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Sample records for scanning sensorimotor system

  1. The Computational Sensorimotor Systems Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Computational Sensorimotor Systems Lab focuses on the exploration, analysis, modeling and implementation of biological sensorimotor systems for both scientific...

  2. Sensorimotor gating deficits in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Biernat, Heidi Bryde; Nikolic, Miki

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory blink reflex is a measure of sensorimotor gating, which reflects an organism's ability to filter out irrelevant sensory information. PPI has never been studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), although sensorimotor deficits are frequently...

  3. A dynamical systems account of sensorimotor contingencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhrmann, Thomas; Di Paolo, Ezequiel Alejandro; Barandiaran, Xabier

    2013-01-01

    According to the sensorimotor approach, perception is a form of embodied know-how, constituted by lawful regularities in the sensorimotor flow or in sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs) in an active and situated agent. Despite the attention that this approach has attracted, there have been few attempts to define its core concepts formally. In this paper, we examine the idea of SMCs and argue that its use involves notions that need to be distinguished. We introduce four distinct kinds of SMCs, which we define operationally. These are the notions of sensorimotor environment (open-loop motor-induced sensory variations), sensorimotor habitat (closed-loop sensorimotor trajectories), sensorimotor coordination (reliable sensorimotor patterns playing a functional role), and sensorimotor strategy (normative organization of sensorimotor coordinations). We make use of a minimal dynamical model of visually guided categorization to test the explanatory value of the different kinds of SMCs. Finally, we discuss the impact of our definitions on the conceptual development and empirical as well as model-based testing of the claims of the sensorimotor approach.

  4. Sensorimotor Piano System for People with Disabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Blumenstein

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A sensorimotor training system that facilitates learning to play piano was developed and tested. The system consists of three communicating units. The first unit comprises two pianos: an E-piano with a MIDI output for the teacher and an acoustic or an E-piano for the pupil. The pupil’s piano is supplied with an LED bar that illuminates the key to be struck. The second unit is a controller providing the interface between the teacher’s piano and the LED bar. The third unit consists of two pairs of gloves: one for the teacher and one for the pupil. The teacher gloves have integrated pressure sensors at every fingertip. The pupil’s gloves have vibration motors and LEDs at every finger. The pressure sensed on the teacher’s glove is transmitted to the corresponding finger on the pupil’s glove via the vibration motors and LEDs, such that the pupil knows which finger should strike which key. Additionally, two OLED displays showing the notation of the note played by the teacher can be attached to the left and right pupil’s gloves. Initially developed for people with cerebral palsy the sensorimotor system can support the learning also to all those with sensory, cognitive, and space perception impairments.

  5. Unveiling neural coupling within the sensorimotor system : directionality and nonlinearity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Y.; Dewald, J.P.A.; van der Helm, F.C.T.; Schouten, A.C.

    2017-01-01

    Neural coupling between the central nervous system and the periphery is essential for the neural control of movement. Corticomuscular coherence is a popular linear technique to assess synchronised oscillatory activity in the sensorimotor system. This oscillatory coupling originates from ascending

  6. Major remaining gaps in models of sensorimotor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Gerald E; Tsianos, George A

    2015-01-01

    Experimental descriptions of the anatomy and physiology of individual components of sensorimotor systems have revealed substantial complexity, making it difficult to intuit how complete systems might work. This has led to increasing efforts to develop and employ mathematical models to study the emergent properties of such systems. Conversely, the development of such models tends to reveal shortcomings in the experimental database upon which models must be constructed and validated. In both cases models are most useful when they point up discrepancies between what we think we know and possibilities that we may have overlooked. This overview considers those components of complete sensorimotor systems that currently appear to be potentially important but poorly understood. These are generally omitted completely from modeled systems or buried in implicit assumptions that underlie the design of the model.

  7. Stochastic Bayesian Computation for Autonomous Robot Sensorimotor System

    OpenAIRE

    Faix, Marvin; Lobo, Jorge; Laurent, Raphael; Vaufreydaz, Dominique; Mazer, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    International audience; This paper presents a stochastic computing implementationof a Bayesian sensorimotor system that performsobstacle avoidance for an autonomous robot. In a previouswork we have shown that we are able to automatically design aprobabilistic machine which computes inferences on a Bayesianmodel using stochastic arithmetic. We start from a high levelBayesian model description, then our compiler generates anelectronic circuit, corresponding to the probabilistic inference,operat...

  8. Biologically inspired computation and learning in Sensorimotor Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Daniel D.; Seung, H. S.

    2001-11-01

    Networking systems presently lack the ability to intelligently process the rich multimedia content of the data traffic they carry. Endowing artificial systems with the ability to adapt to changing conditions requires algorithms that can rapidly learn from examples. We demonstrate the application of such learning algorithms on an inexpensive quadruped robot constructed to perform simple sensorimotor tasks. The robot learns to track a particular object by discovering the salient visual and auditory cues unique to that object. The system uses a convolutional neural network that automatically combines color, luminance, motion, and auditory information. The weights of the networks are adjusted using feedback from a teacher to reflect the reliability of the various input channels in the surrounding environment. Additionally, the robot is able to compensate for its own motion by adapting the parameters of a vestibular ocular reflex system.

  9. Multimodal sensorimotor system in unicellular zoospores of a fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swafford, Andrew J M; Oakley, Todd H

    2017-11-23

    Complex sensory systems often underlie critical behaviors, including avoiding predators and locating prey, mates, and shelter. Multisensory systems that control motor behavior even appear in unicellular eukaryotes, such as Chlamydomonas, which are important laboratory models for sensory biology. However, we know of no unicellular opisthokonts that control motor behavior using a multimodal sensory system. Therefore, existing single-celled models for multimodal sensorimotor integration are very distantly related to animals. Here, we describe a multisensory system that controls the motor function of unicellular fungal zoospores. We find that zoospores of Allomyces arbusculus exhibit both phototaxis and chemotaxis. Furthermore, we report that closely related Allomyces species respond to either only the chemical or light stimuli presented in this study, and likely do not share this multisensory system. This diversity of sensory systems within Allomyces provides a rare example of a comparative framework that can be used to examine the evolution of sensory systems following gain/loss of available sensory modalities. The tractability of Allomyces and related fungi as laboratory organisms will facilitate detailed mechanistic investigations into the genetic underpinnings of novel photosensory systems, and how multisensory systems may have functioned in early opisthokonts before multicellularity allowed for the evolution of specialized cell types. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Does the sensorimotor system minimize prediction error or select the most likely prediction during object lifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashaback, Joshua G A; McGregor, Heather R; Pun, Henry C H; Buckingham, Gavin; Gribble, Paul L

    2017-01-01

    The human sensorimotor system is routinely capable of making accurate predictions about an object's weight, which allows for energetically efficient lifts and prevents objects from being dropped. Often, however, poor predictions arise when the weight of an object can vary and sensory cues about object weight are sparse (e.g., picking up an opaque water bottle). The question arises, what strategies does the sensorimotor system use to make weight predictions when one is dealing with an object whose weight may vary? For example, does the sensorimotor system use a strategy that minimizes prediction error (minimal squared error) or one that selects the weight that is most likely to be correct (maximum a posteriori)? In this study we dissociated the predictions of these two strategies by having participants lift an object whose weight varied according to a skewed probability distribution. We found, using a small range of weight uncertainty, that four indexes of sensorimotor prediction (grip force rate, grip force, load force rate, and load force) were consistent with a feedforward strategy that minimizes the square of prediction errors. These findings match research in the visuomotor system, suggesting parallels in underlying processes. We interpret our findings within a Bayesian framework and discuss the potential benefits of using a minimal squared error strategy. Using a novel experimental model of object lifting, we tested whether the sensorimotor system models the weight of objects by minimizing lifting errors or by selecting the statistically most likely weight. We found that the sensorimotor system minimizes the square of prediction errors for object lifting. This parallels the results of studies that investigated visually guided reaching, suggesting an overlap in the underlying mechanisms between tasks that involve different sensory systems. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Does the sensorimotor system minimize prediction error or select the most likely prediction during object lifting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R.; Pun, Henry C. H.; Buckingham, Gavin; Gribble, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    The human sensorimotor system is routinely capable of making accurate predictions about an object's weight, which allows for energetically efficient lifts and prevents objects from being dropped. Often, however, poor predictions arise when the weight of an object can vary and sensory cues about object weight are sparse (e.g., picking up an opaque water bottle). The question arises, what strategies does the sensorimotor system use to make weight predictions when one is dealing with an object whose weight may vary? For example, does the sensorimotor system use a strategy that minimizes prediction error (minimal squared error) or one that selects the weight that is most likely to be correct (maximum a posteriori)? In this study we dissociated the predictions of these two strategies by having participants lift an object whose weight varied according to a skewed probability distribution. We found, using a small range of weight uncertainty, that four indexes of sensorimotor prediction (grip force rate, grip force, load force rate, and load force) were consistent with a feedforward strategy that minimizes the square of prediction errors. These findings match research in the visuomotor system, suggesting parallels in underlying processes. We interpret our findings within a Bayesian framework and discuss the potential benefits of using a minimal squared error strategy. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Using a novel experimental model of object lifting, we tested whether the sensorimotor system models the weight of objects by minimizing lifting errors or by selecting the statistically most likely weight. We found that the sensorimotor system minimizes the square of prediction errors for object lifting. This parallels the results of studies that investigated visually guided reaching, suggesting an overlap in the underlying mechanisms between tasks that involve different sensory systems. PMID:27760821

  12. The sensorimotor system minimizes prediction error for object lifting when the object's weight is uncertain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jack; Thaler, Anne

    2017-08-01

    A reliable mechanism to predict the heaviness of an object is important for manipulating an object under environmental uncertainty. Recently, Cashaback et al. (Cashaback JGA, McGregor HR, Pun HCH, Buckingham G, Gribble PL. J Neurophysiol 117: 260-274, 2017) showed that for object lifting the sensorimotor system uses a strategy that minimizes prediction error when the object's weight is uncertain. Previous research demonstrates that visually guided reaching is similarly optimized. Although this suggests a unified strategy of the sensorimotor system for object manipulation, the selected strategy appears to be task dependent and subject to change in response to the degree of environmental uncertainty. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Physical and neural entrainment to rhythm: human sensorimotor coordination across tasks and effector systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Marie Ross

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The human sensorimotor system can be readily entrained to environmental rhythms, through multiple sensory modalities. In this review, we provide an overview of theories of timekeeping that make this neuroentrainment possible. First, we present recent evidence that contests the assumptions made in classic timekeeper models. The role of state estimation, sensory feedback and movement parameters on the organization of sensorimotor timing are discussed in the context of recent experiments that examined simultaneous timing and force control. This discussion is extended to the study of coordinated multi-effector movements and how they may be entrained.

  14. Does (Non-)Meaningful Sensori-Motor Engagement Promote Learning With Animated Physical Systems?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouw, Wim T J L; Eielts, Charly; van Gog, Tamara; Zwaan, Rolf A.; Paas, Fred

    2016-01-01

    Previous research indicates that sensori-motor experience with physical systems can have a positive effect on learning. However, it is not clear whether this effect is caused by mere bodily engagement or the intrinsically meaningful information that such interaction affords in performing the

  15. Integrated micromachined scanning display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelin, Paul M.; Krishnamoorthy, Uma; Conant, Robert A.; Muller, Richard S.; Lau, Kam Y.; Solgaard, Olav

    1999-07-01

    We describe a raster-scanning display system comprised of two tilt-up micromachined polysilicon mirrors that rotate about orthogonal axes. We have demonstrated a resolution of 102 X 119 pixels. The optical efficiency of our two- mirror micro-optical raster-scanning system is comparable to that of micromachined display systems developed by Texas Instruments and Silicon Light Machines. Ease of integration with on-chip light sources and lenses has the potential to reduce packaging size, complexity and cost of the display system and makes it well suited for head-mounted display applications.

  16. Effects of normal aging on myelin sheath ultrastructures in the somatic sensorimotor system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Liang, Ping; Fu, Han; Zhang, Jiu-Cong; Chen, Jun

    2014-07-01

    Previous studies have presented qualitative and quantitative data regarding the morphological changes that occur peripherally in myelin sheaths and nerve fibers of rats during their lifespan. However, studies on ultrastructural features of myelinated fibers (MFs) in the central nervous system (CNS) remain limited. In the present study, morphological analyses of the somatic sensorimotor MFs in rats at time‑points between postnatal day 14 and postnatal month (PNM) 26 were conducted using electron microscopy. Significant alterations in the myelin sheath were observed in the sensorimotor system of aging and aged rats, which became aggravated with age. The ultrastructural pattern of myelin lamellae also exhibited age dependence. The transformation of the myelin intraperiod line from complete to incomplete fusion occurred after PNM 5, leading to an expansion of periodicity in myelin lamellae. These pathological changes in the myelin structure occurred very early and showed a significant correlation with age, indicating that myelin was the part of the CNS with the highest susceptibility to the influence of aging, and may be the main target of aging effects. In addition to the myelin breakdown, continued myelin production and remyelination were observed in the aging sensorimotor system, suggesting the presence of endogenous mechanisms of myelin repair.

  17. Footwear scanning systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Justin L.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2017-07-25

    Methods and apparatus for scanning articles, such as footwear, to provide information regarding the contents of the articles are described. According to one aspect, a footwear scanning system includes a platform configured to contact footwear to be scanned, an antenna array configured to transmit electromagnetic waves through the platform into the footwear and to receive electromagnetic waves from the footwear and the platform, a transceiver coupled with antennas of the antenna array and configured to apply electrical signals to at least one of the antennas to generate the transmitted electromagnetic waves and to receive electrical signals from at least another of the antennas corresponding to the electromagnetic waves received by the others of the antennas, and processing circuitry configured to process the received electrical signals from the transceiver to provide information regarding contents within the footwear.

  18. HEADS UP : Sensorimotor control of the head-neck system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.

    2014-01-01

    Head-neck stabilization is inherently challenging even when stationary, requiring constant vigilance to counter the downward pull of gravity. It involves a highly complex biomechanical system comprised of a large mass (the head) balanced on top of seven vertebrae (the neck), that are in turn

  19. State-dependent sensorimotor gating in a rhythmic motor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rachel S; Spencer, Robert M; Nusbaum, Michael P; Blitz, Dawn M

    2017-11-01

    Sensory feedback influences motor circuits and/or their projection neuron inputs to adjust ongoing motor activity, but its efficacy varies. Currently, less is known about regulation of sensory feedback onto projection neurons that control downstream motor circuits than about sensory regulation of the motor circuit neurons themselves. In this study, we tested whether sensory feedback onto projection neurons is sensitive only to activation of a motor system, or also to the modulatory state underlying that activation, using the crab Cancer borealis stomatogastric nervous system. We examined how proprioceptor neurons (gastropyloric receptors, GPRs) influence the gastric mill (chewing) circuit neurons and the projection neurons (MCN1, CPN2) that drive the gastric mill rhythm. During gastric mill rhythms triggered by the mechanosensory ventral cardiac neurons (VCNs), GPR was shown previously to influence gastric mill circuit neurons, but its excitation of MCN1/CPN2 was absent. In this study, we tested whether GPR effects on MCN1/CPN2 are also absent during gastric mill rhythms triggered by the peptidergic postoesophageal commissure (POC) neurons. The VCN and POC pathways both trigger lasting MCN1/CPN2 activation, but their distinct influence on circuit feedback to these neurons produces different gastric mill motor patterns. We show that GPR excites MCN1 and CPN2 during the POC-gastric mill rhythm, altering their firing rates and activity patterns. This action changes both phases of the POC-gastric mill rhythm, whereas GPR only alters one phase of the VCN-gastric mill rhythm. Thus sensory feedback to projection neurons can be gated as a function of the modulatory state of an active motor system, not simply switched on/off with the onset of motor activity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Sensory feedback influences motor systems (i.e., motor circuits and their projection neuron inputs). However, whether regulation of sensory feedback to these projection neurons is consistent across

  20. Obstacles to Industrial Implementation of Scanning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders Astrom; Olog Broman; John Graffman; Anders Gronlund; Armas Jappinene; Jari Luostarinen; Jan Nystrom; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Initially the group discussed what is meant by scanning systems. An operational definition was adopted to consider scanning system in the current context to be nontraditional scanning. Where, traditional scanning is defined as scanning that has been industrially operational and relatively common for several years-a mature technology. For example,...

  1. A prospective investigation of changes in the sensorimotor system following sports concussion. An exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hides, Julie A; Franettovich Smith, Melinda M; Mendis, M Dilani; Smith, Nigel A; Cooper, Andrew J; Treleaven, Julia; Leung, Felix; Gardner, Andrew J; McCrory, Paul; Low Choy, Nancy L

    2017-06-01

    Sports concussion is a risk for players involved in high impact, collision sports. Post-concussion, the majority of symptoms subside within 7-10 days, but can persist in 10-20% of athletes. Understanding the effects of sports concussion on sensorimotor systems could inform physiotherapy treatment. To explore changes in sensorimotor function in the acute phase following sports concussion. Prospective cohort study. Fifty-four players from elite rugby union and league teams were assessed at the start of the playing season. Players who sustained a concussion were assessed three to five days later. Measures included assessments of balance (sway velocity), vestibular system function (vestibular ocular reflex gain; right-left asymmetry), cervical proprioception (joint position error) and trunk muscle size and function. During the playing season, 14 post-concussion assessments were performed within 3-5 days of injury. Significantly decreased sway velocity and increased size/contraction of trunk muscles, were identified. Whilst not significant overall, large inter-individual variation of test results for cervical proprioception and the vestibular system was observed. The number of players who sustained a concussion was not large, but numbers were comparable with other studies in this field. There was missing baseline data for vestibular and cervical proprioception testing for some players. Preliminary findings post-concussion suggest an altered balance strategy and trunk muscle control with splinting/over-holding requiring consideration as part of the development of appropriate physiotherapy management strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Meis1: effects on motor phenotypes and the sensorimotor system in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaro V. Salminen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available MEIS1 encodes a developmental transcription factor and has been linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS in genome-wide association studies. RLS is a movement disorder leading to severe sleep reduction and has a substantial impact on the quality of life of patients. In genome-wide association studies, MEIS1 has consistently been the gene with the highest effect size and functional studies suggest a disease-relevant downregulation. Therefore, haploinsufficiency of Meis1 could be the system with the most potential for modeling RLS in animals. We used heterozygous Meis1-knockout mice to study the effects of Meis1 haploinsufficiency on mouse behavioral and neurological phenotypes, and to relate the findings to human RLS. We exposed the Meis1-deficient mice to assays of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive ability, and assessed the effect of a dopaminergic receptor 2/3 agonist commonly used in the treatment of RLS. The mutant mice showed a pattern of circadian hyperactivity, which is compatible with human RLS. Moreover, we discovered a replicable prepulse inhibition (PPI deficit in the Meis1-deficient animals. In addition, these mice were hyposensitive to the PPI-reducing effect of the dopaminergic receptor agonist, highlighting a role of Meis1 in the dopaminergic system. Other reported phenotypes include enhanced social recognition at an older age that was not related to alterations in adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis previously shown to be implicated in this behavior. In conclusion, the Meis1-deficient mice fulfill some of the hallmarks of an RLS animal model, and revealed the role of Meis1 in sensorimotor gating and in the dopaminergic systems modulating it.

  3. Meis1: effects on motor phenotypes and the sensorimotor system in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schormair, Barbara; Niedermeier, Kristina M.; Rathkolb, Birgit; Rácz, Ildikó; Klopstock, Thomas; Wolf, Eckhard; Zimmer, Andreas; Gailus-Durner, Valérie; Fuchs, Helmut; Hrabě de Angelis, Martin; Wurst, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT MEIS1 encodes a developmental transcription factor and has been linked to restless legs syndrome (RLS) in genome-wide association studies. RLS is a movement disorder leading to severe sleep reduction and has a substantial impact on the quality of life of patients. In genome-wide association studies, MEIS1 has consistently been the gene with the highest effect size and functional studies suggest a disease-relevant downregulation. Therefore, haploinsufficiency of Meis1 could be the system with the most potential for modeling RLS in animals. We used heterozygous Meis1-knockout mice to study the effects of Meis1 haploinsufficiency on mouse behavioral and neurological phenotypes, and to relate the findings to human RLS. We exposed the Meis1-deficient mice to assays of motor, sensorimotor and cognitive ability, and assessed the effect of a dopaminergic receptor 2/3 agonist commonly used in the treatment of RLS. The mutant mice showed a pattern of circadian hyperactivity, which is compatible with human RLS. Moreover, we discovered a replicable prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficit in the Meis1-deficient animals. In addition, these mice were hyposensitive to the PPI-reducing effect of the dopaminergic receptor agonist, highlighting a role of Meis1 in the dopaminergic system. Other reported phenotypes include enhanced social recognition at an older age that was not related to alterations in adult olfactory bulb neurogenesis previously shown to be implicated in this behavior. In conclusion, the Meis1-deficient mice fulfill some of the hallmarks of an RLS animal model, and revealed the role of Meis1 in sensorimotor gating and in the dopaminergic systems modulating it. PMID:28645892

  4. Learning with slight forgetting optimizes sensorimotor transformation in redundant motor systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaya Hirashima

    Full Text Available Recent theoretical studies have proposed that the redundant motor system in humans achieves well-organized stereotypical movements by minimizing motor effort cost and motor error. However, it is unclear how this optimization process is implemented in the brain, presumably because conventional schemes have assumed a priori that the brain somehow constructs the optimal motor command, and largely ignored the underlying trial-by-trial learning process. In contrast, recent studies focusing on the trial-by-trial modification of motor commands based on error information suggested that forgetting (i.e., memory decay, which is usually considered as an inconvenient factor in motor learning, plays an important role in minimizing the motor effort cost. Here, we examine whether trial-by-trial error-feedback learning with slight forgetting could minimize the motor effort and error in a highly redundant neural network for sensorimotor transformation and whether it could predict the stereotypical activation patterns observed in primary motor cortex (M1 neurons. First, using a simple linear neural network model, we theoretically demonstrated that: 1 this algorithm consistently leads the neural network to converge at a unique optimal state; 2 the biomechanical properties of the musculoskeletal system necessarily determine the distribution of the preferred directions (PD; the direction in which the neuron is maximally active of M1 neurons; and 3 the bias of the PDs is steadily formed during the minimization of the motor effort. Furthermore, using a non-linear network model with realistic musculoskeletal data, we demonstrated numerically that this algorithm could consistently reproduce the PD distribution observed in various motor tasks, including two-dimensional isometric torque production, two-dimensional reaching, and even three-dimensional reaching tasks. These results may suggest that slight forgetting in the sensorimotor transformation network is responsible

  5. Systemic Pregabalin Attenuates Sensorimotor Responses and Medullary Glutamate Release in Inflammatory Tooth Pain Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Noriyuki; Kumar, Naresh; Cherkas, Pavel S.; Chiang, Chen Yu; Dostrovsky, Jonathan O.; Coderre, Terence J.; Sessle, Barry J.

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that application to the tooth pulp of the inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) induces medullary glutamate release and central sensitization in the rat medullary dorsal horn (MDH), as well as nociceptive sensorimotor responses in craniofacial muscles in rats. There is recent evidence that anticonvulsant drugs such as pregabalin that influence glutamatergic neurotransmission are effective in several pain states. The aim of this study was to examine whether systemic administration of pregabalin attenuated glutamate release in the medulla as well as these nociceptive effects reflected in increased electromyographic (EMG) activity induced by MO application to the tooth pulp. Male adult rats were anesthetized with isofluorane (1.0~1.2 %), and jaw and tongue muscle EMG activities were recorded by needle electrodes inserted bilaterally into masseter and anterior digastric muscles and into the genioglossus muscle, and also the medullary release of glutamate was assessed by in vivo microdialysis. Pregabalin or vehicle control (isotonic saline) was administered 30 min before the pulpal application of MO or vehicle control (mineral oil). Application of mineral oil to the maxillary first molar tooth pulp produced no change in baseline EMG activity and glutamate release. However, application of MO to the pulp significantly increased both the medullary release of glutamate and EMG activity in the jaw and tongue muscles for several minutes. In contrast, pre-medication with pregabalin, but not vehicle control, significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the medullary glutamate release and EMG activity in these muscles after MO application to the tooth pulp (ANOVA, ppregabalin may attenuate the medullary release of glutamate and associated nociceptive sensorimotor responses in this acute inflammatory pulpal pain model, and that it may prove useful for the treatment of orofacial inflammatory pain states. PMID:22609939

  6. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1995-03-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  7. System identification and sensorimotor determinants of flight maneuvers in an insect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponberg, Simon; Hall, Robert; Roth, Eatai

    Locomotor maneuvers are inherently closed-loop processes. They are generally characterized by the integration of multiple sensory inputs and adaptation or learning over time. To probe sensorimotor processing we take a system identification approach treating the underlying physiological systems as dynamic processes and altering the feedback topology in experiment and analysis. As a model system, we use agile hawk moths (Manduca sexta), which feed from real and robotic flowers while hovering in mid air. Moths rely on vision and mechanosensation to track floral targets and can do so at exceptionally low luminance levels despite hovering being a mechanically unstable behavior that requires neural feedback to stabilize. By altering the sensory environment and placing mechanical and visual signals in conflict we show a surprisingly simple linear summation of visual and mechanosensation produces a generative prediction of behavior to novel stimuli. Tracking performance is also limited more by the mechanics of flight than the magnitude of the sensory cue. A feedback systems approach to locomotor control results in new insights into how behavior emerges from the interaction of nonlinear physiological systems.

  8. Influence of sympathetic nervous system on sensorimotor function: whiplash associated disorders (WAD) as a model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passatore, Magda; Roatta, Silvestro

    2006-11-01

    There is increasing interest about the possible involvement of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in initiation and maintenance of chronic muscle pain syndromes of different aetiology. Epidemiological data show that stresses of different nature, e.g. work-related, psychosocial, etc., typically characterised by SNS activation, may be a co-factor in the development of the pain syndrome and/or negatively affect its time course. In spite of their clear traumatic origin, whiplash associated disorders (WAD) appear to share many common features with other chronic pain syndromes affecting the musculo-skeletal system. These features do not only include symptoms, like type of pain or sensory and motor dysfunctions, but possibly also some of the pathophysiological mechanisms that may concur to establish the chronic pain syndrome. This review focuses on WAD, particular emphasis being devoted to sensorimotor symptoms, and on the actions exerted by the sympathetic system at muscle level. Besides its well-known action on muscle blood flow, the SNS is able to affect the contractility of muscle fibres, to modulate the proprioceptive information arising from the muscle spindle receptors and, under certain conditions, to modulate nociceptive information. Furthermore, the activity of the SNS itself is in turn affected by muscle conditions, such as its current state of activity, fatigue and pain signals originating in the muscle. The possible involvement of the SNS in the development of WAD is discussed in light of the several positive feedback loops in which it is implicated.

  9. Reduction in phencyclidine induced sensorimotor gating deficits in the rat following increased system xc⁻ activity in the medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgen, Victoria; Qualmann, Krista; Resch, Jon; Kong, Linghai; Choi, Sujean; Baker, David A

    2013-04-01

    Aspects of schizophrenia, including deficits in sensorimotor gating, have been linked to glutamate dysfunction and/or oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex. System xc(-), a cystine-glutamate antiporter, is a poorly understood mechanism that contributes to both cellular antioxidant capacity and glutamate homeostasis. Our goal was to determine whether increased system xc(-) activity within the prefrontal cortex would normalize a rodent measure of sensorimotor gating. In situ hybridization was used to map messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of xCT, the active subunit of system xc(-), in the prefrontal cortex. Prepulse inhibition was used to measure sensorimotor gating; deficits in prepulse inhibition were produced using phencyclidine (0.3-3 mg/kg, sc). N-Acetylcysteine (10-100 μM) and the system xc(-) inhibitor (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (CPG, 0.5 μM) were used to increase and decrease system xc(-) activity, respectively. The uptake of (14)C-cystine into tissue punches obtained from the prefrontal cortex was used to assay system xc(-) activity. The expression of xCT mRNA in the prefrontal cortex was most prominent in a lateral band spanning primarily the prelimbic cortex. Although phencyclidine did not alter the uptake of (14)C-cystine in prefrontal cortical tissue punches, intraprefrontal cortical infusion of N-acetylcysteine (10-100 μM) significantly reduced phencyclidine- (1.5 mg/kg, sc) induced deficits in prepulse inhibition. N-Acetylcysteine was without effect when coinfused with CPG (0.5 μM), indicating an involvement of system xc(-). These results indicate that phencyclidine disrupts sensorimotor gating through system xc(-) independent mechanisms, but that increasing cystine-glutamate exchange in the prefrontal cortex is sufficient to reduce behavioral deficits produced by phencyclidine.

  10. Reduction in Phencyclidine Induced Sensorimotor Gating Deficits in the Rat Following Increased System xc− Activity in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutgen, Victoria; Qualmann, Krista; Resch, Jon; Kong, Linghai; Choi, SuJean; Baker, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Aspects of schizophrenia, including deficits in sensorimotor gating, have been linked to glutamate dysfunction and/or oxidative stress in the prefrontal cortex. System xc−, a cystine- glutamate antiporter, is a poorly understood mechanism that contributes to both cellular antioxidant capacity and glutamate homeostasis. Objectives Our goal was to determine whether increased system xc− activity within the prefrontal cortex would normalize a rodent measure of sensorimotor gating. Methods In situ hybridization was used to map mRNA expression of xCT, the active subunit of system xc−, in the prefrontal cortex. Prepulse inhibition was used to measure sensorimotor gating; deficits in prepulse inhibition were produced using phencyclidine (0.3–3 mg/kg, sc). N-acetylcysteine (10–100 μM) and the system xc− inhibitor (S)-4-carboxyphenylglycine (CPG, 0.5 μM) were used to increase and decrease system xc− activity, respectively. The uptake of 14C-cystine into tissue punches obtained from the prefrontal cortex was used to assay system xc− activity. Results The expression of xCT mRNA in the prefrontal cortex was most prominent in a lateral band spanning primarily the prelimbic cortex. Although phencyclidine did not alter the uptake of 14C-cystine in prefrontal cortical tissue punches, intra-prefrontal cortical infusion of N-acetylcysteine (10–100 μM) significantly reduced phencyclidine- (1.5 mg/kg, sc) induced deficits in prepulse inhibition. N-acetylcysteine was without effect when co-infused with CPG (0.5 μM), indicating an involvement of system xc−. Conclusions These results indicate that phencyclidine disrupts sensorimotor gating through system xc− independent mechanisms, but that increasing cystine-glutamate exchange in the prefrontal cortex is sufficient to reduce behavioral deficits produced by phencyclidine. PMID:23192314

  11. Celecoxib reduces brain dopaminergic neuronaldysfunction, and improves sensorimotor behavioral performance in neonatal rats exposed to systemic lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizaki, Asuka; Tien, Lu-Tai; Pang, Yi; Cai, Zhengwei; Tanaka, Sachiko; Numazawa, Satoshi; Bhatt, Abhay J; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2013-04-05

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is induced in inflammatory cells in response to cytokines and pro-inflammatory molecules, suggesting that COX-2 has a role in the inflammatory process. The objective of the current study was to examine whether celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, could ameliorate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced brain inflammation, dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction and sensorimotor behavioral impairments. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of LPS (2 mg/kg) was performed in rat pups on postnatal Day 5 (P5), and celecoxib (20 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered (i.p.) five minutes after LPS injection. Sensorimotor behavioral tests were carried out 24 h after LPS exposure, and brain injury was examined on P6. Our results showed that LPS exposure resulted in impairment in sensorimotor behavioral performance and injury to brain dopaminergic neurons, as indicated by loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity, as well as decreases in mitochondria activity in the rat brain. LPS exposure also led to increases in the expression of α-synuclein and dopamine transporter proteins and enhanced [3H]dopamine uptake. Treatment with celecoxib significantly reduced LPS-induced sensorimotor behavioral disturbances and dopaminergic neuronal dysfunction. Celecoxib administration significantly attenuated LPS-induced increases in the numbers of activated microglia and astrocytes and in the concentration of IL-1β in the neonatal rat brain. The protective effect of celecoxib was also associated with an attenuation of LPS-induced COX-2+ cells, which were double labeled with TH + (dopaminergic neuron) or glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) + (astrocyte) cells. Systemic LPS administration induced brain inflammatory responses in neonatal rats; these inflammatory responses included induction of COX-2 expression in TH neurons and astrocytes. Application of the COX-2 inhibitor celecoxib after LPS treatment attenuated the inflammatory response and improved LPS-induced impairment

  12. Influence of spinal cord injury on cerebral sensorimotor systems : A PET study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelcke, U; Curt, A; Otte, A; Missimer, J; Maguire, RP; Dietz, [No Value; Leenders, KL

    Objectives-To assess the effect of a transverse spinal cord lesion on cerebral energy metabolism in view of sensorimotor reorganisation. Methods-PET and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose were used to study resting cerebral glucose metabolism in 11 patients with complete paraplegia or tetraplegia after spinal

  13. Altered contralateral sensorimotor system organization after experimental hemispherectomy: a structural and functional connectivity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otte, Willem M; van der Marel, Kajo; van Meer, Maurits P A; van Rijen, Peter C; Gosselaar, Peter H; Braun, Kees P J; Dijkhuizen, Rick M

    2015-01-01

    Hemispherectomy is often followed by remarkable recovery of cognitive and motor functions. This reflects plastic capacities of the remaining hemisphere, involving large-scale structural and functional adaptations. Better understanding of these adaptations may (1) provide new insights in the neuronal configuration and rewiring that underlies sensorimotor outcome restoration, and (2) guide development of rehabilitation strategies to enhance recovery after hemispheric lesioning. We assessed brain structure and function in a hemispherectomy model. With MRI we mapped changes in white matter structural integrity and gray matter functional connectivity in eight hemispherectomized rats, compared with 12 controls. Behavioral testing involved sensorimotor performance scoring. Diffusion tensor imaging and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging were acquired 7 and 49 days post surgery. Hemispherectomy caused significant sensorimotor deficits that largely recovered within 2 weeks. During the recovery period, fractional anisotropy was maintained and white matter volume and axial diffusivity increased in the contralateral cerebral peduncle, suggestive of preserved or improved white matter integrity despite overall reduced white matter volume. This was accompanied by functional adaptations in the contralateral sensorimotor network. The observed white matter modifications and reorganization of functional network regions may provide handles for rehabilitation strategies improving functional recovery following large lesions. PMID:25966942

  14. Coherence between Rat Sensorimotor System and Hippocampus Is Enhanced during Tactile Discrimination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Grion

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Rhythms with time scales of multiple cycles per second permeate the mammalian brain, yet neuroscientists are not certain of their functional roles. One leading idea is that coherent oscillation between two brain regions facilitates the exchange of information between them. In rats, the hippocampus and the vibrissal sensorimotor system both are characterized by rhythmic oscillation in the theta range, 5-12 Hz. Previous work has been divided as to whether the two rhythms are independent or coherent. To resolve this question, we acquired three measures from rats--whisker motion, hippocampal local field potential (LFP, and barrel cortex unit firing--during a whisker-mediated texture discrimination task and during control conditions (not engaged in a whisker-mediated memory task. Compared to control conditions, the theta band of hippocampal LFP showed a marked increase in power as the rats approached and then palpated the texture. Phase synchronization between whisking and hippocampal LFP increased by almost 50% during approach and texture palpation. In addition, a greater proportion of barrel cortex neurons showed firing that was phase-locked to hippocampal theta while rats were engaged in the discrimination task. Consistent with a behavioral consequence of phase synchronization, the rats identified the texture more rapidly and with lower error likelihood on trials in which there was an increase in theta-whisking coherence at the moment of texture palpation. These results suggest that coherence between the whisking rhythm, barrel cortex firing, and hippocampal LFP is augmented selectively during epochs in which the rat collects sensory information and that such coherence enhances the efficiency of integration of stimulus information into memory and decision-making centers.

  15. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  16. Scan image compression-encryption hardware system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbakis, Nikolaos G.; Brause, R.; Alexopoulos, C.

    1995-04-01

    This paper deals with the hardware design of an image compression/encryption scheme called SCAN. The scheme is based on the principles and ideas reflected by the specification of the SCAN language. SCAN is a fractal based context-free language which accesses sequentially the data of a 2D array, by describing and generating a wide range (near (nxn)) of space filling curves (or SCAN patterns) from a short set of simple ones. The SCAN method uses the algorithmic description of each 2D image as SCAN patterns combinations for the compression and encryption of the image data. Note that each SCAN letter or word accesses the image data with a different order (or sequence), thus the application of a variety of SCAN words associated with the compression scheme will produce various compressed versions of the same image. The compressed versions are compared in memory size and the best of them with the smallest size in bits could be used for the image compression/encryption. Note that the encryption of the image data is a result of the great number of possible space filling curves which could be generated by SCAN. Since the software implementation of the SCAN compression/encryption scheme requires some time, the hardware design and implementation of the SCAN scheme is necessary in order to reduce the image compression/encryption time to the real-time one. The development of such an image compression encryption system will have a significant impact on the transmission and storage of images. It will be applicable in multimedia and transmission of images through communication lines.

  17. Moving and sensing without input and output: early nervous systems and the origins of the animal sensorimotor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keijzer, Fred

    It remains a standing problem how and why the first nervous systems evolved. Molecular and genomic information is now rapidly accumulating but the macroscopic organization and functioning of early nervous systems remains unclear. To explore potential evolutionary options, a coordination centered view is discussed that diverges from a standard input-output view on early nervous systems. The scenario involved, the skin brain thesis (SBT), stresses the need to coordinate muscle-based motility at a very early stage. This paper addresses how this scenario with its focus on coordination also deals with sensory aspects. It will be argued that the neural structure required to coordinate extensive sheets of contractile tissue for motility provides the starting point for a new multicellular organized form of sensing. Moving a body by muscle contraction provides the basis for a multicellular organization that is sensitive to external surface structure at the scale of the animal body. Instead of thinking about early nervous systems as being connected to the environment merely through input and output, the implication developed here is that early nervous systems provide the foundation for a highly specific animal sensorimotor organization in which neural activity directly reflects bodily and environmental spatiotemporal structure. While the SBT diverges from the input-output view, it is closely linked to and supported by ongoing work on embodied approaches to intelligence to which it adds a new interpretation of animal embodiment and sensorimotor organization.

  18. Laser scanning laser diode photoacoustic microscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanzadeh, Mohsen; Kumavor, Patrick D; Zhu, Quing

    2018-03-01

    The development of low-cost and fast photoacoustic microscopy systems enhances the clinical applicability of photoacoustic imaging systems. To this end, we present a laser scanning laser diode-based photoacoustic microscopy system. In this system, a 905 nm, 325 W maximum output peak power pulsed laser diode with 50 ns pulsewidth is utilized as the light source. A combination of aspheric and cylindrical lenses is used for collimation of the laser diode beam. Two galvanometer scanning mirrors steer the beam across a focusing aspheric lens. The lateral resolution of the system was measured to be ∼21 μm using edge spread function estimation. No averaging was performed during data acquisition. The imaging speed is ∼370 A-lines per second. Photoacoustic microscopy images of human hairs, ex vivo mouse ear, and ex vivo porcine ovary are presented to demonstrate the feasibility and potentials of the proposed system.

  19. Lumber Scanning System for Surface Defect Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Earl Kline; Y. Jason Hou; Richard W. Conners; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Philip A. Araman

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes research aimed at developing a machine vision technology to drive automated processes in the hardwood forest products manufacturing industry. An industrial-scale machine vision system has been designed to scan variable-size hardwood lumber for detecting important features that influence the grade and value of lumber such as knots, holes, wane,...

  20. Normalization of sensorimotor integration by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in cervical dystonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zittel, S.; Helmich, R.C.G.; Demiralay, C.; Munchau, A.; Baumer, T.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that sensorimotor integration and plasticity of the sensorimotor system are impaired in dystonia patients. We investigated motor evoked potential amplitudes and short latency afferent inhibition to examine corticospinal excitability and cortical sensorimotor integration,

  1. Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    The Cornea Optical Topographical Scan System (COTSS) is an instrument designed for use by opthalmologist to aid in performing surgical procedures such as radial keratotomy and to provide quick accurate data to aid in prescribing contact lenses and eyeglasses. A breadboard of the system was built and demonstrated in June of 1984. Additional refinements to the breadboard are needed to meet systems requirements prior to proceeding with prototype development. The present status of the COTSS instrument is given and the areas in which system refinements are required, are defined.

  2. Influence of scanning strategies on the accuracy of digital intraoral scanning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, A; Mehl, A

    2013-01-01

    The digital intraoral impression is a central part in today's CAD/CAM dentistry. With its possibilities, new treatment options for the patient is provided and the prosthetic workflow is accelerated. Nowadays, the major issue with intraoral scanning systems is to gain more accuracy especially for larger scan areas and to simplify clinical handling for the dentist. The aim of this study was to investigate different scanning strategies regardingtheir accuracy with full arch scans in an in-vitro study design. A reference master model was used for the digital impressions with the Lava COS, the Cerec Bluecam and a powderfree intraoral scanning system, Cadent iTero. The trueness and precision of each scanning protocol was measured. Lava COS provides the a trueness of 45.8 microm with the scanning protocol recommended from the manufacturer. A different scanning protocol shows significantly lower accuracy (trueness +/- 90.2 microm). Cerec Bluecam also benefits from an optimal scanning protocol with a trueness of +/- 23.3 microm compared to +/- 52.5 microm with a standard protocol. The powderfree impression system Cadent iTero shows also a high accurate full-arch scan with a trueness of +/- 35.0 microm and a precision of +/- 30.9 microm. With the current intraoral scanning systems, full arch dental impressions are possible with a high accuracy, if adequate scan strategies are used. The powderfree scanning system provides the same level of accuracy compared to scanning systems with surface pretreatment.

  3. Sensorimotor transformation via sparse coding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takiyama, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor transformation is indispensable to the accurate motion of the human body in daily life. For instance, when we grasp an object, the distance from our hands to an object needs to be calculated by integrating multisensory inputs, and our motor system needs to appropriately activate the arm and hand muscles to minimize the distance. The sensorimotor transformation is implemented in our neural systems, and recent advances in measurement techniques have revealed an important property of neural systems: a small percentage of neurons exhibits extensive activity while a large percentage shows little activity, i.e., sparse coding. However, we do not yet know the functional role of sparse coding in sensorimotor transformation. In this paper, I show that sparse coding enables complete and robust learning in sensorimotor transformation. In general, if a neural network is trained to maximize the performance on training data, the network shows poor performance on test data. Nevertheless, sparse coding renders compatible the performance of the network on both training and test data. Furthermore, sparse coding can reproduce reported neural activities. Thus, I conclude that sparse coding is necessary and a biologically plausible factor in sensorimotor transformation. PMID:25923980

  4. Sensorimotor nucleus NIf is necessary for auditory processing but not vocal motor output in the avian song system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardin, Jessica A; Raksin, Jonathan N; Schmidt, Marc F

    2005-04-01

    Sensorimotor integration in the avian song system is crucial for both learning and maintenance of song, a vocal motor behavior. Although a number of song system areas demonstrate both sensory and motor characteristics, their exact roles in auditory and premotor processing are unclear. In particular, it is unknown whether input from the forebrain nucleus interface of the nidopallium (NIf), which exhibits both sensory and premotor activity, is necessary for both auditory and premotor processing in its target, HVC. Here we show that bilateral NIf lesions result in long-term loss of HVC auditory activity but do not impair song production. NIf is thus a major source of auditory input to HVC, but an intact NIf is not necessary for motor output in adult zebra finches.

  5. Designs for Environmental Scanning Systems: Tests of a Contingency Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Yasai-Ardekani; Paul C. Nystrom

    1996-01-01

    This study compared the relationships between organizational context and the designs of environmental scanning systems for organizational with effective and ineffective scanning systems. The study analyzed data from over 100 North American business organizations. Results indicate that organizations with effective scanning systems tend to align their scanning designs with the requirements of their context. On the other hand, the results show that organizations with ineffective scanning systems...

  6. Development of an automatic pipeline scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae H.; Lee, Jae C.; Moon, Soon S.; Eom, Heung S.; Choi, Yu R

    1999-11-01

    Pressure pipe inspection in nuclear power plants is one of the mandatory regulation items. Comparing to manual ultrasonic inspection, automatic inspection has the benefits of more accurate and reliable inspection results and reduction of radiation disposal. final object of this project is to develop an automatic pipeline inspection system of pressure pipe welds in nuclear power plants. We developed a pipeline scanning robot with four magnetic wheels and 2-axis manipulator for controlling ultrasonic transducers, and developed the robot control computer which controls the robot to navigate along inspection path exactly. We expect our system can contribute to reduction of inspection time, performance enhancement, and effective management of inspection results. The system developed by this project can be practically used for inspection works after field tests. (author)

  7. Sensorimotor changes and functional performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Hurley, Michael V.; Scott, David L; Rees, Joanne; Newham, Di J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Muscles are essential components of our sensorimotor system that help maintain balance and perform a smooth gait, but it is unclear whether arthritic damage adversely affects muscle sensorimotor function. Quadriceps sensorimotor function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) was investigated, and whether these changes were associated with impairment of functional performance. METHODS: Quadriceps strength, voluntary activation, and proprioceptive acuity (joint position sense acu...

  8. 2014 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2014-01-01

    The Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) met on December 17 - 18, 2014 in Houston, TX to review the current status of the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft, Associated Systems and Immediate Vehicle Egress due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alteration Associated with Space Flight (Sensorimotor Risk) in the Integrated Research Plan (IRP). During the meeting, the SRP received an in-depth briefing of the current status of the Sensorimotor Risk from Dr. Jacob Bloomberg, the Human Research Program (HRP) Sensorimotor Discipline Lead Scientist and Dr. Millard Reschke, the Chief Scientist of the Neuroscience Laboratories at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). The SRP was impressed with the information that Dr. Bloomberg and Dr. Reschke presented and think that the in-person meeting (instead of WebEx/teleconference) allowed for more interactive and thoughtful conversations.

  9. Sensorimotor event: an approach to the dynamic, embodied, and embedded nature of sensorimotor cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilarroya, Oscar

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the notion of sensorimotor event as the building block of sensorimotor cognition. A sensorimotor event is presented here as a neurally controlled event that recruits those processes and elements that are necessary to address the demands of the situation in which the individual is involved. The notion of sensorimotor event is intended to subsume the dynamic, embodied, and embedded nature of sensorimotor cognition, in agreement with the satisficing and bricoleur approach to sensorimotor cognition presented elsewhere (Vilarroya, 2012). In particular, the notion of sensorimotor event encompasses those relevant neural processes, but also those bodily and environmental elements, that are necessary to deal with the situation in which the individual is involved. This continuum of neural processes as well as bodily and environmental elements can be characterized, and this characterization is considered the basis for the identification of the particular sensorimotor event. Among other consequences, the notion of sensorimotor event suggests a different approach to the classical account of sensory-input mapping onto a motor output. Instead of characterizing how a neural system responds to an external input, the idea defended here is to characterize how system-in-an-environment responds to its antecedent situation.

  10. 2015 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel Evidence and Status Review For: the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The 2015 Sensorimotor Risk Standing Review Panel (from here on referred to as the SRP) participated in a WebEx/teleconference with members of the Human Health Countermeasures (HHC) Element, representatives from the Human Research Program (HRP), NASA Headquarters, and NASA Research and Education Support Services (NRESS) on December 17, 2015 (list of participants is in Section VI of this report). The SRP reviewed the new Evidence Report for the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Spaceflight (from here on referred to as the 2015 Sensorimotor Evidence Report), and also received a status review of the Risk. The opening section of the 2015 Sensorimotor Evidence Report provides written descriptions of various incidents that have occurred during space missions. In most of these incidents, the main underlying contributing factors are not easy to identify unambiguously. For example, in section 1.9, a number of falls occurred while astronauts were walking on the moon. It is not clear to the SRP, however, why they fell. It is only possible to extrapolate from likely specific psychophysical or physiological abnormalities, but how these abnormalities were determined, and how they were directly responsible for the falls is unclear to the SRP. Section 2.1.2 on proprioception is very interesting, but the functional significance of the abnormalities detected is not clear. The SRP sees this as a problem throughout the report: a mapping between the component abnormalities identified and the holistic behaviors that are most relevant, for example, controlling the vehicle, and locomotion during egress, is generally lacking. The SRP thinks the cognitive section is too strongly focused on vestibular functioning. The SRP questions the notion that the main cognitive effects are mainly attributable to reversible vestibular changes induced by spaceflight. The SRP thinks that there can also

  11. Countermeasures to Enhance Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Brady, R. A.; Batson, C. C.; Miller, C. A.; Cohen, H. S.

    2011-01-01

    During exploration-class missions, sensorimotor disturbances may lead to disruption in the ability to ambulate and perform functional tasks during the initial introduction to a novel gravitational environment following a landing on a planetary surface. The goal of our current project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program to facilitate rapid adaptation to novel gravitational environments. We have developed a unique training system comprised of a treadmill placed on a motion-base facing a virtual visual scene that provides an unstable walking surface combined with incongruent visual flow designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. We have conducted a series of studies that have shown: Training using a combination of modified visual flow and support surface motion during treadmill walking enhances locomotor adaptability to a novel sensorimotor environment. Trained individuals become more proficient at performing multiple competing tasks while walking during adaptation to novel discordant sensorimotor conditions. Trained subjects can retain their increased level of adaptability over a six months period. SA training is effective in producing increased adaptability in a more complex over-ground ambulatory task on an obstacle course. This confirms that for a complex task like walking, treadmill training contains enough of the critical features of overground walking to be an effective training modality. The structure of individual training sessions can be optimized to promote fast/strategic motor learning. Training sessions that each contain short-duration exposures to multiple perturbation stimuli allows subjects to acquire a greater ability to rapidly reorganize appropriate response strategies when encountering a novel sensory environment. Individual sensory biases (i.e. increased visual dependency) can predict adaptive responses to novel sensory environments suggesting that customized training prescriptions can be developed to enhance

  12. The sensorimotor loop as a dynamical system: How regular motion primitives may emerge from self-organized limit cycles

    CERN Document Server

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Martin, Laura; Gros, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the sensorimotor loop of simple robots simulated within the LPZRobots environment from the point of view of dynamical systems theory. For a robot with a cylindrical shaped body and an actuator controlled by a single proprioceptual neuron we find various types of periodic motions in terms of stable limit cycles. These are self-organized in the sense, that the dynamics of the actuator kicks in only, for a certain range of parameters, when the barrel is already rolling, stopping otherwise. The stability of the resulting rolling motions terminates generally, as a function of the control parameters, at points where fold bifurcations of limit cycles occur. We find that several branches of motion types exist for the same parameters, in terms of the relative frequencies of the barrel and of the actuator, having each their respective basins of attractions in terms of initial conditions. For low drivings stable limit cycles describing periodic and drifting back-and-forth motions are found additionally. T...

  13. Spatial-spectral analysis of a laser scanning video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapustin, A. A.; Razumovskii, V. N.; Iatsevich, G. B.

    1980-06-01

    A spatial-spectral analysis method is considered for a laser scanning video system with the phase processing of a received signal, on a modulation frequency. Distortions caused by the system are analyzed, and a general problem is reduced for the case of a cylindrical surface. The approach suggested can also be used for scanning microwave systems.

  14. System and method for compressive scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Bryan W

    2015-01-13

    A scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) system is disclosed. The system may make use of an electron beam scanning system configured to generate a plurality of electron beam scans over substantially an entire sample, with each scan varying in electron-illumination intensity over a course of the scan. A signal acquisition system may be used for obtaining at least one of an image, a diffraction pattern, or a spectrum from the scans, the image, diffraction pattern, or spectrum representing only information from at least one of a select subplurality or linear combination of all pixel locations comprising the image. A dataset may be produced from the information. A subsystem may be used for mathematically analyzing the dataset to predict actual information that would have been produced by each pixel location of the image.

  15. Sensorimotor enhancement with a mixed reality system for balance and mobility rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Joyce; Perez, Claire F

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a mixed reality system incorporating virtual reality (VR), surface perturbations and light touch for gait rehabilitation. Haptic touch has emerged as a novel and efficient technique to improve postural control and dynamic stability. Our system combines visual display with the manipulation of physical environments and addition of haptic feedback to enhance balance and mobility post stroke. A research study involving 9 participants with stroke and 9 age-matched healthy individuals show that the haptic cue provided while walking is an effective means of improving gait stability in people post stroke, especially during challenging environmental conditions such as downslope walking.

  16. Facilitating the Acquisition of Sensorimotor Behavior with a Microcomputer-Mediated Teaching System: An Experimental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eva M.; Warren, Steven F.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of a combined neuromotor/behavioral approach using a microcomputer mediated teaching system on the acquisition of basic motor skills by two young children (17- and 24-months-old) with severe and multiple disabilities were examined. Increased frequency and duration of target behaviors in both training and generalizing settings were…

  17. Safe Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Salazar, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Scheibel, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Engels, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reiger, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Department of Energy’s Cybersecurity for Energy Delivery Systems Program has funded Safe(r) Active Scanning for Energy Delivery Systems, led by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, to investigate and analyze the impacts of active scanning in the operational environment of energy delivery systems. In collaboration with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and Idaho National Laboratory, active scans across three testbeds including 38 devices were performed. This report gives a summary of the initial literature survey performed on the SASEDS project as well as industry partner interview summaries and main findings from Phase 1 of the project. Additionally, the report goes into the details of scanning techniques, methodologies for testing, testbed descriptions, and scanning results, with appendices to elaborate on the specific scans that were performed. As a result of testing, a single device out of 38 exhibited problems when actively scanned, and a reboot was required to fix it. This single failure indicates that active scanning is not likely to have a detrimental effect on the safety and resilience of energy delivery systems. We provide a path forward for future research that could enable wide adoption of active scanning and lead utilities to incorporate active scanning as part of their default network security plans to discover and rectify rogue devices, adversaries, and services that may be on the network. This increased network visibility will allow operational technology cybersecurity practitioners to improve their situational awareness of networks and their vulnerabilities.

  18. The efficacy of a HUBER exercise system mediated sensorimotor training protocol on proprioceptive system, lumbar movement control and quality of life in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letafatkar, Amir; Nazarzadeh, Maryam; Hadadnezhad, Malihe; Farivar, Niloufar

    2017-08-03

    There is a relation between deficits of the proprioceptive system and movement control dysfunction in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP) but, the exact mechanism of this relation is unknown. Exercise therapy has been recognized as an effective method for low back pain treatment. In spite of this, it is not clear which of the various exercise therapy programs lead to better results. Therefore, the present analyze the efficacy of a HUBER study aims to exercise system mediated sensorimotor training protocol on proprioceptive system, lumbar movement control (LMC) and quality of life (QOL) in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. Quasi-experimental study. 53 patients with chronic non-specific LBP (mean age 37.55 ± 6.67 years,and Body Mass Index (BMI) 22.4 ± 3.33) were selected by using Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMQ) and were assigned into two experimental (N= 27) and control groups (N= 26) The experimental group underwent a five-week (10 sessions) Sensorimotor training by using the Human Body Equalizer (HUBER) spine force under the supervision of an investigator. The movement control battery tests, the HUBER machine testing option, goniometer and visual analogue scale used for movement control, neuromuscular coordination, proprioception and LBP assessment respectively. The assessments were completed in pre-test and after five weeks. The paired and sample T tests were used for data analysis in SPSS program version 18 (Significance level were set at a P value sensorimotor training demonstrated significant improvement in the proprioceptive system, LMC and QOL (P= 0.001). Also There was a significant reduction in the pain scores of subjects with chronic non-specific LBP in the sensorimotor group (P= 0.001). In this study, only the short term effects of the sensorimotor training were examined. The results suggest that a sensorimotor training program causes significant improvement in patients with chronic non-specific LBP. Future research should be

  19. Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; Reschke, Millard F.; Clement, Gilles R.; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Taylor, Laura C..

    2015-01-01

    Control of vehicles and other complex systems is a high-level integrative function of the central nervous system (CNS). It requires well-functioning subsystem performance, including good visual acuity, eye-hand coordination, spatial and geographic orientation perception, and cognitive function. Evidence from space flight research demonstrates that the function of each of these subsystems is altered by removing gravity, a fundamental orientation reference, which is sensed by vestibular, proprioceptive, and haptic receptors and used by the CNS for spatial orientation, posture, navigation, and coordination of movements. The available evidence also shows that the degree of alteration of each subsystem depends on a number of crew- and mission-related factors. There is only limited operational evidence that these alterations cause functional impacts on mission-critical vehicle (or complex system) control capabilities. Furthermore, while much of the operational performance data collected during space flight has not been available for independent analysis, those that have been reviewed are somewhat equivocal owing to uncontrolled (and/or unmeasured) environmental and/or engineering factors. Whether this can be improved by further analysis of previously inaccessible operational data or by development of new operational research protocols remains to be seen. The true operational risks will be estimable only after we have filled the knowledge gaps and when we can accurately assess integrated performance in off-nominal operational settings (Paloski et al. 2008). Thus, our current understanding of the Risk of Impaired Control of Spacecraft/Associated Systems and Decreased Mobility Due to Vestibular/Sensorimotor Alterations Associated with Space flight is limited primarily to extrapolation of scientific research findings, and, since there are limited ground-based analogs of the sensorimotor and vestibular changes associated with space flight, observation of their functional

  20. One-dimensional scatter grid for the SenoScan slot-scanning digital mammography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbakri, Idris A.; shen, Sam; Bloomquist, Aili; Tesic, Mike M.; Mawdsley, Gordon; Yaffe, Martin

    2005-04-01

    The SenoScan full-field digital mammography scanner uses a scanning slot detector that is 10 mm wide and 220 mm long. The X-ray beam is collimated to just outside the area of the detector. One important advantage of slot scanning is its inherent scatter rejection. As previously reported, the SenoScan slot scatter rejection is better than that obtained using a 3.5:1 mammography grid, and somewhat worse than that with a 5:1 grid. Additional scatter reduction can potentially improve the contrast in images of thick breasts. We evaluate a custom-designed grid for the slot scanning system. The grid is one-dimensional, offering scatter rejection along the longitudinal axis of the detector. We evaluate the reduction in scatter fraction, grid absorption and changes in the signal-difference-to-noise ratio (SDNR). Based on phantom studies, our results show effective scatter reduction by the grid with minimal reduction of SDNR. Grid absorption and scatter elimination do not necessarily lead to an increase in patient dose, especially if there is a improvement in the number of digital values in the image that are within the useful dynamic range of the detector. A benefit of removing the scatter contribution is an improvement in system dynamic range, because electronic detector gain adjustments can compensate for the drop in the digital pixel values.

  1. Scanning Systems for Searching Double Strangeness Nuclei in Nuclear Emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Junya; Ito, Hiroki; Kinbara, Shinji; Kobayashi, Hidetaka; Nakashima, Daisuke; Nakazawa, Kazuma; Kyaw Soe, Myint; Moh Moh Theint, Aye; Than Tint, Khin

    Scanning systems for detecting double Lambda hypernucler events in nuclear emulsion plates with high statistics are presented. The systems are complexes of optical microscopes and computers to provide fast emulsion scanning and image recognition for vertex-like objects. We recently introduced a two-stage process of vertex detection to exclude misdetected objects. The method can be expected to reduce conventional eye-check works and increase search speed for double Lambda hypernuclear event.

  2. Jaw sensorimotor control in healthy adults and effects of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avivi-Arber, L; Sessle, B J

    2018-01-01

    The oro-facial sensorimotor system is a unique system significantly distinguished from the spinal sensorimotor system. The jaw muscles are involved in mastication, swallowing and articulatory speech movements and their integration with respiration. These sensorimotor functions are vital for sustaining life and necessitate complex neuromuscular processing to provide for exquisite sensorimotor control of numerous oro-facial muscles. The function of the jaw muscles in relation to sensorimotor control of these movements may be subject to ageing-related declines. This review will focus on peripheral, brainstem and higher brain centre mechanisms involved in reflex regulation and sensorimotor coordination and control of jaw muscles in healthy adults. It will outline the limited literature bearing on age-related declines in jaw sensorimotor functions and control including reduced biting forces and increased risk of impaired chewing, speaking and swallowing. The mechanisms underlying these alterations include age-related degenerative changes within the peripheral neuromuscular system and in brain regions involved in the generation and control of jaw movements. In the light of the vital role of jaw sensorimotor functions in sustaining life, normal ageing involves compensatory mechanisms that utilise the neuroplastic capacity of the brain and the recruitment of additional brain regions involved in sensorimotor performance and closely associated functions (e.g. cognition and memory). However, these regions are themselves susceptible to detrimental age-related changes. Thus, better understanding of the peripheral and central mechanisms underlying age-related sensorimotor impairment is crucial for developing improved treatment approaches to prevent or cure impaired jaw sensorimotor functions and to thereby improve health and quality of life. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A Multicounter System for Scanning Ultra-Low-Level Radiochromatograms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøtter-Jensen, Lars; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Theodorsson, P.

