least-Squared Method for two different positions of the coils. The comparison of the approximation accuracy was accomplished in the specified area of the currents. All proposed algorithms of the coefficient estimation have been found to be effective. The algorithm based solely on the magnetic field co-energy values is significantly simpler than the method based on the magnetic flux linkages estimation concept. The algorithm based on the field co-energy and linked fluxes seems to be the most suitable for determining simultaneously the coefficients of power series approximating linked fluxes and field co-energy.
A Recommended Procedure for Estimating the Cosmic Ray Spectral Parameter of a Simple Power Law
Howell, Leonard W.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
A simple power law model consisting of a single spectral index a(f(sub i)) is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic ray (GQ proton flux at energies below 1013 eV. Two procedures for estimating a(f(sub i)), referred as (1) the method of moments, and (2) maximum likelihood, are developed and their statistical performance compared. I concluded that the maximum likelihood procedure attains the most desirable statistical properties and is hence the recommended statistic estimation procedure for estimating a1. The maximum likelihood procedure is then generalized for application to a set of real cosmic ray data and thereby makes this approach applicable to existing cosmic ray data sets. Several other important results, such as the relationship between collecting power and detector energy resolution, as well as inclusion of a non-Gaussian detector response function, are presented. These results have many practical benefits in the design phase of a cosmic ray detector because they permit instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of one of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose practical limits to the design envelope.
Wang, Kezhi
2014-10-01
Bit error rate (BER) and outage probability for amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying systems with two different channel estimation methods, disintegrated channel estimation and cascaded channel estimation, using pilot-aided maximum likelihood method in slowly fading Rayleigh channels are derived. Based on the BERs, the optimal values of pilot power under the total transmitting power constraints at the source and the optimal values of pilot power under the total transmitting power constraints at the relay are obtained, separately. Moreover, the optimal power allocation between the pilot power at the source, the pilot power at the relay, the data power at the source and the data power at the relay are obtained when their total transmitting power is fixed. Numerical results show that the derived BER expressions match with the simulation results. They also show that the proposed systems with optimal power allocation outperform the conventional systems without power allocation under the same other conditions. In some cases, the gain could be as large as several dB\\'s in effective signal-to-noise ratio.
SOC Estimation of Power Battery Design on Constant-current Discharge
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeng Zhigang
2014-04-01
Full Text Available This paper takes the electric car’s power battery (VRLA battery cell as the research object, for real-time monitoring problem of power battery's state of charge (SOC and remaining time, The system adopts micro control unit (MCU 89S51 and AD974 to control battery discharge in constant current, Through the measurement of a periodic, get Series of working voltage, using phase-slope calculation method at this time calculating the battery's SOC and remaining time. Through the experiment, this estimation method proved the feasibility of the dynamic working point can be mapped to the static working point, and the largest relative error is no more than 7 %. For further improving the measurement accuracy and reducing error, Through the software can realize appropriate correction and compensation of temperature, aging and other interference factors. Error analysis results show that this method has small error, high measurement accuracy.
A recommended procedure for estimating the cosmic-ray spectral parameter of a simple power law
Howell, L W
2002-01-01
A simple power law model with single spectral index alpha sub 1 is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 10 sup 1 sup 3 eV. Two procedures for estimating alpha sub 1 --the method of moments and maximum likelihood (ML)--are developed and their statistical performance are compared. The ML procedure is shown to be the superior approach and is then generalized for application to real cosmic-ray data sets. Several other important results, such as the relationship between collecting power and detector energy resolution and inclusion of a non-Gaussian detector response function, are presented. These results have many practical benefits in the design phase of a cosmic-ray detector as they permit instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of one of the science objectives.
A recommended procedure for estimating the cosmic-ray spectral parameter of a simple power law
Howell, L. W.
2002-03-01
A simple power law model with single spectral index α1 is believed to be an adequate description of the galactic cosmic-ray (GCR) proton flux at energies below 10 13 eV. Two procedures for estimating α1—the method of moments and maximum likelihood (ML)—are developed and their statistical performance are compared. The ML procedure is shown to be the superior approach and is then generalized for application to real cosmic-ray data sets. Several other important results, such as the relationship between collecting power and detector energy resolution and inclusion of a non-Gaussian detector response function, are presented. These results have many practical benefits in the design phase of a cosmic-ray detector as they permit instrument developers to make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of one of the science objectives.
Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization
Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.
2016-04-01
Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.
Birkholz, Harald
2012-04-01
The progress in image acquisition techniques provides life sciences with an abundance of data. Image analysis facilitates the assessment. The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in understanding the behavior of osteoblastic cells on biomaterials. In the flat basal part of the cells, it can be visualized by confocal laser scanning microscopy. In the microscopic images, the stained cytoskeleton appears as a dense network of bright ridges which is so far only qualitatively assessed. For its quantification, there is a need for ridge detection techniques that provide a geometrical description of this graph feature. The state of the art methods do not cope with the systematical degradation by noise, unspecific luminance, and uneven dye uptake. This work presents the key part of a ridge-tracking technique, which makes more efficient use of context information, and evaluate it by its length measurement accuracy. Two random models illustrate the performance against ground truth. Representative microscopic images confirm the applicability.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hounyo, Ulrich; Varneskov, Rasmus T.
We provide a new resampling procedure - the local stable bootstrap - that is able to mimic the dependence properties of realized power variations for pure-jump semimartingales observed at different frequencies. This allows us to propose a bootstrap estimator and inference procedure for the activity...... index of the underlying process, β, as well as a bootstrap test for whether it obeys a jump-diffusion or a pure-jump process, that is, of the null hypothesis H₀: β=2 against the alternative H₁: β... and properties of the new bootstrap diffusion test using high-frequency data on three FX series, the S&P 500, and the VIX....
Zhang, Li
With the deregulation of the electric power market in New England, an independent system operator (ISO) has been separated from the New England Power Pool (NEPOOL). The ISO provides a regional spot market, with bids on various electricity-related products and services submitted by utilities and independent power producers. A utility can bid on the spot market and buy or sell electricity via bilateral transactions. Good estimation of market clearing prices (MCP) will help utilities and independent power producers determine bidding and transaction strategies with low risks, and this is crucial for utilities to compete in the deregulated environment. MCP prediction, however, is difficult since bidding strategies used by participants are complicated and MCP is a non-stationary process. The main objective of this research is to provide efficient short-term load and MCP forecasting and corresponding confidence interval estimation methodologies. In this research, the complexity of load and MCP with other factors is investigated, and neural networks are used to model the complex relationship between input and output. With improved learning algorithm and on-line update features for load forecasting, a neural network based load forecaster was developed, and has been in daily industry use since summer 1998 with good performance. MCP is volatile because of the complexity of market behaviors. In practice, neural network based MCP predictors usually have a cascaded structure, as several key input factors need to be estimated first. In this research, the uncertainties involved in a cascaded neural network structure for MCP prediction are analyzed, and prediction distribution under the Bayesian framework is developed. A fast algorithm to evaluate the confidence intervals by using the memoryless Quasi-Newton method is also developed. The traditional back-propagation algorithm for neural network learning needs to be improved since MCP is a non-stationary process. The extended Kalman
Estimation of the radioactive source dispersion from Fukushima nuclear power plant accident.
Schöppner, Michael; Plastino, Wolfango; Povinec, Pavel; Nikkinen, Mika; Ruggieri, Federico; Bella, Francesco
2013-11-01
Following the Fukushima nuclear power plant accident detections of (133)Xe have been made in various locations. Using results of these remote measurements the Fukushima (133)Xe source term has been reconstructed and compared with previously reconstructed (137)Cs and (131)I source terms. The reconstruction is accomplished by applying atmospheric transport modeling and an adapted least square error method. The obtained results are in agreement with previous estimations of the Fukushima radionuclide source, and also serve as a proof of principle for source term reconstruction based on atmospheric transport modeling. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Estimates of power generated from synchrotron radiation in the HL-LHC experimental insertion regions
Rossi, Adriana; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department
2017-01-01
The power generated in single magnets of the HL-LHC experimental regions is estimated for collision optics HLLHCV1.2 β*=15 cm Round and HLLHCV1.2 Flat. Note that the layout used for the computations presented here is that before the recent change of baseline. These values should serve as input to Monte-Carlo codes (i.e., PHOTON [ ], Synrad [ ] or others), able to calculate the heat load distribution along the machine and in particular the Long Straight Sections (LSS).
Yang, Lang; Palermo, Lisa; Black, Dennis M; Eastell, Richard
2014-12-01
A bone fractures only when loaded beyond its strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of femoral strength, as estimated by finite element (FE) analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, with incident hip fracture in comparison to hip bone mineral density (BMD), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), and hip structure analysis (HSA) variables. This prospective case-cohort study included a random sample of 1941 women and 668 incident hip fracture cases (295 in the random sample) during a mean ± SD follow-up of 12.8 ± 5.7 years from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (n = 7860 community-dwelling women ≥67 years of age). We analyzed the baseline DXA scans (Hologic 1000) of the hip using a validated plane-stress, linear-elastic finite element (FE) model of the proximal femur and estimated the femoral strength during a simulated sideways fall. Cox regression accounting for the case-cohort design assessed the association of estimated femoral strength with hip fracture. The age-body mass index (BMI)-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per SD decrease for estimated strength (2.21; 95% CI, 1.95-2.50) was greater than that for total hip (TH) BMD (1.86; 95% CI, 1.67-2.08; p 0.05), FRAX scores (range, 1.32-1.68; p hip BMD or FRAX scores. The association of estimated strength with incident hip fracture was strong (Harrell's C index 0.770), significantly better than TH BMD (0.759; p 0.05). Similar findings were obtained for intracapsular and extracapsular fractures. In conclusion, the estimated femoral strength from FE analysis of DXA scans is an independent predictor and performs at least as well as FN BMD in predicting incident hip fracture in postmenopausal women. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.
An improved adaptive weighting function method for State Estimation in Power Systems with VSC-MTDC
Zhao, Kun; Yang, Xiaonan; Lang, Yansheng; Song, Xuri; Wang, Minkun; Luo, Yadi; Wu, Lingyun; Liu, Peng
2017-04-01
This paper presents an effective approach for state estimation in power systems that include multi-terminal voltage source converter based high voltage direct current (VSC-MTDC), called improved adaptive weighting function method. The proposed approach is simplified in which the VSC-MTDC system is solved followed by the AC system. Because the new state estimation method only changes the weight and keeps the matrix dimension unchanged. Accurate and fast convergence of AC/DC system can be realized by adaptive weight function method. This method also provides the technical support for the simulation analysis and accurate regulation of AC/DC system. Both the oretical analysis and numerical tests verify practicability, validity and convergence of new method.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Ernst Albin; Jørgensen, Lars Vincents; Sjøgaard, Gisela
2004-01-01
metabolic variables and to perform a physiological evaluation of five different kinematic models for calculating IP in cycling. Results showed that IP was statistically different between the kinematic models applied. IP based on metabolic variables (IP(met)) was 15, 41, and 91 W at 61, 88, and 115 rpm......, respectively, being remarkably close to the kinematic estimate of one model (IP(Willems-COM): 14, 43, and 95 W) and reasonably close to another kinematic estimate (IP(Winter): 8, 29, and 81 W). For all kinematic models there was no significant effect of performing 3-D versus 2-D analyses. IP increased...... significantly with pedal rate - leg movements accounting for the largest fraction. Further, external power (EP) affected IP significantly such that IP was larger at moderate than at low EP at the majority of the pedal rates applied but on average this difference was only 8%....
Howell, L W
2002-01-01
The method of Maximum Likelihood (ML) is used to estimate the spectral parameters of an assumed broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. This methodology, which requires the complete specificity of all cosmic-ray detector design parameters, is shown to provide approximately unbiased, minimum variance, and normally distributed spectra information for events detected by an instrument having a wide range of commonly used detector response functions. The ML procedure, coupled with the simulated performance of a proposed space-based detector and its planned life cycle, has proved to be of significant value in the design phase of a new science instrument. The procedure helped make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope. This ML methodology is then generalized to estimate bro...
Estimating magnetic fields of homes near transmission lines in the California Power Line Study.
Vergara, Ximena P; Kavet, Robert; Crespi, Catherine M; Hooper, Chris; Silva, J Michael; Kheifets, Leeka
2015-07-01
The California Power Line Study is a case-control study investigating the relation between residences near transmission lines and risk of childhood leukemia. It includes 5788 childhood leukemia cases and 5788 matched primary controls born between 1986 and 2007. We describe the methodology for estimating magnetic fields at study residences as well as for characterizing sources of uncertainty in these estimates. Birth residences of study subjects were geocoded and their distances to transmission lines were ascertained. 302 residences were deemed sufficiently close to transmission lines to have non-zero magnetic fields attributable to the lines. These residences were visited and detailed data, describing the physical configuration and dimensions of the lines contributing to the magnetic field at the residence, were collected. Phasing, loading, and directional load flow data for years of birth and diagnosis for each subject as well as for the day of site visit were obtained from utilities when available; when yearly average load for a particular year was not available, extrapolated values based on expert knowledge and prediction models were obtained. These data were used to estimate the magnetic fields at the center, closest and farthest point of each residence. We found good correlation between calculated fields and spot measurements of fields taken on site during visits. Our modeling strategies yielded similar calculated field estimates, and they were in high agreement with utility extrapolations. Phasing was known for over 90% of the lines. Important sources of uncertainty included a lack of information on the precise location of residences located within apartment buildings or other complexes. Our findings suggest that we were able to achieve high specificity in exposure assessment, which is essential for examining the association between distance to or magnetic fields from power lines and childhood leukemia risk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Liu, Xuan
Power grid is one of the most critical infrastructures in a nation and could suffer a variety of cyber attacks. With the development of Smart Grid, false data injection attack has recently attracted wide research interest. This thesis proposes a false data attack model with incomplete network information and develops optimal attack strategies for attacking load measurements and the real-time topology of a power grid. The impacts of false data on the economic and reliable operations of power systems are quantitatively analyzed in this thesis. To mitigate the risk of cyber attacks, a distributed protection strategies are also developed. It has been shown that an attacker can design false data to avoid being detected by the control center if the network information of a power grid is known to the attacker. In practice, however, it is very hard or even impossible for an attacker to obtain all network information of a power grid. In this thesis, we propose a local load redistribution attacking model based on incomplete network information and show that an attacker only needs to obtain the network information of the local attacking region to inject false data into smart meters in the local region without being detected by the state estimator. A heuristic algorithm is developed to determine a feasible attacking region by obtaining reduced network information. This thesis investigates the impacts of false data on the operations of power systems. It has been shown that false data can be designed by an attacker to: 1) mask the real-time topology of a power grid; 2) overload a transmission line; 3) disturb the line outage detection based on PMU data. To mitigate the risk of cyber attacks, this thesis proposes a new protection strategy, which intends to mitigate the damage effects of false data injection attacks by protecting a small set of critical measurements. To further reduce the computation complexity, a mixed integer linear programming approach is also proposed to
Estimation of Bid Curves in Power Exchanges using Time-varying Simultaneous-Equations Models
Ofuji, Kenta; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki
Simultaneous-equations model (SEM) is generally used in economics to estimate interdependent endogenous variables such as price and quantity in a competitive, equilibrium market. In this paper, we have attempted to apply SEM to JEPX (Japan Electric Power eXchange) spot market, a single-price auction market, using the publicly available data of selling and buying bid volumes, system price and traded quantity. The aim of this analysis is to understand the magnitude of influences to the auctioned prices and quantity from the selling and buying bids, than to forecast prices and quantity for risk management purposes. In comparison with the Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) estimation where the estimation results represent average values that are independent of time, we employ a time-varying simultaneous-equations model (TV-SEM) to capture structural changes inherent in those influences, using State Space models with Kalman filter stepwise estimation. The results showed that the buying bid volumes has that highest magnitude of influences among the factors considered, exhibiting time-dependent changes, ranging as broad as about 240% of its average. The slope of the supply curve also varies across time, implying the elastic property of the supply commodity, while the demand curve remains comparatively inelastic and stable over time.
Extreme Precipitation Frequency Analysis Using a Minimum Density Power Divergence Estimator
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yongwon Seo
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The recently observed hydrologic extremes are unlike what has been experienced so far. Both the magnitude and frequency of extremes are important indicators that determine the flood safety design criteria. Therefore, how are design criteria updated faced with these extremes? Both a sudden increase of design rainfall by the inclusion of these extremes and complete ignorance are inappropriate. In this study, the changes in extremes were examined and an alternative way to estimate the design rainfall amounts was developed using the data from 60 stations in South Korea. The minimum density power divergence estimator (MDPDE with the optimal value of a tuning parameter, α, was suggested as an alternative estimator instead of the maximum likelihood estimator (MLE; its performance was evaluated using the Gumbel (GUM and the generalized extreme value (GEV distribution. The results revealed an increase in both the frequency and magnitude of extreme events over the last two decades, which imply that the extremes are already occurring. The performance of the MDPDE was evaluated. The results revealed decreased and adjusted values of the design rainfall compared to MLE. On the other hand, the MDPDE of the GEV distribution with a positive shape parameter, ξ, does not show its advantage conditionally because the GEV distribution has a heavier right tail than the GUM distribution (ξ = 0. In contrast, the results showed the high sensitivity of the MLE to the extremes compared to MDPDE.
Johnson, Aidan; Archer, Melanie; Leigh-Shaw, Lyndie; Pais, Mike; O'Donnell, Chris; Wallman, James
2012-09-01
A new technique has recently been developed for estimating the volume of maggot masses on deceased persons using post-mortem CT scans. This allows volume to be measured non-invasively and factored into maggot mass temperature calculations for both casework and research. Examination of admission scans also allows exploration of entomological evidence in anatomical areas not usually exposed by autopsy (e.g. nasal cavities and facial sinuses), and before autopsy disrupts the maggot distribution on a body. This paper expands on work already completed by providing the x-ray attenuation coefficient by way of Hounsfield unit (HU) values for various maggot species, maggot masses and human tissue adjacent to masses. Specifically, this study looked at the HU values for four forensically important blowfly larvae: Lucilia cuprina, L. sericata, Calliphora stygia and C. vicina. The Calliphora species had significantly lower HU values than the Lucilia species. This might be explained by histological analysis, which revealed a non-significant trend, suggesting that Calliphora maggots have a higher fat content than the Lucilia maggots. It is apparent that the variation in the x-ray attenuation coefficient usually precludes its use as a tool for delineating the maggot mass from human tissue and that morphology is the dominant method for delineating a mass. This paper also includes three case studies, which reveal different applications for interpreting entomological evidence using post-mortem CT scans.
Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.; Barr, R. Graham
2009-02-01
Emphysema is a disease of the lungs that destroys the alveolar air sacs and induces long-term respiratory dysfunction. CT scans allow for the imaging of the anatomical basis of emphysema and quantification of the underlying disease state. Several measures have been introduced for the quantification emphysema directly from CT data; most,however, are based on the analysis of density information provided by the CT scans, which vary by scanner and can be hard to standardize across sites and time. Given that one of the anatomical variations associated with the progression of emphysema is the flatting of the diaphragm due to the loss of elasticity in the lung parenchyma, curvature analysis of the diaphragm would provide information about emphysema from CT. Therefore, we propose a new, non-density based measure of the curvature of the diaphragm that would allow for further quantification methods in a robust manner. To evaluate the new method, 24 whole-lung scans were analyzed using the ratios of the lung height and diaphragm width to diaphragm height as curvature estimates as well as using the emphysema index as comparison. Pearson correlation coefficients showed a strong trend of several of the proposed diaphragm curvature measures to have higher correlations, of up to r=0.57, with DLCO% and VA than did the emphysema index. Furthermore, we found emphysema index to have only a 0.27 correlation to the proposed measures, indicating that the proposed measures evaluate different aspects of the disease.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lundqvist, K. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: kent.lundqvist@karolinska.se; Neovius, M. [Obesity Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Grigorenko, A. [Research and Development Unit, YLab Wellcare Institute, SE-113 60 Stockholm (Sweden); Nordenstroem, J. [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Roessner, S. [Obesity Unit, Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden)
2009-02-15
Background: Because of its high accuracy, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has become one of the most frequently used methods for estimating human body composition. One limiting factor concerning measuring obese people with the DXA technique is the size of the scanning area. Objective: To explore the possibility of estimating whole body composition from half-body scans before and after weight reduction, and compare the results with densitometry measurements. Design: Intervention study of 15 obese adults (age 47.2 {+-} 13.4; BMI 35.9 {+-} 3.1) who were measured with full- and half-body DXA scans before and after a 7-week weight loss program. On both occasions, body composition was also assessed with air-displacement plethysmography (ADP). Results: The mean weight loss at follow-up was 14.9 {+-} 4.1 kg (5.0 kg/m{sup 2}), corresponding to a 14% decrease in body weight. When comparing the results from full- and half-body DXA, between 96% and 98% of the variance was explained. At baseline, %Body Fat (%BF) did not differ significantly between full and half-body measurements (0.6, -0.1-1.3), but the half-body method overestimated it by 1.0% (0.2-1.8) at follow-up. On the contrary, the difference between DXA and ADP in the assessment of %BF was both significant and of large magnitude (5.2; 2.4-8.0) at baseline, while non-significant and near zero (0.4; -1.3-2.2) at follow-up when the subjects had lost a significant amount of weight. Conclusion: The results obtained from half-body DXA scans can accurately predict whole body composition, as measured by full-body DXA, before and after significant weight reduction, in obese patients who barely fit into the scanning area. However, increasing discordance between DXA and ADP with increasing adiposity was seen, indicating that the measurements might not be as reliable on extreme obese subjects as on normal and overweight ditto.
Two methods for estimating limits to large-scale wind power generation.
Miller, Lee M; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Mechem, David B; Gans, Fabian; Monaghan, Andrew J; Vautard, Robert; Keith, David W; Kleidon, Axel
2015-09-08
Wind turbines remove kinetic energy from the atmospheric flow, which reduces wind speeds and limits generation rates of large wind farms. These interactions can be approximated using a vertical kinetic energy (VKE) flux method, which predicts that the maximum power generation potential is 26% of the instantaneous downward transport of kinetic energy using the preturbine climatology. We compare the energy flux method to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional atmospheric model equipped with a wind turbine parameterization over a 10(5) km2 region in the central United States. The WRF simulations yield a maximum generation of 1.1 We⋅m(-2), whereas the VKE method predicts the time series while underestimating the maximum generation rate by about 50%. Because VKE derives the generation limit from the preturbine climatology, potential changes in the vertical kinetic energy flux from the free atmosphere are not considered. Such changes are important at night when WRF estimates are about twice the VKE value because wind turbines interact with the decoupled nocturnal low-level jet in this region. Daytime estimates agree better to 20% because the wind turbines induce comparatively small changes to the downward kinetic energy flux. This combination of downward transport limits and wind speed reductions explains why large-scale wind power generation in windy regions is limited to about 1 We⋅m(-2), with VKE capturing this combination in a comparatively simple way.
Howell, Leonard W.
2002-08-01
The method of Maximum Likelihood (ML) is used to estimate the spectral parameters of an assumed broken power law energy spectrum from simulated detector responses. This methodology, which requires the complete specificity of all cosmic-ray detector design parameters, is shown to provide approximately unbiased, minimum variance, and normally distributed spectra information for events detected by an instrument having a wide range of commonly used detector response functions. The ML procedure, coupled with the simulated performance of a proposed space-based detector and its planned life cycle, has proved to be of significant value in the design phase of a new science instrument. The procedure helped make important trade studies in design parameters as a function of the science objectives, which is particularly important for space-based detectors where physical parameters, such as dimension and weight, impose rigorous practical limits to the design envelope. This ML methodology is then generalized to estimate broken power law spectral parameters from real cosmic-ray data sets.
A New Sensorless MRAS Based on Active Power Calculations for Rotor Position Estimation of a DFIG
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gil Domingos Marques
2011-01-01
Full Text Available A sensorless method for the estimation of the rotor position of the wound-rotor induction machine is described in this paper. The method is based on the MRAS methodology and consists in the comparison of two models for the evaluation of the active power transferred across the air gap: the reference model and the adaptive model. The reference model obtains the power transferred across the air gap using directly available and measured stator variables. The adaptive model obtains the same quantity in function of electromotive forces and rotor currents that are measurable on the rotor position, which is under estimation. The method does not need any information about the stator or rotor flux and can be implemented in the rotor or in the stator reference frames with a hysteresis or with a PI controller. The stability analysis gives an unstable region on the rotor current dq plane. Simulation and experimental results show that the method is appropriate for the vector control of the doubly fed induction machine under the stability region.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kauffman, J.F.; Balko, B.A.; Richmond, G.L. [Univ. of Oregon, Eugene, OR (United States)
1992-07-23
Photoluminescence from n-GaAs has been measured as a function of applied voltage under excitation with a picosecond laser at three excitation power levels. A large increase in the photoluminescence intensity at the flat band potential is observed as the excitation power is increased. Analysis of the data with the modified dead layer model shows that the surface minority trapping velocity decreases as the laser power is increased. The authors attribute this to a saturation of surface minority carrier traps resulting from picosecond pulse excitation and compare the results with a companion study in which surface minority trapping velocities at the flat band potential are determined from luminescence decay profiles. 8 refs., 3 figs.
Haba, Tomonobu; Koyama, Shuji; Kinomura, Yutaka; Ida, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Masanao
2016-09-01
The American Association of Physicists in Medicine (AAPM) task group 204 has recommended the use of size-dependent conversion factors to calculate size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) values from volume computed tomography dose index (CTDIvol) values. However, these conversion factors do not consider the effects of 320-detector-row volume computed tomography (CT) examinations or the new CT dosimetry metrics proposed by AAPM task group 111. This study aims to investigate the influence of these examinations and metrics on the conversion factors reported by AAPM task group 204, using Monte Carlo simulations. Simulations were performed modelling a Toshiba Aquilion ONE CT scanner, in order to compute dose values in water for cylindrical phantoms with 8-40-cm diameters at 2-cm intervals for each scanning parameter (tube voltage, bow-tie filter, longitudinal beam width). Then, the conversion factors were obtained by applying exponential regression analysis between the dose values for a given phantom diameter and the phantom diameter combined with various scanning parameters. The conversion factors for each scanning method (helical, axial, or volume scanning) and CT dosimetry method (i.e., the CTDI100 method or the AAPM task group 111 method) were in agreement with those reported by AAPM task group 204, within a percentage error of 14.2 % for phantom diameters ≥11.2 cm. The results obtained in this study indicate that the conversion factors previously presented by AAPM task group 204 can be used to provide appropriate SSDE values for 320-detector-row volume CT examinations and the CT dosimetry metrics proposed by the AAPM task group 111.