    1977-01-01

    A multicounter system consisting of an integrated array of flow counters for the scanning of ultra-low-level radioactivity on paper and thin-layer chromatograms was developed. Experience with routine measurements over a prolonged period has proved the advantages of this system over other systems,......, such as liquid scintillation counting. A description of the flow counter system is given together with an outline of an electronic data acquisition system, and results are presented to demonstrate its features....

  4. [Dual organization of sensorimotor activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, A E

    1983-05-01

    An anatomical symmetry of the bilateral organism and the functional assignment of brain hemispheres each to one side of the body are preconditions for sensorimotor brain localization. The invariant system elements necessary for this consist of "modules". These are associations of about 2 500 cortical cells in each case. When we refer to duality, we do not mean dualistically separated, but mutually assigned or mutually coordinated half-systems. The mainly decussated sensory and nervous systems of the vertebrates probably give rise to their rhythmic gait coordinated in relation to the axis of the body. Compared to such vital movements, human motor activity varies between voluntary action and involuntary expression. Cortical projection duplicates in the form of secondary or supplementary sensorimotor areas are ascribed hypothetically to an identifiable somatosensory sensation. A development leading to man is likely to have commenced as the brain halves of a pithecanthropus gained asymmetric degrees of freedom in relation to their somatotopic binding to the body. This phylogenetic differentiation led to a dual disjunction of the cerebral hemispheres which enabled a side-different "either/or" in human actions. Speech and thought as transitive order forms are also based on functional asymmetries of the human cerebrum.

  5. Dynamic sensorimotor interactions in locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossignol, Serge; Dubuc, Réjean; Gossard, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Locomotion results from intricate dynamic interactions between a central program and feedback mechanisms. The central program relies fundamentally on a genetically determined spinal circuitry (central pattern generator) capable of generating the basic locomotor pattern and on various descending pathways that can trigger, stop, and steer locomotion. The feedback originates from muscles and skin afferents as well as from special senses (vision, audition, vestibular) and dynamically adapts the locomotor pattern to the requirements of the environment. The dynamic interactions are ensured by modulating transmission in locomotor pathways in a state- and phase-dependent manner. For instance, proprioceptive inputs from extensors can, during stance, adjust the timing and amplitude of muscle activities of the limbs to the speed of locomotion but be silenced during the opposite phase of the cycle. Similarly, skin afferents participate predominantly in the correction of limb and foot placement during stance on uneven terrain, but skin stimuli can evoke different types of responses depending on when they occur within the step cycle. Similarly, stimulation of descending pathways may affect the locomotor pattern in only certain phases of the step cycle. Section ii reviews dynamic sensorimotor interactions mainly through spinal pathways. Section iii describes how similar sensory inputs from the spinal or supraspinal levels can modify locomotion through descending pathways. The sensorimotor interactions occur obviously at several levels of the nervous system. Section iv summarizes presynaptic, interneuronal, and motoneuronal mechanisms that are common at these various levels. Together these mechanisms contribute to the continuous dynamic adjustment of sensorimotor interactions, ensuring that the central program and feedback mechanisms are congruous during locomotion.

  6. Optics designs and system MTF for laser scanning displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urey, Hakan; Nestorovic, Ned; Ng, Baldwin S.; Gross, Abraham A.

    1999-07-01

    The Virtual Retinal DisplayTM (VRDTM) technology is a new display technology being developed at Microvision Inc. The displayed image is scanned onto the viewer's retina using low- power red, green, and blue light sources. Microvision's proprietary miniaturized scanner designs make VRD system very well suited for head-mounted displays. In this paper we discuss some of the advantages of the VRD technology, various ocular designs for HMD and other applications, and details of constructing a system MTF budget for laser scanning systems that includes electronics, modulators, scanners, and optics.

  7. [Moving Mirror Scanning System Based on the Flexible Hinge Support].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fei; Feng, Fei; Wang, Fu-bei; Wu, Qiong-shui; Zeng, Li-bo

    2015-08-01

    In order to improve moving mirror drive of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, we design a dynamic scanning system based on flexible hinge support. Using the flexible hinge support way and the voice coil motor drive mode. Specifically, Using right Angle with high accuracy high stability type flexible hinge support mechanism support moving mirror, dynamic mirror can be moved forward and backward driven by voice coil motor reciprocating motion, DSP control system to control the moving mirror at a constant speed. The experimental results show that the designed of moving mirror scanning system has advantages of stability direction, speed stability, superior seismic performance.

  8. A surface refractive index scanning system and method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The invention relates to a surface refractive index scanning system for characterization of a sample. The system comprises a grating device for holding or receiving the sample, the device comprising at least a first grating region having a first grating width along a transverse direction...

  9. Temporal Ventriloquism in Sensorimotor Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Melody Kay

    Perception of time is multisensory and therefore requires integration of the auditory and visual systems. Temporal ventriloquism is a phenomenon in which discrepant temporal aspects of multisensory stimuli are resolved through auditory dominance. Numerous prior experiments have demonstrated temporal ventriloquism using simple flash and click stimuli. The experiment presented herein employed a sensorimotor synchronization task to examine the effect of visual stimulus type across a range of stimulus onset asynchronies (SOA). This study compared sensorimotor response to three visual stimuli: a flash, a baton swinging, and a mallet striking a block. The results of the experiment indicated that the influence of SOA was greatly dependent on stimulus type. In contrast with the transient flash stimulus, the oscillatory visual stimuli provided more spatiotemporal information. This could explain the significantly reduced effect of temporal ventriloquism observed in response to the baton and mallet relative to the flash. Multisensory integration did not absolutely bias the auditory system; predictive visual dynamics proved useful in the unified perception of temporal occurrence.

  10. Contemporary sensorimotor theory

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This book analyzes the philosophical foundations of sensorimotor theory and discusses the most recent applications of sensorimotor theory to human computer interaction, child’s play, virtual reality, robotics, and linguistics. Why does a circle look curved and not angular? Why does red not sound like a bell? Why, as I interact with the world, is there something it is like to be me? An analytic philosopher might suggest: ``if we ponder the concept of circle we find that it is the essence of a circle to be round’’. However, where does this definition come from? Was it set in stone by the Gods, in other words by divine arbiters of circleness, redness and consciousness? Particularly, with regard to visual consciousness, a first attempt to explain why our conscious experience of the world appears as it does has been attributed to Kevin O’Regan and Alva Noe, who published their sensorimotor account of vision and visual consciousness in 2001. Starting with a chapter by Kevin O’Regan, Contemporary Sensorimo...

  11. Design features of the Fragment multispectral scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatenko, S. A.; Rozhavskii, E. I.

    Data are presented concerning the design and operation of the Meteor-Priroda Fragment multispectral scanning system. Attention is given to the main principles underlying the design of this system and to the structure of various components and devices which are necessary to satisfy the high performance requirements. Diagrams of the optical system of the internal calibration light source and of the photomultiplier detector are presented.

  12. Sensorimotor cortex as a critical component of an 'extended' mirror neuron system: Does it solve the development, correspondence, and control problems in mirroring?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pineda Jaime A

    2008-10-01

    ?" In this review, we argue from an anatomical, physiological, modeling, and functional perspectives that a critical component of the human mirror neuron system is sensorimotor cortex. Not only are sensorimotor transformations necessary for computing the patterns of muscle activation and kinematics during action observation but they provide potential answers to the development, correspondence and control problems.

  13. Sensorimotor cortex as a critical component of an 'extended' mirror neuron system: Does it solve the development, correspondence, and control problems in mirroring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, Jaime A

    2008-10-18

    from an anatomical, physiological, modeling, and functional perspectives that a critical component of the human mirror neuron system is sensorimotor cortex. Not only are sensorimotor transformations necessary for computing the patterns of muscle activation and kinematics during action observation but they provide potential answers to the development, correspondence and control problems.

  14. 3D - RECURSIVELY SCANS IMAGING SYSTEM WITH COMPUTER MATHEMATICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Lazurchak

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the algorithm for constructing the N-dimensional recursive Peano scans. Driven by their two-dimensional and three-dimensional realization of a system of computer mathematics Mathematica 7.0. We are discussing the issue of reduction of the multidimensional space to one-dimensional in the calculation of multiple integrals.

  15. The measuring video section of the Fragment multispectral scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazkov, V. D.; Goretov, Iu. M.; Rozhavskii, E. I.; Shcherbakov, V. V.

    The self-correcting video section of the satellite-borne Fragment multispectral scanning system is described. This section scheme makes possible a sufficiently efficient equalization of the transformation coefficients of all the measuring sections in the presence of a reference-radiation source and a single reference time interval for all the sections.

  16. Sensorimotor responsiveness and resolution in the giraffe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Heather L; O'Connor, Shawn M; Brøndum, Emil; Wang, Tobias; Bertelsen, Mads F; Grøndahl, Carsten; Kastberg, Karin; Hørlyck, Arne; Funder, Jonas; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2013-03-15

    The ability of an animal to detect and respond to changes in the environment is crucial to its survival. However, two elements of sensorimotor control - the time required to respond to a stimulus (responsiveness) and the precision of stimulus detection and response production (resolution) - are inherently limited by a competition for space in peripheral nerves and muscles. These limitations only become more acute as animal size increases. In this paper, we investigated whether the physiology of giraffes has found unique solutions for maintaining sensorimotor performance in order to compensate for their extreme size. To examine responsiveness, we quantified three major sources of delay: nerve conduction delay, muscle electromechanical delay and force generation delay. To examine resolution, we quantified the number and size distribution of nerve fibers in the sciatic nerve. Rather than possessing a particularly unique sensorimotor system, we found that our measurements in giraffes were broadly comparable to size-dependent trends seen across other terrestrial mammals. Consequently, both giraffes and other large animals must contend with greater sensorimotor delays and lower innervation density in comparison to smaller animals. Because of their unconventional leg length, giraffes may experience even longer delays compared with other animals of the same mass when sensing distal stimuli. While there are certainly advantages to being tall, there appear to be challenges as well - our results suggest that giraffes are less able to precisely and accurately sense and respond to stimuli using feedback alone, particularly when moving quickly.

  17. A Robotic System to Scan and Reproduce Object

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Rossi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An application of a robotic system integrated with a vision system is presented. The robot is a 3-axis revolute prototype, while the vision system essentially consists in a laser scanner made up of a camera and a linear laser projector. Both the robotic and the video system were designed and built at DIME (Department of Mechanical Engineering for Energetics, University of Naples Federico II. The presented application essentially consists of a laser scanner that is installed on the robot arm; the scanner scans a 3D surface, and the data are converted in a cloud of points in the robot’s workspace. Then, starting from those points, the end-effector trajectories adopted to replicate the scanned surface are calculated; so, the same robot, by using a tool, can reproduce the scanned object. The software was developed also at the DIME. The adopted tool was a high-speed drill, installed on the last link of the robot arm, with a spherical milling cutter in order to obtain enough accurate surfaces by the data represented by the cloud of points. An algorithm to interpolate the paths and to plan the trajectories was also developed and successfully tested.

  18. Wireless Authentication System for Barcode Scanning Using Infrared Communication Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Raheel, Muhammad Salman; Asfi, Muhammad Raza; Farooq-I-Azam, Muhammad; Shaukat, H. R.; Shafqat, Jaweria

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the verified methodology for wireless authentication system using infrared barcode based scanner. An alternate approach of scanning a barcode using an infrared communication is implemented here, comprises of a card on which a barcode is printed is illuminated with an infrared beam. The reflections from the card are received by an infrared receiver and transmit them to a remote machine over wireless channel where the retrieve information is further processed and converted i...

  19. Power Measurements for Microvision, Inc., Aircrew Integrated Helmet System Scanning Laser Helmet-Mounted Display

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rash, Clarence

    2002-01-01

    ...) technology based on scanning lasers. Under this program, Microvision, Inc., Bothell, Washington, has developed a scanning laser HMD prototype for use with the Aircrew Integrated Helmet System (AIHS...

  20. Sensorimotor incongruence alters limb perception and movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osumi, Michihiro; Nobusako, Satoshi; Zama, Takuro; Taniguchi, Megumi; Shimada, Sotaro; Morioka, Shu

    2017-09-21

    Altered limb ownership or heaviness has been observed in patients with hemiplegia, chronic pain, and several other conditions. Although these sensations are thought to be caused by sensorimotor incongruence, few studies have systematically verified this relationship. In addition, it remains unclear whether these subjective sensations affect movement execution. In a psychophysical experiment, we systematically investigated the relationships between sensorimotor integration and subjective limb perception, such as sense of ownership/heaviness, and verified the relationship between subjective limb perception and movement execution. Thirty-nine healthy participants were enrolled, and a visual feedback delay system was used to systematically evoke sensorimotor incongruence. Participants periodically flexed and extended their wrist while seeing a delayed image of their hand under five delay conditions (0, 150, 250, 350, 600ms). During wrist movement, electromyography (EMG) activity in flexor carpi radialis (FCR) was recorded. Also, to analyze the change in muscle activity and movement speed, the values of integral and peak frequency were calculated. To record changes in the subjective limb perception of the altered limb ownership and heaviness, we used a 7-point Likert scale for each participant. We found that altered ownership and heaviness increased with increasing feedback delay. Also, muscle activity and movement speed decreased with visual feedback delay. There was no significant correlation between subjective altered limb perception (i.e., altered limb ownership and heaviness) and muscle activity or movement speed. We systematically demonstrated that limb ownership, heaviness, muscle activation and movement speed were altered by sensorimotor incongruence. However, our study did not reveal the relationships between these factors. These results indicate the existence of different mechanisms governing subjective limb perception and movement execution. In the future, we

  1. LAND-BASED MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Puente

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile mapping has been using various photogrammetric techniques for many years. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of mobile mapping systems using laser scanners available in the market, partially because of the improvement in GNSS/INS performance for direct georeferencing. In this article, some of the most important land-based mobile laser scanning (MLS systems are reviewed. Firstly, the main characteristics of MLS systems vs. airborne (ALS and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS systems are compared. Secondly, a short overview of the mobile mapping technology is also provided so that the reader can fully grasp the complexity and operation of these devices. As we put forward in this paper, a comparison of different systems is briefly carried out regarding specifications provided by the manufacturers. Focuses on the current research are also addressed with emphasis on the practical applications of these systems. Most of them have been utilized for data collection on road infrastructures or building façades. This article shows that MLS technology is nowadays well established and proven, since the demand has grown to the point that there are several systems suppliers offering their products to satisfy this particular market.

  2. Line-scan system for continuous hand authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Kong, Lingsheng; Diao, Zhihui; Jia, Ping

    2017-03-01

    An increasing number of heavy machinery and vehicles have come into service, giving rise to a significant concern over protecting these high-security systems from misuse. Conventionally, authentication performed merely at the initial login may not be sufficient for detecting intruders throughout the operating session. To address this critical security flaw, a line-scan continuous hand authentication system with the appearance of an operating rod is proposed. Given that the operating rod is occupied throughout the operating period, it can be a possible solution for unobtrusively recording the personal characteristics for continuous monitoring. The ergonomics in the physiological and psychological aspects are fully considered. Under the shape constraints, a highly integrated line-scan sensor, a controller unit, and a gear motor with encoder are utilized. This system is suitable for both the desktop and embedded platforms with a universal serial bus interface. The volume of the proposed system is smaller than 15% of current multispectral area-based camera systems. Based on experiments on a database with 4000 images from 200 volunteers, a competitive equal error rate of 0.1179% is achieved, which is far more accurate than the state-of-the-art continuous authentication systems using other modalities.

  3. Scanning array radar system for bridge subsurface imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chieh-Ping; Ren, Yu-Jiun; Yu, Tzu Yang

    2012-04-01

    Early damage detection of bridge has been an important issue for modern civil engineering technique. Existing bridge inspection techniques used by State Department of Transportation (DOT) and County DOT include visual inspection, mechanical sounding, rebound hammer, cover meter, electrical potential measurements, and ultrasonics; other NDE techniques include ground penetrating radar (GPR), radiography, and some experimental types of sensors. Radar technology like GPR has been widely used for the bridge structure detection with a good penetration depth using microwave energy. The system to be presented in this paper is a different type of microwave sensing technology. It is focus on the subsurface detection and trying to find out detail information at subsurface (10 cm) with high resolution radar imaging from a flexible standoff distance. Our radar operating frequency is from 8-12 GHz, which is different from most of the current GPR systems. Scanning array antenna system is designed for adjustable beamwidth, preferable scanning area, and low sidelobe level. From the theoretical analysis and experimental results, it is found that the proposed technique can successfully capture the presence of the near-surface anomaly. This system is part of our Multi- Modal Remote Sensing System (MRSS) and provides good imaging correlations with other MRSS sensors.

  4. Super-resolution for scanning light stimulation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bitzer, L. A.; Neumann, K.; Benson, N., E-mail: niels.benson@uni-due.de; Schmechel, R. [Faculty of Engineering, NST and CENIDE, University of Duisburg-Essen, Bismarckstr. 81, 47057 Duisburg (Germany)

    2016-09-15

    Super-resolution (SR) is a technique used in digital image processing to overcome the resolution limitation of imaging systems. In this process, a single high resolution image is reconstructed from multiple low resolution images. SR is commonly used for CCD and CMOS (Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor) sensor images, as well as for medical applications, e.g., magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we demonstrate that super-resolution can be applied with scanning light stimulation (LS) systems, which are common to obtain space-resolved electro-optical parameters of a sample. For our purposes, the Projection Onto Convex Sets (POCS) was chosen and modified to suit the needs of LS systems. To demonstrate the SR adaption, an Optical Beam Induced Current (OBIC) LS system was used. The POCS algorithm was optimized by means of OBIC short circuit current measurements on a multicrystalline solar cell, resulting in a mean square error reduction of up to 61% and improved image quality.

  5. Neuroplasticity of the Sensorimotor Cortex during Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Thachil Francis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We will discuss some of the current issues in understanding plasticity in the sensorimotor (SM cortices on the behavioral, neurophysiological, and synaptic levels. We will focus our paper on reaching and grasping movements in the rat. In addition, we will discuss our preliminary work utilizing inhibition of protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ, which has recently been shown necessary and sufficient for the maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP (Ling et al., 2002. With this new knowledge and inhibitors to this system, as well as the ability to overexpress this system, we can start to directly modulate LTP and determine its influence on behavior as well as network level processing dependent at least in part due to this form of LTP. We will also briefly introduce the use of brain machine interface (BMI paradigms to ask questions about sensorimotor plasticity and discuss current analysis techniques that may help in our understanding of neuroplasticity.

  6. Rectal sensorimotor dysfunction in constipation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scott, S. M.; van den Berg, M. M.; Benninga, M. A.

    2011-01-01

    The pathophysiological mechanisms underlying chronic constipation in both adults and children remain to be unravelled. This is a not inconsiderable challenge, but is fundamental to improving management of such patients. Rectal sensorimotor function, which encompasses both sensation and motility, as

  7. MEMS ultrasonic probe rotary scanning imaging system for medical endoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaodong; Wen, Shijie; Yu, Daoyin

    2006-11-01

    Medical ultrasonic endoscope is the combination of electronic endoscope and ultrasonic sensor technology. Ultrasonic endoscope sends the ultrasonic probe into coelom through the biopsy channel of an electronic endoscope and rotates it by a micro motor, acquiring fault histology features of digestive organs. Compared with external ultrasonic detection, the system reduces the distance between the transducer and the organ, diminishing the effects on imaging of fats and body cavity gas. On the basis of ultrasonic imaging system, this paper implements a pulse echo imaging system. We describe the ultrasonic probe, emission circuit, receiving circuit and protective circuit in detail. With the demodulation circuit, we get the amplitude of echo which indicates the objects. And to achieve the rotary scan, we design a synchronous control circuit and a data transfer circuit basing on the USB2.0 interface. Finally we get a grey image with 256 grey levels after coordinate conversion.

  8. Mapping information flow in sensorimotor networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Lungarella

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Biological organisms continuously select and sample information used by their neural structures for perception and action, and for creating coherent cognitive states guiding their autonomous behavior. Information processing, however, is not solely an internal function of the nervous system. Here we show, instead, how sensorimotor interaction and body morphology can induce statistical regularities and information structure in sensory inputs and within the neural control architecture, and how the flow of information between sensors, neural units, and effectors is actively shaped by the interaction with the environment. We analyze sensory and motor data collected from real and simulated robots and reveal the presence of information structure and directed information flow induced by dynamically coupled sensorimotor activity, including effects of motor outputs on sensory inputs. We find that information structure and information flow in sensorimotor networks (a is spatially and temporally specific; (b can be affected by learning, and (c can be affected by changes in body morphology. Our results suggest a fundamental link between physical embeddedness and information, highlighting the effects of embodied interactions on internal (neural information processing, and illuminating the role of various system components on the generation of behavior.

  9. Moving and sensing without input and output : Early nervous systems and the origins of the animal sensorimotor organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, Fred

    2015-01-01

    It remains a standing problem how and why the first nervous systems evolved. Molecular and genomic information is now rapidly accumulating but the macroscopic organization and functioning of early nervous systems remains unclear. To explore potential evolutionary options, a coordination centered

  10. Sensorimotor control: computing the immediate future from the delayed present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargolzaei, Arman; Abdelghani, Mohamed; Yen, Kang K; Sargolzaei, Saman

    2016-07-25

    The predictive nature of the primate sensorimotor systems, for example the smooth pursuit system and their ability to compensate for long delays have been proven by many physiological experiments. However, few theoretical models have tried to explain these facts comprehensively. Here, we propose a sensorimotor learning and control model that can be used to (1) predict the dynamics of variable time delays and current and future sensory states from delayed sensory information; (2) learn new sensorimotor realities; and (3) control a motor system in real time. This paper proposed a new time-delay estimation method and developed a computational model for a predictive control solution of a sensorimotor control system under time delay. Simulation experiments are used to demonstrate how the proposed model can explain a sensorimotor system's ability to compensate for delays during online learning and control. To further illustrate the benefits of the proposed time-delay estimation method and predictive control in sensorimotor systems a simulation of the horizontal Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (hVOR) system is presented. Without the proposed time-delay estimation and prediction, the hVOR can be unstable and could be affected by high frequency oscillations. These oscillations are reminiscent of a fast correction mechanism, e.g., a saccade to compensate for the hVOR delays. Comparing results of the proposed model with those in literature, it is clear that the hVOR system with impaired time-delay estimation or impaired sensory state predictor can mimic certain outcomes of sensorimotor diseases. Even more, if the control of hVOR is augmented with the proposed time-delay estimator and the predictor for eye position relative to the head, then hVOR control system can be stabilized. Three claims with varying degrees of experimental support are proposed in this paper. Firstly, the brain or any sensorimotor system has time-delay estimation circuits for the various sensorimotor control

  11. MONTE CARLO SIMULATION OF MULTIFOCAL STOCHASTIC SCANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIXIN LIU

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Multifocal multiphoton microscopy (MMM has greatly improved the utilization of excitation light and imaging speed due to parallel multiphoton excitation of the samples and simultaneous detection of the signals, which allows it to perform three-dimensional fast fluorescence imaging. Stochastic scanning can provide continuous, uniform and high-speed excitation of the sample, which makes it a suitable scanning scheme for MMM. In this paper, the graphical programming language — LabVIEW is used to achieve stochastic scanning of the two-dimensional galvo scanners by using white noise signals to control the x and y mirrors independently. Moreover, the stochastic scanning process is simulated by using Monte Carlo method. Our results show that MMM can avoid oversampling or subsampling in the scanning area and meet the requirements of uniform sampling by stochastically scanning the individual units of the N × N foci array. Therefore, continuous and uniform scanning in the whole field of view is implemented.

  12. The Emulsion Scanning System of the OPERA experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Juget, F

    2010-01-01

    The OPERA experiment has for goal the direct detection of !μ ! !! oscilla- tion, using an hybrid apparatus composed of electronic detectors and nuclear photographic emulsions. A charged particle crossing an emulsion layer ion- izes the medium along its path leaving a latent image which leads, after de- velopment, to a sequence of aligned grains. Nuclear emulsions are analyzed by means of optical microscopes to reconstruct the 3D particle tracks. The OPERA collaboration has developed a dedicated system to scan a large num- ber of emulsions (surface of about 1000 m2). The achieved resolution is "1 μm and "1 mrad allowing to observe directly the short-lived " particles pro- duced in !!CC interactions.

  13. A Mobile Automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning System - 13231

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, J.M.; LeBlanc, P.J.; Nakazawa, D.; Petroka, D.L.; Kane Smith, S.; Venkataraman, R.; Villani, M. [Canberra Industries, Inc. 800 Research Parkway, Meriden CT 06450 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Canberra Industries have recently designed and built a new automated Tomographic Gamma Scanning (TGS) system for mobile deployment. The TGS technique combines high-resolution gamma spectroscopy with low spatial resolution 3-dimensional image reconstruction to provide increased accuracy over traditional approaches for the assay of non-uniform source distributions in low-to medium-density, non-heterogeneous matrices. Originally pioneered by R. Estep at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the TGS method has been further developed and commercialized by Canberra Industries in recent years. The present system advances the state of the art on several fronts: it is designed to be housed in a standard cargo transport container for ease of transport, allowing waste characterization at multiple facilities under the purview of a single operator. Conveyor feed, drum rotator, and detector and collimator positioning mechanisms operated by programmable logic control (PLC) allow automated batch mode operation. The variable geometry settings can accommodate a wide range of waste packaging, including but not limited to standard 220 liter drums, 380 liter overpack drums, and smaller 20 liter cans. A 20 mCi Eu-152 transmission source provides attenuation corrections for drum matrices up to 1 g/cm{sup 3} in TGS mode; the system can be operated in Segmented Gamma Scanning (SGS) mode to measure higher density drums. To support TGS assays at higher densities, the source shield is sufficient to house an alternate Co-60 transmission source of higher activity, up to 250 mCi. An automated shutter and attenuator assembly is provided for operating the system with a dual intensity transmission source. The system's 1500 kg capacity rotator turntable can handle heavy containers such as concrete lined 380 liter overpack drums. Finally, data acquisition utilizes Canberra's Broad Energy Germanium (BEGE) detector and Lynx MCA, with 32 k channels, providing better than 0.1 ke

  14. Decoding intention at sensorimotor timescales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew Salvaris

    Full Text Available The ability to decode an individual's intentions in real time has long been a 'holy grail' of research on human volition. For example, a reliable method could be used to improve scientific study of voluntary action by allowing external probe stimuli to be delivered at different moments during development of intention and action. Several Brain Computer Interface applications have used motor imagery of repetitive actions to achieve this goal. These systems are relatively successful, but only if the intention is sustained over a period of several seconds; much longer than the timescales identified in psychophysiological studies for normal preparation for voluntary action. We have used a combination of sensorimotor rhythms and motor imagery training to decode intentions in a single-trial cued-response paradigm similar to those used in human and non-human primate motor control research. Decoding accuracy of over 0.83 was achieved with twelve participants. With this approach, we could decode intentions to move the left or right hand at sub-second timescales, both for instructed choices instructed by an external stimulus and for free choices generated intentionally by the participant. The implications for volition are considered.

  15. Sensorimotor training alters action understanding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catmur, Caroline; Thompson, Emma L; Bairaktari, Orianna; Lind, Frida; Bird, Geoffrey

    2017-11-02

    The discovery of 'mirror' neurons stimulated intense interest in the role of motor processes in social interaction. A popular assumption is that observation-related motor activation, exemplified by mirror neurons' matching properties, evolved to subserve the 'understanding' of others' actions. Alternatively, such motor activation may result from sensorimotor learning. Sensorimotor training alters observation-related motor activation, but studies demonstrating training-dependent changes in motor activation have not addressed the functional role of such activation. We therefore tested whether sensorimotor learning alters action understanding. Participants completed an action understanding task, judging the weight of boxes lifted by another person, before and after 'counter-mirror' sensorimotor training. During this training they lifted heavy boxes while observing light boxes being lifted, and vice-versa. Compared to a control group, this training significantly reduced participants' action understanding ability. Performance on a duration judgement task was unaffected by training. These data suggest the ability to understand others' actions results from sensorimotor learning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The stomatogastric nervous system as a model for studying sensorimotor interactions in real-time closed-loop conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly eDaur

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of proprioceptive signals that report the internal state of the body is one of the essential tasks of the nervous system and helps to continuously adapt body movements to changing circumstances. Despite the impact of proprioceptive feedback on motor activity it has rarely been studied in conditions in which motor output and sensory activity interact as they do in behaving animals, i.e. in closed-loop conditions. The interaction of motor and sensory activities, however, can create emergent properties that may govern the functional characteristics of the system. We here demonstrate the use of a well-characterized model system for central pattern generation, the stomatogastric nervous system, for studying these properties in vitro. We created a real-time computer model of a single-cell muscle tendon organ in the gastric mill of the crab foregut that uses intracellular current injections to control the activity of the biological proprioceptor. The resulting motor output of a gastric mill motor neuron is then recorded intracellularly and fed into a simple muscle model consisting of a series of low-pass filters. The muscle output is used to activate a one-dimensional Hodgkin-Huxley type model of the muscle tendon organ in real-time, allowing closed-loop conditions. Model properties were either hand-tuned to achieve the best match with data from semi-intact muscle preparations, or an exhaustive search was performed to determine the best set of parameters. We report the real-time capabilities of our models, its performance and its interaction with the biological motor system.

  17. Improving Sensorimotor Function Using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, R. C.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Oman, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during spaceflight, particularly during G-transition phases. Post flight sensorimotor changes may include postural and gait instability, spatial disorientation, and visual performance decrements, all of which can degrade operational capabilities of the astronauts and endanger the crew. Crewmember safety would be improved if these detrimental effects of spaceflight could be mitigated by a sensorimotor countermeasure and even further if adaptation to baseline could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate the potential use of stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a technology to improve sensorimotor function. We hypothesize that low levels of SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through stochastic resonance (SR). The SR phenomenon occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. Two studies have been initiated to investigate the beneficial effects and potential practical usage of SVS. In both studies, electrical vestibular stimulation is applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes using a constant current stimulator. The first study aims to determine the repeatability of the effect of vestibular stimulation on sensorimotor performance and perception in order to better understand the practical use of SVS. The beneficial effect of low levels of SVS on balance performance has been shown in the past. This research uses the same balance task repeated multiple times within a day and across days to study the repeatability of the stimulation effects. The balance test consists of 50 sec trials in which the subject stands with his or her feet together, arms crossed, and eyes closed on compliant foam. Varying levels of SVS, ranging from 0-700 micro A, are applied across different trials. The subject-specific optimal SVS level is that which results in the best balance performance as measured by inertial

  18. Research on calibration algorithm in laser scanning projection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li Juan; Qu, Song; Hou, Mao Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Laser scanning projection technology can project the image defined by the existing CAD digital model to the working surface, in the form of a laser harness profile. This projection is in accordance with the ratio of 1: 1. Through the laser harness contours with high positioning quality, the technical staff can carry out the operation with high precision. In a typical process of the projection, in order to determine the relative positional relationship between the laser projection instrument and the target, it is necessary to place several fixed reference points on the projection target and perform the calibration of projection. This position relationship is the transformation from projection coordinate system to the global coordinate system. The entire projection work is divided into two steps: the first step, the calculation of the projector six position parameters is performed, that is, the projector calibration. In the second step, the deflection angle is calculated by the known projector position parameter and the known coordinate points, and then the actual model is projected. Typically, the calibration requires the establishment of six reference points to reduce the possibility of divergence of the nonlinear equations, but the whole solution is very complex and the solution may still diverge. In this paper, the distance is detected combined with the calculation so that the position parameters of the projector can be solved by using the coordinate values of three reference points and the distance of at least one reference point to the projector. The addition of the distance measurement increases the stability of the solution of the nonlinear system and avoids the problem of divergence of the solution caused by the reference point which is directly under the projector. Through the actual analysis and calculation, the Taylor expansion method combined with the least squares method is used to obtain the solution of the system. Finally, the simulation experiment is

  19. Sensorimotor event: an approach to the dynamic, embodied, and embedded nature of sensorimotor cognition

    OpenAIRE

    Oscar eVilarroya

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I explore the notion of sensorimotor event as the building block of sensorimotor cognition. A sensorimotor event is presented here as a neurally controlled event that recruits those processes and elements that are necessary to address the demands of the situation in which the individual is involved. The notion of sensorimotor event is intended to subsume the dynamic, embodied, and embedded nature of sensorimotor cognition, in agreement with the satisficing and bricoleur approac...

  20. Sensorimotor integration in movement disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbruzzese, Giovanni; Berardelli, Alfredo

    2003-03-01

    Although current knowledge attributes movement disorders to a dysfunction of the basal ganglia-motor cortex circuits, abnormalities in the peripheral afferent inputs or in their central processing may interfere with motor program execution. We review the abnormalities of sensorimotor integration described in the various types of movement disorders. Several observations, including those of parkinsonian patients' excessive reliance on ongoing visual information during movement tasks, suggest that proprioception is defective in Parkinson's disease (PD). The disturbance of proprioceptive regulation, possibly related to the occurrence of abnormal muscle-stretch reflexes, might be important for generating hypometric or bradykinetic movements. Studies with somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs), prepulse inhibition, and event-related potentials support the hypothesis of central abnormalities of sensorimotor integration in PD. In Huntington's disease (HD), changes in SEPs and long-latency stretch reflexes suggest that a defective gating of peripheral afferent input to the brain might impair sensorimotor integration in cortical motor areas, thus interfering with the processing of motor programs. Defective motor programming might contribute to some features of motor impairment in HD. Sensory symptoms are frequent in focal dystonia and sensory manipulation can modify the dystonic movements. In addition, specific sensory functions (kinaesthesia, spatial-temporal discrimination) can be impaired in patients with focal hand dystonia, thus leading to a "sensory overflow." Sensory input may be abnormal and trigger focal dystonia, or defective "gating" may cause an input-output mismatch in specific motor programs. Altogether, several observations strongly support the idea that sensorimotor integration is impaired in focal dystonia. Although elemental sensation is normal in patients with tics, tics can be associated with sensory phenomena. Some neurophysiological studies suggest that

  1. A novel scanning system using an industrial robot and the workspace measurement and positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ziyue; Zhu, Jigui; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui

    2015-10-01

    The present scanning system consists of an industrial robot and a line-structured laser sensor which uses the industrial robot as a position instrument to guarantee the accuracy. However, the absolute accuracy of an industrial robot is relatively poor compared with the good repeatability in the manufacturing industry. This paper proposes a novel method using the workspace measurement and positioning system (wMPS) to remedy the lack of accuracy of the industrial robot. In order to guarantee the positioning accuracy of the system, the wMPS which is a laser-based measurement technology designed for large-volume metrology applications is brought in. Benefitting from the wMPS, this system can measure different cell-areas by the line-structured laser sensor and fuse the measurement data of different cell-areas by using the wMPS accurately. The system calibration which is the procedure to acquire and optimize the structure parameters of the scanning system is also stated in detail in this paper. In order to verify the feasibility of the system for scanning the large free-form surface, an experiment is designed to scan the internal surface of the door of a car-body in white. The final results show that the measurement data of the whole measuring areas have been jointed perfectly and there is no mismatch in the figure especially in the hole measuring areas. This experiment has verified the rationality of the system scheme, the correctness and effectiveness of the relevant methods.

  2. Training Modalities to Increase Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    training can be effectively integrated with treadmill exercise and optimized to provide a unique system that combines multiple training requirements in a single countermeasure system. Learning Objectives: The development of a new countermeasure approach that enhances sensorimotor adaptability will be discussed.

  3. A flexible 3D laser scanning system using a robotic arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Zixuan; Zhou, Xiang; Gao, Xiaofei; Zhang, Guanliang

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we present a flexible 3D scanning system based on a MEMS scanner mounted on an industrial arm with a turntable. This system has 7-degrees of freedom and is able to conduct a full field scan from any angle, suitable for scanning object with the complex shape. The existing non-contact 3D scanning system usually uses laser scanner that projects fixed stripe mounted on the Coordinate Measuring Machine (CMM) or industrial robot. These existing systems can't perform path planning without CAD models. The 3D scanning system presented in this paper can scan the object without CAD models, and we introduced this path planning method in the paper. We also propose a practical approach to calibrating the hand-in-eye system based on binocular stereo vision and analyzes the errors of the hand-eye calibration.

  4. A 3-d laser scanning system and scan data processing method for the monitoring of tunnel deformations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelina, Klaus; Jansa, Josef; Hesina, Gerd; Traxler, Christoph

    2012-11-01

    The paper presents the mobile multi-sensor system Orthos Plus for the monitoring and mapping of tunnel walls, a scan data processing method for the evaluation of 3-d tunnel wall displacements from subsequent wall scans and, finally, a virtual reality tool supporting the interpretation of data. The measuring system consists of a 3-d laser scanner, a motorised total station and a digital camera that are integrated on a light metal frame that is installed on a mobile platform. It has been designed to perform tunnel measurements most efficiently and to meet the special requirements of tunnels under construction. The evaluation of 3-d displacements is based on a 3-d matching algorithm that takes advantage of the particular conditions of tunnel (shotcrete) surfaces. The virtual reality tool allows viewing of data in a 3-d virtual reality tunnel model and their animation in time and space in order supports understanding in an optimal way. The measuring system Orthos Plus has been developed in the course of a national research project, the 3-d matching method in the frame of the Austrian Christian Doppler Laboratory Spatial Data from Laser Scanning and Remote Sensing and the VR tool in the Austrian COMET K1 Competence Center VRVis Center (www.vrvis.at).

  5. Enhancing Astronaut Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J Bloomberg

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Astronauts experience disturbances in balance and gait function when they return to Earth. The highly plastic human brain enables individuals to modify their behavior to match the prevailing environment. Subjects participating in specially designed variable sensory challenge training programs can enhance their ability to rapidly adapt to novel sensory situations. This is useful in our application because we aim to train astronauts to rapidly formulate effective strategies to cope with the balance and locomotor challenges associated with new gravitational environments - enhancing their ability to learn to learn. We do this by coupling various combinations of sensorimotor challenges with treadmill walking. A unique training system has been developed that is comprised of a treadmill mounted on a motion base to produce movement of the support surface during walking. This system provides challenges to gait stability. Additional sensory variation and challenge are imposed with a virtual visual scene that presents subjects with various combinations of discordant visual information during treadmill walking. This experience allows them to practice resolving challenging and conflicting novel sensory information to improve their ability to adapt rapidly. Information obtained from this work will inform the design of the next generation of sensorimotor countermeasures for astronauts.

  6. Scanning Long-wave Optical Test System: a new ground optical surface slope test system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Tianquan; Park, Won Hyun; Parks, Robert E.; Su, Peng; Burge, James H.

    2011-09-01

    The scanning long-wave optical test system (SLOTS) is under development at the University of Arizona to provide rapid and accurate measurements of aspherical optical surfaces during the grinding stage. It is based on the success of the software configurable optical test system (SCOTS) which uses visible light to measure surface slopes. Working at long wave infrared (LWIR, 7-14 μm), SLOTS measures ground optical surface slopes by viewing the specular reflection of a scanning hot wire. A thermal imaging camera collects data while motorized stages scan the wire through the field. Current experiments show that the system can achieve a high precision at micro-radian level with fairly low cost equipment. The measured surface map is comparable with interferometer for slow optics. This IR system could be applied early in the grinding stage of fabrication of large telescope mirrors to minimize the surface shape error imparted during processing. This advantage combined with the simplicity of the optical system (no null optics, no high power carbon dioxide laser) would improve the efficiency and shorten the processing time.

  7. Adaptive noise Wiener filter for scanning electron microscope imaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, K S; Teh, V; Nia, M E

    2016-01-01

    Noise on scanning electron microscope (SEM) images is studied. Gaussian noise is the most common type of noise in SEM image. We developed a new noise reduction filter based on the Wiener filter. We compared the performance of this new filter namely adaptive noise Wiener (ANW) filter, with four common existing filters as well as average filter, median filter, Gaussian smoothing filter and the Wiener filter. Based on the experiments results the proposed new filter has better performance on different noise variance comparing to the other existing noise removal filters in the experiments. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) Guidelines for Systemic Therapy of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The SCAN colorectal cancer systemic therapy workgroup aimed to develop Singapore Cancer Network (SCAN) clinical practice guidelines for systemic therapy for colorectal cancer in Singapore. The workgroup utilised a modified ADAPTE process to calibrate high quality international evidence-based clinical practice guidelines to our local setting. Five international guidelines were evaluated-those developed by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network for colon (2014) and rectal (2014) cancer, the European Society of Medical Oncology for advanced (2012) and early (2013) cancer and the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (2011). Recommendations on systemic therapy in colorectal cancer were produced. These adapted guidelines form the SCAN Guidelines 2015 for systemic therapy of colorectal cancer.

  9. CAD-based intelligent robot system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cheng-Chang Chiu; Wen-Teng Wang; Wan-Shan Yin

    2017-01-01

    ...-in program, integrated with real-time 3D scanning information to compensate the planned route, and then converted to working trajectory of robot arm to implement roughing and cementing. The proposed 3D CAD-based intelligent robot arm system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing is realized and proved to be feasible.

  10. Sensorimotor changes and functional performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, M V; Scott, D L; Rees, J; Newham, D J

    1997-11-01

    Muscles are essential components of our sensorimotor system that help maintain balance and perform a smooth gait, but it is unclear whether arthritic damage adversely affects muscle sensorimotor function. Quadriceps sensorimotor function in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA) was investigated, and whether these changes were associated with impairment of functional performance. Quadriceps strength, voluntary activation, and proprioceptive acuity (joint position sense acuity) were assessed in 103 patients with knee OA and compared with 25 healthy control subjects. In addition, their postural stability, objective functional performance (the aggregate time for four activities of daily living), and disabilities (lequesne index) were also investigated. Compared with the control subjects, the patients with knee OA had weaker quadriceps (differences between group mean 100N, CI 136, 63N), poorer voluntary activation (20% CI 13, 25%) that was associated with quadriceps weakness, and impaired acuity of knee joint position sense (1.28 degrees, CI 0.84, 1.73 degrees). As a group the patients were more unstable (p = 0.0017), disabled (10, CI 7, 11), and had poorer functional performance (19.6 seconds, CI 14.3, 24.9 seconds). The most important predictors of disability were objective functional performance and quadriceps strength. In patients with knee OA, articular damage may reduce quadriceps motoneurone excitability, which decreases voluntary quadriceps activation thus contributing to quadriceps weakness, and diminishes proprioceptive acuity. The arthrogenic impairment in quadriceps sensorimotor function and decreased postural stability was associated with reduced functional performance of the patients.

  11. Sensorimotor coupling in music and the psychology of the groove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janata, Petr; Tomic, Stefan T; Haberman, Jason M

    2012-02-01

    The urge to move in response to music, combined with the positive affect associated with the coupling of sensory and motor processes while engaging with music (referred to as sensorimotor coupling) in a seemingly effortless way, is commonly described as the feeling of being in the groove. Here, we systematically explore this compelling phenomenon in a population of young adults. We utilize multiple levels of analysis, comprising phenomenological, behavioral, and computational techniques. Specifically, we show (a) that the concept of the groove is widely appreciated and understood in terms of a pleasurable drive toward action, (b) that a broad range of musical excerpts can be appraised reliably for the degree of perceived groove, (c) that the degree of experienced groove is inversely related to experienced difficulty of bimanual sensorimotor coupling under tapping regimes with varying levels of expressive constraint, (d) that high-groove stimuli elicit spontaneous rhythmic movements, and (e) that quantifiable measures of the quality of sensorimotor coupling predict the degree of experienced groove. Our results complement traditional discourse regarding the groove, which has tended to take the psychological phenomenon for granted and has focused instead on the musical and especially the rhythmic qualities of particular genres of music that lead to the perception of groove. We conclude that groove can be treated as a psychological construct and model system that allows for experimental exploration of the relationship between sensorimotor coupling with music and emotion.

  12. Phantom verification for a ring-scanning and prone diffuse optical imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jhao-Ming; Pan, Min-Chun; Chen, Liang-Yu; Pan, Min-Cheng; Hsu, Ya-Fen

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we proposed and implemented a ring-scanning mechanism in the prone position for application in breast tumour detection. The current scanning module using two zones with three light sources in each zone enables the acquisition of 36 source and 30 detection data (36S × 30D) items during the optical information collection phase. This study employed only three photomultiplier tubes (PMTs), instead of 30 PMTs used in a fixed model. In particular, the circular scanning of source-and-detection module actually behaves as more channels and can acquire more optoelectrical data as the scanning module operates in a fractional motion of a single channel-to-channel span. In this study, the optoelectrical measurement system was first calibrated; then, the feasibility of optical-coefficient image reconstruction was verified using several heterogeneous cylindrical phantoms. The reconstructed μa and μs ‧ images through multilayer scanning presented good outcomes, implying that the developed system is promising for 3D scanning of breasts. In a quantitative analysis, the contrast-to-noise ratios of the μa and μs ‧ images (6.00 and 4.97, respectively) for the flexible scanning scheme were superior to those derived for the fixed scheme (5.05 and 4.31, respectively). This indicates that the higher amount of detection information obtained through the proposed scanning module can enhance the spatial resolution of the reconstructed images while retaining an acceptable scanning time.

  13. An Automated Medical Information Management System (OpScan-MIMS) in a Clinical Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, S.; Baker, T.G.; Ritchey, M.G.; Alterescu, S.; Friedman, C.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes an automated medical information management system within a clinic setting. The system includes an optically scanned data entry system (OpScan), a generalized, interactive retrieval and storage software system(Medical Information Management System, MIMS) and the use of time-sharing. The system has the advantages of minimal hardware purchase and maintenance, rapid data entry and retrieval, user-created programs, no need for user knowledge of computer language or technology and is cost effective. The OpScan-MIMS system has been operational for approximately 16 months in a sexually transmitted disease clinic. The system's application to medical audit, quality assurance, clinic management and clinical training are demonstrated.

  14. Imaging systems in the Delft Multi-Beam Scanning Electron Microscope 1

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ren, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this Ph.D. research is to develop imaging systems for the multiple beam scanning electron microscope (MBSEM) built in Delft University of Technology. This thesis includes two imaging systems, transmission electron (TE) imaging system, and secondary electron (SE) imaging system. The major

  15. Catenary System Detection, Localization and Classification Using Mobile Scanning Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Pastucha

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new method for detecting, locating and classifying overhead contact systems (catenary systems in point clouds collected by mobile mapping systems (MMS on rail roads. Contrary to many other application types, railway embankments are highly regulated and standardized. Railway infrastructure geometric relations remain roughly unchanged within established regions and have similarities between them. The newly-developed method exploits both these characteristics, as well as the survey process. There are several steps in this approach. Firstly, it restricts the search for catenaries relative to the distance to registered MMS trajectory, then finds possible support structures according to the density of points above the track. Subsequently, the method verifies the structures’ presence and classifies the points with the use of the RANSAC algorithm. It establishes the presence of cantilevers, as well as poles or structural beams, depending on the type of detected support structure. The method also determines the coordinates of the identified object on the ground. Finally, a classification is clarified with the use of a modified DBSCAN algorithm. The design method has been verified with data collected in four surveys where the cumulative length of the route was almost 90 km. Over 97% of support structures were correctly detected, and out of these, over 95% were completely classified.

  16. Scoring system for CT scan findings of ovarian cystic lesions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hattori, Kaoru

    1987-09-01

    It is important to preoperatively establish a diagnosis of a gynecologic pelvic mass. A group of 137 female patients with suspected pelvic cystic lesions were studied by computerized tomography (CT). Histologically, 22 patients were proved to have ovarian cystadenocarcinoma and 115 patients a benign cystic mass, i.e. cystadenoma, lutein cyst, endometrial cyst, retentional cyst and paraovarian cyst. A scoring system was made to obtain higher accuracy in CT evaluation of ovarian cystic lesions. It includes seven factors, (1) volume, (2) solid component protruding from the wall, (3) thickness of the wall, (4) focal thickening of the wall, (5) loculation, (6) attenuation number of the tumor and (7) nonhomogenousess of the tumor. Using this scoring system, a correct differential diagnosis was made in all cases except 7, 4 uterine fibroids with remarkable degenaration, a large endometrial cyst with a high attenuation number, a dermoid cyst with an irregular pattern and a mucinous cystadenoma with benign solid component. The accuracy of diagnosis was 100 % in malignant masses and 93.9 % in benign masses. This scoring system was shown to have clinical significance for the differential diagnosis of a pelvic cystic lesions.

  17. Sensorimotor Integration in Speech Processing: Computational Basis and Neural Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickok, Gregory; Houde, John; Rong, Feng

    2011-01-01

    Sensorimotor integration is an active domain of speech research and is characterized by two main ideas, that the auditory system is critically involved in speech production, and that the motor system is critically involved in speech perception. Despite the complementarity of these ideas, there is little crosstalk between these literatures. We propose an integrative model of the speech-related “dorsal stream” in which sensorimotor interaction primarily supports speech production, in the form of a state feedback control architecture. A critical component of this control system is forward sensory prediction, which affords a natural mechanism for limited motor influence on perception, as recent perceptual research has suggested. Evidence shows that this influence is modulatory but not necessary for speech perception. The neuroanatomy of the proposed circuit is discussed as well as some probable clinical correlates including conduction aphasia, stuttering, and aspects of schizophrenia. PMID:21315253

  18. Spacelab data analysis using the space plasma computer analysis network (SCAN) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    The Space-plasma Computer Analysis Network (SCAN) currently connects a large number of U.S. Spacelab investigators into a common computer network. Used primarily by plasma physics researchers at present, SCAN provides access to Spacelab investigators in other areas of space science, to Spacelab and non-Spacelab correlative data bases, and to large Class VI computational facilities for modeling. SCAN links computers together at remote institutions used by space researchers, utilizing commercially available software for computer-to-computer communications. Started by the NASA's Office of Space Science in mid 1980, SCAN presently contains ten system nodes located at major universities and space research laboratories, with fourteen new nodes projected for the near future. The Stanford University computer gateways allow SCAN users to connect onto the ARPANET and TELENET overseas networks.

  19. Performances of the scanning system for the CNAO center of oncological hadron therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, S., E-mail: giordane@to.infn.i [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Donetti, M. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); CNAO - Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica Foundation, Milano (Italy); Marchetto, F. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Ansarinejad, A. [Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Attili, A. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Bourhaleb, F. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Burini, F. [OCEM SpA, Bologna (Italy); Cirio, R. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Fabbricatore, P. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Genova (Italy); Voelker, F. [CERN, Geneve (Switzerland); Garella, M.A. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Incurvati, M. [OCEM SpA, Bologna (Italy); Monaco, V. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Pardo, J. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Peroni, C.; Russo, G.; Sacchi, R. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy); Department of Physics, University of Torino, Torino (Italy); Taddia, G. [OCEM SpA, Bologna (Italy); Zampieri, A. [INFN - Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Torino (Italy)

    2010-02-01

    In hadron therapy one of the most advanced methods for beam delivery is the active scanning technique which uses fast scanning magnets to drive a narrow particle beam across the target. The Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) will treat tumours with this technique. The CNAO scanning system includes two identical dipole magnets for horizontal and vertical beam deflection, each one connected to a fast power supply. The dose delivery system exploits a set of monitor chambers to measure the fluence and position of the beam and drives the beam during the treatment by controlling the sequence of currents set by the power supplies. A test of the dynamic performance of the scanning system has been performed using a Hall probe to measure the field inside the magnet and the results are presented in this paper.

  20. Integral force feedback control with input shaping: Application to piezo-based scanning systems in ECDLs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Meng; Liu, Zhigang; Zhu, Yu; Bu, Mingfan; Hong, Jun

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, a hybrid control system is developed by integrating the closed-loop force feedback and input shaping method to overcome the problem of the hysteresis and dynamic behavior in piezo-based scanning systems and increase the scanning speed of tunable external cavity diode lasers. The flexible hinge and piezoelectric actuators are analyzed, and a dynamic model of the scanning systems is established. A force sensor and an integral controller are utilized in integral force feedback (IFF) to directly augment the damping of the piezoelectric scanning systems. Hysteresis has been effectively eliminated, but the mechanical resonance is still evident. Noticeable residual vibration occurred after the inflection points and then gradually disappeared. For the further control of mechanical resonance, based on the theory of minimum-acceleration trajectory planning, the time-domain input shaping method was developed. The turning sections of a scanning trajectory are replaced by smooth curves, while the linear sections are retained. The IFF method is combined with the input shaping method to control the non-linearity and mechanical resonance in high-speed piezo-based scanning systems. Experiments are conducted, and the results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control approach.

  1. The posterior parietal cortex as integrative hub for whisker sensorimotor information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Hemanth; de Haan, Roel; Mansvelder, Huibert D; de Kock, Christiaan P J

    2018-01-01

    Our daily life consists of a continuous interplay between incoming sensory information and outgoing motor plans. Particularly during goal-directed behavior and active exploration of the sensory environment, brain circuits are merging sensory and motor signals. This is referred to as sensorimotor integration and is relevant for locomotion, vision or tactile exploration. The somatosensory (tactile) system is an attractive modality to study sensorimotor integration in health and disease, motivated by the need for revolutionary technology that builds upon conceptual understanding of sensorimotor integration, such as brain-machine-interfaces and neuro-prosthetics. In this perspective, we focus on the rat whisker system and put forward the posterior parietal cortex as a potential circuit where sensorimotor integration could occur during active somatosensation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. 3D Wide FOV Scanning Measurement System Based on Multiline Structured-Light Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Gao

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Structured-light three-dimensional (3D vision measurement is currently one of the most common approaches to obtain 3D surface data. However, the existing structured-light scanning measurement systems are primarily constructed on the basis of single sensor, which inevitably generates three obvious problems: limited measurement range, blind measurement area, and low scanning efficiency. To solve these problems, we developed a novel 3D wide FOV scanning measurement system which adopted two multiline structured-light sensors. Each sensor is composed of a digital CCD camera and three line-structured-light projectors. During the measurement process, the measured object is scanned by the two sensors from two different angles at a certain speed. Consequently, the measurement range is expanded and the blind measurement area is reduced. More importantly, since six light stripes are simultaneously projected on the object surface, the scanning efficiency is greatly improved. The Multiline Structured-light Sensors Scanning Measurement System (MSSS is calibrated on site by a 2D pattern. The experimental results show that the RMS errors of the system for calibration and measurement are less than 0.092 mm and 0.168 mm, respectively, which proves that the MSSS is applicable for obtaining 3D object surface with high efficiency and accuracy.

  3. Passive sensorimotor stimulation triggers long lasting alpha-band fluctuations in visual perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassini, Alice; D'Ausilio, Alessandro

    2018-02-01

    Movement planning and execution rely on the anticipation and online control of the incoming sensory input. Evidence suggests that sensorimotor processes may synchronize visual rhythmic activity in preparation of action performance. Indeed, we recently reported periodic fluctuations of visual contrast sensitivity that are time-locked to the onset of an intended movement of the arm. However, the origin of the observed visual modulations has so far remained unclear because of the endogenous (and thus temporally undetermined) activation of the sensorimotor system that is associated with voluntary movement initiation. In this study, we activated the sensorimotor circuitry involved in the hand control in an exogenous and controlled way by means of peripheral stimulation of the median nerve and characterized the spectrotemporal dynamics of the ensuing visual perception. The stimulation of the median nerve triggers robust and long-lasting (∼1 s) alpha-band oscillations in visual perception, whose strength is temporally modulated in a way that is consistent with the changes in alpha power described at the neurophysiological level after sensorimotor stimulation. These findings provide evidence in support of a causal role of the sensorimotor system in modulating oscillatory activity in visual areas with consequences for visual perception. NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study shows that the peripheral activation of the somatomotor hand system triggers long-lasting alpha periodicity in visual perception. This demonstrates that not only the endogenous sensorimotor processes involved in movement preparation but also the passive stimulation of the sensorimotor system can synchronize visual activity. The present work suggests that oscillation-based mechanisms may subserve core (task independent) sensorimotor integration functions.

  4. Review of P-scan computer-based ultrasonic inservice inspection system. Supplement 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, R.V. Jr.; Angel, L.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    This Supplement reviews the P-scan system, a computer-based ultrasonic system used for inservice inspection of piping and other components in nuclear power plants. The Supplement was prepared using the methodology described in detail in Appendix A of NUREG/CR-5985, and is based on one month of using the system in a laboratory. This Supplement describes and characterizes: computer system, ultrasonic components, and mechanical components; scanning, detection, digitizing, imaging, data interpretation, operator interaction, data handling, and record-keeping. It includes a general description, a review checklist, and detailed results of all tests performed.

  5. A very low-cost 3D scanning system for whole-body imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott

    2015-05-01

    A low-cost, high resolution 3D scanning system has been developed at the University of North Dakota that creates 3D models (complete with color and texture data) using hardware and software with a cost of approximately $5,000. This paper presents the design, testing and initial uses for this scanning hardware; it also discusses the efficacy of this technology for a variety of applications and the utility of being able to capture high-quality scans at low cost. A discussion of the required operating conditions and the limitations that this places on the applications the scanner is suitable for is also included.

  6. Design and verification of the miniature optical system for small object surface profile fast scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Sheng; Lee, Shu-Sheng; Huang, Jen, Jen-Yu; Lai, Ti-Yu; Jan, Chia-Ming; Hu, Po-Chi

    2016-04-01

    As the progress of optical technologies, different commercial 3D surface contour scanners are on the market nowadays. Most of them are used for reconstructing the surface profile of mold or mechanical objects which are larger than 50 mm×50 mm× 50 mm, and the scanning system size is about 300 mm×300 mm×100 mm. There are seldom optical systems commercialized for surface profile fast scanning for small object size less than 10 mm×10 mm×10 mm. Therefore, a miniature optical system has been designed and developed in this research work for this purpose. Since the most used scanning method of such system is line scan technology, we have developed pseudo-phase shifting digital projection technology by adopting projecting fringes and phase reconstruction method. A projector was used to project a digital fringe patterns on the object, and the fringes intensity images of the reference plane and of the sample object were recorded by a CMOS camera. The phase difference between the plane and object can be calculated from the fringes images, and the surface profile of the object was reconstructed by using the phase differences. The traditional phase shifting method was accomplished by using PZT actuator or precisely controlled motor to adjust the light source or grating and this is one of the limitations for high speed scanning. Compared with the traditional optical setup, we utilized a micro projector to project the digital fringe patterns on the sample. This diminished the phase shifting processing time and the controlled phase differences between the shifted phases become more precise. Besides, the optical path design based on a portable device scanning system was used to minimize the size and reduce the number of the system components. A screwdriver section about 7mm×5mm×5mm has been scanned and its surface profile was successfully restored. The experimental results showed that the measurement area of our system can be smaller than 10mm×10mm, the precision reached to

  7. Virtual Reality Training: "Cybersickness" and Effects on Sensorimotor Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harm, Deborah L.; Taylor, Laura C.

    2003-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to examine the extent to which exposure to virtual reality (VR) systems produces motion sickness and disrupts sensorimotor functions. Two of the major problems in using VRs are: 1) potential "cybersickness", a form of motion sickness, and 2) maladaptive sensorimotor coordination following virtual environment (VE) training. It is likely that users will eventually adapt to any unpleasant perceptual experiences in a virtual environment. However the most critical problem for training applications is that sensorimotor coordination strategies learned in the VE may not be similar to the responses required in the real environment. This study will evaluate and compare responses to the two types of VR delivery systems (head-mounted display [HMD] and a dome-projection system [DOME]), two exposure duration periods (30 minutes or 60 minutes), and repeated exposures (3 sessions). Specific responses that we will examine include cybersickness severity and symptom patterns, and several sensorimotor functions (eye-hea.d and eye-head-hand coordination, and postural equilibrium). To date, all hardware and software acquisition, development, integration and testing has been completed. A database has been developed and tested for the input, management and storage of all questionnaire data. All data analysis scripts have been developed and tested. Data was collected from 20 subjects in a pilot study that was conducted to determine the amount of training necessary to achieve a stable performance level. Seven subjects are currently enrolled in the study designed to examine the effects of exposure to VE systems on postural control. Data has been collected from two subjects, and it is expected that the results from ten subjects will be presented.

  8. Extended Neural Metastability in an Embodied Model of Sensorimotor Coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Miguel; Bedia, Manuel G.; Barandiaran, Xabier E.

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that brain organization is based on mechanisms of metastable synchronization in neural assemblies has been popularized during the last decades of neuroscientific research. Nevertheless, the role of body and environment for understanding the functioning of metastable assemblies is frequently dismissed. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the contribution of sensorimotor coupling to neural and behavioral metastability using a minimal computational model of plastic neural ensembles embedded in a robotic agent in a behavioral preference task. Our hypothesis is that, under some conditions, the metastability of the system is not restricted to the brain but extends to the system composed by the interaction of brain, body and environment. We test this idea, comparing an agent in continuous interaction with its environment in a task demanding behavioral flexibility with an equivalent model from the point of view of “internalist neuroscience.” A statistical characterization of our model and tools from information theory allow us to show how (1) the bidirectional coupling between agent and environment brings the system closer to a regime of criticality and triggers the emergence of additional metastable states which are not found in the brain in isolation but extended to the whole system of sensorimotor interaction, (2) the synaptic plasticity of the agent is fundamental to sustain open structures in the neural controller of the agent flexibly engaging and disengaging different behavioral patterns that sustain sensorimotor metastable states, and (3) these extended metastable states emerge when the agent generates an asymmetrical circular loop of causal interaction with its environment, in which the agent responds to variability of the environment at fast timescales while acting over the environment at slow timescales, suggesting the constitution of the agent as an autonomous entity actively modulating its sensorimotor coupling with the world. We

  9. Principles of minimal cognition: Casting cognition as sensorimotor coordination

    OpenAIRE

    van Duijn, Marc; Keijzer, F.A.; Franken, Daan

    2006-01-01

    Within the cognitive sciences, cognition tends to be interpreted from an anthropocentric perspective, involving a stringent set of human capabilities. Instead, we suggest that cognition is better explicated as a much more general biological phenomenon, allowing the lower bound of cognition to extend much further down the phylogenetic scale. We argue that elementary forms of cognition can already be witnessed in prokaryotes possessing a functional sensorimotor analogue of the nervous system. B...

  10. Sensorimotor Training in Virtual Reality: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Adamovich, Sergei V.; Fluet, Gerard G; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S

    2009-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that rapid advancement of virtual reality (VR) technologies has great potential for the development of novel strategies for sensorimotor training in neurorehabilitation. We discuss what the adaptive and engaging virtual environments can provide for massive and intensive sensorimotor stimulation needed to induce brain reorganization. Second, discrepancies between the veridical and virtual feedback can be introduced in VR to facilitate activation of targete...

  11. Scan statistics with local vote for target detection in distributed system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Junhai; Wu, Qi

    2017-12-01

    Target detection has occupied a pivotal position in distributed system. Scan statistics, as one of the most efficient detection methods, has been applied to a variety of anomaly detection problems and significantly improves the probability of detection. However, scan statistics cannot achieve the expected performance when the noise intensity is strong, or the signal emitted by the target is weak. The local vote algorithm can also achieve higher target detection rate. After the local vote, the counting rule is always adopted for decision fusion. The counting rule does not use the information about the contiguity of sensors but takes all sensors' data into consideration, which makes the result undesirable. In this paper, we propose a scan statistics with local vote (SSLV) method. This method combines scan statistics with local vote decision. Before scan statistics, each sensor executes local vote decision according to the data of its neighbors and its own. By combining the advantages of both, our method can obtain higher detection rate in low signal-to-noise ratio environment than the scan statistics. After the local vote decision, the distribution of sensors which have detected the target becomes more intensive. To make full use of local vote decision, we introduce a variable-step-parameter for the SSLV. It significantly shortens the scan period especially when the target is absent. Analysis and simulations are presented to demonstrate the performance of our method.

  12. Optimization, Characterization and Commissioning of a Novel Uniform Scanning Proton Beam Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascia, Anthony Edward

    Purpose: To develop and characterize the required detectors for uniform scanning optimization and characterization, and to develop the methodology and assess their efficacy for optimizing, characterizing and commissioning a novel proton beam uniform scanning system. Methods and Materials: The Multi Layer Ion Chamber (MLIC), a 1D array of vented parallel plate ion chambers, was developed in-house for measurement of longitudinal profiles. The Matrixx detector (IBA Dosimetry, Germany) and XOmat V film (Kodak, USA) were characterized for measurement of transverse profiles. The architecture of the uniform scanning system was developed and then optimized and characterized for clinical proton radiotherapy. Results: The MLIC detector significantly increased data collection efficiency without sacrificing data quality. The MLIC was capable of integrating an entire scanned and layer stacked proton field with one measurement, producing results with the equivalent spatial sampling of 1.0mm. The Matrixx detector and modified 1D water phantom jig improved data acquisition efficiency and complemented the film measurements. The proximal, central and distal proton field planes were measured using these methods, yielding better than 3% uniformity. The binary range modulator was programmed, optimized and characterized such that the proton field ranges were separated by approximately 5.0mm modulation width and delivered with an accuracy of 1.0mm in water. Several wobbling magnet scan patterns were evaluated and the raster pattern, spot spacing, scan amplitude and overscan margin were optimized for clinical use. Conclusion: Novel detectors and methods are required for clinically efficient optimization and characterization of proton beam scanning systems. Uniform scanning produces proton beam fields that are suited for clinical proton radiotherapy.

  13. Autoblocker: a system for detecting and blocking of network scanning based on analysis of netflow data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobyshev, A.; Lamore, D.; Demar, P.; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    In a large campus network, such at Fermilab, with tens of thousands of nodes, scanning initiated from either outside of or within the campus network raises security concerns. This scanning may have very serious impact on network performance, and even disrupt normal operation of many services. In this paper we introduce a system for detecting and automatic blocking excessive traffic of different kinds of scanning, DoS attacks, virus infected computers. The system, called AutoBlocker, is a distributed computing system based on quasi-real time analysis of network flow data collected from the border router and core switches. AutoBlocker also has an interface to accept alerts from IDS systems (e.g. BRO, SNORT) that are based on other technologies. The system has multiple configurable alert levels for the detection of anomalous behavior and configurable trigger criteria for automated blocking of scans at the core or border routers. It has been in use at Fermilab for about 2 years, and has become a very valuable tool to curtail scan activity within the Fermilab campus network.

  14. Georeferenced Scanning System to Estimate the Leaf Wall Area in Tree Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio del-Moral-Martínez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of a terrestrial light detection and ranging (LiDAR system to scan the vegetation of tree crops to estimate the so-called pixelated leaf wall area (PLWA. Scanning rows laterally and considering only the half-canopy vegetation to the line of the trunks, PLWA refers to the vertical projected area without gaps detected by LiDAR. As defined, PLWA may be different depending on the side from which the LiDAR is applied. The system is completed by a real-time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS sensor and an inertial measurement unit (IMU sensor for positioning. At the end, a total leaf wall area (LWA is computed and assigned to the X, Y position of each vertical scan. The final value of the area depends on the distance between two consecutive scans (or horizontal resolution, as well as the number of intercepted points within each scan, since PLWA is only computed when the laser beam detects vegetation. To verify system performance, tests were conducted related to the georeferencing task and synchronization problems between GPS time and central processing unit (CPU time. Despite this, the overall accuracy of the system is generally acceptable. The Leaf Area Index (LAI can then be estimated using PLWA as an explanatory variable in appropriate linear regression models.

  15. Two Mechanisms of Sensorimotor Set Adaptation to Inclined Stance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung-Hyun Lee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations – from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect. It has been hypothesized that the post-incline postural change depends on each individual’s sensorimotor set: whether the set was dominated by the somatosensory or vestibular system: Somatosensory dominance would cause the lean aftereffect whereas vestibular dominance should steer stance posture toward upright orientation. We investigated the individuals who displayed somatosensory dominance by manipulating their attention to spatial orientation. We introduced a distraction condition in which subjects concurrently performed a difficult arithmetic subtraction task. This manipulation altered the time course of their post-incline aftereffect. When not distracted, participants returned to upright stance within the 3-min period. However, they continued leaning forward when distracted. These results suggest that the mechanism of sensorimotor set adaptation to inclined stance comprises at least two components. The first component reflects the dominant contribution from the somatosensory system. Since the postural lean was observed among these subjects even when they were not distracted, it suggests that the aftereffect is difficult to overcome. The second component includes a covert attentional component which manifests as the dissipation of the aftereffect and the return of posture to upright orientation.

  16. Two Mechanisms of Sensorimotor Set Adaptation to Inclined Stance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Hyun; Baksh, Asheeba; Bryant, Alyssa; McGowan, Mollie; McMillan, Ryan; Chong, Raymond K

    2017-01-01

    Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations - from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect. It has been hypothesized that the post-incline postural change depends on each individual's sensorimotor set: whether the set was dominated by the somatosensory or vestibular system: Somatosensory dominance would cause the lean aftereffect whereas vestibular dominance should steer stance posture toward upright orientation. We investigated the individuals who displayed somatosensory dominance by manipulating their attention to spatial orientation. We introduced a distraction condition in which subjects concurrently performed a difficult arithmetic subtraction task. This manipulation altered the time course of their post-incline aftereffect. When not distracted, participants returned to upright stance within the 3-min period. However, they continued leaning forward when distracted. These results suggest that the mechanism of sensorimotor set adaptation to inclined stance comprises at least two components. The first component reflects the dominant contribution from the somatosensory system. Since the postural lean was observed among these subjects even when they were not distracted, it suggests that the aftereffect is difficult to overcome. The second component includes a covert attentional component which manifests as the dissipation of the aftereffect and the return of posture to upright orientation.

  17. Sensorimotor integration in human postural control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterka, R. J.

    2002-01-01

    It is generally accepted that human bipedal upright stance is achieved by feedback mechanisms that generate an appropriate corrective torque based on body-sway motion detected primarily by visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive sensory systems. Because orientation information from the various senses is not always available (eyes closed) or accurate (compliant support surface), the postural control system must somehow adjust to maintain stance in a wide variety of environmental conditions. This is the sensorimotor integration problem that we investigated by evoking anterior-posterior (AP) body sway using pseudorandom rotation of the visual surround and/or support surface (amplitudes 0.5-8 degrees ) in both normal subjects and subjects with severe bilateral vestibular loss (VL). AP rotation of body center-of-mass (COM) was measured in response to six conditions offering different combinations of available sensory information. Stimulus-response data were analyzed using spectral analysis to compute transfer functions and coherence functions over a frequency range from 0.017 to 2.23 Hz. Stimulus-response data were quite linear for any given condition and amplitude. However, overall behavior in normal subjects was nonlinear because gain decreased and phase functions sometimes changed with increasing stimulus amplitude. "Sensory channel reweighting" could account for this nonlinear behavior with subjects showing increasing reliance on vestibular cues as stimulus amplitudes increased. VL subjects could not perform this reweighting, and their stimulus-response behavior remained quite linear. Transfer function curve fits based on a simple feedback control model provided estimates of postural stiffness, damping, and feedback time delay. There were only small changes in these parameters with increasing visual stimulus amplitude. However, stiffness increased as much as 60% with increasing support surface amplitude. To maintain postural stability and avoid resonant behavior, an

  18. Dynamical states in the sensorimotor loop of a rolling robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Jahn, Tim; Martin, Laura; Echeveste, Rodrigo; Gros, Claudius

    We investigate the closed sensorimotor loop of a simple rolling robot as a dynamical system. Using the LpzRobots simulation package, we construct robots with cylindrical body, controlled by a single proprioceptual neuron with a time dependent threshold. Despite its simplicity, we obtain a rich set of rolling modes, as a result of the self-organizing processes arising through the feedback within the sensorimotor loop. These rolling modes are robust against environmental noise, since they correspond to stable limit cycle attractors. However, for certain parameters they also allow for explorative behavior via internal noise induced switching. Furthermore, we also find a region of parameters in which the motion is fully embodied, where, in engineering terms, the engine powering the motion of the robot is turned on dynamically through the feedback of its very motion.

  19. Reactivity of sensorimotor oscillations is altered in children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy: A magnetoencephalographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihko, Elina; Nevalainen, Päivi; Vaalto, Selja; Laaksonen, Kristina; Mäenpää, Helena; Valanne, Leena; Lauronen, Leena

    2014-08-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is characterized by difficulty in control of movement and posture due to brain damage during early development. In addition, tactile discrimination deficits are prevalent in CP. To study the function of somatosensory and motor systems in CP, we compared the reactivity of sensorimotor cortical oscillations to median nerve stimulation in 12 hemiplegic CP children vs. 12 typically developing children using magnetoencephalography. We also determined the primary cortical somatosensory and motor representation areas of the affected hand in the CP children using somatosensory-evoked magnetic fields and navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation, respectively. We hypothesized that the reactivity of the sensorimotor oscillations in alpha (10 Hz) and beta (20 Hz) bands would be altered in CP and that the beta-band reactivity would depend on the individual pattern of motor representation. Accordingly, in children with CP, suppression and rebound of both oscillations after stimulation of the contralateral hand were smaller in the lesioned than intact hemisphere. Furthermore, in two of the three children with CP having ipsilateral motor representation, the beta- but not alpha-band modulations were absent in both hemispheres after affected hand stimulation suggesting abnormal sensorimotor network interactions in these individuals. The results are consistent with widespread alterations in information processing in the sensorimotor system and complement current understanding of sensorimotor network development after early brain insults. Precise knowledge of the functional sensorimotor network organization may be useful in tailoring individual rehabilitation for people with CP. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Frequency scanning-based stability analysis method for grid-connected inverter system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yanbo; Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a frequency scanning-based impedance analysis for stability assessment of grid-connected inverter system, which is able to perform stability assessment without using system mathematical models and inherit the superior feature of impedance-based stability criterion with conside...

  1. Eddy current analysis and optimization of fast scanning magnet for a proton therapy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Qin, Bin; Liu, Kaifeng; Chen, Wei; Liang, Zhikai; Chen, Qushan; Chen, Dezhi; Fan, Mingwu

    2017-08-01

    Proton therapy is now recognized as one of the most effective radiation therapy methods for cancers. A proton therapy facility with multiple gantry treatment rooms is under development in HUST (Huazhong University of Science and Technology), which is based on isochronous superconducting cyclotron scheme. In the beam line, the scanning system spreads out the proton beam on the target according to the complex tumour shape by two scanning magnets for horizontal and vertical scanning independently. Since these two magnets are excited by alternating currents and the maximum repetition frequency is up to 100 Hz, eddy currents and losses are expected to be significant. Slits are proven to be an effective way to reduce the eddy currents. To evaluate the heat distribution due to eddy losses in the pole end of the scanning magnet, the transient electromagnetic analysis and steady-state thermal analysis are performed. This paper describes design considerations of the scanning system and mainly analyses the eddy current effect of the scanning magnets. Different coil shapes and slit arrangements are simulated and compared to obtain the optimal configuration. The maximum temperatures of two magnets are optimized below 70 °C. In addition, the lag effect due to eddy currents is also discussed.

  2. Effects of sensorimotor training volume on recovery of sensorimotor function in patients following lower limb arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohl, Torsten; Brauner, Torsten; Wearing, Scott; Stamer, Knut; Horstmann, Thomas

    2015-08-19

    Sensorimotor function is degraded in patients after lower limb arthroplasty. Sensorimotor training is thought to improve sensorimotor skills, however, the optimal training stimulus with regard to volume, frequency, duration, and intensity is still unknown. The aim of this study, therefore, was to firstly quantify the progression of sensorimotor function after total hip (THA) or knee (TKA) arthroplasty and, as second step, to evaluate effects of different sensorimotor training volumes. 58 in-patients during their rehabilitation after THA or TKA participated in this prospective cohort study. Sensorimotor function was assessed using a test battery including measures of stabilization capacity, static balance, proprioception, and gait, along with a self-reported pain and function. All participants were randomly assigned to one of three intervention groups performing sensorimotor training two, four, or six times per week. Outcome measures were taken at three instances, at baseline (pre), after 1.5 weeks (mid) and at the conclusion of the 3 week program (post). All measurements showed significant improvements over time, with the exception of proprioception and static balance during quiet bipedal stance which showed no significant main effects for time or intervention. There was no significant effect of sensorimotor training volume on any of the outcome measures. We were able to quantify improvements in measures of dynamic, but not static, sensorimotor function during the initial three weeks of rehabilitation following TKA/THA. Although sensorimotor improvements were independent of the training volume applied in the current study, long-term effects of sensorimotor training volume need to be investigated to optimize training stimulus recommendations. Clinical trial registration number: DRKS00007894.

  3. Optimization and applications of an excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Sam A.; Klomkaew, Phiwat; Leavesley, Silas J.; Rich, Thomas C.

    2017-02-01

    Currently, the majority of microscopic and endoscopic technologies utilize white light illumination. For a number of applications, hyper-spectral imaging can be shown to have significant improvements over standard white-light imaging techniques. This is true for both microscopy and in vivo imaging. However, hyperspectral imaging methods have suffered from slow application times. Often, minutes are required to gather a full imaging stack. Here we will describe the system and evaluate optimizations and applications of a novel excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system. We have developed and are optimizing a novel approach called excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging that provides an order of magnitude increased signal strength. Optimization of the light path, optical components and illumination sources have allowed us to achieve high speed image acquisition. This high speed allows for potential live video acquisition. This excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging technology has potential to impact a range of applications. The current system allows triggering of up to 16 wavelengths at less than 1 millisecond per image using digital strobing. Analog intensity control is also provided for a fully customizable excitation profile. A significant advantage of excitation scanning hyperspectral imaging is can identify multiple targets simultaneously in real time. We are optimizing the system to compare sensitivity and specificity of excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging with pathology techniques. Finally, we are exploring utilizing this technology to measure cAMP distribution in three dimensions within a cell.

  4. Monte Carlo simulation of Ray-Scan 64 PET system and performance evaluation using GATE toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Suying; Zhang, Qiushi; Vuletic, Ivan; Xie, Zhaoheng; Yang, Kun; Ren, Qiushi

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we aimed to develop a GATE model for the simulation of Ray-Scan 64 PET scanner and model its performance characteristics. A detailed implementation of system geometry and physical process were included in the simulation model. Then we modeled the performance characteristics of Ray-Scan 64 PET system for the first time, based on National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) NU-2 2007 protocols and validated the model against experimental measurement, including spatial resolution, sensitivity, counting rates and noise equivalent count rate (NECR). Moreover, an accurate dead time module was investigated to simulate the counting rate performance. Overall results showed reasonable agreement between simulation and experimental data. The validation results showed the reliability and feasibility of the GATE model to evaluate major performance of Ray-Scan 64 PET system. It provided a useful tool for a wide range of research applications.

  5. Scanning Ultrasonic Spectroscopy System Developed for the Inspection of Composite Flywheels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Richard E.; Baaklini, George Y.

    2002-01-01

    Composite flywheels are being considered as replacements for chemical batteries aboard the International Space Station. A flywheel stores energy in a spinning mass that can turn a generator to meet power demands. Because of the high rotational speeds of the spinning mass, extensive testing of the flywheel system must be performed prior to flight certification. With this goal in mind, a new scanning system has been developed at the NASA Glenn Research Center for the nondestructive inspection of composite flywheels and flywheel subcomponents. The system uses ultrasonic waves to excite a material and examines the response to detect and locate flaws and material variations. The ultrasonic spectroscopy system uses a transducer to send swept-frequency ultrasonic waves into a test material and then receives the returning signal with a second transducer. The received signal is then analyzed in the frequency domain using a fast Fourier transform. A second fast Fourier transform is performed to examine the spacing of the peaks in the frequency domain. The spacing of the peaks is related to the standing wave resonances that are present in the material because of the constructive and destructive interferences of the waves in the full material thickness as well as in individual layers within the material. Material variations and flaws are then identified by changes in the amplitudes and positions of the peaks in both the frequency and resonance spacing domains. This work, conducted under a grant through the Cleveland State University, extends the capabilities of an existing point-by-point ultrasonic spectroscopy system, thus allowing full-field automated inspection. Results of an ultrasonic spectroscopy scan of a plastic cylinder with intentionally seeded flaws. The result of an ultrasonic spectroscopy scan of a plastic cylinder used as a proof-of-concept specimen is shown. The cylinder contains a number of flat bottomed holes of various sizes and shapes. The scanning system

  6. Data analysis using the Internet: the World Wide Web scanning probe microscopy data analysis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P M; Davies, M C; Roberts, C J; Tendler, S J

    1997-10-01

    The first interactive world-wide web-based image analysis system is presented (http://pharm6.pharm.nottingham.ac.uk/processing/main. html). The system, currently tailored to scanning probe microscopy image data, has been developed to permit the use of software algorithms developed within our laboratory by researchers throughout the world. The implementation and functionality of the scanning probe microscopy server is described. Feedback from users of the facility has demonstrated its value within the research community, and highlighted key operational issues which are to be addressed. A future role of Internet-based data processing software is also discussed.

  7. Development of NIRS pencil beam scanning system for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, T.; Hara, Y.; Mizushima, K.; Saotome, N.; Tansho, R.; Saraya, Y.; Inaniwa, T.; Mori, S.; Iwata, Y.; Shirai, T.; Noda, K.

    2017-09-01

    At Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), more than 9000 patients have been successfully treated by carbon ion beams since 1994. The successful results of treatments have led us to construct a new treatment facility equipped with a three-dimensional pencil beam scanning irradiation system, which is one of sophisticated techniques for cancer therapy with high energetic ion beam. This new facility comprises two treatment rooms having fixed beam lines and one treatment room having rotating gantry line. The challenge of this project is to realize treatment of a moving target by scanning irradiation. Thus, to realize this, the development of the fast scanning system is one of the most important issues in this project. After intense commissioning and quality assurance tests, the treatment with scanned ion beam was started in May 2011. After treatment of static target starts, we have developed related technologies. As a result, we can start treatment of moving target and treatment without range shifter plates since 2015. In this paper, the developments of the scanning irradiation system are described.

  8. Calculation of narcissus effect in scanning systems with detector arrays by exact numerical ray tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeninger, Werner

    1993-04-01

    The narcissus-effect is a well known phenomena in IR-scanning systems. Several methods of calculation have been proposed. Due to advances in IR-detector technology it is now possible to use detector line-arrays instead of single detectors for scanning systems. We have modified the model published by A. S. Lau. In our calculations the transmission of all optical components is taken into account, especially the transmission of the imager is also considered. We have developed a program based on this model. With this tool the calculations of the narcissus-equivalent temperature can be done by exact numerical ray-tracing for an array with up to twelve detectors. Separately for each of them you can see the exact narcissus-effect over the whole scan angle, showing a varying intensity over the detector array. The calculation can be done in arbitrary small steps over the whole scanning angle. Thus it is possible to take into account all effects of vignetting due to the mountings of the components or any other mechanical limitations. An example of such a scanning system is presented.

  9. INITIAL TESTS AND ACCURACY ASSESMENT OF A COMPACT MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Julge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning (MLS is a faster and cost-effective alternative to static laser scanning, even though there is a slight trade-off in accuracy. This contribution describes a compact mobile laser scanning system mounted on a vehicle. The technical parameters of the used system components, i.e. a small LIDAR sensor Velodyne VLP-16 and a dual antenna GNSS/INS system Advanced Navigation Spatial Dual, are reviewed, along with the integration of these components for spatial data acquisition. Calculation principles of 3D coordinates from the real-time data of all the involved sensors are discussed. The field tests were carried out in a controlled environment of a parking lot and at different velocities. Experiments were carried out to test the ability of the GNSS/INS system to cope with difficult conditions, e.g. sudden movements due to cornering or swerving. The accuracy of the resulting MLS point cloud is evaluated with respect to high-accuracy static terrestrial laser scanning data. Problems regarding combining LIDAR, GNSS and INS sensors are outlined, as well as the initial accuracy assessments. Initial tests revealed errors related to insufficient quality of inertial data and a need for the trajectory post-processing calculations. Although this study was carried out while the system was mounted on a car, there is potential for operating the system on an unmanned aerial vehicle, all-terrain vehicle or in a backpack mode due to its relatively compact size.

  10. EpiScanGIS: an online geographic surveillance system for meningococcal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert Jürgen

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Surveillance of infectious diseases increasingly relies on Geographic Information Systems (GIS. The integration of pathogen fine typing data in dynamic systems and visualization of spatio-temporal clusters are a technical challenge for system development. Results An online geographic information system (EpiScanGIS based on open source components has been launched in Germany in May 2006 for real time provision of meningococcal typing data in conjunction with demographic information (age, incidence, population density. Spatio-temporal clusters of disease detected by computer assisted cluster analysis (SaTScan™ are visualized on maps. EpiScanGIS enables dynamic generation of animated maps. The system is based on open source components; its architecture is open for other infectious agents and geographic regions. EpiScanGIS is available at http://www.episcangis.org, and currently has 80 registered users, mostly from the public health service in Germany. At present more than 2,900 cases of invasive meningococcal disease are stored in the database (data as of June 3, 2008. Conclusion EpiScanGIS exemplifies GIS applications and early-warning systems in laboratory surveillance of infectious diseases.

  11. Fundamental analysis and algorithms for development of a mobile fast-scan lateral migration radiography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Zhong

    Lateral migration radiography (LMR) is a unique x-ray Compton backscatter imaging (CBI) technique to image surface and subsurface, or internal structure of an object. An x-ray pencil beam scans the interrogated area and the backscattered photons are registered by detectors which have varying degrees of collimation. In early LMR applications, either the LMR systems or the imaged objects are moved on a rectangular grid, and at each node, the systems register backscattered photon energy deposition as pixel intensity in acquired images. The mechanical movement of the system or objects from pixel to pixel causes prolonged image scan time with a high percentage of system dead time. To avoid this drawback, a particular x-ray beam formation technique is proposed and analyzed. A corresponding mobile, fast-scan LMR system is designed, fabricated and tested. The results show a two orders-of-magnitude reduction in image scan time compared with those of previous systems. The x-ray beam formation technique, based on a rotating collimator in the LMR system, implements surface line scan by sampling an x-ray fan beam. This rotating collimator yields unique imaging effects compared to those for an x-ray beam with fixed collimation and perpendicular incidence: (1) the speed of the x-ray beam spot on the scanned surface is not uniform; (2) constant movement of the x-ray beam spot changes the resolution in the image raster direction; (3) x-ray beam spot size changes with location on the scanned surface; (4) the object image shows a squeezed effect in the raster scan direction; (5) under a uniform background, the Compton scatter angular distribution causes the x-ray backscatter field to be stronger, when the x-ray beam has greater incidence angle; and (6) the x-ray illumination spot trace on the scanned surface is skewed. The physics generating these effects is analyzed with Monte Carlo computer simulations and/or measurements. Image acquisition and image processing algorithms are

  12. Influence of scanning system and dentist's level of training in the accuracy of digital impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hategan, Simona; Gabor, Alin; Zaharia, Cristian; Sinescu, Cosmin; Negrutiu, Meda Lavinia; Jivanescu, Anca

    2016-03-01

    Background: The principal aim of our study was to evaluate digital impressions, taken with spray powder and powderfree scan systems, in order to determine the influence of the dentist's commitment to training as a critical factor regarding quality. Material and method: Two digital intraoral impression systems from the same manufacture (Sirona) : Apollo DI and CEREC Omnicam, were used to scan 16 crown preparations on teeth on a typodont maxillary model. Because an Apollo Di intraoral camera is a powder system, an adhesive was applied before using the powder spray. Three groups were used to scan the crown preparations in order to determine coating thickness homogeneity. One group consisted of senior year dental students, a second consisted of prosthodontics residents, and the third consisted of prosthodontics specialists. The same procedure was applied with a CEREC Omnicam intraoral camera, which is a powder-free system. By using the two systems software parameters we were able to determine the scanning precision. Results: Homogeneity scores for Apollo Di regarding the spray layer was significantly thinner for all dental surfaces in the first group, while the second group had thinner coatings for buccal and distal surfaces. For the third group, the crown preparations were coated more homogeneously than the first two groups. The powder-free system CEREC Omnicam can, to a degree, mask the lack of experience in direct optical impressions by avoiding the poor quality coating, which can lead to defective marginal adaptation of definitive restoration. Conclusions: The dentist's lack of experience can be mitigated, and partially avoided, by using powder-free systems. At the same time, the dentist can give more time towards learning how to integrate computerized fabricated restoration into the practice. The commitment to training is a critical factor in the successful integration of the technology. In addition, scanning marginal preparation details needs time in order to

  13. Hi-Res scan mode in clinical MDCT systems: Experimental assessment of spatial resolution performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Bastida, Juan P; Gomez-Cardona, Daniel; Li, Ke; Sun, Heyi; Hsieh, Jiang; Szczykutowicz, Timothy P; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2016-05-01

    The introduction of a High-Resolution (Hi-Res) scan mode and another associated option that combines Hi-Res mode with the so-called High Definition (HD) reconstruction kernels (referred to as a Hi-Res/HD mode in this paper) in some multi-detector CT (MDCT) systems offers new opportunities to increase spatial resolution for some clinical applications that demand high spatial resolution. The purpose of this work was to quantify the in-plane spatial resolution along both the radial direction and tangential direction for the Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD scan modes at different off-center positions. A technique was introduced and validated to address the signal saturation problem encountered in the attempt to quantify spatial resolution for the Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD scan modes. Using the proposed method, the modulation transfer functions (MTFs) of a 64-slice MDCT system (Discovery CT750 HD, GE Healthcare) equipped with both Hi-Res and Hi-Res/HD modes were measured using a metal bead at nine different off-centered positions (0-16 cm with a step size of 2 cm); at each position, both conventional scans and Hi-Res scans were performed. For each type of scan and position, 80 repeated acquisitions were performed to reduce noise induced uncertainties in the MTF measurements. A total of 15 reconstruction kernels, including eight conventional kernels and seven HD kernels, were used to reconstruct CT images of the bead. An ex vivo animal study consisting of a bone fracture model was performed to corroborate the MTF results, as the detection of this high-contrast and high frequency task is predominantly determined by spatial resolution. Images of this animal model generated by different scan modes and reconstruction kernels were qualitatively compared with the MTF results. At the centered position, the use of Hi-Res mode resulted in a slight improvement in the MTF; each HD kernel generated higher spatial resolution than its counterpart conventional kernel. However, the MTF along the

  14. Developing Personalized Sensorimotor Adaptability Countermeasures for Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.; Peters, B.; Cohen, H. S.; Wood, S.; Bloomberg, J. J.

    2016-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during their initial exposure to microgravity and during the re-adaptation phase following a return to an Earth-gravitational environment. Interestingly, astronauts who return from spaceflight show substantial differences in their abilities to readapt to a gravitational environment. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which individual astronauts would be affected would improve the effectiveness of countermeasure training programs designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. In this paper we will be presenting results from our ground-based study that show how behavioral, brain imaging and genomic data may be used to predict individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability to novel sensorimotor environments. This approach will allow us to better design and implement sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures against decrements in post-mission adaptive capability that are customized for each crewmember's sensory biases, adaptive capacity, brain structure, functional capacities, and genetic predispositions. The ability to customize adaptability training will allow more efficient use of crew time during training and will optimize training prescriptions for astronauts to ensure expected outcomes.

  15. Mapping of the brain hemodynamic responses to sensorimotor stimulation in a rodent model: A BOLD fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussida, Salem; Traoré, Amidou S; Durif, Franck

    2017-01-01

    Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI) during electrical paw stimulation has been widely used in studies aimed at the understanding of the somatosensory network in rats. However, despite the well-established anatomical connections between cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor system, most of these functional studies have been concentrated on the cortical effects of sensory electrical stimulation. BOLD fMRI study of the integration of a sensorimotor input across the sensorimotor network requires an appropriate methodology to elicit functional activation in cortical and subcortical areas owing to the regional differences in both neuronal and vascular architectures between these brain regions. Here, using a combination of low level anesthesia, long pulse duration of the electrical stimulation along with improved spatial and temporal signal to noise ratios, we provide a functional description of the main cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor rat brain. With this calibrated fMRI protocol, unilateral non-noxious sensorimotor electrical hindpaw stimulation resulted in robust positive activations in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex and bilaterally in the sensorimotor thalamus nuclei, whereas negative activations were observed bilaterally in the dorsolateral caudate-putamen. These results demonstrate that, once the experimental setup allowing necessary spatial and temporal signal to noise ratios is reached, hemodynamic changes related to neuronal activity, as preserved by the combination of a soft anesthesia with a soft muscle relaxation, can be measured within the sensorimotor network. Moreover, the observed responses suggest that increasing pulse duration of the electrical stimulus adds a proprioceptive component to the sensory input that activates sensorimotor network in the brain, and that these activation patterns are similar to those induced by digits paw's movements. These findings may find application in

  16. Mapping of the brain hemodynamic responses to sensorimotor stimulation in a rodent model: A BOLD fMRI study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salem Boussida

    Full Text Available Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent functional MRI (BOLD fMRI during electrical paw stimulation has been widely used in studies aimed at the understanding of the somatosensory network in rats. However, despite the well-established anatomical connections between cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor system, most of these functional studies have been concentrated on the cortical effects of sensory electrical stimulation. BOLD fMRI study of the integration of a sensorimotor input across the sensorimotor network requires an appropriate methodology to elicit functional activation in cortical and subcortical areas owing to the regional differences in both neuronal and vascular architectures between these brain regions. Here, using a combination of low level anesthesia, long pulse duration of the electrical stimulation along with improved spatial and temporal signal to noise ratios, we provide a functional description of the main cortical and subcortical structures of the sensorimotor rat brain. With this calibrated fMRI protocol, unilateral non-noxious sensorimotor electrical hindpaw stimulation resulted in robust positive activations in the contralateral sensorimotor cortex and bilaterally in the sensorimotor thalamus nuclei, whereas negative activations were observed bilaterally in the dorsolateral caudate-putamen. These results demonstrate that, once the experimental setup allowing necessary spatial and temporal signal to noise ratios is reached, hemodynamic changes related to neuronal activity, as preserved by the combination of a soft anesthesia with a soft muscle relaxation, can be measured within the sensorimotor network. Moreover, the observed responses suggest that increasing pulse duration of the electrical stimulus adds a proprioceptive component to the sensory input that activates sensorimotor network in the brain, and that these activation patterns are similar to those induced by digits paw's movements. These findings may

  17. A LabVIEW{sup TM}-based scanning and control system for proton beam micromachining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bettiol, Andrew A. E-mail: phybaa@nus.edu.sg; Kan, J.A. van; Sum, T.C.; Watt, F

    2001-07-01

    LabVIEW{sup TM} is steadily gaining in popularity as the programming language of choice for scientific data acquisition and control. This is due to the vast array of measurement instruments and data acquisition cards supported by the LabVIEW{sup TM} environment, and the relative ease with which advanced software can be programmed. Furthermore, virtual instruments that are designed for a given system can be easily ported to other LabVIEW{sup TM} platforms and hardware. This paper describes the new LabVIEW{sup TM} based scanning and control system developed specifically for proton beam micromachining (PBM) applications. The new system is capable of scanning figures at 16-bit resolution with improved sub-microsecond scan rates. Support for electrostatic beam blanking and external dose normalization using a TTL signal have been implemented. The new software incorporates a semi-automated dose calibration system, and a number of novel dose normalization methods. Limitations of the current beam scanning hardware are discussed in light of new results obtained from micromachining experiments performed in SU-8 photoresist.

  18. T-scan III system diagnostic tool for digital occlusal analysis in orthodontics - a modern approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trpevska, Vesna; Kovacevska, Gordana; Benedeti, Alberto; Jordanov, Bozidar

    2014-01-01

    This systematic literature review was performed to establish the mechanism, methodology, characteristics, clinical application and opportunities of the T-Scan III System as a diagnostic tool for digital occlusal analysis in different fields of dentistry, precisely in orthodontics. Searching of electronic databases, using MEDLINE and PubMed, hand searching of relevant key journals, and screening of reference lists of included studies with no language restriction was performed. Publications providing statistically examined data were included for systematic review. Twenty potentially relevant Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) were identified. Only ten met the inclusion criteria. The literature demonstrates that using digital occlusal analysis with T-Scan III System in orthodontics has significant advantage with regard to the capability of measuring occlusal parameters in static positions and during dynamic of the mandible. Within the scope of this systematic review, there is evidence to support that T-Scan system is rapid and accurate in identifying the distribution of the tooth contacts and it shows great promise as a clinical diagnostic screening device for occlusion and for improving the occlusion after various dental treatments. Additional clinical studies are required to advance the indication filed of this system. Importance of using digital occlusal T-Scan analysis in orthodontics deserves further investigation.

  19. Mössbauer thermal scan study of a spin crossover system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza Zélis, P.; Pasquevich, G. A.; Sánchez, F. H.; Veiga, A.; Ceolin, M.; Cabrera, A. F.; Coronado-Miralles, E.; Monrabal-Capilla, M.; Galan-Mascaros, J. R.

    2010-03-01

    Programmable Velocity equipment was used to perform a Mössbauer Thermal Scans to allow a quasi-continuous temperature study of the magnetic transition between the low-spin and a high-spin configurations in [Fe(Htrz)2(trz)](BF4) system. The material was studied both in bulk as in nanoparticles sample forms.

  20. An Investigation of the Feasibility of a Video Game System for Developing Scanning and Selection Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eva; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Three nonvocal students (ages 5-8) with severe physical handicaps were trained in scan and selection responses (similar to responses needed for operating augmentative communication systems) using a microcomputer-operated video-game format. Results indicated that all three children showed substantial increases in the number of correct responses and…

  1. Phase behavior of polymer-diluent systems characterized by temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, P.C.; Mulder, M.H.V.; Wessling, Matthias

    2001-01-01

    The thermodynamic phase behavior of a polymer–diluent system (atactic polystyrene–1-dodecanol) forms the fundamental basis of the description of thermally-induced demixing processes. In this paper, we demonstrate that temperature modulated differential scanning calorimetry (TMDSC) can accurately

  2. Verifying Data Integrity of Electronically Scanned Pressure Systems at the NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panek, Joseph W.

    2001-01-01

    The proper operation of the Electronically Scanned Pressure (ESP) System critical to accomplish the following goals: acquisition of highly accurate pressure data for the development of aerospace and commercial aviation systems and continuous confirmation of data quality to avoid costly, unplanned, repeat wind tunnel or turbine testing. Standard automated setup and checkout routines are necessary to accomplish these goals. Data verification and integrity checks occur at three distinct stages, pretest pressure tubing and system checkouts, daily system validation and in-test confirmation of critical system parameters. This paper will give an overview of the existing hardware, software and methods used to validate data integrity.

  3. NMR scanning of the pelvis: initial experience with a 0. 3 T system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, P.J.; Butler, H.E.; LiPuma, J.P.; Haaga, J.R.; El Yousef, S.J.; Resnick, M.I.; Cohen, A.M.; Malviya, V.K.; Nelson, A.D.; Clampitt, M.

    1983-12-01

    Pelvic NMR scans were obtained on 29 patients using a 0.3 T superconducting magnet system. Pathologies studied included four bladder carcinomas, four prostatic carcinomas, four ovarian dermoid cysts, three ovarian cysts, three endometrial carcinomas, two endometriomas, and one each of serous cystadenoma of the ovary, benign prostatic hypertrophy, pelvic hematoma, and undifferentiated sarcoma. NMR is a very promising method for characterizing pelvic masses and in staging pelvic malignancies. It can show primary tumors of the prostate, bladder, and uterus and reveals tumor extension into pelvic fat. The pelvis is particularly well suited to NMR scanning because of the abundant natural contrast provided by pelvic fat and by urine in the bladder and gas in the bowel. There is also less motion blurring than in the upper abdomen and chest because there is relatively little respiratory motion of pelvic organs. Various pulse sequences were used in scanning the pelvis; their relative merits are discussed.

  4. AUTOMATIC RECOGNITION OF PIPING SYSTEM FROM LARGE-SCALE TERRESTRIAL LASER SCAN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kawashima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, changes in plant equipment have been becoming more frequent because of the short lifetime of the products, and constructing 3D shape models of existing plants (as-built models from large-scale laser scanned data is expected to make their rebuilding processes more efficient. However, the laser scanned data of the existing plant has massive points, captures tangled objects and includes a large amount of noises, so that the manual reconstruction of a 3D model is very time-consuming and costs a lot. Piping systems especially, account for the greatest proportion of plant equipment. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to propose an algorithm which can automatically recognize a piping system from terrestrial laser scan data of the plant equipment. The straight portion of pipes, connecting parts and connection relationship of the piping system can be recognized in this algorithm. Eigenvalue analysis of the point clouds and of the normal vectors allows for the recognition. Using only point clouds, the recognition algorithm can be applied to registered point clouds and can be performed in a fully automatic way. The preliminary results of the recognition for large-scale scanned data from an oil rig plant have shown the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  5. Syntactic Structures as Descriptions of Sensorimotor Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair Knott

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I propose a hypothesis linking elements of a model of theoretical syntax with neural mechanisms in the domain of sensorimotor processing. The syntactic framework I adopt to express this linking hypothesis is Chomsky’s Minimalism: I propose that the language-independent ’Logical Form’ (LF of a sentence reporting a concrete episode in the world can be interpreted as a detailed description of the sensorimotor processes involved in apprehending that episode. The hypothesis is motivated by a detailed study of one particular episode, in which an agent grasps a target object. There are striking similarities between the LF structure of transitive sentences describing this episode and the structure of the sensorimotor processes through which it is apprehended by an observer. The neural interpretation of Minimalist LF structure allows it to incorporate insights from empiricist accounts of syntax, relating to sentence processing and to the learning of syntactic constructions.

  6. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on heavy-fermion systems; Rastertunnelspektroskopie an Schwere-Fermionen-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Stefan

    2011-06-24

    in the framework of this thesis different heavy-fermion systems were studied by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy. In the experiment two main topics existed. On the one hand the heavy-fermion superconductivity in the compounds CeCu{sub 2}Si{sub 2}, CeCoIn{sub 5}, and on the other hand the Kondo effect in the Kondo-lattice system YbRh{sub 2}Si{sub 2}.

  7. Virtual microscopy, data management and image analysis in Aperio ScanScope system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Staniszewski

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The histology and the pathology clinical practice undergo a digital revolution. Essential change in laboratory practice - from classical light microscopes, thousands of glass specimens waiting on plates to a virtual microscope and onscreen diagnosis is right now. Currently there are more than 30 different systems for the Virtual Microscopy available on the market. However none of them is so oriented for the practical matters as Aperio ScanScope system.

  8. Low-cost compact MEMS scanning ladar system for robotic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Robert; Yuan, Ping; Bai, Xiaogang; Quesada, Emilio; Sudharsanan, Rengarajan; Stann, Barry L.; Dammann, John F.; Giza, Mark M.; Lawler, William B.

    2012-06-01

    Future robots and autonomous vehicles require compact low-cost Laser Detection and Ranging (LADAR) systems for autonomous navigation. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) had recently demonstrated a brass-board short-range eye-safe MEMS scanning LADAR system for robotic applications. Boeing Spectrolab is doing a tech-transfer (CRADA) of this system and has built a compact MEMS scanning LADAR system with additional improvements in receiver sensitivity, laser system, and data processing system. Improved system sensitivity, low-cost, miniaturization, and low power consumption are the main goals for the commercialization of this LADAR system. The receiver sensitivity has been improved by 2x using large-area InGaAs PIN detectors with low-noise amplifiers. The FPGA code has been updated to extend the range to 50 meters and detect up to 3 targets per pixel. Range accuracy has been improved through the implementation of an optical T-Zero input line. A compact commercially available erbium fiber laser operating at 1550 nm wavelength is used as a transmitter, thus reducing the size of the LADAR system considerably from the ARL brassboard system. The computer interface has been consolidated to allow image data and configuration data (configuration settings and system status) to pass through a single Ethernet port. In this presentation we will discuss the system architecture and future improvements to receiver sensitivity using avalanche photodiodes.

  9. Cervical sensorimotor control in idiopathic cervical dystonia: A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, Joke; Mercelis, Rudy; Hallemans, Ann; Michiels, Sarah; Truijen, Steven; Cras, Patrick; De Hertogh, Willem

    2017-09-01

    Patients with idiopathic adult-onset cervical dystonia (CD) experience an abnormal head posture and involuntary muscle contractions. Although the exact areas affected in the central nervous system remain uncertain, impaired functions in systems stabilizing the head and neck are apparent such as the somatosensory and sensorimotor integration systems. The aim of the study is to investigate cervical sensorimotor control dysfunction in patients with CD. Cervical sensorimotor control was assessed by a head repositioning task in 24 patients with CD and 70 asymptomatic controls. Blindfolded participants were asked to reposition their head to a previously memorized neutral head position (NHP) following an active movement (flexion, extension, left, and right rotation). The repositioning error (joint position error, JPE) was registered via 3D motion analysis with an eight-camera infrared system (VICON ® T10). Disease-specific characteristics of all patients were obtained via the Tsui scale, Cervical Dystonia Impact Profile (CDIP-58), and Toronto Western Spasmodic Rating Scale. Patients with CD showed larger JPE than controls (mean difference of 1.5°, p sensorimotor control is impaired in patients with CD. As cervical sensorimotor control can be trained, this might be a potential treatment option for therapy, adjuvant to botulinum toxin injections.

  10. Reliability of the TekScan MatScan® system for the measurement of postural stability in older people with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton-Rule Angela

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Postural stability can be measured in clinical and research settings using portable plantar pressure systems. People with rheumatoid arthritis (RA have decreased postural stability compared to non-RA populations and impaired postural stability is associated with falls in people with RA. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the reliability of the TekScan MatScan® system in assessing postural stability in people with RA. Methods Twenty three participants with RA, mean (SD age 69.74 (10.1 years, were assessed in barefoot double-limb quiet standing, with eyes open and eyes closed, for antero-posterior and medio-lateral postural sway values. Three repetitions, at a sampling frequency of 40 Hz, were recorded for each test condition to obtain a mean value. Measurements were repeated one hour later. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to determine between-session reliability. Measurement error was assessed through the calculation of the standard error of the measurement (SEM and the smallest real difference (SRD. Results The system displayed good to excellent reliability for antero-posterior and medio-lateral sway, with eyes open and closed, as indicated by ICC values ranging from 0.84 to 0.92. Measurement error, as evidenced by the SEM, ranged from 1.27 to 2.35 mm. The degree of change required to exceed the expected trial to trial variability was relatively high, compared to mean values, with SRD ranging from 3.08 to 5.71 mm. Conclusions The portability and ease of use of the TekScan MatScan® makes it a useful tool for the measurement of postural stability in clinical and research settings. The TekScan MatScan® system can reliably measure double-limb quiet standing in older people, aged 60 to 80 years, with RA.

  11. Low noise SQUID based NDE with non-magnetic scanning system in unshielded environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khatami, Y; Alavi, M; Sarreshtedari, F; Fardmanesh, M [Electrical Engineering Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vesaghi, M [Physics Department, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Banzet, M; Schubert, J [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Juelich (Germany)], E-mail: fardmanesh@sharif.edu

    2008-02-01

    A Non-magnetic scanning Robotic system with special EMC considerations has been designed for SQUID-Based NDE of room temperature stationary samples in unshielded environment. Considerable efforts have been made to cancel out noise of the system which resulted in detection of two major noise sources. Characterizing the noise contribution of the involved parts, a minor noise component was found to be due to the robot and the other due to liquid nitrogen bubbling in some frequencies which could be avoided by choosing proper excitation frequency. Using our NDE system we performed a NDE scan of hidden cracks in aluminum plates with white noise level of 50 {mu}{phi}{sub 0}/Hz{sup -1/2}.

  12. Volumetric display system based on three-dimensional scanning of inclined optical image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Daisuke; Shiba, Kensuke; Sotsuka, Koji; Matsushita, Kenji

    2006-12-25

    A volumetric display system based on three-dimensional (3D) scanning of an inclined image is reported. An optical image of a two-dimensional (2D) display, which is a vector-scan display monitor placed obliquely in an optical imaging system, is moved laterally by a galvanometric mirror scanner. Inclined cross-sectional images of a 3D object are displayed on the 2D display in accordance with the position of the image plane to form a 3D image. Three-dimensional images formed by this display system satisfy all the criteria for stereoscopic vision because they are real images formed in a 3D space. Experimental results of volumetric imaging from computed-tomography images and 3D animated images are presented.

  13. A system level boundary scan controller board for VME applications [to CERN experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Cardoso, N; Da Silva, J C

    2000-01-01

    This work is the result of a collaboration between INESC and LIP in the CMS experiment being conducted at CERN. The collaboration addresses the application of boundary scan test at system level namely the development of a VME boundary scan controller (BSC) board prototype and the corresponding software. This prototype uses the MTM bus existing in the VME64* backplane to apply the 1149.1 test vectors to a system composed of nineteen boards, called here units under test (UUTs). A top-down approach is used to describe our work. The paper begins with some insights about the experiment being conducted at CERN, proceed with system level considerations concerning our work and with some details about the BSC board. The results obtained so far and the proposed work is reviewed in the end of this contribution. (11 refs).

  14. Quasi-4D laser diagnostics using an acousto-optic deflector scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Pareja, Jhon; Becker, Lukas; Heddrich, Wolfgang; Dreizler, Andreas; Böhm, Benjamin

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a novel scanning system for laser diagnostics was developed and characterized. The system is based on the acousto-optic deflection of a high-speed pulsed laser. Results showed that quasi-volumetric laser illumination with high precision and accuracy can be achieved with a simplified and flexible optical setup. The feasibility of the method for performing high-speed quasi-4D laser diagnostics was demonstrated by the tomographic visualization of a lifted turbulent jet flame using Mie-scattering and multi-plane particle image velocimetry measurements of a turbulent non-reactive mixing case. Three-dimensional flame and flow structures can be detected and tracked with this new scanning system.

  15. MRT letter: An extended scanning probe microscopy system for macroscopic topography imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ji; Li, Faxin

    2014-10-01

    Enlightened by the principle of scanning probe microscopy or atomic force microscope (AFM), we proposed a novel surface topography imaging system based on the scanning of a piezoelectric unimorph cantilever. The height of sample surface can be obtained by recording the cantilever's strain using an ultra-sensitive strain gauge and the Z-axis movement is realized by electric bending of the cantilever. This system can be operated in the way similar to the contact mode in AFM, with the practical height detection resolution better than 100 nm. Imaging of the inner surface of a steel tube and on a transparent wing of a honey bee were conducted and the obtained results showed that this proposed system is a very promising solution for in situ topography mapping. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The role of cortical sensorimotor oscillations in action anticipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denis, Dan; Rowe, Richard; Williams, A Mark; Milne, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    The human mirror neuron system is believed to play an important role in facilitating the ability of athletes to anticipate the actions of an opponent. This system is often assessed with EEG by measuring event-related changes in mu (8-13Hz) sensorimotor oscillations. However, traditional channel-based analyses of this measure are flawed in that due to volume conduction effects mu and non-mu alpha activity can become mixed. This flaw means it is unclear the extent to which mu activity indexes the mirror system, as opposed to other processes such as attentional demand. As a solution to this problem, we use independent component analysis to separate out the underlying brain processes during a tennis-related action observation and anticipation task. We investigated expertise-related differences in independent component activity. Experienced tennis players (N=18) were significantly more accurate than unexperienced novices (N=21) on the anticipation task. EEG results found significant group differences in both the mu and beta (15-25Hz) frequency bands in sensorimotor components, with earlier and greater desynchronisation in the experienced tennis players. In particular, only experienced players showed desynchronisation in the high mu (11-13Hz) band. No group differences were found in posterior alpha components. These results show for the first time that expertise differences during action observation and anticipation are unique to sensorimotor sources, and that no expertise-related differences exist in attention modulated, posterior alpha sources. As such, this paper provides a much cleaner measure of the human mirror system during action observation, and its modulation by motor expertise, than has been possible in previous work. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of a Backpack-Mounted 3D Mobile Scanning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helge A. Lauterbach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several backpack-mounted systems, also known as personal laser scanning systems, have been developed. They consist of laser scanners or cameras that are carried by a human operator to acquire measurements of the environment while walking. These systems were first designed to overcome the challenges of mapping indoor environments with doors and stairs. While the human operator inherently has the ability to open doors and to climb stairs, the flexible movements introduce irregularities of the trajectory to the system. To compete with other mapping systems, the accuracy of these systems has to be evaluated. In this paper, we present an extensive evaluation of our backpack mobile mapping system in indoor environments. It is shown that the system can deal with the normal human walking motion, but has problems with irregular jittering. Moreover, we demonstrate the applicability of the backpack in a suitable urban scenario.

  18. Laser cutting of irregular shape object based on stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Li; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Shun; Tang, Zhiqiang; Yang, Huan; Zhang, Xuping

    2015-05-01

    Irregular shape objects with different 3-dimensional (3D) appearances are difficult to be shaped into customized uniform pattern by current laser machining approaches. A laser galvanometric scanning system (LGS) could be a potential candidate since it can easily achieve path-adjustable laser shaping. However, without knowing the actual 3D topography of the object, the processing result may still suffer from 3D shape distortion. It is desirable to have a versatile auxiliary tool that is capable of generating 3D-adjusted laser processing path by measuring the 3D geometry of those irregular shape objects. This paper proposed the stereo vision laser galvanometric scanning system (SLGS), which takes the advantages of both the stereo vision solution and conventional LGS system. The 3D geometry of the object obtained by the stereo cameras is used to guide the scanning galvanometers for 3D-shape-adjusted laser processing. In order to achieve precise visual-servoed laser fabrication, these two independent components are integrated through a system calibration method using plastic thin film target. The flexibility of SLGS has been experimentally demonstrated by cutting duck feathers for badminton shuttle manufacture.

  19. Temporal subtraction system on torso FDG-PET scans based on statistical image analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yusuke; Hara, Takeshi; Fukuoka, Daisuke; Zhou, Xiangrong; Muramatsu, Chisako; Ito, Satoshi; Hakozaki, Kenta; Kumita, Shin-ichiro; Ishihara, Kei-ichi; Katafuchi, Tetsuro; Fujita, Hiroshi

    2013-02-01

    Diagnostic imaging on FDG-PET scans was often used to evaluate chemotherapy results of cancer patients. Radiologists compare the changes of lesions' activities between previous and current examinations for the evaluation. The purpose of this study was to develop a new computer-aided detection (CAD) system with temporal subtraction technique for FDGPET scans and to show the fundamental usefulness based on an observer performance study. Z-score mapping based on statistical image analysis was newly applied to the temporal subtraction technique. The subtraction images can be obtained based on the anatomical standardization results because all of the patients' scans were deformed into standard body shape. An observer study was performed without and with computer outputs to evaluate the usefulness of the scheme by ROC (receiver operating characteristics) analysis. Readers responded as confidence levels on a continuous scale from absolutely no change to definitely change between two examinations. The recognition performance of the computer outputs for the 43 pairs was 96% sensitivity with 31.1 false-positive marks per scan. The average of area-under-the-ROC-curve (AUC) from 4 readers in the observer performance study was increased from 0.85 without computer outputs to 0.90 with computer outputs (p=0.0389, DBM-MRMC). The average of interpretation time was slightly decreased from 42.11 to 40.04 seconds per case (p=0.625, Wilcoxon test). We concluded that the CAD system for torso FDG-PET scans with temporal subtraction technique might improve the diagnostic accuracy of radiologist in cancer therapy evaluation.

  20. Accuracy enhanced distance measurement system using double-sideband modulated frequency scanning interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xilun; Wang, Xiangchuan; Pan, Shilong

    2017-03-01

    An implementation of a distance measurement system using double-sideband with suppressed carrier modulation (DSB-SC) frequency scanning interferometry is proposed to reduce the variations in the optical path and improve the measurement accuracy. In this proposed system, the electro-optic DSB-SC is used to create dual-swept signals with opposite scanning directions. For each swept signal, the relative distance between the reference arm and the measuring arm is determined by the beat frequency of signals from two arms. By multiplying both beat signals, measurement errors caused by variations in the optical path can be greatly reduced. As an experimental demonstration, a vibration was introduced in the optical path length. The experimental results show that the variations can be suppressed for over 19.9 dB.

  1. Scanning, non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Johannes D; Mireles, Miguel; Morales-Dalmau, Jordi; Farzam, Parisa; Martínez-Lozano, Mar; Casanovas, Oriol; Durduran, Turgut

    2016-02-01

    A scanning system for small animal imaging using non-contact, hybrid broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy (ncDOS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (ncDCS) is presented. The ncDOS uses a two-dimensional spectrophotometer retrieving broadband (610-900 nm) spectral information from up to fifty-seven source-detector distances between 2 and 5 mm. The ncDCS data is simultaneously acquired from four source-detector pairs. The sample is scanned in two dimensions while tracking variations in height. The system has been validated with liquid phantoms, demonstrated in vivo on a human fingertip during an arm cuff occlusion and on a group of mice with xenoimplanted renal cell carcinoma.

  2. Capabilities of a single scan TV-radiographic system for digital data acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, N. A.; Crepeau, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A single scan TV-radiography system capable of providing analogue signals ready for A-D conversion for input to a computer has been investigated. Modulation transfer functions of both horizontal and vertical resolution have been obtained. The capability for gray scale reproduction was also investigated. The output data rate of the system is 16 KHz thereby providing compatibility to A-D converters generally available for most computers. In general, the capability of the system was found to exceed the input capabilities of available image-amplifiers and is therefore acceptable for quantitative fluoroscopic applications.

  3. Compact Multipurpose Mobile Laser Scanning System — Initial Tests and Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Glennie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a prototype compact mobile laser scanning system that may be operated from a backpack or unmanned aerial vehicle. The system is small, self-contained, relatively inexpensive, and easy to deploy. A description of system components is presented, along with the initial calibration of the multi-sensor platform. The first field tests of the system, both in backpack mode and mounted on a helium balloon for real-world applications are presented. For both field tests, the acquired kinematic LiDAR data are compared with highly accurate static terrestrial laser scanning point clouds. These initial results show that the vertical accuracy of the point cloud for the prototype system is approximately 4 cm (1σ in balloon mode, and 3 cm (1σ in backpack mode while horizontal accuracy was approximately 17 cm (1σ for the balloon tests. Results from selected study areas on the Sacramento River Delta and San Andreas Fault in California demonstrate system performance, deployment agility and flexibility, and potential for operational production of high density and highly accurate point cloud data. Cost and production rate trade-offs place this system in the niche between existing airborne and tripod mounted LiDAR systems.

  4. Accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system in the process of making ceramic inlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifković Branka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. One of the results of many years of Cerec® 3D CAD/CAM system technological development is implementation of one intraoral and two extraoral optical scanning methods which, depending on the current indications, are applied in making fixed restorations. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of precision of optical scanning methods by the use of the Cerec®3D CAD/CAM system in the process of making ceramic inlays. Methods. The study was conducted in three experimental groups of inlays prepared using the procedure of three methods of scanning Cerec ®3D system. Ceramic inlays made by conventional methodology were the control group. The accuracy of optical scanning methods of the Cerec®3D system computer aided designcomputer aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM was indirectly examined by measuring a marginal gap size between inlays and demarcation preparation by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Results. The results of the study showed a difference in the accuracy of the existing methods of scanning dental CAD/CAM systems. The highest level of accuracy was achieved by the extraoral optical superficial scanning technique. The value of marginal gap size inlays made with the technique of extraoral optical superficial scanning was 32.97 ± 13.17 μ. Techniques of intraoral optical superficial and extraoral point laser scanning showed a lower level of accuracy (40.29 ± 21.46 μ for inlays of intraoral optical superficial scanning and 99.67 ± 37.25 μ for inlays of extraoral point laser scanning. Conclusion. Optical scanning methods in dental CAM/CAM technologies are precise methods of digitizing the spatial models; application of extraoral optical scanning methods provides the hightest precision.