Improved Contrast-Enhanced Power Doppler Using a Coherence-Based Estimator.
Tremblay-Darveau, Charles; Bar-Zion, Avinoam; Williams, Ross; Sheeran, Paul S; Milot, Laurent; Loupas, Thanasis; Adam, Dan; Bruce, Matthew; Burns, Peter N
2017-09-01
While plane-wave imaging can improve the performance of power Doppler by enabling much longer ensembles than systems using focused beams, the long-ensemble averaging of the zero-lag autocorrelation R(0) estimates does not directly decrease the mean noise level, but only decreases its variance. Spatial variation of the noise due to the time-gain compensation and the received beamforming aperture ultimately limits sensitivity. In this paper, we demonstrate that the performance of power Doppler imaging can be improved by leveraging the higher lags of the autocorrelation [e.g., R(1), R(2),…] instead of the signal power (R(0)). As noise is completely uncorrelated from pulse-to-pulse while the flow signal remains correlated significantly longer, weak signals just above the noise floor can be made visible through the reduction of the noise floor. Finally, as coherence decreases proportionally with respect to velocity, we demonstrate how signal coherence can be targeted to separate flows of different velocities. For instance, we show how long-time-range coherence of microbubble contrast-enhanced flow specifically isolates slow capillary perfusion (as opposed to conduit flow).
Andreades, Charalampos
The combination of an increased demand for electricity for economic development in parallel with the widespread push for adoption of renewable energy sources and the trend toward liberalized markets has placed a tremendous amount of stress on generators, system operators, and consumers. Non-guaranteed cost recovery, intermittent capacity, and highly volatile market prices are all part of new electricity grids. In order to try and remediate some of these effects, this dissertation proposes and studies the design and performance, both physical and economic, of a novel power conversion system, the Nuclear Air-Brayton Combined Cycle (NACC). The NACC is a power conversion system that takes a conventional industrial frame type gas turbine, modifies it to accept external nuclear heat at 670°C, while also maintaining its ability to co-fire with natural gas to increase temperature and power output at a very quick ramp rate. The NACC addresses the above issues by allowing the generator to gain extra revenue through the provision of ancillary services in addition to energy payments, the grid operator to have a highly flexible source of capacity to back up intermittent renewable energy sources, and the consumer to possibly see less volatile electricity prices and a reduced probability of black/brown outs. This dissertation is split into six sections that delve into specific design and economic issues related to the NACC. The first section describes the basic design and modifications necessary to create a functional externally heated gas turbine, sets a baseline design based upon the GE 7FB, and estimates its physical performance under nominal conditions. The second section explores the off-nominal performance of the NACC and characterizes its startup and shutdown sequences, along with some of its safety measures. The third section deals with the power ramp rate estimation of the NACC, a key performance parameter in a renewable-heavy grid that needs flexible capacity. The
Wang, Maggie Haitian; Yuk-Fai Lau, Steven; Chong, Ka Chun; Kwok, Chloe; Lai, Maria; Chung, Anthony Hy; Ho, Chung Shun; Szeto, Cheuk-Chun; Chung-Ying Zee, Benny
2017-08-21
Breath mass spectrometry is a useful tool for identifying important compounds associated with health. However, there have been few studies that have explored human exhaled breath by full-scan mass spectrometry as a non-invasive method for medical diagnosis, which may be attributed to the difficulties resulting from multicollinearity and small sample sizes relative to a large number of product ions. In this study, breath samples from 54 chronic kidney disease patients were analyzed by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry in the full-scan mode. With the signal intensities of product ions, we developed a novel and robust algorithm, iterative PCA with intensity screening (IPS), to build linear models for estimating important clinical parameters of chronic kidney disease. It has been shown that IPS provided good estimations in cross-validated samples, and furthermore the identified product ions could have direct medical relevance to the disease. The study demonstrated the potential of quantitative breath analysis using mass spectrometry for medical diagnosis, and the importance of applying appropriate statistical tools to unveil the rich information in this type of data.
ESTIMATION OF ROUTINE DISCHARGE OF RADIONUCLIDES ON POWER REACTOR EXPERIMENTAL RDE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P.M. Udiyani
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Experimental power reactor (RDE which is planned to be constructed by BATAN is a kind of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR with 10 MWth power. HTGR is a helium gas-cooled reactor with TRISO-coated fuel that is able to confine fission products remained in the core. Although the fission products released into the environment are very small, in order to comply the regulations the study about environmental radiation on normal or routine operation condition need to be performed. Estimation of radiology in the environment involves the source term released into the environment under routine operation condition. The purpose of this study is to estimate the source term released into the environment based on postulation of normal or routine operations of RDE. The research approach starts with an assumption that there are defects and impurities in the TRISO fuel because of limitation during the fabrication. Mechanism of fission products release from the fuel to the environment was created based on the safety features design of RDE. Radionuclides inventories in the reactor were calculated using ORIGEN-2 whose library has been modified for HTGR type, and the assumptions of defects of the TRISO fuel and release fraction for each compartment of RDE safety system used a reference parameter. The results showed that the important source terms of RDE are group of noble gases (Kr and Xe, halogen (I, Sr, Cs, H-3, and Ag. Activities of RDE source terms for routine operations have no significant difference with the HTGR source terms with the same power. Keywords: routine discharge, radionuclide, source term, RDE, HTGR
Yang, L; Parimi, N; Orwoll, E S; Black, D M; Schousboe, J T; Eastell, R
2017-11-22
Finite element model can estimate bone strength better than BMD. This study used such a model to determine its association with hip fracture risk and found that the strength estimate provided limited improvement over the hip BMDs in predicting femoral neck (FN) fracture risk only. Bone fractures occur only when it is loaded beyond its ultimate strength. The goal of this study was to determine the association of femoral strength, as estimated by finite element (FE) analysis of DXA scans, with incident hip fracture as a single condition or with femoral neck (FN) and trochanter (TR) fractures separately in older men. This prospective case-cohort study included 91 FN and 64 TR fracture cases and a random sample of 500 men (14 had a hip fracture) from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men study during a mean ± SD follow-up of 7.7 ± 2.2 years. We analysed the baseline DXA scans of the hip using a validated plane-stress, linear-elastic FE model of the proximal femur and estimated the femoral strength during a sideways fall. The estimated strength was significantly (P fracture independent of the TR and total hip (TH) BMDs but not FN BMD, and combining the strength with BMD did not improve the hip fracture prediction. The strength estimate was associated with FN fractures independent of the FN, TR and TH BMDs; the age-BMI-BMD adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) per SD decrease of the strength was 1.68 (1.07-2.64), 2.38 (1.57, 3.61) and 2.04 (1.34, 3.11), respectively. This association with FN fracture was as strong as FN BMD (Harrell's C index for the strength 0.81 vs. FN BMD 0.81) and stronger than TR and TH BMDs (0.8 vs. 0.78 and 0.81 vs. 0.79). The strength's association with TR fracture was not independent of hip BMD. Although the strength estimate provided additional information over the hip BMDs, its improvement in predictive ability over the hip BMDs was confined to FN fracture only and limited.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aw-Zoretic, J., E-mail: Jaw@luriechildrens.org [Department of Medical Imaging, Ann and Robert H. Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States); Seth, D.; Katzman, G.; Sammet, S. [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)
2014-10-15
Purpose: The purpose of this review is to determine the averaged effective dose and lifetime attributable risk factor from multiple head computed tomography (CT) dose data on children with ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS). Method and materials: A total of 422 paediatric head CT exams were found between October 2008 and January 2011 and retrospectively reviewed. The CT dose data was weighted with the latest IRCP 103 conversion factor to obtain the effective dose per study and the averaged effective dose was calculated. Estimates of the lifetime attributable risk were also calculated from the averaged effective dose using a conversion factor from the latest BEIR VII report. Results: Our study found the highest effective doses in neonates and the lowest effective doses were observed in the 10–18 years age group. We estimated a 0.007% potential increase risk in neonates and 0.001% potential increased risk in teenagers over the base risk. Conclusion: Multiple head CTs in children equates to a slight potential increase risk in lifetime attributable risk over the baseline risk for cancer, slightly higher in neonates relative to teenagers. The potential risks versus clinical benefit must be assessed.
Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant
2002-08-01
The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a
Power system low frequency oscillation mode estimation using wide area measurement systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Papia Ray
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Oscillations in power systems are triggered by a wide variety of events. The system damps most of the oscillations, but a few undamped oscillations may remain which may lead to system collapse. Therefore low frequency oscillations inspection is necessary in the context of recent power system operation and control. Ringdown portion of the signal provides rich information of the low frequency oscillatory modes which has been taken into analysis. This paper provides a practical case study in which seven signal processing based techniques i.e. Prony Analysis (PA, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT, S-Transform (ST, Wigner-Ville Distribution (WVD, Estimation of Signal Parameters by Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT, Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT and Matrix Pencil Method (MPM were presented for estimating the low frequency modes in a given ringdown signal. Preprocessing of the signal is done by detrending. The application of the signal processing techniques is illustrated using actual wide area measurement systems (WAMS data collected from four different Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU i.e. Dadri, Vindyachal, Kanpur and Moga which are located near the recent disturbance event at the Northern Grid of India. Simulation results show that the seven signal processing technique (FFT, PA, ST, WVD, ESPRIT, HHT and MPM estimates two common oscillatory frequency modes (0.2, 0.5 from the raw signal. Thus, these seven techniques provide satisfactory performance in determining small frequency modes of the signal without losing its valuable property. Also a comparative study of the seven signal processing techniques has been carried out in order to find the best one. It was found that FFT and ESPRIT gives exact frequency modes as compared to other techniques, so they are recommended for estimation of low frequency modes. Further investigations were also carried out to estimate low frequency oscillatory mode with another case study of Eastern Interconnect Phasor Project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth
2016-01-01
Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) is a critical tool for analysis, monitoring and planning of a power system. The concept of DSE involves designing state estimation with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) methods, which can be used by wide area monitoring to improve the st...
Zhang, Weige; Shi, Wei; Ma, Zeyu
2015-09-01
Accurate estimations of battery energy and available power capability are of great of importance for realizing an efficient and reliable operation of electric vehicles. To improve the estimation accuracy and reliability for battery state of energy and power capability, a novel model-based joint estimation approach has been proposed against uncertain external operating conditions and internal degradation status of battery cells. Firstly, it proposes a three-dimensional response surface open circuit voltage model to calibrate the estimation inaccuracies of battery state of energy. Secondly, the adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF) is employed to develop a novel model-based joint state estimator for battery state of energy and power capability. The AUKF algorithm utilizes the well-known features of the Kalman filter but employs the method of unscented transform (UT) and adaptive error covariance matching technology to improve the state estimation accuracy. Thirdly, the proposed joint estimator has been verified by a LiFePO4 lithium-ion battery cell under different operating temperatures and aging levels. The result indicates that the estimation errors of battery voltage and state-of-energy are less than 2% even if given a large erroneous initial value, which makes the state of available power capability predict more accurate and reliable for the electric vehicles application.
Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...
Prabhakara, C.; Dalu, G.; Liberti, G. L.; Nucciarone, J. J.; Suhasini, R.
1991-01-01
The brightness temperature (T sub b) measured at 37 GHz shows fairly strong emission from rain, and only slight effects caused by scattering by ice above the rain clouds. At frequencies below 37 GHz, were the fov is larger and the volume extinction coefficient is weaker, it is found that the observations do not yield appreciable additional information about rain. At 85 GHz (fov = 15 km), where the volume extinction is considerably larger, direct information about rain below the clouds is usually masked. Based on the above ideas, 37 GHz observations with a 30 km fov from SMMR and SSM/I are selected to develop an empirical method for the estimation of rain rate. In this method, the statistics of the observed T sub b's at 37 GHz in a rain storm are related to the rain rate statistics in that storm. The underestimation of rain rate, arising from the inability of the radiometer to respond sensitively to rain rate above a given threshold, is rectified in this technique with the aid of two parameters that depend on the total water vapor content in the atmosphere. The retrieved rain rates compare favorably with radar observations and monthly mean global maps of rain derived from this technique over the oceans.
Dose-to-the-population exposure estimates for use of plutonium-238-powered artificial hearts
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McKee, R.W.; Clark, L.L.; Cole, B.M.
1976-09-01
Estimates of dose to the population from /sup 238/Pu-powered artificial hearts were developed using a calculational model called REPRIEVE. This model develops the projected user population by incorporating assumptions regarding future heart disease death rates, the fraction dying who would be eligible candidates for artificial hearts, population projections, beginning implant rates, death rates after implant due to natural causes, and deaths caused by device failure. The user population was characterized by age, sex, household description, employment status and occupation. Census data on household descriptions and special surveys in selected cities provided the information necessary to describe persons exposed during both household and public activities. These surveys further defined distance and time of contact factors for these persons. Calculations using a dosemetry computer code defined the relationships between distance and dose. The validity of these calculations has been substantiated by experimental measurements.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth
2016-01-01
Dynamic State Estimation (DSE) is a critical tool for analysis, monitoring and planning of a power system. The concept of DSE involves designing state estimation with Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) or Unscented Kalman Filter (UKF) methods, which can be used by wide area monitoring to improve the st...... and studying the advantages and disadvantages of both methods under transient conditions. It is demonstrated that UKF is easier to implement and accurate in estimation....
Estimation of a 10 Gb/s 5G Receiver’s Performance and Power Evolution Towards 2030
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lauridsen, Mads; Mogensen, Preben Elgaard; Sørensen, Troels Bundgaard
2015-01-01
The 5G vision of 10 Gb/s leads to performance and power consumption challenges in the mobile terminal receiver because 10 Gb/s requires 400 MHz bandwidth, faster baseband processing, and an increased number of component carriers and MIMO streams. The contribution of this paper is to estimate......, and extrapolation hereof to estimate trends, and main challenges, towards 2030. According to our results, in 2020 the receiver power consumption exceeds 3 W, and is thus a challenge to be addressed. Assuming the performance evolution continues as observed in this work, the 5G receiver will be on par...... the impact from these physical layer requirements to the power consumption of main receiver components, including LNA, ADC and baseband processor with Turbo decoding, in a Direct Conversion Architecture. The estimate of power consumption results from a comprehensive survey of component performance evolution...
Online Reliable Peak Charge/Discharge Power Estimation of Series-Connected Lithium-Ion Battery Packs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bo Jiang
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The accurate peak power estimation of a battery pack is essential to the power-train control of electric vehicles (EVs. It helps to evaluate the maximum charge and discharge capability of the battery system, and thus to optimally control the power-train system to meet the requirement of acceleration, gradient climbing and regenerative braking while achieving a high energy efficiency. A novel online peak power estimation method for series-connected lithium-ion battery packs is proposed, which considers the influence of cell difference on the peak power of the battery packs. A new parameter identification algorithm based on adaptive ratio vectors is designed to online identify the parameters of each individual cell in a series-connected battery pack. The ratio vectors reflecting cell difference are deduced strictly based on the analysis of battery characteristics. Based on the online parameter identification, the peak power estimation considering cell difference is further developed. Some validation experiments in different battery aging conditions and with different current profiles have been implemented to verify the proposed method. The results indicate that the ratio vector-based identification algorithm can achieve the same accuracy as the repetitive RLS (recursive least squares based identification while evidently reducing the computation cost, and the proposed peak power estimation method is more effective and reliable for series-connected battery packs due to the consideration of cell difference.
Viscoelastic power law parameters of in vivo human brain estimated by MR elastography.
Testu, J; McGarry, M D J; Dittmann, F; Weaver, J B; Paulsen, K D; Sack, I; Van Houten, E E W
2017-10-01
The noninvasive imaging technique of magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) was used to estimate the power law behavior of the viscoelastic properties of the human brain in vivo. The mechanical properties for four volunteers are investigated using shear waves induced over a frequency range of 10-50Hz to produce a displacement field measured by magnetic resonance motion-encoding gradients. The average storage modulus (μR) reconstructed with non-linear inversion (NLI) increased from approximately 0.95 to 2.58kPa over the 10-50Hz span; the average loss modulus (μI) also increased from 0.29 to 1.25kPa over the range. These increases were modeled by independent power law (PL) relations for μR and μI returning whole brain, group mean exponent values of 0.88 and 1.07 respectively. Investigation of these exponents also showed distinctly different behavior in the region of the cerebral falx compared to other brain structures. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
How to estimate the 3D power spectrum of the Lyman-α forest
Font-Ribera, Andreu; McDonald, Patrick; Slosar, Anže
2018-01-01
We derive and numerically implement an algorithm for estimating the 3D power spectrum of the Lyman-α (Lyα) forest flux fluctuations. The algorithm exploits the unique geometry of Lyα forest data to efficiently measure the cross-spectrum between lines of sight as a function of parallel wavenumber, transverse separation and redshift. We start by approximating the global covariance matrix as block-diagonal, where only pixels from the same spectrum are correlated. We then compute the eigenvectors of the derivative of the signal covariance with respect to cross-spectrum parameters, and project the inverse-covariance-weighted spectra onto them. This acts much like a radial Fourier transform over redshift windows. The resulting cross-spectrum inference is then converted into our final product, an approximation of the likelihood for the 3D power spectrum expressed as second order Taylor expansion around a fiducial model. We demonstrate the accuracy and scalability of the algorithm and comment on possible extensions. Our algorithm will allow efficient analysis of the upcoming Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument dataset.
Sound Power Estimation for Beam and Plate Structures Using Polyvinylidene Fluoride Films as Sensors.
Mao, Qibo; Zhong, Haibing
2017-05-16
The theory for calculation and/or measurement of sound power based on the classical velocity-based radiation mode (V-mode) approach is well established for planar structures. However, the current V-mode theory is limited in scope in that it can only be applied to conventional motion sensors (i.e., accelerometers). In this study, in order to estimate the sound power of vibrating beam and plate structure by using polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films as sensors, a PVDF-based radiation mode (C-mode) approach concept is introduced to determine the sound power radiation from the output signals of PVDF films of the vibrating structure. The proposed method is a hybrid of vibration measurement and numerical calculation of C-modes. The proposed C-mode approach has the following advantages: (1) compared to conventional motion sensors, the PVDF films are lightweight, flexible, and low-cost; (2) there is no need for special measuring environments, since the proposed method does not require the measurement of sound fields; (3) In low frequency range (typically with dimensionless frequency kl < 4), the radiation efficiencies of the C-modes fall off very rapidly with increasing mode order, furthermore, the shapes of the C-modes remain almost unchanged, which means that the computation load can be significantly reduced due to the fact only the first few dominant C-modes are involved in the low frequency range. Numerical simulations and experimental investigations were carried out to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tao Jin
2015-04-01
Full Text Available With the development of modern society, the scale of the power system is rapidly increased accordingly, and the framework and mode of running of power systems are trending towards more complexity. It is nowadays much more important for the dispatchers to know exactly the state parameters of the power network through state estimation. This paper proposes a robust power system WLS state estimation method integrating a wide-area measurement system (WAMS and SCADA technology, incorporating phasor measurements and the results of the traditional state estimator in a post-processing estimator, which greatly reduces the scale of the non-linear estimation problem as well as the number of iterations and the processing time per iteration. This paper firstly analyzes the wide-area state estimation model in detail, then according to the issue that least squares does not account for bad data and outliers, the paper proposes a robust weighted least squares (WLS method that combines a robust estimation principle with least squares by equivalent weight. The performance assessment is discussed through setting up mathematical models of the distribution network. The effectiveness of the proposed method was proved to be accurate and reliable by simulations and experiments.
Instrument failure detection and estimation methodology for the nuclear power plant
Oh, D. Y.; No, H. C.
1990-02-01
To detect instrument failures in a nuclear power plant, a failure detection and isolation (FDI) method based on the Kalman filter is developed. Each filter is designed to be insensitive to the failed measurements by decreasing the Kalman gain artificially. Since it is mainly dependent upon the dynamic model and averaged outputs, it can exactly indicate the direction of failures. Even though this concept minimizes the number of filters, it performs the role of analytic redundancy for estimation. As soon as the residual exceeds the predetermined bound, the Kalman filter indicates the possibility of failures. However, since the measurement may show false indication owing to abrupt noises, it must be confirmed several times by the multiple consecutive miscomparison counter, which is strongly dependent on measurement history. Then, if it is not in accordance with other measurements, detailed information on the status of the measurements is provided to help the operator's decision. Various simulations were performed to verify and validate the FDI logic in detecting steam generator and pressurizer instrument failures. It is shown that the FDI technique can detect not only a single failure but also simultaneous common-mode and sequential multiple failures of several direct redundancies. It can correctly estimate the physical states in real time, and the remaining time may be used for control with signal validation.
Power spectral density of velocity fluctuations estimated from phase Doppler data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jicha Miroslav
2012-04-01
Full Text Available Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA and its modifications such as PhaseDoppler Particle Anemometry (P/DPA is point-wise method for optical nonintrusive measurement of particle velocity with high data rate. Conversion of the LDA velocity data from temporal to frequency domain – calculation of power spectral density (PSD of velocity fluctuations, is a non trivial task due to nonequidistant data sampling in time. We briefly discuss possibilities for the PSD estimation and specify limitations caused by seeding density and other factors of the flow and LDA setup. Arbitrary results of LDA measurements are compared with corresponding Hot Wire Anemometry (HWA data in the frequency domain. Slot correlation (SC method implemented in software program Kern by Nobach (2006 is used for the PSD estimation. Influence of several input parameters on resulting PSDs is described. Optimum setup of the software for our data of particle-laden air flow in realistic human airway model is documented. Typical character of the flow is described using PSD plots of velocity fluctuations with comments on specific properties of the flow. Some recommendations for improvements of future experiments to acquire better PSD results are given.
Feliciano, E. A.; Wdowinski, S.; Potts, M. D.
2012-12-01
Mangrove forests are being threatened by accelerated climate change, sea level rise and coastal projects. Carbon/above ground biomass (AGB) losses due to natural or human intervention can affect global warming. Thus, it is important to monitor AGB fluctuations in mangrove forests similar to those inhabiting the Everglades National Park (ENP). Tree volume and tree wood specific density are two important measurements for the estimation of AGB (mass = volume * density). Wood specific density is acquired in the laboratory by analyzing stem cores acquired in the field. However, tree volume is a challenging task because trees resemble tapered surfaces. The majority of published studies estimate tree volume and biomass using allometric equations, which describe the size, shape, volume or AGB of a given population of trees. However, these equations can be extremely general and might not give a representative value of volume or AGB for a specific tree species. In order to have precise biomass estimations, other methodologies for tree volume estimation are needed. To overcome this problem, we use a state-of-the-art remote sensing tool known as ground-based LiDAR a.k.a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS), which can be used to precisely measure vegetation structure and tree volume from its 3-D point cloud. We surveyed three mangrove communities: (Rhizophora mangle, Laguncuria racemosa and Avicennia germinans) in three different sites along Shark River Slough (SRS), which is the primary source of water to the ENP. Our sites included: small-, intermediate- and tall- size mangroves. Our ground measurements included both: traditional forestry surveys and TLS surveys for tree attributes (tree height and diameter at breast height (DBH)) comparison. These attributes are used as input to allometric equations for the estimation of tree volume and AGB. A total of 25 scans were collected in 2011 with a Leica ScanStation C10 TLS. The 3-D point cloud acquired from the TLS data revealed that
Gwaza, Luther; Gordon, John; Potthast, Henrike; Welink, Jan; Leufkens, Hubert; Stahl, Matthias; García-Arieta, Alfredo
2015-09-01
Adjusted indirect comparisons can be used to investigate bioequivalence between generic products that are bioequivalent with a common reference product. In previous work with generic tuberculosis medicines prequalified by the WHO, it was observed that although indirect comparisons are an effective approach for confirming the interchangeability of generics, the approach is subject to less precision than direct comparisons. The objective of this investigation was to explore this by examining the influence of point estimates and power of bioequivalence studies versus the reference on the ability to show equivalence in indirect comparisons. Power was considered as a determining factor instead of variability and sample size, because sample size is calculated based on variability and desired power. Scenarios were computed combining a range of point estimate differences (0-14 %) and statistical power of the studies (50-99.99 %). The indirect comparisons could conclude equivalence between generics only when (a) point estimate differences between generics were low (≤ 5.5 %) for any sufficiently powered study (> 80 %), or (b) the differences were large (but less than 14 %) and both bioequivalence studies were overpowered (e.g., 10 % difference and power ≥ 95 %). In summary, the ability to demonstrate interchangeability between generics is dependent not only on the real differences between the products but also on the design of the original generic vs. reference bioequivalence studies being combined, as earmarked by their respective power.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
MH Albadi
2012-12-01
Full Text Available The amount of energy produced by a turbine depends on the characteristics of both wind speed at the site under investigation and the turbine's power performance curve. The capacity factor (CF of a wind turbine is commonly used to estimate the turbine's average energy production. This paper investigates the effect of the accuracy of the power curve model on CF estimation. The study considers three CF models. The first CF model is based on a power curve model that underestimates the turbine output throughout the ascending segment of the power curve. To compensate for the aforementioned discrepancy, the Weibull parameters, c and k, which are used to describe wind profile, are calculated based on cubic mean wind speed (CMWS. The second CF model is based on the most accurate generic power curve model available in open literature. The third CF model is based on a new model of power performance curve which mimics the behavior of a typical pitch-regulated turbine curve. As the coefficients of this power curve model are based on a general estimation of the turbine output at different wind speeds, they can be further tuned to provide a more accurate fit with turbine data from a certain manufacturer.
Energy efficiency estimation of a steam powered LNG tanker using normal operating data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sinha Rajendra Prasad
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A ship’s energy efficiency performance is generally estimated by conducting special sea trials of few hours under very controlled environmental conditions of calm sea, standard draft and optimum trim. This indicator is then used as the benchmark for future reference of the ship’s Energy Efficiency Performance (EEP. In practice, however, for greater part of operating life the ship operates in conditions which are far removed from original sea trial conditions and therefore comparing energy performance with benchmark performance indicator is not truly valid. In such situations a higher fuel consumption reading from the ship fuel meter may not be a true indicator of poor machinery performance or dirty underwater hull. Most likely, the reasons for higher fuel consumption may lie in factors other than the condition of hull and machinery, such as head wind, current, low load operations or incorrect trim [1]. Thus a better and more accurate approach to determine energy efficiency of the ship attributable only to main machinery and underwater hull condition will be to filter out the influence of all spurious and non-standard operating conditions from the ship’s fuel consumption [2]. The author in this paper identifies parameters of a suitable filter to be used on the daily report data of a typical LNG tanker of 33000 kW shaft power to remove effects of spurious and non-standard ship operations on its fuel consumption. The filtered daily report data has been then used to estimate actual fuel efficiency of the ship and compared with the sea trials benchmark performance. Results obtained using data filter show closer agreement with the benchmark EEP than obtained from the monthly mini trials . The data filtering method proposed in this paper has the advantage of using the actual operational data of the ship and thus saving cost of conducting special sea trials to estimate ship EEP. The agreement between estimated results and special sea trials EEP is
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Prasad, Rajiv; Hibler, Lyle F.; Coleman, Andre M.; Ward, Duane L.