  5. A slow-light laser radar system with two-dimensional scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweinsberg, Aaron; Shi, Zhimin; Vornehm, Joseph E; Boyd, Robert W

    2012-02-01

    We propose a multi-aperture slow-light laser radar with two-dimensional scanning. We demonstrate experimentally that we can use two independent slow-light mechanisms, namely dispersive delay and stimulated Brillouin scattering, to dynamically compensate the group delay mismatch among different apertures, while we use optical phase locking to control the relative phases of the optical signals emitted from different apertures, as the system steers the beam in two dimensions.

  6. New light on chromotherapy: Grakov's 'Virtual Scanning' system of medical assessment and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, Alex; Ewing, Elena

    2007-06-01

    Virtual Scanning incorporates novel uses of colored light into its system of health assessment and therapy. Independent investigations of its effectiveness in Russia and the UK have revealed unique abilities to correct incipient and fully developed chronic conditions. As such it forms an important new addition to the field of Chromotherapy. It differs from most others, in that its development depended on discoveries in neuroscience by its inventor, and subsequent application of new models in computational neuroscience.

  7. New Light on Chromotherapy: Grakov's ?Virtual Scanning? System of Medical Assessment and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Hankey, Alex; Ewing, Elena

    2006-01-01

    Virtual Scanning incorporates novel uses of colored light into its system of health assessment and therapy. Independent investigations of its effectiveness in Russia and the UK have revealed unique abilities to correct incipient and fully developed chronic conditions. As such it forms an important new addition to the field of Chromotherapy. It differs from most others, in that its development depended on discoveries in neuroscience by its inventor, and subsequent application of new models in ...

  8. A Structured Light-based System for Scanning Subcutaneous Tumors in Laboratory Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Girit, Ibrahim Cem; Jure-Kunkel, Maria; McIntyre, Kim W

    2008-01-01

    Tumor size or volume is often the primary endpoint in preclinical efficacy studies of anticancer drugs. Efficient and accurate measurement of such tumors is crucial to rapid evaluation of novel drug candidates. Currently available techniques for acquiring high-throughput data on tumor volume are time-consuming and prone to various inaccuracies and errors. The laser-scanning technology we describe here provides a convenient, high-throughput system for tumor measurement that reduces interoperat...

  9. Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus inducing unilateral sensorimotor neuropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psarelis, Savvas; Georgiades, Fanourios; Ioannou, Antreas; Xenophontos, Eleni; Georgiou, Georgios; Papanicolaou, Eleni

    2017-05-01

    We describe the case of a 32-year-old male with previous history of subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) who presented with arthritis followed by a unilateral lower-limb sensorimotor impairment, without biochemical or immunological marker abnormalities. Our patient currently satisfies only three of the systemic lupus international collaborating clinics criteria. Management of such patients is challenging due to lack of examples in the literature, with this case being the first described where a seronegative patient with SCLE demonstrated neurological involvement. A brief review of the available literature is included.

  10. Development of neuronal and sensorimotor systems in the absence of gravity: Neurobiological research on four soyuz taxi flights to the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Eberhard R.; Dournon, Christian; Frippiat, Jean-Pol; Marco, Roberto; Böser, Sybille; Kirschnick, Uta

    2007-09-01

    Neurobiological experiments on 4 animal species (Xenopus laevis, Pleurodeles waltl, Drosophila melanogaster, Acheta domesticus) were performed to study effects of microgravity on development and aging of neuronal, sensory and motor systems. Animal models were selected according to their suitability to answer questions concerning μg-effects on neuroanatomy, neuronal activity, and behaviour. The studies were performed on the Soyuz Taxi flights Andromède, Cervantes, Eneide and LDM-TMA8/TMA7. Observations from these flights include: (1) In tadpoles and cricket larvae, morphological features of sensory cells and neurons are rarely affected by microgravity. (2) In crickets, in-flight fertilization was successful; after landing, flight larvae hatched earlier than ground reared siblings. (3) In crickets, proliferation of peptidergic neurons and their projection patterns within the nervous system were not affected by microgravity. (4) During aging, the impact of microgravity on peptidergic neurons of male Drosophila was limited to the size of cell body. (5) In Xenopus, neurophysiological features of the spinal motor system during fictive swimming were partially modified. (6) In Xenopus tadpoles, the vestibuloocular reflex was affected in an age-related manner. Modifications were also related to the occurrence of a tail lordosis induced by microgravity. It is concluded that adaptation to microgravity during development and aging is mainly based on physiological mechanisms within the central nervous system while structural modifications of the sensory and neuronal system contribute less.

  11. Spatial characterisation of a 36-fold segmented AGATA detector via a novel scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, Namita

    2011-06-06

    The core principle of segmented gamma-tracking germanium detector arrays like AGATA and GRETA, that will be used in future for 4{pi} gamma detection, is the application of pulse shape analysis (PSA). The 3D position sensitivity of the HPGe detectors is based on differences in the shape of the charge pulses associated with different interaction points inside the whole volume. It is therefore necessary for this analysis to have a data base containing pulses for all the interaction points inside the detector volume. A full 3D scanning of the detectors, which experimentally determines pulse shapes for each position inside the active volume, is therefore needed. In this thesis, a novel scanning system is presented to determine the HPGe detector pulse shapes as a function of the {gamma}-ray interaction position inside the detector. The device is based on a pulse shape comparison scan (PSCS) and the positron annihilation correlation (PAC) method which makes it about 100 times faster than the conventional coincidence based scanners. The performance and efficiency of the system is superior because of using a position sensitive detector (PSD)/gamma camera. It consists of a LYSO scintillating crystal optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube. The individual multianode readout (IMAR) approach is used to achieve a spatial resolution of {approx}1 mm and to optimize its field of view to {approx}28 cm{sup 2}. A Compton scattering imaging technique is implemented to perform an accurate position calibration of the gamma camera. The employment of PSD yields an added advantage of imaging capability which allows to study e.g. the details of the inner structure of HPGe detectors and electric field anisotropy effects. The position response of a planar HPGe detector is obtained using the apparatus and the risetime distribution plots are compared with those obtained via a conventional scanning system. However, to validate the aforementioned scanning principle, an AGATA

  12. Functional Task Test: 1. Sensorimotor changes Associated with Postflight Alterations in Astronaut Functional Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Arzeno, N. H.; Buxton, R. E.; Feiveson, A. H.; Kofman, I. S.; Lee, S. M. C.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Platts, S. H.; Peters, B. T.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Space flight is known to cause alterations in multiple physiological systems including changes in sensorimotor, cardiovascular, and neuromuscular systems. These changes may affect a crewmember s ability to perform critical mission tasks immediately after landing on a planetary surface. The overall goal of this project is to determine the effects of space flight on functional tests that are representative of high priority exploration mission tasks and to identify the key underlying physiological factors that contribute to decrements in performance. This presentation will focus on the sensorimotor contributions to postflight functional performance.

  13. A LOW BUDGET MOBILE LASER SCANNING SOLUTION USING ON BOARD SENSORS AND FIELD BUS SYSTEMS OF TODAY'S CONSUMER AUTOMOBILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. M. Vock

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning systems (MLS offer a great potential for acquiring detailed point cloud data of urban and suburban surroundings with minimum effort. In this paper a new solution for MLSs is presented, requiring solely a combination of a profile laser scanning device and systems that are included in today's serialized end consumer vehicles. While today's mobile laser scan systems require different and expensive additional hardware that needs to be mounted onto the vehicle, the devices included within vehicle electronics offer good alternatives without additional costs.The actual scan consists of a continuous profile scan together with information gathered from on-board sensor modules. In a post- processing step, the sensor data is used to reconstruct the car's trajectory for the period of the scan and, based on this information, the track of the scan device for every measured laser pixel. Synchronization of pixel data and vehicle movement is realized via a timestamp signal which is transmitted to the car's field bus system and the scan device. To generate the final point cloud scenario, the trajectory is interpolated for every single scan point and used to convert its local position within the profile into the global coordinate system (Fig.1, Left.

  14. A beam monitoring and validation system for continuous line scanning in proton therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpki, G.; Psoroulas, S.; Bula, C.; Rechsteiner, U.; Eichin, M.; Weber, D. C.; Lomax, A.; Meer, D.

    2017-08-01

    Line scanning represents a faster and potentially more flexible form of pencil beam scanning than conventional step-and-shoot irradiations. It seeks to minimize dead times in beam delivery whilst preserving the possibility of modulating the dose at any point in the target volume. Our second generation proton gantry features irradiations in line scanning mode, but it still lacks a dedicated monitoring and validation system that guarantees patient safety throughout the irradiation. We report on its design and implementation in this paper. In line scanning, we steer the proton beam continuously along straight lines while adapting the speed and/or current frequently to modulate the delivered dose. We intend to prevent delivery errors that could be clinically relevant through a two-stage system: safety level 1 monitors the beam current and position every 10 μs. We demonstrate that direct readings from ionization chambers in the gantry nozzle and Hall probes in the scanner magnets provide required information on current and position, respectively. Interlocks will be raised when measured signals exceed their predefined tolerance bands. Even in case of an erroneous delivery, safety level 1 restricts hot and cold spots of the physically delivered fraction dose to  ±36~mGy (±2% of 2~Gy biologically). In safety level 2—an additional, partly redundant validation step—we compare the integral line profile measured with a strip monitor in the nozzle to a forward-calculated prediction. The comparison is performed between two line applications to detect amplifying inaccuracies in speed and current modulation. This level can be regarded as an online quality assurance of the machine. Both safety levels use devices and functionalities already installed along the beamline. Hence, the presented monitoring and validation system preserves full compatibility of discrete and continuous delivery mode on a single gantry, with the possibility of switching between modes during the

  15. A beam monitoring and validation system for continuous line scanning in proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpki, G; Psoroulas, S; Bula, C; Rechsteiner, U; Eichin, M; Weber, D C; Lomax, A; Meer, D

    2017-07-12

    Line scanning represents a faster and potentially more flexible form of pencil beam scanning than conventional step-and-shoot irradiations. It seeks to minimize dead times in beam delivery whilst preserving the possibility of modulating the dose at any point in the target volume. Our second generation proton gantry features irradiations in line scanning mode, but it still lacks a dedicated monitoring and validation system that guarantees patient safety throughout the irradiation. We report on its design and implementation in this paper. In line scanning, we steer the proton beam continuously along straight lines while adapting the speed and/or current frequently to modulate the delivered dose. We intend to prevent delivery errors that could be clinically relevant through a two-stage system: safety level 1 monitors the beam current and position every 10 μs. We demonstrate that direct readings from ionization chambers in the gantry nozzle and Hall probes in the scanner magnets provide required information on current and position, respectively. Interlocks will be raised when measured signals exceed their predefined tolerance bands. Even in case of an erroneous delivery, safety level 1 restricts hot and cold spots of the physically delivered fraction dose to  ±[Formula: see text] (±[Formula: see text] of [Formula: see text] biologically). In safety level 2-an additional, partly redundant validation step-we compare the integral line profile measured with a strip monitor in the nozzle to a forward-calculated prediction. The comparison is performed between two line applications to detect amplifying inaccuracies in speed and current modulation. This level can be regarded as an online quality assurance of the machine. Both safety levels use devices and functionalities already installed along the beamline. Hence, the presented monitoring and validation system preserves full compatibility of discrete and continuous delivery mode on a single gantry, with the possibility

  16. Integrated fringe projection 3D scanning system for large-scale metrology based on laser tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui; Chen, Xiaobo; Zhou, Dan; Guo, Gen; Xi, Juntong

    2017-10-01

    Large scale components exist widely in advance manufacturing industry,3D profilometry plays a pivotal role for the quality control. This paper proposes a flexible, robust large-scale 3D scanning system by integrating a robot with a binocular structured light scanner and a laser tracker. The measurement principle and system construction of the integrated system are introduced. And a mathematical model is established for the global data fusion. Subsequently, a flexible and robust method and mechanism is introduced for the establishment of the end coordination system. Based on this method, a virtual robot noumenon is constructed for hand-eye calibration. And then the transformation matrix between end coordination system and world coordination system is solved. Validation experiment is implemented for verifying the proposed algorithms. Firstly, hand-eye transformation matrix is solved. Then a car body rear is measured for 16 times for the global data fusion algorithm verification. And the 3D shape of the rear is reconstructed successfully.

  17. The CNAO dose delivery system for modulated scanning ion beam radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giordanengo, S.; Marchetto, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Garella, M. A.; Donetti, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125, Italy and Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy); Bourhaleb, F.; Monaco, V.; Hosseini, M. A.; Peroni, C.; Sacchi, R.; Cirio, R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Section of Torino, Torino 10125, Italy and Physics Department, University of Torino, Torino 10125 (Italy); Ciocca, M.; Mirandola, A. [Centro Nazionale Adroterapia Oncologica, Pavia 27100 (Italy)

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: This paper describes the system for the dose delivery currently used at the Centro Nazionale di Adroterapia Oncologica (CNAO) for ion beam modulated scanning radiotherapy. Methods: CNAO Foundation, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and University of Torino have designed, built, and commissioned a dose delivery system (DDS) to monitor and guide ion beams accelerated by a dedicated synchrotron and to distribute the dose with a full 3D scanning technique. Protons and carbon ions are provided for a wide range of energies in order to cover a sizable span of treatment depths. The target volume, segmented in several layers orthogonally to the beam direction, is irradiated by thousands of pencil beams which must be steered and held to the prescribed positions until the prescribed number of particles has been delivered. For the CNAO beam lines, these operations are performed by the DDS. The main components of this system are two independent beam monitoring detectors, called BOX1 and BOX2, interfaced with two control systems performing the tasks of real-time fast and slow control, and connected to the scanning magnets and the beam chopper. As a reaction to any condition leading to a potential hazard, a DDS interlock signal is sent to the patient interlock system which immediately stops the irradiation. The essential tasks and operations performed by the DDS are described following the data flow from the treatment planning system through the end of the treatment delivery. Results: The ability of the DDS to guarantee a safe and accurate treatment was validated during the commissioning phase by means of checks of the charge collection efficiency, gain uniformity of the chambers, and 2D dose distribution homogeneity and stability. A high level of reliability and robustness has been proven by three years of system activity needing rarely more than regular maintenance and working with 100% uptime. Four identical and independent DDS devices have been tested showing

  18. Improving Sensorimotor Function and Adaptation using Stochastic Vestibular Stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, R. C.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Clark, T. K.; Merfeld, D. M.; Oman, C. M.

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor changes during adaption to G-transitions that occur when entering and exiting microgravity. Post space flight, these sensorimotor disturbances can include postural and gait instability, visual performance changes, manual control disruptions, spatial disorientation, and motion sickness, all of which can hinder the operational capabilities of the astronauts. Crewmember safety would be significantly increased if sensorimotor changes brought on by gravitational changes could be mitigated and adaptation could be facilitated. The goal of this research is to investigate and develop the use of electrical stochastic vestibular stimulation (SVS) as a countermeasure to augment sensorimotor function and facilitate adaptation. For this project, SVS will be applied via electrodes on the mastoid processes at imperceptible amplitude levels. We hypothesize that SVS will improve sensorimotor performance through the phenomena of stochastic resonance, which occurs when the response of a nonlinear system to a weak input signal is optimized by the application of a particular nonzero level of noise. In line with the theory of stochastic resonance, a specific optimal level of SVS will be found and tested for each subject [1]. Three experiments are planned to investigate the use of SVS in sensory-dependent tasks and performance. The first experiment will aim to demonstrate stochastic resonance in the vestibular system through perception based motion recognition thresholds obtained using a 6-degree of freedom Stewart platform in the Jenks Vestibular Laboratory at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary. A range of SVS amplitudes will be applied to each subject and the subjectspecific optimal SVS level will be identified as that which results in the lowest motion recognition threshold, through previously established, well developed methods [2,3,4]. The second experiment will investigate the use of optimal SVS in facilitating sensorimotor adaptation to system

  19. Superresolution upgrade for confocal spinning disk systems using image scanning microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaner, Sebastian; Hähnel, Dirk; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Jörg

    2017-02-01

    Confocal Spinning Disk Systems are widely used for 3D cell imaging because they offer the advantage of optical sectioning at high framerates and are easy to use. However, as in confocal microscopy, the imaging resolution is diffraction limited, which can be theoretically improved by a factor of 2 using the principle of Image Scanning Microscopy (ISM) [1]. ISM with a Confocal Spinning Disk setup (CSDISM) has been shown to improve contrast as well as lateral resolution (FWHM) from 201 +/- 20 nm to 130 +/- 10 nm at 488 nm excitation. A minimum total acquisition time of one second per ISM image makes this method highly suitable for 3D live cell imaging [2]. Here, we present a multicolor implementation of CSDISM for the popular Micro-Manager Open Source Microscopy platform. Since changes in the optical path are not necessary, this will allow any researcher to easily upgrade their standard Confocal Spinning Disk system at remarkable low cost ( 5000 USD) with an ISM superresolution option. [1]. Müller, C.B. and Enderlein, J. Image Scanning Microscopy. Physical Review Letters 104, (2010). [2]. Schulz, O. et al. Resolution doubling in fluorescence microscopy with confocal spinning-disk image scanning microscopy. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 110, 21000-5 (2013).

  20. Application of information theory to the design of line-scan imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huck, F. O.; Park, S. K.; Halyo, N.; Stallman, S.

    1981-01-01

    Information theory is used to formulate a single figure of merit for assessing the performance of line scan imaging systems as a function of their spatial response (point spread function or modulation transfer function), sensitivity, sampling and quantization intervals, and the statistical properties of a random radiance field. Computational results for the information density and efficiency (i.e., the ratio of information density to data density) are intuitively satisfying and compare well with experimental and theoretical results obtained by earlier investigators concerned with the performance of TV systems.

  1. Foveated scanning: dynamic monodimensional enlargement of resolved field of view in lenses of scanner systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javaherian, Farhang; Rashidian, Bizhan

    2016-09-10

    An inconsistency between the circular symmetric geometry of conventional optical imagers and the geometry of long linear sensors used in today's line-scan cameras results in suboptimal separate design of optics and electronics of scanner systems. Based on the method of foveated optical imaging, a technique named foveated scanning (FS) is proposed in this paper. The FS technique is employed to enlarge the one-dimensional resolved field of view (RFOV) of conventional lenses and permits optimized performance on a line-of-interest in the image plane where the optoelectronic sensor is located. The achieved enlargement of RFOV is verified on a proof-of-concept basic telephoto lens. Both modulation transfer function analysis and the imaging simulation of a standard target have been performed. Results show a twofold increase in RFOV by this technique.

  2. CAD-based intelligent robot system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiu Cheng-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Roughing and cementing are very essential to the process of bonding shoe uppers and the corresponding soles; however, for shoes with complicated design, such as sport shoes, roughing and cementing greatly relied on manual operation. Recently, shoe industry is progressing to 3D design, thus 3D model of the shoe upper and sole will be created before launching into mass production. Taking advantage of the 3D model, this study developed a plug-in program on Rhino 3D CAD platform, which realized the complicated roughing and cementing route planning to be performed by the plug-in program, integrated with real-time 3D scanning information to compensate the planned route, and then converted to working trajectory of robot arm to implement roughing and cementing. The proposed 3D CAD-based intelligent robot arm system integrated with 3D scanning for shoe roughing and cementing is realized and proved to be feasible.

  3. Temporal Dynamics of Sensorimotor Networks in Effort-Based Cost-Benefit Valuation: Early Emergence and Late Net Value Integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Alison; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2016-07-06

    Although physical effort can impose significant costs on decision-making, when and how effort cost information is incorporated into choice remains contested, reflecting a larger debate over the role of sensorimotor networks in specifying behavior. Serial information processing models, in which motor circuits simply implement the output of cognitive systems, hypothesize that effort cost factors into decisions relatively late, via integration with stimulus values into net (combined) value signals in dorsomedial frontal cortex (dmFC). In contrast, ethology-inspired approaches suggest a more active role for the dorsal sensorimotor stream, with effort cost signals emerging rapidly after stimulus onset. Here we investigated the time course of effort cost integration using event-related potentials in hungry human subjects while they made decisions about expending physical effort for appetitive foods. Consistent with the ethological perspective, we found that effort cost was represented from as early as 100-250 ms after stimulus onset, localized to dorsal sensorimotor regions including middle cingulate, somatosensory, and motor/premotor cortices. However, examining the same data time-locked to motor output revealed net value signals combining stimulus value and effort cost approximately -400 ms before response, originating from sensorimotor areas including dmFC, precuneus, and posterior parietal cortex. Granger causal connectivity analysis of the motor effector signal in the time leading to response showed interactions between these sensorimotor regions and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, a structure associated with adjusting behavior-response mappings. These results suggest that rapid activation of sensorimotor regions interacts with cognitive valuation systems, producing a net value signal reflecting both physical effort and reward contingencies. Although physical effort imposes a cost on choice, when and how effort cost influences neural correlates of decision

  4. Acquisition of quantitative physiological data and computerized image reconstruction using a single scan TV system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baily, N. A.

    1976-01-01

    A single-scan radiography system has been interfaced to a minicomputer, and the combined system has been used with a variety of fluoroscopic systems and image intensifiers available in clinical facilities. The system's response range is analyzed, and several applications are described. These include determination of the gray scale for typical X-ray-fluoroscopic-television chains, measurement of gallstone volume in patients, localization of markers or other small anatomical features, determinations of organ areas and volumes, computer reconstruction of tomographic sections of organs in motion, and computer reconstruction of transverse axial body sections from fluoroscopic images. It is concluded that this type of system combined with a minimum of statistical processing shows excellent capabilities for delineating small changes in differential X-ray attenuation.

  5. Advantages of comparative studies in songbirds to understand the neural basis of sensorimotor integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karagh; James, Logan S; Sakata, Jon T; Prather, Jonathan F

    2017-08-01

    Sensorimotor integration is the process through which the nervous system creates a link between motor commands and associated sensory feedback. This process allows for the acquisition and refinement of many behaviors, including learned communication behaviors such as speech and birdsong. Consequently, it is important to understand fundamental mechanisms of sensorimotor integration, and comparative analyses of this process can provide vital insight. Songbirds offer a powerful comparative model system to study how the nervous system links motor and sensory information for learning and control. This is because the acquisition, maintenance, and control of birdsong critically depend on sensory feedback. Furthermore, there is an incredible diversity of song organizations across songbird species, ranging from songs with simple, stereotyped sequences to songs with complex sequencing of vocal gestures, as well as a wide diversity of song repertoire sizes. Despite this diversity, the neural circuitry for song learning, control, and maintenance remains highly similar across species. Here, we highlight the utility of songbirds for the analysis of sensorimotor integration and the insights about mechanisms of sensorimotor integration gained by comparing different songbird species. Key conclusions from this comparative analysis are that variation in song sequence complexity seems to covary with the strength of feedback signals in sensorimotor circuits and that sensorimotor circuits contain distinct representations of elements in the vocal repertoire, possibly enabling evolutionary variation in repertoire sizes. We conclude our review by highlighting important areas of research that could benefit from increased comparative focus, with particular emphasis on the integration of new technologies. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  6. JWH-018 impairs sensorimotor functions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossato, A; Vigolo, A; Trapella, C; Seri, C; Rimondo, C; Serpelloni, G; Marti, M

    2015-08-06

    Naphthalen-1-yl-(1-pentylindol-3-yl)methanone (JWH-018) is a synthetic cannabinoid agonist illegally marketed in "Spice" and "herbal blend" for its psychoactive effect greater than those produced by cannabis. In rodents JWH-018 reproduces typical effects of (-)-Δ(9)-THC or Dronabinol® (Δ(9)-THC) such as hypothermia, analgesia, hypolocomotion and akinesia, while its effects on sensorimotor functions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of acute administration of JWH-018 (0.01-6mg/kg i.p.) on sensorimotor functions in male CD-1 mice and to compare its effects with those caused by the administration of Δ(9)-THC (0.01-6mg/kg i.p.). A specific battery of behavioral tests were adopted to investigate effects of cannabinoid agonists on sensorimotor functions (visual, auditory, tactile) and neurological changes (convulsion, myoclonia, hyperreflexia) while video-tracking analysis was used to study spontaneous locomotion. JWH-018 administration inhibited sensorimotor responses at lower doses (0.01-0.1mg/kg), reduced spontaneous locomotion at intermediate/high doses (1-6mg/kg) and induced convulsions, myoclonia and hyperreflexia at high doses (6mg/kg). Similarly, administration of Δ(9)-THC reduced sensorimotor responses in mice but it did not inhibit spontaneous locomotion and it did not induce neurological alterations. All behavioral effects and neurological alterations were prevented by the administration of the selective CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist 1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-5-(4-iodophenyl)-4-methyl-N-(piperidin-1-yl)-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (AM 251). For the first time these data demonstrate that JWH-018 impairs sensorimotor responses in mice. This aspect should be carefully evaluated to better understand the potential danger that JWH-018 may pose to public health, with particular reference to decreased performance in driving and hazardous works. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. Vestibular contributions to high-level sensorimotor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medendorp, W Pieter; Selen, Luc J P

    2017-10-01

    The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions. Guided by concepts such as optimization, inference, estimation and control, we focus on how the brain determines causal relationships between memorized and visual representations in the updating of visual space, and how vestibular, visual and efferent motor information are integrated in the estimation of body motion. We also discuss evidence that these computations involve multiple coordinate representations, some of which can be probed in parietal cortex using neuronal oscillations derived from EEG. In addition, we describe work on decision making during self-motion, showing a clear modulation of bottom-up acceleration signals on decisions in the saccadic system. Finally, we consider the importance of vestibular signals as contextual cues in motor learning and recall. Taken together, these results emphasize the impact of vestibular information on high-level sensorimotor functions, and identify future directions for theoretical, behavioral, and neurophysiological investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Regaining motor control in musician's dystonia by restoring sensorimotor organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, Karin; Butler, Katherine; Williamon, Aaron; Rothwell, John C

    2009-11-18

    Professional musicians are an excellent model of long-term motor learning effects on structure and function of the sensorimotor system. However, intensive motor skill training has been associated with task-specific deficiency in hand motor control, which has a higher prevalence among musicians (musician's dystonia) than in the general population. Using a transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigm, we previously found an expanded spatial integration of proprioceptive input into the hand motor cortex [sensorimotor organization (SMO)] in healthy musicians. In musician's dystonia, however, this expansion was even larger. Whereas motor skills of musicians are likely to be supported by a spatially expanded SMO, we hypothesized that in musician's dystonia this might have developed too far and now disrupts rather than assists task-specific motor control. If so, motor control should be regained by reversing the excessive reorganization in musician's dystonia. Here, we test this hypothesis and show that a 15 min intervention with proprioceptive input (proprioceptive training) restored SMO in pianists with musician's dystonia to the pattern seen in healthy pianists. Crucially, task-specific motor control improved significantly and objectively as measured with a MIDI (musical instrument digital interface) piano, and the amount of behavioral improvement was significantly correlated to the degree of sensorimotor reorganization. In healthy pianists and nonmusicians, the SMO and motor performance remained essentially unchanged. These findings suggest that the differentiation of SMO in the hand motor cortex and the degree of motor control of intensively practiced tasks are significantly linked and finely balanced. Proprioceptive training restored this balance in musician's dystonia to the behaviorally beneficial level of healthy musicians.

  9. Beyond the cover test: the motor half of the sensorimotor exam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldi, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    The cover tests fulfill both the "sensory" and the "motor" requirements of the sensorimotor exam because they not only detect and quantify strabismus but also evaluate control. Control is achieved through various types of vergence, but vergence is not the only type of eye movement that is integral to fusion. The function of all eye movements is to position and maintain similar images on corresponding areas of the retinae in order to sustain binocular vision. Therefore, a complete motor exam should include evaluation of all eye movement systems. Such an exam can be performed without expensive and complicated equipment, without supplementary education, without significantly extending exam time, and within the confines of an average exam lane, because much of the exam is concealed within the standard sensorimotor evaluation. The term "sensorimotor exam" underscores the fact that sensory and motor fusion, and their respective cortical pathways, are inextricably linked, and function simultaneously and cooperatively to achieve normal visual experience.

  10. Optimization of an Adaptive SPECT System with the Scanning Linear Estimator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Nasrin; Clarkson, Eric; Kupinski, Matthew; Li, Xin

    2017-09-01

    A method for optimization of an adaptive Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system is presented. Adaptive imaging systems can quickly change their hardware configuration in response to data being generated in order to improve image quality for a specific task. In this work we simulate an adaptive SPECT system and propose a method for finding the adaptation that maximizes the performance on a signal estimation task. To start with, a simulated object model containing a spherical signal is imaged with a scout configuration. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) technique utilizes the scout data to generate an ensemble of possible objects consistent with the scout data. This object ensemble is imaged by numerous simulated hardware configurations and for each system estimates of signal activity, size and location are calculated via the Scanning Linear Estimator (SLE). A figure of merit, based on a Modified Dice Index (MDI), quantifies the performance of each imaging configuration and it allows for optimization of the adaptive SPECT. This figure of merit is calculated by multiplying two terms: the first term uses the definition of the Dice similarity index to determine the percent of overlap between the actual and the estimated spherical signal, the second term utilizes an exponential function that measures the squared error for the activity estimate. The MDI combines the error in estimates of activity, size, and location, in one convenient metric and it allows for simultaneous optimization of the SPECT system with respect to all the estimated signal parameters. The results of our optimizations indicate that the adaptive system performs better than a non-adaptive one in conditions where the diagnostic scan has a low photon count - on the order of thousand photons per projection. In a statistical study, we optimized the SPECT system for one hundred unique objects and demonstrated that the average MDI on an estimation task is 0.84 for the adaptive system and 0

  11. Excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system for microscopic and endoscopic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, Sam A.; Leavesley, Silas J.; Rich, Thomas C.

    2016-04-01

    Current microscopic and endoscopic technologies for cancer screening utilize white-light illumination sources. Hyper-spectral imaging has been shown to improve sensitivity while retaining specificity when compared to white-light imaging in both microscopy and in vivo imaging. However, hyperspectral imaging methods have historically suffered from slow acquisition times due to the narrow bandwidth of spectral filters. Often minutes are required to gather a full image stack. We have developed a novel approach called excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging that provides 2-3 orders of magnitude increased signal strength. This reduces acquisition times significantly, allowing for live video acquisition. Here, we describe a preliminary prototype excitation-scanning hyperspectral imaging system that can be coupled with endoscopes or microscopes for hyperspectral imaging of tissues and cells. Our system is comprised of three subsystems: illumination, transmission, and imaging. The illumination subsystem employs light-emitting diode arrays to illuminate at different wavelengths. The transmission subsystem utilizes a unique geometry of optics and a liquid light guide. Software controls allow us to interface with and control the subsystems and components. Digital and analog signals are used to coordinate wavelength intensity, cycling and camera triggering. Testing of the system shows it can cycle 16 wavelengths at as fast as 1 ms per cycle. Additionally, more than 18% of the light transmits through the system. Our setup should allow for hyperspectral imaging of tissue and cells in real time.

  12. Trends in sensorimotor research and countermeasures for exploration-class space flights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark eShelhamer

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research in the area of sensorimotor and neurovestibular function has played an important role in enabling human space flight. This role, however, is changing. One of the key aspects of sensorimotor function relevant to this role will build on its widespread connections with other physiological and psychological systems in the body. The firm knowledge base in this area can provide a strong platform to explore these interactions, which can also provide for the development of effective and efficient countermeasures to the deleterious effects of space flight.

  13. Development of a wing-beat-modulation scanning lidar system for insect studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauc, Martin Jan; Fristrup, Kurt M.; Shaw, Joseph A.

    2017-08-01

    The spatial distributions of flying insects are not well understood since most sampling methods - Malaise traps, sticky traps, vacuum traps, light traps - are not suited to documenting movements or changing distributions of various insects on short time scales. These methods also capture and kill the insects. To noninvasively monitor the spatial distributions of flying insects, we developed and implemented a scanning lidar system that measured wing-beat-modulated scattered laser light. The oscillating signal from wing-beat returns allowed for reliable separation of lidar returns for insects and stationary objects. Transmitting and receiving optics were mounted to a telescope that was attached to a scanning mount. As it scanned, the lidar collected and analyzed the light scattered from insect wings of various species. Mount position and pulse time-of-flight determined spatial location and spectral analysis of the backscattered light provided clues to insect identity. During one day of a four-day field campaign at Grand Teton National Park in June of 2016, 76 very likely insects and 662 somewhat likely insects were detected, with a maximum range to the insect of 87.6 m for very likely insects

  14. Development of an ultra wide band microwave radar based footwear scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezgui, Nacer Ddine; Bowring, Nicholas J.; Andrews, David A.; Harmer, Stuart W.; Southgate, Matthew J.; O'Reilly, Dean

    2013-10-01

    At airports, security screening can cause long delays. In order to speed up screening a solution to avoid passengers removing their shoes to have them X-ray scanned is required. To detect threats or contraband items hidden within the shoe, a method of screening using frequency swept signals between 15 to 40 GHz has been developed, where the scan is carried out whilst the shoes are being worn. Most footwear is transparent to microwaves to some extent in this band. The scans, data processing and interpretation of the 2D image of the cross section of the shoe are completed in a few seconds. Using safe low power UWB radar, scattered signals from the shoe can be observed which are caused by changes in material properties such as cavities, dielectric or metal objects concealed within the shoe. By moving the transmission horn along the length of the shoe a 2D image corresponding to a cross section through the footwear is built up, which can be interpreted by the user, or automatically, to reveal the presence of concealed threat within the shoe. A prototype system with a resolution of 6 mm or less has been developed and results obtained for a wide range of commonly worn footwear, some modified by the inclusion of concealed material. Clear differences between the measured images of modified and unmodified shoes are seen. Procedures for enhancing the image through electronic image synthesis techniques and image processing methods are discussed and preliminary performance data presented.

  15. Scanning laser optical computed tomography system for large volume 3D dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Kurtis H.; Battista, Jerry J.; Jordan, Kevin J.

    2017-04-01

    Stray light causes artifacts in optical computed tomography (CT) that negatively affect the accuracy of radiation dosimetry in gels or solids. Scatter effects are exacerbated by a large dosimeter volume, which is desirable for direct verification of modern radiotherapy treatment plans such as multiple-isocenter radiosurgery. The goal in this study was to design and characterize an optical CT system that achieves high accuracy primary transmission measurements through effective stray light rejection, while maintaining sufficient scan speed for practical application. We present an optical imaging platform that uses a galvanometer mirror for horizontal scanning, and a translation stage for vertical movement of a laser beam and small area detector for minimal stray light production and acceptance. This is coupled with a custom lens-shaped optical CT aquarium for parallel ray sampling of projections. The scanner images 15 cm diameter, 12 cm height cylindrical volumes at 0.33 mm resolution in approximately 30 min. Attenuation coefficients reconstructed from CT scans agreed with independent cuvette measurements within 2% for both absorbing and scattering solutions as well as small 1.25 cm diameter absorbing phantoms placed within a large, scattering medium that mimics gel. Excellent linearity between the optical CT scanner and the independent measurement was observed for solutions with between 90% and 2% transmission. These results indicate that the scanner should achieve highly accurate dosimetry of large volume dosimeters in a reasonable timeframe for clinical application to radiotherapy dose verification procedures.

  16. Structure Learning in Bayesian Sensorimotor Integration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Genewein

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that sensorimotor processing can often be described by Bayesian learning, in particular the integration of prior and feedback information depending on its degree of reliability. Here we test the hypothesis that the integration process itself can be tuned to the statistical structure of the environment. We exposed human participants to a reaching task in a three-dimensional virtual reality environment where we could displace the visual feedback of their hand position in a two dimensional plane. When introducing statistical structure between the two dimensions of the displacement, we found that over the course of several days participants adapted their feedback integration process in order to exploit this structure for performance improvement. In control experiments we found that this adaptation process critically depended on performance feedback and could not be induced by verbal instructions. Our results suggest that structural learning is an important meta-learning component of Bayesian sensorimotor integration.

  17. Sensorimotor experience enhances automatic imitation of robotic action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, Clare; Gillmeister, Helge; Heyes, Cecilia

    2007-10-22

    Recent research in cognitive neuroscience has found that observation of human actions activates the 'mirror system' and provokes automatic imitation to a greater extent than observation of non-biological movements. The present study investigated whether this human bias depends primarily on phylogenetic or ontogenetic factors by examining the effects of sensorimotor experience on automatic imitation of non-biological robotic, stimuli. Automatic imitation of human and robotic action stimuli was assessed before and after training. During these test sessions, participants were required to execute a pre-specified response (e.g. to open their hand) while observing a human or robotic hand making a compatible (opening) or incompatible (closing) movement. During training, participants executed opening and closing hand actions while observing compatible (group CT) or incompatible movements (group IT) of a robotic hand. Compatible, but not incompatible, training increased automatic imitation of robotic stimuli (speed of responding on compatible trials, compared with incompatible trials) and abolished the human bias observed at pre-test. These findings suggest that the development of the mirror system depends on sensorimotor experience, and that, in our species, it is biased in favour of human action stimuli because these are more abundant than non-biological action stimuli in typical developmental environments.

  18. A structured light-based system for scanning subcutaneous tumors in laboratory animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girit, Ibrahim Cem; Jure-Kunkel, Maria; McIntyre, Kim W

    2008-06-01

    Tumor size or volume is often the primary endpoint in preclinical efficacy studies of anticancer drugs. Efficient and accurate measurement of such tumors is crucial to rapid evaluation of novel drug candidates. Currently available techniques for acquiring high-throughput data on tumor volume are time-consuming and prone to various inaccuracies and errors. The laser-scanning technology we describe here provides a convenient, high-throughput system for tumor measurement that reduces interoperator variability and bias while providing automated data collection, processing and analysis.

  19. Electronic properties of (Zn,CoO systems probed by scanning tunnelling spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Moldovan

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to gain insight into theelectronic properties of (Zn,CoO system - a widebandgap Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors (DMSshowing room temperature (RT ferromagnetism undern-type doping conditions. On the experimental side, ultrahigh-vacuum scanning tunnelling microscopy andspectroscopy (STM and STS at variable temperature (Tare used to probe the local electronic structure of thesystem. It is presented the map of the local density ofstates (LDOS of polar ZnO surfaces. Then, it is possibleto decorate (incorporate Co atoms onto (into thesemiconductor.

  20. USE OF A LASER SCANNING SYSTEM FOR PROFESSIONAL PREPARATION AND SCENE ASSESSMENT OF FIRE RESCUE UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk MAREK

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of a study focused on usability of a 3D laser scanning system by fire rescue units during emergencies, respectively during preparations for inspection and tactical exercises. The first part of the study focuses on an applicability of a 3D scanner in relation to an accurate evaluation of a fire scene through digitization and creation of virtual walk-through of the fire scene. The second part deals with detailed documentation of access road to the place of intervention, including a simulation of the fire vehicle arrival.

  1. Conceptual study of the use of laser scanning systems for plate dimension and shape measurement in shipbuilding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Ian; Pan, X.; Wang, X.

    1996-08-01

    A laser scanning system is proposed to enable the measurement of dimensions of steel plates used in shipbuilding with the objective being design verification and tolerance monitoring at the early stages of assembly. When the system is combined with a second scanning-viewing system it is demonstrated that depth measurements can be obtained giving the 3D shape of the plate or structure. The precision of the two configurations is discussed and evaluated.

  2. Sensorimotor training in virtual reality: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamovich, Sergei V; Fluet, Gerard G; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S

    2009-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests that rapid advancement of virtual reality (VR) technologies has great potential for the development of novel strategies for sensorimotor training in neurorehabilitation. We discuss what the adaptive and engaging virtual environments can provide for massive and intensive sensorimotor stimulation needed to induce brain reorganization.Second, discrepancies between the veridical and virtual feedback can be introduced in VR to facilitate activation of targeted brain networks, which in turn can potentially speed up the recovery process. Here we review the existing experimental evidence regarding the beneficial effects of training in virtual environments on the recovery of function in the areas of gait,upper extremity function and balance, in various patient populations. We also discuss possible mechanisms underlying these effects. We feel that future research in the area of virtual rehabilitation should follow several important paths. Imaging studies to evaluate the effects of sensory manipulation on brain activation patterns and the effect of various training parameters on long term changes in brain function are needed to guide future clinical inquiry. Larger clinical studies are also needed to establish the efficacy of sensorimotor rehabilitation using VR in various clinical populations and most importantly, to identify VR training parameters that are associated with optimal transfer to real-world functional improvements.

  3. D Scanning of Live Pigs System and its Application in Body Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H.; Wang, K.; Su, W.; Zhu, D. H.; Liu, W. L.; Xing, Ch.; Chen, Z. R.

    2017-09-01

    The shape of a live pig is an important indicator of its health and value, whether for breeding or for carcass quality. This paper implements a prototype system for live single pig body surface 3d scanning based on two consumer depth cameras, utilizing the 3d point clouds data. These cameras are calibrated in advance to have a common coordinate system. The live 3D point clouds stream of moving single pig is obtained by two Xtion Pro Live sensors from different viewpoints simultaneously. A novel detection method is proposed and applied to automatically detect the frames containing pigs with the correct posture from the point clouds stream, according to the geometric characteristics of pig's shape. The proposed method is incorporated in a hybrid scheme, that serves as the preprocessing step in a body measurements framework for pigs. Experimental results show the portability of our scanning system and effectiveness of our detection method. Furthermore, an updated this point cloud preprocessing software for livestock body measurements can be downloaded freely from https://github.com/LiveStockShapeAnalysis to livestock industry, research community and can be used for monitoring livestock growth status.

  4. 3D SCANNING OF LIVE PIGS SYSTEM AND ITS APPLICATION IN BODY MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The shape of a live pig is an important indicator of its health and value, whether for breeding or for carcass quality. This paper implements a prototype system for live single pig body surface 3d scanning based on two consumer depth cameras, utilizing the 3d point clouds data. These cameras are calibrated in advance to have a common coordinate system. The live 3D point clouds stream of moving single pig is obtained by two Xtion Pro Live sensors from different viewpoints simultaneously. A novel detection method is proposed and applied to automatically detect the frames containing pigs with the correct posture from the point clouds stream, according to the geometric characteristics of pig’s shape. The proposed method is incorporated in a hybrid scheme, that serves as the preprocessing step in a body measurements framework for pigs. Experimental results show the portability of our scanning system and effectiveness of our detection method. Furthermore, an updated this point cloud preprocessing software for livestock body measurements can be downloaded freely from https://github.com/LiveStockShapeAnalysis to livestock industry, research community and can be used for monitoring livestock growth status.

  5. A flexible Labview{trademark}-based data acquisition and analysis system for scanning microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel H. Morse; Arlyn J. Antolak; Graham S. Bench; Mark L. Roberts

    1998-10-08

    A new data analysis system has been developed with computer-controlled beam and sample positioning, video sample imaging, multiple large solid angle detectors for x-rays and gamma-rays, and surface barrier detectors for charged particles. The system uses the LabVIEW{trademark} programming language allowing it to be easily ported between different computer operating systems. In the present configuration, digital signal processors are directly interfaced to a SCSI CAMAC controller. However, the modular software design permits the substitution of other hardware with LabVIEW-supported drivers. On-line displays of histogram and two-dimensional elemental map images provide a user-friendly data acquisition interface. Subregions of the two-dimensional maps may be selected interactively for detailed analysis or for subsequent scanning. Off-line data processing of archived data currently yields elemental maps, analyzed spectra and reconstructions of tomographic data.

  6. A hand-held 3D laser scanning with global positioning system of subvoxel precision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arias, Nestor [GOM, Departamento de Fisica y Geologia, Universidad de Pamplona (Colombia); Meneses, Nestor; Meneses, Jaime [GOTS-CENM, Escuela de Fisica, UIS, Bucaramanga (Colombia); Gharbi, Tijani, E-mail: nesariher@unipamplona.edu.co [Departement D' Optique, FEMTO-ST, 16 Route de Gray, 25030 Besancon (France)

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we propose a hand-held 3D laser scanner composed of an optical head device to extract 3D local surface information and a stereo vision system with subvoxel precision to measure the position and orientation of the 3D optical head. The optical head is manually scanned over the surface object by the operator. The orientation and position of the 3D optical head is determined by a phase-sensitive method using a 2D regular intensity pattern. This phase reference pattern is rigidly fixed to the optical head and allows their 3D location with subvoxel precision in the observation field of the stereo vision system. The 3D resolution achieved by the stereo vision system is about 33 microns at 1.8 m with an observation field of 60cm x 60cm.

  7. Integral three-dimensional television using a 2000-scanning-line video system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Jun; Okui, Makoto; Yamashita, Takayuki; Okano, Fumio

    2006-03-01

    We have developed an integral three-dimensional (3-D) television that uses a 2000-scanning-line video system that can shoot and display 3-D color moving images in real time. We had previously developed an integral 3-D television that used a high-definition television system. The new system uses ˜6 times as many elemental images [160 (horizontal)×118 (vertical) elemental images] arranged at ˜1.5 times the density to improve further the picture quality of the reconstructed image. Through comparison an image near the lens array can be reconstructed at ˜1.9 times the spatial frequency, and the viewing angle is ˜1.5 times as wide.

  8. Sensorimotor strategies for recognizing geometrical shapes: a comparative study with different sensory substitution devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando eBermejo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The sensorimotor approach proposes that perception is constituted by the mastery of lawful sensorimotor regularities or sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs, which depend on specific bodily characteristics and on actions possibilities that the environment enables and constrains. Sensory substitution devices (SSDs provide the user information about the world typically corresponding to one sensory modality through the stimulation of another modality. We investigate how perception emerges in novice adult participants equipped with vision-to-auditory SSDs while solving a simple geometrical shape recognition task. In particular, we examine the distinction between apparatus-related SMCs (those originating mostly in properties of the perceptual system and object-related SMCs (those mostly connected with the perceptual task. We study the sensorimotor strategies employed by participants in three experiments with three different SSDs: a minimalist head-mounted SSD, a traditional, also head-mounted SSD (the vOICe and an enhanced, hand-held echolocation device. Motor activity is recorded and analyzed. Results show that participants are able to quickly learn the necessary skills to distinguish geometric shapes. Comparing the sensorimotor strategies utilized with each SSD we identify differential features of the sensorimotor patterns attributable mostly to the device, which account for the emergence of apparatus-based SMCs. These relate to differences in sweeping strategies between SSDs. We identify, also, components related to the emergence of object-related SMCs. These relate mostly to exploratory movements around the border of a shape. The study provides empirical support for SMC theory and discusses considerations about the nature of perception in sensory substitution.

  9. Sensorimotor strategies for recognizing geometrical shapes: a comparative study with different sensory substitution devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Fernando; Di Paolo, Ezequiel A; Hüg, Mercedes X; Arias, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    The sensorimotor approach proposes that perception is constituted by the mastery of lawful sensorimotor regularities or sensorimotor contingencies (SMCs), which depend on specific bodily characteristics and on actions possibilities that the environment enables and constrains. Sensory substitution devices (SSDs) provide the user information about the world typically corresponding to one sensory modality through the stimulation of another modality. We investigate how perception emerges in novice adult participants equipped with vision-to-auditory SSDs while solving a simple geometrical shape recognition task. In particular, we examine the distinction between apparatus-related SMCs (those originating mostly in properties of the perceptual system) and object-related SMCs (those mostly connected with the perceptual task). We study the sensorimotor strategies employed by participants in three experiments with three different SSDs: a minimalist head-mounted SSD, a traditional, also head-mounted SSD (the vOICe) and an enhanced, hand-held echolocation device. Motor activity and fist-person data are registered and analyzed. Results show that participants are able to quickly learn the necessary skills to distinguish geometric shapes. Comparing the sensorimotor strategies utilized with each SSD we identify differential features of the sensorimotor patterns attributable mostly to the device, which account for the emergence of apparatus-based SMCs. These relate to differences in sweeping strategies between SSDs. We identify, also, components related to the emergence of object-related SMCs. These relate mostly to exploratory movements around the border of a shape. The study provides empirical support for SMC theory and discusses considerations about the nature of perception in sensory substitution.

  10. The integration of probabilistic information during sensorimotor estimation is unimpaired in children with Cerebral Palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Claire; Sokhey, Taegh; Gaebler-Spira, Deborah; Kording, Konrad P

    2017-01-01

    It is important to understand the motor deficits of children with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Our understanding of this motor disorder can be enriched by computational models of motor control. One crucial stage in generating movement involves combining uncertain information from different sources, and deficits in this process could contribute to reduced motor function in children with CP. Healthy adults can integrate previously-learned information (prior) with incoming sensory information (likelihood) in a close-to-optimal way when estimating object location, consistent with the use of Bayesian statistics. However, there are few studies investigating how children with CP perform sensorimotor integration. We compare sensorimotor estimation in children with CP and age-matched controls using a model-based analysis to understand the process. We examined Bayesian sensorimotor integration in children with CP, aged between 5 and 12 years old, with Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels 1-3 and compared their estimation behavior with age-matched typically-developing (TD) children. We used a simple sensorimotor estimation task which requires participants to combine probabilistic information from different sources: a likelihood distribution (current sensory information) with a prior distribution (learned target information). In order to examine sensorimotor integration, we quantified how participants weighed statistical information from the two sources (prior and likelihood) and compared this to the statistical optimal weighting. We found that the weighing of statistical information in children with CP was as statistically efficient as that of TD children. We conclude that Bayesian sensorimotor integration is not impaired in children with CP and therefore, does not contribute to their motor deficits. Future research has the potential to enrich our understanding of motor disorders by investigating the stages of motor processing set out by computational models

  11. Human-Inspired Eigenmovement Concept Provides Coupling-Free Sensorimotor Control in Humanoid Robot

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Alexandrov, A.V.; Lippi, V.; Mergner, T.; Frolov, A. A.; Hettich, G.; Húsek, Dušan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 11, 25 April (2017), č. článku 22. ISSN 1662-5188 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : human sensorimotor system * neuromechanics * biorobotics * motor control * eigenmovements Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robot ics Impact factor: 1.821, year: 2016

  12. Object-Action Complexes: Grounded Abstractions of Sensori-motor Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Norbert; Geib, Christopher; Piater, Justus

    2011-01-01

    This paper formalises Object-Action Complexes (OACs) as a basis for symbolic representations of sensorimotor experience and behaviours. OACs are designed to capture the interaction between objects and associated actions in articial cognitive systems. This paper gives a formal denition of OACs, pr...

  13. Afferent and Efferent Aspects of Mandibular Sensorimotor Control in Adults Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daliri, Ayoub; Prokopenko, Roman A.; Max, Ludo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Individuals who stutter show sensorimotor deficiencies in speech and nonspeech movements. For the mandibular system, the authors dissociated the sense of kinesthesia from the efferent control component to examine whether kinesthetic integrity itself is compromised in stuttering or whether deficiencies occur only when generating motor…

  14. Twitching in sensorimotor development from sleeping rats to robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Mark S; Marques, Hugo Gravato; Iida, Fumiya

    2013-06-17

    It is still not known how the 'rudimentary' movements of fetuses and infants are transformed into the coordinated, flexible and adaptive movements of adults. In addressing this important issue, we consider a behavior that has been perennially viewed as a functionless by-product of a dreaming brain: the jerky limb movements called myoclonic twitches. Recent work has identified the neural mechanisms that produce twitching as well as those that convey sensory feedback from twitching limbs to the spinal cord and brain. In turn, these mechanistic insights have helped inspire new ideas about the functional roles that twitching might play in the self-organization of spinal and supraspinal sensorimotor circuits. Striking support for these ideas is coming from the field of developmental robotics: when twitches are mimicked in robot models of the musculoskeletal system, the basic neural circuitry undergoes self-organization. Mutually inspired biological and synthetic approaches promise not only to produce better robots, but also to solve fundamental problems concerning the developmental origins of sensorimotor maps in the spinal cord and brain. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. FMRI supports the sensorimotor theory of motor resonance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Landmann

    Full Text Available The neural mechanisms mediating the activation of the motor system during action observation, also known as motor resonance, are of major interest to the field of motor control. It has been proposed that motor resonance develops in infants through Hebbian plasticity of pathways connecting sensory and motor regions that fire simultaneously during imitation or self movement observation. A fundamental problem when testing this theory in adults is that most experimental paradigms involve actions that have been overpracticed throughout life. Here, we directly tested the sensorimotor theory of motor resonance by creating new visuomotor representations using abstract stimuli (motor symbols and identifying the neural networks recruited through fMRI. We predicted that the network recruited during action observation and execution would overlap with that recruited during observation of new motor symbols. Our results indicate that a network consisting of premotor and posterior parietal cortex, the supplementary motor area, the inferior frontal gyrus and cerebellum was activated both by new motor symbols and by direct observation of the corresponding action. This tight spatial overlap underscores the importance of sensorimotor learning for motor resonance and further indicates that the physical characteristics of the perceived stimulus are irrelevant to the evoked response in the observer.

  16. CADBOSS: A computer-aided diagnosis system for whole-body bone scintigraphy scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslantas, Ali; Dandil, Emre; Saǧlam, Semahat; Çakiroǧlu, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scintigraphy scans. (CADBOSS). CADBOSS can detect metastases with a high success rates. The primary purpose of CADBOSS is as supplementary software to facilitate physician's decision making. CADBOSS consists of various elements, such as hotspot segmentation, feature extraction/selection and classification. A level set active contour segmentation algorithm was used for the detection of hotspots. Moreover, a novel image gridding method was proposed for feature extraction of metastatic regions. An artificial neural network classifier was used to determine whether metastases were present. Performance evaluation of CADBOSS was performed with the help of an image database which included 130 images. (30 non-metastases and 100 metastases) collected from 60 volunteers. All images were obtained within approximately 3 hours after injecting a small amount of radioactive material 99mTc-MDP into the patients and then carrying out scanning with a gamma camera. The 10-fold cross-validation technique was used for all tests. CADBOSS could correctly identify in 120 out of 130 images. Thus, the accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of CADBOSS were 92.30%, 94%, and 86.67%, respectively. Moreover, CADBOSS increased physician's success in detecting metastases from 95.38% to 96.9%. Detailed experiments showed that CADBOSS outperforms state-of-the-art computer-aided diagnosis. (CAD) systems and reasonably improves physician' diagnostic success.

  17. The Calibration Model and Simulation Analysis of Circular Scanning Airborne Laser Bathymetry System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHEN Erhua

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To improve the positioning accuracy of circular scanning airborne laser bathymetry system, a calibration method is presented in this paper. When the laser points are collected by the bathymetry system on the level area, they should be on the same plane. However, they are not coplanar because of systematic error and random error. So we try to fit the points to a plane, which may help to adjust the errors and then correct the point location.Firstly, the circular scanning airborne laser bathymetry positioning model is derived in the simple mode. The intersection of laser line and sea surface is simulated depending on the mathematical principles of line and plane intersection. Combined with the direction vector of laser line in the water got by the refraction principle, the sea floor plane mathematical equation is used to compute the location of the laser points. Then, the parameter weighted least squares adjustment model is derived with the prior variance introduced, which lays the foundation for the following computing of calibration model. Finally, the calibration adjustment mathematic model and the detailed computing process are derived. The simulation computing and analysis for the calibration process is presented, and some meaningful conclusions for the calibration are achieved.

  18. Human Language and Sensorimotor Contingency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cowley, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Using the monumental work of figures like Bloomfield (1933), Harris (1951) and Chomsky (1965), scientific linguistics has often been centrally concerned with verbal patterns. Yet such views have even older roots. Ever since writing systems first arose in Sumeria, what people do as they talk has...... dictionaries, grammars, printing and, yesterday, computers. As a result, written language bias (Linell, 2005) has dominated philosophy, linguistics and classic cognitive science. Languages are seen as verbal systems whose words and rules are, in some sense, separate from people. Even talk is often modelled...

  19. Learning New Sensorimotor Contingencies: Effects of Long-Term Use of Sensory Augmentation on the Brain and Conscious Perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Sabine U; Schumann, Frank; Keyser, Johannes; Goeke, Caspar; Krause, Carina; Wache, Susan; Lytochkin, Aleksey; Ebert, Manuel; Brunsch, Vincent; Wahn, Basil; Kaspar, Kai; Nagel, Saskia K; Meilinger, Tobias; Bülthoff, Heinrich; Wolbers, Thomas; Büchel, Christian; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition propose that perception is shaped by sensory stimuli and by the actions of the organism. Following sensorimotor contingency theory, the mastery of lawful relations between own behavior and resulting changes in sensory signals, called sensorimotor contingencies, is constitutive of conscious perception. Sensorimotor contingency theory predicts that, after training, knowledge relating to new sensorimotor contingencies develops, leading to changes in the activation of sensorimotor systems, and concomitant changes in perception. In the present study, we spell out this hypothesis in detail and investigate whether it is possible to learn new sensorimotor contingencies by sensory augmentation. Specifically, we designed an fMRI compatible sensory augmentation device, the feelSpace belt, which gives orientation information about the direction of magnetic north via vibrotactile stimulation on the waist of participants. In a longitudinal study, participants trained with this belt for seven weeks in natural environment. Our EEG results indicate that training with the belt leads to changes in sleep architecture early in the training phase, compatible with the consolidation of procedural learning as well as increased sensorimotor processing and motor programming. The fMRI results suggest that training entails activity in sensory as well as higher motor centers and brain areas known to be involved in navigation. These neural changes are accompanied with changes in how space and the belt signal are perceived, as well as with increased trust in navigational ability. Thus, our data on physiological processes and subjective experiences are compatible with the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be acquired using sensory augmentation.

  20. Learning New Sensorimotor Contingencies: Effects of Long-Term Use of Sensory Augmentation on the Brain and Conscious Perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine U König

    Full Text Available Theories of embodied cognition propose that perception is shaped by sensory stimuli and by the actions of the organism. Following sensorimotor contingency theory, the mastery of lawful relations between own behavior and resulting changes in sensory signals, called sensorimotor contingencies, is constitutive of conscious perception. Sensorimotor contingency theory predicts that, after training, knowledge relating to new sensorimotor contingencies develops, leading to changes in the activation of sensorimotor systems, and concomitant changes in perception. In the present study, we spell out this hypothesis in detail and investigate whether it is possible to learn new sensorimotor contingencies by sensory augmentation. Specifically, we designed an fMRI compatible sensory augmentation device, the feelSpace belt, which gives orientation information about the direction of magnetic north via vibrotactile stimulation on the waist of participants. In a longitudinal study, participants trained with this belt for seven weeks in natural environment. Our EEG results indicate that training with the belt leads to changes in sleep architecture early in the training phase, compatible with the consolidation of procedural learning as well as increased sensorimotor processing and motor programming. The fMRI results suggest that training entails activity in sensory as well as higher motor centers and brain areas known to be involved in navigation. These neural changes are accompanied with changes in how space and the belt signal are perceived, as well as with increased trust in navigational ability. Thus, our data on physiological processes and subjective experiences are compatible with the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be acquired using sensory augmentation.

  1. Learning New Sensorimotor Contingencies: Effects of Long-Term Use of Sensory Augmentation on the Brain and Conscious Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumann, Frank; Keyser, Johannes; Goeke, Caspar; Krause, Carina; Wache, Susan; Lytochkin, Aleksey; Ebert, Manuel; Brunsch, Vincent; Wahn, Basil; Kaspar, Kai; Nagel, Saskia K.; Meilinger, Tobias; Bülthoff, Heinrich; Wolbers, Thomas; Büchel, Christian; König, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Theories of embodied cognition propose that perception is shaped by sensory stimuli and by the actions of the organism. Following sensorimotor contingency theory, the mastery of lawful relations between own behavior and resulting changes in sensory signals, called sensorimotor contingencies, is constitutive of conscious perception. Sensorimotor contingency theory predicts that, after training, knowledge relating to new sensorimotor contingencies develops, leading to changes in the activation of sensorimotor systems, and concomitant changes in perception. In the present study, we spell out this hypothesis in detail and investigate whether it is possible to learn new sensorimotor contingencies by sensory augmentation. Specifically, we designed an fMRI compatible sensory augmentation device, the feelSpace belt, which gives orientation information about the direction of magnetic north via vibrotactile stimulation on the waist of participants. In a longitudinal study, participants trained with this belt for seven weeks in natural environment. Our EEG results indicate that training with the belt leads to changes in sleep architecture early in the training phase, compatible with the consolidation of procedural learning as well as increased sensorimotor processing and motor programming. The fMRI results suggest that training entails activity in sensory as well as higher motor centers and brain areas known to be involved in navigation. These neural changes are accompanied with changes in how space and the belt signal are perceived, as well as with increased trust in navigational ability. Thus, our data on physiological processes and subjective experiences are compatible with the hypothesis that new sensorimotor contingencies can be acquired using sensory augmentation. PMID:27959914

  2. Design and construction of a cost-efficient Arduino-based mirror galvanometer system for scanning optical microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Jen-Feng; Dhingra, Shonali; D'Urso, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Mirror galvanometer systems (galvos) are commonly employed in research and commercial applications in areas involving laser imaging, laser machining, laser-light shows, and others. Here, we present a robust, moderate-speed, and cost-efficient home-built galvo system. The mechanical part of this design consists of one mirror, which is tilted around two axes with multiple surface transducers. We demonstrate the ability of this galvo by scanning the mirror using a computer, via a custom driver circuit. The performance of the galvo, including scan range, noise, linearity, and scan speed, is characterized. As an application, we show that this galvo system can be used in a confocal scanning microscopy system.