2011-11-01
The purpose of this document is to describe approaches and methods for estimation of the design-basis flood at nuclear power plant sites. Chapter 1 defines the design-basis flood and lists the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) regulations that require estimation of the design-basis flood. For comparison, the design-basis flood estimation methods used by other Federal agencies are also described. A brief discussion of the recommendations of the International Atomic Energy Agency for estimation of the design-basis floods in its member States is also included.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, G.; Zhou, D.; Yang, J.
2017-01-01
In respect to a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, its corresponding time scale varies from microsecond level of power semiconductor switching to second level of the mechanical response. In order to map annual thermal profile of the power semiconductors, different approaches have been ...... adopted to handle the fundamental-frequency thermal cycles and load-varying thermal cycles. Their effects on lifetime estimation of the power device in the Back-to-Back (BTB) power converter are evaluated.......In respect to a Doubly-Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) system, its corresponding time scale varies from microsecond level of power semiconductor switching to second level of the mechanical response. In order to map annual thermal profile of the power semiconductors, different approaches have been...
Bowles, Samuel; Gintis, Herbert
2007-01-01
We consider the exercise of power in competitive markets for goods, labour and credit. We offer a definition of power and show that if contracts are incomplete it may be exercised either in Pareto-improving ways or to the disadvantage of those without power. Contrasting conceptions of power including bargaining power, market power, and consumer sovereignty are considered. Because the exercise of power may alter prices and other aspects of exchanges, abstracting from power may miss essential a...
Taha, Ahmad Fayez
Transportation networks, wearable devices, energy systems, and the book you are reading now are all ubiquitous cyber-physical systems (CPS). These inherently uncertain systems combine physical phenomena with communication, data processing, control and optimization. Many CPSs are controlled and monitored by real-time control systems that use communication networks to transmit and receive data from systems modeled by physical processes. Existing studies have addressed a breadth of challenges related to the design of CPSs. However, there is a lack of studies on uncertain CPSs subject to dynamic unknown inputs and cyber-attacks---an artifact of the insertion of communication networks and the growing complexity of CPSs. The objective of this dissertation is to create secure, computational foundations for uncertain CPSs by establishing a framework to control, estimate and optimize the operation of these systems. With major emphasis on power networks, the dissertation deals with the design of secure computational methods for uncertain CPSs, focusing on three crucial issues---(1) cyber-security and risk-mitigation, (2) network-induced time-delays and perturbations and (3) the encompassed extreme time-scales. The dissertation consists of four parts. In the first part, we investigate dynamic state estimation (DSE) methods and rigorously examine the strengths and weaknesses of the proposed routines under dynamic attack-vectors and unknown inputs. In the second part, and utilizing high-frequency measurements in smart grids and the developed DSE methods in the first part, we present a risk mitigation strategy that minimizes the encountered threat levels, while ensuring the continual observability of the system through available, safe measurements. The developed methods in the first two parts rely on the assumption that the uncertain CPS is not experiencing time-delays, an assumption that might fail under certain conditions. To overcome this challenge, networked unknown input
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Todd C. Pataky
2017-07-01
Full Text Available The unit of experimental measurement in a variety of scientific applications is the one-dimensional (1D continuum: a dependent variable whose value is measured repeatedly, often at regular intervals, in time or space. A variety of software packages exist for computing continuum-level descriptive statistics and also for conducting continuum-level hypothesis testing, but very few offer power computing capabilities, where ‘power’ is the probability that an experiment will detect a true continuum signal given experimental noise. Moreover, no software package yet exists for arbitrary continuum-level signal/noise modeling. This paper describes a package called power1d which implements (a two analytical 1D power solutions based on random field theory (RFT and (b a high-level framework for computational power analysis using arbitrary continuum-level signal/noise modeling. First power1d’s two RFT-based analytical solutions are numerically validated using its random continuum generators. Second arbitrary signal/noise modeling is demonstrated to show how power1d can be used for flexible modeling well beyond the assumptions of RFT-based analytical solutions. Its computational demands are non-excessive, requiring on the order of only 30 s to execute on standard desktop computers, but with approximate solutions available much more rapidly. Its broad signal/noise modeling capabilities along with relatively rapid computations imply that power1d may be a useful tool for guiding experimentation involving multiple measurements of similar 1D continua, and in particular to ensure that an adequate number of measurements is made to detect assumed continuum signals.
Optimized Large-scale CMB Likelihood and Quadratic Maximum Likelihood Power Spectrum Estimation
Gjerløw, E.; Colombo, L. P. L.; Eriksen, H. K.; Górski, K. M.; Gruppuso, A.; Jewell, J. B.; Plaszczynski, S.; Wehus, I. K.
2015-11-01
We revisit the problem of exact cosmic microwave background (CMB) likelihood and power spectrum estimation with the goal of minimizing computational costs through linear compression. This idea was originally proposed for CMB purposes by Tegmark et al., and here we develop it into a fully functioning computational framework for large-scale polarization analysis, adopting WMAP as a working example. We compare five different linear bases (pixel space, harmonic space, noise covariance eigenvectors, signal-to-noise covariance eigenvectors, and signal-plus-noise covariance eigenvectors) in terms of compression efficiency, and find that the computationally most efficient basis is the signal-to-noise eigenvector basis, which is closely related to the Karhunen-Loeve and Principal Component transforms, in agreement with previous suggestions. For this basis, the information in 6836 unmasked WMAP sky map pixels can be compressed into a smaller set of 3102 modes, with a maximum error increase of any single multipole of 3.8% at ℓ ≤ 32 and a maximum shift in the mean values of a joint distribution of an amplitude-tilt model of 0.006σ. This compression reduces the computational cost of a single likelihood evaluation by a factor of 5, from 38 to 7.5 CPU seconds, and it also results in a more robust likelihood by implicitly regularizing nearly degenerate modes. Finally, we use the same compression framework to formulate a numerically stable and computationally efficient variation of the Quadratic Maximum Likelihood implementation, which requires less than 3 GB of memory and 2 CPU minutes per iteration for ℓ ≤ 32, rendering low-ℓ QML CMB power spectrum analysis fully tractable on a standard laptop.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kisong Lee
2016-01-01
Full Text Available As miniature-sized embedded computing platforms are ubiquitously deployed to our everyday environments, the issue of managing their power usage becomes important, especially when they are used in energy harvesting based self-organizing networks. One way to provide these devices with continuous power is to utilize RF-based energy transfer. Previous research in RF-based information and energy transfer builds up on the assumption that perfect channel estimation is easily achievable. However, as our preliminary experiments and many previous literature in wireless network systems show, making perfect estimations of the wireless channel is extremely challenging due to their quality fluctuations. To better reflect reality, in this work, we introduce an adaptive power allocation and splitting (APAS scheme which takes imperfect channel estimations into consideration. Our evaluation results show that the proposed APAS scheme achieves near-optimal performances for transferring energy and data over a single RF transmission.
Radioactive Pollution Estimate for Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant by a Particle Model
Saito, Keisuke; Ogawa, Susumu
2016-06-01
On Mar 12, 2011, very wide radioactive pollution occurred by a hydrogen explosion in Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant. A large amount of radioisotopes started with four times of explosions. With traditional atmospheric diffusion models could not reconstruct radioactive pollution in Fukushima. Then, with a particle model, this accident was reconstructed from meteorological archive and Radar- AMeDAS. Calculations with the particle model were carried out for Mar 12, 15, 18 and 20 when east southeast winds blew for five hours continuously. Meteorological archive is expressed by wind speeds and directions in five-km grid every hour with eight classes of height till 3000 m. Radar- AMeDAS is precipitation data in one-km grid every thirty minutes. Particles are ten scales of 0.01 to 0.1 mm in diameter with specific weight of 2.65 and vertical speeds given by Stokes equation. But, on Mar 15, it rained from 16:30 and then the particles fell down at a moment as wet deposit in calculation. On the other hand, the altitudes on the ground were given by DEM with 1 km-grid. The spatial dose by emitted radioisotopes was referred to the observation data at monitoring posts of Tokyo Electric Power Company. The falling points of radioisotopes were expressed on the map using the particle model. As a result, the same distributions were obtained as the surface spatial dose of radioisotopes in aero-monitoring by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology. Especially, on Mar 15, the simulated pollution fitted to the observation, which extended to the northwest of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and caused mainly sever pollution. By the particle model, the falling positions on the ground were estimated each particle size. Particles with more than 0.05 mm of size were affected by the topography and blocked by the mountains with the altitudes of more than 700 m. The particle model does not include the atmospheric stability, the source height, and deposit speeds. The
Tidal power plant energy estimation; Cuantificacion de energia de una planta mareomotriz
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lopez Gonzalez, J.; Hiriart Le Bert, G.; Silva Casarin, R. [Instituto de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (mexico)]. E-mail: JlopezGo@iingen.unam.mx; gerardo367@yahoo.com.mx; RSilvaC@iingen.unam.mx
2010-04-15
In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of flow tide and the other flow-ebb tides, with two tidal basin systems operating: single and double reservoir systems. To obtain the normalised nomograph the numerical results for simulations of several tidal power plants under differing operational conditions over a period of one year. These conditions were established by varying the electricity installed capacity, the hydraulic conditions in flow tide, ebb tides or both and with single or double reservoir systems and using sea level information taken every 15 minutes. To validate the model information from the tidal power plant at Rance, France, was used, which includes data concerning production, electricity installed capacity, turbine characteristics and tidal ranges. A very good correlation was found between the results of the numerical model and those reported in various technical reports. [Spanish] Se presenta una metodologia que permite estimar de manera rapida y sencilla el potencial de energia que puede ser extraido a traves de una planta mareomotriz. La evaluacion se realiza utilizando un nomograma normalizado que es funcion del area del embalse versus la capacidad electrica instalada, para asi obtener el potencial energetico en una zona en particular. Los resultados contemplan dos formas de operacion, una llamada en flujo y otra en flujo-reflujo, dos esquemas de embalse (sencillo y doble embalse). Para la elaboracion del nomograma normalizado se utilizaron resultados numericos de la simulacion de multiples plantas mareomotrices bajo diferentes escenarios durante un ano de operacion. Los escenarios
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Ning; Abdollahi, Ali
2013-09-10
A Generalized Subspace-Least Mean Square (GSLMS) method is presented for accurate and robust estimation of oscillation modes from exponentially damped power system signals. The method is based on orthogonality of signal and noise eigenvectors of the signal autocorrelation matrix. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated using Monte Carlo simulation and compared with Prony method. Test results show that the GSLMS is highly resilient to noise and significantly dominates Prony method in tracking power system modes under noisy environments.
Duncan, Michael J; Hankey, Joanne; Nevill, Alan M
2013-08-01
This study examined the efficacy of peak-power estimation equations in children using force platform data and determined whether allometric modeling offers a sounder alternative to estimating peak power in pediatric samples. Ninety one boys and girls aged 12-16 years performed 3 countermovement jumps (CMJ) on a force platform. Estimated peak power (PP(est)) was determined using the Harman et al., Sayers SJ, Sayers CMJ, and Canavan and Vescovi equations. All 4 equations were associated with actual peak power (r = 0.893-0.909, all p equations (p allometric model using CMJ height, body mass, and age was then developed with this sample, which predicted 88.8% of the variance in PP(actual) (p equations were cross-validated using the one-third split sample (n = 31), evidencing a significant positive relationship (r = .910, p = .001) and no significant difference (p = .151) between PP(actual) and PP(est) using this equation. The allometric and linear models determined from this study provide accurate models to estimate peak power in children.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Juha Hyyppä
2010-01-01
Full Text Available In this study we compared the accuracy of low-pulse airborne laser scanning (ALS data, multi-temporal high-resolution noninterferometric TerraSAR-X radar data and a combined feature set derived from these data in the estimation of forest variables at plot level. The TerraSAR-X data set consisted of seven dual-polarized (HH/HV or VH/VV Stripmap mode images from all seasons of the year. We were especially interested in distinguishing between the tree species. The dependent variables estimated included mean volume, basal area, mean height, mean diameter and tree species-specific mean volumes. Selection of best possible feature set was based on a genetic algorithm (GA. The nonparametric k-nearest neighbour (k-NN algorithm was applied to the estimation. The research material consisted of 124 circular plots measured at tree level and located in the vicinity of Espoo, Finland. There are large variations in the elevation and forest structure in the study area, making it demanding for image interpretation. The best feature set contained 12 features, nine of them originating from the ALS data and three from the TerraSAR-X data. The relative RMSEs for the best performing feature set were 34.7% (mean volume, 28.1% (basal area, 14.3% (mean height, 21.4% (mean diameter, 99.9% (mean volume of Scots pine, 61.6% (mean volume of Norway spruce and 91.6% (mean volume of deciduous tree species. The combined feature set outperformed an ALS-based feature set marginally; in fact, the latter was better in the case of species-specific volumes. Features from TerraSAR-X alone performed poorly. However, due to favorable temporal resolution, satellite-borne radar imaging is a promising data source for updating large-area forest inventories based on low-pulse ALS.
Global Top-Down Smoke-Aerosol Emissions Estimation Using Satellite Fire Radiative Power Measurements
Ichoku, C.; Ellison, L.
2014-01-01
Fire emissions estimates have long been based on bottom-up approaches that are not only complex, but also fraught with compounding uncertainties. We present the development of a global gridded (1 deg ×1 deg) emission coefficients (Ce) product for smoke total particulate matter (TPM) based on a top-down approach using coincident measurements of fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. This new Fire Energetics and Emissions Research version 1.0 (FEER.v1) Ce product has now been released to the community and can be obtained from http://feer.gsfc. nasa.gov/, along with the corresponding 1-to-1 mapping of their quality assurance (QA) flags that will enable the Ce values to be filtered by quality for use in various applications. The regional averages of Ce values for different ecosystem types were found to be in the ranges of 16-21/gMJ-1 for savanna and grasslands, 15-32/gMJ-1 for tropical forest, 9-12/gMJ-1 for North American boreal forest, and 18- 26/MJ-1 for Russian boreal forest, croplands and natural vegetation. The FEER.v1 Ce product was multiplied by time-integrated FRP data to calculate regional smoke TPM emissions, which were compared with equivalent emissions products from three existing inventories. FEER.v1 showed higher and more reasonable smoke TPM estimates than two other emissions inventories that are based on bottom-up approaches and already reported in the literature to be too low, but portrayed an overall reasonable agreement with another top-down approach. This suggests that top-down approaches may hold better promise and need to be further developed to accelerate the reduction of uncertainty associated with fire emissions estimation in air-quality and climate research and applications. Results of the analysis of FEER.v1 data for 2004-2011 show that 65-85 Tg yr-1 of TPM is emitted globally from open biomass burning, with a
Estimation of uncertainty bounds for the future performance of a power plant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob
2009-01-01
. In addition, the plant was simulated operating under the same conditions with additional large disturbances. These simulations were used to investigate the robustness and conservatism of the proposed schemes. In this test {Scheme I and II} failed, while {Scheme III} succeeded the test.......} the future performance of these plants is that available models of the plants are uncertain. In this paper three schemes for predicting uncertain dynamical systems are presented. The schemes estimate upper and lower bounds on the system performance. Two of the schemes are statistically based, one only based...... power plant} are used, one containing normal plant operation and in the second set, coal is accumulating in the coal mill due to {an unbalance in the operating conditions.} These tests showed that {Scheme II} and {Scheme III} did bound the real system performance, while {Scheme I} failed doing so...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Stoustrup, Jakob; Mataji, B.
2007-01-01
Predicting the performance of large scale plants can be difficult due to model uncertainties etc, meaning that one can be almost certain that the prediction will diverge from the plant performance with time. In this paper output multiplicative uncertainty models are used as dynamical models of th...... models, is applied to two different sets of measured plant data. The computed uncertainty bounds cover the measured plant output, while the nominal prediction is outside these uncertainty bounds for some samples in these examples. ......Predicting the performance of large scale plants can be difficult due to model uncertainties etc, meaning that one can be almost certain that the prediction will diverge from the plant performance with time. In this paper output multiplicative uncertainty models are used as dynamical models...... of the prediction error. These proposed dynamical uncertainty models result in an upper and lower bound on the predicted performance of the plant. The dynamical uncertainty models are used to estimate the uncertainty of the predicted performance of a coal-fired power plant. The proposed scheme, which uses dynamical...
Estimation of energy potential and power generation from tidal basin in coastal area of malaysia
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nazri Nazani
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the potential of tidal energy in Malaysia. Malaysia is heavily depending on the fossil fuel to satisfy the energy demand. However, this reserve energy is reported will be depleted. The population growth also caused the demand on energy increase over the year. This situation can lead to the global warming and climate change that be a major concern around the world. As an alternative, renewable energy become a solution in order to reduce the usage of conventional energy such as fossil fuel, coal and gas. One of the renewable energy that can be used is from ocean energy. Since the tidal energy is not study thoroughly in Malaysia and Malaysia has a potential sites that can implement this tidal energy for electricity generation to meet the local demand. This tidal energy can be harnessed in several approach such as by using tidal barrage single basin with single mode generation consist ebb-mode and flood-mode of generation and the other approach of single mode is double-mode of generation. In order to meet the local demand, single-mode generation and double-mode generation was studied by getting the number of population at that area, the electricity demand then from that data the basin area is estimated for power generation. The result shows that double-mode generation is one of the approaches that meet the local demand for electricity.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seaver, D.A.; Stillwell, W.G.
1983-03-01
This report describes and evaluates several procedures for using expert judgment to estimate human-error probabilities (HEPs) in nuclear power plant operations. These HEPs are currently needed for several purposes, particularly for probabilistic risk assessments. Data do not exist for estimating these HEPs, so expert judgment can provide these estimates in a timely manner. Five judgmental procedures are described here: paired comparisons, ranking and rating, direct numerical estimation, indirect numerical estimation and multiattribute utility measurement. These procedures are evaluated in terms of several criteria: quality of judgments, difficulty of data collection, empirical support, acceptability, theoretical justification, and data processing. Situational constraints such as the number of experts available, the number of HEPs to be estimated, the time available, the location of the experts, and the resources available are discussed in regard to their implications for selecting a procedure for use.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gisela Geraldine Castilho Westphal
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Uncontrolled extractivism has led to a worldwide reduction in oyster stocks. The use of new and more efficient management tools for impacted environments must increase. The application of such tools requires previous biological and environmental knowledge of the resident populations of these bivalve mollusks. Technical difficulties are usually associated with studies of submerged oyster banks, and these difficulties result in a considerable lack of biological data on the oysters that inhabit subtidal zones. This study aimed to survey Crassostrea brasiliana (also known as C. gasar stocks in submerged banks and to evaluate a method with which to measure the extent of the banks and identify and quantify the oysters in the banks with the use of side-scan sonar. This study was conducted on 10 oysters banks located in the subtidal zone of Guaratuba Bay, on the south coast of Brazil. The prospection of all these banks was later validated by diving, and oyster samples (n = 20/bank were collected for species identification with a molecular method. Only one bank contained oysters that were generically classified as Crassostrea sp.; those in the remaining banks being identified as C. brasiliana. The prospected banks contained oysters of various sizes (average 1.5 m, n = 1,107 that were heterogeneously scattered in the riverbeds. The total number of oysters in the 10 sampled banks was estimated to be 21,159.13 oysters or 1 oyster/4.5 m², which represents a low oyster density in the study site. The results validate the use of side-scan sonar as an efficient means with which to prospect for oysters in banks located within subtidal zones.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...
Sun, Bingxiang; Jiang, Jiuchun; Zheng, Fangdan; Zhao, Wei; Liaw, Bor Yann; Ruan, Haijun; Han, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Weige
2015-05-01
The state of health (SOH) estimation is very critical to battery management system to ensure the safety and reliability of EV battery operation. Here, we used a unique hybrid approach to enable complex SOH estimations. The approach hybridizes the Delphi method known for its simplicity and effectiveness in applying weighting factors for complicated decision-making and the grey relational grade analysis (GRGA) for multi-factor optimization. Six critical factors were used in the consideration for SOH estimation: peak power at 30% state-of-charge (SOC), capacity, the voltage drop at 30% SOC with a C/3 pulse, the temperature rises at the end of discharge and charge at 1C; respectively, and the open circuit voltage at the end of charge after 1-h rest. The weighting of these factors for SOH estimation was scored by the 'experts' in the Delphi method, indicating the influencing power of each factor on SOH. The parameters for these factors expressing the battery state variations are optimized by GRGA. Eight battery cells were used to illustrate the principle and methodology to estimate the SOH by this hybrid approach, and the results were compared with those based on capacity and power capability. The contrast among different SOH estimations is discussed.
metal mirror. Multiple thermocouple wires attached to the rear of the mirror provide temperature (and hence beam power) information at various points...on the mirror. Scanning is achieved by means of a selector switch which sequentially samples the thermocouple outputs. The thermocouple output voltages are measured and recorded as a function of laser beam power.
Park, Soon-Ung; Lee, In-Hye; Ju, Jae-Won; Joo, Seung Jin
2016-10-01
A methodology for the estimation of the emission rate of 137Cs by the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (LPDM) with the use of monitored 137Cs concentrations around a nuclear power plant has been developed. This method has been employed with the MM5 meteorological model in the 600 km × 600 km model domain with the horizontal grid scale of 3 km × 3 km centered at the Fukushima nuclear power plant to estimate 137Cs emission rate for the accidental period from 00 UTC 12 March to 00 UTC 6 April 2011. The Lagrangian Particles are released continuously with the rate of one particle per minute at the first level modelled, about 15 m above the power plant site. The presently developed method was able to simulate quite reasonably the estimated 137Cs emission rate compared with other studies, suggesting the potential usefulness of the present method for the estimation of the emission rate from the accidental power plant without detailed inventories of reactors and fuel assemblies and spent fuels. The advantage of this method is not so complicated but can be applied only based on one-time forward LPDM simulation with monitored concentrations around the power plant, in contrast to other inverse models. It was also found that continuously monitored radionuclides concentrations from possibly many sites located in all directions around the power plant are required to get accurate continuous emission rates from the accident power plant. The current methodology can also be used to verify the previous version of radionuclides emissions used among other modeling groups for the cases of intermittent or discontinuous samplings. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Estimated Buried Power and Gas Lines at Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument, Montana
National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The gas and power lines were compiled from utility lines collected with GPS equipment in the summer of 2003 and then merged with older gas and power line data...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Syh, J; Wu, H; Rosen, L [Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, LA (United States)
2016-06-15
Purpose: To evaluate mass density effects of CT conversion table and its variation in current treatment planning system of spot scanning proton beam using an IROC proton lung phantom for this study. Methods: A proton lung phantom study was acquired to Imaging and Radiation Oncology Core Houston (IROC) Quality Assurance Center. Inside the lung phantom, GAF Chromic films and couples of thermal luminescent dosimeter (TLD) capsules embedded in specified PTV and adjacent structures to monitor delivered dosage and 3D dose distribution profiles. Various material such as cork (Lung), blue water (heart), Techron HPV (ribs) and organic material of balsa wood and cork as dosimetry inserts within phantom of solid water (soft tissue). Relative stopping power (RLSP) values were provided. Our treatment planning system (TPS) doesn’t require SP instead relative density was converted relative to water. However lung phantom was irradiated by planning with density override and the results were compared with IROC measurements. The second attempt was conducted without density override and compared with IROC’s. Results: The higher passing rate of imaging and measurement results of the lung phantom irradiation met the criteria by IROC without density override. The film at coronal plane was found to be shift due to inclined cylinder insertion. The converted CT density worked as expected to correlate relative stopping power. Conclusion: The proton lung phantom provided by IROC is a useful tool to qualify our commissioned proton pencil beam delivery with TPS within reliable confidence. The relative mass stopping power ratios of materials were converted from the relative physical density relative to water and the results were satisfied.
Global top-down smoke aerosol emissions estimation using satellite fire radiative power measurements
Ichoku, C.; Ellison, L.
2013-10-01
Biomass burning occurs seasonally in most vegetated parts of the world, consuming large amounts of biomass fuel, generating intense heat energy, and emitting corresponding amounts of smoke plumes that comprise different species of aerosols and trace gases. Accurate estimates of these emissions are required as model inputs to evaluate and forecast smoke plume transport and impacts on air quality, human health, clouds, weather, radiation, and climate. Emissions estimates have long been based on bottom-up approaches that are not only complex, but also fraught with compounding uncertainties. Fortunately, a series of recent studies have revealed that both the rate of biomass consumption and the rate of emission of aerosol particulate matter (PM) by open biomass burning are directly proportional to the rate of release of fire radiative energy (FRE), which is fire radiative power (FRP) that is measurable from satellite. This direct relationship enables the determination of coefficients of emission (Ce), which can be used to convert FRP or FRE to smoke aerosol emissions in the same manner as emission factors (EFs) are used to convert burned biomass to emissions. We have leveraged this relationship to generate the first global 1° × 1° gridded Ce product for smoke aerosol or total particulate matter (TPM) emissions using coincident measurements of FRP and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. This new Fire Energetics and Emissions Research version 1.0 (FEER.v1) Ce product has now been released to the community and can be obtained from http://feer.gsfc.nasa.gov/, along with the corresponding 1-to-1 mapping of their quality assurance (QA) flags that will enable the Ce values to be filtered by quality for use in various applications. The regional averages of Ce values for different ecosystem types were found to be in the ranges of: 16-21 g MJ-1 for savanna and grasslands
Power estimation of martial arts movement using 3D motion capture camera
Azraai, Nur Zaidi; Awang Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir
2017-06-01
precision and improve the accuracy of the marker. Performer movement was recorded and analyzed using software Cortex motion analysis where velocity and acceleration of a performer movement can be measured. With classical mechanics approach we have estimated the power and force of impact and shows that an experienced performer produces more power and force of impact is higher than the inexperienced performer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Changyong Cao
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The high sensitivity and advanced onboard calibration on the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB enables accurate measurements of low light radiances which leads to enhanced quantitative applications at night. The finer spatial resolution of DNB also allows users to examine social economic activities at urban scales. Given the growing interest in the use of the DNB data, there is a pressing need for better understanding of the calibration stability and absolute accuracy of the DNB at low radiances. The low light calibration accuracy was previously estimated at a moderate 15% using extended sources while the long-term stability has yet to be characterized. There are also several science related questions to be answered, for example, how the Earth’s atmosphere and surface variability contribute to the stability of the DNB measured radiances; how to separate them from instrument calibration stability; whether or not SI (International System of Units traceable active light sources can be designed and installed at selected sites to monitor the calibration stability, radiometric and geolocation accuracy, and point spread functions of the DNB; furthermore, whether or not such active light sources can be used for detecting environmental changes, such as aerosols. This paper explores the quantitative analysis of nightlight point sources, such as those from fishing vessels, bridges, and cities, using fundamental radiometry and radiative transfer, which would be useful for a number of applications including search and rescue in severe weather events, as well as calibration/validation of the DNB. Time series of the bridge light data are used to assess the stability of the light measurements and the calibration of VIIRS DNB. It was found that the light radiant power computed from the VIIRS DNB data matched relatively well with independent assessments based on the in situ light installations, although estimates have to be
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Vanfretti, Luigi; Dosiek, Luke; Pierre, John W.