  3. Thinking in spatial terms: decoupling spatial representation from sensorimotor control in monkey posterior parietal areas 7a and LIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chafee, Matthew V.; Crowe, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Perhaps the simplest and most complete description of the cerebral cortex is that it is a sensorimotor controller whose primary purpose is to represent stimuli and movements, and adaptively control the mapping between them. However, in order to think, the cerebral cortex has to generate patterns of neuronal activity that encode abstract, generalized information independently of ongoing sensorimotor events. A critical question confronting cognitive systems neuroscience at present therefore is how neural signals encoding abstract information emerge within the sensorimotor control networks of the brain. In this review, we approach that question in the context of the neural representation of space in posterior parietal cortex of non-human primates. We describe evidence indicating that parietal cortex generates a hierarchy of spatial representations with three basic levels: including (1) sensorimotor signals that are tightly coupled to stimuli or movements, (2) sensorimotor signals modified in strength or timing to mediate cognition (examples include attention, working memory, and decision-processing), as well as (3) signals that encode frankly abstract spatial information (such as spatial relationships or categories) generalizing across a wide diversity of specific stimulus conditions. Here we summarize the evidence for this hierarchy, and consider data showing that signals at higher levels derive from signals at lower levels. That in turn could help characterize neural mechanisms that derive a capacity for abstraction from sensorimotor experience. PMID:23355813

  4. Neural representation of the sensorimotor speech-action-repository

    OpenAIRE

    Eckers, Cornelia; Kröger, Bernd J.; Sass, Katharina; Heim, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    A speech–action-repository (SAR) or “mental syllabary” has been proposed as a central module for sensorimotor processing of syllables. In this approach, syllables occurring frequently within language are assumed to be stored as holistic sensorimotor patterns, while non-frequent syllables need to be assembled from sub-syllabic units. Thus, frequent syllables are processed efficiently and quickly during production or perception by a direct activation of their sensorimotor patterns. Whereas seve...

  5. Self-learning and adaptation in a sensorimotor framework

    OpenAIRE

    Ghadirzadeh, Ali; Bütepage, Judith; Kragic, Danica; Björkman, Mårten

    2016-01-01

    We present a general framework to autonomously achieve a task, where autonomy is acquired by learning sensorimotor patterns of a robot, while it is interacting with its environment. To accomplish the task, using the learned sensorimotor contingencies, our approach predicts a sequence of actions that will lead to the desirable observations. Gaussian processes (GP) with automatic relevance determination is used to learn the sensorimotor mapping. In this way, relevant sensory and motor component...

  6. Application of a self-compensation mechanism to a rotary-laser scanning measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Siyang; Lin, Jiarui; Ren, Yongjie; Shi, Shendong; Zhu, Jigui

    2017-11-01

    In harsh environmental conditions, the relative orientations of transmitters of rotary-laser scanning measuring systems are easily influenced by low-frequency vibrations or creep deformation of the support structure. A self-compensation method that counters this problem is presented. This method is based on an improved workshop Measurement Positioning System (wMPS) with inclinometer-combined transmitters. A calibration method for the spatial rotation between the transmitter and inclinometer with an auxiliary horizontal reference frame is presented. It is shown that the calibration accuracy can be improved by a mechanical adjustment using a special bubble level. The orientation-compensation algorithm of the transmitters is described in detail. The feasibility of this compensation mechanism is validated by Monte Carlo simulations and experiments. The mechanism mainly provides a two-degrees-of-freedom attitude compensation.

  7. Ultra-High Vacuum Compatible Optical Chopper System for Synchrotron X-ray Scanning Tunneling Microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hao; Cummings, Marvin L.; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin D.; Rosenmann, Daniel; Preissner, Curt A.; Freeland, John W.; Kersell, Heath R.; Hla, Saw Wai; Rose, Volker

    2015-01-01

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  8. Ultra-high vacuum compatible optical chopper system for synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Hao, E-mail: hc000211@ohio.edu [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Cummings, Marvin; Shirato, Nozomi; Stripe, Benjamin; Preissner, Curt; Freeland, John W. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rosenmann, Daniel [Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kersell, Heath; Hla, Saw-Wai [Nanoscale and Quantum Phenomena Institute, Physics & Astronomy Department, Ohio University, Athens, Ohio 45701 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Rose, Volker, E-mail: vrose@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Center for Nanoscale Materials, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States)

    2016-01-28

    High-speed beam choppers are a crucial part of time-resolved x-ray studies as well as a necessary component to enable elemental contrast in synchrotron x-ray scanning tunneling microscopy (SX-STM). However, many chopper systems are not capable of operation in vacuum, which restricts their application to x-ray studies with high photon energies, where air absorption does not present a significant problem. To overcome this limitation, we present a fully ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible chopper system capable of operating at variable chopping frequencies up to 4 kHz. The lightweight aluminum chopper disk is coated with Ti and Au films to provide the required beam attenuation for soft and hard x-rays with photon energies up to about 12 keV. The chopper is used for lock-in detection of x-ray enhanced signals in SX-STM.

  9. Sensorimotor control dynamics and cultural biases: learning to move in the right (or left) direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waterman, Amanda H; Giles, Oscar T; Havelka, Jelena; Ali, Sumaya; Culmer, Peter R; Wilkie, Richard M; Mon-Williams, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The nativist hypothesis suggests universal features of human behaviour can be explained by biologically determined cognitive substrates. This nativist account has been challenged recently by evolutionary models showing that the cultural transmission of knowledge can produce behavioural universals. Sensorimotor invariance is a canonical example of a behavioural universal, raising the issue of whether culture can influence not only which skills people acquire but also the development of the sensorimotor system. We tested this hypothesis by exploring whether culture influences the developing sensorimotor system in children. We took kinematic measures of motor control asymmetries in adults and children from differing cultures where writing follows opposite directions. British and Kuwaiti adults (n = 69) and first grade (5-6 year old) children (n = 140) completed novel rightward and leftward tracing tasks. The Kuwaitis were better when moving their arm leftward while the British showed the opposite bias. Bayesian analysis techniques showed that while children were worse than adults, they also showed asymmetries-with the asymmetry magnitude related to accuracy levels. Our findings support the idea that culture influences the sensorimotor system.

  10. Efficacy of Lens Protection Systems: Dependency on Different Cranial CT Scans in The Acute Stroke Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guberina, Nika; Forsting, Michael; Ringelstein, Adrian

    2017-06-15

    To evaluate the dose-reduction potential with different lens protectors for patients undergoing cranial computed tomography (CT) scans. Eye lens dose was assessed in vitro (α-Al2O3:C thermoluminescence dosemeters) using an Alderson-Rando phantom® in cranial CT protocols at different CT scanners (SOMATOM-Definition-AS+®(CT1) and SOMATOM-Definition-Flash® (CT2)) using two different lens-protection systems (Somatex® (SOM) and Medical Imaging Systems® (MIS)). Summarised percentage of the transmitted photons: (1) CT1 (a) unenhanced CT (nCT) with gantry angulation: SOM = 103%, MIS = 111%; (2) CT2 (a) nCT without gantry angulation: SOM = 81%, MIS = 91%; (b) CT angiography (CTA) with automatic dose-modulation technique: SOM = 39%, MIS = 74%; (c) CTA without dose-modulation technique: SOM = 22%, MIS = 48%; (d) CT perfusion: SOM = 44%, MIS = 69%. SOM showed a higher dose-reduction potential than MIS maintaining equal image quality. Lens-protection systems are most effective in CTA protocols without dose-reduction techniques. Lens-protection systems lower the average eye lens dose during CT scans up to 1/3 (MIS) and 2/3 (SOM), respectively, if the eye lens is exposed to the direct beam of radiation. Considering both the CT protocol and the material of lens protectors, they seem to be mandatory for reducing the radiation exposure of the eye lens. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Upgrade and benchmarking of a 4D treatment planning system for scanned ion beam therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, D.; Schwarzkopf, A.; Trautmann, J.; Durante, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Abt. Biophysik, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); TU Darmstadt, Hochschulstrasse 6, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Kraemer, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Abt. Biophysik, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Jaekel, O. [Clinic for Radiation Oncology, University of Heidelberg, Im Neuenheimer Feld, Heidelberg 69120 (Germany); Bert, C. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Abt. Biophysik, Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Erlangen, Universitaetsstr. 27, 91054 Erlangen (Germany)

    2013-05-15

    Purpose: Upgrade and benchmarking of a research 4D treatment planning system (4DTPS) suitable for realistic patient treatment planning and treatment simulations taking into account specific requirements for scanned ion beam therapy, i.e., modeling of dose heterogeneities due to interplay effects and range changes caused by patient motion and dynamic beam delivery. Methods: The 4DTPS integrates data interfaces to 4D computed tomography (4DCT), deformable image registration and clinically used motion monitoring devices. The authors implemented a novel data model for 4D image segmentation using Boolean mask volume datasets and developed an algorithm propagating a manually contoured reference contour dataset to all 4DCT phases. They further included detailed treatment simulation and dose reconstruction functionality, based on the irregular patient motion and the temporal structure of the beam delivery. The treatment simulation functionality was validated against experimental data from irradiation of moving radiographic films in air, 3D moving ionization chambers in a water phantom, and moving cells in a biological phantom with a scanned carbon ion beam. The performance of the program was compared to results obtained with predecessor programs. Results: The measured optical density distributions of the radiographic films were reproduced by the simulations to (-2 {+-} 12)%. Compared to earlier versions of the 4DTPS, the mean agreement improved by 2%, standard deviations were reduced by 7%. The simulated dose to the moving ionization chambers in water showed an agreement with the measured dose of (-1 {+-} 4)% for the typical beam configuration. The mean deviation of the simulated from the measured biologically effective dose determined via cell survival was (617 {+-} 538) mGy relative biological effectiveness corresponding to (10 {+-} 9)%. Conclusions: The authors developed a research 4DTPS suitable for realistic treatment planning on patient data and capable of simulating

  12. Tree Root System Characterization and Volume Estimation by Terrestrial Laser Scanning and Quantitative Structure Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Smith

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The accurate characterization of three-dimensional (3D root architecture, volume, and biomass is important for a wide variety of applications in forest ecology and to better understand tree and soil stability. Technological advancements have led to increasingly more digitized and automated procedures, which have been used to more accurately and quickly describe the 3D structure of root systems. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS have successfully been used to describe aboveground structures of individual trees and stand structure, but have only recently been applied to the 3D characterization of whole root systems. In this study, 13 recently harvested Norway spruce root systems were mechanically pulled from the soil, cleaned, and their volumes were measured by displacement. The root systems were suspended, scanned with TLS from three different angles, and the root surfaces from the co-registered point clouds were modeled with the 3D Quantitative Structure Model to determine root architecture and volume. The modeling procedure facilitated the rapid derivation of root volume, diameters, break point diameters, linear root length, cumulative percentages, and root fraction counts. The modeled root systems underestimated root system volume by 4.4%. The modeling procedure is widely applicable and easily adapted to derive other important topological and volumetric root variables.

  13. Development of teaching modules for geology and engineering coursework using terrestrial LiDAR scanning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, L. D.; Katzenstein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Exposing students to active and local examples of physical geologic processes is beneficial to the learning process. Students typically respond with interest to examples that use state-of-the-art technologies to investigate local or regional phenomena. For lower cognitive level of learning (e.g. knowledge, comprehension, and application), the use of "close-to-home" examples ensures that students better understand concepts. By providing these examples, the students may already have a familiarity or can easily visit the location. Furthermore, these local and regional examples help students to offer quickly other examples of similar phenomena. Investigation of these examples using normal photographic techniques, as well as a more sophisticated 3-D Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) (AKA Terrestrial Laser Scanning or TLS) system, allows students to gain a better understanding of the scale and the mechanics of the geologic processes and hazards. The systems are used for research, teaching and outreach efforts and depending on departmental policies can be accessible to students are various learning levels. TLS systems can yield scans at sub-centimeter resolution and contain surface reflectance of targets. These systems can serve a number of learning goals that are essential for training geoscientists and engineers. While querying the data to answer geotechnical or geomorphologic related questions, students will develop skills using large, spatial databases. The upper cognitive level of learning (e.g. analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) is also promoted by using a subset of the data and correlating the physical geologic process of stream bank erosion and rock slope failures with mathematical and computer models using the scanned data. Students use the examples and laboratory exercises to help build their engineering judgment skills with Earth materials. The students learn not only applications of math and engineering science but also the economic and social implication

  14. Permanent 3D laser scanning system for an active landslide in Gresten (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canli, Ekrem; Höfle, Bernhard; Hämmerle, Martin; Benni, Thiebes; Glade, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) have widely been used for high spatial resolution data acquisition of topographic features and geomorphic analyses. Existing applications encompass different landslides including rockfall, translational or rotational landslides, debris flow, but also coastal cliff erosion, braided river evolution or river bank erosion. The main advantages of TLS are (a) the high spatial sampling density of XYZ-measurements (e.g. 1 point every 2-3 mm at 10 m distance), particularly in comparison with the low data density monitoring techniques such as GNSS or total stations, (b) the millimeter accuracy and precision of the range measurement to centimeter accuracy of the final DEM, and (c) the highly dense area-wide scanning that enables to look through vegetation and to measure bare ground. One of its main constraints is the temporal resolution of acquired data due to labor costs and time requirements for field campaigns. Thus, repetition measurements are generally performed only episodically. However, for an increased scientific understanding of the processes as well as for early warning purposes, we present a novel permanent 3D monitoring setup to increase the temporal resolution of TLS measurements. This accounts for different potential monitoring deliverables such as volumetric calculations, spatio-temporal movement patterns, predictions and even alerting. This system was installed at the active Salcher landslide in Gresten (Austria) that is situated in the transition zone of the Gresten Klippenbelt (Helvetic) and the Flyschzone (Penninic). The characteristic lithofacies are the Gresten Beds of Early Jurassic age that are covered by a sequence of marly and silty beds with intercalated sandy limestones. Permanent data acquisition can be implemented into our workflow with any long-range TLS system offering fully automated capturing. We utilize an Optech ILRIS-3D scanner. The time interval between two scans is currently set to 24 hours, but can be

  15. Influence of dentist experience with scan spray systems used in direct CAD/CAM impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehurtevent, Marion; Robberecht, Lieven; Béhin, Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Direct optical impression systems requiring powder opacification are widely used in prosthodontics, but little information is available about the influence of the dentist on the quality of scan sprays used for computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) impressions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of operator experience on scan spray homogeneity and thickness on tooth surfaces before direct optical impressions are made. A total of 36 crown-prepared acrylic resin teeth were coated (Optispray) for direct optical impressions by 3 experienced dentists and 3 inexperienced dentists (n=18 teeth per group). The teeth were visually scored for coating homogeneity (1, heterogeneous; 2, average; 3, homogeneous). To determine the coating thickness (μm), the teeth were resin-embedded, cut, and polished. A stereomicroscope (×100 magnification) was used to examine 148 areas per tooth. The results were statistically analyzed with the nonparametric Spearman and Mann-Whitney tests (α=.05). Coating homogeneity was significantly higher (Pdentists achieved greater homogeneity and thinner coatings on crown-preparation surfaces than inexperienced dentists. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Microwave bone imaging: a preliminary scanning system for proof-of-concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuccaro, Antonio; Solimene, Raffaele; Brancaccio, Adriana; Basile, Bruno; Ammann, Max J.

    2016-01-01

    This Letter introduces a feasibility study of a scanning system for applications in biomedical bone imaging operating in the microwave range 0.5–4 GHz. Mechanical uncertainties and data acquisition time are minimised by using a fully automated scanner that controls two antipodal Vivaldi antennas. Accurate antenna positioning and synchronisation with data acquisition enables a rigorous proof-of-concept for the microwave imaging procedure of a multi-layer phantom including skin, fat, muscle and bone tissues. The presence of a suitable coupling medium enables antenna miniaturisation and mitigates the impedance mismatch between antennas and phantom. The three-dimensional image of tibia and fibula is successfully reconstructed by scanning the multi-layer phantom due to the distinctive dielectric contrast between target and surrounding tissues. These results show the viability of a microwave bone imaging technology which is low cost, portable, non-ionising, and does not require specially trained personnel. In fact, as no a-priori characterisation of the antenna is required, the image formation procedure is very conveniently simplified. PMID:27733930

  17. Scanning Electron Microscopic Features of the External and Internal Surfaces of Normal Adult Lacrimal Drainage System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohammad Javed; Baig, Farhana; Lakshman, Mekala; Naik, Milind N

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the ultrastructural features of the external and internal surfaces of healthy lacrimal drainage systems. A prospective interventional study was performed on the healthy adult lacrimal drainage systems obtained from fresh exenterated specimens. Exenteration was performed for malignancies unrelated to lacrimal system where preoperative lacrimal evaluation was normal. A careful and thorough dissection was carried out to isolate the entire lacrimal drainage system from the punctum to the nasolacrimal duct. The analysis was performed using the standard protocols of scanning electron microscopy. Inner punctal surfaces showed a definite and slightly elevated junction between the luminal surfaces of punctum and beginning of the vertical canaliculus. Similar junction could be identified between the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct. The valves of the canaliculi showed broad rugae-like mucosal surfaces, whereas the external surfaces of the canaliculi demonstrated well-defined orbicularis muscle with collagenous attachments. The walls of the lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal duct showed dense vascular plexus which included wide luminal arteries, throttle veins, and large capacitance vessels. Ultrastructural features of external and internal surfaces of lacrimal drainage system help in better understanding of its anatomy and physiology. The junctional area between the punctum-vertical canaliculus and lacrimal sac-nasolacrimal duct needs further exploration to understand their roles.

  18. Design and Implementation of a Mechanical Control System for the Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, William

    2011-01-01

    The Scanning Microwave Limb Sounder (SMLS) will use technological improvements in low noise mixers to provide precise data on the Earth's atmospheric composition with high spatial resolution. This project focuses on the design and implementation of a real time control system needed for airborne engineering tests of the SMLS. The system must coordinate the actuation of optical components using four motors with encoder readback, while collecting synchronized telemetric data from a GPS receiver and 3-axis gyrometric system. A graphical user interface for testing the control system was also designed using Python. Although the system could have been implemented with a FPGA-based setup, we chose to use a low cost processor development kit manufactured by XMOS. The XMOS architecture allows parallel execution of multiple tasks on separate threads-making it ideal for this application and is easily programmed using XC (a subset of C). The necessary communication interfaces were implemented in software, including Ethernet, with significant cost and time reduction compared to an FPGA-based approach. For these reasons, the XMOS technology is an attractive, cost effective, alternative to FPGA-based technologies for this design and similar rapid prototyping projects.

  19. Performance evaluation of the small-animal nanoScan PET/MRI system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Kálmán; Tóth, Miklós; Major, Péter; Patay, Gergely; Egri, Gyozo; Häggkvist, Jenny; Varrone, Andrea; Farde, Lars; Halldin, Christer; Gulyás, Balázs

    2013-10-01

    nanoScan is a high-resolution integrated system for consecutive PET and MR imaging of small laboratory animals. We evaluated the performance of the system, using the NEMA NU 4-2008 protocol for the PET component and the NEMA MS 1-2007, MS 2-2008, and MS 3-2007 standards for the MR imaging component. The imaging system uses magnetically shielded position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes and a compact 1-T permanent-magnet MR imaging platform. Spatial resolution, sensitivity, counting rate capabilities, and image quality parameters were evaluated in accordance with the aforementioned NEMA standards. Further in vivo evaluation experiments complement the physical validation results. The spatial resolution of the PET system enabled the 0.8-mm rods of a Derenzo phantom to be resolved. With point source and 2-dimensional filtered backprojection reconstruction, the resolution varied from 1.50 to 2.01 mm in full width at half maximum in the radial direction and from 1.32 to 1.65 mm in the tangential direction within the radius of 25 mm. Peak absolute sensitivity was 8.41%. Scatter fraction was 17.3% and 34.0%, and maximum noise-equivalent counting rate was 406 and 119 kcps in the mouselike and ratlike phantom, respectively. The image quality test found a nonuniformity of 3.52% and a spillover ratio of 6.2% and 5.8% in water and air, respectively. In testing of the MR imaging component, artifact-free images with high signal-to-noise ratio were recorded. Geometric distortion was below 5%, and image uniformity was at least 94.5% and 96.6% for the 60- and 35-mm radiofrequency coils, respectively. The nanoScan integrated small-animal PET/MR imaging system has excellent spatial resolution and sensitivity. The performance characteristics of the PET and the MR imaging components are not compromised as a result of their integration onto a single platform. Because of its combination of features and performance parameters, the system provides crucial advantages for preclinical imaging

  20. Adults with sensorimotor disorders: enhanced physiological and psychological development following specific sensorimotor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niklasson, Mats; Rasmussen, Peder; Niklasson, Irene; Norlander, Torsten

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate, for the first time, if it is possible to integrate primary reflexes in adults with sensorimotor disorders through sensorimotor therapy (SMT). Participants consisted of 14 adults, one man and 13 women, with an average age of 35 years who completed a SMT program over 3 years. They were compared with a reference group of 100 youngsters spanning from 11 to 17 years. Procedures were the same for both youngsters and adults including regular visits to a therapist and training ~15 min each day at home throughout therapy. Assessments of sensorimotor abilities were made before and after the therapy. Results showed significant improvements on all measurements with regard to treatment for both age groups and the main picture indicated small differences between age groups. After therapy adults were better on balance and orientation tests while the youngsters performed better on sports related gross motor movements, processing of speech sounds and had acquired a better relation between visual skills and vestibular function. Conclusions were that motor problems do not disappear with age and that the same diagnostic instruments and treatment methods can be used for both children and adults with sensorimotor difficulties.

  1. Spontaneous sensorimotor coupling with multipart music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Brian K; Martens, Peter A; Janata, Petr

    2014-08-01

    Music often evokes spontaneous movements in listeners that are synchronized with the music, a phenomenon that has been characterized as being in "the groove." However, the musical factors that contribute to listeners' initiation of stimulus-coupled action remain unclear. Evidence suggests that newly appearing objects in auditory scenes orient listeners' attention, and that in multipart music, newly appearing instrument or voice parts can engage listeners' attention and elicit arousal. We posit that attentional engagement with music can influence listeners' spontaneous stimulus-coupled movement. Here, 2 experiments-involving participants with and without musical training-tested the effect of staggering instrument entrances across time and varying the number of concurrent instrument parts within novel multipart music on listeners' engagement with the music, as assessed by spontaneous sensorimotor behavior and self-reports. Experiment 1 assessed listeners' moment-to-moment ratings of perceived groove, and Experiment 2 examined their spontaneous tapping and head movements. We found that, for both musically trained and untrained participants, music with more instruments led to higher ratings of perceived groove, and that music with staggered instrument entrances elicited both increased sensorimotor coupling and increased reports of perceived groove. Although untrained participants were more likely to rate music as higher in groove, trained participants showed greater propensity for tapping along, and they did so more accurately. The quality of synchronization of head movements with the music, however, did not differ as a function of training. Our results shed new light on the relationship between complex musical scenes, attention, and spontaneous sensorimotor behavior.

  2. Resolution enhancement of scanning four-point-probe measurements on two-dimensional systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben Mikael; Stokbro, Kurt; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    /15 of the four-point-probe electrode spacing. The real conductance sheet is simulated by a grid of discrete resistances, which is optimized by means of a standard optimization algorithm, until the simulated voltage-to-current ratios converges with the measurement. The method has been tested against simulated...... data as well as real measurements and is found to successfully deconvolute the four-point-probe measurements. In conjunction with a newly developed scanning four-point probe with electrode spacing of 1.1 µm, the method can resolve the conductivity with submicron resolution. ©2003 American Institute......A method to improve the resolution of four-point-probe measurements of two-dimensional (2D) and quasi-2D systems is presented. By mapping the conductance on a dense grid around a target area and postprocessing the data, the resolution can be improved by a factor of approximately 50 to better than 1...

  3. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies—INS and LiDAR SLAM—into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform—NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment. PMID:26184206

  4. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-07-10

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  5. An Airborne Scanning LiDAR System for Ocean and Coastal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Castel, D.; Melville, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed an airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system and demonstrated its functionality for terrestrial and oceanographic measurements. Differential GPS (DGPS) and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) are synchronized with the LiDAR, providing end result vertical rms errors of approximately 6~cm. Flying 170~m above the surface, we achieve a point density of ~ 0.7 m-2 and a swath width of 90 to 120~m over ocean and 200~m over land. Georeferencing algorithms were developed in-house and earth-referenced data are available several hours after acquisition. Surveys from the system are compared with ground DGPS surveys and existing airborne surveys of fixed targets. Twelve research flights in a Piper Twin Comanche from August 2007 to July 2008 have provided topography of the Southern California coastline and sea surface wave fields in the nearshore ocean environment. Two of the flights also documented the results of the October 2007 landslide on Mt.~Soledad in La Jolla, California. Eight research flights aboard a Cessna Caravan surveyed the topography, lagoon, reef, and surrounding seas of Lady Elliot Island (LEI) in Australia's Great Barrier Reef in April 2008. We describe applications for the system, including coastal topographic surveys, wave measurements, reef research, and ship wake studies.

  6. Effective Data-Driven Calibration for a Galvanometric Laser Scanning System Using Binocular Stereo Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Junchao; Zhang, Liyan

    2018-01-12

    A new solution to the problem of galvanometric laser scanning (GLS) system calibration is presented. Under the machine learning framework, we build a single-hidden layer feedforward neural network (SLFN)to represent the GLS system, which takes the digital control signal at the drives of the GLS system as input and the space vector of the corresponding outgoing laser beam as output. The training data set is obtained with the aid of a moving mechanism and a binocular stereo system. The parameters of the SLFN are efficiently solved in a closed form by using extreme learning machine (ELM). By quantitatively analyzing the regression precision with respective to the number of hidden neurons in the SLFN, we demonstrate that the proper number of hidden neurons can be safely chosen from a broad interval to guarantee good generalization performance. Compared to the traditional model-driven calibration, the proposed calibration method does not need a complex modeling process and is more accurate and stable. As the output of the network is the space vectors of the outgoing laser beams, it costs much less training time and can provide a uniform solution to both laser projection and 3D-reconstruction, in contrast with the existing data-driven calibration method which only works for the laser triangulation problem. Calibration experiment, projection experiment and 3D reconstruction experiment are respectively conducted to test the proposed method, and good results are obtained.

  7. 3-D ultrasonic strain imaging based on a linear scanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qinghua; Xie, Bo; Ye, Pengfei; Chen, Zhaohong

    2015-02-01

    This paper introduces a 3-D strain imaging method based on a freehand linear scanning mode. We designed a linear sliding track with a position sensor and a height-adjustable holder to constrain the movement of an ultrasound probe in a freehand manner. When moving the probe along the sliding track, the corresponding positional measures for the probe are transmitted via a wireless communication module based on Bluetooth in real time. In a single examination, the probe is scanned in two sweeps in which the height of the probe is adjusted by the holder to collect the pre- and postcompression radio-frequency echoes, respectively. To generate a 3-D strain image, a volume cubic in which the voxels denote relative strains for tissues is defined according to the range of the two sweeps. With respect to the post-compression frames, several slices in the volume are determined and the pre-compression frames are re-sampled to precisely correspond to the post-compression frames. Thereby, a strain estimation method based on minimizing a cost function using dynamic programming is used to obtain the 2-D strain image for each pair of frames from the re-sampled pre-compression sweep and the post-compression sweep, respectively. A software system is developed for volume reconstruction, visualization, and measurement of the 3-D strain images. The experimental results show that high-quality 3-D strain images of phantom and human tissues can be generated by the proposed method, indicating that the proposed system can be applied for real clinical applications (e.g., musculoskeletal assessments).

  8. A system architecture for sharing de-identified, research-ready brain scans and health information across clinical imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Ann L; van Erp, Theo G M; Kesselman, Carl; D'Arcy, Mike; Sobell, Janet; Keator, David; Dahm, Lisa; Murry, Jim; Law, Meng; Hasso, Anton; Ames, Joseph; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover, the clinical interpretation of brain scans benefits from compare and contrast analyses of scans from patients with similar, and sometimes rare, demographic, diagnostic, and treatment status. A solution to both needs is to acquire standardized, research-ready clinical brain scans and to build the information technology infrastructure to share such scans, along with other pertinent information, across hospitals. This paper describes the design, deployment, and operation of a federated imaging system that captures and shares standardized, de-identified clinical brain images in a federation across multiple institutions. In addition to describing innovative aspects of the system architecture and our initial testing of the deployed infrastructure, we also describe the Standardized Imaging Protocol (SIP) developed for the project and our interactions with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) regarding handling patient data in the federated environment.

  9. Objective Assessment of Knee Proprioception and Sensorimotor Function in Patients with Primary Gonarthrosis before and after Knee Replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadamus, Anna; Białoszewski, Dariusz

    2017-10-31

    The sensorimotor system is a complicated tool allowing for maintaining body balance and responding to changing environmental conditions to prevent injury. It is difficult to objectively assess the function of balance control mechanisms due to the multidimensional nature of the sensorimotor system and multitude of variables that may interfere with the measurement. The function of the sensorimotor system is considerably compromised in osteoarthritis, including gona-rthro-sis. The knee is the second most common location of osteoarthritis, after the hip, and total or partial replacement surgery of the knee joint represents the therapy of choice in advanced stages of the condition. As average life expectancy increases and state-of-the art medical technology develops, the number of total knee replacement surgeries is increasing dramatically and the re-education of the sensorimotor system is of fundamental impo-rtance for restoring function in the patients. This paper describes the current methods for objective assessment of proprioception, sensorimotor function and balance in the knee. The current literature is also reviewed to discuss the use of such examinations in pa-tients with gonarthrosis before and after knee replacement surgery.

  10. Delayed treatment with Chondroitinase ABC promotes sensorimotor recovery and plasticity after stroke in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleman, Sara; Yip, Ping K.; Duricki, Denise A.; Moon, Lawrence D.F.

    2017-01-01

    Summary Stroke is the dominant cause of sensorimotor disability that primarily affects the elderly. We now show that neuroplasticity and functional recovery after stroke is constrained by inhibitory chondroitin sulphates. In two blinded, randomised pre-clinical trials, degradation of chondroitin sulphate using chondroitinase ABC reactivated neuroplasticity and promoted sensorimotor recovery after stroke in elderly rats. Three days after stroke, chondroitinase ABC was microinjected into the cervical spinal cord to induce localized plasticity of forelimb sensorimotor spinal circuitry. Chondroitinase ABC effectively removed chondroitin sulphate from the extracellular matrix and perineuronal nets. Three different tests of sensorimotor function showed that chondroitinase ABC promoted recovery of forelimb function. Anterograde and retrograde tracing showed that chondroitinase ABC also induced sprouting of the contralesional corticospinal tract in the aged treated hemicord. Chondroitinase ABC did not neuroprotect the peri-infarct region. Excitingly, we show for the first time delayed chondroitinase ABC treatment promotes neuroanatomical and functional recovery after focal ischemic stroke in an elderly nervous system. PMID:22396394

  11. Sensorimotor simulation and emotion processing: Impairing facial action increases semantic retrieval demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Joshua D; Winkielman, Piotr; Coulson, Seana

    2017-06-01

    Sensorimotor models suggest that understanding the emotional content of a face recruits a simulation process in which a viewer partially reproduces the facial expression in their own sensorimotor system. An important prediction of these models is that disrupting simulation should make emotion recognition more difficult. Here we used electroencephalogram (EEG) and facial electromyogram (EMG) to investigate how interfering with sensorimotor signals from the face influences the real-time processing of emotional faces. EEG and EMG were recorded as healthy adults viewed emotional faces and rated their valence. During control blocks, participants held a conjoined pair of chopsticks loosely between their lips. During interference blocks, participants held the chopsticks horizontally between their teeth and lips to generate motor noise on the lower part of the face. This noise was confirmed by EMG at the zygomaticus. Analysis of EEG indicated that faces expressing happiness or disgust-lower face expressions-elicited larger amplitude N400 when they were presented during the interference than the control blocks, suggesting interference led to greater semantic retrieval demands. The selective impact of facial motor interference on the brain response to lower face expressions supports sensorimotor models of emotion understanding.

  12. Is the Sensorimotor Cortex Relevant for Speech Perception and Understanding? An Integrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schomers, Malte R.; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    In the neuroscience of language, phonemes are frequently described as multimodal units whose neuronal representations are distributed across perisylvian cortical regions, including auditory and sensorimotor areas. A different position views phonemes primarily as acoustic entities with posterior temporal localization, which are functionally independent from frontoparietal articulatory programs. To address this current controversy, we here discuss experimental results from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as well as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies. On first glance, a mixed picture emerges, with earlier research documenting neurofunctional distinctions between phonemes in both temporal and frontoparietal sensorimotor systems, but some recent work seemingly failing to replicate the latter. Detailed analysis of methodological differences between studies reveals that the way experiments are set up explains whether sensorimotor cortex maps phonological information during speech perception or not. In particular, acoustic noise during the experiment and ‘motor noise’ caused by button press tasks work against the frontoparietal manifestation of phonemes. We highlight recent studies using sparse imaging and passive speech perception tasks along with multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) and especially representational similarity analysis (RSA), which succeeded in separating acoustic-phonological from general-acoustic processes and in mapping specific phonological information on temporal and frontoparietal regions. The question about a causal role of sensorimotor cortex on speech perception and understanding is addressed by reviewing recent TMS studies. We conclude that frontoparietal cortices, including ventral motor and somatosensory areas, reflect phonological information during speech perception and exert a causal influence on language understanding. PMID:27708566

  13. Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI): A control and data acquisition system for scanning laser vibrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Stephen A.; Brown, Donald E.; Shaffer, Thomas A.

    1993-01-01

    The Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI) system was designed to control and acquire data from scanning laser vibrometer sensors. The PC computer based system uses a digital signal processing (DSP) board and an analog I/O board to control the sensor and to process the data. The VPI system was originally developed for use with the Ometron VPI Sensor, but can be readily adapted to any commercially available sensor which provides an analog output signal and requires analog inputs for control of mirror positioning. The sensor itself is not part of the VPI system. A graphical interface program, which runs on a PC under the MS-DOS operating system, functions in an interactive mode and communicates with the DSP and I/O boards in a user-friendly fashion through the aid of pop-up menus. Two types of data may be acquired with the VPI system: single point or 'full field.' In the single point mode, time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board (at a user-defined sampling rate for a selectable number of samples) and is stored by the PC. The position of the measuring point (adjusted by mirrors in the sensor) is controlled via a mouse input. The mouse input is translated to output voltages by the D/A converter on the I/O board to control the mirror servos. In the 'full field' mode, the measurement point is moved over a user-selectable rectangular area. The time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board (at a user-defined sampling rate for a selectable number of samples) and converted to a root-mean-square (rms) value by the DSP board. The rms 'full field' velocity distribution is then uploaded for display and storage on the PC.

  14. Addressing Anger Using Sensorimotor Psychotherapy and Cognitive Behaviour Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Sarah M.

    2010-01-01

    A young woman initiated counselling services at a community agency to address her explosive anger that was a remnant of childhood physical and emotional abuse. Sensorimotor psychotherapy was used to help this client learn how to monitor and regulate her sensorimotor processes. In conjunction with this approach, Cognitive behavioural therapy was…

  15. Age-Related Changes in Sensorimotor Temporal Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercillo, Tiziana; Carrasco, Carlos; Jiang, Fang

    2017-01-01

    The causal relationship between a voluntary movement and a sensory event is crucial for experiencing agency. Sensory events must occur within a certain delay from a voluntary movement to be perceived as self-generated. Therefore, temporal sensitivity, i.e., the ability to discriminate temporal asynchronies between motor and sensory events, is important for sensorimotor binding. Moreover, differences in the physical propagation of external stimuli can sometimes challenge sensorimotor binding, generating illusory asynchrony. To overcome this problem, the brain adjusts the perceptual timing of sensory and motor events. This mechanism, named sensorimotor recalibration, helps keeping causality judgments accurate. As humans age, the broad decline in sensory and motor processing may reduce temporal sensitivity, and compromise sensorimotor recalibration. In the current study, we investigated the effect of aging on sensorimotor temporal binding by measuring changes in both temporal sensitivity and recalibration. Young and elderly adults were exposed to a prolonged physical delay between a voluntary movement (a keypress) and its perceptual consequence (a visual stimulus). Before and after this exposure, participants performed a sensorimotor temporal order judgment (TOJ) task. As expected, elderly adults showed reduced sensorimotor recalibration and sensitivity as compared to young adults, suggesting that aging affects sensorimotor temporal binding.

  16. Virtobot--a multi-functional robotic system for 3D surface scanning and automatic post mortem biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Lars Christian; Ptacek, Wolfgang; Naether, Silvio; Fürst, Martin; Ross, Steffen; Buck, Ursula; Weber, Stefan; Thali, Michael

    2010-03-01

    The Virtopsy project, a multi-disciplinary project that involves forensic science, diagnostic imaging, computer science, automation technology, telematics and biomechanics, aims to develop new techniques to improve the outcome of forensic investigations. This paper presents a new approach in the field of minimally invasive virtual autopsy for a versatile robotic system that is able to perform three-dimensional (3D) surface scans as well as post mortem image-guided soft tissue biopsies. The system consists of an industrial six-axis robot with additional extensions (i.e. a linear axis to increase working space, a tool-changing system and a dedicated safety system), a multi-slice CT scanner with equipment for angiography, a digital photogrammetry and 3D optical surface-scanning system, a 3D tracking system, and a biopsy end effector for automatic needle placement. A wax phantom was developed for biopsy accuracy tests. Surface scanning times were significantly reduced (scanning times cut in half, calibration three times faster). The biopsy module worked with an accuracy of 3.2 mm. Using the Virtobot, the surface-scanning procedure could be standardized and accelerated. The biopsy module is accurate enough for use in biopsies in a forensic setting. The Virtobot can be utilized for several independent tasks in the field of forensic medicine, and is sufficiently versatile to be adapted to different tasks in the future. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Review: Marine Seismic And Side-Scan Sonar Investigations For Seabed Identification With Sonar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zainuddin Lubis

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Marine seismic reflection data have been collected for decades and since the mid-to late- 1980s much of this data is positioned relatively accurately. Marine geophysical acquisition of data is a very expensive process with the rates regularly ship through dozens of thousands of euros per day. Acquisition of seismic profiles has the position is determined by a DGPS system and navigation is performed by Hypack and Maxview software that also gives all the offsets for the equipment employed in the survey. Examples of some projects will be described in terms of the project goals and the geophysical equipment selected for each survey and specific geophysical systems according to with the scope of work. For amplitude side scan sonar image, and in the multi-frequency system, color, becoming a significant properties of the sea floor, the effect of which is a bully needs to be fixed. The main confounding effect is due to absorption of water; geometric spread; shape beam sonar function (combined transmit-receive sonar beam intensity as a function of tilt angle obtained in this sonar reference frame; sonar vehicle roll; form and function of the seabed backscatter (proportion incident on the seabed backscattered signal to sonar as a function of the angle of incidence relative to the sea floor; and the slope of the seabed. The different angles of view are generated by the translation of the sonar, because of the discrete steps involved by the sequential pings, the angular sampling of the bottom.

  18. Development of beam monitoring system for proton pencil beam scanning using fiber-optic radiation sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Jaeman; Koo, Jihye; Moon, Sunyoung; Yoon, Myonggeun; Jeong, Jonghwi; Kim, Sun-Young; Lim, Youngkyung; Lee, Se Byeong; Shin, Dongho; Kim, Meyoung; Kim, Dongwook

    2017-10-01

    We aimed to develop a beam monitoring system based on a fiber-optic radiation sensor (FORS), which can be used in real time in a beam control room, to monitor a beam in proton therapy, where patients are treated using a pencil beam scanning (PBS) mode, by measuring the beam spot width (BSW) and beam spot position (BSP) of the PBS. We developed two-dimensional detector arrays to monitor the PBS beam in the beam control room. We measured the BSW for five energies of the PBS beam and compared the measurements with those of Lynx and EBT3 film. In order to confirm the BSP, we compared the BSP values of the PBS calculated from radiation treatment planning (RTP), to five BSP values measured using FORS at 224.2 MeV. When comparing BSW values obtained using developed monitoring system to the measurements obtained using commercial EBT3 film, the average difference in BSW value of the PBS beam was 0.1 ± 0.1 mm. In the comparison of BSW values with the measurements obtained using Lynx, the average difference was 0.2 ± 0.1 mm. When comparing BSP measurements to the values calculated from RTP, the average difference was 0.4 ± 0.2 mm. The study results confirmed that the developed FORS-based beam monitoring system can monitor a PBS beam in real time in a beam control room, where proton beam is controlled for the patient.

  19. Optical scanning system for light-absorption measurement of deep biological tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funane, Tsukasa; Atsumori, Hirokazu; Kiguchi, Masashi; Tanikawa, Yukari; Okada, Eiji

    2011-09-01

    A noncontact near-infrared scanning system for multi-distance absorption measurement of deep biological tissue was developed. An 808-nm laser, whose focal point on the surface of biological tissue is controlled by a galvano scanner, is used as a light source. A phosphor is placed at a detection focal point on the tissue surface. The light that propagates through tissue and exits from the tissue surface beneath the phosphor excites the phosphor. The fluorescence emitted from the phosphor is detected by an avalanche photodiode. The system is used to measure 20 points on tissue surface at which source-detector (S-D) distances are 7-45 mm (with 2-mm intervals). Neither the light source nor the detector contacts the tissue surface. The system was validated by using it to measure the absorption change of an absorber (which is embedded in a deep layer of a tissue-simulating phantom) while the surface-layer thickness of the phantom was changed from 1 to 12 mm. It was demonstrated that both the relative absorption change of the absorber and the absolute thickness of the surface layer can be estimated from the measured optical-density change (ΔOD) and the dependence of ΔOD on S-D distance, respectively. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  20. Coherence potentials encode simple human sensorimotor behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanya Parameshwaran

    Full Text Available Recent work has shown that large amplitude negative periods in the local field potential (nLFPs are able to spread in saltatory manner across large distances in the cortex without distortion in their temporal structure forming 'coherence potentials'. Here we analysed subdural electrocorticographic (ECoG signals recorded at 59 sites in the sensorimotor cortex in the left hemisphere of a human subject performing a simple visuomotor task (fist clenching and foot dorsiflexion to understand how coherence potentials arising in the recordings relate to sensorimotor behavior. In all behaviors we found a particular coherence potential (i.e. a cascade of a particular nLFP wave pattern arose consistently across all trials with temporal specificity. During contrateral fist clenching, but not the foot dorsiflexion or ipsilateral fist clenching, the coherence potential most frequently originated in the hand representation area in the somatosensory cortex during the anticipation and planning periods of the trial, moving to other regions during the actual motor behavior. While these 'expert' sites participated more consistently, other sites participated only a small fraction of the time. Furthermore, the timing of the coherence potential at the hand representation area after onset of the cue predicted the timing of motor behavior. We present the hypothesis that coherence potentials encode information relevant for behavior and are generated by the 'expert' sites that subsequently broadcast to other sites as a means of 'sharing knowledge'.

  1. Towards a sensorimotor aesthetics of performing art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Merino, B; Jola, C; Glaser, D E; Haggard, P

    2008-09-01

    The field of neuroaesthetics attempts to identify the brain processes underlying aesthetic experience, including but not limited to beauty. Previous neuroaesthetic studies have focussed largely on paintings and music, while performing arts such as dance have been less studied. Nevertheless, increasing knowledge of the neural mechanisms that represent the bodies and actions of others, and which contribute to empathy, make a neuroaesthetics of dance timely. Here, we present the first neuroscientific study of aesthetic perception in the context of the performing arts. We investigated brain areas whose activity during passive viewing of dance stimuli was related to later, independent aesthetic evaluation of the same stimuli. Brain activity of six naïve male subjects was measured using fMRI, while they watched 24 dance movements, and performed an irrelevant task. In a later session, participants rated each movement along a set of established aesthetic dimensions. The ratings were used to identify brain regions that were more active when viewing moves that received high average ratings than moves that received low average ratings. This contrast revealed bilateral activity in the occipital cortices and in right premotor cortex. Our results suggest a possible role of visual and sensorimotor brain areas in an automatic aesthetic response to dance. This sensorimotor response may explain why dance is widely appreciated in so many human cultures.

  2. Sensorimotor adaptations to microgravity in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgerton, V. R.; McCall, G. E.; Hodgson, J. A.; Gotto, J.; Goulet, C.; Fleischmann, K.; Roy, R. R.

    2001-01-01

    Motor function is altered by microgravity, but little detail is available as to what these changes are and how changes in the individual components of the sensorimotor system affect the control of movement. Further, there is little information on whether the changes in motor performance reflect immediate or chronic adaptations to changing gravitational environments. To determine the effects of microgravity on the neural control properties of selected motor pools, four male astronauts from the NASA STS-78 mission performed motor tasks requiring the maintenance of either ankle dorsiflexor or plantarflexor torque. Torques of 10 or 50% of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) were requested of the subjects during 10 degrees peak-to-peak sinusoidal movements at 0.5 Hz. When 10% MVC of the plantarflexors was requested, the actual torques generated in-flight were similar to pre-flight values. Post-flight torques were higher than pre- and in-flight torques. The actual torques when 50% MVC was requested were higher in- and post-flight than pre-flight. Soleus (Sol) electromyographic (EMG) amplitudes during plantarflexion were higher in-flight than pre- or post-flight for both the 10 and 50% MVC tasks. No differences in medial gastrocnemius (MG) EMG amplitudes were observed for either the 10 or 50% MVC tasks. The EMG amplitudes of the tibialis anterior (TA), an antagonist to plantarflexion, were higher in- and post-flight than pre-flight for the 50% MVC task. During the dorsiflexion tasks, the torques generated in both the 10 and 50% MVC tasks did not differ pre-, in- and post-flight. TA EMG amplitudes were significantly higher in- than pre-flight for both the 10 or 50% MVC tasks, and remained elevated post-flight for the 50% MVC test. Both the Sol and MG EMG amplitudes were significantly higher in-flight than either pre- or post-flight for both the 10 and 50% MVC tests. These data suggest that the most consistent response to space flight was an elevation in the level of

  3. Progress in sensorimotor rehabilitative physical therapy programs for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-08-16

    Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs. The concept of combining valuable rehabilitative procedures into "a training package", based on the patient's functional status during different recovery phases after stroke is proposed. Integrated sensorimotor rehabilitation programs with appropriate temporal arrangements might provide great functional benefits for stroke patients.

  4. Progress in sensorimotor rehabilitative physical therapy programs for stroke patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jia-Ching; Shaw, Fu-Zen

    2014-01-01

    Impaired motor and functional activity following stroke often has negative impacts on the patient, the family and society. The available rehabilitation programs for stroke patients are reviewed. Conventional rehabilitation strategies (Bobath, Brunnstrom, proprioception neuromuscular facilitation, motor relearning and function-based principles) are the mainstream tactics in clinical practices. Numerous advanced strategies for sensory-motor functional enhancement, including electrical stimulation, electromyographic biofeedback, constraint-induced movement therapy, robotics-aided systems, virtual reality, intermittent compression, partial body weight supported treadmill training and thermal stimulation, are being developed and incorporated into conventional rehabilitation programs. The concept of combining valuable rehabilitative procedures into “a training package”, based on the patient’s functional status during different recovery phases after stroke is proposed. Integrated sensorimotor rehabilitation programs with appropriate temporal arrangements might provide great functional benefits for stroke patients. PMID:25133141

  5. Simultaneous Bright-Field and Dark-Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy in Scanning Electron Microscopy: A New Approach for Analyzing Polymer System Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Binay S.

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy in scanning electron microscopy (STEM-IN-SEM) is a convenient technique for polymer characterization. Utilizing the lower accelerating voltages, larger field of view and, exclusion of post-specimen projection lens in an SEM; STEM-IN-SEM has shown results comparable to transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation of polymer morphology. Various specimen-holder geometries and detector arrangements have been used for bright field (BF) STEM-IN-SEM imaging. To further the characterization potential of STEM-IN-SEM a new specimen holder has been developed to facilitate simultaneous BF and dark field (DF) STEM-IN-SEM imaging. A new specimen holder and a new microscope configuration were designed for this new imaging technique. BF and DF signals were maximized for optimal STEM-IN-SEM imaging. BF signal intensities were found to be twice as large as DF signal intensities. BF and DF STEM-IN-SEM imaging spatial resolutions are limited to 1.8 nm and approximately 5 nm, respectively. Simultaneous BF & DF STEM-IN-SEM imaging is applicable to both industrial and academic research environments. Examples of commodity and engineering polymer morphology characterization are provided. Results are comparable to TEM observation and may serve as a suitable precursor to STEM characterization of polymer systems. Finally, future developments of various accessories for this technique are discussed.

  6. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope system with an open sample chamber: Configuration and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishiyama, Hidetoshi, E-mail: hinishiy@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Koizumi, Mitsuru, E-mail: koizumi@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Ogawa, Koji, E-mail: kogawa@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Technics Ltd., 2-6-38 Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-0021 (Japan); Kitamura, Shinich, E-mail: kitamura@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Konyuba, Yuji, E-mail: ykonyuub@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Watanabe, Yoshiyuki, E-mail: watanabeyoshiy@pref.yamagata.jp [Yamagata Research Institute of Technology, 2-2-1, Matsuei, Yamagata 990-2473 (Japan); Ohbayashi, Norihiko, E-mail: n.ohbayashi@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsunori, E-mail: nori@m.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory of Membrane Trafficking Mechanisms, Department of Developmental Biology and Neurosciences, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Aobayama, Aoba-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8578 (Japan); Suga, Mitsuo, E-mail: msuga@jeol.co.jp [JEOL Ltd., 3-1-2, Musashino, Akishima, Tokyo 196-8558 (Japan); Sato, Chikara, E-mail: ti-sato@aist.go.jp [Biomedical Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), 1-1-4, Umezono, Tsukuba 305-8568 (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    An atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM) with an open sample chamber and optical microscope (OM) is described and recent developments are reported. In this ClairScope system, the base of the open sample dish is sealed to the top of the inverted SEM column, allowing the liquid-immersed sample to be observed by OM from above and by SEM from below. The optical axes of the two microscopes are aligned, ensuring that the same sample areas are imaged to realize quasi-simultaneous correlative microscopy in solution. For example, the cathodoluminescence of ZnO particles was directly demonstrated. The improved system has (i) a fully motorized sample stage, (ii) a column protection system in the case of accidental window breakage, and (iii) an OM/SEM operation system controlled by a graphical user interface. The open sample chamber allows the external administration of reagents during sample observation. We monitored the influence of added NaCl on the random motion of silica particles in liquid. Further, using fluorescence as a transfection marker, the effect of small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous Varp on Tyrp1 trafficking in melanocytes was examined. A temperature-regulated titanium ASEM dish allowed the dynamic observation of colloidal silver nanoparticles as they were heated to 240 °C and sintered. - Highlights: • Atmospheric SEM (ASEM) allows observation of samples in liquid or gas. • Open sample chamber allows in situ monitoring of evaporation and sintering processes. • in situ monitoring of processes during reagent administration is also accomplished. • Protection system for film breakage is developed for ASEM. • Usability of ASEM has been improved significantly including GUI control.

  7. A New High Channel-Count, High Scan-Rate, Data Acquisition System for the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanco, Thomas G.; Sekula, Martin K.; Piatak, David J.; Simmons, Scott A.; Babel, Walter C.; Collins, Jesse G.; Ramey, James M.; Heald, Dean M.

    2016-01-01

    A data acquisition system upgrade project, known as AB-DAS, is underway at the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. AB-DAS will soon serve as the primary data system and will substantially increase the scan-rate capabilities and analog channel count while maintaining other unique aeroelastic and dynamic test capabilities required of the facility. AB-DAS is configurable, adaptable, and enables buffet and aeroacoustic tests by synchronously scanning all analog channels and recording the high scan-rate time history values for each data quantity. AB-DAS is currently available for use as a stand-alone data system with limited capabilities while development continues. This paper describes AB-DAS, the design methodology, and the current features and capabilities. It also outlines the future work and projected capabilities following completion of the data system upgrade project.

  8. Implications of plan-based generalization in sensorimotor adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougle, Samuel D; Bond, Krista M; Taylor, Jordan A

    2017-07-01

    Generalization is a fundamental aspect of behavior, allowing for the transfer of knowledge from one context to another. The details of this transfer are thought to reveal how the brain represents what it learns. Generalization has been a central focus in studies of sensorimotor adaptation, and its pattern has been well characterized: Learning of new dynamic and kinematic transformations in one region of space tapers off in a Gaussian-like fashion to neighboring untrained regions, echoing tuned population codes in the brain. In contrast to common allusions to generalization in cognitive science, generalization in visually guided reaching is usually framed as a passive consequence of neural tuning functions rather than a cognitive feature of learning. While previous research has presumed that maximum generalization occurs at the instructed task goal or the actual movement direction, recent work suggests that maximum generalization may occur at the location of an explicitly accessible movement plan. Here we provide further support for plan-based generalization, formalize this theory in an updated model of adaptation, and test several unexpected implications of the model. First, we employ a generalization paradigm to parameterize the generalization function and ascertain its maximum point. We then apply the derived generalization function to our model and successfully simulate and fit the time course of implicit adaptation across three behavioral experiments. We find that dynamics predicted by plan-based generalization are borne out in the data, are contrary to what traditional models predict, and lead to surprising implications for the behavioral, computational, and neural characteristics of sensorimotor adaptation.NEW & NOTEWORTHY The pattern of generalization is thought to reveal how the motor system represents learned actions. Recent work has made the intriguing suggestion that maximum generalization in sensorimotor adaptation tasks occurs at the location of the

  9. Evaluation of an automated system for root canal irrigation: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattioli-Belmonte, Monica; Orsini, Giovanna; Giuliodori, Francesca; DI Cristoforo, Adriano; Procaccini, Maurizio; Mengucci, Paolo; Putignano, Angelo

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated a new automated system using alternative irrigants for root canal cleaning treatments. This method relies on a system inserting an enzymatic solution based on Trypsin flowing inside the pulp chambers and root canals, completely avoiding traditional endodontic instrumentation. Sixty freshly extracted human molar teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups to assess 3 regimens (R1-3) differing in 0.25% Trypsin/EDTA and 5% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) solutions administration. Scanning electron microscopy observations and scores taking into account changes in dentin tubules were used to assess treatment effects in pulp chambers and roots. Significant changes in root cleaning ability relative to administration timing were observed, with the best results found in R3, with scheduled alternated cycles of Trypsin/EDTA and NaOCl inside the tooth. The non-invasive root canal method demonstrates good teeth cleaning ability independent of root morphology. This equipment may provide lower discomfort levels for patients undergoing endodontic treatment.

  10. Laser-assisted scanning probe alloying nanolithography (LASPAN) and its application in gold-silicon system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Luohan

    Nanoscale science and technology demand novel approaches and new knowledge to further advance. Nanoscale fabrication has been widely employed in both modern science and engineering. Micro/nano lithography is the most common technique to deposit nanostructures. Fundamental research is also being conducted to investigate structural, physical and chemical properties of the nanostructures. This research contributes fundamental understanding in surface science through development of a new methodology. Doing so, experimental approaches combined with energy analysis were carried out. A delicate hardware system was designed and constructed to realize the nanometer scale lithography. We developed a complete process, namely laser-assisted scanning probe alloying nanolithography (LASPAN), to fabricate well-defined nanostructures in gold-silicon (Au-Si) system. As a result, four aspects of nanostructures were made through different experimental trials. A non-equilibrium phase (AuSi3) was discovered, along with a non-equilibrium phase diagram. Energy dissipation and mechanism of nanocrystalization in the process have been extensively discussed. The mechanical energy input and laser radiation induced thermal energy input were estimated. An energy model was derived to represent the whole process of LASPAN.

  11. Three-photon fluorescence imaging of melanin with a dual-wedge confocal scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mega, Yair; Kerimo, Joseph; Robinson, Joseph; Vakili, Ali; Johnson, Nicolette; DiMarzio, Charles

    2012-03-01

    Confocal microscopy can be used as a practical tool in non-invasive applications in medical diagnostics and evaluation. In particular, it is being used for the early detection of skin cancer to identify pathological cellular components and, potentially, replace conventional biopsies. The detection of melanin and its spatial location and distribution plays a crucial role in the detection and evaluation of skin cancer. Our previous work has shown that the visible emission from melanin is strong and can be easily observed with a near-infrared CW laser using low power. This is due to a unique step-wise, (SW) three-photon excitation of melanin. This paper shows that the same SW, 3-photon fluorescence can also be achieved with an inexpensive, continuous-wave laser using a dual-prism scanning system. This demonstrates that the technology could be integrated into a portable confocal microscope for clinical applications. The results presented here are in agreement with images obtained with the larger and more expensive femtosecond laser system used earlier.

  12. Adaptation of scanning saccades co-occurs in different coordinate systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy-Bencheton, Delphine; Pélisson, Denis; Panouillères, Muriel; Urquizar, Christian; Tilikete, Caroline; Pisella, Laure

    2014-06-15

    Plastic changes of saccades (i.e., following saccadic adaptation) do not transfer between oppositely directed saccades, except when multiple directions are trained simultaneously, suggesting a saccadic planning in retinotopic coordinates. Interestingly, a recent study in human healthy subjects revealed that after an adaptive increase of rightward-scanning saccades, both leftward and rightward double-step, memory-guided saccades, triggered toward the adapted endpoint, were modified, revealing that target location was coded in spatial coordinates (Zimmermann et al. 2011). However, as the computer screen provided a visual frame, one alternative hypothesis could be a coding in allocentric coordinates. Here, we questioned whether adaptive modifications of saccadic planning occur in multiple coordinate systems. We reproduced the paradigm of Zimmermann et al. (2011) using target light-emitting diodes in the dark, with and without a visual frame, and tested different saccades before and after adaptation. With double-step, memory-guided saccades, we reproduced the transfer of adaptation to leftward saccades with the visual frame but not without, suggesting that the coordinate system used for saccade planning, when the frame is visible, is allocentric rather than spatiotopic. With single-step, memory-guided saccades, adaptation transferred to leftward saccades, both with and without the visual frame, revealing a target localization in a coordinate system that is neither retinotopic nor allocentric. Finally, with single-step, visually guided saccades, the classical, unidirectional pattern of amplitude change was reproduced, revealing retinotopic coordinate coding. These experiments indicate that the same procedure of adaptation modifies saccadic planning in multiple coordinate systems in parallel-each of them revealed by the use of different saccade tasks in postadaptation. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Sensorimotor Cortex Injection of Adeno-Associated Viral Vector Mediates Knockout of PTEN in Neurons of the Brain and Spinal Cord of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Qin, Yu; Zhang, Wen; Bian, Zhiqun; Wang, Ruiqi

    2015-12-01

    Cre/loxP-mediated inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is proposed to be a promising therapeutic agent for promoting CNS and PNS regeneration. And adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector has been developed as an attractive gene delivery system with proven safety. In the present study, we investigated Cre/loxP-mediated knockout of PTEN in the sensorimotor cortex, hippocampus, and spinal cord in PTEN floxed mice by immunohistological analysis of PI3K/AKT/mTOR expression in neurons of the sensorimotor cortex, hippocampus, and spinal cord after sensorimotor cortex injection of AAV-Cre. Two weeks after injection of AAV-Cre, the sensorimotor cortex, hippocampus, and spinal cord were dissected and examined the expression of downstream molecules pAKT and pS6 of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. The results showed that remote delivery of AAV-Cre through sensorimotor cortex injection mediated PTEN knockout in neurons of the sensorimotor cortex, hippocampus, and spinal cord. We propose sensorimotor cortex injection of AAV may provide a potential strategy of gene therapy for the CNS diseases.

  14. Prognostic value of the bone scan index using a computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scans in hormone-naive prostate cancer patients with bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyoshi, Yasuhide; Yoneyama, Shuko; Kawahara, Takashi; Hattori, Yusuke; Teranishi, Jun-ichi; Kondo, Keiichi; Moriyama, Masatoshi; Takebayashi, Shigeo; Yokomizo, Yumiko; Yao, Masahiro; Uemura, Hiroji; Noguchi, Kazumi

    2016-02-19

    The bone scan index (BSI) using a computer-aided diagnosis system for bone scans is expected to be an objective and quantitative clinical tool for evaluating bone metastatic prostate cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the pretreatment BSI as a prognostic factor in hormone-naive prostate cancer patients with bone metastases. The study included 60 patients with hormone-naive, bone metastatic prostate cancer that was initially treated with combined androgen blockade therapy. The BONENAVI system was used for calculating the BSI. We evaluated the correlation between overall survival (OS) and pretreatment clinicopathological characteristics, including patients' age, initial prostate-specific antigen (PSA) value, Gleason scores, clinical TNM stage, and the BSI. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for statistical analysis. The median follow-up duration was 21.4 months. Clinical or PSA progression occurred in 37 (61.7%) patients and 18 (30.0%) received docetaxel. Death occurred in 16 (26.7%) patients. Of these deaths, 15 (25.0%) were due to prostate cancer. The median OS was not reached. In multivariate analysis, age and the BSI were independent prognostic factors for OS. We evaluated the discriminatory ability of our models, including or excluding BSI by quantifying the C-index. The BSI improved the C-index from 0.751 to 0.801 for OS. Median OS was not reached in patients with a BSI ≤ 1.9 and median OS was 34.8 months in patients with a BSI >1.9 (p = 0.039). The pretreatment BSI and patients' age are independent prognostic factors for patients with hormone-naive, bone metastatic prostate cancer.

  15. Scanning E-field sensor device for online measurements in annular phased-array systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wust, P; Berger, J; Fähling, H; Nadobny, J; Gellermann, J; Tilly, W; Rau, B; Petermann, K; Felix, R

    1999-03-01

    A measurement device for noninvasive and simultaneous control of antennas during regional radiofrequency (rf) hyperthermia and, subsequently, the estimation of the power distribution in the interior of patients are essential preconditions for further technological progress. Aiming at this, the feasibility of an electro-optical electric field sensor was investigated during clinical rf hyperthermia. The electro-optical electric field (E-field) sensor is based on lithiumniobate crystals and the Mach-Zehnder interferometer structure, and was tested in an earlier phantom study. For this study, a mechanical scanning device was developed allowing the registration of the E-field during clinical application. Data were recorded along a curve in the water bolus of the SIGMA 60 applicator of the annular phased-array system BSD-2000 (BSD Medical Corp., Salt Lake City, UT) close to the base points of the flat biconical dipole antennas. The results were compared with modeling calculations using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. For the latter, different antenna models were assumed. For systematic registration of the E-field curves in amplitude and phase, we employed an elliptical lamp phantom with fat-equivalent ring (filled with saline solution) and an elliptical polyacrylamide phantom with acrylic glass wall. Further measurements were carried out during the treatment of 5 patients with 20 hyperthermia treatments. Data of both phantom and patient measurements can be satisfactorily described by the FDTD method, if the antenna model is refined by taking into account the conical form of the dipoles and the special dielectric environment of the feeding point. Phase deviations can be entered ex posteriori for correction in the calculation algorithm. A comparison of amplifier power measurement (forward and backward power) and bolus E-field scans near the antenna base points demonstrates that E-field measurements between antennas and patient are a necessity for the

  16. The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System Data Products from the Aqua Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, D.; Troisi, V.; Marquis, M.; Armstrong, R.; Stroeve, J.; Maslanik, J.; Axford, Y.; Wolfe, J.

    2001-12-01

    The Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer-Earth Observing System (AMSR-E) is scheduled to launch on NASA's Aqua Satellite in early 2002. The Aqua mission is an important part of the NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE). The Aqua mission provides a multi-disciplinary study of the Earth's atmospheric, oceanic, cryospheric, and land processes and their relationship to global change. With six instruments aboard, the Aqua Satellite will travel in a polar, sun-synchronous orbit. The AMSR-E will measure passive microwave radiation, allowing for derivation of many geophysical parameters, including cloud properties, radiative energy flux, precipitation, land surface wetness, sea surface temperatures, sea ice, snow cover, and sea surface wind fields. The AMSR-E has much greater spatial resolution than previous passive microwave radiometers: approximately double the spatial resolution of the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I). Further, the AMSR-E combines in one sensor all the channels that SMMR and SSM/I had individually. The AMSR-E has the following frequencies (in GHz): 6.9, 10.7, 18.7, 23.8, 36.5, and 89. The level 1A data product will contain chronological antenna temperature count data. The level 2A data product will contain spatially-resampled brightness temperatures (in global swath format) at resolutions of 56, 38, 21, 12 and 5.4 km. Level 2B data will include ocean, soil moisture, and rain products. Level 3 data will include gridded ocean, soil moisture, and rain products; gridded snow water equivalent products; gridded brightness temperatures; and gridded sea ice concentration and snow depth products. The National Space Agency of Japan (NASDA) will process level 0 data to level 1A data. The AMSR-E Science Investigator-led Processing System (SIPS) will process the level 1A data product to level 2 and 3 data products. The National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC) will archive and distribute all AMSR

  17. Three-dimensional Ultrasound Elasticity Imaging on an Automated Breast Volume Scanning System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuqi; Nasief, Haidy G; Kohn, Sarah; Milkowski, Andy; Clary, Tom; Barnes, Stephen; Barbone, Paul E; Hall, Timothy J

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasound elasticity imaging has demonstrated utility in breast imaging, but it is typically performed with handheld transducers and two-dimensional imaging. Two-dimensional (2D) elastography images tissue stiffness of only a plane and hence suffers from errors due to out-of-plane motion, whereas three-dimensional (3D) data acquisition and motion tracking can be used to track out-of-plane motion that is lost in 2D elastography systems. A commercially available automated breast volume scanning system that acquires 3D ultrasound data with precisely controlled elevational movement of the 1D array ultrasound transducer was employed in this study. A hybrid guided 3D motion-tracking algorithm was developed that first estimated the displacements in one plane using a modified quality-guided search method, and then performed an elevational guided-search for displacement estimation in adjacent planes. To assess the performance of the method, 3D radiofrequency echo data were acquired with this system from a phantom and from an in vivo human breast. For both experiments, the axial displacement fields were smooth and high cross-correlation coefficients were obtained in most of the tracking region. The motion-tracking performance of the new method was compared with a correlation-based exhaustive-search method. For all motion-tracking volume pairs, the average motion-compensated cross-correlation values obtained by the guided-search motion-tracking method were equivalent to those by the exhaustive-search method, and the computation time was about a factor of 10 lesser. Therefore, the proposed 3D ultrasound elasticity imaging method was a more efficient approach to produce a high quality of 3D ultrasound strain image.

  18. Scanning laser video camera/ microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. P.; Bow, R. T.

    1984-10-01

    A laser scanning system capable of scanning at standard video rate has been developed. The scanning mirrors, circuit design and system performance, as well as its applications to video cameras and ultra-violet microscopes, are discussed.

  19. Technical Development of Gamma Scanning for Irradiated Fuel Rod after Upgrade of System in Hot-cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Hee Moon; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Choo, Yong Sun

    2007-06-15

    Non-destructive test system was installed at hot-cell(M1) in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) more than 10 years ago for the diametric measurement and gamma scanning of fuel rod. But this system must be needed to be remodeled for the effective operations. In 2006, the system was upgraded for 3 months. The collimator bench can be movable with horizontal direction(x-direction) by motorized system for sectional gamma scanning and 3-dimensional tomography of fuel rod. So, gamma scanning for fuel rod can be detectable by x, y and rotation directions. It may be possible to obtain the radioactivities with radial and axial directions of pellet. This system is good for the series experiments with several positions. Operation of fuel bench and gamma detection program were linked each other by new program tools. It can control detection and bench moving automatically when gamma inspection of fuel rod is carried out with axial or radial positions. Some of electronic parts were added in PLC panel, and operating panel was re-designed for the remote control. To operate the fuel bench by computer, AD converter and some I/O cards were installed in computer. All of software were developed in Windows-XP system instead of DOS system. Control programs were made by visual-C language. After upgrade of system, DUPIC fuel which was irradiated in HANARO research reactor was detected by gamma scanning. The results were good and operation of gamma scanning showed reduced inspection time and easy control of data on series of detection with axial positions. With consideration of ECT(Eddy Current Test) installation, the computer program and hardware were set up as well. But ECT is not installed yet, so we have to check abnormal situation of program and hardware system. It is planned to install ECT in 2007.

  20. INS/GPS/LiDAR Integrated Navigation System for Urban and Indoor Environments Using Hybrid Scan Matching Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Shifei; Atia, Mohamed M; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-09-15

    This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS) alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory.

  1. INS/GPS/LiDAR Integrated Navigation System for Urban and Indoor Environments Using Hybrid Scan Matching Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory.

  2. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  3. Quantitative analysis of CT scan in degenerative diseases of the nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuoka, Yukihiko; Yamamoto, Hiroko; Sobue, Itsuro.

    1988-05-01

    Quantitative analysis was made on cranial CT scans of 142 patients with spinocerebellar degeneration (SCD), 16 with dentato-rubro-pallido-luysian atrophy (DRPLA), 12 with Huntington's chorea (HC), and four with chorea-acanthocytosis (CA). One hundred sex- and age-matched persons without any neurologic signs served as controls. Regarding parameters for atrophy in the infratentorial brain tissue, there was statistically significant difference between the SCD group and the control group. This indicated remarkable atrophy in the cerebellum and brain stem in SCD. According to subgroups of SCD, both bilateral atrophy of the pons and dilation of the prepontine cistern were significantly greater in the group of sporadic olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy than the group of Menzel type of olivo-ponto-cerebellar atrophy. The subgroup of hereditary spastic paraplegia had the mildest atrophy of the brain on CT, although there was still a significant atrophy compared with controls. In the DRPLA group, finding in the infratentorial brain tissue were similar to those in the SCD group. The HC group was characterized by having the greatest atrophy in the lateral ventricle, especially the caudate nuclei. Similar findings were seen in the CA group, although atrophy was generally mild. The results indicate the usefulness of quantitative analysis on CT in the diagnosis of degenerative diseases of the nervous system. (Namekawa, K.).

  4. Application of chemometric methods to differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) to estimate nimodipine polymorphs from cosolvent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Akhtar; Rahman, Ziyaur; Khan, Mansoor A

    2015-06-01

    The focus of this study was to evaluate the applicability of chemometrics to differential scanning calorimetry data (DSC) to evaluate nimodipine polymorphs. Multivariate calibration models were built using DSC data from known mixtures of the nimodipine modification. The linear baseline correction treatment of data was used to reduce dispersion in thermograms. Principal component analysis of the treated and untreated data explained 96% and 89% of the data variability, respectively. Score and loading plots correlated variability between samples with change in proportion of nimodipine modifications. The R(2) for principal component regression (PCR) and partial lease square regression (PLS) were found to be 0.91 and 0.92. The root mean square of standard error of the treated samples for calibration and validation in PCR and PLS was found to be lower than the untreated sample. These models were applied to samples recrystallized from a cosolvent system, which indicated different proportion of modifications in the mixtures than those obtained by placing samples under different storage conditions. The model was able to predict the nimodipine modifications with known margin of error. Therefore, these models can be used as a quality control tool to expediently determine the nimodipine modification in an unknown mixture.

  5. A new total body scanning system for automatic change detection in multiple pigmented skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkov, Konstantin; Quintana, Josep; Puig, Susana; Malvehy, Josep; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The detection of newly appearing and changing pigmented skin lesions (PSLs) is essential for timely diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma. Total body skin examination (TBSE) procedures, currently practiced for this purpose, can be extremely time-consuming for patients with numerous lesions. In addition, these procedures are prone to subjectivity when selecting PSLs for baseline image comparison, increasing the risk of missing a developing cancer. To address this issue, we propose a new photogrammetry-based total body scanning system allowing for skin surface image acquisition using cross-polarized light. Equipped with 21 high-resolution cameras and a turntable, this scanner automatically acquires a set of overlapping images, covering 85%-90% of the patient's skin surface. These images are used for the automated mapping of PSLs and their change estimation between explorations. The maps produced relate images of individual lesions with their locations on the patient's body, solving the body-to-image and image-to-image correspondence problem in TBSEs. Currently, the scanner is limited to patients with sparse body hair and, for a complete skin examination, the scalp, palms, soles and inner arms should be photographed manually. The initial tests of the scanner showed that it can be successfully applied for automated mapping and temporal monitoring of multiple lesions: PSLs relevant for follow-up were repeatedly mapped in several explorations. Moreover, during the baseline image comparison, all lesions with artificially induced changes were correctly identified as "evolved."

  6. Feasibility of fiber optic displacement sensor scanning system for imaging of dental cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Husna Abdul; Che Ani, Adi Izhar; Harun, Sulaiman Wadi; Yasin, Moh.; Apsari, Retna; Ahmad, Harith

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential of intensity modulated fiber optic displacement sensor scanning system for the imaging of dental cavity. Here, we discuss our preliminary results in the imaging of cavities on various teeth surfaces, as well as measurement of the diameter of the cavities which are represented by drilled holes on the teeth surfaces. Based on the analysis of displacement measurement, the sensitivities and linear range for the molar, canine, hybrid composite resin, and acrylic surfaces are obtained at 0.09667 mV/mm and 0.45 mm 0.775 mV/mm and 0.4 mm 0.5109 mV/mm and 0.5 mm and 0.25 mV/mm and 0.5 mm, respectively, with a good linearity of more than 99%. The results also show a clear distinction between the cavity and surrounding tooth region. The stability, simplicity of design, and low cost of fabrication make it suitable for restorative dentistry.

  7. 3D Body Scanning Measurement System Associated with RF Imaging, Zero-padding and Parallel Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Hyung Tae

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a novel signal processing method for high-speed 3D body measurements using millimeter waves with a general processing unit (GPU and zero-padding fast Fourier transform (ZPFFT. The proposed measurement system consists of a radio-frequency (RF antenna array for a penetrable measurement, a high-speed analog-to-digital converter (ADC for significant data acquisition, and a general processing unit for fast signal processing. The RF waves of the transmitter and the receiver are converted to real and imaginary signals that are sampled by a high-speed ADC and synchronized with the kinematic positions of the scanner. Because the distance between the surface and the antenna is related to the peak frequency of the conjugate signals, a fast Fourier transform (FFT is applied to the signal processing after the sampling. The sampling time is finite owing to a short scanning time, and the physical resolution needs to be increased; further, zero-padding is applied to interpolate the spectra of the sampled signals to consider a 1/m floating point frequency. The GPU and parallel algorithm are applied to accelerate the speed of the ZPFFT because of the large number of additional mathematical operations of the ZPFFT. 3D body images are finally obtained by spectrograms that are the arrangement of the ZPFFT in a 3D space.

  8. OCCLUSION AND ARTICULATION IN BRUXISM AND BRUXOMANIA INVESTIGATED WITH THE SYSTEM T-SCAN III.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Dimova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To be analyzed common features of occlusal relationships in patients with bruxism and bruxomania at maximum intercuspation (MIP and eccentric jaw movements. Materials and Methods: 30 patients (22 women and 8 men, mean aged of 42,8 ± 13,3 with bruxism and/or bruxomania are examined with the system T-Scan III. Sequence of records is - at maximum intercuspation (MIP; in manual leading to central relation and in eccentric jaw movements. In the same sequence is investigated control group - 30 people (15 women and 15 men aged between 21 and 45 who didn’t have bruxism and/or bruxomania and dentition is preserved. Results: In the control group 85% of cases there is a balance of forces in both halves of the dental arch. In patients with bruxism is established uneven distribution of forces in MIP and articulation blockages (95%. There are three major reasons that impede spontaneous bilateral closing - force outliers (93% of cases; low force outliers (82% and presence of interceptive contacts and sliding occurring in the beginning of occlusion time until MIP (in all patients. Conclusions: In order to achieve a balanced occlusion in patients with bruxism and/or bruxomania required are correct diagnosis, registration and removal of preliminary contacts, articulation blockages and infraocclusion. Occlusal analysis is objective and an indicator of subsequent treatment only when it is a combination of clinical, instrumental and computerized occlusal analysis.

  9. Robust dead reckoning system for mobile robots based on particle filter and raw range scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Zhuohua; Cai, Zixing; Min, Huaqing

    2014-09-04

    Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs), where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

  10. Robust Dead Reckoning System for Mobile Robots Based on Particle Filter and Raw Range Scan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuohua Duan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Robust dead reckoning is a complicated problem for wheeled mobile robots (WMRs, where the robots are faulty, such as the sticking of sensors or the slippage of wheels, for the discrete fault models and the continuous states have to be estimated simultaneously to reach a reliable fault diagnosis and accurate dead reckoning. Particle filters are one of the most promising approaches to handle hybrid system estimation problems, and they have also been widely used in many WMRs applications, such as pose tracking, SLAM, video tracking, fault identification, etc. In this paper, the readings of a laser range finder, which may be also interfered with by noises, are used to reach accurate dead reckoning. The main contribution is that a systematic method to implement fault diagnosis and dead reckoning in a particle filter framework concurrently is proposed. Firstly, the perception model of a laser range finder is given, where the raw scan may be faulty. Secondly, the kinematics of the normal model and different fault models for WMRs are given. Thirdly, the particle filter for fault diagnosis and dead reckoning is discussed. At last, experiments and analyses are reported to show the accuracy and efficiency of the presented method.

  11. Ultrahigh-definition color video camera system with 4K-scanning lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Kohji; Sugawara, Masayuki; Shimamoto, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Takayuki; Okano, Fumio

    2003-05-01

    An experimental ultrahigh-definition color video camera system with 7680(H) × 4320(V) pixels has been developed using four 8-million-pixel CCDs. The 8-million-pixel CCD with a progressive scanning rate of 60 frames per second has 4046(H) × 2048(V) effective imaging pixels, each of which is 8.4 micron2. We applied the four-imager pickup method to increase the camera"s resolution. This involves attaching four CCDs to a special color-separation prism. Two CCDs are used for the green image, and the other two are used for red and blue. The spatial image sampling pattern of these CCDs to the optical image is equivalent to one with 32 million pixels in the Bayer pattern color filter. The prototype camera attains a limiting resolution of more than 2700 TV lines both horizontally and vertically, which is higher than that of an 8-million-CCD. The sensitivity of the camera is 2000 lux, F 2.8 at approx. 50 dB of dark-noise level on the HDTV format. Its other specifications are a dynamic range of 200%, a power consumption of about 600 W and a weight, with lens, of 76 kg.

  12. Sensorimotor adaptation is influenced by background music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Otmar

    2010-06-01

    It is well established that listening to music can modify subjects' cognitive performance. The present study evaluates whether this so-called Mozart Effect extends beyond cognitive tasks and includes sensorimotor adaptation. Three subject groups listened to musical pieces that in the author's judgment were serene, neutral, or sad, respectively. This judgment was confirmed by the subjects' introspective reports. While listening to music, subjects engaged in a pointing task that required them to adapt to rotated visual feedback. All three groups adapted successfully, but the speed and magnitude of adaptive improvement was more pronounced with serene music than with the other two music types. In contrast, aftereffects upon restoration of normal feedback were independent of music type. These findings support the existence of a "Mozart effect" for strategic movement control, but not for adaptive recalibration. Possibly, listening to music modifies neural activity in an intertwined cognitive-emotional network.

  13. Sensorimotor Mismapping in Poor-pitch Singing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hao; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-09-01

    This study proposes that there are two types of sensorimotor mismapping in poor-pitch singing: erroneous mapping and no mapping. We created operational definitions for the two types of mismapping based on the precision of pitch-matching and predicted that in the two types of mismapping, phonation differs in terms of accuracy and the dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. The study aimed to test this hypothesis by examining the reliability and criterion-related validity of the operational definitions. A within-subject design was used in this study. Thirty-two participants identified as poor-pitch singers were instructed to vocally imitate pure tones and to imitate their own vocal recordings with the same articulation as self-targets and with different articulation from self-targets. Definitions of the types of mismapping were demonstrated to be reliable with the split-half approach and to have good criterion-related validity with findings that pitch-matching with no mapping was less accurate and more dependent on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action than pitch-matching with erroneous mapping was. Furthermore, the precision of pitch-matching was positively associated with its accuracy and its dependence on articulation consistency when mismapping was analyzed on a continuum. Additionally, the data indicated that the self-imitation advantage was a function of articulation consistency. Types of sensorimotor mismapping lead to pitch-matching that differs in accuracy and its dependence on the articulation consistency between the target and the intended vocal action. Additionally, articulation consistency produces the self-advantage. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Inferring visuomotor priors for sensorimotor learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J A Turnham

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor learning has been shown to depend on both prior expectations and sensory evidence in a way that is consistent with Bayesian integration. Thus, prior beliefs play a key role during the learning process, especially when only ambiguous sensory information is available. Here we develop a novel technique to estimate the covariance structure of the prior over visuomotor transformations--the mapping between actual and visual location of the hand--during a learning task. Subjects performed reaching movements under multiple visuomotor transformations in which they received visual feedback of their hand position only at the end of the movement. After experiencing a particular transformation for one reach, subjects have insufficient information to determine the exact transformation, and so their second reach reflects a combination of their prior over visuomotor transformations and the sensory evidence from the first reach. We developed a Bayesian observer model in order to infer the covariance structure of the subjects' prior, which was found to give high probability to parameter settings consistent with visuomotor rotations. Therefore, although the set of visuomotor transformations experienced had little structure, the subjects had a strong tendency to interpret ambiguous sensory evidence as arising from rotation-like transformations. We then exposed the same subjects to a highly-structured set of visuomotor transformations, designed to be very different from the set of visuomotor rotations. During this exposure the prior was found to have changed significantly to have a covariance structure that no longer favored rotation-like transformations. In summary, we have developed a technique which can estimate the full covariance structure of a prior in a sensorimotor task and have shown that the prior over visuomotor transformations favor a rotation-like structure. Moreover, through experience of a novel task structure, participants can

  15. Open source deformable image registration system for treatment planning and recurrence CT scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zukauskaite, Ruta; Brink, Carsten; Hansen, Christian Rønn

    2016-01-01

    CT) images of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients was evaluated. PATIENTS AND MATERIALS: Twenty patients treated with definitive IMRT for HNSCC in 2010-2012 were included. For each patient, a pCT and an rCT scan were used. Median interval between the scans was 8.5 months. One observer...... on pCT. DSC for DIR varied between 0.58 and 0.79 for soft tissues and was 0.79 or higher for bony structures, and correlated with the volumes of ROIs (r = 0.5, p CT scans is feasible...

  16. The neuromuscular system of Pycnophyes kielensis (Kinorhyncha: Allomalorhagida investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Altenburger

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinorhynchs are ecdysozoan animals with a phylogenetic position close to priapulids and loriciferans. To understand the nature of segmentation within Kinorhyncha and to infer a probable ancestry of segmentation within the last common ancestor of Ecdysozoa, the musculature and the nervous system of the allomalorhagid kinorhynch Pycnophyes kielensis were investigated by use of immunohistochemistry, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and 3D reconstruction software. Results The kinorhynch body plan comprises 11 trunk segments. Trunk musculature consists of paired ventral and dorsal longitudinal muscles in segments 1–10 as well as dorsoventral muscles in segments 1–11. Dorsal and ventral longitudinal muscles insert on apodemes of the cuticle inside the animal within each segment. Strands of longitudinal musculature extend over segment borders in segments 1–6. In segments 7–10, the trunk musculature is confined to the segments. Musculature of the digestive system comprises a strong pharyngeal bulb with attached mouth cone muscles as well as pharyngeal bulb protractors and retractors. The musculature of the digestive system shows no sign of segmentation. Judged by the size of the pharyngeal bulb protractors and retractors, the pharyngeal bulb, as well as the introvert, is moved passively by internal pressure caused by concerted action of the dorsoventral muscles. The nervous system comprises a neuropil ring anterior to the pharyngeal bulb. Associated with the neuropil ring are flask-shaped serotonergic somata extending anteriorly and posteriorly. A ventral nerve cord is connected to the neuropil ring and runs toward the anterior until an attachment point in segment 1, and from there toward the posterior with one ganglion in segment 6. Conclusions Segmentation within Kinorhyncha likely evolved from an unsegmented ancestor. This conclusion is supported by continuous trunk musculature in the anterior segments 1–6, continuous

  17. Review: two-photon scanning systems for clinical high resolution in vivo tissue imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, K.; Müller, J.; Höfer, M.; Müller, C.; Weinigel, M.; Bückle, R.; Elsner, P.; Kaatz, M.; Messerschmidt, B.

    2008-02-01

    The femtosecond laser multiphoton tomograph DermaInspect as well as high NA two-photon GRIN microendoscopes for in vivo tomography of human skin have been used to detect malignant melanoma as well as to study the diffusion and intradermal accumulation of topically applied cosmetical and pharmaceutical components. So far, more than 500 patients and volunteers in Europe, Australia, and Asia have been investigated with this unique tomograph. Near infrared 80 MHz picojoule femtosecond laser pulses were employed to excite endogenous fluorophores such as NAD(P)H, flavoproteins, melanin, and elastin as well as fluorescent components of a variety of ointments via a twophoton excitation process. In addition, collagen has been imaged by second harmonic generation. Using a two-PMT detection system, the ratio of elastin to collagen was determined during optical sectioning. A high submicron spatial resolution and 50 picosecond temporal resolution was achieved using galvoscan mirrors and piezodriven focusing optics as well as a time-correlated single photon counting module with a fast microchannel plate detector and fast photomultipliers. Individual intratissue cells, mitochondria, melanosomes, and the morphology of the nuclei as well as extracellular matrix elements could be clearly visualized due to molecular imaging and the calculation of fluorescence lifetime images. Nanoparticles and intratissue drugs have been detected non-invasively, in situ and over a period of up to 3 months. In addition, hydration effects and UV effects were studied by monitoring modifications of cellular morphology and autofluorescence. The system was used to observe the diffusion through the stratum corneum and the accumulation and release of functionalized nanoparticles along hair shafts and epidermal ridges. The DermaInspect been also employed to gain information on skin age and wound healing in patients with ulcers. Novel developments include a galvo/piezo-scan driven flexible articulated arm as

  18. Characterizing a Proton Beam Scanning System for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation in Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassberger, C; Lomax, Tony; Paganetti, H

    2015-01-01

    The presented work has two goals. First, to demonstrate the feasibility of accurately characterizing a proton radiation field at treatment head exit for Monte Carlo dose calculation of active scanning patient treatments. Second, to show that this characterization can be done based on measured depth dose curves and spot size alone, without consideration of the exact treatment head delivery system. This is demonstrated through calibration of a Monte Carlo code to the specific beam lines of two institutions, Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). Comparison of simulations modeling the full treatment head at MGH to ones employing a parameterized phase space of protons at treatment head exit reveals the adequacy of the method for patient simulations. The secondary particle production in the treatment head is typically below 0.2% of primary fluence, except for low–energy electrons (protons), whose contribution to skin dose is negligible. However, there is significant difference between the two methods in the low-dose penumbra, making full treatment head simulations necessary to study out-of field effects such as secondary cancer induction. To calibrate the Monte Carlo code to measurements in a water phantom, we use an analytical Bragg peak model to extract the range-dependent energy spread at the two institutions, as this quantity is usually not available through measurements. Comparison of the measured with the simulated depth dose curves demonstrates agreement within 0.5mm over the entire energy range. Subsequently, we simulate three patient treatments with varying anatomical complexity (liver, head and neck and lung) to give an example how this approach can be employed to investigate site-specific discrepancies between treatment planning system and Monte Carlo simulations. PMID:25549079

  19. Mapping chemicals in air using an environmental CAT scanning system: evaluation of algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanta, A.; Todd, L. A.

    A new technique is being developed which creates near real-time maps of chemical concentrations in air for environmental and occupational environmental applications. This technique, we call Environmental CAT Scanning, combines the real-time measuring technique of open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy with the mapping capabilitites of computed tomography to produce two-dimensional concentration maps. With this system, a network of open-path measurements is obtained over an area; measurements are then processed using a tomographic algorithm to reconstruct the concentrations. This research focussed on the process of evaluating and selecting appropriate reconstruction algorithms, for use in the field, by using test concentration data from both computer simultation and laboratory chamber studies. Four algorithms were tested using three types of data: (1) experimental open-path data from studies that used a prototype opne-path Fourier transform/computed tomography system in an exposure chamber; (2) synthetic open-path data generated from maps created by kriging point samples taken in the chamber studies (in 1), and; (3) synthetic open-path data generated using a chemical dispersion model to create time seires maps. The iterative algorithms used to reconstruct the concentration data were: Algebraic Reconstruction Technique without Weights (ART1), Algebraic Reconstruction Technique with Weights (ARTW), Maximum Likelihood with Expectation Maximization (MLEM) and Multiplicative Algebraic Reconstruction Technique (MART). Maps were evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. In general, MART and MLEM performed best, followed by ARTW and ART1. However, algorithm performance varied under different contaminant scenarios. This study showed the importance of using a variety of maps, particulary those generated using dispersion models. The time series maps provided a more rigorous test of the algorithms and allowed distinctions to be made among the algorithms. A

  20. Equivalente esférico e valores da espessura da camada de fibras nervosas obtidas com o GDX TM Scanning Laser System® Spherical equivalent and nerve fiber layer thickness assessed with GDX TM Scanning Laser System®

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lênio Souza Alvarenga

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudar a influência do equivalente esférico nos valores obtidos pelo GDX TM Scanning Laser System®. Métodos: Foram avaliados 41 olhos de 41 voluntários sem doenças oculares e com campo visual sem alterações. Foi realizada a polarimetria de varredura a laser com o GDX TM Scanning Laser System® de acordo com as instruções contidas no manual do aparelho. Foram comparados os valores obtidos nesse exame em um grupo de pacientes com equivalente esférico positivo e em um outro com este valor nulo ou negativo, pelo teste de Mann-Whitney. Resultados: Não se verificou diferença estatística entre os valores obtidos nos olhos de pacientes do grupo I e os do grupo II. Não foi encontrada correlação entre o equivalente esférico e os valores obtidos com o GDX TM Scanning Laser System®. Conclusões: Na amostra estudada não houve diferença estatística entre os valores obtidos em um grupo de olhos com equivalente esférico positivo e outro com este valor negativo ou nulo, usando-se o GDX TM Scanning Laser System®.Purpose: To evaluate the effect of spherical equivalent on the acquisition of nerve fiber layer (NFL thickness with GDX TM Scanning Laser System®. Methods: Forty-one eyes of 41 volunteers were enrolled in this study. All of them presented with no ocular disease and no visual field defect. The NFL thickness was measured with GDX TM Scanning Laser System® as described in its manual. The values obtained in a group of volunteers with negative spherical equivalent (group I were compared to those from a group with a positive spherical equivalent (group II by the Mann-Whitney test. Results: There was no statistical difference between mea-surements in eyes of group I and those in group II. The NFL thickness measurements were not correlated with the sphe-rical equivalent. Conclusions: In the studied group there was no statistical difference in the GDX TM Scanning Laser System® parameters related to spherical equivalent.

  1. Image-based tracking system for vibration measurement of a rotating object using a laser scanning vibrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dongkyu; Khalil, Hossam; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan

    2016-06-01

    An image-based tracking system using laser scanning vibrometer is developed for vibration measurement of a rotating object. The proposed system unlike a conventional one can be used where the position or velocity sensor such as an encoder cannot be attached to an object. An image processing algorithm is introduced to detect a landmark and laser beam based on their colors. Then, through using feedback control system, the laser beam can track a rotating object.

  2. Image-based tracking system for vibration measurement of a rotating object using a laser scanning vibrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dongkyu, E-mail: akein@gist.ac.kr; Khalil, Hossam; Jo, Youngjoon; Park, Kyihwan, E-mail: khpark@gist.ac.kr [School of Mechatronics, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Buk-gu, Gwangju, South Korea, 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-28

    An image-based tracking system using laser scanning vibrometer is developed for vibration measurement of a rotating object. The proposed system unlike a conventional one can be used where the position or velocity sensor such as an encoder cannot be attached to an object. An image processing algorithm is introduced to detect a landmark and laser beam based on their colors. Then, through using feedback control system, the laser beam can track a rotating object.

  3. A High-Precision Registration Technology Based on Bundle Adjustment in Structured Light Scanning System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianying Yuan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The multiview 3D data registration precision will decrease with the increasing number of registrations when measuring a large scale object using structured light scanning. In this paper, we propose a high-precision registration method based on multiple view geometry theory in order to solve this problem. First, a multiview network is constructed during the scanning process. The bundle adjustment method from digital close range photogrammetry is used to optimize the multiview network to obtain high-precision global control points. After that, the 3D data under each local coordinate of each scan are registered with the global control points. The method overcomes the error accumulation in the traditional registration process and reduces the time consumption of the following 3D data global optimization. The multiview 3D scan registration precision and efficiency are increased. Experiments verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  4. Computer-assisted evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in CT scans: comparison between a locally developed system and a freeware system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo Cesar; Costa, Rodrigo Carvalho Sousa [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Computer Engineering. Computing Systems Engineering Lab.], e-mail: jhsfelix@gmail.com; Fortaleza, Simone Castelo Branco; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Walter Cantidio University Hospital

    2009-09-15

    Objective: to present a locally developed system of computer vision for use with HRCT images, designated SIStema para a Deteccao e a quantificacao de Enfisema Pulmonar (SISDEP, System to Detect and Quantify Pulmonary Emphysema), and to compare this system with a free ware system tool. Methods: thirty-three HRCT images scanned at the apex, hilum and base of the lungs of 11 patients with COPD were analyzed. The SISDEP was compared with the Osiris Medical Imaging Software Program regarding lung parenchyma segmentation, precision of the measurement of the cross-sectional area of the lungs in mm{sup 2}, mean lung density (MLD), relative area (RA) of the lung occupied by voxels with attenuation values < -950 Hounsfield units (RA -950), 15th percentile point (Perc15) and visualization of hyper inflated areas using a color mask. Results: although both computational systems were efficient in segmenting the lungs, the SISDEP performed this task automatically and more rapidly. There were significant correlations between the two systems in terms of the results obtained for lung cross-sectional area, MLD, RA -950 and Perc15 (r{sup 2} = 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively). The color mask tool of the SISDEP allowed excellent visualization of hyper inflated areas, discriminating them from normal areas. Conclusions: the SISDEP was efficient in segmenting the lungs and quantifying lung hyper inflation, presenting an excellent correlation with the Osiris system. The SISDEP constitutes a promising computational tool for diagnosing and assessing the progression of emphysema in HRCT images of COPD patients. (author)

  5. Computer-assisted evaluation of pulmonary emphysema in CT scans: comparison between a locally developed system and a freeware system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, John Hebert da Silva; Cortez, Paulo César; Costa, Rodrigo Carvalho Sousa; Fortaleza, Simone Castelo Branco; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Holanda, Marcelo Alcantara

    2009-09-01

    To present a locally developed system of computer vision for use with HRCT images, designated SIStema para a Detecção e a quantificação de Enfisema Pulmonar (SISDEP, System to Detect and Quantify Pulmonary Emphysema), and to compare this system with a freeware system tool. Thirty-three HRCT images scanned at the apex, hilum and base of the lungs of 11 patients with COPD were analyzed. The SISDEP was compared with the Osiris Medical Imaging Software Program regarding lung parenchyma segmentation, precision of the measurement of the cross-sectional area of the lungs in mm(2), mean lung density (MLD), relative area (RA) of the lung occupied by voxels with attenuation values < -950 hounsfield units (RA -950), 15th percentile point (Perc15) and visualization of hyperinflated areas using a color mask. Although both computational systems were efficient in segmenting the lungs, the SISDEP performed this task automatically and more rapidly. There were significant correlations between the two systems in terms of the results obtained for lung cross-sectional area, MLD, RA -950 and Perc15 (r(2) = 0.99, 0.99, 0.99 and 1.00, respectively). The color mask tool of the SISDEP allowed excellent visualization of hyperinflated areas, discriminating them from normal areas. The SISDEP was efficient in segmenting the lungs and quantifying lung hyperinflation, presenting an excellent correlation with the Osiris system. The SISDEP constitutes a promising computational tool for diagnosing and assessing the progression of emphysema in HRCT images of COPD patients.

  6. Organizations as Information Processing Systems. Environmental Characteristics, Company Performance, and Chief Executive Scanning: An Empirical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-04-01

    environment (Hamhrick, 1981). Scanning provides the external intelligence that is used in planning, decision making and strategy formulation ( Ansoff , 1979...discussion. Personal communications are content rich and enable executives to detect weak N. signals ( Ansoff , 1975). Impersonal sources are appropriate...Management Review, 25, No. 2 (January 1983), pp. 76-83. , Aguilar, Francis Joseph, Scanning the Business Environment, New York: MacMillan Co., 1967. Ansoff

  7. Sensorimotor interventions and assessments for the hand and wrist: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdes, Kristin; Naughton, Nancy; Algar, Lori

    2014-01-01

    Scoping review. Sensorimotor deficits can impair function and may be present in individuals with common upper extremity conditions. To provide clinicians with an understanding of the usefulness of the assessments to evaluate sensorimotor function and the interventions reported in the literature to effect positive change in our patients with sensorimotor deficits affecting the hand and wrist. A systematic search produced seventeen studies involving sensorimotor retraining and assessment of sensorimotor performance for the upper extremity. Sensorimotor interventions and assessments found in the literature vary in regards to their effectiveness in restoring sensorimotor function in subjects with a number of conditions that affect hand and wrist function. There is a potential value of sensorimotor interventions for individuals with specific upper extremity conditions. There is a need for further studies to improve treatment of sensorimotor deficits and understanding of sensorimotor interventions. Copyright © 2014 Hanley & Belfus. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Issues of Security and Informational Privacy in relation to an Environmental Scanning System for Fighting Organized Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerdes, Anne; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Rouces, Jacobo

    2013-01-01

    This paper clarifies privacy challenges related to the EU project, ePOOLICE, which aims at developing an environmental scanning system for fighting organized crime by improving law enforcement agencies opportunities for strategic proactive planning in response to emerging organized crime threats....

  9. [A new laser scan system for video ophthalmoscopy. Initial clinical experiences also in relation to digital image processing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, E; Mertz, M; Hofmann, H; Wertheimer, R; Foos, C

    1990-06-01

    The clinical advantages of a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) and video imaging of fundus pictures are described. Image quality (contrast, depth of field) and imaging possibilities (confocal stop) are assessed. Imaging with different lasers (argon, He-Ne) and changes in imaging rendered possible by confocal alignment of the imaging optics are discussed. Hard copies from video images are still of inferior quality compared to fundus photographs. Methods of direct processing and retrieval of digitally stored SLO video fundus images are illustrated by examples. Modifications for a definitive laser scanning system - in regard to the field of view and the quality of hard copies - are proposed.

  10. Final report: Mapping Interactions in Hybrid Systems with Active Scanning Probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berezovsky, Jesse [Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2017-09-29

    This project aimed to study and map interactions between components of hybrid nanodevices using a novel scanning probe approach. To enable this work, we initially constructed a flexible experimental apparatus allowing for simultaneous scanning probe and confocal optical microscopy measurements. This setup was first used for all-optical measurements of nanostructures, with the focus then shifting to hybrid devices in which single coherent electron spins are coupled to micron-scale ferromagnetic elements, which may prove useful for addressing single spins, enhanced sensing, or spin-wave-mediated coupling of spins for quantum information applications. A significant breakthrough was the realization that it is not necessary to fabricate a magnetic structure on a scanning probe – instead a ferromagnetic vortex core can act as an integrated, solid state, scanning probe. The core of the vortex produces a very strong, localized fringe field which can be used analogously to an MFM tip. Unlike a traditional MFM tip, however, the vortex core is scanned within an integrated device (eliminating drift), and can be moved on vastly faster timescales. This approach allows the detailed investigation of interactions between single spins and complex driven ferromagnetic dynamics.

  11. Damage identification of beam structures using free response shapes obtained by use of a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Y. F.; Chen, Da-Ming; Zhu, W. D.

    2017-08-01

    Spatially dense operating deflection shapes and mode shapes can be rapidly obtained by use of a continuously scanning laser Doppler vibrometer (CSLDV) system, which sweeps its laser spot over a vibrating structure surface. This paper introduces a new type of vibration shapes called a free response shape (FRS) that can be obtained by use of a CSLDV system, and a new damage identification methodology using FRSs is developed for beam structures. An analytical expression of FRSs of a damped beam structure is derived, and FRSs from the analytical expression compare well with those from a finite element model. In the damage identification methodology, a free-response damage index (FRDI) is proposed, and damage regions can be identified near neighborhoods with consistently high values of FRDIs associated with different modes; an auxiliary FRDI is defined to assist identification of the neighborhoods. A FRDI associated with a mode consists of differences between curvatures of FRSs associated with the mode in a number of half-scan periods of a CSLDV system and those from polynomials that fit the FRSs with properly determined orders. A convergence index is proposed to determine the proper order of a polynomial fit. One advantage of the methodology is that the FRDI does not require any baseline information of an undamaged beam structure, if it is geometrically smooth and made of materials that have no stiffness and mass discontinuities. Another advantage is that FRDIs associated with multiple modes can be obtained using free response of a beam structure measured by a CSLDV system in one scan. The number of half-scan periods for calculation of the FRDI associated with a mode can be determined by use of the short-time Fourier transform. The proposed methodology was numerically and experimentally applied to identify damage in beam structures; effects of the scan frequency of a CSLDV system on qualities of obtained FRSs were experimentally investigated.

  12. Sensorimotor synchronization: A review of recent research (2006–2012)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Repp, Bruno H; Su, Yi-Huang

    2013-01-01

    Sensorimotor synchronization (SMS) is the coordination of rhythmic movement with an external rhythm, ranging from finger tapping in time with a metronome to musical ensemble performance. An earlier review (Repp, 2005...

  13. Modality-specific organization in the representation of sensorimotor sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud eBoutin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sensorimotor representations of movement sequences are hierarchically organized. Here we test the effects of different stimulus modalities on such organizations. In the visual group, participants responded to a repeated sequence of visually presented stimuli by depressing spatially compatible keys on a response pad. In the auditory group, learners were required to respond to auditorily presented stimuli, which had no direct spatial correspondence with the response keys: the lowest pitch corresponded to the leftmost key and the highest pitch to the rightmost key. We demonstrate that hierarchically and auto-organised sensorimotor representations are developed through practice, which are specific both to individuals and stimulus modalities. These findings highlight the dynamic and sensory-specific modulation of chunk processing during sensorimotor learning – sensorimotor chunking – and provide evidence that modality-specific mechanisms underlie the hierarchical organization of sequence representations.

  14. Modality-specific organization in the representation of sensorimotor sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutin, Arnaud; Massen, Cristina; Heuer, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Sensorimotor representations of movement sequences are hierarchically organized. Here we test the effects of different stimulus modalities on such organizations. In the visual group, participants responded to a repeated sequence of visually presented stimuli by depressing spatially compatible keys on a response pad. In the auditory group, learners were required to respond to auditorily presented stimuli, which had no direct spatial correspondence with the response keys: the lowest pitch corresponded to the leftmost key and the highest pitch to the rightmost key. We demonstrate that hierarchically and auto-organized sensorimotor representations are developed through practice, which are specific both to individuals and stimulus modalities. These findings highlight the dynamic and sensory-specific modulation of chunk processing during sensorimotor learning – sensorimotor chunking – and provide evidence that modality-specific mechanisms underlie the hierarchical organization of sequence representations. PMID:24376432

  15. [Clinical effect of three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc in the evaluation of burn wound area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J; Wang, L; Zhang, Y C; Tang, H T; Xia, Z F

    2017-10-20

    Objective: To validate the clinical effect of three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc developed by our research team in the evaluation of burn wound area. Methods: A total of 48 burn patients treated in the outpatient department of our unit from January to June 2015, conforming to the study criteria, were enrolled in. For the first 12 patients, one wound on the limbs or torso was selected from each patient. The stability of the system was tested by 3 attending physicians using three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc to measure the area of wounds individually. For the following 36 patients, one wound was selected from each patient, including 12 wounds on limbs, front torso, and side torso, respectively. The area of wounds was measured by the same attending physician using transparency tracing method, National Institutes of Health (NIH) Image J method, and three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc, respectively. The time for getting information of 36 wounds by three methods was recorded by stopwatch. The stability among the testers was evaluated by the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). Data were processed with randomized blocks analysis of variance and Bonferroni test. Results: (1) Wound area of patients measured by three physicians using three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc was (122±95), (121±95), and (123±96) cm(2,) respectively, and there was no statistically significant difference among them ( F =1.55, P >0.05). The ICC among 3 physicians was 0.999. (2) The wound area of limbs of patients measured by transparency tracing method, NIH Image J method, and three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc was (84±50), (76±46), and (84±49) cm(2,) respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the wound area of limbs of patients measured by transparency tracing method and three dimensional human body scanning system BurnCalc ( P >0.05). The wound area of limbs of patients

  16. LOW COST MULTI-SENSOR ROBOT LASER SCANNING SYSTEM AND ITS ACCURACY INVESTIGATIONS FOR INDOOR MAPPING APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In order to solve the automation of 3D indoor mapping task, a low cost multi-sensor robot laser scanning system is proposed in this paper. The multiple-sensor robot laser scanning system includes a panorama camera, a laser scanner, and an inertial measurement unit and etc., which are calibrated and synchronized together to achieve simultaneously collection of 3D indoor data. Experiments are undertaken in a typical indoor scene and the data generated by the proposed system are compared with ground truth data collected by a TLS scanner showing an accuracy of 99.2% below 0.25 meter, which explains the applicability and precision of the system in indoor mapping applications.

  17. Low Cost Multi-Sensor Robot Laser Scanning System and its Accuracy Investigations for Indoor Mapping Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C.; Zou, X.; Tian, M.; Li, J.; Wu, W.; Song, Y.; Dai, W.; Yang, B.

    2017-11-01

    In order to solve the automation of 3D indoor mapping task, a low cost multi-sensor robot laser scanning system is proposed in this paper. The multiple-sensor robot laser scanning system includes a panorama camera, a laser scanner, and an inertial measurement unit and etc., which are calibrated and synchronized together to achieve simultaneously collection of 3D indoor data. Experiments are undertaken in a typical indoor scene and the data generated by the proposed system are compared with ground truth data collected by a TLS scanner showing an accuracy of 99.2% below 0.25 meter, which explains the applicability and precision of the system in indoor mapping applications.

  18. A new scanning system for alpha decay events as calibration sources for range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, J., E-mail: jyoshida@gifu-u.ac.jp; Kinbara, S.; Mishina, A.; Nakazawa, K.; Soe, M.K.; Theint, A.M.M.; Tint, K.T.

    2017-03-01

    A new scanning system named “Vertex picker” has been developed to rapid collect alpha decay events, which are calibration sources for the range-energy relation in nuclear emulsion. A computer-controlled optical microscope scans emulsion layers exhaustively, and a high-speed and high-resolution camera takes their micrographs. A dedicated image processing picks out vertex-like shapes. Practical operations of alpha decay search were demonstrated by emulsion sheets of the KEK-PS E373 experiment. Alpha decays of nearly 28 events were detected in eye-check work on a PC monitor per hour. This yield is nearly 20 times more effective than that by the conventional eye-scan method. The speed and quality is acceptable for the coming new experiment, J-PARC E07.

  19. Customizing Countermeasure Prescriptions using Predictive Measures of Sensorimotor Adaptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Peters, B. T.; Mulavara, A. P.; Miller, C. A.; Batson, C. D.; Wood, S. J.; Guined, J. R.; Cohen, H. S.; Buccello-Stout, R.; DeDios, Y. E.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Astronauts experience sensorimotor disturbances during the initial exposure to microgravity and during the readapation phase following a return to a gravitational environment. These alterations may lead to disruption in the ability to perform mission critical functional tasks during and after these gravitational transitions. Astronauts show significant inter-subject variation in adaptive capability following gravitational transitions. The ability to predict the manner and degree to which each individual astronaut will be affected would improve the effectiveness of a countermeasure comprised of a training program designed to enhance sensorimotor adaptability. Due to this inherent individual variability we need to develop predictive measures of sensorimotor adaptability that will allow us to predict, before actual space flight, which crewmember will experience challenges in adaptive capacity. Thus, obtaining this information will allow us to design and implement better sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures that will be customized for each crewmember's unique adaptive capabilities. Therefore the goals of this project are to: 1) develop a set of predictive measures capable of identifying individual differences in sensorimotor adaptability, and 2) use this information to design sensorimotor adaptability training countermeasures that are customized for each crewmember's individual sensorimotor adaptive characteristics. To achieve these goals we are currently pursuing the following specific aims: Aim 1: Determine whether behavioral metrics of individual sensory bias predict sensorimotor adaptability. For this aim, subjects perform tests that delineate individual sensory biases in tests of visual, vestibular, and proprioceptive function. Aim 2: Determine if individual capability for strategic and plastic-adaptive responses predicts sensorimotor adaptability. For this aim, each subject's strategic and plastic-adaptive motor learning abilities are assessed using

  20. Self-organized criticality, plasticity and sensorimotor coupling. Explorations with a neurorobotic model in a behavioural preference task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Miguel; Barandiaran, Xabier E; Bedia, Manuel G; Seron, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    During the last two decades, analysis of 1/ƒ noise in cognitive science has led to a considerable progress in the way we understand the organization of our mental life. However, there is still a lack of specific models providing explanations of how 1/ƒ noise is generated in coupled brain-body-environment systems, since existing models and experiments typically target either externally observable behaviour or isolated neuronal systems but do not address the interplay between neuronal mechanisms and sensorimotor dynamics. We present a conceptual model of a minimal neurorobotic agent solving a behavioural task that makes it possible to relate mechanistic (neurodynamic) and behavioural levels of description. The model consists of a simulated robot controlled by a network of Kuramoto oscillators with homeostatic plasticity and the ability to develop behavioural preferences mediated by sensorimotor patterns. With only three oscillators, this simple model displays self-organized criticality in the form of robust 1/ƒ noise and a wide multifractal spectrum. We show that the emergence of self-organized criticality and 1/ƒ noise in our model is the result of three simultaneous conditions: a) non-linear interaction dynamics capable of generating stable collective patterns, b) internal plastic mechanisms modulating the sensorimotor flows, and c) strong sensorimotor coupling with the environment that induces transient metastable neurodynamic regimes. We carry out a number of experiments to show that both synaptic plasticity and strong sensorimotor coupling play a necessary role, as constituents of self-organized criticality, in the generation of 1/ƒ noise. The experiments also shown to be useful to test the robustness of 1/ƒ scaling comparing the results of different techniques. We finally discuss the role of conceptual models as mediators between nomothetic and mechanistic models and how they can inform future experimental research where self-organized critically includes

  1. Self-organized criticality, plasticity and sensorimotor coupling. Explorations with a neurorobotic model in a behavioural preference task.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aguilera

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, analysis of 1/ƒ noise in cognitive science has led to a considerable progress in the way we understand the organization of our mental life. However, there is still a lack of specific models providing explanations of how 1/ƒ noise is generated in coupled brain-body-environment systems, since existing models and experiments typically target either externally observable behaviour or isolated neuronal systems but do not address the interplay between neuronal mechanisms and sensorimotor dynamics. We present a conceptual model of a minimal neurorobotic agent solving a behavioural task that makes it possible to relate mechanistic (neurodynamic and behavioural levels of description. The model consists of a simulated robot controlled by a network of Kuramoto oscillators with homeostatic plasticity and the ability to develop behavioural preferences mediated by sensorimotor patterns. With only three oscillators, this simple model displays self-organized criticality in the form of robust 1/ƒ noise and a wide multifractal spectrum. We show that the emergence of self-organized criticality and 1/ƒ noise in our model is the result of three simultaneous conditions: a non-linear interaction dynamics capable of generating stable collective patterns, b internal plastic mechanisms modulating the sensorimotor flows, and c strong sensorimotor coupling with the environment that induces transient metastable neurodynamic regimes. We carry out a number of experiments to show that both synaptic plasticity and strong sensorimotor coupling play a necessary role, as constituents of self-organized criticality, in the generation of 1/ƒ noise. The experiments also shown to be useful to test the robustness of 1/ƒ scaling comparing the results of different techniques. We finally discuss the role of conceptual models as mediators between nomothetic and mechanistic models and how they can inform future experimental research where self

  2. Neurodynamics in the Sensorimotor Loop: Representing Behavior Relevant External Situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasemann, Frank

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the dynamical system approach to cognition and supposing that brains or brain-like systems controlling the behavior of autonomous systems are permanently driven by their sensor signals, the paper approaches the question of neurodynamics in the sensorimotor loop in a purely formal way. This is carefully done by addressing the problem in three steps, using the time-discrete dynamics of standard neural networks and a fiber space representation for better clearness. Furthermore, concepts like meta-transients, parametric stability and dynamical forms are introduced, where meta-transients describe the effect of realistic sensor inputs, parametric stability refers to a class of sensor inputs all generating the "same type" of dynamic behavior, and a dynamical form comprises the corresponding class of parametrized dynamical systems. It is argued that dynamical forms are the essential internal representatives of behavior relevant external situations. Consequently, it is suggested that dynamical forms are the basis for a memory of these situations. Finally, based on the observation that not all brain process have a direct effect on the motor activity, a natural splitting of neurodynamics into vertical (internal) and horizontal (effective) parts is introduced.

  3. Dissociating error-based and reinforcement-based loss functions during sensorimotor learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashaback, Joshua G A; McGregor, Heather R; Mohatarem, Ayman; Gribble, Paul L

    2017-07-01

    It has been proposed that the sensorimotor system uses a loss (cost) function to evaluate potential movements in the presence of random noise. Here we test this idea in the context of both error-based and reinforcement-based learning. In a reaching task, we laterally shifted a cursor relative to true hand position using a skewed probability distribution. This skewed probability distribution had its mean and mode separated, allowing us to dissociate the optimal predictions of an error-based loss function (corresponding to the mean of the lateral shifts) and a reinforcement-based loss function (corresponding to the mode). We then examined how the sensorimotor system uses error feedback and reinforcement feedback, in isolation and combination, when deciding where to aim the hand during a reach. We found that participants compensated differently to the same skewed lateral shift distribution depending on the form of feedback they received. When provided with error feedback, participants compensated based on the mean of the skewed noise. When provided with reinforcement feedback, participants compensated based on the mode. Participants receiving both error and reinforcement feedback continued to compensate based on the mean while repeatedly missing the target, despite receiving auditory, visual and monetary reinforcement feedback that rewarded hitting the target. Our work shows that reinforcement-based and error-based learning are separable and can occur independently. Further, when error and reinforcement feedback are in conflict, the sensorimotor system heavily weights error feedback over reinforcement feedback.

  4. Dissociating error-based and reinforcement-based loss functions during sensorimotor learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Heather R.; Mohatarem, Ayman

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that the sensorimotor system uses a loss (cost) function to evaluate potential movements in the presence of random noise. Here we test this idea in the context of both error-based and reinforcement-based learning. In a reaching task, we laterally shifted a cursor relative to true hand position using a skewed probability distribution. This skewed probability distribution had its mean and mode separated, allowing us to dissociate the optimal predictions of an error-based loss function (corresponding to the mean of the lateral shifts) and a reinforcement-based loss function (corresponding to the mode). We then examined how the sensorimotor system uses error feedback and reinforcement feedback, in isolation and combination, when deciding where to aim the hand during a reach. We found that participants compensated differently to the same skewed lateral shift distribution depending on the form of feedback they received. When provided with error feedback, participants compensated based on the mean of the skewed noise. When provided with reinforcement feedback, participants compensated based on the mode. Participants receiving both error and reinforcement feedback continued to compensate based on the mean while repeatedly missing the target, despite receiving auditory, visual and monetary reinforcement feedback that rewarded hitting the target. Our work shows that reinforcement-based and error-based learning are separable and can occur independently. Further, when error and reinforcement feedback are in conflict, the sensorimotor system heavily weights error feedback over reinforcement feedback. PMID:28753634

  5. A decerebrate adult mouse model for examining the sensorimotor control of locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Stan T; Whelan, Patrick J

    2012-01-01

    As wild-type and genetically modified mice are progressively becoming the predominant models for studying locomotor physiology, the technical ability to record sensory and motor components from adult mice, in vivo, are expected to contribute to a better understanding of sensorimotor spinal cord networks. Here, specific technical and surgical details are presented on how to produce an adult decerebrate mouse preparation that can reliably produce sustained bouts of stepping, in vivo, in the absence of anesthetic drugs. Data are presented demonstrating the ability of this preparation to produce stepping during treadmill locomotion, adaptability in its responses to changes in the treadmill speed, and left-right alternation. Furthermore, intracellular recordings from motoneurons and interneurons in the spinal cord are presented from preparations where muscle activity was blocked. Intraaxonal recordings are also presented demonstrating that individual afferents can be recorded using this preparation. These data demonstrate that the adult decerebrate mouse is a tractable preparation for the study of sensorimotor systems.

  6. EchoScan: A new system to objectively assess peripheral hearing disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Venet

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure-tone air-conduction audiometry (PTA is the reference clinical test used in Europe and the United States to measure the extent of hearing loss. It is a subjective, behavioral test, which measures thresholds of hearing sensations and perceptions based on patient responses to frequency-specific pure-tone stimuli. PTA can detect hearing problems due to cochlear or retro-cochlear impairment, without identifying the source of the problem. In contrast, cubic distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs detect inner-ear dysfunctions, particularly those involving the outer hair cells sensitive to noise and ototoxicants. Recently, ototoxicants were shown to have an action on the central nuclei driving the middle-ear acoustic reflex. Therefore, a new device, called EchoScan, was conceived to collect and measure performance both in the middle- and inner-ear. Its originality: the use of a battery of DPOAE measurements associated with contra-lateral acoustic stimulation. Changes in DPOAE amplitude due to ageing and gender were incidentally detected and EchoScan was more sensitive than impedancemetry to detect the stapedial reflex. EchoScan can be used both in clinical investigations and in occupational medicine, especially for the auditory follow-up of people exposed to noise or ototoxic agents. EchoScan could be promising to assess early detection in programs to prevent hearing loss.

  7. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Procedure for HE Powders on a LEO 438VP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, Fowzia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

    2016-03-08

    This method describes the characterization of HE powders by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). HE particles are dispersed onto an aluminum standard SEM specimen mount. Electron micrographs are collected at various magnifications (150 to 10,000 X) depending on HE particle size.

  8. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) Procedure for HE Powders on a LEO 438VP System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaka, Fowzia [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States). Energetic Materials Center

    2016-03-21

    This method describes the characterization of HE powders by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). HE particles are dispersed onto an aluminum standard SEM specimen mount. Electron micrographs are collected at various magnifications (150 to 10,000 X) depending on HE particle size.