2011-01-01
The application of advanced signal processing techniques to power system measurement data for the estimation of dynamic properties has been a research subject for over two decades. Several techniques have been applied to transient (or ringdown) data, ambient data, and to probing data. Some of the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Magne Fjeld
1981-01-01
Full Text Available Parameter and state estimation algorithms have been applied to a hydrological model of a catchment area in southern Norway to yield improved control of the household of water resources and better economy and efficiency in the running of the power station, as experience proves since the system was installed on-line in the summer of 1978.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina
2013-01-01
The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated lifet...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mojtaba Jorli
2017-12-01
Full Text Available Air pollutants from fossil fuel fired power plants harm the environment and human health. More than 91% of Iran’s electricity production is from thermal power plants that use natural gas, diesel, and fuel oil. We apply the impact pathway approach to estimate the health impacts arising from Iranian fossil-based electricity generation emission, and in a next step, we calculate monetary costs of the estimated damages, for a one-year period starting from 20 March 2016 through 2017. We use the new version of SIMPACTS (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, Austria to investigate the health effects from 61 major Iran fossil-based power plants separately. The selected plants represent 95.6% of total Iran fossil-based power generation. Using the individual and different power plant estimates, we avoid extrapolation and our results can be considered more reliable, taking into account spatial differences. The total damage cost is 723.42 million USD (2000. The damage cost per generated electricity varies from 0.06 to 22.41 USD/MWh and average plant damage cost is 2.85 USD/MWh. Accounting for these external costs indicates the actual costs of fossil energy. The results are useful for policy makers to compare the health costs from these plants and to decide on cleaner energy sources and to take measures to increase benefits for society.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eric Martin
2005-09-01
Full Text Available We present a method to estimate the power and energy consumption of an algorithm directly from the C program. Three models are involved: a model for the targeted processor (the power model, a model for the algorithm, and a model for the compiler (the prediction model. A functional-level power analysis is performed to obtain the power model. Five power models have been developed so far, for different architectures, from the simple RISC ARM7 to the very complex VLIW DSP TI C64. Important phenomena are taken into account, like cache misses, pipeline stalls, and internal/external memory accesses. The model for the algorithm expresses the algorithm's influence over the processor's activity. The prediction model represents the behavior of the compiler, and how it will allow the algorithm to use the processor's resources. The data mapping is considered at that stage. We have developed a tool, SoftExplorer, which performs estimation both at the C-level and the assembly level. Estimations are performed on real-life digital signal processing applications with average errors of 4.2% at the C-level and 1.8% at the assembly level. We present how SoftExplorer can be used to optimize the consumption of an application. We first show how to find the best data mapping for an algorithm. Then we demonstrate a method to choose the processor and its operating frequency in order to minimize the global energy consumption.
Langbein, John O.
2012-01-01
Recent studies have documented that global positioning system (GPS) time series of position estimates have temporal correlations which have been modeled as a combination of power-law and white noise processes. When estimating quantities such as a constant rate from GPS time series data, the estimated uncertainties on these quantities are more realistic when using a noise model that includes temporal correlations than simply assuming temporally uncorrelated noise. However, the choice of the specific representation of correlated noise can affect the estimate of uncertainty. For many GPS time series, the background noise can be represented by either: (1) a sum of flicker and random-walk noise or, (2) as a power-law noise model that represents an average of the flicker and random-walk noise. For instance, if the underlying noise model is a combination of flicker and random-walk noise, then incorrectly choosing the power-law model could underestimate the rate uncertainty by a factor of two. Distinguishing between the two alternate noise models is difficult since the flicker component can dominate the assessment of the noise properties because it is spread over a significant portion of the measurable frequency band. But, although not necessarily detectable, the random-walk component can be a major constituent of the estimated rate uncertainty. None the less, it is possible to determine the upper bound on the random-walk noise.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K Sedhuraman
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a novel reactive power based model reference neural learning adaptive system (RP-MRNLAS is proposed. The model reference adaptive system (MRAS based speed estimation is one of the most popular methods used for sensor-less controlled induction motor drives. In conventional MRAS, the error adaptation is done using a Proportional-integral-(PI. The non-linear mapping capability of a neural network (NN and the powerful learning algorithms have increased the applications of NN in power electronics and drives. Thus, a neural learning algorithm is used for the adaptation mechanism in MRAS and is often referred to as a model reference neural learning adaptive system (MRNLAS. In MRNLAS, the error between the reference and neural learning adaptive models is back propagated to adjust the weights of the neural network for rotor speed estimation. The two different methods of MRNLAS are flux based (RF-MRNLAS and reactive power based (RP-MRNLAS. The reactive power- based methods are simple and free from integral equations as compared to flux based methods. The advantage of the reactive power based method and the NN learning algorithms are exploited in this work to yield a RPMRNLAS. The performance of the proposed RP-MRNLAS is analyzed extensively. The proposed RP-MRNLAS is compared in terms of accuracy and integrator drift problems with popular rotor flux-based MRNLAS for the same system and validated through Matlab/Simulink. The superiority of the RP- MRNLAS technique is demonstrated
Appendix M: GPRA05 estimate of penetration of generating technologies into Green Power Markets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None, None
2009-01-18
The Green Power Market Model (GPMM or the model) identifies and analyzes the potential electric-generating capacity additions that will result from “green power” programs, which are not captured in the “least-cost” analyses performed by the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The model projects green power-capacity additions through both green power marketing programs in deregulated markets, and utility green pricing programs in regulated markets.
Development of Indicator Based on Oil Analysis for Estimating Risk Level of Power Transformers
Poišs, G; Vītoliņa, S; Mārks, J
2016-01-01
Risk assessment for power transformers has long been an effective tool to analyze transformer conditions in order to prevent damage on transformers, extend transformer’s life time and reduce maintenance costs. Various parameters can be evaluated, and decision can be made manually or with the help of mathematical model. A new mathematical risk-assessment model for power transformers is being developed for power system in Latvia, based on specific maintenance features and 4 indicators: dissolve...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jung, Insu [Korea Institute of Construction Technology, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woojung [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2014-05-15
Ways to estimate decommissioning of required resources in the past have imposed great uncertainty since they analyze required resources at the construction stage, analyzing and consulting decommissioning required resources of overseas nuclear power plants. As demands on efficient management and use of complicated construction information increased these days, demands on the introduction of Building Information Modeling (herein after referred to as BIM) technology has increased. In the area of quotation, considerable effects are expected as to the accuracy and reliability predicting construction costs through the characteristics that can automatically estimate quantities by using attribute information of BIM model. BIM-based estimation and quotation of required resources is more accurate than the existing 2D-based quotations and have many advantages such as reviews over constructability and interference. It can be desirable to estimate decommissioning required resources in nuclear power plants using BIM as well as using tools that are compatible with usual international/industrial standards. As we looked into the cases where required resources were estimated, using BIM in Korea and abroad, they dealt with estimation of required resources, estimation of construction cost and process management at large. In each area, methodologies, classification systems, BIM, and realization tests have been used variably. Nonetheless, several problems have been reported, and among them, it is noticeable that although BIM standard classification system exists, no case was found that has used standard classification system. This means that no interlink among OBS (Object Breakdown Structure), WBS (Work Breakdown Structure) and CBS (Cost Breakdown Structure) was possible. Thus, for nuclear power plant decommissioning, decommissioning method and process, etc. shall be defined clearly in the stage of decommissioning strategy establishment, so that classification systems must be set up
Dzul, Maria C.; Dixon, Philip M.; Quist, Michael C.; Dinsomore, Stephen J.; Bower, Michael R.; Wilson, Kevin P.; Gaines, D. Bailey
2013-01-01
We used variance components to assess allocation of sampling effort in a hierarchically nested sampling design for ongoing monitoring of early life history stages of the federally endangered Devils Hole pupfish (DHP) (Cyprinodon diabolis). Sampling design for larval DHP included surveys (5 days each spring 2007–2009), events, and plots. Each survey was comprised of three counting events, where DHP larvae on nine plots were counted plot by plot. Statistical analysis of larval abundance included three components: (1) evaluation of power from various sample size combinations, (2) comparison of power in fixed and random plot designs, and (3) assessment of yearly differences in the power of the survey. Results indicated that increasing the sample size at the lowest level of sampling represented the most realistic option to increase the survey's power, fixed plot designs had greater power than random plot designs, and the power of the larval survey varied by year. This study provides an example of how monitoring efforts may benefit from coupling variance components estimation with power analysis to assess sampling design.
Li, B.; Lee, H. C.; Duan, X.; Shen, C.; Zhou, L.; Jia, X.; Yang, M.
2017-09-01
The dual-energy CT-based (DECT) approach holds promise in reducing the overall uncertainty in proton stopping-power-ratio (SPR) estimation as compared to the conventional stoichiometric calibration approach. The objective of this study was to analyze the factors contributing to uncertainty in SPR estimation using the DECT-based approach and to derive a comprehensive estimate of the range uncertainty associated with SPR estimation in treatment planning. Two state-of-the-art DECT-based methods were selected and implemented on a Siemens SOMATOM Force DECT scanner. The uncertainties were first divided into five independent categories. The uncertainty associated with each category was estimated for lung, soft and bone tissues separately. A single composite uncertainty estimate was eventually determined for three tumor sites (lung, prostate and head-and-neck) by weighting the relative proportion of each tissue group for that specific site. The uncertainties associated with the two selected DECT methods were found to be similar, therefore the following results applied to both methods. The overall uncertainty (1σ) in SPR estimation with the DECT-based approach was estimated to be 3.8%, 1.2% and 2.0% for lung, soft and bone tissues, respectively. The dominant factor contributing to uncertainty in the DECT approach was the imaging uncertainties, followed by the DECT modeling uncertainties. Our study showed that the DECT approach can reduce the overall range uncertainty to approximately 2.2% (2σ) in clinical scenarios, in contrast to the previously reported 1%.
Sorini, D.
2017-04-01
Measuring the clustering of galaxies from surveys allows us to estimate the power spectrum of matter density fluctuations, thus constraining cosmological models. This requires careful modelling of observational effects to avoid misinterpretation of data. In particular, signals coming from different distances encode information from different epochs. This is known as ``light-cone effect'' and is going to have a higher impact as upcoming galaxy surveys probe larger redshift ranges. Generalising the method by Feldman, Kaiser and Peacock (1994) [1], I define a minimum-variance estimator of the linear power spectrum at a fixed time, properly taking into account the light-cone effect. An analytic expression for the estimator is provided, and that is consistent with the findings of previous works in the literature. I test the method within the context of the Halofit model, assuming Planck 2014 cosmological parameters [2]. I show that the estimator presented recovers the fiducial linear power spectrum at present time within 5% accuracy up to k ~ 0.80 h Mpc-1 and within 10% up to k ~ 0.94 h Mpc-1, well into the non-linear regime of the growth of density perturbations. As such, the method could be useful in the analysis of the data from future large-scale surveys, like Euclid.
To Estimation of Efficient Usage of Organic Fuel in the Cycle of Steam Power Installations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Nesenchuk
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Tendencies of power engineering development in the world were shown in this article. There were carried out the thermodynamic Analysis of efficient usage of different types of fuel. This article shows the obtained result, which reflects that low-calorie fuel (from the point of thermodynamics is more efficient to use at steam power stations then high-energy fuel.
Baghi, Quentin; Bergé, Joël; Christophe, Bruno; Touboul, Pierre; Rodrigues, Manuel
2016-01-01
We present a Gaussian regression method for time series with missing data and stationary residuals of unknown power spectral density (PSD). The missing data are efficiently estimated by their conditional expectation as in universal Kriging, based on the circulant approximation of the complete data covariance. After initialization with an autoregessive fit of the noise, a few iterations of estimation/reconstruction steps are performed until convergence of the regression and PSD estimates, in a way similar to the expectation-conditional-maximization algorithm. The estimation can be performed for an arbitrary PSD provided that it is sufficiently smooth. The algorithm is developed in the framework of the MICROSCOPE space mission whose goal is to test the weak equivalence principle (WEP) with a precision of $10^{-15}$. We show by numerical simulations that the developed method allows us to meet three major requirements: to maintain the targeted precision of the WEP test in spite of the loss of data, to calculate a...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirose, H. [Hiroshima City University, Hiroshima (Japan); Toya, A. [Tokyo Electric Power Co. Inc., Tokyo (Japan); Nakagawa, S. [Kansai Electric Power Co. Inc., Osaka (Japan); Uchida, K. [Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)
1996-11-20
A new statistical estimation method of the lifetime of the insulation which had been used for a long period by using the probabilistic mixture model of the Weibull-power-law is shown in this paper. The cross-linked polyethylene insulated cables which are used under the ground are considered to be deteriorate at various rates in accordance with their stress circumstances. Such a phenomenon leads us to propose the mixture model. This method can be applied to the residual lifetime estimation of the removed cables which had been used under the specified service voltage stress for a long period. For example, the parameters and the residual lifetime estimates are obtained for 22 kV and 33 kV cables which had been used for decades by classifying the whole samples into four groups. The estimated deterioration rates totally differ from those obtained by the conventional accelerated life tests. 17 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koo, Young Do; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Na, Man Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)
2017-06-15
Residual stress is a critical element in determining the integrity of parts and the lifetime of welded structures. It is necessary to estimate the residual stress of a welding zone because residual stress is a major reason for the generation of primary water stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plants. That is, it is necessary to estimate the distribution of the residual stress in welding of dissimilar metals under manifold welding conditions. In this study, a cascaded support vector regression (CSVR) model was presented to estimate the residual stress of a welding zone. The CSVR model was serially and consecutively structured in terms of SVR modules. Using numerical data obtained from finite element analysis by a subtractive clustering method, learning data that explained the characteristic behavior of the residual stress of a welding zone were selected to optimize the proposed model. The results suggest that the CSVR model yielded a better estimation performance when compared with a classic SVR model.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young Do Koo
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Residual stress is a critical element in determining the integrity of parts and the lifetime of welded structures. It is necessary to estimate the residual stress of a welding zone because residual stress is a major reason for the generation of primary water stress corrosion cracking in nuclear power plants. That is, it is necessary to estimate the distribution of the residual stress in welding of dissimilar metals under manifold welding conditions. In this study, a cascaded support vector regression (CSVR model was presented to estimate the residual stress of a welding zone. The CSVR model was serially and consecutively structured in terms of SVR modules. Using numerical data obtained from finite element analysis by a subtractive clustering method, learning data that explained the characteristic behavior of the residual stress of a welding zone were selected to optimize the proposed model. The results suggest that the CSVR model yielded a better estimation performance when compared with a classic SVR model.
Linear Motion Blur Parameter Estimation in Noisy Images Using Fuzzy Sets and Power Spectrum
Moghaddam Mohsen Ebrahimi; Jamzad Mansour
2007-01-01
Motion blur is one of the most common causes of image degradation. Restoration of such images is highly dependent on accurate estimation of motion blur parameters. To estimate these parameters, many algorithms have been proposed. These algorithms are different in their performance, time complexity, precision, and robustness in noisy environments. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to estimate direction and length of motion blur, using Radon transform and fuzzy set concepts. The most...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Bitenc
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is a well-known remote sensing tool that enables precise 3D acquisition of surface morphology from distances of a few meters to a few kilometres. The morphological representations obtained are important in engineering geology and rock mechanics, where surface morphology details are of particular interest in rock stability problems and engineering construction. The actual size of the discernible surface detail depends on the instrument range error (noise effect and effective data resolution (smoothing effect. Range error can be (partly removed by applying a denoising method. Based on the positive results from previous studies, two denoising methods, namely 2D wavelet transform (WT and non-local mean (NLM, are tested here, with the goal of obtaining roughness estimations that are suitable in the context of rock engineering practice. Both methods are applied in two variants: conventional Discrete WT (DWT and Stationary WT (SWT, classic NLM (NLM and probabilistic NLM (PNLM. The noise effect and denoising performance are studied in relation to the TLS effective data resolution. Analyses are performed on the reference data acquired by a highly precise Advanced TOpometric Sensor (ATOS on a 20x30 cm rock joint sample. Roughness ratio is computed by comparing the noisy and denoised surfaces to the original ATOS surface. The roughness ratio indicates the success of all denoising methods. Besides, it shows that SWT oversmoothes the surface and the performance of the DWT, NLM and PNLM vary with the noise level and data resolution. The noise effect becomes less prominent when data resolution decreases.
Athelogou, Maria; Kim, Hyun J; Dima, Alden; Obuchowski, Nancy; Peskin, Adele; Gavrielides, Marios A; Petrick, Nicholas; Saiprasad, Ganesh; Colditz Colditz, Dirk; Beaumont, Hubert; Oubel, Estanislao; Tan, Yongqiang; Zhao, Binsheng; Kuhnigk, Jan-Martin; Moltz, Jan Hendrik; Orieux, Guillaume; Gillies, Robert J; Gu, Yuhua; Mantri, Ninad; Goldmacher, Gregory; Zhang, Luduan; Vega, Emilio; Bloom, Michael; Jarecha, Rudresh; Soza, Grzegorz; Tietjen, Christian; Takeguchi, Tomoyuki; Yamagata, Hitoshi; Peterson, Sam; Masoud, Osama; Buckler, Andrew J
2016-08-01
Quantifying changes in lung tumor volume is important for diagnosis, therapy planning, and evaluation of response to therapy. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of multiple algorithms on a reference data set. The study was organized by the Quantitative Imaging Biomarker Alliance (QIBA). The study was organized as a public challenge. Computed tomography scans of synthetic lung tumors in an anthropomorphic phantom were acquired by the Food and Drug Administration. Tumors varied in size, shape, and radiodensity. Participants applied their own semi-automated volume estimation algorithms that either did not allow or allowed post-segmentation correction (type 1 or 2, respectively). Statistical analysis of accuracy (percent bias) and precision (repeatability and reproducibility) was conducted across algorithms, as well as across nodule characteristics, slice thickness, and algorithm type. Eighty-four percent of volume measurements of QIBA-compliant tumors were within 15% of the true volume, ranging from 66% to 93% across algorithms, compared to 61% of volume measurements for all tumors (ranging from 37% to 84%). Algorithm type did not affect bias substantially; however, it was an important factor in measurement precision. Algorithm precision was notably better as tumor size increased, worse for irregularly shaped tumors, and on the average better for type 1 algorithms. Over all nodules meeting the QIBA Profile, precision, as measured by the repeatability coefficient, was 9.0% compared to 18.4% overall. The results achieved in this study, using a heterogeneous set of measurement algorithms, support QIBA quantitative performance claims in terms of volume measurement repeatability for nodules meeting the QIBA Profile criteria. Copyright © 2016 The Association of University Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)
2004-01-01
textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jørgensen, Bent; Demétrio, Clarice G.B.; Kristensen, Erik
2011-01-01
Estimation of Taylor’s power law for species abundance data may be performed by linear regression of the log empirical variances on the log means, but this method suffers from a problem of bias for sparse data. We show that the bias may be reduced by using a bias-corrected Pearson estimating...... function. Furthermore, we investigate a more general regression model allowing for site-specific covariates. This method may be efficiently implemented using a Newton scoring algorithm, with standard errors calculated from the inverse Godambe information matrix. The method is applied to a set of biomass...
Electric Power Interruption Cost Estimates for Individual Industries, Sectors, and U.S. Economy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Balducci, Patrick J.; Roop, Joseph M.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.; Weimar, Mark R.
2002-02-27
During the last 20 years, utilities and researchers have begun to understand the value in the collection and analysis of interruption cost data. The continued investigation of the monetary impact of power outages will facilitate the advancement of the analytical methods used to measure the costs and benefits from the perspective of the energy consumer. More in-depth analysis may be warranted because of the privatization and deregulation of power utilities, price instability in certain regions of the U.S. and the continued evolution of alternative auxiliary power systems.
Estimation of oxygen cost of internal power during cycling exercise with changing pedal rate
Tokui, Masato; Hirakoba, Kohji
2008-01-01
It has been reported that oxygen uptake (VO2) increases exponentially with levels of the pedal rate during cycling. The purpose of this study was therefore to test the hypothesis that the O2 cost for internal power output (Pint) exerted in exercising muscle itself would be larger than for an external power output (Pext) calculated from external load and pedal rate during cycling exercise under various conditions of Pint and Pext in a large range of pedal rates. The O2 cost (ΔVO2/ Δpower outpu...
Pulse Power Capability Estimation of Lithium Titanate Oxide-based Batteries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stroe, Ana-Irina; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Loan
2016-01-01
The pulse power capability (PPC) represents one of the parameters that describe the performance behavior of Lithium-ion batteries independent on the application. Consequently, extended information about the Li-ion battery PPC and its dependence on the operating conditions become necessary. Thus......, this paper analyzes the power capability characteristic of a 13Ah high power Lithium Titanate Oxide-based battery and its dependence on temperature, load current and state-of-charge. Furthermore, a model to predict the discharging PPC of the battery cell at different temperatures and load currents for three...
Addressing Single and Multiple Bad Data in the Modern PMU-based Power System State Estimation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Khazraj, Hesam; Silva, Filipe Miguel Faria da; Bak, Claus Leth
2017-01-01
-based state estimation are overviewed, and their advantages and disadvantages are briefly explained. The largest normalized residual test is used to identify bad data. Then, phasor measurements are added by post-processing step in the state estimation. The proposed algorithms of phasor measurements...
Appendix M - GPRA06 estimate of penetration of generating technologies into green power markets
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None, None
2009-01-18
The Green Power Market Model (GPMM or the model) identifies and analyzes the potential electric-generating capacity additions that will result from “green power” programs, which are not captured in the “least-cost” analyses performed by the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) and the Market Allocation (MARKAL) model. The term "green power" is used to define power generated from renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal, and various forms of biomass. The Green Power market is an increasingly important element of the national renewable energy contribution, with changes in the regulatory and legislative environment and the recent dramatic changes in natural gas prices slowly altering the size of this opportunity.
Estimation of Oxygen Cost of Internal Power during Cycling Exercise with Changing Pedal Rate
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tokui, Masato; Hirakoba, Kohji
2008-01-01
...) exerted in exercising muscle itself would be larger than for an external power output (Pext) calculated from external load and pedal rate during cycling exercise under various conditions of Pint and Pext in a large range of pedal rates...
Capps, Shannon L.; Driscoll, Charles T.; Fakhraei, Habibollah; Templer, Pamela H.; Craig, Kenneth J.; Milford, Jana B.; Lambert, Kathleen F.
2016-12-01
A standard for carbon dioxide emissions from power plants in the United States, known as the Clean Power Plan, has been finalized by the Environmental Protection Agency. Decreases in carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion have the potential cobenefit of reductions in emissions of oxides of nitrogen, which contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone. Emissions of ozone precursors may result in elevated ozone concentrations nearby or downwind. Chronic exposure of sensitive vegetation to tropospheric ozone reduces its potential productivity. To evaluate the cobenefits of the Clean Power Plan to sensitive vegetation, we estimate ozone concentrations in the continental U.S. in 2020 with a chemical transport model in accordance with reference and alternative Clean Power Plan policy scenarios, which represent a range of possible approaches to reducing carbon dioxide emissions from power plants. The reductions in biomass, or the potential productivity losses, due to the exposure of 4 crops and 11 tree species to ozone are as large as 1.9% and 32%, respectively, in the reference scenario. The least stringent policy scenario reduces these losses by less than 3% for any given species; however, the scenarios consistent with policies resulting in more rigorous nitrogen oxide reductions produce potential productivity losses lower than the reference scenario by as much as 16% and 13% for individual crops or tree species, respectively. This analysis affords the opportunity to consider public welfare cobenefits of a regulation that is designed to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from power plants.
Distributed Estimation via Iterative Projections with Application to Power Network Monitoring
2011-07-11
to a centralized method, in which a powerful central processor is in charge of processing 2 In most application the error covariance matrix is assumed...between incre- mental and diffusive methods is beyond the purpose of this work, and we refer the interested reader to [15, 16] and the references...example, we assume that each control center mesures the real power injection as well the current magnitude at some of the buses of its area. By doing so
Battery Power Management in Heavy-duty HEVs based on the Estimated Critical Surface Charge
2011-03-01
energy flows through the system reach up to the marginal values during aggressive acceleration or braking . The underlying phenomenon determining the...the system reach up to the marginal values during aggressive acceleration or braking . The underlying phenomenon determining the limits is closely...where Pbatt.min is the minimum allowable battery power. When negative power demand is requested by the driver, regenerative braking mode is
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmholdt, Claus Westergård; Fogsgaard, Morten
2016-01-01
In this chapter, we will explore the dynamics of power in processes of creativity, and show its paradoxical nature as both a bridge and a barrier to creativity in organisations. Recent social psychological experimental research (Slighte, de Dreu & Nijstad, 2011) on the relation between power...... and creativity suggests that when managers give people the opportunity to gain power and explicate that there is reason to be more creative, people will show a boost in creative behaviour. Moreover, this process works best in unstable power hierarchies, which implies that power is treated as a negotiable...... and floating source for empowering people in the organisation. We will explore and discuss here the potentials, challenges and pitfalls of power in relation to creativity in the life of organisations today. The aim is to demonstrate that power struggles may be utilised as constructive sources of creativity...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. N. Radkevich
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an estimation method of decreasing losses of active power in power transformers with voltage 10(6/0,4 kV after installation of devices of reactive power compensation on output side depending on voltage level, connected to capacity devices, taking into account dielectric loss in capacitors. Analysis of functional dependences was carried out. Investigation of function with a help of derivations was carried out. Points of function extremum and also its intervals of rise and fall rates were founded. This paper describes graphic investigation of obtained functional dependence, which is introduced by quartic polynominal. It is established that decreasing of losses of active power depends on technical parameters and load factor of transformer, coefficient of loading power of electricity consumers, voltage value connected to capacitor unit.Using obtained functional dependences, calculations for the main size-types of power transformers with voltage 10(6/0,4 kV serie ТМГ 11 and ТМГ12 were done. It is established that depending on technical characteristics of certain transformer, coefficient of its loading and power, there is a definite value of deviation of real voltage value from working voltage of capacitor installation when it will be observed positive technical and economical effect from installed capacitor battery unit. For taken value of loading coefficient and transformer’s power the maximum decrease of losses of active power takes place under voltage directed to capacitor unit, which is lower then nominal value. For all taken size-types of power transformers the argument of investigating function for its maximal value is out of standard permissible of voltage deviations from nominal value.These functional dependents can be used for preliminary calculations, which are needed for making decision on compensation of reactive power in electric power supply systems of industrial objects. Their consideration allows more
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jacobo Pardo-Seco
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variation (i.e. haplogroups has been analyzed in regards to a number of multifactorial diseases. The statistical power of a case-control study determines the a priori probability to reject the null hypothesis of homogeneity between cases and controls. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We critically review previous approaches to the estimation of the statistical power based on the restricted scenario where the number of cases equals the number of controls, and propose a methodology that broadens procedures to more general situations. We developed statistical procedures that consider different disease scenarios, variable sample sizes in cases and controls, and variable number of haplogroups and effect sizes. The results indicate that the statistical power of a particular study can improve substantially by increasing the number of controls with respect to cases. In the opposite direction, the power decreases substantially when testing a growing number of haplogroups. We developed mitPower (http://bioinformatics.cesga.es/mitpower/, a web-based interface that implements the new statistical procedures and allows for the computation of the a priori statistical power in variable scenarios of case-control study designs, or e.g. the number of controls needed to reach fixed effect sizes. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study provides with statistical procedures for the computation of statistical power in common as well as complex case-control study designs involving 2×k tables, with special application (but not exclusive to mtDNA studies. In order to reach a wide range of researchers, we also provide a friendly web-based tool--mitPower--that can be used in both retrospective and prospective case-control disease studies.
Camps, Vicente J; Piñero, David P; Caravaca-Arens, Esteban; de Fez, Dolores; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J; Artola, Alberto
2014-09-01
The aim of this study was to obtain the exact value of the keratometric index (nkexact) and to clinically validate a variable keratometric index (nkadj) that minimizes this error. The nkexact value was determined by obtaining differences (ΔPc) between keratometric corneal power (Pk) and Gaussian corneal power ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) equal to 0. The nkexact was defined as the value associated with an equivalent difference in the magnitude of ΔPc for extreme values of posterior corneal radius (r2c) for each anterior corneal radius value (r1c). This nkadj was considered for the calculation of the adjusted corneal power (Pkadj). Values of r1c ∈ (4.2, 8.5) mm and r2c ∈ (3.1, 8.2) mm were considered. Differences of True Net Power with (Equation is included in full-text article.), Pkadj, and Pk(1.3375) were calculated in a clinical sample of 44 eyes with keratoconus. nkexact ranged from 1.3153 to 1.3396 and nkadj from 1.3190 to 1.3339 depending on the eye model analyzed. All the nkadj values adjusted perfectly to 8 linear algorithms. Differences between Pkadj and (Equation is included in full-text article.)did not exceed ±0.7 D (Diopter). Clinically, nk = 1.3375 was not valid in any case. Pkadj and True Net Power and Pk(1.3375) and Pkadj were statistically different (P 0.01). The use of a single value of nk for the calculation of the total corneal power in keratoconus has been shown to be imprecise, leading to inaccuracies in the detection and classification of this corneal condition. Furthermore, our study shows the relevance of corneal thickness in corneal power calculations in keratoconus.
Pierro, Marco; De Felice, Matteo; Maggioni, Enrico; Moser, David; Perotto, Alessandro; Spada, Francesco; Cornaro, Cristina
2017-04-01
The growing photovoltaic generation results in a stochastic variability of the electric demand that could compromise the stability of the grid and increase the amount of energy reserve and the energy imbalance cost. On regional scale, solar power estimation and forecast is becoming essential for Distribution System Operators, Transmission System Operator, energy traders, and aggregators of generation. Indeed the estimation of regional PV power can be used for PV power supervision and real time control of residual load. Mid-term PV power forecast can be employed for transmission scheduling to reduce energy imbalance and related cost of penalties, residual load tracking, trading optimization, secondary energy reserve assessment. In this context, a new upscaling method was developed and used for estimation and mid-term forecast of the photovoltaic distributed generation in a small area in the north of Italy under the control of a local DSO. The method was based on spatial clustering of the PV fleet and neural networks models that input satellite or numerical weather prediction data (centered on cluster centroids) to estimate or predict the regional solar generation. It requires a low computational effort and very few input information should be provided by users. The power estimation model achieved a RMSE of 3% of installed capacity. Intra-day forecast (from 1 to 4 hours) obtained a RMSE of 5% - 7% while the one and two days forecast achieve to a RMSE of 7% and 7.5%. A model to estimate the forecast error and the prediction intervals was also developed. The photovoltaic production in the considered region provided the 6.9% of the electric consumption in 2015. Since the PV penetration is very similar to the one observed at national level (7.9%), this is a good case study to analyse the impact of PV generation on the electric grid and the effects of PV power forecast on transmission scheduling and on secondary reserve estimation. It appears that, already with 7% of PV
Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: Final Report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tom McDermott
2010-05-07
The project objective was to provide robust state estimation for distribution systems, comparable to what has been available on transmission systems for decades. This project used an algorithm called Branch Current State Estimation (BCSE), which is more effective than classical methods because it decouples the three phases of a distribution system, and uses branch current instead of node voltage as a state variable, which is a better match to current measurement.
Distributed Estimation of Oscillations in Power Systems: an Extended Kalman Filtering Approach
Yu, Zhe; Shi, Di; Wang, Zhiwei; Zhang, Qibing; Huang, Junhui; Pan, Sen
2017-01-01
Online estimation of electromechanical oscillation parameters provides essential information to prevent system instability and blackout and helps to identify event categories and locations. We formulate the problem as a state space model and employ the extended Kalman filter to estimate oscillation frequencies and damping factors directly based on data from phasor measurement units. Due to considerations of communication burdens and privacy concerns, a fully distributed algorithm is proposed ...
Heath, Garvin A; O'Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J; Bazilian, Morgan
2014-08-05
Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices.
Hafford-Letchfield, Trish
2015-01-01
This chapter looks at the concept of power in social work by focusing on what this means as a ‘professional’ and theorizes competing discourses of empowerment in social work and its key concepts, drawing in particular on the explanatory powers of critical theorist Michel Foucault (1991). The chapter problematizes the concept of power by explicitly drawing on both users’ and carers’ accounts from the literature to demonstrate different external and internal influences on the root causes of dis...
Kruschke, John K; Liddell, Torrin M
2017-02-07
In the practice of data analysis, there is a conceptual distinction between hypothesis testing, on the one hand, and estimation with quantified uncertainty on the other. Among frequentists in psychology, a shift of emphasis from hypothesis testing to estimation has been dubbed "the New Statistics" (Cumming 2014). A second conceptual distinction is between frequentist methods and Bayesian methods. Our main goal in this article is to explain how Bayesian methods achieve the goals of the New Statistics better than frequentist methods. The article reviews frequentist and Bayesian approaches to hypothesis testing and to estimation with confidence or credible intervals. The article also describes Bayesian approaches to meta-analysis, randomized controlled trials, and power analysis.
Smith, J. M.; Nichols, L. D.
1977-01-01
The value of percent seed, oxygen to fuel ratio, combustion pressure, Mach number, and magnetic field strength which maximize either the electrical conductivity or power density at the entrance of an MHD power generator was obtained. The working fluid is the combustion product of H2 and O2 seeded with CsOH. The ideal theoretical segmented Faraday generator along with an empirical form found from correlating the data of many experimenters working with generators of different sizes, electrode configurations, and working fluids, are investigated. The conductivity and power densities optimize at a seed fraction of 3.5 mole percent and an oxygen to hydrogen weight ratio of 7.5. The optimum values of combustion pressure and Mach number depend on the operating magnetic field strength.
Estimation of Maximum Allowable PV Connection to LV Residential Power Networks
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus
2011-01-01
Maximum photovoltaic (PV) hosting capacity of low voltage (LV) power networks is mainly restricted by either thermal limits of network components or grid voltage quality resulted from high penetration of distributed PV systems. This maximum hosting capacity may be lower than the available solar...... potential of geographic area due to power network limitations even though all rooftops are fully occupied with PV modules. Therefore, it becomes more of an issue to know what exactly limits higher PV penetration level and which solutions should be engaged efficiently such as over sizing distribution...... is used in simulation as a case study model. Furthermore, varying solutions (utilizing thermally upgraded insulation paper in transformers, reactive power services from solar inverters, etc.) are implemented on the network under investigation to examine PV penetration level and finally key results learnt...
Estimating the Power Characteristics of Clusters of Large Offshore Wind Farms
Drew, D.; Barlow, J. F.; Coceal, O.; Coker, P.; Brayshaw, D.; Lenaghan, D.
2014-12-01
The next phase of offshore wind projects in the UK focuses on the development of very large wind farms clustered within several allocated zones. However, this change in the distribution of wind capacity brings uncertainty for the operational planning of the power system. Firstly, there are concerns that concentrating large amounts of capacity in one area could reduce some of the benefits seen by spatially dispersing the turbines, such as the smoothing of the power generation variability. Secondly, wind farms of the scale planned are likely to influence the boundary layer sufficiently to impact the performance of adjacent farms, therefore the power generation characteristics of the clusters are largely unknown. The aim of this study is to use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to investigate the power output of a cluster of offshore wind farms for a range of extreme events, taking into account the wake effects of the individual turbines and the neighbouring farms. Each wind farm in the cluster is represented as an elevated momentum sink and a source of turbulent kinetic energy using the WRF Wind Farm Parameterization. The research focuses on the Dogger Bank zone (located in the North Sea approximately 125 km off the East coast of the UK), which could have 7.2 GW of installed capacity across six separate wind farms. For this site, a 33 year reanalysis data set (MERRA, from NASA-GMAO) has been used to identify a series of extreme event case studies. These are characterised by either periods of persistent low (or high) wind speeds, or by rapid changes in power output. The latter could be caused by small changes in the wind speed inducing large changes in power output, very high winds prompting turbine shut down, or a change in the wind direction which shifts the wake effects of the neighbouring farms in the cluster and therefore changes the wind resource available.
Estimate of China's energy carbon emissions peak and analysis on electric power carbon emissions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Xuan Wang
2014-12-01
Full Text Available China's energy carbon emissions are projected to peak in 2030 with approximately 110% of its 2020 level under the following conditions: 1 China's gross primary energy consumption is 5 Gtce in 2020 and 6 Gtce in 2030; 2 coal's share of the energy consumption is 61% in 2020 and 55% in 2030; 3 non-fossil energy's share increases from 15% in 2020 to 20% in 2030; 4 through 2030, China's GDP grows at an average annual rate of 6%; 5 the annual energy consumption elasticity coefficient is 0.30 in average; and 6 the annual growth rate of energy consumption steadily reduces to within 1%. China's electricity generating capacity would be 1,990 GW, with 8,600 TW h of power generation output in 2020. Of that output 66% would be from coal, 5% from gas, and 29% from non-fossil energy. By 2030, electricity generating capacity would reach 3,170 GW with 11,900 TW h of power generation output. Of that output, 56% would be from coal, 6% from gas, and 37% from non-fossil energy. From 2020 to 2030, CO2 emissions from electric power would relatively fall by 0.2 Gt due to lower coal consumption, and relatively fall by nearly 0.3 Gt with the installation of more coal-fired cogeneration units. During 2020–2030, the portion of carbon emissions from electric power in China's energy consumption is projected to increase by 3.4 percentage points. Although the carbon emissions from electric power would keep increasing to 118% of the 2020 level in 2030, the electric power industry would continue to play a decisive role in achieving the goal of increase in non-fossil energy use. This study proposes countermeasures and recommendations to control carbon emissions peak, including energy system optimization, green-coal-fired electricity generation, and demand side management.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...
... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...
ESTIMATION OF ROUTINE DISCHARGE OF RADIONUCLIDES ON POWER REACTOR EXPERIMENTAL RDE
Udiyani, P.M; Sri Kuntjoro
2017-01-01
Experimental power reactor (RDE) which is planned to be constructed by BATAN is a kind of High Temperature Gas Cooled Reactor (HTGR) with 10 MWth power. HTGR is a helium gas-cooled reactor with TRISO-coated fuel that is able to confine fission products remained in the core. Although the fission products released into the environment are very small, in order to comply the regulations the study about environmental radiation on normal or routine operation condition need to be performed. Estimati...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Borsukiewicz-Gozdur Aleksandra
2007-01-01
Full Text Available In the work presented are the results of investigations regarding the effectiveness of operation of power plant fed by geothermal water with the flow rate of 100, 150, and 200 m3/h and temperatures of 70, 80, and 90 °C, i. e. geothermal water with the parameters available in some towns of West Pomeranian region as well as in Stargard Szczecinski (86.4 °C, Poland. The results of calculations regard the system of geothermal power plant with possibility of utilization of heat for technological purposes. Analyzed are possibilities of application of different working fluids with respect to the most efficient utilization of geothermal energy. .
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Niancheng Zhou
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The influence of electric vehicle charging stations on power grid harmonics is becoming increasingly significant as their presence continues to grow. This paper studies the operational principles of the charging current in the continuous and discontinuous modes for a three-phase uncontrolled rectification charger with a passive power factor correction link, which is affected by the charging power. A parameter estimation method is proposed for the equivalent circuit of the charger by using the measured characteristic AC (Alternating Current voltage and current data combined with the charging circuit constraints in the conduction process, and this method is verified using an experimental platform. The sensitivity of the current harmonics to the changes in the parameters is analyzed. An analytical harmonic model of the charging station is created by separating the chargers into groups by type. Then, the harmonic current amplification caused by the shunt active power filter is researched, and the analytical formula for the overload factor is derived to further correct the capacity of the shunt active power filter. Finally, this method is validated through a field test of a charging station.
A comparison of estimators to evaluate the discriminatory power of time-to-event models.
Schmid, Matthias; Potapov, Sergej
2012-10-15
Discrimination measures for continuous time-to-event outcomes have become an important tool in medical decision making. The idea behind discrimination measures is to evaluate the performance of a prediction model by measuring its ability to distinguish between observations having an event and those having no event. Researchers proposed a variety of approaches to estimate discrimination measures from a set of right-censored data. These approaches rely on different regularity assumptions that are needed to ensure consistency of the respective estimators. Typical examples of regularity assumptions include the proportional hazards assumption in Cox regression and the random censoring assumption. Because regularity assumptions are often violated in practice, conducting a sensitivity analysis of the estimators is of considerable interest. The aim of the paper is to analyze and to compare the most popular estimators of discrimination measures for event time outcomes. On the basis of the results of an extensive simulation study and the analysis of molecular data, we investigate the behavior of the estimators in situations where the underlying regularity assumptions do not hold. We show that violations of the regularity assumptions may induce a nonignorable bias and may therefore result in biased medical decision making. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
ESTIMATION CRITERIA FOR DEGREE OF PAPER-IMPREGNATED INSULATED POWER CABLE AGEING
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G.V. Bezprozvannych
2013-09-01
Full Text Available Correlation between parameters characterizing mechanical and thermal ageing of paper-impregnated insulation of medium voltage power cables is revealed. On the basis of linear and exponential regression analysis at confidence coefficient of 0.95, critical values of dielectric loss tangent of wrapping and phase insulation corresponding to the cable life termination are found.
Estimation of leakage power and delay in CMOS circuits using parametric variation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Preeti Verma
2016-09-01
Full Text Available With the advent of deep-submicron technologies, leakage power dissipation is a major concern for scaling down portable devices that have burst-mode type integrated circuits. In this paper leakage reduction technique HTLCT (High Threshold Leakage Control Transistor is discussed. Using high threshold transistors at the place of low threshold leakage control transistors, result in more leakage power reduction as compared to LCT (leakage control transistor technique but at the scarifies of area and delay. Further, analysis of effect of parametric variation on leakage current and propagation delay in CMOS circuits is performed. It is found that the leakage power dissipation increases with increasing temperature, supply voltage and aspect ratio. However, opposite pattern is noticed for the propagation delay. Leakage power dissipation for LCT NAND gate increases up to 14.32%, 6.43% and 36.21% and delay decreases by 22.5%, 42% and 9% for variation of temperature, supply voltage and aspect ratio. Maximum peak of equivalent output noise is obtained as 127.531 nV/Sqrt(Hz at 400 mHz.
Energy expenditure in relation to flight speed: whay is the power of mass loss rate estimates
Kvist, A.; Klaassen, M.R.J.; Lindström, A.
1998-01-01
The relationship between mass loss rate and chemical power in Eying birds is analysed with regard to water and heat balance. Two models are presented: the first model is applicable to situations where heat loads are moderate, i.e. when heat balance can be achieved by regulating non-evaporative heat
Kaiser, J.W.; Heil, A.; Andreae, M.O.; Benedetti, A.; Chubarova, N.; Jones, L.; Morcrette, J.J.; Razinger, M.; Schultz, M.G.; Suttie, M.; Werf, van der G.R.
2012-01-01
The Global Fire Assimilation System (GFASv1.0) calculates biomass burning emissions by assimilating Fire Radiative Power (FRP) observations from the MODIS instruments onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. It corrects for gaps in the observations, which are mostly due to cloud cover, and filters
Maximum a posteriori covariance estimation using a power inverse wishart prior
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Søren Feodor; Sporring, Jon
2012-01-01
The estimation of the covariance matrix is an initial step in many multivariate statistical methods such as principal components analysis and factor analysis, but in many practical applications the dimensionality of the sample space is large compared to the number of samples, and the usual maximu...... class of prior distributions generalizing the inverse Wishart prior, discuss its properties, and demonstrate the estimator on simulated and real data.......The estimation of the covariance matrix is an initial step in many multivariate statistical methods such as principal components analysis and factor analysis, but in many practical applications the dimensionality of the sample space is large compared to the number of samples, and the usual maximum...
Linear Motion Blur Parameter Estimation in Noisy Images Using Fuzzy Sets and Power Spectrum
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moghaddam Mohsen Ebrahimi
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Motion blur is one of the most common causes of image degradation. Restoration of such images is highly dependent on accurate estimation of motion blur parameters. To estimate these parameters, many algorithms have been proposed. These algorithms are different in their performance, time complexity, precision, and robustness in noisy environments. In this paper, we present a novel algorithm to estimate direction and length of motion blur, using Radon transform and fuzzy set concepts. The most important advantage of this algorithm is its robustness and precision in noisy images. This method was tested on a wide range of different types of standard images that were degraded with different directions (between and and motion lengths (between and pixels. The results showed that the method works highly satisfactory for SNR dB and supports lower SNR compared with other algorithms.
Bents, David J.; Lu, Cheng Y.
1989-01-01
Solar Photo Voltaic (PV) and thermal dynamic power systems for application to selected Low Earth Orbit (LEO) and High Eccentric Orbit (Energy) (HEO) missions are characterized in the regime 7 to 35 kWe. Input parameters to the characterization are varied corresponding to anticipated introduction of improved or new technologies. Comparative assessment is made between the two power system types utilizing newly emerging technologies in cells and arrays, energy storage, optical surfaces, heat engines, thermal energy storage, and thermal management. The assessment is made to common ground rules and assumptions. The four missions (space station, sun-synchronous, Van Allen belt and GEO) are representative of the anticipated range of multi-kWe earth orbit missions. System characterizations include all required subsystems, including power conditioning, cabling, structure, to deliver electrical power to the user. Performance is estimated on the basis of three different levels of component technology: (1) state-of-art, (2) near-term, and (3) advanced technologies. These range from planar array silicon/IPV nickel hydrogen batteries and Brayton systems at 1000 K to thin film GaAs with high energy density secondary batteries or regenerative fuel cells and 1300 K Stirling systems with ultra-lightweight concentrators and radiators. The system estimates include design margin for performance degradations from the known environmental mechanisms (micrometeoroids and space debris, atomic oxygen, electron and proton flux) which are modeled and applied depending on the mission. The results give expected performance, mass and drag of multi-kWe earth orbiting solar power systems and show how overall system figures of merit will improve as new component technologies are incorporated.
Heath, Garvin A.; O’Donoughue, Patrick; Arent, Douglas J.; Bazilian, Morgan
2014-01-01
Recent technological advances in the recovery of unconventional natural gas, particularly shale gas, have served to dramatically increase domestic production and reserve estimates for the United States and internationally. This trend has led to lowered prices and increased scrutiny on production practices. Questions have been raised as to how greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the life cycle of shale gas production and use compares with that of conventionally produced natural gas or other fuel sources such as coal. Recent literature has come to different conclusions on this point, largely due to differing assumptions, comparison baselines, and system boundaries. Through a meta-analytical procedure we call harmonization, we develop robust, analytically consistent, and updated comparisons of estimates of life cycle GHG emissions for electricity produced from shale gas, conventionally produced natural gas, and coal. On a per-unit electrical output basis, harmonization reveals that median estimates of GHG emissions from shale gas-generated electricity are similar to those for conventional natural gas, with both approximately half that of the central tendency of coal. Sensitivity analysis on the harmonized estimates indicates that assumptions regarding liquids unloading and estimated ultimate recovery (EUR) of wells have the greatest influence on life cycle GHG emissions, whereby shale gas life cycle GHG emissions could approach the range of best-performing coal-fired generation under certain scenarios. Despite clarification of published estimates through harmonization, these initial assessments should be confirmed through methane emissions measurements at components and in the atmosphere and through better characterization of EUR and practices. PMID:25049378
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marius Hauglin
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Several methods to conduct single-tree inventories using airborne laser scanning (ALS have been proposed, and even terrestrial laser scanning (TLS has recently emerged as a possible tool for the collection of forest inventory data. In the present study, a novel methodological framework for a combined use of ALS and TLS in an inventory was tested and compared to a method without the use of TLS. Single-tree Norway spruce crown biomass was predicted using an ALS-model with training data obtained by TLS. ALS and TLS data were collected for sets of sample trees, including 68 trees with both ALS and TLS data. In total, 29 destructively sampled trees were used to fit a TLS crown biomass model, which then was used to predict crown biomass in a separate set of 68 trees. This dataset was subsequently used to fit an ALS crown biomass model. When validating the model, using a separate dataset with accurately measured crown biomass obtained through destructive sampling, the mean error was 32% of the observed mean biomass. Corresponding crown biomass predictions derived with ALS-predicted diameters and the use of conventional and existing allometric models resulted in a mean error of 35%. Thus, in the present study, a slight improvement, in terms of prediction accuracy, was found when using training data with ground reference values obtained by TLS.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ayoub Amirnia
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Background: Due to the presence of radiosensitive organs in the abdominopelvic region and increasing the number of requests for CT scan examinations, concerns about increasing radiation doses in patients has been greatly elevated. Therefore, the goal of this study was to determine the absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and the effective dose in patients underwent abdominopelvic CT scan using ImPACT CT patient dosimetry Calculator (version 1.0.4, Imaging Performance Assessment on Computed Tomography, www.impactscan.org. Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Imam Reza Hospital from November to February 2015 February 2015 in the Imam Reza Hospital, in Urmia, Iran. The demographic and dosimetric information of 100 patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT scan in a 6-slice CT scanner were obtained through the data collection forms. The demographic data of the patients included age, weight, gender, and BMI. The dosimetric parameters included pitch value, CT dose volume index (CTDIvol, dose-length product (DLP, tube voltage, tube current, exposure time, collimation size, scan length, and scan time. To determine the absorbed dose of radiosensitive organs and also the effective dose in patients, ImPACT CT patient dosimetry calculator was used. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that the mean and standard deviation (SD of patients' effective dose in abdominopelvic CT scan was 4.927±0.164 mSv. The bladder in both genders had the greatest mean organ dose, which was 64.71±17.15 mGy for men and 77.56±18.48 mGy for women (P<0.001. Conclusion: The effective dose values of this examination are in the same range as previous studies, as well as International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP recommendations. However, the radiation dose from CT scan has the largest contribution to the medical imaging. According to the ALARA principle, it is recommended that the scan parameters, especially mAs, should be
Real-Time Estimation of Power System Frequency Using a Three-Level Discrete Fourier Transform Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Soon-Ryul Nam
2014-12-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a three-level discrete Fourier transform (DFT method to provide an accurate estimate of power system frequency in real time. The first level decomposes a power system signal into two orthogonal cosine- and sine-filtered signals. The second and third levels are used to determine the amplitude ratio of the cosine- and sine-filtered signals without encountering the zero-crossing problem and with an increase in ability to suppress harmonics and inter-harmonics. The performance of the three-level DFT method is evaluated using computer-simulated signals with harmonics and inter-harmonics. The three-level DFT method is also implemented on a digital signal processor (DSP-based hardware prototype, and its performance in the hardware implementation is evaluated using a real-time digital simulator (RTDS. The evaluation results show that the three-level DFT method can achieve real-time estimation of power system frequency with satisfactory performance.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Taasti, Vicki Trier; Michalak, Gregory James; Hansen, David C
2017-01-01
) for extracting the electron density and the effective atomic number. SECT images were also acquired and SECT-based SPR estimations were performed using a clinical Hounsfield look-up table (HLUT). The mean and standard deviation of the SPR over large volume-of-interests (VOIs) were calculated. For the six...
Zastrau, David
2017-01-01
Wind drives in combination with weather routing can lower the fuel consumption of cargo ships significantly. For this reason, the author describes a mathematical method based on quantile regression for a probabilistic estimate of the wind propulsion force on a ship route.