  9. Development of an efficient scanning and purging magnet system for IMRT with narrow high energy photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, Bjoern, E-mail: bjorn.andreassen@gmail.co [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Svensson, Roger; Holmberg, Rickard [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Danared, Hakan [Manne Siegbahn Laboratory, Stockholm University, Frescativaegen 26, SE-114 18 Stockholm (Sweden); Brahme, Anders [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2009-12-21

    Due to the clinical advantages of Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) high flexibility and accuracy in intensity modulated dose delivery is desirable to really maximize treatment outcome. Although it is possible to deliver IMRT by using broad beams in combination with dynamic multileaf collimation the process is rather time consuming and inefficient. By using narrow scanned high energy photon beams the treatment outcome can be improved, the treatment time reduced and accurate 3D in vivo dose delivery monitoring is possible by PET-CT based dose delivery imaging of photo nuclear reactions in human tissues. Narrow photon beams can be produced by directing a low emittance high energy electron beam on a thin target, and then cleaning the therapeutic photon beam from transmitted high energy electrons, and photon generated charged leptons, with a dedicated purging magnet placed directly downstream of the target. To have an effective scanning and purging magnet system the purging magnet should be placed immediately after the bremsstrahlung target to deflect the transmitted electrons to an efficient electron stopper. In the static electron stopper the electrons should be safely collected independent of the desired direction of the therapeutic scanned photon beam. The SID (Source to Isocenter Distance) should preferably be short while retaining the ability to scan over a large area on the patient and consequently there are severe requirements both on the strength and the geometry of the scanning and purging magnets. In the present study an efficient magnet configuration with a purging and scanning magnet assembly is developed for electron energies in the 50-75 MeV range and a SID of 75 cm. For a bremsstrahlung target of 3 mm Be these electron energies produce a photon beam of 25-17 mm FWHM (Full Width Half Maximum) at a SID of 75 cm. The magnet system was examined both in terms of the efficiency in scanning the narrow bremsstrahlung beam and the deflection of

  10. Hyper-track selector nuclear emulsion readout system aimed at scanning an area of one thousand square meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Masahiro; Nakano, Toshiyuki; Komatani, Ryosuke; Kawahara, Hiroaki

    2017-10-01

    Automatic nuclear emulsion readout systems have seen remarkable progress since the original idea was developed almost 40 years ago. After the success of its full application to a large-scale neutrino experiment, OPERA, a much faster readout system, the hyper-track selector (HTS), has been developed. HTS, which has an extremely wide-field objective lens, reached a scanning speed of 4700 cm^2/h, which is nearly 100 times faster than the previous system and therefore strongly promotes many new experimental projects. We will describe the concept, specifications, system structure, and achieved performance in this paper.

  11. Three-dimensional integral television using extremely high-resolution video system with 4,000 scanning lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Fumio; Kawakita, Masahiro; Arai, Jun; Sasaki, Hisayuki; Yamashita, Takayuki; Sato, Masahito; Suehiro, Koya; Haino, Yasuyuki

    2007-09-01

    The integral method enables observers to see 3D images like real objects. It requires extremely high resolution for both capture and display stages. We present an experimental 3D television system based on the integral method using an extremely high-resolution video system. The video system has 4,000 scanning lines using the diagonal offset method for two green channels. The number of elemental lenses in the lens array is 140 (vertical) × 182 (horizontal). The viewing zone angle is wider than 20 degrees in practice. This television system can capture 3D objects and provides full color and full parallax 3D images in real time.

  12. Cerebellar physiology: links between microcircuitry properties and sensorimotor functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörntell, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    Existing knowledge of the cerebellar microcircuitry structure and physiology allows a rather detailed description of what it in itself can and cannot do. Combined with a known mapping of different cerebellar regions to afferent systems and motor output target structures, there are several constraints that can be used to describe how specific components of the cerebellar microcircuitry may work during sensorimotor control. In fact, as described in this review, the major factor that hampers further progress in understanding cerebellar function is the limited insights into the circuitry-level function of the targeted motor output systems and the nature of the information in the mossy fiber afferents. The cerebellar circuitry in itself is here summarized as a gigantic associative memory element, primarily consisting of the parallel fiber synapses, whereas most other circuitry components, including the climbing fiber system, primarily has the role of maintaining activity balance in the intracerebellar and extracerebellar circuitry. The review explores the consistency of this novel interpretational framework with multiple diverse observations at the synaptic and microcircuitry level within the cerebellum. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  13. Reading sheet music facilitates sensorimotor mu-desynchronization in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behmer, Lawrence Paul; Jantzen, Kelly J

    2011-07-01

    Recent brain imaging studies have demonstrated that the human mirror system, in addition to becoming active while viewing the actions of others, also responds to abstract visual and auditory stimuli associated with specific actions. Here, we test the hypothesis that when musicians read sheet music an associated motor act is automatically recruited in the same way as when we observe the actions of others. Using EEG, we measured event related desynchronization of the sensorimotor mu rhythm (mu-ERD) while musicians and non-musicians listened to music, observed movies of a musical instrument being played and observed a static image of the corresponding sheet music. Musicians showed significantly greater mu-ERD than non-musicians when observing sheet music and musical performances. Our results demonstrate that the human motor system aids in the process of perception and understanding by forming functional links between arbitrary, abstract percepts and associated acts. This research uniquely adds to the existing body of literature by demonstrating that abstract images are capable of triggering an "action understanding" system when viewed by experts who have formed the appropriate visual-motor association. Copyright © 2010 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Range 7 Scanner Integration with PaR Robot Scanning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Jason; Burns, Bradley; Carlson, Jeffrey; Minich, Mark

    2011-01-01

    An interface bracket and coordinate transformation matrices were designed to allow the Range 7 scanner to be mounted on the PaR Robot detector arm for scanning the heat shield or other object placed in the test cell. A process was designed for using Rapid Form XOR to stitch data from multiple scans together to provide an accurate 3D model of the object scanned. An accurate model was required for the design and verification of an existing heat shield. The large physical size and complex shape of the heat shield does not allow for direct measurement of certain features in relation to other features. Any imaging devices capable of imaging the entire heat shield in its entirety suffers a reduced resolution and cannot image sections that are blocked from view. Prior methods involved tools such as commercial measurement arms, taking images with cameras, then performing manual measurements. These prior methods were tedious and could not provide a 3D model of the object being scanned, and were typically limited to a few tens of measurement points at prominent locations. Integration of the scanner with the robot allows for large complex objects to be scanned at high resolution, and for 3D Computer Aided Design (CAD) models to be generated for verification of items to the original design, and to generate models of previously undocumented items. The main components are the mounting bracket for the scanner to the robot and the coordinate transformation matrices used for stitching the scanner data into a 3D model. The steps involve mounting the interface bracket to the robot's detector arm, mounting the scanner to the bracket, and then scanning sections of the object and recording the location of the tool tip (in this case the center of the scanner's focal point). A novel feature is the ability to stitch images together by coordinates instead of requiring each scan data set to have overlapping identifiable features. This setup allows models of complex objects to be developed

  15. ANALYSIS OF THE POSSIBILITIES OF USING LOW-COST SCANNING SYSTEM IN 3D MODELING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kedzierski

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The laser scanning technique is still a very popular and fast growing method of obtaining information on modeling 3D objects. The use of low-cost miniature scanners creates new opportunities for small objects of 3D modeling based on point clouds acquired from the scan. The same, the development of accuracy and methods of automatic processing of this data type is noticeable. The article presents methods of collecting raw datasets in the form of a point-cloud using a low-cost ground-based laser scanner FabScan. As part of the research work 3D scanner from an open source FabLab project was constructed. In addition, the results for the analysis of the geometry of the point clouds obtained by using a low-cost laser scanner were presented. Also, some analysis of collecting data of different structures (made of various materials such as: glass, wood, paper, gum, plastic, plaster, ceramics, stoneware clay etc. and of different shapes: oval and similar to oval and prism shaped have been done. The article presents two methods used for analysis: the first one - visual (general comparison between the 3D model and the real object and the second one - comparative method (comparison between measurements on models and scanned objects using the mean error of a single sample of observations. The analysis showed, that the low-budget ground-based laser scanner FabScan has difficulties with collecting data of non-oval objects. Items built of glass painted black also caused problems for the scanner. In addition, the more details scanned object contains, the lower the accuracy of the collected point-cloud is. Nevertheless, the accuracy of collected data (using oval-straight shaped objects is satisfactory. The accuracy, in this case, fluctuates between ± 0,4 mm and ± 1,0 mm whereas when using more detailed objects or a rectangular shaped prism the accuracy is much more lower, between 2,9 mm and ± 9,0 mm. Finally, the publication presents the possibility (for the

  16. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Alison G; Danielson, D Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F

    2015-11-03

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception-production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants' speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants' tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants' articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral-motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced "impairment" in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral-motor impairments may impact perceptual development.

  17. Cortical mechanisms underlying sensorimotor enhancement promoted by walking with haptic inputs in a virtual environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangani, Samir; Lamontagne, Anouk; Fung, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Sensorimotor integration is a complex process in the central nervous system that produces task-specific motor output based on selective and rapid integration of sensory information from multiple sources. This chapter reviews briefly the role of haptic cues in postural control during tandem stance and locomotion, focusing on sensorimotor enhancement of locomotion post stroke. The use of mixed-reality systems incorporating both haptic cues and virtual reality technology in gait rehabilitation post stroke is discussed. Over the last decade, researchers and clinicians have shown evidence of cerebral reorganization that underlies functional recovery after stroke based on results from neuroimaging techniques such as positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging. These imaging modalities are however limited in their capacity to measure cortical changes during extensive body motions in upright stance. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) on the other hand provides a unique opportunity to measure cortical activity associated with postural control during locomotion. Evidence of cortical changes associated with sensorimotor enhancement induced by haptic touch during locomotion is revealed through fNIRS in a pilot study involving healthy individuals and a case study involving a chronic stroke patient. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) a microcomputer-based analysis system for shipping cask design review: User`s manual to Version 3a. Volume 1, Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mok, G.C.; Thomas, G.R.; Gerhard, M.A.; Trummer, D.J.; Johnson, G.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    SCANS (Shipping Cask ANalysis System) is a microcomputer-based system of computer programs and databases developed at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for evaluating safety analysis reports on spent fuel shipping casks. SCANS is an easy-to-use system that calculates the global response to impact loads, pressure loads and thermal conditions, providing reviewers with an independent check on analyses submitted by licensees. SCANS is based on microcomputers compatible with the IBM-PC family of computers. The system is composed of a series of menus, input programs, cask analysis programs, and output display programs. All data is entered through fill-in-the-blank input screens that contain descriptive data requests. Analysis options are based on regulatory cases described in the Code of Federal Regulations 10 CFR 71 and Regulatory Guides published by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in 1977 and 1978.

  19. Rhythm-specific modulation of the sensorimotor network in drug-naive patients with Parkinson's disease by levodopa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Alessandro; Giordano, Alfonso; De Micco, Rosita; Paccone, Antonella; Conforti, Renta; Pignataro, Giuseppe; Annunziato, Lucio; Tedeschi, Gioacchino

    2013-03-01

    Brain activity during rest is characterized by slow (0.01-0.1 Hz) fluctuations of blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. These fluctuations are organized as functional connectivity networks called resting-state networks, anatomically corresponding to specific neuronal circuits. As Parkinson's disease is mainly characterized by a dysfunction of the sensorimotor pathways, which can be influenced by levodopa administration, the present study investigated the functional connectivity changes within the sensorimotor resting-state network in drug-naïve patients with Parkinson's disease after acute levodopa administration. Using a double-blind placebo-controlled design, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was carried out in 20 drug-naïve patients with Parkinson's disease, immediately before and 60 min after, oral administration of either levodopa or placebo. Control resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were recorded in 18 age- and sex-matched healthy volunteers. Independent component analysis was performed to extract resting-state network maps and associated time-course spectral features. At the anatomical level, levodopa enhanced the sensorimotor network functional connectivity in the supplementary motor area, a region where drug-naïve patients with Parkinson's disease exhibited reduced signal fluctuations compared with untreated patients. At the spectral frequency level, levodopa stimulated these fluctuations in a selective frequency band of the sensorimotor network. The reported effects induced by levodopa on sensorimotor network topological and spectral features confirm that the sensorimotor system is a target of acute levodopa administration in drug-naïve patients with Parkinson's disease. Moreover, while the regional changes in supplementary motor area reflect the functional improvement in motor function, the rhythm-specific modulation induced by the dopamine precursor discloses a novel

  20. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  1. Bayesian optimal adaptation explains age-related human sensorimotor changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmali, Faisal; Whitman, Gregory T; Lewis, Richard F

    2017-11-08

    The brain uses information from different sensory systems to guide motor behavior, and aging is associated with a simultaneous decline in the quality of sensory information provided to the brain and a deterioration in motor control. Correlations between age-dependent decline in sensory anatomical structures and behavior have been demonstrated, and it has recently been suggested that a Bayesian framework could explain these relationships. Here we show that age-dependent changes in a human sensorimotor reflex, the vestibulo-ocular reflex, are explained by a Bayesian optimal adaptation in the brain occurring in response to death of motion-sensing hair cells. Specifically, we found that the temporal dynamics of the reflex as a function of age are predicted (r=0.93, pBayesian framework has been shown to be a general neural principle for multimodal sensory integration and dynamic sensory estimation, these findings provide evidence of longitudinal Bayesian processing over the human lifespan. These results illuminate how the aging brain strives to optimize motor behavior when faced with deterioration in the peripheral and central nervous system, and have implications in the field of vestibular and balance disorders, as they will likely provide guidance for physical therapy and for prosthetic aids that aim to reduce falls in the elderly. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Neurophysiology.

  2. Development of kinematic 3D laser scanning system for indoor mapping and as-built BIM using constrained SLAM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jaehoon; Yoon, Sanghyun; Ju, Sungha; Heo, Joon

    2015-10-16

    The growing interest and use of indoor mapping is driving a demand for improved data-acquisition facility, efficiency and productivity in the era of the Building Information Model (BIM). The conventional static laser scanning method suffers from some limitations on its operability in complex indoor environments, due to the presence of occlusions. Full scanning of indoor spaces without loss of information requires that surveyors change the scanner position many times, which incurs extra work for registration of each scanned point cloud. Alternatively, a kinematic 3D laser scanning system, proposed herein, uses line-feature-based Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technique for continuous mapping. Moreover, to reduce the uncertainty of line-feature extraction, we incorporated constrained adjustment based on an assumption made with respect to typical indoor environments: that the main structures are formed of parallel or orthogonal line features. The superiority of the proposed constrained adjustment is its reduction for uncertainties of the adjusted lines, leading to successful data association process. In the present study, kinematic scanning with and without constrained adjustment were comparatively evaluated in two test sites, and the results confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed system. The accuracy of the 3D mapping result was additionally evaluated by comparison with the reference points acquired by a total station: the Euclidean average distance error was 0.034 m for the seminar room and 0.043 m for the corridor, which satisfied the error tolerance for point cloud acquisition (0.051 m) according to the guidelines of the General Services Administration for BIM accuracy.

  3. Research and Development of High-speed Laser Scanning Galvanometer System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ching Ho

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study developed and controlled laser scanning mechanism and circuit design, in order to reduce the vibratory magnitude resulted from high-speed operation. The principle of mechanism design is that the output end mirror can swing within ± 3° when the laser scanning mechanism is in operation, the accuracy value is ± 0.2°. The static simulation and dynamic measurement were carried out for mutual validation. The vibration generated in the operation of machine causes dynamic unbalance, influencing the stability of machine. In order to overcome and improve the dynamic unbalance generated when the mechanism is in motion, different solutions were proposed, such as changing the output end mass, to add elastic material in or to change constant speed control of input end motor to variable speed control.

  4. The Dentin Tubule System: A Replica and Scanning Electron Microscope Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-20

    this laboratory to prepare soft and calci fied tissues for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The resolution, magnification range and...several intertubular connections , originally examined at a magnification of 17,000 times (Fig. 7). In addition to the omnipresent lateral tubule...branches , and the ease of penetration therein of endodontic reagents from the pulp. Intratubular network throughout the dentin may be a route of intra

  5. Wide area scanning system and carbon microbeams at the external microbeam facility of the INFN LABEC laboratory in Florence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giuntini, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Massi, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Calusi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Castelli, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Carraresi, L. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Fedi, M.E.; Gelli, N. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Liccioli, L.; Mandò, P.A.; Mazzinghi, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Sezione di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy); Palla, L. [INFN, Sezione di Pisa and Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy); Romano, F.P. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR), Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali (IBAM), Via Biblioteca, 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), LNS, Via S.Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); and others

    2015-04-01

    Recently, developments have been made to the external scanning microbeam of INFN-LABEC laboratory in Florence. A new system for mechanical sample scanning was implemented. This system allows us to acquire large maps (up to 20 × 20 cm{sup 2}), of great interest in the Cultural Heritage field. In parallel, the possibility of using carbon microbeams for experiments, such as, for example, ion beam modification of materials and MeV Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry, has been investigated. As a test application, Particle Induced X-ray Emission with carbon microbeams has been performed on a lapis lazuli stone. First results for both wide area imaging and external carbon microbeams are briefly reported.

  6. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy: a computer controlled, scanning monochromator system for the rapid determination of the elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floyd, M.A.

    1980-03-01

    A computer controlled, scanning monochromator system specifically designed for the rapid, sequential determination of the elements is described. The monochromator is combined with an inductively coupled plasma excitation source so that elements at major, minor, trace, and ultratrace levels may be determined, in sequence, without changing experimental parameters other than the spectral line observed. A number of distinctive features not found in previously described versions are incorporated into the system here described. Performance characteristics of the entire system and several analytical applications are discussed.

  7. An acousto-optically steered laser scanning system for measurement of action potential spread in intact heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morad, M; Dillon, S; Weiss, J

    1986-01-01

    An optical scanning device that combines a voltage-sensitive dye and an acousto-optically steered He-Ne laser beam is described. This device is capable of scanning 128 sites every 4 ms and recording and storing the fluorescence signals for a duration of up to 1 s (several beats). Comparison of an activation map constructed from laser scanning to those obtained from multiple extracellular electrodes suggests that this technique is highly reliable. Although motion-induced light scattering appears to alter the shape of the action potential, the upstroke can be distinguished quite reliably even in a vigorously contracting muscle. This technique provides high resolution (up to 50 micron) and high flexibility (i.e., the scanned sites can be concentrated over a small or very large area) in measuring the spread of activation in heart muscle. By having only one excitation and one measurement element, the approach offers simplicity and high flexibility to the user. We have shown that this system can be readily applied to the task for which it was intended--probing the mechanisms of arrhythmias in the mammalian myocardium. It has been demonstrated, for example, that arrhythmias due to automaticity can be readily distinguished from those due to reentry through the mapping capability of the laser scanner. In addition, the ability of laser scanner to measure membrane depolarization directly during arrhythmias may make this technique superior to conventional electrocardiographic mapping techniques.

  8. Risk-sensitivity and the mean-variance trade-off: decision making in sensorimotor control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagengast, Arne J.; Braun, Daniel A.; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Numerous psychophysical studies suggest that the sensorimotor system chooses actions that optimize the average cost associated with a movement. Recently, however, violations of this hypothesis have been reported in line with economic theories of decision-making that not only consider the mean payoff, but are also sensitive to risk, that is the variability of the payoff. Here, we examine the hypothesis that risk-sensitivity in sensorimotor control arises as a mean-variance trade-off in movement costs. We designed a motor task in which participants could choose between a sure motor action that resulted in a fixed amount of effort and a risky motor action that resulted in a variable amount of effort that could be either lower or higher than the fixed effort. By changing the mean effort of the risky action while experimentally fixing its variance, we determined indifference points at which participants chose equiprobably between the sure, fixed amount of effort option and the risky, variable effort option. Depending on whether participants accepted a variable effort with a mean that was higher, lower or equal to the fixed effort, they could be classified as risk-seeking, risk-averse or risk-neutral. Most subjects were risk-sensitive in our task consistent with a mean-variance trade-off in effort, thereby, underlining the importance of risk-sensitivity in computational models of sensorimotor control. PMID:21208966

  9. Toward an autonomous brain machine interface: integrating sensorimotor reward modulation and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Brandi T; Tarigoppula, Venkata S Aditya; Chen, Chen; Francis, Joseph T

    2015-05-13

    For decades, neurophysiologists have worked on elucidating the function of the cortical sensorimotor control system from the standpoint of kinematics or dynamics. Recently, computational neuroscientists have developed models that can emulate changes seen in the primary motor cortex during learning. However, these simulations rely on the existence of a reward-like signal in the primary sensorimotor cortex. Reward modulation of the primary sensorimotor cortex has yet to be characterized at the level of neural units. Here we demonstrate that single units/multiunits and local field potentials in the primary motor (M1) cortex of nonhuman primates (Macaca radiata) are modulated by reward expectation during reaching movements and that this modulation is present even while subjects passively view cursor motions that are predictive of either reward or nonreward. After establishing this reward modulation, we set out to determine whether we could correctly classify rewarding versus nonrewarding trials, on a moment-to-moment basis. This reward information could then be used in collaboration with reinforcement learning principles toward an autonomous brain-machine interface. The autonomous brain-machine interface would use M1 for both decoding movement intention and extraction of reward expectation information as evaluative feedback, which would then update the decoding algorithm as necessary. In the work presented here, we show that this, in theory, is possible. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357374-14$15.00/0.

  10. SU-F-T-156: Monte Carlo Simulation Using TOPAS for Synchrotron Based Proton Discrete Spot Scanning System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moskvin, V; Pirlepesov, F; Tsiamas, P; Axente, M; Lukose, R; Zhao, L; Farr, J [St. Jude Children’s Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Shin, J [Massachusetts General Hospital, Brookline, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: This study provides an overview of the design and commissioning of the Monte Carlo (MC) model of the spot-scanning proton therapy nozzle and its implementation for the patient plan simulation. Methods: The Hitachi PROBEAT V scanning nozzle was simulated based on vendor specifications using the TOPAS extension of Geant4 code. FLUKA MC simulation was also utilized to provide supporting data for the main simulation. Validation of the MC model was performed using vendor provided data and measurements collected during acceptance/commissioning of the proton therapy machine. Actual patient plans using CT based treatment geometry were simulated and compared to the dose distributions produced by the treatment planning system (Varian Eclipse 13.6), and patient quality assurance measurements. In-house MATLAB scripts are used for converting DICOM data into TOPAS input files. Results: Comparison analysis of integrated depth doses (IDDs), therapeutic ranges (R90), and spot shape/sizes at different distances from the isocenter, indicate good agreement between MC and measurements. R90 agreement is within 0.15 mm across all energy tunes. IDDs and spot shapes/sizes differences are within statistical error of simulation (less than 1.5%). The MC simulated data, validated with physical measurements, were used for the commissioning of the treatment planning system. Patient geometry simulations were conducted based on the Eclipse produced DICOM plans. Conclusion: The treatment nozzle and standard option beam model were implemented in the TOPAS framework to simulate a highly conformal discrete spot-scanning proton beam system.

  11. Sensorimotor influences on speech perception in infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruderer, Alison G.; Danielson, D. Kyle; Kandhadai, Padmapriya; Werker, Janet F.

    2015-01-01

    The influence of speech production on speech perception is well established in adults. However, because adults have a long history of both perceiving and producing speech, the extent to which the perception–production linkage is due to experience is unknown. We addressed this issue by asking whether articulatory configurations can influence infants’ speech perception performance. To eliminate influences from specific linguistic experience, we studied preverbal, 6-mo-old infants and tested the discrimination of a nonnative, and hence never-before-experienced, speech sound distinction. In three experimental studies, we used teething toys to control the position and movement of the tongue tip while the infants listened to the speech sounds. Using ultrasound imaging technology, we verified that the teething toys consistently and effectively constrained the movement and positioning of infants’ tongues. With a looking-time procedure, we found that temporarily restraining infants’ articulators impeded their discrimination of a nonnative consonant contrast but only when the relevant articulator was selectively restrained to prevent the movements associated with producing those sounds. Our results provide striking evidence that even before infants speak their first words and without specific listening experience, sensorimotor information from the articulators influences speech perception. These results transform theories of speech perception by suggesting that even at the initial stages of development, oral–motor movements influence speech sound discrimination. Moreover, an experimentally induced “impairment” in articulator movement can compromise speech perception performance, raising the question of whether long-term oral–motor impairments may impact perceptual development. PMID:26460030

  12. Mina: A Sensorimotor Robotic Orthosis for Mobility Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil K. Raj

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available While most mobility options for persons with paraplegia or paraparesis employ wheeled solutions, significant adverse health, psychological, and social consequences result from wheelchair confinement. Modern robotic exoskeleton devices for gait assistance and rehabilitation, however, can support legged locomotion systems for those with lower extremity weakness or paralysis. The Florida Institute for Human and Machine Cognition (IHMC has developed the Mina, a prototype sensorimotor robotic orthosis for mobility assistance that provides mobility capability for paraplegic and paraparetic users. This paper describes the initial concept, design goals, and methods of this wearable overground robotic mobility device, which uses compliant actuation to power the hip and knee joints. Paralyzed users can balance and walk using the device over level terrain with the assistance of forearm crutches employing a quadrupedal gait. We have initiated sensory substitution feedback mechanisms to augment user sensory perception of his or her lower extremities. Using this sensory feedback, we hypothesize that users will ambulate with a more natural, upright gait and will be able to directly control the gait parameters and respond to perturbations. This may allow bipedal (with minimal support gait in future prototypes.

  13. Computational Graph Theoretical Model of the Zebrafish Sensorimotor Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Joshua M.; Stobb, Michael; Mazzag, Bori; Gahtan, Ethan

    2011-11-01

    Mapping the detailed connectivity patterns of neural circuits is a central goal of neuroscience and has been the focus of extensive current research [4, 3]. The best quantitative approach to analyze the acquired data is still unclear but graph theory has been used with success [3, 1]. We present a graph theoretical model with vertices and edges representing neurons and synaptic connections, respectively. Our system is the zebrafish posterior lateral line sensorimotor pathway. The goal of our analysis is to elucidate mechanisms of information processing in this neural pathway by comparing the mathematical properties of its graph to those of other, previously described graphs. We create a zebrafish model based on currently known anatomical data. The degree distributions and small-world measures of this model is compared to small-world, random and 3-compartment random graphs of the same size (with over 2500 nodes and 160,000 connections). We find that the zebrafish graph shows small-worldness similar to other neural networks and does not have a scale-free distribution of connections.

  14. Elucidating Sensorimotor Control Principles with Myoelectric Musculoskeletal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E. Goodman

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available There is an old saying that you must walk a mile in someone's shoes to truly understand them. This mini-review will synthesize and discuss recent research that attempts to make humans “walk a mile” in an artificial musculoskeletal system to gain insight into the principles governing human movement control. In this approach, electromyography (EMG is used to sample human motor commands; these commands serve as inputs to mathematical models of muscular dynamics, which in turn act on a model of skeletal dynamics to produce a simulated motor action in real-time (i.e., the model's state is updated fast enough produce smooth motion without noticeable transitions; Manal et al., 2002. In this mini-review, these are termed myoelectric musculoskeletal models (MMMs. After a brief overview of typical MMM design and operation principles, the review will highlight how MMMs have been used for understanding human sensorimotor control and learning by evoking apparent alterations in a user's biomechanics, neural control, and sensory feedback experiences.

  15. Cortico-cerebellar Networks Drive Sensorimotor Learning in Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lametti, Daniel R; Smith, Harriet J; Freidin, Phoebe; Watkins, Kate E

    2017-12-06

    The motor cortex and cerebellum are thought to be critical for learning and maintaining motor behaviors. Here we use transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to test the role of the motor cortex and cerebellum in sensorimotor learning in speech. During productions of "head," "bed," and "dead," the first formant of the vowel sound was altered in real time toward the first formant of the vowel sound in "had," "bad," and "dad." Compensatory changes in first and second formant production were used as a measure of motor adaptation. tDCS to either the motor cortex or the cerebellum improved sensorimotor learning in speech compared with sham stimulation. However, in the case of cerebellar tDCS, production changes were restricted to the source of the acoustical error (i.e., the first formant). Motor cortex tDCS drove production changes that offset errors in the first formant, but unlike cerebellar tDCS, adaptive changes in the second formant also occurred. The results suggest that motor cortex and cerebellar tDCS have both shared and dissociable effects on motor adaptation. The study provides initial causal evidence in speech production that the motor cortex and the cerebellum support different aspects of sensorimotor learning. We propose that motor cortex tDCS drives sensorimotor learning toward previously learned patterns of movement, whereas cerebellar tDCS focuses sensorimotor learning on error correction.

  16. Sensorimotor integration is enhanced in dancers and musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Falisha J; Giacosa, Chiara; Foster, Nicholas E V; Penhune, Virginia B; Hyde, Krista L

    2016-03-01

    Studying individuals with specialized training, such as dancers and musicians, provides an opportunity to investigate how intensive practice of sensorimotor skills affects behavioural performance across various domains. While several studies have found that musicians have improved motor, perceptual and sensorimotor integration skills compared to untrained controls, fewer studies have examined the effect of dance training on such skills. Moreover, no study has specifically compared the effects of dance versus music training on perceptual or sensorimotor performance. To this aim, in the present study, expert dancers, expert musicians and untrained controls were tested on a range of perceptual and sensorimotor tasks designed to discriminate performance profiles across groups. Dancers performed better than musicians and controls on a dance imitation task (involving whole-body movement), but musicians performed better than dancers and controls on a musical melody discrimination task as well as on a rhythm synchronization task (involving finger tapping). These results indicate that long-term intensive dance and music training are associated with distinct enhancements in sensorimotor skills. This novel work advances knowledge of the effects of long-term dance versus music training and has potential applications in therapies for motor disorders.

  17. [Quantitative analysis of the palatal features affected by digit-sucking habit using a laser scanning system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yingjie; Ge, Lihong; Miao, Jiangxia

    2013-08-01

    To investigate the influence of digit-sucking habit on palatal features in pre-school children by using a laser scanning system. Forty pre-school children were chosen according to the results of questionnaires, among which 20 with digit-sucking habit(digit-sucking group) and 20 without any oral habits(control group). Impression of the upper jaw was taken from each child. After laser scanning the plaster casts, and three-dimensional reconstruction by the computer, parameters of anterior and posterior palatal length, width and height were measured, ratios of height/width, length/width and width ratio of anterior and posterior palatal were analyzed. The differences of palatal features between two groups were analyzed by t test. There was statistical significance between digit-sucking group and control group in posterior palatal width, anterior palatal length and anterior palatal height. The ratios of height/width and length/width in both posterior and anterior areas were statistically significant (P features were relatively deeper, narrower and more protrusive in digit-sucking group. The digit-sucking habit may have some deleterious impacts on the palatal features in pre-school children with primary dentition. And it is practical to measure the spacial palatal features by using laser scanning system to some extent.

  18. Broadband ultrasound attenuation in the calcaneal region: a comparative study of single-position versus scanning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Joaquim A; Costa, Eduardo T; Neto, João F Marques; Button, Vera L S N

    2008-01-01

    This work describes a system developed to measure the broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) in the calcaneal region. The patient's calcanei were inspected using a microcomputer-controlled X-Y axis displacement unit with two 500-kHz, central-frequency, ultrasound transducers. The transducers facing each other are submerged in a small water tank with a support for the patient's foot between them. The system allows data to be collected from a single position or by scanning the calcaneal region to obtain a BUA map. Tests were carried out on 201 patients (110 using the single-position method, and 91 using the scanning method). The results were compared with those of densitometry tests performed using the dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) technique (single position: r=0.50; Pposition method is more susceptible to errors due to the difficulty in positioning the transducers relative to the calcaneus. The scanning method provides better results and can be used to screen patients before referring them for DEXA.

  19. Imaging of the human choroid with a 1.7 MHz A-scan rate FDML swept source OCT system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorczynska, I.; Migacz, J. V.; Jonnal, R.; Zawadzki, R. J.; Poddar, R.; Werner, J. S.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate OCT angiography (OCTA) and Doppler OCT imaging of the choroid in the eyes of two healthy volunteers and in a geographic atrophy case. We show that visualization of specific choroidal layers requires selection of appropriate OCTA methods. We investigate how imaging speed, B-scan averaging and scanning density influence visualization of various choroidal vessels. We introduce spatial power spectrum analysis of OCT en face angiographic projections as a method of quantitative analysis of choroicapillaris morphology. We explore the possibility of Doppler OCT imaging to provide information about directionality of blood flow in choroidal vessels. To achieve these goals, we have developed OCT systems utilizing an FDML laser operating at 1.7 MHz sweep rate, at 1060 nm center wavelength, and with 7.5 μm axial imaging resolution. A correlation mapping OCA method was implemented for visualization of the vessels. Joint Spectral and Time domain OCT (STdOCT) technique was used for Doppler OCT imaging.

  20. 77 FR 59941 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Terahertz Scanning Systems for Cancer Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-01

    ... Systems for Cancer Pathology AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, Public Health Service, HHS. ACTION... systems for cancer pathology. Upon the expiration or termination of the exclusive evaluation option...

  1. Induced sensorimotor brain plasticity controls pain in phantom limb patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Fukuma, Ryohei; Seymour, Ben; Hosomi, Koichi; Kishima, Haruhiko; Shimizu, Takeshi; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Saitoh, Youichi

    2016-01-01

    The cause of pain in a phantom limb after partial or complete deafferentation is an important problem. A popular but increasingly controversial theory is that it results from maladaptive reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, suggesting that experimental induction of further reorganization should affect the pain, especially if it results in functional restoration. Here we use a brain–machine interface (BMI) based on real-time magnetoencephalography signals to reconstruct affected hand movements with a robotic hand. BMI training induces significant plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex, manifested as improved discriminability of movement information and enhanced prosthetic control. Contrary to our expectation that functional restoration would reduce pain, the BMI training with the phantom hand intensifies the pain. In contrast, BMI training designed to dissociate the prosthetic and phantom hands actually reduces pain. These results reveal a functional relevance between sensorimotor cortical plasticity and pain, and may provide a novel treatment with BMI neurofeedback. PMID:27807349

  2. Induced sensorimotor brain plasticity controls pain in phantom limb patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Fukuma, Ryohei; Seymour, Ben; Hosomi, Koichi; Kishima, Haruhiko; Shimizu, Takeshi; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Saitoh, Youichi

    2016-10-27

    The cause of pain in a phantom limb after partial or complete deafferentation is an important problem. A popular but increasingly controversial theory is that it results from maladaptive reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, suggesting that experimental induction of further reorganization should affect the pain, especially if it results in functional restoration. Here we use a brain-machine interface (BMI) based on real-time magnetoencephalography signals to reconstruct affected hand movements with a robotic hand. BMI training induces significant plasticity in the sensorimotor cortex, manifested as improved discriminability of movement information and enhanced prosthetic control. Contrary to our expectation that functional restoration would reduce pain, the BMI training with the phantom hand intensifies the pain. In contrast, BMI training designed to dissociate the prosthetic and phantom hands actually reduces pain. These results reveal a functional relevance between sensorimotor cortical plasticity and pain, and may provide a novel treatment with BMI neurofeedback.

  3. Action-dependent perceptual invariants: from ecological to sensorimotor approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossio, Matteo; Taraborelli, Dario

    2008-12-01

    Ecological and sensorimotor theories of perception build on the notion of action-dependent invariants as the basic structures underlying perceptual capacities. In this paper we contrast the assumptions these theories make on the nature of perceptual information modulated by action. By focusing on the question, how movement specifies perceptual information, we show that ecological and sensorimotor theories endorse substantially different views about the role of action in perception. In particular we argue that ecological invariants are characterized with reference to transformations produced in the sensory array by movement: such invariants are transformation-specific but do not imply motor-specificity. In contrast, sensorimotor theories assume that perceptual invariants are intrinsically tied to specific movements. We show that this difference leads to different empirical predictions and we submit that the distinction between motor equivalence and motor-specificity needs further clarification in order to provide a more constrained account of action/perception relations.

  4. a Real-Time Earthquake Moment Tensor Scanning Code for the Antelope System (brtt, Inc)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, K. A.; Ruppert, N. A.; Freymueller, J. T.; Lindquist, K.; Harvey, D.; Dreger, D. S.; Lombard, P. N.; Guilhem, A.

    2015-12-01

    While all seismic observatories routinely determine hypocentral location and local magnitude within a few minutes of an earthquake's occurrence, the ability to estimate seismic moment and sense of slip in a similar time frame is less widespread. This is unfortunate, because moment and mechanism are critical parameters for rapid hazard assessment; for larger events, moment magnitude is more reliable due to the tendency of local magnitude to saturate, and certain mechanisms such as off-shore thrust events might indicate earthquakes with tsunamigenic potential. In order to increase access to this capability, we have developed a continuous moment tensor scanning code for Antelope, the ubiquitous open-architecture seismic acquisition and processing software in use around the world. The scanning code, which uses an algorithm that has previously been employed for real-time monitoring at the University of California, Berkeley, is able to produce full moment tensor solutions for moderate events from regional seismic data. The algorithm monitors a grid of potential sources by continuously cross-correlating pre-computed synthetic seismograms with long-period recordings from a sparse network of broad-band stations. The code package consists of 3 modules. One module is used to create a monitoring grid by constructing source-receiver geometry, calling a frequency-wavenumber code to produce synthetics, and computing the generalized linear inverse of the array of synthetics. There is a real-time scanning module that correlates streaming data with pre-inverted synthetics, monitors the variance reduction, and writes the moment tensor solution to a database if an earthquake detection occurs. Finally, there is an 'off-line' module that is very similar to the real-time scanner, with the exception that it utilizes pre-recorded data stored in Antelope databases and is useful for testing purposes or for quickly producing moment tensor catalogs for long time series. The code is open source

  5. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    Adaptive changes in sensorimotor function during spaceflight are reflected by spatial disorientation, motion sickness, gaze destabilization and decrements in balance, locomotion and eye-hand coordination that occur during and following transitions between different gravitational states. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-synthesis of data from spaceflight analogs to evaluate their effectiveness in simulating adaptive changes in sensorimotor function. METHODS. The analogs under review were categorized as either acute analogs used to simulate performance decrements accompanied with transient changes, or adaptive analogs used to drive sensorimotor learning to altered sensory feedback. The effectiveness of each analog was evaluated in terms of mechanisms of action, magnitude and time course of observed deficits compared to spaceflight data, and the effects of amplitude and exposure duration. RESULTS. Parabolic flight has been used extensively to examine effects of acute variation in gravitational loads, ranging from hypergravity to microgravity. More recently, galvanic vestibular stimulation has been used to elicit acute postural, locomotor and gaze dysfunction by disrupting vestibular afferents. Patient populations, e.g., with bilateral vestibular loss or cerebellar dysfunction, have been proposed to model acute sensorimotor dysfunction. Early research sponsored by NASA involved living onboard rotating rooms, which appeared to approximate the time course of adaptation and post-exposure recovery observed in astronauts following spaceflight. Exposure to different bed-rest paradigms (6 deg head down, dry immersion) result in similar motor deficits to that observed following spaceflight. Shorter adaptive analogs have incorporated virtual reality environments, visual distortion paradigms, exposure to conflicting tilt-translation cues, and exposure to 3Gx centrifugation. As with spaceflight, there is considerable variability in responses to most of the analogs

  6. Annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) tomography of polymer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Kangbo; Sourty, Erwan; Loos, Joachim

    2010-08-01

    We have utilized bright-field conventional transmission electron microscopy tomography and annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF-STEM) tomography to characterize a well-defined carbon black (CB)-filled polymer nanocomposite with known CB volume concentration. For both imaging methods, contrast can be generated between the CB and the surrounding polymer matrix. The involved contrast mechanisms, in particular for ADF-STEM, will be discussed in detail. The obtained volume reconstructions were analysed and the CB volume concentrations were carefully determined from the reconstructed data. For both imaging modes, the measured CB volume concentrations are substantially different and only quantification based on the ADF-STEM data revealed about the same value as the known CB loading. Moreover, when applying low-convergence angles for imaging ADF-STEM tomography, data can be obtained of micrometre-thick samples.

  7. Weld quality inspection using laser-EMAT ultrasonic system and C-scan method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Ume, I. Charles

    2014-02-01

    Laser/EMAT ultrasonic technique has attracted more and more interests in weld quality inspection because of its non-destructive and non-contact characteristics. When ultrasonic techniques are used to detect welds joining relative thin plates, the dominant ultrasonic waves present in the plates are Lamb waves, which propagate all through the thickness. Traditional Time of Flight(ToF) method loses its power. The broadband nature of laser excited ultrasound plus dispersive and multi-modal characteristic of Lamb waves make the EMAT acquired signals very complicated in this situation. Challenge rises in interpreting the received signals and establishing relationship between signal feature and weld quality. In this paper, the laser/EMAT ultrasonic technique was applied in a C-scan manner to record full wave propagation field over an area close to the weld. Then the effect of weld defect on the propagation field of Lamb waves was studied visually by watching an movie resulted from the recorded signals. This method was proved to be effective to detect the presence of hidden defect in the weld. Discrete wavelet transform(DWT) was applied to characterize the acquired ultrasonic signals and ideal band-pass filter was used to isolate wave components most sensitive to the weld defect. Different interactions with the weld defect were observed for different wave components. Thus this C-Scan method, combined with DWT and ideal band-pass filter, proved to be an effective methodology to experimentally study interactions of various laser excited Lamb Wave components with weld defect. In this work, the method was demonstrated by inspecting a hidden local incomplete penetration in weld. In fact, this method can be applied to study Lamb Wave interactions with any type of structural inconsistency. This work also proposed a ideal filtered based method to effectively reduce the total experimental time.

  8. Robotic assessment of the influence of age on upper-limb sensorimotor function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LLinares A

    2013-07-01

    take into account the influence of age. Moreover, these results suggest that robotic systems can provide a new and effective approach in the assessment of sensorimotor function. Keywords: aging, sensorimotor function, robotics, rehabilitation

  9. Enhancing Functional Performance using Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Peters, B. T.; Brady, R.; Audas, C.; Ruttley, T. M.; Cohen, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    During the acute phase of adaptation to novel gravitational environments, sensorimotor disturbances have the potential to disrupt the ability of astronauts to perform functional tasks. The goal of this project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The project conducted a series of studies that investigated the efficacy of treadmill training combined with a variety of sensory challenges designed to increase adaptability including alterations in visual flow, body loading, and support surface stability.

  10. The research on calibration methods of dual-CCD laser three-dimensional human face scanning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jinjiang; Chang, Tianyu; Ge, Baozhen; Tian, Qingguo; Yang, Fengting; Shi, Shendong

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, on the basis of considering the performance advantages of two-step method, we combines the stereo matching of binocular stereo vision with active laser scanning to calibrate the system. Above all, we select a reference camera coordinate system as the world coordinate system and unity the coordinates of two CCD cameras. And then obtain the new perspective projection matrix (PPM) of each camera after the epipolar rectification. By those, the corresponding epipolar equation of two cameras can be defined. So by utilizing the trigonometric parallax method, we can measure the space point position after distortion correction and achieve stereo matching calibration between two image points. Experiments verify that this method can improve accuracy and system stability is guaranteed. The stereo matching calibration has a simple process with low-cost, and simplifies regular maintenance work. It can acquire 3D coordinates only by planar checkerboard calibration without the need of designing specific standard target or using electronic theodolite. It is found that during the experiment two-step calibration error and lens distortion lead to the stratification of point cloud data. The proposed calibration method which combining active line laser scanning and binocular stereo vision has the both advantages of them. It has more flexible applicability. Theory analysis and experiment shows the method is reasonable.

  11. Development of Vestibular Stochastic Resonance as a Sensorimotor Countermeasure: Improving Otolith Ocular and Motor Task Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulavara, Ajitkumar; Fiedler, Matthew; DeDios,Yiri E.; Galvan, Raquel; Bloomberg, Jacob; Wood, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Astronauts experience disturbances in sensorimotor function after spaceflight during the initial introduction to a gravitational environment, especially after long-duration missions. Stochastic resonance (SR) is a mechanism by which noise can assist and enhance the response of neural systems to relevant, imperceptible sensory signals. We have previously shown that imperceptible electrical stimulation of the vestibular system enhances balance performance while standing on an unstable surface. The goal of our present study is to develop a countermeasure based on vestibular SR that could improve central interpretation of vestibular input and improve motor task responses to mitigate associated risks.

  12. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  13. Micrometric precision of prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, Flávio Domingues; de Almeida Prado Naves Carneiro, Thiago; do Prado, Célio Jesus; Prudente, Marcel Santana; Zancopé, Karla; Davi, Letícia Resende; Mendonça, Gustavo; Soares, Carlos José

    2014-08-01

    The current study evaluated prosthetic dental crowns obtained by optical scanning and a computer-aided designing/computer-aided manufacturing system using micro-computed tomography to compare the marginal fit. The virtual models were obtained with four different scanning surfaces: typodont (T), regular impressions (RI), master casts (MC), and powdered master casts (PMC). Five virtual models were obtained for each group. For each model, a crown was designed on the software and milled from feldspathic ceramic blocks. Micro-CT images were obtained for marginal gap measurements and the data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test. The mean vertical misfit was T=62.6±65.2 μm; MC=60.4±38.4 μm; PMC=58.1±38.0 μm, and RI=89.8±62.8 μm. Considering a percentage of vertical marginal gap of up to 75 μm, the results were T=71.5%, RI=49.2%, MC=69.6%, and PMC=71.2%. The percentages of horizontal overextension were T=8.5%, RI=0%, MC=0.8%, and PMC=3.8%. Based on the results, virtual model acquisition by scanning the typodont (simulated mouth) or MC, with or without powder, showed acceptable values for the marginal gap. The higher result of marginal gap of the RI group suggests that it is preferable to scan this directly from the mouth or from MC.

  14. Using the T-scan III system to analyze occlusal function in mandibular reconstruction patients: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Wei Liu

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was designed to analyze the post-rehabilitation occlusal function of subjects treated with complex mandibular resection and subsequently rehabilitated with fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, dental implants, and fixed prostheses utilizing the T-scan system. Methods: Ten mandibular complex resection cases that adopted fibula osteoseptocutaneous flaps, dental implants, and fixed prostheses to reconstruct occlusal function were analyzed. The mandibular reconstructions were divided into three groups based on size: full mandibular reconstructions, mandibular reconstructions larger than half of the arch, and mandibular reconstructions smaller than half of the arch. The T-scan III system was used to measure maximum occlusal force, occlusal time, anterior-posterior as well as left-right occlusal force asymmetries, and anterior-posterior as well as left-right asymmetrical locations of occlusal centers. Results: Subjects with larger mandibular reconstructions and dental implants with fixed partial dentures demonstrated decreased average occlusal force; however, the difference did not reach the statistically significant level (p > 0.05. The most significant asymmetry of occlusal center location occurred among subjects with mandibular reconstructed areas larger than half of the mandibular arch. Conclusions: Comparison of the parameters of T-scan system used to analyze the occlusal function showed that the occlusal force was not an objective reference. Measurements of the location of the occlusal center appeared more repeatable, and were less affected by additional factors. The research results of this study showed that the size of a reconstruction did not affect the occlusal force after reconstruction and larger reconstructed areas did not decrease the average occlusal force. The most significant parameter was left and right asymmetry of the occlusion center (LROC and was measured in subjects with reconstruction areas larger than half

  15. Electronic structure of carbon nanotube systems measured with scanning tunneling microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbaker, Daniel Jay

    Carbon fullerenes are unusually structured molecules with robust mechanical and electronic properties. Their versatility is astounding; envisioned applications range from field emission displays to impregnated metal composites, battery storage media, and nanoelectronic devices. The combination of simple constituency, diverse behavior, and ease of fabrication makes these materials a cornerstone topic in current research. This thesis details scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments investigating how carbon nanotube fullerenes interact with and couple to their local environment. Scanning tunneling microscopy continues to be a key method for characterizing fullerenes, particularly in regards to their electronic properties. The atomic scale nature of this technique makes it uniquely suited for observing individual molecules and determining correlations between locally measured electronic properties and the particular environment of the molecule. The primary subject of this study is single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), which were observed under various perturbative influences resulting in measurable changes in the electronic structure. Additionally, fullerene heterostructures formed by the encapsulation of C60 molecules within the hollow interiors of SWNTs were characterized for the first time with STM. These novel macromolecules (dubbed "peapods") demonstrate the potential for custom engineering the properties of fullerene materials. Measurements indicate that the properties of individual nanotubes depend sensitively on local interactions. In particular, pronounced changes in electronic behavior are observed in nanotubes exhibiting mechanical distortion, interacting with extrinsic materials (including other nanotubes), and possessing intrinsic defects in the atomic lattice. In fullerene peapods, while no discernable change in the atomic ordering of the encapsulating nanotubes was evident, the presence of interior C60 molecules has a dramatic effect on the

  16. Electro interstitial scan system: assessment of 10 years of research and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarek A

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Albert MaarekResearch and Development, LD Technology, Miami, FL, USABackground: Ten years of research and development have allowed an understanding of how the electro interstitial scan (EIS works and what its clinical applications may be.Materials and methods: The EIS is a galvanic skin response device. The measurements are performed by electrical stimulation of the post sympathetic cholinergic fiber with weak DC current and voltage 1.28V applied during 2 minutes and in bipolar mode.Current scientific knowledge: EIS electrical measurements are related to: (1 the concentration of free chloride ions in the interstitial fluid, which affects the transfer of electrical current and the ratio intensity/voltage; (2 the morphology of the interstitial fluid, which is related to the electrical dispersion calculated from the Cole equation (α parameter; (3 electrical stimulation, which causes a change in sweat rate at the passive electrodes – post sympathetic cholinergic fiber electrical stimulation appears to be responsible for activating M2 receptors, which regulate nitric oxide (NO production in the endothelial cell and cause vasodilation and a released sweat response; and (4 the electrochemical redox reactions (electrolysis of the released sweat on electrodes, which are different on the bulk of the metal electrodes (O2 + [4H+] + [4e-] and on the Ag/AgCl disposable electrodes (AgCl precipitation.Results: For each of the EIS clinical results, various explanations were posited, such as: (1 electrical stimulation of the postsympathetic cholinergic fiber-activating NO production in the endothelial cell, which causes vasodilation and a released sweat response (diabetes detection; (2 estimation of interstitial fluid's acid–base balance, which is reflected in an electrochemical reaction on the bulk of the electrodes through the released sweat (prostate cancer detection; (3 estimation of cerebral interstitial fluid chloride ions (detection of ADHD in

  17. Family Studies of Sensorimotor and Neurocognitive Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-11-1-0738 TITLE: Family Studies of Sensorimotor and Neurocognitive Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum Disorders PRINCIPAL...DATES COVERED 1 Sep 2011 – 31 Aug 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Family Studies of Sensorimotor and Neurocognitive Heterogeneity in Autism Spectrum...etiopathological heterogeneity. 15. SUBJECT TERMS sensorimotor control; autism spectrum disorder; eye movements; grip force; familiality 16

  18. Extrinsic Parameter Calibration for Line Scanning Cameras on Ground Vehicles with Navigation Systems Using a Calibration Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Wendel

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Line scanning cameras, which capture only a single line of pixels, have been increasingly used in ground based mobile or robotic platforms. In applications where it is advantageous to directly georeference the camera data to world coordinates, an accurate estimate of the camera’s 6D pose is required. This paper focuses on the common case where a mobile platform is equipped with a rigidly mounted line scanning camera, whose pose is unknown, and a navigation system providing vehicle body pose estimates. We propose a novel method that estimates the camera’s pose relative to the navigation system. The approach involves imaging and manually labelling a calibration pattern with distinctly identifiable points, triangulating these points from camera and navigation system data and reprojecting them in order to compute a likelihood, which is maximised to estimate the 6D camera pose. Additionally, a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to estimate the uncertainty of the offset. Tested on two different platforms, the method was able to estimate the pose to within 0.06 m/1.05 ∘ and 0.18 m/2.39 ∘ . We also propose several approaches to displaying and interpreting the 6D results in a human readable way.

  19. CO-REGISTRATION OF DSMs GENERATED BY UAV AND TERRESTRIAL LASER SCANNING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Persad

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An approach for the co-registration of Digital Surface Models (DSMs derived from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs and Terrestrial Laser Scanners (TLS is proposed. Specifically, a wavelet-based feature descriptor for matching surface keypoints on the 2.5D DSMs is developed. DSMs are useful in wide-scope of various applications such as 3D building modelling and reconstruction, cultural heritage, urban and environmental planning, aircraft navigation/path routing, accident and crime scene reconstruction, mining as well as, topographic map revision and change detection. For these listed applications, it is not uncommon that there will be a need for automatically aligning multi-temporal DSMs which may have been acquired from multiple sensors, with different specifications over a period of time, and may have various overlaps. Terrestrial laser scanners usually capture urban facades in an accurate manner; however this is not the case for building roof structures. On the other hand, vertical photography from UAVs can capture the roofs. Therefore, the automatic fusion of UAV and laser-scanning based DSMs is addressed here as it serves various geospatial applications.

  20. MEBES IV: a new generation raster-scan electron-beam lithography system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abboud, Frank E.; Poreda, John T.; Smith, Robert L.

    1992-07-01

    The MEBES IV Electron Beam Lithography System was developed to meet requirements for advanced maskmaking. This necessitates support of 16- and 64-Mbit DRAM production and early development of 256-Mbit DRAMs. Using the original MEBES concepts and Etec's many years of experience with MEBES manufacturing, several major subsystems were redesigned, including the electron beam column and electron source. New test methods and test patterns were also developed to characterize system performance. As a result of the combined efforts of Etec Manufacturing and Engineering, a number of MEBES IV systems have already been built and tested. This paper provides a brief description of the MEBES IV systems. The new test patterns and methods are discussed. System performance data collected during factory acceptance of MEBES IV-LaB6 and -TFE (thermal field emission) systems are also presented.

  1. A flexible LabVIEW{sup TM}-based data acquisition and analysis system for scanning microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morse, Daniel H. E-mail: dhmorse@sandia.gov; Antolak, Arlyn J.; Bench, Graham S.; Roberts, Mark L

    1999-09-02

    A new data analysis system has been developed with computer-controlled beam and sample positioning, video sample imaging, multiple large solid angle detectors for X-rays and gamma-rays, and surface barrier detectors for charged particles. The system uses the LabVIEW{sup TM} programming language allowing it to be easily ported between different computer operating systems. In the present configuration, digital signal processors are directly interfaced to a SCSI CAMAC controller. However, the modular software design permits the substitution of other hardware with LabVIEW-supported drivers. On-line displays of histogram and two-dimensional elemental map images provide a user-friendly data acquisition interface. Subregions of the two-dimensional maps may be selected interactively for detailed analysis or for subsequent scanning. Off-line data processing of archived data currently yields elemental maps, analyzed spectra and reconstructions of tomographic data.

  2. The evaluation of unmanned aerial system-based photogrammetry and terrestrial laser scanning to generate DEMs of agricultural watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouédraogo, Mohamar Moussa; Degré, Aurore; Debouche, Charles; Lisein, Jonathan

    2014-06-01

    Agricultural watersheds tend to be places of intensive farming activities that permanently modify their microtopography. The surface characteristics of the soil vary depending on the crops that are cultivated in these areas. Agricultural soil microtopography plays an important role in the quantification of runoff and sediment transport because the presence of crops, crop residues, furrows and ridges may impact the direction of water flow. To better assess such phenomena, 3-D reconstructions of high-resolution agricultural watershed topography are essential. Fine-resolution topographic data collection technologies can be used to discern highly detailed elevation variability in these areas. Knowledge of the strengths and weaknesses of existing technologies used for data collection on agricultural watersheds may be helpful in choosing an appropriate technology. This study assesses the suitability of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and unmanned aerial system (UAS) photogrammetry for collecting the fine-resolution topographic data required to generate accurate, high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) in a small watershed area (12 ha). Because of farming activity, 14 TLS scans (≈ 25 points m- 2) were collected without using high-definition surveying (HDS) targets, which are generally used to mesh adjacent scans. To evaluate the accuracy of the DEMs created from the TLS scan data, 1098 ground control points (GCPs) were surveyed using a real time kinematic global positioning system (RTK-GPS). Linear regressions were then applied to each DEM to remove vertical errors from the TLS point elevations, errors caused by the non-perpendicularity of the scanner's vertical axis to the local horizontal plane, and errors correlated with the distance to the scanner's position. The scans were then meshed to generate a DEMTLS with a 1 × 1 m spatial resolution. The Agisoft PhotoScan and MicMac software packages were used to process the aerial photographs and generate a DEMPSC

  3. No Neuromuscular Side-Effects of Scopolamine in Sensorimotor Control and Force-Generating Capacity Among Parabolic Fliers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritzmann, Ramona; Freyler, Kathrin; Krause, Anne; Gollhofer, Albert

    2016-10-01

    Scopolamine is used to counteract motion sickness in parabolic flight (PF) experiments. Although the drug's anticholinergic properties effectively impede vomiting, recent studies document other sensory side-effects in the central nervous system that may considerably influence sensorimotor performance. This study aimed to quantify such effects in order to determine if they are of methodological and operational significance for sensorimotor control. Ten subjects of a PF campaign received a weight-sex-based dose of a subcutaneous scopolamine injection. Sensorimotor performance was recorded before medication, 20min, 2h and 4h after injection in four space-relevant paradigms: balance control in one-leg stance with eyes open (protocol 1) and closed as well as force-generating capacity in countermovement jumps and hops (protocol 2). Postural sway, forces and joint angles were recorded. Neuromuscular control was assessed by electromyography and peripheral nerve stimulation; H-reflexes and M-waves were used to monitor spinal excitability of the Ia afferent reflex circuitry and maximal motor output. (1) H-reflex amplitudes, latencies and functional reflexes remained unchanged after scopolamine injection. (2) M-waves, neuromuscular activation intensities and antagonistic muscle coordination did not change with scopolamine administration. (3) Balance performance and force-generating capacity were not impeded by scopolamine. We found no evidence for changes in sensorimotor control in response to scopolamine injection. Sensory processing of daily relevant reflexes, spinal excitability, maximal motor output and performance parameters were not sensitive to the medication. We conclude that scopolamine administration can be used to counteract motion sickness in PF without methodological and operational concerns or interference regarding sensorimotor skills associated with neuromuscular control.

  4. NAVIS-An UGV indoor positioning system using laser scan matching for large-area real-time applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Jaakkola, Anttoni; Liu, Jinbing; Hyyppä, Juha; Hyyppä, Hannu

    2014-07-04

    Laser scan matching with grid-based maps is a promising tool for real-time indoor positioning of mobile Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs). While there are critical implementation problems, such as the ability to estimate the position by sensing the unknown indoor environment with sufficient accuracy and low enough latency for stable vehicle control, further development work is necessary. Unfortunately, most of the existing methods employ heuristics for quick positioning in which numerous accumulated errors easily lead to loss of positioning accuracy. This severely restricts its applications in large areas and over lengthy periods of time. This paper introduces an efficient real-time mobile UGV indoor positioning system for large-area applications using laser scan matching with an improved probabilistically-motivated Maximum Likelihood Estimation (IMLE) algorithm, which is based on a multi-resolution patch-divided grid likelihood map. Compared with traditional methods, the improvements embodied in IMLE include: (a) Iterative Closed Point (ICP) preprocessing, which adaptively decreases the search scope; (b) a totally brute search matching method on multi-resolution map layers, based on the likelihood value between current laser scan and the grid map within refined search scope, adopted to obtain the global optimum position at each scan matching; and (c) a patch-divided likelihood map supporting a large indoor area. A UGV platform called NAVIS was designed, manufactured, and tested based on a low-cost robot integrating a LiDAR and an odometer sensor to verify the IMLE algorithm. A series of experiments based on simulated data and field tests with NAVIS proved that the proposed IMEL algorithm is a better way to perform local scan matching that can offer a quick and stable positioning solution with high accuracy so it can be part of a large area localization/mapping, application. The NAVIS platform can reach an updating rate of 12 Hz in a feature-rich environment and 2 Hz

  5. ENHANCE: Enhancing Brain Plasticity for Sensorimotor Recovery in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    ENHANCE: Enhancing Brain Plasticity for Sensorimotor Recovery in Spastic Hemiparesis. Often, people who have had a stroke experience problems recovering the use of their arms, and the issue may persist for a long time. This research will test new ways to boost recovery using non-painful brain stimulation and ...

  6. The role of sensorimotor difficulties in autism spectrum conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penelope Hannant

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractIn addition to difficulties in social communication, current diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC also incorporate sensorimotor difficulties; repetitive motor movements and atypical reactivity to sensory input (APA, 2013. This paper explores whether sensorimotor difficulties are associated with the development and maintenance of symptoms in ASC. Firstly, studies have shown difficulties coordinating sensory input into planning and executing movement effectively in ASC. Secondly, studies have shown associations between sensory reactivity and motor coordination with core ASC symptoms, suggesting these areas each strongly influence the development of social and communication skills. Thirdly, studies have begun to demonstrate that sensorimotor difficulties in ASC could account for reduced social attention early in development, with a cascading effect on later social, communicative and emotional development. These results suggest that sensorimotor difficulties not only contribute to non-social difficulties such as narrow circumscribed interests, but also to the development of social behaviours such as effectively coordinating eye contact with speech and gesture, interpreting others’ behaviour and responding appropriately. Further research is needed to explore the link between sensory and motor difficulties in ASC, and their contribution to the development and maintenance of ASC.