A Powerful, Potential Outcomes Method for Estimating Any Estimand across Multiple Groups
Pattanayak, Cassandra W.; Rubin, Donald B.; Zell, Elizabeth R.
2013-01-01
In educational research, outcome measures are often estimated across separate studies or across schools, districts, or other subgroups to assess the overall causal effect of an active treatment versus a control treatment. Students may be partitioned into such strata or blocks by experimental design, or separated into studies within a…
Nespoli, Lorenzo; Medici, Vasco
2017-12-01
In this paper, we present a method to determine the global horizontal irradiance (GHI) from the power measurements of one or more PV systems, located in the same neighborhood. The method is completely unsupervised and is based on a physical model of a PV plant. The precise assessment of solar irradiance is pivotal for the forecast of the electric power generated by photovoltaic (PV) plants. However, on-ground measurements are expensive and are generally not performed for small and medium-sized PV plants. Satellite-based services represent a valid alternative to on site measurements, but their space-time resolution is limited. Results from two case studies located in Switzerland are presented. The performance of the proposed method at assessing GHI is compared with that of free and commercial satellite services. Our results show that the presented method is generally better than satellite-based services, especially at high temporal resolutions.
Robust motion estimation on a low-power multi-core DSP
Igual, Francisco D.; Botella, Guillermo; García, Carlos; Prieto, Manuel; Tirado, Francisco
2013-12-01
This paper addresses the efficient implementation of a robust gradient-based optical flow model in a low-power platform based on a multi-core digital signal processor (DSP). The aim of this work was to carry out a feasibility study on the use of these devices in autonomous systems such as robot navigation, biomedical assistance, or tracking, with not only power restrictions but also real-time requirements. We consider the C6678 DSP from Texas Instruments (Dallas, TX, USA) as the target platform of our implementation. The interest of this research is particularly relevant in optical flow scope because this system can be considered as an alternative solution for mid-range video resolutions when a combination of in-processor parallelism with optimizations such as efficient memory-hierarchy exploitation and multi-processor parallelization are applied.
Improved power-law estimates from multiple samples provided by millennium climate simulations
Henriksson, S. V.; Räisänen, P.; Silen, J.; Järvinen, H.; Laaksonen, A.
2015-02-01
Using the long annual mean temperature time series provided by millennium Earth System Model simulations and a method of discrete Fourier transform with varying starting point and length of time window together with averaging, we get good fits to power laws between two characteristic oscillatory timescales of the model climate: multidecadal (50-80 years) and El Nino (3-6 years) timescales. For global mean temperature, we fit β ˜ 0.35 in a relation S( f) ˜ f - β in a simulation without external climate forcing and β over 0.7 in a simulation with external forcing included. The power law is found both with and without external forcing despite the forcings, e.g. the volcanic forcing, not showing similar behaviour, indicating a nonlinear temperature response to time-varying forcing. We also fit a power law with β ˜ 8 to the narrow frequency range between El Nino frequencies (up to 1/(3.2 years)) and the Nyquist frequency (1/(2 years)). Also, monthly mean temperature time series are considered and a decent power-law fit for frequencies above 1/year is obtained. Regional variability in best-fit β is explored, and the impact of choosing the frequency range on the result is illustrated. When all resolved frequencies are used, land areas seem to have lower βs than ocean areas on average, but when fits are restricted to frequencies below 1/(6 years), this difference disappears, while regional differences still remain. Results compare well with measurements both for global mean temperature and for the central England temperature record.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. S. Niss
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal performance of electronic devices determines the stability and reliability of the equipment. This leads to the need for a detailed thermal analysis of semiconductor devices. The goal of the work is evaluation of thermal parameters of high-power bipolar transistors in plastic packages TO-252 and TO-126 by a method of thermal relaxation differential spectrometry. Thermal constants of device elements and distribution structure of thermal resistance defined as discrete and continuous spectra using previously developed relaxation impedance spectrometer. Continuous spectrum, based on higher-order derivatives of the dynamic thermal impedance, follows the model of Foster, and discrete to model of Cauer. The structure of sample thermal resistance is presented in the form of siх-chain electro-thermal RC model. Analysis of the heat flow spreading in the studied structures is carried out on the basis of the concept of thermal diffusivity. For transistor structures the area and distribution of the heat flow cross-section are determined. On the basis of the measurements the thermal parameters of high-power bipolar transistors is evaluated, in particular, the structure of their thermal resistance. For all of the measured samples is obtained that the thermal resistance of the layer planting crystal makes a defining contribution to the internal thermal resistance of transistors. In the transition layer at the border of semiconductor-solder the thermal resistance increases due to changes in the mechanism of heat transfer. Defects in this area in the form of delamination of solder, voids and cracks lead to additional growth of thermal resistance caused by the reduction of the active square of the transition layer. Method of thermal relaxation differential spectrometry allows effectively control the distribution of heat flow in high-power semiconductor devices, which is important for improving the design, improve the quality of landing crystals of power
Estimation of small-scale hydroelectric power plant costs; Estimacao de custos de PCH
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Santos, Afonso Henriques Moreira [MS Consultoria Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Silva, Benedito Claudio da [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil); Magalhaes, Ricardo Nogueira [IX Consultoria e Representacoes Ltda, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)
2010-07-01
Changes in Brazilian energy scenario through last years such as increase of demand and search for clean and economically feasible renewable energy sources, has stimulated investors to small hydro power plants (SHP) sector. Such characteristics together with several economic incentives, legal and regulatory mechanisms also, have helped and stimulated building of new plants of this kind and have attracted a great number of investors to this sector. Study of costs analysis and feasibility of investments is a study which has been used since long time in SHP business market as several preliminary studies previous to civil project have significant costs which lead us to count with a feasibility analysis from the very beginning of studies, exactly what is suggested in the present methodology. Such feasibility analysis, in the common patterns where basic unit costs of each input remain outstanding, would be very complex due to great difficulty in obtaining information at initial phase of project. In this direction this study brings a contribution for investors as well as for designers of small hydro power plants since it outlines a link between physical and energetic characteristics of small hydro power plant in its total cost. Such link is based in available physical characteristics in initial phase of the project, making possible a previous comparison between arrangements of a central or even the comparison of return of investment between different plants. The resulting benefit being the possibility of choosing centrals with greater economic feasibility disregarding bad undertakings or arrangements with more expressive cost. Final result gives a better delay in return of investment, helps in power, arrangements more optimized and in saving time as well, reducing costs of undertakings. Due to large number of SHP arrangements, we chose for this study the most common in Brazil, plant of medium and large fall, shunting line balance chimney and low pressure conduit. (author)
State of charge estimation of high power lithium iron phosphate cells
Huria, T.; Ludovici, G.; Lutzemberger, G.
2014-03-01
This paper describes a state of charge (SOC) evaluation algorithm for high power lithium iron phosphate cells characterized by voltage hysteresis. The algorithm is based on evaluating the parameters of an equivalent electric circuit model of the cell and then using a hybrid technique with adequate treatment of errors, through an additional extended Kalman filter (EKF). The model algorithm has been validated in terms of effectiveness and robustness by several experimental tests.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Imran Nazir Unar
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure range of 600-1000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited. The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station. As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in throttle valves where isenthalpic expansion takes place without producing any energy. Pressure potential of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS®7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stoddard, Larry [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Galluzzo, Geoff [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Andrew, Daniel [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States); Adams, Shannon [Black & Veatch, Kansas City, MO (United States)
2016-06-30
The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Renewable Power (ORP) has been tasked to provide effective program management and strategic direction for all of the DOE’s Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy’s (EERE’s) renewable power programs. The ORP’s efforts to accomplish this mission are aligned with national energy policies, DOE strategic planning, EERE’s strategic planning, Congressional appropriation, and stakeholder advice. ORP is supported by three renewable energy offices, of which one is the Solar Energy Technology Office (SETO) whose SunShot Initiative has a mission to accelerate research, development and large scale deployment of solar technologies in the United States. SETO has a goal of reducing the cost of Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) by 75 percent of 2010 costs by 2020 to reach parity with base-load energy rates, and 30 percent further reductions by 2030. The SunShot Initiative is promoting the implementation of high temperature CSP with thermal energy storage allowing generation during high demand hours. The SunShot Initiative has funded significant research and development work on component testing, with attention to high temperature molten salts, heliostats, receiver designs, and high efficiency high temperature supercritical CO_{2} (sCO2) cycles. DOE retained Black & Veatch to support SETO’s SunShot Initiative for CSP solar power tower technology in the following areas: 1. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of a flexible test facility to be used to test and prove components in part to support financing. 2. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature molten salt (MS) facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO_{2} cycle generating approximately 10MWe. 3. Concept definition, including costs and schedule, of an integrated high temperature falling particle facility with thermal energy storage and with a supercritical CO_{2} cycle
Chiusano, F
2006-01-01
The BTF power supply is used to extract from the beam transfer line the particles pulses coming from the LINAC which normally fill the DAFNE collider at Frascati INFN Lab. This new power converter has been designed to feed a bending magnet with 447Â A at nominal conditions and with a total ramp up and down of 20Â ms. This power converter can run either in pulsed mode or in a conventional DC current mode. In pulsed mode the flat top can be streched from 5Â ms up to 960Â ms allowing a multi-pulse extraction. The heart of the system is based on a static converter with an H bridge topology made of IGBTs with integrated free wheel diodes. On one hand this paper presents the analysis of the thermal behaviour, the fatigue estimation and the impact on the power converter life time. On the other hand the design of a forced air cooling system is presented with the final results.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Quintana, Nuria Rosa Gagliardi; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Carmo, Maristela Simoes do [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Fazenda Experimental Lageado], e-mail: nuriaq@fca.unesp.br, e-mail: osmar@fca.unesp.br, e-mail: stella@fca.unesp.br; Melo, Wanderley Jose de [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias. Dept. de Tecnologia], e-mail: wjmelo@fcav.unesp.br
2008-07-01
The widespread utilization of fertilizers from petroleum on agroecosystems implicates in high energy consumption. The utilization of organic residues might be an alternative to petroleum byproducts. Thus the objective of this study was estimate the caloric power of the sewage sludge from Barueri ETE. The caloric power was measured by using the calorimeter method. For the calculation, the formula of determination of the caloric power was applied and calculated by the arithmetical average of seven repetitions. The rate 4.1855 was adopted in conversion calorie/Joule. One tonne from sewage sludge presented: N{sub 2}) 1902.82 MJ t{sup -1}; P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) 380.29 MJ t{sup -1}and K{sub 2}O) 144.06 MJ t{sup -1}; the total was: 2427,17 MJ t{sup -1}. The mean value of the caloric power for sewage sludge is 5078,18 kcal kg{sup -1} (21,25 MJ kg{sup -1}). The sewage sludge can be an alternative option regarding energy economy in the way for reduction of petroleum dependence. (author)
Lopez-Iturri, Peio; de Miguel-Bilbao, Silvia; Aguirre, Erik; Azpilicueta, Leire; Falcone, Francisco; Ramos, Victoria
2015-01-01
The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peio Lopez-Iturri
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The electromagnetic field leakage levels of nonionizing radiation from a microwave oven have been estimated within a complex indoor scenario. By employing a hybrid simulation technique, based on coupling full wave simulation with an in-house developed deterministic 3D ray launching code, estimations of the observed electric field values can be obtained for the complete indoor scenario. The microwave oven can be modeled as a time- and frequency-dependent radiating source, in which leakage, basically from the microwave oven door, is propagated along the complete indoor scenario interacting with all of the elements present in it. This method can be of aid in order to assess the impact of such devices on expected exposure levels, allowing adequate minimization strategies such as optimal location to be applied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Irene Y. H. Gu
2007-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes an efficient yet accurate methodology for estimating system damping. The proposed technique is based on linear dynamic system theory and the Hilbert damping analysis. The proposed technique requires capacitor switching waveforms only. The detected envelope of the intrinsic transient portion of the voltage waveform after capacitor bank energizing and its decay rate along with the damped resonant frequency are used to quantify effective X/R ratio of a system. Thus, the proposed method provides complete knowledge of system impedance characteristics. The estimated system damping can also be used to evaluate the system vulnerability to various PQ disturbances, particularly resonance phenomena, so that a utility may take preventive measures and improve PQ of the system.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stan, Ana-Irina
2014-01-01
The development of lifetime estimation models for Lithium-ion battery cells, which are working under highly variable mission profiles characteristic for wind power plant applications, requires a lot of expenditures and time resources. Therefore, batteries have to be tested under accelerated...... lifetime ageing conditions. This paper presents a three-stage methodology used for accelerated lifetime testing of Lithium ion batteries. The results obtained at the end of the accelerated ageing process were used for the parametrization of a performance-degradation lifetime model, which is able to predict...... both the capacity fade and the power capability decrease of the selected Lithium-ion battery cells. In the proposed methodology both calendar and cycling lifetime tests were considered since both components are influencing the lifetime of Lithium-ion batteries. Furthermore, the proposed methodology...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Alessandrini, S.; Pinson, Pierre; Sperati, S.
2011-01-01
Prediction System (EPS) can be used as indicator of a three-hourly, three days ahead, wind power forecast’s accuracy. In particular it has been noticed that to extract usable information from data the Ensemble members needed to be statistically calibrated, since the rank histograms for the three-day period......The importance of wind power forecasting (WPF) is nowadays commonly recognized because it represents a useful tool to reduce problems of grid integration and to facilitate energy trading. If on one side the prediction accuracy is fundamental to these scopes, on the other it has become also clear...... that a reliable estimation of their uncertainty could be a useful information too. In fact the prediction accuracy is unfortunately not constant and can depend on the location of a particular wind farm, on the forecast time and on the atmospheric situation. Previous studies indicated that the ECMWF Ensemble...
ESTIMATION OF INDUCED CURRENTS IN THE SHIELDS OF ELECTRICAL POWER CABLES WITH XLPE INSULATION
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. V. Oleksyuk
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Electrical power cables with Cross-Linked Polyethylene Insulation (XLPE-insulation are currently utilized in projects of the electric-power supply systems of modern facilities. However, the higher costs, the incomplete design, installation and maintenance normativetechnical basis as well as certain constructional features of the XLPE-insulated cable lines hinder their large-scale implementation.The cables with XLPE insulation are mostly produced in a single-conductor core version being provided with a composite copper shield whose cross-section may vary while the electric conductor cross-section remains uniform. Earthing the cable shields on both sides causes the flow of electricity in them. The course of operational service of the XLPE-insulated cable lines revealed the following fact – the currents induced in the cable shields can run up to the levels commeasurable with those in the conductor-cores themselves. That, in its turn, leads to electrical safety-level reduction, cable lines failure, and economic losses. The currents induced in the shields may occur both in symmetric (normal and emergency and asymmetric operating modes of the power grid with values of the induced currents reaching 80 % of the conducting core currents. Many factors affect the level of the current induced in the shield: the midpoint conductor modes, the values of the core longitudinal currents in the normal and emergency operating modes, failure mode, the cross-section area of the shield, the cables mutual disposition, and the distance between them.The paper claims experimental existence conformation of the cable-shield current induced by that in the conductor-core and demonstrates its measured value. The author establishes that induction of dangerous currents in the cable shields demands elaboration of measures on reducing their level.
Evaluation of Communication Network State Estimators for Adaptive Power-Balancing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Findrik, Mislav; Pedersen, Rasmus; Sloth, Christoffer
2017-01-01
Smart Grid applications are going to reach the LV grid assets and households in order to efficiently use the resources in distribution grids. A cost effective way to connect these devices is to utilize the existing network infrastructure or to utilize Power-Line Com- munication (PLC). In this work...... we have show how PLC communication can have significant impairments for load-frequency control operations in the microgrid. Moreover, we have demonstrate how such poor network performance can influence the control performance on a case study of the low voltage grid controller. Further- more, we have...
The MISO Wiretap Channel with Noisy Main Channel Estimation in the High Power Regime
Rezki, Zouheir
2017-02-07
We improve upon our previous upper bound on the secrecy capacity of the wiretap channel with multiple transmit antennas and single-antenna receivers, with noisy main channel state information (CSI) at the transmitter (CSI-T). Specifically, we show that if the main CSI error does not scale with the power budget at the transmitter P̅, then the secrecy capacity is )bounded above essentially by log log (P̅ yielding a secure degree of freedom (sdof) equal to zero. However, if the main CSI error scales as O(P̅-β), for β ∈ [0,1], then the sdof is equal to β.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Morten; Radchenko, Andriy; Kam, Keong
2012-01-01
Near-field scan on a Huygens’ box can be used in order to predict the maximal radiated emission from a Printed Circuit Board. The significance of step size and phase accuracy, and the importance of a full Huygens’ box are investigated by simulation of two different models with two different numer...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hao, Wen; Zhao, Bin; Wang, Guangbin; Wang, Cuiyan [Shandong University, Department of MR Imaging, Shandong Medical Imaging Research Institute, Jinan, Shandong (China); Liu, Hui [Siemens Healthcare, MR Collaborations NE Asia, Shanghai (China)
2015-04-01
To evaluate the influence of scan duration on pharmacokinetic parameters and their performance in differentiating benign from malignant breast lesions. Dynamic breast imaging was performed on a 3.0-T MR system using a prototype CAIPIRINHA-Dixon-TWISTVIBE (CDT-VIBE) sequence with a temporal resolution of 11.9 s. Enrolled in the study were 53 women with 55 lesions (26 benign and 29 malignant). Pharmacokinetic parameters (Ktrans, ve, kep and iAUC) were calculated for various scan durations from 1 to 7 min after injection of contrast medium using the Tofts model. Ktrans, kep and ve calculated from the 1-min dataset were significantly different from those calculated from the other datasets. In benign lesions, Ktrans, kep and ve were significantly different only between 1 min and 2 min (corrected P > 0.05), but in malignant lesions there were significant differences for any of the comparisons up to 6 min vs. 7 min (corrected P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in AUCs for any of the parameters (P > 0.05). In breast dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI the scan duration has a significant impact on pharmacokinetic parameters, but the diagnostic ability may not be significantly affected. A scan duration of 5 min after injection of contrast medium may be sufficient for calculation of Tofts model pharmacokinetic parameters. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Z. C. Gao
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an integrated state-of-charge (SOC estimation model and active cell balancing of a 12-cell lithium iron phosphate (LiFePO4 battery power system. The strong tracking cubature extended Kalman filter (STCEKF gave an accurate SOC prediction compared to other Kalman-based filter algorithms. The proposed groupwise balancing of the multiple SOC exhibited a higher balancing speed and lower balancing loss than other cell balancing designs. The experimental results demonstrated the robustness and performance of the battery when subjected to current load profile of an electric vehicle under varying ambient temperature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cunxue Wu
2017-09-01
Full Text Available For high power Li-ion batteries, an important approach to improve the accuracy of modeling and algorithm development is to consider the current dependence of internal resistance, especially for large current applications in mild/median hybrid electric vehicles (MHEV. For the first time, the work has experimentally captured the decrease of internal resistance at an increasing current of up to the C-rate of 25 and developed an equivalent circuit model (ECM with current dependent parameters. The model is integrated to extended Kalman filter (EKF to improve SOC estimation, which is validated by experimental data collected in dynamic stress testing (DST. Results show that EKF with current dependent parameters is capable of estimating SOC with a higher accuracy when it is compared to EKF without current dependent parameters.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Felice Arena
2015-10-01
Full Text Available The design of any wave energy converter involves the determination of relevant statistical data on the wave energy resource oriented to the evaluation of the structural reliability and energy performance of the device. Currently, limited discussions concern the estimation of parameters connected to the energy performance of a device. Thus, this paper proposes a methodology for determining average downtime and average missed energy, which is the energy that is not harvested because of device deactivations during severe sea storms. These quantities are fundamental for evaluating the expected inactivity of a device during a year or during its lifetime and are relevant for assessing the effectiveness of a device working at a certain site. For this purpose, the equivalent power storm method is used for their derivation, starting from concepts pertaining to long-term statistical analysis. The paper shows that the proposed solutions provide reliable estimations via comparison with results obtained by processing long wave data.
Endo, S; Kimura, S; Takatsuji, T; Nanasawa, K; Imanaka, T; Shizuma, K
2012-09-01
Soil sampling was carried out at an early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Samples were taken from areas around FDNPP, at four locations northwest of FDNPP, at four schools and in four cities, including Fukushima City. Radioactive contaminants in soil samples were identified and measured by using a Ge detector and included (129 m)Te, (129)Te, (131)I, (132)Te, (132)I, (134)Cs, (136)Cs, (137)Cs, (140)Ba and (140)La. The highest soil depositions were measured to the northwest of FDNPP. From this soil deposition data, variations in dose rates over time and the cumulative external doses at the locations for 3 months and 1y after deposition were estimated. At locations northwest of FDNPP, the external dose rate at 3 months after deposition was 4.8-98 μSv/h and the cumulative dose for 1 y was 51 to 1.0 × 10(3)mSv; the highest values were at Futaba Yamada. At the four schools, which were used as evacuation shelters, and in the four urban cities, the external dose rate at 3 months after deposition ranged from 0.03 to 3.8μSv/h and the cumulative doses for 1 y ranged from 3 to 40 mSv. The cumulative dose at Fukushima Niihama Park was estimated as the highest in the four cities. The estimated external dose rates and cumulative doses show that careful countermeasures and remediation will be needed as a result of the accident, and detailed measurements of radionuclide deposition densities in soil will be important input data to conduct these activities. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1960-01-01
Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.
Glaz, Joseph
2009-01-01
Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.
Ruecker, Gernot; Leimbach, David; Guenther, Felix; Barradas, Carol; Hoffmann, Anja
2016-04-01
Fire Radiative Power (FRP) retrieved by infrared sensors, such as flown on several polar orbiting and geostationary satellites, has been shown to be proportional to fuel consumption rates in vegetation fires, and hence the total radiative energy released by a fire (Fire Radiative Energy, FRE) is proportional to the total amount of biomass burned. However, due to the sparse temporal coverage of polar orbiting and the coarse spatial resolution of geostationary sensors, it is difficult to estimate fuel consumption for single fire events. Here we explore an approach for estimating FRE through temporal integration of MODIS FRP retrievals over MODIS-derived burned areas. Temporal integration is aided by statistical modelling to estimate missing observations using a generalized additive model (GAM) and taking advantage of additional information such as land cover and a global dataset of the Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI), as well as diurnal and annual FRP fluctuation patterns. Based on results from study areas located in savannah regions of Southern and Eastern Africa and Brazil, we compare this method to estimates based on simple temporal integration of FRP retrievals over the fire lifetime, and estimate the potential variability of FRP integration results across a range of fire sizes. We compare FRE-based fuel consumption against a database of field experiments in similar landscapes. Results show that for larger fires, this method yields realistic estimates and is more robust when only a small number of observations is available than the simple temporal integration. Finally, we offer an outlook on the integration of data from other satellites, specifically FireBird, S-NPP VIIRS and Sentinel-3, as well as on using higher resolution burned area data sets derived from Landsat and similar sensors.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amir Hossein Fallahpour
2017-02-01
Full Text Available There are numerous theoretical approaches to estimating the power conversion efficiency (PCE of organic solar cells (OSCs, ranging from the empirical approach to calculations based on general considerations of thermodynamics. Depending on the level of abstraction and model assumptions, the accuracy of PCE estimation and complexity of the calculation can change dramatically. In particular, PCE estimation with a drift-diffusion approach (widely investigated in the literature, strongly depends on the assumptions made for the physical models and optoelectrical properties of semiconducting materials. This has led to a huge deviation as well as complications in the analysis of simulated results aiming to understand the factors limiting the performance of OSCs. In this work, we intend to highlight the complex relation between mobility, exciton dynamics, nanoscale dimension, and loss mechanisms in one framework. Our systematic analysis represents key information on the sensitivity of the drift-diffusion approach, to estimate how physical parameters and physical processes bind the PCE of the device under the influence of structure, contact, and material layer properties. The obtained results ultimately led to recommendations for putting effort into certain properties to get the most out of avoidable losses, presented the impact and importance of modification of material properties, and in particular, recommended to what degree the design of new material could improve OSC performance.
Allocation of Power Meters for Online Load Distribution Estimation in Smart Grids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Diaz de Cerio Mendaza, Iker; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte
2015-01-01
The electrification of heating and transportation along with the penetration of renewable energy in electricity networks has necessitated the evolution of low voltage distribution grids into smart grids. Contemporary, smart grids are realised by smart meter installations to electricity end users....... In the literature, these meters aim at online metering of the grid status. Depending on this status, proactive and/or reactive load management can subsequently be conducted. In reality however, many smart grids perform this metering offline due to excessive data problems. As such, grid operators have reduced...... observability of the load distribution in their grid throughout the day. This paper investigates the possibility of improving the observability by allocating a minimum number of additional online operated power meters in the distribution grid. This allocation, driven by optimisation, clustering, and forecasting...
Gohar, Manoochehr Jafari; Rahmanian, Mahboubeh; Soleimani, Hassan
2018-02-05
Vocabulary learning has always been a great concern and has attracted the attention of many researchers. Among the vocabulary learning hypotheses, involvement load hypothesis and technique feature analysis have been proposed which attempt to bring some concepts like noticing, motivation, and generation into focus. In the current study, 90 high proficiency EFL students were assigned into three vocabulary tasks of sentence making, composition, and reading comprehension in order to examine the power of involvement load hypothesis and technique feature analysis frameworks in predicting vocabulary learning. It was unraveled that involvement load hypothesis cannot be a good predictor, and technique feature analysis was a good predictor in pretest to posttest score change and not in during-task activity. The implications of the results will be discussed in the light of preparing vocabulary tasks.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davoudi, Mehdi, E-mail: mehdi.davoudi@polimi.it [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Buein Zahra Technical University, Buein Zahra, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoudi, Mohsen, E-mail: davoudi@eng.ikiu.ac.ir [Department of Electrical Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, 34148-96818 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-06-15
Highlights: • A couple of algorithms to diagnose if Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) power is deposited properly on the expected deposition minor radius are proposed. • The algorithms are based on Bayesian theory and Fuzzy logic. • The algorithms are tested on the off-line experimental data acquired from Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU), Frascati, Italy. • Uncertainties and evidences derived from the combination of online information formed by the measured diagnostic data and the prior information are also estimated. - Abstract: In the thermonuclear fusion systems, the new plasma control systems use some measured on-line information acquired from different sensors and prior information obtained by predictive plasma models in order to stabilize magnetic hydro dynamics (MHD) activity in a tokamak. Suppression of plasma instabilities is a key issue to improve the confinement time of controlled thermonuclear fusion with tokamaks. This paper proposes a couple of algorithms based on Bayesian theory and Fuzzy logic to diagnose if Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) power is deposited properly on the expected deposition minor radius (r{sub DEP}). Both algorithms also estimate uncertainties and evidences derived from the combination of the online information formed by the measured diagnostic data and the prior information. The algorithms have been employed on a set of off-line ECE channels data which have been acquired from the experimental shot number 21364 at Frascati Tokamak Upgrade (FTU), Frascati, Italy.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abrahamyan, Davit O. [Debrousse Hospital and University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Department of Imaging, Lyon (France); Sargsyan Military Institute, Medical Facility, Yerevan (Armenia); Gazarian, Aram [Debrousse Hospital, Service of Hand Surgery, Clinique du Parc Lyon, Lyon (France); Braillon, Pierre M. [Debrousse Hospital and University Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Department of Imaging, Lyon (France)
2008-03-15
Anthropometric standards vary among different populations, and renewal of these reference values is necessary. To produce formulae for the assessment of limb segment lengths. Whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans of 413 Caucasian children and adolescents (170 boys, 243 girls) aged from 6 to 18 years were retrospectively analysed. Body height and the lengths of four long bones (humerus, radius, femur and tibia) were measured. The validity (concurrent validity) and reproducibility (intraobserver reliability) of the measurement technique were tested. High linear correlations (r > 0.9) were found between the mentioned five longitudinal measures. Corresponding linear regression equations for the most important relationships were derived. The tests of validity and reproducibility revealed a good degree of precision of the applied technique. The reference formulae obtained from the analysis of whole-body DEXA scans will be useful for anthropologists, and forensic and nutrition specialists, as well as for prosthetists and paediatric orthopaedic surgeons. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bajić Vanja N.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The integration method for amplitude estimation of fundamental frequency signal, using appropriate integration interval, can be used when measuring signal is composed of fundamental and high harmonics of order 2n or fundamental and high harmonics of order 3n, n=1,2,3.... It is not possible to find the integration interval to get the integration method which is simultaneous immune to high harmonics of order 2n, 3n, 5n etc.. In this paper, the integration method is modified to get the method which is simultaneous immune to high harmonics of order 2n, 3n and 5n, n=1,2,3.... The obtained method is tested at miscellaneous form of measuring signals using Matlab.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kaevalin Lekhanont
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the agreement between the clinical history method (CHM, Orbscan IIz, and Pentacam in estimating corneal power after myopic excimer laser surgery. Fifty five patients who had myopic LASIK/PRK were recruited into this study. One eye of each patient was randomly selected by a computer-generated process. At 6 months after surgery, postoperative corneal power was calculated from the CHM, Orbscan IIz total optical power at the 3.0 and 4.0 mm zones, and Pentacam equivalent keratometric readings (EKRs at 3.0, 4.0, and 4.5 mm. Statistical analyses included multilevel models, Pearson's correlation test, and Bland-Altman plots. The Orbscan IIz 3.0-mm and 4.0 mm total optical power, and Pentacam 3.0-mm, 4.0-mm, and 4.5-mm EKR values had strong linear positive correlations with the CHM values (r = 0.90-0.94, P = <0.001, for all comparisons, Pearson's correlation. However, only Pentacam 3.0-mm EKR was not statistically different from CHM (P = 0.17, multilevel models. The mean 3.0- and 4.0-mm total optical powers of the Orbscan IIz were significantly flatter than the values derived from CHM, while the average EKRs of the Pentacam at 4.0 and 4.5 mm were significantly steeper. The mean Orbscan IIz 3.0-mm total optical power was the lowest keratometric reading compared to the other 5 values. Large 95% LoA was observed between each of these values, particularly EKRs, and those obtained with the CHM. The width of the 95% LoA was narrowest for Orbscan IIz 3.0-mm total optical power. In conclusion, the keratometric values extracted from these 3 methods were disparate, either because of a statistically significant difference in the mean values or moderate agreement between them. Therefore, they are not considered equivalent and cannot be used interchangeably.
Kobayashi, Masanao; Asada, Yasuki; Matsubara, Kosuke; Suzuki, Syouichi; Koshida, Kichiro; Matsunaga, Yuta; Kawaguchi, Ai; Haba, Tomonobu; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryouichi
2017-05-01
We developed a k-factor-creator software (kFC) that provides the k-factor for CT examination in an arbitrary scan area. It provides the k-factor from the effective dose and dose-length product by Imaging Performance Assessment of CT scanners and CT-EXPO. To assess the reliability, we compared the kFC-evaluated k-factors with those of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) publication 102. To confirm the utility, the effective dose determined by coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) was evaluated by a phantom study and k-factor studies. In the CCTA, the effective doses were 5.28 mSv in the phantom study, 2.57 mSv (51%) in the k-factor of ICRP, and 5.26 mSv (1%) in the k-factor of the kFC. Effective doses can be determined from the kFC-evaluated k-factors in suitable scan areas. Therefore, we speculate that the flexible k-factor is useful in clinical practice, because CT examinations are performed in various scan regions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.
Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)
Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.
2013-12-01
Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of
Alessandrini, S.; Sperati, S.; Pinson, P.
2012-07-01
The importance of wind power forecasting (WPF) is nowadays commonly recognized because it represents a useful tool to reduce problems of grid integration and to facilitate energy trading. If on one side the prediction accuracy is fundamental to these scopes, on the other it has become also clear that a reliable estimation about their uncertainty is paramount. In fact prediction accuracy is unfortunately not constant and can depend on the location of a particular wind farm, on the forecast time and on the atmospheric situation. Previous studies indicated that the spread of power forecasts derived from the Ensemble Prediction System (EPS) in use at the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) could be used as indicator of a three-hourly, three days ahead, wind power forecast's accuracy. In this paper a new application of the EPS, whose horizontal resolution was increased on January 2010 from T399/T255 (60 km) to T639/T319 (32 km), shows an improvement in the results implying that the power spread has actually enough correlation with the error calculated on the deterministic forecast in order to be used as an accuracy predictor. The periods for this comparison are from January 2008 until October 2008 (T399/T255) and from January 2011 until October 2011 (T639/T319). Moreover we have focused our attention on the influence of the new EPS configuration on the performance of a deterministic WPF conducted with the ensemble mean: the results show that increasing the EPS resolution yields a single-valued WPF whose performance is comparable with that of the new ECMWF deterministic high-resolution meteorological model, whose spatial resolution increased from T799 (25 km) to T1279 (15 km).
Phase retrieval based on pupil scanning modulation
Dou, Jiantai; Gao, Zhishan; Ma, Jun; Yuan, Caojin; Yang, Zhongming; Claus, Daniel; Zhang, Tianyu
2017-08-01
The pupil scanning modulation is a maneuverable method for retrieving the phase of the complex-valued object. It is based on changing the extent of the illumination function using an adaptive aperture. The apertures are fixed on the same border or point of intersection that ensures the location of the aperture. We sequentially increase the size of the aperture and guarantee the necessary overlap between adjacent object fields. An improved algorithm including the adaptive raised-power estimation constraint and gradient-descent step is proposed to accelerate convergence and avoid stagnation during iterations. Both the simulation and experiment have been conducted to verify the feasibility of this method.
The Power of SOFIA/FORCAST in Estimating Internal Luminosities of Low-mass Class 0/I Protostars
Huard, Tracy L.; Terebey, Susan
2017-12-01
With the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA) routinely operating science flights, we demonstrate that observations with the Faint Object infraRed CAmera for the SOFIA Telescope (FORCAST) can provide reliable estimates of the internal luminosities, L int, of protostars. We have developed a technique to estimate L int using a pair of FORCAST filters: one “short-wavelength” filter centered within 19.7–25.3 μm, and one “long-wavelength” filter within 31.5–37.1 μm. These L int estimates are reliable to within 30%–40% for 67% of protostars and to within a factor of 2.3–2.6 for 99% of protostars. The filter pair comprised of F 25.3 μm and F 37.1 μm achieves the best sensitivity and most constrained results. We evaluate several assumptions that could lead to systematic uncertainties. The OH5 dust opacity matches observational constraints for protostellar environments best, although not perfectly; we find that any improved dust model will have a small impact of 5%–10% on the L int estimates. For protostellar envelopes, the TSC84 model yields masses that are twice those of the Ulrich model, but we conclude that this mass difference does not significantly impact results at the mid-infrared wavelengths probed by FORCAST. Thus, FORCAST is a powerful instrument for luminosity studies targeting newly discovered protostars or suspected protostars lacking detections longward of 24 μm. Furthermore, with its dynamic range and greater angular resolution, FORCAST may be used to characterize protostars that were either saturated or merged with other sources in previous surveys using the Spitzer Space Telescope or the Herschel Space Observatory.
Awang Soh, Ahmad Afiq Sabqi; Mat Jafri, Mohd Zubir; Azraai, Nur Zaidi
2017-07-01
In Malay world, there is a spirit traditional ritual where they use it as healing practices or for normal life. Malay martial arts (silat) also is not exceptional where some branch of silat have spirit traditional ritual where they said can help them in combat. In this paper, we will not use any ritual, instead we will use some medicinal and environment change when they are performing. There will be 2 performers (fighter) selected, one of them have an experience in martial arts training and another performer does not have experience. Motion Capture (MOCAP) camera will help observe and analyze this move. 8 cameras have been placed in the MOCAP room 2 on each side of the wall facing toward the center of the room from every angle. This will help prevent the loss detection of a marker that been stamped on the limb of a performer. Passive marker has been used where it will reflect the infrared to the camera sensor. Infrared is generated by the source around the camera lens. A 60 kg punching bag was hung on the iron bar function as the target for the performer when throws a punch. Markers also have been stamped on the punching bag so we can detect the movement how far can it swing when hit by the performer. 2 performers will perform 2 moves each with the same position and posture. For every 2 moves, we have made the environment change without the performer notice about it. The first 2 punch with normal environment, second part we have played a positive music to change the performer's mood and third part we have put a medicine (cream/oil) on the skin of the performer. This medicine will make the skin feel a little bit hot. This process repeated to another performer with no experience. The position of this marker analyzed by the Cortex Motion Analysis software where from this data, we can estimate the kinetics and kinematics of the performer. It shows that the increase of kinetics for every part because of the change in the environment, and different result for the 2
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiviluoma, Juha; Meibom, Peter
2011-01-01
The article estimates the costs of plug-in electric vehicles (EVs) in a future power system as well as the benefits from smart charging and discharging EVs (smart EVs). To arrive in a good estimate, a generation planning model was used to create power plant portfolios, which were operated in a more...... of the benefits of smart EVs come from smart timing of charging although benefits are also accrued from provision of reserves and lower power plant portfolio cost. The benefits of smart EVs are 227 €/vehicle/year. This amount has to cover all expenses related to enabling smart EVs and need to be divided between...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L. V. Massel
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The work objective is to offer a methodological approach to the development of multiagent systems (MAS in the energy sector. The agent approach is declared as an integral part of the Smart Grid concept (intelligent energy systems, but so far there is really neither methodological development and nor implementation in this area. The problem to estimate the states of electric power systems (EPS is one of the most important in the energy sector. Decentralization of calculations, when estimating the EPS states, allows reducing the host control center load and the amount of data transferred through the network.To achieve this aim were used the theory and methods for estimating the EPS state, artificial intelligence techniques, methods of object design and programming, multi-agent technologies, and algebraic Joiner-net network.The work analyses existing agent-based solutions, reveals their weaknesses, and proposes author's approach to MAS development in the energy sector, which includes 5 steps: 1 description of the future system, 2 construction and description of the agent-based scenarios, 3 MAS architecture development 4 MAS engineering design 5 MAS implementation.A novelty of the proposed approach lies in introduction of the agent interaction scenarios and application of Joiner-networks for scripting of scenarios. Agent-based scenarios allow nonprogrammers-experts to change the programme algorithm. A Joiner-network of the scenario consists of the functioning processes of agents (nodes, and the events that trigger or end the process. Output event of one process can be the input event for another.The operation algorithm of the EPS estimation system is developed. The first step is to provide decomposition of a nodalization diagram into the areas corresponding to the levels of node voltages. Then diagrams resulting from decomposition are distributed between the agents of EPS estimation and calculated in parallel. At the next stage, all diagrams are
Laser scanning laser diode photoacoustic microscopy system.
Erfanzadeh, Mohsen; Kumavor, Patrick D; Zhu, Quing
2018-03-01
The development of low-cost and fast photoacoustic microscopy systems enhances the clinical applicability of photoacoustic imaging systems. To this end, we present a laser scanning laser diode-based photoacoustic microscopy system. In this system, a 905 nm, 325 W maximum output peak power pulsed laser diode with 50 ns pulsewidth is utilized as the light source. A combination of aspheric and cylindrical lenses is used for collimation of the laser diode beam. Two galvanometer scanning mirrors steer the beam across a focusing aspheric lens. The lateral resolution of the system was measured to be ∼21 μm using edge spread function estimation. No averaging was performed during data acquisition. The imaging speed is ∼370 A-lines per second. Photoacoustic microscopy images of human hairs, ex vivo mouse ear, and ex vivo porcine ovary are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and potentials of the proposed system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh Solanki, Parmal; Sarma Mallela, Venkateswara [Caledonian (University) College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Zhou, Chengke [Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)
2013-07-01
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the major pollutants among greenhouse gases emitted by fossil fuel based power plants and responsible for environmental tribulations. Therefore diminution of carbon dioxide level by Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) is now serious concern worldwide. This paper evaluates the emission factors of national electric grid in Oman and proposes a wind energy based CDM project to diminish the CO2 emissions. Estimations show that operating margin emission factors of national grid during five years lies in the range of 0.74 to 0.69 kg CO2/kWh. Further, proposed CDM project revealed the annual baseline emissions reduction of 45552 ton CO2 and able to earn the revenue of US$ 61.49 million by certify emission reductions in the first crediting period of project. Paper also critically analyse the opportunities for CDM project, its lucrative aspect, barrier and challenges.
Pennings, Kim A M A; Martina, Jerson R; Rodermans, Ben F M; Lahpor, Jaap R; van de Vosse, Frans N; de Mol, Bas A J M; Rutten, Marcel C M
2013-01-01
The use of long-term mechanical circulatory support (MCS) for heart failure by means of implanted continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVADs) will increase, either to enable recovery or to provide a destination therapy. The effectiveness and user-friendliness of MCS will depend on the development of near-physiologic control strategies for which accurate estimation of pump flow is essential. To provide means for the assessment of pump flow, this study presents pump models, estimating pump flow (Q(lvad)) from pump speed (n) and pressure difference across the LVAD (Δp(lvad)) or power uptake (P). The models are evaluated for the axial-flow LVADs HeartAssist5 (HA5) and HeartMate II (HMII), and for a centrifugal pump, the HeartWare (HW). For all three pumps, models estimating Q(lvad) from Δp(lvad) only is capable of describing pump behavior under static conditions. For the axial pumps, flow estimation from power uptake alone was not accurate. When assuming an increase in pump flow with increasing power uptake, low pump flows are overestimated in these pumps. Only for the HW, pump flow increased linearly with power uptake, resulting in a power-based pump model that estimates static pump flow accurately. The addition of pressure head measurements improved accuracy in the axial cf-LVAD estimation models.
Using scan statistics for congenital anomalies surveillance: the EUROCAT methodology.
Teljeur, Conor; Kelly, Alan; Loane, Maria; Densem, James; Dolk, Helen
2015-11-01
Scan statistics have been used extensively to identify temporal clusters of health events. We describe the temporal cluster detection methodology adopted by the EUROCAT (European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies) monitoring system. Since 2001, EUROCAT has implemented variable window width scan statistic for detecting unusual temporal aggregations of congenital anomaly cases. The scan windows are based on numbers of cases rather than being defined by time. The methodology is imbedded in the EUROCAT Central Database for annual application to centrally held registry data. The methodology was incrementally adapted to improve the utility and to address statistical issues. Simulation exercises were used to determine the power of the methodology to identify periods of raised risk (of 1-18 months). In order to operationalize the scan methodology, a number of adaptations were needed, including: estimating date of conception as unit of time; deciding the maximum length (in time) and recency of clusters of interest; reporting of multiple and overlapping significant clusters; replacing the Monte Carlo simulation with a lookup table to reduce computation time; and placing a threshold on underlying population change and estimating the false positive rate by simulation. Exploration of power found that raised risk periods lasting 1 month are unlikely to be detected except when the relative risk and case counts are high. The variable window width scan statistic is a useful tool for the surveillance of congenital anomalies. Numerous adaptations have improved the utility of the original methodology in the context of temporal cluster detection in congenital anomalies.
Marcus V.N. d' Oliveira; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik. Andersen
2012-01-01
The objectives of this study were to estimate above ground forest biomass and identify areas disturbed by selective logging in a 1000 ha Brazilian tropical forest in the Antimary State Forest using airborne lidar data. The study area consisted of three management units, two of which were unlogged, while the third unit was selectively logged at a low intensity. A...
Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...
... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...
Li, Di; Ouyang, Jian; Li, Huiqi; Wan, Jiafu
2015-04-01
The State of Charge (SOC) estimation is important since it has a crucial role in the operation of Electrical Vehicle (EV) power battery. This paper built an Equivalent Circuit Model (ECM) of the LiMn2O4 power battery, and vast characteristics experiments were undertaken to make the model identification and thus the battery SOC estimation was realized. The SOC estimation was based on the Strong Tracking Sigma Point Kalman Filter (STSPKF) algorithm. The comparison of experimental and simulated results indicates that the STSPKF algorithm performs well in estimating the battery SOC, which has the advantages of tracking the variables in real-time and adjusting the error covariance by taking the Strong Tracking Factor (STF) into account. The results also show that the STSPKF algorithm estimated the SOC more accurately than the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) algorithm.
AlaScan: A Graphical User Interface for Alanine Scanning Free-Energy Calculations.
Ramadoss, Vijayaraj; Dehez, François; Chipot, Christophe
2016-06-27
Computation of the free-energy changes that underlie molecular recognition and association has gained significant importance due to its considerable potential in drug discovery. The massive increase of computational power in recent years substantiates the application of more accurate theoretical methods for the calculation of binding free energies. The impact of such advances is the application of parent approaches, like computational alanine scanning, to investigate in silico the effect of amino-acid replacement in protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes, or probe the thermostability of individual proteins. Because human effort represents a significant cost that precludes the routine use of this form of free-energy calculations, minimizing manual intervention constitutes a stringent prerequisite for any such systematic computation. With this objective in mind, we propose a new plug-in, referred to as AlaScan, developed within the popular visualization program VMD to automate the major steps in alanine-scanning calculations, employing free-energy perturbation as implemented in the widely used molecular dynamics code NAMD. The AlaScan plug-in can be utilized upstream, to prepare input files for selected alanine mutations. It can also be utilized downstream to perform the analysis of different alanine-scanning calculations and to report the free-energy estimates in a user-friendly graphical user interface, allowing favorable mutations to be identified at a glance. The plug-in also assists the end-user in assessing the reliability of the calculation through rapid visual inspection.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiangwei Guo
2016-02-01
Full Text Available An estimation of the power battery state of charge (SOC is related to the energy management, the battery cycle life and the use cost of electric vehicles. When a lithium-ion power battery is used in an electric vehicle, the SOC displays a very strong time-dependent nonlinearity under the influence of random factors, such as the working conditions and the environment. Hence, research on estimating the SOC of a power battery for an electric vehicle is of great theoretical significance and application value. In this paper, according to the dynamic response of the power battery terminal voltage during a discharging process, the second-order RC circuit is first used as the equivalent model of the power battery. Subsequently, on the basis of this model, the least squares method (LS with a forgetting factor and the adaptive unscented Kalman filter (AUKF algorithm are used jointly in the estimation of the power battery SOC. Simulation experiments show that the joint estimation algorithm proposed in this paper has higher precision and convergence of the initial value error than a single AUKF algorithm.
Retrouvey, Helene; Chan, Justin; Shahrokhi, Shahriar
2018-02-01
Accurate measurement of percent total body surface area (%TBSA) burn is crucial in the management of burn patients for calculating the estimated fluid resuscitation, determining the need to transfer to a specialized burn unit and probability of mortality. %TBSA can be estimated using many methods, all of which are relatively inaccurate. Three-dimensional (3D) systems have been developed to improve %TBSA calculation and consequently optimize clinical decision-making. The objective of this study was to compare the accuracy of percent total burn surface area calculation by conventional methods against novel 3D methods. This prospective cohort study included all acute burn patients admitted in 2016 who consented to participate. The staff burn surgeon determined the %TBSA using conventional methods. In parallel, a researcher determined 3D %TBSA using the BurnCase 3D program (RISC Software GmbH, Hagenberg, Austria). Demographic data and injury characteristics were also collected. Wilcoxon Signed Rank test was used to determine differences between each measure of %TBSA, with assessment of the influence of body mass index (BMI) and gender on accuracy. Thirty-five patients were included in the study (6 female and 29 male). Average age was 47.5 years, with a median BMI of 26.6kg/m2. %TBSA determined by BurnCase 3D program was statistically significantly different from conventional %TBSA assessment (p=0.007), with the %TBSA measured using Burn Case 3D being lower than the %TBSA determined using conventional means (Lund and Browder Diagram) by 1.3% (inter-quartile range -0.6% to 5.6%). BMI and gender did not have an impact on the estimation of the %TBSA. The BurnCase 3D program underestimated %TBSA by 1.3%, as compared to conventional methods. Although statistically significant, this difference is not clinically significant as it has minimal impact on fluid resuscitation and on the decision to transfer a patient to a burn unit. 3D %TBSA evaluation systems are valid tools to
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Day Gregory A
2007-02-01
Full Text Available Abstract Accurate characterization of the physicochemical properties of aerosols generated for inhalation toxicology studies is essential for obtaining meaningful results. Great emphasis must also be placed on characterizing particle properties of materials as administered in inhalation studies. Thus, research is needed to identify a suite of techniques capable of characterizing the multiple particle properties (i.e., size, mass, surface area, number of a material that may influence toxicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize the morphology and investigate the size distribution of a model toxicant, beryllium. Beryllium metal, oxides, and alloy particles were aerodynamically size-separated using an aerosol cyclone, imaged dry using scanning electron microscopy (SEM, then characterized using phase contrast microscopy (PCM, a liquid suspension particle counter (LPC, and computer-controlled SEM (CCSEM. Beryllium metal powder was compact with smaller sub-micrometer size particles attached to the surface of larger particles, whereas the beryllium oxides and alloy particles were clusters of primary particles. As expected, the geometric mean (GM diameter of metal powder determined using PCM decreased with aerodynamic size, but when suspended in liquid for LPC or CCSEM analysis, the GM diameter decreased by a factor of two (p
Hayakawa, Yuichi S.; Obanawa, Hiroyuki
2017-04-01
Rapid erosion of coastal cliffs has been historically observed to be more than 1 m/y in the outer Boso Peninsula area, eastern Japan. However, due to the modern work of coastal protection, the erosion rates of the coastal cliffs have significantly decreased. This caused coastal erosion in the nearby sand beach, to which sands had been supplied from the formerly eroded rocky coast. In order to assess the relationships between erosion and protection in both rocky and sandy coasts, quantitative evaluation of erosion rates by natural processes would be necessary. The Suzume-jima Island, a small coastal island in the outer Boso Peninsula area, is an ideal site, which is located outside of the coastal protection and natural processes of erosion can still be observed. Here we carried out multiple measurements of the entire shape of the island using remotely piloted aerial system (RPAS) and structure-from-motion multi-view stereo (SfM-MVS) photogrammetry. Terrestrial laser scanning is also performed for the accuracy assessment. The high-frequency (3 times a year) and high-resolution (cm) measurements of the small island for 3 years revealed spatially variable rockfalls and wave erosion, whose volume of mass has been quantitatively revealed from the 3-D point cloud obtained. The relatively short-term measurements are also compared with the long-term 2-D topographic changes in the island by aerial photographs for 50 years.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vandana Kararia
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Materials and Methods: Ten archwires each of group 1-3 M 0.016" NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016" NiTi, group 3-3 M 0.019" FNx010.025" SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at Χ2000, Χ4000 and Χ6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. Observations and Results: The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0. Conclusion: Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics.
Kararia, Vandana; Jain, Pradeep; Chaudhary, Seema; Kararia, Nitin
2015-01-01
The biocompatibility of orthodontic dental alloys has been investigated over the past 20 years, but the results have been inconclusive. The study compares standard 3 M Unitek nickel-titanium (NiTi) and stainless steel archwires with locally available JJ orthodontics wires. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study of surface changes and complexometric titration to study compositional change was performed. Ten archwires each of group 1-3 M 0.016" NiTi, group 2-JJ 0.016" NiTi, group 3-3 M 0.019" *0.025" SS and group 4-JJ SS contributed a 10 mm piece of wire for analysis prior to insertion in the patient and 6 weeks post insertion. SEM images were recorded at ×2000, ×4000 and ×6000 magnification. The same samples were subjected to complexiometric titration using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid to gauge the actual change in the composition. The SEM images of all the archwires showed marked changes with deep scratches and grooves and dark pitting corrosion areas post intraoral use. 3M wires showed an uniform criss-cross pattern in as received wires indicating a coating which was absent after intraoral use. There was a significant release of Nickel and Chromium from both group 3 and 4. Group 2 wires released ions significantly more than group 1 (P = 0.0). Extensive and stringent trials are required before certifying any product to be used in Orthodontics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fengchun Sun
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Battery peak power capability estimations play an important theoretical role for the proper use of the battery in electric vehicles. To address the failures in relaxation effects and real-time ability performance, neglecting the battery’s design limits and other issues of the traditional peak power capability calculation methods, a new approach based on the dynamic electrochemical-polarization (EP battery model, taking into consideration constraints of current, voltage, state of charge (SoC and power is proposed. A hardware-in-the-loop (HIL system is built for validating the online model-based peak power capability estimation approach of batteries used in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs and a HIL test based on the Federal Urban Driving Schedules (FUDS is used to verify and evaluate its real-time computation performance, reliability and robustness. The results show the proposed approach gives a more accurate estimate compared with the hybrid pulse power characterization (HPPC method, avoiding over-charging or over-discharging and providing a powerful guarantee for the optimization of HEVs power systems. Furthermore, the HIL test provides valuable data and critical guidance to evaluate the accuracy of the developed battery algorithms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arun Ravindran
2012-02-01
Full Text Available Despite the promising performance improvement observed in emerging many-core architectures in high performance processors, high power consumption prohibitively affects their use and marketability in the low-energy sectors, such as embedded processors, network processors and application specific instruction processors (ASIPs. While most chip architects design power-efficient processors by finding an optimal power-performance balance in their design, some use sophisticated on-chip autonomous power management units, which dynamically reduce the voltage or frequencies of idle cores and hence extend battery life and reduce operating costs. For large scale designs of many-core processors, a holistic approach integrating both these techniques at different levels of abstraction can potentially achieve maximal power savings. In this paper we present CASPER, a robust instruction trace driven cycle-accurate many-core multi-threading micro-architecture simulation platform where we have incorporated power estimation models of a wide variety of tunable many-core micro-architectural design parameters, thus enabling processor architects to explore a sufficiently large design space and achieve power-efficient designs. Additionally CASPER is designed to accommodate cycle-accurate models of hardware controlled power management units, enabling architects to experiment with and evaluate different autonomous power-saving mechanisms to study the run-time power-performance trade-offs in embedded many-core processors. We have implemented two such techniques in CASPER–Chipwide Dynamic Voltage and Frequency Scaling, and Performance Aware Core-Specific Frequency Scaling, which show average power savings of 35.9% and 26.2% on a baseline 4-core SPARC based architecture respectively. This power saving data accounts for the power consumption of the power management units themselves. The CASPER simulation platform also provides users with complete support of SPARCV9
Kitagaki, Toru; Yano, Kimihiko; Ogino, Hideki; Washiya, Tadahiro
2017-04-01
The solidification phases of molten core-concrete under the estimated molten core-concrete interaction (MCCI) conditions in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Unit 1 were predicted using the thermodynamic equilibrium calculation tool, FactSage 6.2, and the NUCLEA database in order to contribute toward the 1F decommissioning work and to understand the accident progression via the analytical results for the 1F MCCI products. We showed that most of the U and Zr in the molten core-concrete forms (U,Zr)O2 and (Zr,U)SiO4, and the formation of other phases with these elements is limited. However, the formation of (Zr,U)SiO4 requires a relatively long time because it involves a change in the crystal structure from fcc-(U,Zr)O2 to tet-(U,Zr)O2, followed by the formation of (Zr,U)SiO4 by reaction with SiO2. Therefore, the formation of (Zr,U)SiO4 is limited under quenching conditions. Other common phases are the oxide phases, CaAl2Si2O8, SiO2, and CaSiO3, and the metallic phases of the Fe-Si and Fe-Ni alloys. The solidification phenomenon of the crust under quenching conditions and that of the molten pool under thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in the 1F MCCI progression are discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kostoglotov Andrey Aleksandrovich
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The proposed procedure for the synthesis of the filter of the state estimation is based on a new mathematical model of the dynamic controlled system. It is based on the maximum condition of the function of the generalized power. The optimization boundary problem can be solved using the invariant embedding procedure. The result differs from the known ones as it has lower dimensionality, non-linear structure and provides a more accurate estimation.
Full Text Available ... limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to ...
Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ...
CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower ... The lumbar CT scan is good for evaluating large herniated disks, ... smaller ones. This test can be combined with a myelogram to get ...
CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...
CAT scan - thoracic spine; Computed axial tomography scan - thoracic spine; Computed tomography scan - thoracic spine; CT scan - ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 44. US Food and Drug Administration. Computed tomography (CT). Updated August ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Butler, Paul Charles; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (,.Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)
2005-11-01
This report describes a methodology for estimating the power and energy capacities for electricity energy storage systems that can be used to defer costly upgrades to fully overloaded, or nearly overloaded, transmission and distribution (T&D) nodes. This ''sizing'' methodology may be used to estimate the amount of storage needed so that T&D upgrades may be deferred for one year. The same methodology can also be used to estimate the characteristics of storage needed for subsequent years of deferral.
Raith, Stefan; Vogel, Eric Per; Anees, Naeema; Keul, Christine; Güth, Jan-Frederik; Edelhoff, Daniel; Fischer, Horst
2017-01-01
Chairside manufacturing based on digital image acquisition is gainingincreasing importance in dentistry. For the standardized application of these methods, it is paramount to have highly automated digital workflows that can process acquired 3D image data of dental surfaces. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) arenumerical methods primarily used to mimic the complex networks of neural connections in the natural brain. Our hypothesis is that an ANNcan be developed that is capable of classifying dental cusps with sufficient accuracy. This bears enormous potential for an application in chairside manufacturing workflows in the dental field, as it closes the gap between digital acquisition of dental geometries and modern computer-aided manufacturing techniques.Three-dimensional surface scans of dental casts representing natural full dental arches were transformed to range image data. These data were processed using an automated algorithm to detect candidates for tooth cusps according to salient geometrical features. These candidates were classified following common dental terminology and used as training data for a tailored ANN.For the actual cusp feature description, two different approaches were developed and applied to the available data: The first uses the relative location of the detected cusps as input data and the second method directly takes the image information given in the range images. In addition, a combination of both was implemented and investigated.Both approaches showed high performance with correct classifications of 93.3% and 93.5%, respectively, with improvements by the combination shown to be minor.This article presents for the first time a fully automated method for the classification of teeththat could be confirmed to work with sufficient precision to exhibit the potential for its use in clinical practice,which is a prerequisite for automated computer-aided planning of prosthetic treatments with subsequent automated chairside manufacturing. Copyright
Hysi, Eno; Wirtzfeld, Lauren A.; Al-Mahrouki, Azza; Elfarnawany, Mai; Lacefield, James C.; Czarnota, Gregory J.; Kolios, Michael C.
2017-03-01
Photoacoustic (PA) imaging of tumor oxygenation can be used to monitor vascular-targeted novel therapies. This study examines how a combination treatment, ultrasound-microbubbles (USMB)/radiation-therapy (XRT) alters oxygen saturation (sO2) estimates, which are then compared to power Doppler (PD) assessments of tumor vascularity. SCID mice were inoculated with subcutaneous, hind-leg PC3 tumors. The treatment consisted of XRT/MB (XRT: 8Gy/single-fraction; USMB: 3%/500 kHz/570kPa; n=3), USMB (n=3) and XRT (n=5) alone and untreated control (n=5). PA/PD imaging was acquired pre-treatment and 2h/24h post-treatment using the VevoLAZR (21 MHz, 750/850 nm). The volumetric tumor sO2 was quantified using histogram distributions and the average mode was computed. The vascularization index (VI), a PD metric of tumor vessel density, was studied along with the sO2 mode by comparing changes at 2h with pre-treatment. Mice whose pre-treatment sO2 levels were over 65%, exhibited a 15% drop in oxygenation at 2h, remaining unchanged by 24h. Examining the sO2 and VI relationships revealed differences between the groups. All groups (except control) exhibited a positive correlation when the ∆VI was plotted as a function of ∆sO2 (r2≥0.85). Mice in the XRT/MB group had the largest slope (11.7) suggesting that a change in sO2 was accompanied by the largest change in vessel density. The slope of the USMB and XRT treatments was 5.6 and 2.9, respectively. The combination treatment induced the largest changes in vessel density and sO2. Early PA estimates of tumor oxygenation appear to correlate with the treatment-induced vascular changes. Such measure could potentially be used for predicting treatment outcome.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benitez R, J.S. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Perez C, J.H. [CINVESTAV, IPN, A.P. 14740 07000 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Rivero G, T. [ITT, 50140 Metepec, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)
2008-07-01
In this paper a novel procedure for power regulation in a TRIGA Mark III nuclear reactor is presented. The control scheme combines state variable feedback with a first order predictor, which is incorporated to speed up the power response of the reactor without exceeding the safety requirement imposed by the reactor period. The simulation results using the proposed control strategy attains different values of steady-state power from different values of initial power in short time, complying at all times with the safety restriction imposed on the reactor period. The predictor, derived from the theory of first order numerical integration, produces very good results during the ascent of power. These results include a fast response and independence of the wide variety of potential operating conditions something not easy and even impossible to obtain with other procedures. By using this control scheme, the reactor period is maintained within safety limits during the start up of the reactor, which is normally the operating condition where an occurrence of a period scram is common. However, the predictor can not be used when the power is reaching the desired power level because the instantaneous power increases far above the desired level. Thus, when the power increases above certain power level, the state feedback gain is set constant to a predefined value. This causes some oscillations that decrease in a few seconds. Afterwards, the power response smoothly approaches, with a small overshoot, the desired power. This constraint on the use of the predictor prevents the unbounded increase of the neutron power. The control law proposed requires all the system's state variables. Since only the neutron power is available, it is necessary the estimation of the non measurable states. The key issue of the existence of a solution to this problem has been previously considered. One of the conclusions is that the point kinetic equations are observable under certain restrictions
Lombardo, Michael V; Auyeung, Bonnie; Holt, Rosemary J; Waldman, Jack; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Mooney, Natasha; Bullmore, Edward T; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Kundu, Prantik
2016-11-15
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research is routinely criticized for being statistically underpowered due to characteristically small sample sizes and much larger sample sizes are being increasingly recommended. Additionally, various sources of artifact inherent in fMRI data can have detrimental impact on effect size estimates and statistical power. Here we show how specific removal of non-BOLD artifacts can improve effect size estimation and statistical power in task-fMRI contexts, with particular application to the social-cognitive domain of mentalizing/theory of mind. Non-BOLD variability identification and removal is achieved in a biophysical and statistically principled manner by combining multi-echo fMRI acquisition and independent components analysis (ME-ICA). Without smoothing, group-level effect size estimates on two different mentalizing tasks were enhanced by ME-ICA at a median rate of 24% in regions canonically associated with mentalizing, while much more substantial boosts (40-149%) were observed in non-canonical cerebellar areas. Effect size boosting occurs via reduction of non-BOLD noise at the subject-level and consequent reductions in between-subject variance at the group-level. Smoothing can attenuate ME-ICA-related effect size improvements in certain circumstances. Power simulations demonstrate that ME-ICA-related effect size enhancements enable much higher-powered studies at traditional sample sizes. Cerebellar effects observed after applying ME-ICA may be unobservable with conventional imaging at traditional sample sizes. Thus, ME-ICA allows for principled design-agnostic non-BOLD artifact removal that can substantially improve effect size estimates and statistical power in task-fMRI contexts. ME-ICA could mitigate some issues regarding statistical power in fMRI studies and enable novel discovery of aspects of brain organization that are currently under-appreciated and not well understood. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published
Piñero, David P.; Camps, Vicente J.; Ramón, María L.; Mateo, Verónica; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J.
2015-01-01
AIM To evaluate the prediction error in intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation for a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal IOL and the impact on this error of the optimization of the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and the prediction of the effective lens position (ELP). METHODS Retrospective study including a total of 25 eyes of 13 patients (age, 50 to 83y) with previous cataract surgery with implantation of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Germany). In all cases, an adjusted IOL power (PIOLadj) was calculated based on Gaussian optics using a variable keratometric index value (nkadj) for the estimation of the corneal power (Pkadj) and on a new value for ELP (ELPadj) obtained by multiple regression analysis. This PIOLadj was compared with the IOL power implanted (PIOLReal) and the value proposed by three conventional formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q and Holladay I). RESULTS PIOLReal was not significantly different than PIOLadj and Holladay IOL power (P>0.05). In the Bland and Altman analysis, PIOLadj showed lower mean difference (-0.07 D) and limits of agreement (of 1.47 and -1.61 D) when compared to PIOLReal than the IOL power value obtained with the Holladay formula. Furthermore, ELPadj was significantly lower than ELP calculated with other conventional formulas (P<0.01) and was found to be dependent on axial length, anterior chamber depth and Pkadj. CONCLUSION Refractive outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of the multifocal IOL Lentis Mplus LS-312 can be optimized by minimizing the keratometric error and by estimating ELP using a mathematical expression dependent on anatomical factors. PMID:26085998
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David P. Piñero
2015-06-01
Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the prediction error in intraocular lens (IOL power calculation for a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal IOL and the impact on this error of the optimization of the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and the prediction of the effective lens position (ELP.METHODS:Retrospective study including a total of 25 eyes of 13 patients (age, 50 to 83y with previous cataract surgery with implantation of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Germany. In all cases, an adjusted IOL power (PIOLadj was calculated based on Gaussian optics using a variable keratometric index value (nkadj for the estimation of the corneal power (Pkadj and on a new value for ELP (ELPadj obtained by multiple regression analysis. This PIOLadj was compared with the IOL power implanted (PIOLReal and the value proposed by three conventional formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q and Holladay Ⅰ.RESULTS:PIOLReal was not significantly different than PIOLadj and Holladay IOL power (P>0.05. In the Bland and Altman analysis, PIOLadj showed lower mean difference (-0.07 D and limits of agreement (of 1.47 and -1.61 D when compared to PIOLReal than the IOL power value obtained with the Holladay formula. Furthermore, ELPadj was significantly lower than ELP calculated with other conventional formulas (P<0.01 and was found to be dependent on axial length, anterior chamber depth and Pkadj.CONCLUSION:Refractive outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of the multifocal IOL Lentis Mplus LS-312 can be optimized by minimizing the keratometric error and by estimating ELP using a mathematical expression dependent on anatomical factors.
Ward, S; Möller, U; Rayner, J M V; Jackson, D M; Nachtigall, W; Speakman, J R
2004-11-01
It is technically demanding to measure the energetic cost of animal flight. Each of the previously available techniques has some disadvantage as well advantages. We compared measurements of the energetic cost of flight in a wind tunnel by four European starlings Sturnus vulgaris made using three independent techniques: heat transfer modelling, doubly labelled water (DLW) and mask respirometry. We based our heat transfer model on thermal images of the surface temperature of the birds and air flow past the body and wings calculated from wing beat kinematics. Metabolic power was not sensitive to uncertainty in the value of efficiency when estimated from heat transfer modelling. A change in the assumed value of whole animal efficiency from 0.19 to 0.07 (the range of estimates in previous studies) only altered metabolic power predicted from heat transfer modelling by 13%. The same change in the assumed value of efficiency would cause a 2.7-fold change in metabolic power if it were predicted from mechanical power. Metabolic power did not differ significantly between measurements made using the three techniques when we assumed an efficiency in the range 0.11-0.19, although the DLW results appeared to form a U-shaped power-speed curve while the heat transfer model and respirometry results increased linearly with speed. This is the first time that techniques for determining metabolic power have been compared using data from the same birds flying under the same conditions. Our data provide reassurance that all the techniques produce similar results and suggest that heat transfer modelling may be a useful method for estimating metabolic rate.
Multiphoton minimal inertia scanning for fast acquisition of neural activity signals.
Schuck, Renaud; Go, Mary Ann; Garasto, Stefania; Reynolds, Stephanie; Dragotti, Pier Luigi; Schultz, Simon
2017-11-13
Multi-photon laser scanning microscopy provides a powerful tool for monitoring the spatiotemporal dynamics of neural circuit activity. It is, however, intrinsically a point scanning technique. Standard raster scanning enables imaging at subcellular resolution; however, acquisition rates are limited by the size of the field of view to be scanned. Recently developed scanning strategies such as Travelling Salesman Scanning (TSS) have been developed to maximize cellular sampling rate by scanning only select regions in the field of view corresponding to locations of interest such as somata. However, such strategies are not optimized for the mechanical properties of galvanometric scanners. We thus aimed to develop a new scanning algorithm which produces minimal inertia trajectories, and compare its performance with existing scanning algorithms. Approach: We describe here the Adaptive Spiral Scanning (SSA) algorithm, which fits a set of near-circular trajectories to the cellular distribution to avoid inertial drifts of galvanometer position. We compare its performance to raster scanning and TSS in terms of cellular sampling frequency and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Main Results: Using surrogate neuron spatial position data, we show that SSA acquisition rates are an order of magnitude higher than those for raster scanning and generally exceed those achieved by TSS for neural densities comparable with those found in the cortex. We show that this result also holds true for in vitro hippocampal mouse brain slices bath loaded with the synthetic calcium dye Cal-520 AM. The ability of TSS to "park" the laser on each neuron along the scanning trajectory, however, enables higher SNR than SSA when all targets are precisely scanned. Raster scanning has the highest SNR but at a substantial cost in number of cells scanned. To understand the impact of sampling rate and SNR on functional calcium imaging, we used the Crame ́r-Rao Bound on evoked calcium traces recorded
Mechanical power, thrust power
Gatta, Giorgio; Cortesi, Matteo; Swaine, Ian; Zamparo, Paola
2017-01-01
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships between mechanical power, thrust power, propelling efficiency and sprint performance in elite swimmers. Mechanical power was measured in 12 elite sprint male swimmers: i) in the laboratory, by using a whole body swimming ergometer (W’TOT); and ii) in the pool, by measuring full tethered swimming force (FT) and maximal swimming velocity (Vmax): W’T = FT .Vmax. Propelling efficiency ( P) was estimated based on the “paddle wheel model“ a...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Charette
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Radium has four naturally occurring isotopes that have proven useful in constraining water mass source, age, and mixing rates in the coastal and open ocean. In this study, we used radium isotopes to determine the fate and flux of runoff-derived cesium from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP. During a June 2011 cruise, the highest cesium (Cs concentrations were found along the eastern shelf of northern Japan, from Fukushima south, to the edge of the Kuroshio Current, and in an eddy ~ 130 km from the FNPP site. Locations with the highest cesium also had some of the highest radium activities, suggesting much of the direct ocean discharges of Cs remained in the coastal zone 2–3 months after the accident. We used a short-lived Ra isotope (223Ra, t1/2 = 11.4 d to derive an average water mass age (Tr in the coastal zone of 32 days. To ground-truth the Ra age model, we conducted a direct, station-by-station comparison of water mass ages with a numerical oceanographic model and found them to be in excellent agreement (model avg. Tr = 27 days. From these independent Tr values and the inventory of Cs within the water column at the time of our cruise, we were able to calculate an offshore 134Cs flux of 3.9–4.6 × 1013 Bq d−1. Radium-228 (t1/2 = 5.75 yr was used to derive a vertical eddy diffusivity (Kz of 0.7 m2 d−1 (0.1 cm2 s−1; from this Kz and 134Cs inventory, we estimated a 134Cs flux across the pycnocline of 1.8 × 104 Bq d−1 for the same time period. On average, our results show that horizontal mixing loss of Cs from the coastal zone was ~ 109 greater than vertical exchange below the surface mixed layer. Finally, a mixing/dilution model that utilized our Ra-based and oceanographic model water mass ages produced a direct ocean discharge of 134Cs from the FNPP of 11–16 PBq at the time of the peak release in early April 2011. Our results can be used to calculate discharge of other water-soluble radionuclides that were released
... have false results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...
... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Adrian Nocoń
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents an analysis of the influence of uncertainty of power system mathematical model parameters on optimised parameters of PSS2A system stabilizers. Optimisation of power system stabilizer parameters was based on polyoptimisation (multi-criteria optimisation. Optimisation criteria were determined for disturbances occurring in a multi-machine power system, when taking into account transient waveforms associated with electromechanical swings (instantaneous power, angular speed and terminal voltage waveforms of generators. A genetic algorithm with floating-point encoding, tournament selection, mean crossover and perturbative mutations, modified for the needs of investigations, was used for optimisation. The impact of uncertainties on the quality of operation of power system stabilizers with optimised parameters has been evaluated using various deformation factors.
Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...
... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...
Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...
A new method to estimate the uncertainty of AEP of offshore wind power plants applied to Horns Rev 1
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Murcia, Juan Pablo; Réthoré, Pierre-Elouan Mikael; Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose
2015-01-01
The present article proposes a framework for validation of stationary wake models that wind developers can use to predict the energy production of a wind power plant more accurately. The application of this framework provides a new way to quantify the uncertainty of annual energy production...... Rev 1 offshore wind power plant. The model uncertainty of a modified N. O. Jensen wake model under uncertain undisturbed flow conditions was studied. Evidence of model inadequacy is found in terms of a bias in the predicted AEP distribution. It was found that the use of the official power curve...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joop eHox
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Cluster randomized trials assess the effect of an intervention that is carried out at the group or cluster level. Ajzen’s theory of planned behaviour is often used to model the effect of the intervention as an indirect effect mediated in turn by attitude, norms and behavioural intention. Structural equation modelling (SEM is the technique of choice to estimate indirect effects and their significance. However, this is a large sample technique, and its application in a cluster randomized trial assumes a relatively large number of clusters. In practice, the number of clusters in these studies tends to be relatively small, e.g. much less than fifty. This study uses simulation methods to find the lowest number of clusters needed when multilevel SEM is used to estimate the indirect effect. Maximum likelihood estimation is compared to Bayesian analysis, with the central quality criteria being accuracy of the point estimate and the confidence interval. We also investigate the power of the test for the indirect effect. We conclude that Bayes estimation works well with much smaller cluster level sample sizes such as 20 cases than maximum likelihood estimation; although the bias is larger the coverage is much better. When only 5 to 10 clusters are available per treatment condition even with Bayesian estimation problems occur.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gloria Vilches-Freixas
2017-07-01
Conclusions: SPR estimations with the projection-based method produced slightly better results (though not statistically significant than the three image-based methods used in this simulation-based study, therefore, with the advent of technological developments, projection-based methods could be considered for SPR estimation if projection data is available.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grieder, T.; Huser, A.
2008-06-15
This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with new methods for the estimation of the power consumption of lighting in private homes. The method uses comprehensive data collected by the Swiss Association of Electricity Companies (VSE) on power consumption in private homes from 1991 to 2005 and the results of a literature study. Also, the results of two measurement campaigns made in the European Union are considered. Interviews with experts from the lighting and energy areas were made. The various estimation methods were assessed. Modelling aspects are discussed, including models developed in France. The results obtained are discussed and recommendations for future work are made. The report is concluded with a comprehensive appendix and a list of relevant literature.
Kler, A. M.; Zakharov, Yu. B.; Potanina, Yu. M.
2017-05-01
The objects of study are the gas turbine (GT) plant and combined cycle power plant (CCPP) with opportunity for injection between the stages of air compressor. The objective of this paper is technical and economy optimization calculations for these classes of plants with water interstage injection. The integrated development environment "System of machine building program" was a tool for creating the mathematic models for these classes of power plants. Optimization calculations with the criterion of minimum for specific capital investment as a function of the unit efficiency have been carried out. For a gas-turbine plant, the economic gain from water injection exists for entire range of power efficiency. For the combined cycle plant, the economic benefit was observed only for a certain range of plant's power efficiency.
Pataky, Todd C; Robinson, Mark A; Vanrenterghem, Jos
2018-01-03
Statistical power assessment is an important component of hypothesis-driven research but until relatively recently (mid-1990s) no methods were available for assessing power in experiments involving continuum data and in particular those involving one-dimensional (1D) time series. The purpose of this study was to describe how continuum-level power analyses can be used to plan hypothesis-driven biomechanics experiments involving 1D data. In particular, we demonstrate how theory- and pilot-driven 1D effect modeling can be used for sample-size calculations for both single- and multi-subject experiments. For theory-driven power analysis we use the minimum jerk hypothesis and single-subject experiments involving straight-line, planar reaching. For pilot-driven power analysis we use a previously published knee kinematics dataset. Results show that powers on the order of 0.8 can be achieved with relatively small sample sizes, five and ten for within-subject minimum jerk analysis and between-subject knee kinematics, respectively. However, the appropriate sample size depends on a priori justifications of biomechanical meaning and effect size. The main advantage of the proposed technique is that it encourages a priori justification regarding the clinical and/or scientific meaning of particular 1D effects, thereby robustly structuring subsequent experimental inquiry. In short, it shifts focus from a search for significance to a search for non-rejectable hypotheses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Camps, Vicente J; Piñero, David P; Mateo, Veronica; Ribera, David; de Fez, Dolores; Blanes-Mompó, Francisco J; Alzamora-Rodríguez, Antonio
2013-11-01
To calculate theoretically the errors in the estimation of corneal power when using the keratometric index (nk) in eyes that underwent laser refractive surgery for the correction of myopia and to define and validate clinically an algorithm for minimizing such errors. Differences between corneal power estimation by using the classical nk and by using the Gaussian equation in eyes that underwent laser myopic refractive surgery were simulated and evaluated theoretically. Additionally, an adjusted keratometric index (nkadj) model dependent on r1c was developed for minimizing these differences. The model was validated clinically by retrospectively using the data from 32 myopic eyes [range, -1.00 to -6.00 diopters (D)] that had undergone laser in situ keratomileusis using a solid-state laser platform. The agreement between Gaussian (Pc) and adjusted keratometric (Pkadj) corneal powers in such eyes was evaluated. It was found that overestimations of corneal power up to 3.5 D were possible for nk = 1.3375 according to our simulations. The nk value to avoid the keratometric error ranged between 1.2984 and 1.3297. The following nkadj models were obtained: nkadj = -0.0064286r1c + 1.37688 (Gullstrand eye model) and nkadj = -0.0063804r1c + 1.37806 (Le Grand). The mean difference between Pkadj and Pc was 0.00 D, with limits of agreement of -0.45 and +0.46 D. This difference correlated significantly with the posterior corneal radius (r = -0.94, P < 0.01). The use of a single nk for estimating the corneal power in eyes that underwent a laser myopic refractive surgery can lead to significant errors. These errors can be minimized by using a variable nk dependent on r1c.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David P. Piñero
2016-06-01
Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the refractive predictability achieved with an aspheric intraocular lens(IOLand to develop a preliminary optimized algorithm for the calculation of its power(PIOL.METHODS: This study included 65 eyes implanted with the aspheric IOL LENTIS L-313(Oculentis GmbHthat were divided into 2 groups: 12 eyes(8 patientswith PIOL≥23.0 D(group A, and 53 eyes(35 patientswith PIOLIOLadjwas calculated considering a variable refractive index for corneal power estimation, the refractive outcome obtained, and an adjusted effective lens position(ELPadjaccording to age and anatomical factors. RESULTS: Postoperative spherical equivalent ranged from -0.75 to +0.75 D and from -1.38 to +0.75 D in groups A and B, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found in groups A(P=0.64and B(P=0.82between PIOLadj and the IOL power implanted(PIOLReal. The Bland and Altman analysis showed ranges of agreement between PIOLadj and PIOLReal of +1.11 to -0.96 D and +1.14 to -1.18 D in groups A and B, respectively. Clinically and statistically significant differences were found between PIOLadj and PIOL obtained with Hoffer Q and Holladay I formulas(PCONCLUSION: The refractive predictability of cataract surgery with implantation of an aspheric IOL can be optimized using paraxial optics combined with linear algorithms to minimize the error associated to the estimation of corneal power and ELP.