  7. Sensorimotor peripheral nerve function and physical activity in older men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange-Maia, B. S.; Cauley, J A; Newman, Anne B

    2016-01-01

    We determined whether sensorimotor peripheral nerve (PN) function was associated with physical activity (PA) in older men. The Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study Pittsburgh, PA, site (n = 328, age 78.8 ± 4.7 years) conducted PN testing, including: peroneal motor and sural sensory nerve conduction...

  8. The Sensorimotor Contributions to Implicit Memory, Familiarity, and Recollection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha

    2012-01-01

    The sensorimotor contributions to memory for prior occurrence were investigated. Previous research has shown that both implicit memory and familiarity draw on gains in stimulus-related processing fluency for old, compared with novel, stimuli, but recollection does not. Recently, it has been demonstrated that processing fluency itself resides in…

  9. Development of an Integrated Sensorimotor Countermeasure Suite for Spaceflight Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J. J.; Batson, C. D.; Caldwell, E. E. (Inventor); Feiveson, A. H.; Kreutzberg, G. A.; Miller, C. A.; Mulavara, A. P.; Oddsson, L. I. E.; Peters, B. T.; Ploutz-Synder, L. L.; hide

    2017-01-01

    Astronauts experience Postflight disturbances in postural and locomotor control due to sensorimotor adaptation to the unique environment of spaceflight. These alterations might have adverse consequences if a rapid egress were required following a Mars landing or on return to Earth after a water landing. Currently, no operational countermeasure is targeted to mitigate Postflight balance and locomotor dysfunction.

  10. Workspace and sensorimotor theories : Complementary approaches to experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Degenaar, J.; Keijzer, F.

    A serious difficulty for theories of consciousness is to go beyond mere correlation between physical processes and experience. Currently, neural workspace and sensorimotor contingency theories are two of the most promising approaches to make any headway here. This paper explores the relation between

  11. The Role of Sensorimotor Difficulties in Autism Spectrum Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannant, Penelope; Tavassoli, Teresa; Cassidy, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    In addition to difficulties in social communication, current diagnostic criteria for autism spectrum conditions (ASC) also incorporate sensorimotor difficulties, repetitive motor movements, and atypical reactivity to sensory input (1). This paper explores whether sensorimotor difficulties are associated with the development and maintenance of symptoms in ASC. First, studies have shown difficulties coordinating sensory input into planning and executing movement effectively in ASC. Second, studies have shown associations between sensory reactivity and motor coordination with core ASC symptoms, suggesting these areas each strongly influence the development of social and communication skills. Third, studies have begun to demonstrate that sensorimotor difficulties in ASC could account for reduced social attention early in development, with a cascading effect on later social, communicative and emotional development. These results suggest that sensorimotor difficulties not only contribute to non-social difficulties such as narrow circumscribed interests, but also to the development of social behaviors such as effectively coordinating eye contact with speech and gesture, interpreting others’ behavior, and responding appropriately. Further research is needed to explore the link between sensory and motor difficulties in ASC and their contribution to the development and maintenance of ASC. PMID:27559329

  12. Increased connectivity between sensorimotor and attentional areas in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onu, Mihaela; Badea, Liviu; Roceanu, Adina; Tivarus, Madalina; Bajenaru, Ovidiu

    2015-09-01

    Our study is using Independent Component Analysis (ICA) to evaluate functional connectivity changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) in an unbiased manner. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data was collected for 27 PD patients and 16 healthy subjects. Differences for intra- and inter-network connectivity between healthy subjects and patients were investigated using FMRIB Software Library (FSL) tools (Melodic ICA, dual regression, FSLNets). Twenty-three ICA maps were identified as components of neuronal origin. For intra-network connectivity changes, eight components showed a significant connectivity increase in patients (p < 0.05); these were correlated with clinical scores and were largest for (sensori)motor networks. For inter-network connectivity changes, we found higher connectivity between the sensorimotor network and the spatial attention network (p = 0.0098) and lower connectivity between anterior and posterior default mode networks (DMN) (p =  0.024), anterior DMN and visual recognition networks (p = 0.026), as well as between visual attention and main dorsal attention networks (p = 0.03), for patients as compared to healthy subjects. The area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for the best predictor (partial correlation between sensorimotor and spatial attention networks) was 0.772. These functional alterations were not associated with any gray or white matter structural changes. Our results show higher connectivity between sensorimotor and spatial attention areas in patients that may be related to the reduced movement automaticity in PD.

  13. Sensorimotor Incongruence in People with Musculoskeletal Pain: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. de Kooning; Jo Nijs; Dr. L.P. Voogt; S. Don; M. Meeus

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal pain has major public health implications, but the theoretical framework remains unclear. It is hypothesized that sensorimotor incongruence (SMI) might be a cause of long-lasting pain sensations in people with chronic musculoskeletal pain. Research data about experimental SMI

  14. Measurement of stray neutron doses inside the treatment room from a proton pencil beam scanning system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojżeszek, N; Farah, J; Kłodowska, M; Ploc, O; Stolarczyk, L; Waligórski, M P R; Olko, P

    2017-02-01

    To measure the environmental doses from stray neutrons in the vicinity of a solid slab phantom as a function of beam energy, field size and modulation width, using the proton pencil beam scanning (PBS) technique. Measurements were carried out using two extended range WENDI-II rem-counters and three tissue equivalent proportional counters. Detectors were suitably placed at different distances around the RW3 slab phantom. Beam irradiation parameters were varied to cover the clinical ranges of proton beam energies (100-220MeV), field sizes ((2×2)-(20×20)cm(2)) and modulation widths (0-15cm). For pristine proton peak irradiations, large variations of neutron H(∗)(10)/D were observed with changes in beam energy and field size, while these were less dependent on modulation widths. H(∗)(10)/D for pristine proton pencil beams varied between 0.04μSvGy(-1) at beam energy 100MeV and a (2×2)cm(2) field at 2.25m distance and 90° angle with respect to the beam axis, and 72.3μSvGy(-1) at beam energy 200MeV and a (20×20) cm(2) field at 1m distance along the beam axis. The obtained results will be useful in benchmarking Monte Carlo calculations of proton radiotherapy in PBS mode and in estimating the exposure to stray radiation of the patient. Such estimates may be facilitated by the obtained best-fitted simple analytical formulae relating the stray neutron doses at points of interest with beam irradiation parameters. Copyright © 2017 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Comparison of pain scores between patients undergoing panretinal photocoagulation using navigated or pattern scan laser systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umit Ubeyt Inan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Purpose: To compare the pain responses of patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR undergoing panretinal photocoagulation (PRP using either pattern scan laser (PASCAL or navigated laser photocoagulation (NAVILAS. Methods: Patients diagnosed with PDR were randomly assigned to undergo either PASCAL or NAVILAS photocoagulation treatment. PRP was performed using the multi-shot mode with a spot size of 200-400 µm and a pulse duration of 30 ms to obtain a white-grayish spot on the retina. Parameters were identical in both procedures. After 30 min of PRP application, patients were asked to verbally describe their pain perception as either "none," "mild," "moderate," "severe," or "very severe" using a verbal rating scale (VRS and visual analog scale (VAS by indicating a score from "0" to "10," representing the severity of pain from "no pain" to "severe pain." Results: A total of 60 eyes of 60 patients (20 females and 40 males diagnosed with PDR were treated. The mean age of patients was 62.22 ± 9.19 years, and the mean diabetes duration was 195.47 ± 94.54 months. The mean number of laser spots delivered during PRP was 389.47 ± 71.52 in the NAVILAS group and 392.70 ± 54.33 in the PASCAL group (p=0.57. The difference in pain responses between patients in the NAVILAS and PASCAL groups was significant with regard to the mean VRS (1.10 ± 0.67 and 1.47 ± 0.69, respectively; p=0.042 and mean VAS (2.13 ± 1.17 and 2.97 ± 1.35, respectively; p=0.034 scores. Conclusions: Pain responses in patients undergoing PRP with a 30-ms pulse duration were significantly milder in the NAVILAS group than in the PASCAL group.

  16. MRI Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

  17. Bone Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  18. A Model Based System For The Interpretation Of MR Human Brain Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapouleas, Ioannis; Kulikowski, Casimir A.

    1988-06-01

    This paper describes a prototype system for identifying and characterizing Multiple Sclerosis (MS) lesions in the brain from magnetic resonance (MR) images. The system is designed to obtain an initial segmentation of each cross-sectional image with low level vision methods, and then derive successive refinements of image subregions through a model-driven approach that correlates relevant information from T1 and T2 images and 3-D information from complementary cross-sections when necessary. The system uses a b-spline surface model of the brain that matches the characteristics of the individual's brain. The normal internal structures of the brain are then scaled proportionately before carrying out the successive refinement operations for the detection of the MS lesions. The low level vision and the solid modeling components of the system have been successfully tested on several hundred images from a number of MR patient studies. The first steps of model fitting have been implemented and show promising results.

  19. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    CERN Document Server

    Fazzari, D M

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a containe...

  20. A high sensitivity optically stimulated luminescence scanning system for measurement of single sand-sized grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duller, G.A.T.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Kohsiek, P.

    1999-01-01

    An instrument has been designed for the routine analysis of the optically stimulated luminescence signal from single grains of sand. The system is capable of analysing over 3000 individual grains in a single measurement sequence, and the OSL signal from each grain can be read in less than 3 s....... The design principles are described, along with preliminary measurements that illustrate the operation of the system and its capabilities....

  1. The impact of sensorimotor experience on affective evaluation of dance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Drommelschmidt, Kim A.; Cross, Emily S.

    2013-01-01

    Past research demonstrates that we are more likely to positively evaluate a stimulus if we have had previous experience with that stimulus. This has been shown for judgment of faces, architecture, artworks and body movements. In contrast, other evidence suggests that this relationship can also work in the inverse direction, at least in the domain of watching dance. Specifically, it has been shown that in certain contexts, people derive greater pleasure from watching unfamiliar movements they would not be able to physically reproduce compared to simpler, familiar actions they could physically reproduce. It remains unknown, however, how different kinds of experience with complex actions, such as dance, might change observers' affective judgments of these movements. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between experience and affective evaluation of whole body movements. In a between-subjects design, participants received either physical dance training with a video game system, visual and auditory experience or auditory experience only. Participants' aesthetic preferences for dance stimuli were measured before and after the training sessions. Results show that participants from the physical training group not only improved their physical performance of the dance sequences, but also reported higher enjoyment and interest in the stimuli after training. This suggests that physically learning particular movements leads to greater enjoyment while observing them. These effects are not simply due to increased familiarity with audio or visual elements of the stimuli, as the other two training groups showed no increase in aesthetic ratings post-training. We suggest these results support an embodied simulation account of aesthetics, and discuss how the present findings contribute to a better understanding of the shaping of preferences by sensorimotor experience. PMID:24027511

  2. The impact of sensorimotor experience on affective evaluation of dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise eKirsch

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Past research demonstrates that we are more likely to positively evaluate a stimulus if we have had previous experience with that stimulus. This has been shown for judgement of faces, architecture, artworks and body movements. In contrast, other evidence suggests that this relationship can also work in the inverse direction, at least in the domain of watching dance. Specifically, it has been shown that in certain contexts, people derive greater pleasure from watching unfamiliar movements they would not be able to physically reproduce compared to simpler, familiar actions they could physically reproduce. It remains unknown, however, how different kinds of experience with complex actions, such as dance, might change observers’ affective judgements of these movements. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between experience and affective evaluation of whole body movements. In a between-subjects design, participants received either physical dance training with a video game system, visual and auditory experience or auditory experience only. Participants’ aesthetic preferences for dance stimuli were measured before and after the training sessions. Results show that participants from the physical training group not only improved their physical performance of the dance sequences, but also reported higher enjoyment and interest in the stimuli after training. This suggests that physically learning particular movements leads to greater enjoyment while observing them. These effects are not simply due to increased familiarity with audio or visual elements of the stimuli, as the other two training groups showed no increase in aesthetic ratings post-training. We suggest these results support an embodied simulation account of aesthetics, and discuss how the present findings contribute to a better understanding of the shaping of preferences by sensorimotor experience.

  3. EEG sensorimotor correlates of translating sounds into actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime A. Pineda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the actions of others is a necessary foundational cornerstone for effective and affective social interactions. Such understanding may result from a mapping of observed actions as well as heard sounds onto one’s own motor representations of those events. To examine the electrophysiological basis of action-related sounds, EEG data were collected in two studies from adults who were exposed to auditory events in one of three categories: action (either hand- or mouth-based sounds, non-action (environmental sounds, and control sounds (scrambled versions of action sounds. In both studies, triplets of sounds of the same category were typically presented, although occasionally, to insure an attentive state, trials containing a sound from a different category were presented within the triplet and participants were asked to respond to this oddball event either covertly in one study or overtly in another. Additionally, participants in both studies were asked to mimic hand- and mouth-based motor actions associated with the sounds (motor task. Action sounds elicited larger EEG mu rhythm (8-13 Hz suppression, relative to control sounds, primarily over left hemisphere, while non-action sounds showed larger mu suppression primarily over right hemisphere. Furthermore, hand-based sounds elicited greater mu suppression over the hand area in sensorimotor cortex compared to mouth-based sounds. These patterns of mu suppression across cortical regions to different categories of sounds and to effector-specific sounds suggest differential engagement of a mirroring system in the human brain when processing sounds.

  4. The impact of sensorimotor experience on affective evaluation of dance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Louise P; Drommelschmidt, Kim A; Cross, Emily S

    2013-01-01

    Past research demonstrates that we are more likely to positively evaluate a stimulus if we have had previous experience with that stimulus. This has been shown for judgment of faces, architecture, artworks and body movements. In contrast, other evidence suggests that this relationship can also work in the inverse direction, at least in the domain of watching dance. Specifically, it has been shown that in certain contexts, people derive greater pleasure from watching unfamiliar movements they would not be able to physically reproduce compared to simpler, familiar actions they could physically reproduce. It remains unknown, however, how different kinds of experience with complex actions, such as dance, might change observers' affective judgments of these movements. Our aim was to clarify the relationship between experience and affective evaluation of whole body movements. In a between-subjects design, participants received either physical dance training with a video game system, visual and auditory experience or auditory experience only. Participants' aesthetic preferences for dance stimuli were measured before and after the training sessions. Results show that participants from the physical training group not only improved their physical performance of the dance sequences, but also reported higher enjoyment and interest in the stimuli after training. This suggests that physically learning particular movements leads to greater enjoyment while observing them. These effects are not simply due to increased familiarity with audio or visual elements of the stimuli, as the other two training groups showed no increase in aesthetic ratings post-training. We suggest these results support an embodied simulation account of aesthetics, and discuss how the present findings contribute to a better understanding of the shaping of preferences by sensorimotor experience.

  5. REVIEW: Internal models in sensorimotor integration: perspectives from adaptive control theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tin, Chung; Poon, Chi-Sang

    2005-09-01

    Internal models and adaptive controls are empirical and mathematical paradigms that have evolved separately to describe learning control processes in brain systems and engineering systems, respectively. This paper presents a comprehensive appraisal of the correlation between these paradigms with a view to forging a unified theoretical framework that may benefit both disciplines. It is suggested that the classic equilibrium-point theory of impedance control of arm movement is analogous to continuous gain-scheduling or high-gain adaptive control within or across movement trials, respectively, and that the recently proposed inverse internal model is akin to adaptive sliding control originally for robotic manipulator applications. Modular internal models' architecture for multiple motor tasks is a form of multi-model adaptive control. Stochastic methods, such as generalized predictive control, reinforcement learning, Bayesian learning and Hebbian feedback covariance learning, are reviewed and their possible relevance to motor control is discussed. Possible applicability of a Luenberger observer and an extended Kalman filter to state estimation problems—such as sensorimotor prediction or the resolution of vestibular sensory ambiguity—is also discussed. The important role played by vestibular system identification in postural control suggests an indirect adaptive control scheme whereby system states or parameters are explicitly estimated prior to the implementation of control. This interdisciplinary framework should facilitate the experimental elucidation of the mechanisms of internal models in sensorimotor systems and the reverse engineering of such neural mechanisms into novel brain-inspired adaptive control paradigms in future.

  6. Walking reduces sensorimotor network connectivity compared to standing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Considerable effort has been devoted to mapping the functional and effective connectivity of the human brain, but these efforts have largely been limited to tasks involving stationary subjects. Recent advances with high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and Independent Components Analysis (ICA) have enabled study of electrocortical activity during human locomotion. The goal of this work was to measure the effective connectivity of cortical activity during human standing and walking. Methods We recorded 248-channels of EEG as eight young healthy subjects stood and walked on a treadmill both while performing a visual oddball discrimination task and not performing the task. ICA parsed underlying electrocortical, electromyographic, and artifact sources from the EEG signals. Inverse source modeling methods and clustering algorithms localized posterior, anterior, prefrontal, left sensorimotor, and right sensorimotor clusters of electrocortical sources across subjects. We applied a directional measure of connectivity, conditional Granger causality, to determine the effective connectivity between electrocortical sources. Results Connections involving sensorimotor clusters were weaker for walking than standing regardless of whether the subject was performing the simultaneous cognitive task or not. This finding supports the idea that cortical involvement during standing is greater than during walking, possibly because spinal neural networks play a greater role in locomotor control than standing control. Conversely, effective connectivity involving non-sensorimotor areas was stronger for walking than standing when subjects were engaged in the simultaneous cognitive task. Conclusions Our results suggest that standing results in greater functional connectivity between sensorimotor cortical areas than walking does. Greater cognitive attention to standing posture than to walking control could be one interpretation of that finding. These techniques could be applied

  7. Hyperspectral reflectance and fluorescence line-scan imaging system for online detection of fecal contamination on apples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Moon S.; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Chao, Kaunglin; Lefcourt, Alan M.; Chen, Yud-Ren

    2006-10-01

    We have developed nondestructive opto-electronic imaging techniques for rapid assessment of safety and wholesomeness of foods. A recently developed fast hyperspectral line-scan imaging system integrated with a commercial apple-sorting machine was evaluated for rapid detection of animal feces matter on apples. Apples obtained from a local orchard were artificially contaminated with cow feces. For the online trial, hyperspectral images with 60 spectral channels, reflectance in the visible to near infrared regions and fluorescence emissions with UV-A excitation, were acquired from apples moving at a processing sorting-line speed of three apples per second. Reflectance and fluorescence imaging required a passive light source, and each method used independent continuous wave (CW) light sources. In this paper, integration of the hyperspectral imaging system with the commercial applesorting machine and preliminary results for detection of fecal contamination on apples, mainly based on the fluorescence method, are presented.

  8. The Situated HKB Model: how sensorimotor spatial coupling can alter oscillatory brain dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel eAguilera

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increase both of dynamic and embodied/situated approaches in cognitive science, there is still little research on how coordination dynamics under a closed sensorimotor loop might induce qualitatively different patterns of neural oscillations compared to those found in isolated systems. We take as a departure point the HKB model, a generic model for dynamic coordination between two oscillatory components, which has proven useful for a vast range of applications in cognitive science and whose dynamical properties are well understood. In order to explore the properties of this model under closed sensorimotor conditions we present what we call the situated HKB model: a robotic model that performs a gradient climbing task and whose "brain" is modelled by the HKB equation. We solve the differential equations that define the agent-environment coupling for increasing values of the agent's sensitivity (sensor gain, finding different behavioural strategies. These results are compared with two different models: a decoupled HKB with no sensory input and a passively-coupled HKB that is also decoupled but receives a structured input generated by a situated agent. We can precisely quantify and qualitatively describe how the properties of the system, when studied in coupled conditions, radically change in a manner that cannot be deduced from the decoupled HKB models alone. We also present the notion of neurodynamic signature as the dynamic pattern that correlates with a specific behaviour and we show how only a situated agent can display this signature compared to an agent that simply receives the exact same sensory input.To our knowledge, this is the first analytical solution of the HKB equation in a sensorimotor loop and qualitative and quantitative analytic comparison of spatially coupled vs. decoupled oscillatory controllers. Finally, we discuss the limitations and possible generalization of our model to contemporary neuroscience and philosophy

  9. The situated HKB model: how sensorimotor spatial coupling can alter oscillatory brain dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Miguel; Bedia, Manuel G.; Santos, Bruno A.; Barandiaran, Xabier E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the increase of both dynamic and embodied/situated approaches in cognitive science, there is still little research on how coordination dynamics under a closed sensorimotor loop might induce qualitatively different patterns of neural oscillations compared to those found in isolated systems. We take as a departure point the Haken-Kelso-Bunz (HKB) model, a generic model for dynamic coordination between two oscillatory components, which has proven useful for a vast range of applications in cognitive science and whose dynamical properties are well understood. In order to explore the properties of this model under closed sensorimotor conditions we present what we call the situated HKB model: a robotic model that performs a gradient climbing task and whose “brain” is modeled by the HKB equation. We solve the differential equations that define the agent-environment coupling for increasing values of the agent's sensitivity (sensor gain), finding different behavioral strategies. These results are compared with two different models: a decoupled HKB with no sensory input and a passively-coupled HKB that is also decoupled but receives a structured input generated by a situated agent. We can precisely quantify and qualitatively describe how the properties of the system, when studied in coupled conditions, radically change in a manner that cannot be deduced from the decoupled HKB models alone. We also present the notion of neurodynamic signature as the dynamic pattern that correlates with a specific behavior and we show how only a situated agent can display this signature compared to an agent that simply receives the exact same sensory input. To our knowledge, this is the first analytical solution of the HKB equation in a sensorimotor loop and qualitative and quantitative analytic comparison of spatially coupled vs. decoupled oscillatory controllers. Finally, we discuss the limitations and possible generalization of our model to contemporary neuroscience and

  10. Efficacy of 3 different irrigation systems on removal of calcium hydroxide from the root canal: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alturaiki, Sami; Lamphon, Hebah; Edrees, Hadeel; Ahlquist, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of different irrigation systems on removing calcium hydroxide (Ca[OH]2) from the root canal by using a scanning electron microscope. Forty extracted single-rooted teeth were divided randomly into 4 groups. Canal instrumentation was done, and the teeth were filled with Ca(OH)2 paste. One week later, 4 techniques were used for Ca(OH)2 removal. In the first group, the canals were cleaned with a master apical file. The second, third, and fourth groups were irrigated using the EndoVac (Discus Dental, Culver City, CA), EndoActivator (Dentsply Tulsa Dental Specialties, Tulsa, OK), and ProUltra (Dentsply Tulsa, Tulsa, OK) systems, respectively. All the groups were irrigated with 3 mL (18%) EDTA and 3 mL (1%) NaOCl for 1 minute. The canal walls were viewed, and the remaining amount of Ca(OH)2 was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope. A scoring system was used to assess the amount of residue Ca(OH)2 on each third of the canal. The obtained data for comparisons between the conventional irrigation needle and each device were statistically analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U test. To compare the 4 devices, the results were statistically analyzed using the analysis of variance test. None of the investigated techniques removed the Ca(OH)2 dressing completely. However, the EndoActivator System showed better results in removing Ca(OH)2 in each third of the root canals in comparison with the other techniques. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Understanding Ionic Bonding--A Scan across the Croatian Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladušic, R.; Bucat, R. B.; Ožic, M.

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted on the understandings of the accepted model of ionic substances that are held by participants at all levels of the chemical education system in Croatia, including secondary school students, university students, and chemistry teachers. We follow the research of Taber who found that a diagram of a layer of a sodium chloride…

  12. Twelve-point scale grading system of scanning electron microscopic examination to investigate subtle changes in damaged hair surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S Y; Choi, A R; Baek, J H; Kim, H O; Shin, M K; Koh, J S

    2016-11-01

    To assess the hair surface condition, scanning electron microscope (SEM) is commonly used and it remains an indispensable hair morphology characterization technique. Yet, the technique is criticized for having subjective viewpoints and limitations in distinguishing the appearance of cuticle layers. The aim of this study is to establish an objective classification system and also to subdivide by detailed description of damaged cuticle layers. Hair samples were collected from female subjects (n = 500) who participated in hair efficacy study and Asian hair bunches (n = 180) that were previously collected. Damage to hair was initiated by chemical, heat stress and ultraviolet irradiation. We suggested the grading criterion on a 12-point scale and compared with a wide range grading system on a 5-point scale. We evaluated other hair surface-related parameters such as hair luster-ring and combing load to verify the validity and efficacy of our new grading system. The grading criterion on our 12-point scale revealed an improved discrimination compared to the wide range grading system. Hair surface-related parameters were significantly improved after hair care product, and these tendencies were likely to be determined to be similarly improved using the 12-point scale grading system. The 12-point scale classification system was demonstrated to be a more precise standardization and appropriate evaluation method to investigate the subtle distinction of the hair shaft after hair care product application. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Development and Verification of a Novel Robot-Integrated Fringe Projection 3D Scanning System for Large-Scale Metrology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Du

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Large-scale surfaces are prevalent in advanced manufacturing industries, and 3D profilometry of these surfaces plays a pivotal role for quality control. This paper proposes a novel and flexible large-scale 3D scanning system assembled by combining a robot, a binocular structured light scanner and a laser tracker. The measurement principle and system construction of the integrated system are introduced. A mathematical model is established for the global data fusion. Subsequently, a robust method is introduced for the establishment of the end coordinate system. As for hand-eye calibration, the calibration ball is observed by the scanner and the laser tracker simultaneously. With this data, the hand-eye relationship is solved, and then an algorithm is built to get the transformation matrix between the end coordinate system and the world coordinate system. A validation experiment is designed to verify the proposed algorithms. Firstly, a hand-eye calibration experiment is implemented and the computation of the transformation matrix is done. Then a car body rear is measured 22 times in order to verify the global data fusion algorithm. The 3D shape of the rear is reconstructed successfully. To evaluate the precision of the proposed method, a metric tool is built and the results are presented.

  14. Development and Verification of a Novel Robot-Integrated Fringe Projection 3D Scanning System for Large-Scale Metrology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Hui; Chen, Xiaobo; Xi, Juntong; Yu, Chengyi; Zhao, Bao

    2017-12-12

    Large-scale surfaces are prevalent in advanced manufacturing industries, and 3D profilometry of these surfaces plays a pivotal role for quality control. This paper proposes a novel and flexible large-scale 3D scanning system assembled by combining a robot, a binocular structured light scanner and a laser tracker. The measurement principle and system construction of the integrated system are introduced. A mathematical model is established for the global data fusion. Subsequently, a robust method is introduced for the establishment of the end coordinate system. As for hand-eye calibration, the calibration ball is observed by the scanner and the laser tracker simultaneously. With this data, the hand-eye relationship is solved, and then an algorithm is built to get the transformation matrix between the end coordinate system and the world coordinate system. A validation experiment is designed to verify the proposed algorithms. Firstly, a hand-eye calibration experiment is implemented and the computation of the transformation matrix is done. Then a car body rear is measured 22 times in order to verify the global data fusion algorithm. The 3D shape of the rear is reconstructed successfully. To evaluate the precision of the proposed method, a metric tool is built and the results are presented.

  15. SU-F-J-21: Clinical Evaluation of Surface Scanning Systems in Different Treatment Locations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moser, T; Karger, C [German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg (Germany); Stefanowicz, S; Rhein, B; Oetzel, D; Adeberg, S; Koenig, L; Wolf, R; Rieken, S [Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To reduce imaging dose in fractionated IGRT, the ability of optical surface imaging systems (OSIS) to detect setup errors was tested. Therefore, clinical studies to evaluate for different treatment locations setup corrections derived by OSIS in comparison with x-ray image guidance in fractionated radiation therapy was performed. Methods: The setup correction accuracy of an OSIS system (AlignRT, VisionRT, London, UK) will be analysed for the 4 tumour locations Pelvis, Upper Abdomen, Thorax and Breast, 20 patients for each location in comparison to a different system (Sentinel, C-RAD, SE). For each patient, the setup corrections of the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) of an Elekta Versa HD linear accelerator (Elekta, Crawley, UK) is considered as gold-standard and then compared with those of the OSIS for the first ten fractions retrospectively. There were no clinical decisions made based on the surrogate system. For the OSIS, the reference surface is highly important as it represents the actual ground truth. It can be obtained either with the system itself or the surface structure delineated in the planning CT can be imported via DICOM interface. In this paper, the first results for the treatment region thorax are presented. The reference image modalities were compared. Results: Table 1 displays the difference between the setup corrections obtained with OSIS and CBCT in lateral (LAT), longitudinal (LNG) and vertical (VRT) direction for the DICOM reference image. While the median deviations are within a few millimeters, some outliers showed large deviations. Generally, the mean deviation as well as the spread was smallest in lateral and largest in vertical direction. Conclusion: Although the system allows fast, simple and non-invasive determination of setup corrections, it should be evaluated treatment region dependant. Therefore, the study is ongoing. The application of OSIS may help to reduce the imaging dose for the patient. We gratefully acknowledge

  16. Design and Analysis of an Axisymmetric Phased Array Fed Gregorian Reflector System for Limited Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-22

    artist’s concept in Figure 1. Thin -film materials with and without electrically conducting coatings can be considered for designing a space...applications. For space applications, attitude control systems can provide good angular control of the antenna aperture with small residual angular...and optimized using numerical simulations conducted with the multilevel fast multipole method (MLFMM) using FEKO software (www.feko.info). The

  17. Design and Implementation of a Pilot Signal Scanning Receiver for CDMA Personal Communication Services Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blankenship, T. Keith III

    1998-01-01

    In cellular and personal communications services (PCS) systems based on code division multiple access (CDMA), a pilot signal is used on the forward link for synchronization, coherent detection, soft handoff, maintaining orthogonality between base stations, and, in the future, position location. It is critical that the percentage of power allocated to the pilot signal transmitted by each base station be fixed properly to ensure the ability of the CDMA ne...

  18. Using axicons for depth discrimination in excitation-emission laser scanning imaging systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Ignacio

    2017-10-01

    Besides generating good approximations to zero-order Bessel beams, an axicon lens coupled to a spatial filter can be used to collect light while preserving information on the depth coordinate of the source location. To demonstrate the principle, we describe an experimental excitation-emission fluorescence imaging system that uses an axicon twice: to generate an excitation Bessel beam and to collect the emitted light.

  19. Characterisation of bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline systems of phytantriol and water using cryo field emission scanning electron microscopy (cryo FESEM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, S B; Dong, Y-D; Boyd, B J; Rades, T; Hook, S

    2007-01-01

    Cubosomes are a novel lipid particulate delivery system currently being investigated for drug delivery purposes. The present study investigates bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline systems (bulk phase and cubosomes) formed by phytantriol and water using cryo field emission scanning electron microscopy (cryo FESEM). Previously cubosomes have been characterized by cryo transmission electron microscopy (cryo TEM) with small angle X-ray diffraction (SAXS) confirming the bicontinuous liquid crystalline type. Bulk cubic phase and cubosomes were prepared from phytantriol and Pluronic F127 and analysed using cryo FESEM and SAXS. The micrographs showed the cubic phase had a tortuous, bicontinuous nature with a non-intersecting network of water channels. The cubosomes also show the same underlying tortuous structure entirely consistent with that of the bulk cubic phase and closely resemble the mathematical description of cubosomes described using nodal surface representation. The structure of both systems was confirmed using SAXS as a bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline phase with Pn3m geometry. Cryo FESEM provides valuable insights into the morphological features of bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline systems. The unique details shown provide strength to support the nodal surface representation of bicontinuous cubic liquid crystalline systems. Cryo FESEM provides a new technique to complement cryo TEM and SAXS for investigating their structure and function.

  20. A Novel Concept for Observing Land-Surface-Atmosphere Feedback Based on a Synergy of Scanning Lidar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfmeyer, V.; Turner, D. D.; Mauder, M.; Behrendt, A.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2015-12-01

    Improved simulations of land-surface-atmosphere interaction are fundamental for improving weather forecast and climate models. This requires observations of 2D fields of surface fluxes and the 3D structure of the atmospheric boundary layer simultaneously. A novel strategy is introduced for studying land-surface exchange and entrainment processes in the convective boundary layer (CBL) over complex terrain by means of a new generation of remote sensing systems. The sensor synergy consists of scanning Doppler lidar (DL), water-vapor differential absorption lidar (WVDIAL), and temperature rotational Raman lidar (TRRL) systems supported by surface in-situ measurements. The 2D measurements of surface fluxes are realized by the operation of a DL, a WVDIAL, and a TRRL along the same line-of-sight (LOS) in a range-height-indicator (RHI) mode whereas the other DL is performing a series of cross track RHI scans along this LOS. This new setup enables us to determine the friction velocity as well as surface sensible and latent heat fluxes by closing the complete set of Monin-Obukhov similarity relationships under a variety of surface layer stability conditions and different land cover and soil properties. As this closure is performed at all DL crossing points along the LOS, this is a strategy towards a 2D mapping of surface fluxes entirely based on remote sensing systems. Further details are presented at the conference. The second configuration is the simultaneous vertical profiling of vertical wind, humidity and temperature by DL, WVDIAL and TRRL so that latent heat and sensible heat flux profiles as well as a variety of different turbulent moments can be measured in the CBL. Consequently, by alternating of RHI scanning and vertical pointing modes, entrainment fluxes and surface fluxes can be measured almost simultaneously. This novel strategy has been realized for the first time during the Surface Atmospheric Boundary Layer Exchange (SABLE) campaign in the Kraichgau region

  1. Data Processing and Quality Evaluation of a Boat-Based Mobile Laser Scanning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaaja, Matti; Kukko, Antero; Kaartinen, Harri; Kurkela, Matti; Kasvi, Elina; Flener, Claude; Hyyppä, Hannu; Hyyppä, Juha; Järvelä, Juha; Alho, Petteri

    2013-01-01

    Mobile mapping systems (MMSs) are used for mapping topographic and urban features which are difficult and time consuming to measure with other instruments. The benefits of MMSs include efficient data collection and versatile usability. This paper investigates the data processing steps and quality of a boat-based mobile mapping system (BoMMS) data for generating terrain and vegetation points in a river environment. Our aim in data processing was to filter noise points, detect shorelines as well as points below water surface and conduct ground point classification. Previous studies of BoMMS have investigated elevation accuracies and usability in detection of fluvial erosion and deposition areas. The new findings concerning BoMMS data are that the improved data processing approach allows for identification of multipath reflections and shoreline delineation. We demonstrate the possibility to measure bathymetry data in shallow (0–1 m) and clear water. Furthermore, we evaluate for the first time the accuracy of the BoMMS ground points classification compared to manually classified data. We also demonstrate the spatial variations of the ground point density and assess elevation and vertical accuracies of the BoMMS data. PMID:24048340

  2. Numerical calibration of laser line scanning system with multiple sensors for inspecting cross-section profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jingbo; Li, Yuehua; Huang, Fengshan; Liu, Lijian

    2016-11-01

    Line structured light sensors (LSLSs) have gained more and more applications in industry. An interested profile can be easily obtained through the analysis of laser-object intersection stripe. But one sensor is inadequate to get a closed crosssection profile due to the obstacle of the laser light. Thus, multiple LSLSs were integrated as a whole for profile inspection and a numerical calibration method was also proposed. Firstly, the laser planes from all laser projectors were adjusted to coincide with the target plane by adjusting the fixtures of the laser projector. For each sensor, origin of the world coordinate system (WCS) was fixed at the center of a corner calibration dot with its X and Y axis coincide with the row and column direction of target dots. Each sensor camera captured one image of the same target. The relationship between the pixel coordinate system (PCS) and the WCS was established using an interpolation method via the world coordinates of target dot centers and their corresponding pixel coordinates. Then the measurement points from all the sensors were transformed into the global WCS, and a closed cross-section profile can be achieved. This proposed method neither need to establish the intrinsic, the extrinsic and the distortion models of the camera, nor need to solve the complex optimization equations to determine the model coefficients. Finally, a workpeice with stairs and a rectangular block were inspected. The comparison with the measuring results from the coordinate measuring machine further validates the high accuracy of the proposed method.

  3. Assessment of a Newly Developed, Active Pneumatic-Driven, Sensorimotor Test and Training Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfram Haslinger

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The sensorimotor system (SMS plays an important role in sports and in every day movement. Several tools for assessment and training have been designed. Many of them are directed to specific populations, and have major shortcomings due to the training effect or safety. The aim of the present study was to design and assess a dynamic sensorimotor test and training device that can be adjusted for all levels of performance. The novel pneumatic-driven mechatronic device can guide the trainee, allow independent movements or disrupt the individual with unpredicted perturbations while standing on a platform. The test-reliability was evaluated using intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC. Subjects were required to balance their center of pressure (COP in a target circle (TITC. The time in TITC and the COP error (COPe were recorded for analysis. The results of 22 males and 14 females (23.7 ± 2.6 years showed good to excellent test–retest reliability. The newly designed Active Balance System (ABS was then compared with the Biodex Balance System SD® (BBS. The results of 15 females, 14 males (23.4 ± 1.6 years showed modest correlation in static and acceptable correlation in dynamic conditions, suggesting that ABS could be a reliable and comparable tool for dynamic balance assessments.

  4. Long lasting egocentric disorientation induced by normal sensori-motor spatial interaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eve Dupierrix

    Full Text Available Perception of the cardinal directions of the body, right-left, up-down, ahead-behind, which appears so absolute and fundamental to the organisation of behaviour can in fact, be modified. Perhaps unsurprisingly, it has been shown that prolonged distorted perception of the orientation of body axes can be a consequence of disordered sensori-motor signals, including long-term prismatic adaptation and lesions of the central nervous system. We report the novel and surprising finding that a long-lasting distortion of perception of personal space can also be induced by an ecological pointing task without the artifice of distorting normal sensori-motor relationships.Twelve right-handed healthy adults performed the task of pointing with their arms, without vision, to indicate their subjective 'straight ahead', a task often used to assess the Egocentric Reference. This was performed before, immediately, and one day after a second task intended to 'modulate' perception of spatial direction. The 'modulating' task lasted 5 minutes and consisted of asking participants to point with the right finger to targets that appeared only in one (right or left half of a computer screen. Estimates of the 'straight-ahead' during pre-test were accurate (inferior to 0.3 degrees deviation. Significantly, up to one day after performing the modulating task, the subjective 'straight-ahead' was deviated (by approximately 3.2 degrees to the same side to which subjects had pointed to targets.These results reveal that the perception of directional axes for behaviour is readily influenced by interactions with the environment that involve no artificial distortion of normal sensori-motor-spatial relationships and does not necessarily conform to the cardinal directions as defined by the anatomy of orthostatic posture. We thus suggest that perceived space is a dynamic construction directly dependent upon our past experience about the direction and/or the localisation of our sensori-motor

  5. Brain plasticity and sensorimotor deterioration as a function of 70 days head down tilt bed rest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Koppelmans

    Full Text Available Adverse effects of spaceflight on sensorimotor function have been linked to altered somatosensory and vestibular inputs in the microgravity environment. Whether these spaceflight sequelae have a central nervous system component is unknown. However, experimental studies have shown spaceflight-induced brain structural changes in rodents' sensorimotor brain regions. Understanding the neural correlates of spaceflight-related motor performance changes is important to ultimately develop tailored countermeasures that ensure mission success and astronauts' health.Head down-tilt bed rest (HDBR can serve as a microgravity analog because it mimics body unloading and headward fluid shifts of microgravity. We conducted a 70-day 6° HDBR study with 18 right-handed males to investigate how microgravity affects focal gray matter (GM brain volume. MRI data were collected at 7 time points before, during and post-HDBR. Standing balance and functional mobility were measured pre and post-HDBR. The same metrics were obtained at 4 time points over ~90 days from 12 control subjects, serving as reference data.HDBR resulted in widespread increases GM in posterior parietal regions and decreases in frontal areas; recovery was not yet complete by 12 days post-HDBR. Additionally, HDBR led to balance and locomotor performance declines. Increases in a cluster comprising the precuneus, precentral and postcentral gyrus GM correlated with less deterioration or even improvement in standing balance. This association did not survive Bonferroni correction and should therefore be interpreted with caution. No brain or behavior changes were observed in control subjects.Our results parallel the sensorimotor deficits that astronauts experience post-flight. The widespread GM changes could reflect fluid redistribution. Additionally, the association between focal GM increase and balance changes suggests that HDBR also may result in neuroplastic adaptation. Future studies are warranted to

  6. Brain plasticity and sensorimotor deterioration as a function of 70 days head down tilt bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, Jacob J.; De Dios, Yiri E.; Wood, Scott J.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia A.; Kofman, Igor S.; Riascos, Roy; Mulavara, Ajitkumar P.; Seidler, Rachael D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Adverse effects of spaceflight on sensorimotor function have been linked to altered somatosensory and vestibular inputs in the microgravity environment. Whether these spaceflight sequelae have a central nervous system component is unknown. However, experimental studies have shown spaceflight-induced brain structural changes in rodents’ sensorimotor brain regions. Understanding the neural correlates of spaceflight-related motor performance changes is important to ultimately develop tailored countermeasures that ensure mission success and astronauts’ health. Method Head down-tilt bed rest (HDBR) can serve as a microgravity analog because it mimics body unloading and headward fluid shifts of microgravity. We conducted a 70-day 6° HDBR study with 18 right-handed males to investigate how microgravity affects focal gray matter (GM) brain volume. MRI data were collected at 7 time points before, during and post-HDBR. Standing balance and functional mobility were measured pre and post-HDBR. The same metrics were obtained at 4 time points over ~90 days from 12 control subjects, serving as reference data. Results HDBR resulted in widespread increases GM in posterior parietal regions and decreases in frontal areas; recovery was not yet complete by 12 days post-HDBR. Additionally, HDBR led to balance and locomotor performance declines. Increases in a cluster comprising the precuneus, precentral and postcentral gyrus GM correlated with less deterioration or even improvement in standing balance. This association did not survive Bonferroni correction and should therefore be interpreted with caution. No brain or behavior changes were observed in control subjects. Conclusions Our results parallel the sensorimotor deficits that astronauts experience post-flight. The widespread GM changes could reflect fluid redistribution. Additionally, the association between focal GM increase and balance changes suggests that HDBR also may result in neuroplastic adaptation. Future

  7. Ultrasonic sensor properties characterized by a PC-controlled scanning measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning; Prange; Dierks; Daur

    2000-03-01

    The use of ultrasonic sensors for process control is currently widespread for flow, level or distance measurements. Recently, interest has increased, too in the application of ultrasonic sensors to concentration measurements in complex liquids. In this application there are high demands for a defined and stable quality of the properties of both the sensor transfer function and the sound field characteristic. For a detailed investigation and characterization of ultrasonic sensor propertiess, an efficient PC-controlled measuring system was developed by the Institut fur Automation und Kommunikation (IFAK). In this contribution, this high performance approach is presented to make visible the vibrating ultrasonic sensor surface as well as the sound field in front of acoustic sensors in liquids.

  8. VPI - VIBRATION PATTERN IMAGER: A CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM FOR SCANNING LASER VIBROMETERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, S. A.

    1994-01-01

    The Vibration Pattern Imager (VPI) system was designed to control and acquire data from laser vibrometer sensors. The PC computer based system uses a digital signal processing (DSP) board and an analog I/O board to control the sensor and to process the data. The VPI system was originally developed for use with the Ometron VPI Sensor (Ometron Limited, Kelvin House, Worsley Bridge Road, London, SE26 5BX, England), but can be readily adapted to any commercially available sensor which provides an analog output signal and requires analog inputs for control of mirror positioning. VPI's graphical user interface allows the operation of the program to be controlled interactively through keyboard and mouse-selected menu options. The main menu controls all functions for setup, data acquisition, display, file operations, and exiting the program. Two types of data may be acquired with the VPI system: single point or "full field". In the single point mode, time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board at a user-defined rate for the selected number of samples. The position of the measuring point, adjusted by mirrors in the sensor, is controlled via a mouse input. In the "full field" mode, the measurement point is moved over a user-selected rectangular area with up to 256 positions in both x and y directions. The time series data is sampled by the A/D converter on the I/O board and converted to a root-mean-square (rms) value by the DSP board. The rms "full field" velocity distribution is then uploaded for display and storage. VPI is written in C language and Texas Instruments' TMS320C30 assembly language for IBM PC series and compatible computers running MS-DOS. The program requires 640K of RAM for execution, and a hard disk with 10Mb or more of disk space is recommended. The program also requires a mouse, a VGA graphics display, a Four Channel analog I/O board (Spectrum Signal Processing, Inc.; Westborough, MA), a break-out box and a Spirit-30 board (Sonitech

  9. Measurement of effective detective quantum efficiency for a photon counting scanning mammography system and comparison with two flat panel full-field digital mammography systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Tim J.; Moore, Craig S.; Saunderson, John R.; Beavis, Andrew W.

    2018-01-01

    Effective detective quantum efficiency (eDQE) describes the resolution and noise properties of an imaging system along with scatter and primary transmission, all measured under clinically appropriate conditions. Effective dose efficiency (eDE) is the eDQE normalised to mean glandular dose and has been proposed as a useful metric for the optimisation of clinical imaging systems. The aim of this study was to develop a methodology for measuring eDQE and eDE on a Philips microdose mammography (MDM) L30 photon counting scanning system, and to compare performance with two conventional flat panel systems. A custom made lead-blocker was manufactured to enable the accurate determination of dose measurements, and modulation transfer functions were determined free-in-air at heights of 2, 4 and 6 cm above the breast support platform. eDQE were calculated for a Philips MDM L30, Hologic Dimensions and Siemens Inspiration digital mammography system for 2, 4 and 6 cm thick poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). The beam qualities (target/filter and kilovoltage) assessed were those selected by the automatic exposure control, and anti-scatter grids were used where available. Measurements of eDQE demonstrate significant differences in performance between the slit- and scan-directions for the photon counting imaging system. MTF has been shown to be the limiting factor in the scan-direction, which results in a rapid fall in eDQE at mid-to-high spatial frequencies. A comparison with two flat panel mammography systems demonstrates that this may limit image quality for small details, such as micro-calcifications, which correlates with a more conventional image quality assessment with the CDMAM phantom. eDE has shown the scanning photon counting system offers superior performance for low spatial frequencies, which will be important for the detection of large low contrast masses. Both eDQE and eDE are proposed as useful metrics that should enable optimisation of the Philips MDM L30.

  10. Coupling auto trophic in vitro plant cultivation system to scanning electron microscope to study plant-fungal interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, N. de; Decock, C.; Declereck, S.; Providencia, I. E. de la

    2010-07-01

    The interactions of plants with pathogens and beneficial micro-organisms have been seldom compared on the same host and under strict controlled auto trophic in vitro culture conditions. Here, the life cycle of two plant beneficial (Glomus sp. MUCL 41833 and Trichoderma harzianum) and one plant pathogen (Rhizoctonia solani) fungi were described on potato (Solanum tuberosum) plantlets under auto trophic in vitro culture conditions using video camera imaging and the scanning electron microscope (SEM). (i) The colony developmental pattern of the extraradical mycelium within the substrate, (ii) the reproduction structures and (iii) the three-dimensional spatial arrangements of the fungal hyphae within the potato root cells were successfully visualized, monitored and described. The combination of the autotrophic in vitro culture system and SEM represent a powerful tool for improving our knowledge on the dynamics of plant-fungal interactions. (Author) 41 refs.

  11. Volumetric rendering and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index lens imaged by angular scan optical coherence tomography system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jianing; Thompson, Kevin P; Ma, Bin; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-08-22

    In this paper, we develop the methodology, including the refraction correction, geometrical thickness correction, coordinate transformation, and layer segmentation algorithms, for 3D rendering and metrology of a layered spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) lens based on the imaging data collected by an angular scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The 3D mapping and rendering enables direct 3D visualization and internal defect inspection of the lens. The metrology provides assessment of the surface geometry, the lens thickness, the radii of curvature of the internal layer interfaces, and the misalignment of the internal S-GRIN distribution with respect to the lens surface. The OCT metrology results identify the manufacturing defects, and enable targeted process development for optimizing the manufacturing parameters. The newly fabricated S-GRIN lenses show up to a 7x spherical aberration reduction that allows a significantly increased utilizable effective aperture.

  12. Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Various Restorative Systems for Posterior Full Contour Restorations by Means of Scanning Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhima, Matilda

    Aims: The goals of this study were to: 1.) assess a range of the performance of four restorative systems for posterior single tooth crowns under single load to fracture submerged in an aqueous environment, 2.) identify restorative system(s) of interest to be examined under sliding contact step-stress fatigue as full contour anatomically appropriate single posterior tooth restoration(s) of various thicknesses submerged in water, 3.) assess a range of the performance of various thicknesses of restorative system(s) of interest. Material and Methods: A total of forty samples (n=10 each group) 2 mm uniform thickness were tested. Group 1. monolithic lithium disilicate IPS e.max Press; group 2. IPS e.max ZirPress, 0.8mm zirconia core with 1.2mm pressed veneering porcelain, group 3. IPS e.max ZirPress, 0.4mm zirconia core with 1.6mm pressed veneering porcelain, group 4. IPS InLine PoM. Samples were bonded to a block of polycast acrylic resin on a 30 degree sloped surface with resin cement. Samples were axially single loaded to failure while submerged under water. Findings from the testing were statistically analyzed and used to establish parameters for the material of interest to test submerged in aqueous environment under sliding contact step-stress fatigue as full contour single posterior restoration. This second phase assessed the performance of four groups (n=10 each group) of 0.5mm, 1.0mm, 1.5mm and 2.0mm of lithium disilicate restorations were tested. The tooth preparation for each sample was uniformly reduced, scanned digitally and milled for each group. The restorations were fabricated by scanning and milling technology. Results: There was a statistically significant difference (p< 0.001) in single failure load among the four restorative systems. Lithium disilicate showed a mean failure load similar to mean maximum posterior bite forces (743.1N +/- 114.3 N). This material was identified of interest to test submerged in aqueous environment under peak value force and

  13. Development of real-time line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for online agricultural and food product inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seung Chul; Park, Bosoon; Lawrence, Kurt C.; Windham, William R.; Heitschmidt, Gerald W.

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports a recent development of a line-scan hyperspectral imaging system for real-time multispectral imaging applications in agricultural and food industries. The hyperspectral imaging system consisted of a spectrograph, an EMCCD camera, and application software. The real-time multispectral imaging with the developed system was possible due to (1) data binning, especially a unique feature of the EMCCD sensor allowing the access to non-contiguous multispectral bands, (2) an image processing algorithm designed for real-time multispectral imaging, and (3) the design and implementation of the real-time application software. The imaging system was developed as a poultry inspection instrument determining the presence of surface feces on poultry carcasses moving at commercial poultry processing line speeds up to 180 birds per minute. The imaging system can be easily modifiable to solve other real-time inspection/sorting problems. Three wavelengths at 517 nm, 565 nm and 802 nm were selected for real-time fecal detection imaging. The fecal detection algorithm was based on dual band ratios of 565nm/517nm and 802nm/517nm followed by thresholding. The software architecture was based on a ping pong memory and a circular buffer for the multitasking of image grabbing and processing. The software was written in Microsoft Visual C++. An image-based internal triggering (i.e. polling) algorithm was developed to determine the start and end positions of birds. Twelve chickens were used for testing the imaging system at two different speeds (140 birds per minute and 180 bird per minute) in a pilot-scale processing line. Four types of fecal materials (duodenum, ceca, colon and ingesta) were used for the evaluation of the detection algorithm. The software grabbed and processed multispectral images of the dimension 118 (line scans) x 512 (height) x 3 (bands) pixels obtained from chicken carcasses moving at the speed up to 180 birds per minute (a frame rate 286 Hz). Intensity

  14. High Pressure Scanning Tunneling Microscopy Studies of AdsorbateStructure and Mobility during Catalytic Reactions: Novel Design of anUltra High Pressure, High Temperature Scanning Tunneling MicroscopeSystem for Probing Catalytic Conversions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, David Chi-Wai [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2005-05-16

    The aim of the work presented therein is to take advantage of scanning tunneling microscope’s (STM) capability for operation under a variety of environments under real time and at atomic resolution to monitor adsorbate structures and mobility under high pressures, as well as to design a new generation of STM systems that allow imaging in situ at both higher pressures (35 atm) and temperatures (350 °C).

  15. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  16. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  17. Comparison of vessel contrast measured with a scanning-beam digital x-ray system and an image intensifier/television system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speidel, M A; Wilfley, B P; Heanue, J A; Betts, T D; Van Lysel, M S

    2001-02-01

    Vessel contrast was measured in the fluoroscopic images produced by a scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system and an image intensifier/television (II/TV) based system. The SBDX system electronically scans a series of pencil x-ray beams across the patient, each of which is directed at a distant small-area detector array. The reduction in detected scatter achieved with this geometry was expected to provide an increase in image contrast. Vessel contrast was evaluated from images of a phantom containing iodinated tubes. The vessels were inserted into an acrylic stack to provide a patient-mimicking scattering medium. Vessel diameter ranged from 0.3 to 3.1 mm. Images were acquired at 100 kVp with the SBDX and II/TV systems and averaged to reduce x-ray noise. The II/TV system was operated in the 6-in. image intensifier mode with an anti-scatter grid. The increase in contrast in the SBDX images, expressed as a ratio of the measured SBDX and II/TV contrasts, ranged from 1.63 to 1.79 for individual vessels. This agreed well with a prediction of the contrast improvement ratio for this experiment, based on measurements of the scatter fraction, object-plane line spread functions, and consideration of the source spectrum and detector absorption properties. The predicted contrast improvement ratio for SBDX relative to II/TV images was 1.62 to 1.77.

  18. Sensorimotor integration for functional recovery and the Bobath approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Mindy F; Panturin, Elia

    2011-04-01

    Bobath therapy is used to treat patients with neurological disorders. Bobath practitioners use hands-on approaches to elicit and reestablish typical movement patterns through therapist-controlled sensorimotor experiences within the context of task accomplishment. One aspect of Bobath practice, the recovery of sensorimotor function, is reviewed within the framework of current motor control theories. We focus on the role of sensory information in movement production, the relationship between posture and movement and concepts related to motor recovery and compensation with respect to this therapeutic approach. We suggest that a major barrier to the evaluation of the therapeutic effectiveness of the Bobath concept is the lack of a unified framework for both experimental identification and treatment of neurological motor deficits. More conclusive analysis of therapeutic effectiveness requires the development of specific outcomes that measure movement quality.

  19. Fashioning the Face: Sensorimotor Simulation Contributes to Facial Expression Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Adrienne; Rychlowska, Magdalena; Korb, Sebastian; Niedenthal, Paula

    2016-03-01

    When we observe a facial expression of emotion, we often mimic it. This automatic mimicry reflects underlying sensorimotor simulation that supports accurate emotion recognition. Why this is so is becoming more obvious: emotions are patterns of expressive, behavioral, physiological, and subjective feeling responses. Activation of one component can therefore automatically activate other components. When people simulate a perceived facial expression, they partially activate the corresponding emotional state in themselves, which provides a basis for inferring the underlying emotion of the expresser. We integrate recent evidence in favor of a role for sensorimotor simulation in emotion recognition. We then connect this account to a domain-general understanding of how sensory information from multiple modalities is integrated to generate perceptual predictions in the brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Global quantitative analysis of phosphorylation underlying phencyclidine signaling and sensorimotor gating in the prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClatchy, D B; Savas, J N; Martínez-Bartolomé, S; Park, S K; Maher, P; Powell, S B; Yates, J R

    2016-02-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) is an example of sensorimotor gating and deficits in PPI have been demonstrated in schizophrenia patients. Phencyclidine (PCP) suppression of PPI in animals has been studied to elucidate the pathological elements of schizophrenia. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying PCP treatment or PPI in the brain are still poorly understood. In this study, quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis was performed on the prefrontal cortex from rats that were subjected to PPI after being systemically injected with PCP or saline. PCP downregulated phosphorylation events were significantly enriched in proteins associated with long-term potentiation (LTP). Importantly, this data set identifies functionally novel phosphorylation sites on known LTP-associated signaling molecules. In addition, mutagenesis of a significantly altered phosphorylation site on xCT (SLC7A11), the light chain of system xc-, the cystine/glutamate antiporter, suggests that PCP also regulates the activity of this protein. Finally, new insights were also derived on PPI signaling independent of PCP treatment. This is the first quantitative phosphorylation proteomic analysis providing new molecular insights into sensorimotor gating.

  1. Long-range memory and non-Markov statistical effects in human sensorimotor coordination

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Yulmetyev, Renat; Emelyanova, Natalya; Hänggi, Peter; Gafarov, Fail; Prokhorov, Alexander

    2002-12-01

    In this paper, the non-Markov statistical processes and long-range memory effects in human sensorimotor coordination are investigated. The theoretical basis of this study is the statistical theory of non-stationary discrete non-Markov processes in complex systems (Phys. Rev. E 62, 6178 (2000)). The human sensorimotor coordination was experimentally studied by means of standard dynamical tapping test on the group of 32 young peoples with tap numbers up to 400. This test was carried out separately for the right and the left hand according to the degree of domination of each brain hemisphere. The numerical analysis of the experimental results was made with the help of power spectra of the initial time correlation function, the memory functions of low orders and the first three points of the statistical spectrum of non-Markovity parameter. Our observations demonstrate, that with the regard to results of the standard dynamic tapping-test it is possible to divide all examinees into five different dynamic types. We have introduced the conflict coefficient to estimate quantitatively the order-disorder effects underlying life systems. The last one reflects the existence of disbalance between the nervous and the motor human coordination. The suggested classification of the neurophysiological activity represents the dynamic generalization of the well-known neuropsychological types and provides the new approach in a modern neuropsychology.

  2. Induced sensorimotor brain plasticity controls pain in phantom limb patients

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagisawa, Takufumi; Fukuma, Ryohei; Seymour, Ben; Hosomi, Koichi; Kishima, Haruhiko; Shimizu, Takeshi; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Hirata, Masayuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Kamitani, Yukiyasu; Saitoh, Youichi

    2016-01-01

    The cause of pain in a phantom limb after partial or complete deafferentation is an important problem. A popular but increasingly controversial theory is that it results from maladaptive reorganization of the sensorimotor cortex, suggesting that experimental induction of further reorganization should affect the pain, especially if it results in functional restoration. Here we use a brain-machine interface (BMI) based on real-time magnetoencephalography signals to reconstruct affected hand mov...

  3. ROBUSTNESS OF GUIDED SELF-ORGANIZATION AGAINST SENSORIMOTOR DISRUPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    GEORG MARTIUS

    2013-01-01

    Self-organizing processes are crucial for the development of living beings. Practical applications in robots may benefit from the self-organization of behavior, e.g., to increase fault tolerance and enhance flexibility, provided that external goals can also be achieved. We present results on the guidance of self-organizing control by visual target stimuli and show a remarkable robustness to sensorimotor disruptions. In a proof of concept study an autonomous wheeled robot is learning an object...

  4. Bodily skill and internal representation in sensorimotor perception

    OpenAIRE

    Silverman, David

    2017-01-01

    The sensorimotor theory of perceptual experience claims that perception is constituted by bodily interaction with the environment, drawing on practical knowledge of the systematic ways that sensory inputs are disposed to change as a result of movement. Despite the theory’s associations with enactivism, it is sometimes claimed that the appeal to ‘knowledge’ means that the theory is committed to giving an essential theoretical role to internal representation, and therefore to a form of orthodox...

  5. Modeling habits as self-sustaining patterns of sensorimotor behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egbert, Matthew D.; Barandiaran, Xabier E.

    2014-01-01

    In the recent history of psychology and cognitive neuroscience, the notion of habit has been reduced to a stimulus-triggered response probability correlation. In this paper we use a computational model to present an alternative theoretical view (with some philosophical implications), where habits are seen as self-maintaining patterns of behavior that share properties in common with self-maintaining biological processes, and that inhabit a complex ecological context, including the presence and influence of other habits. Far from mechanical automatisms, this organismic and self-organizing concept of habit can overcome the dominating atomistic and statistical conceptions, and the high temporal resolution effects of situatedness, embodiment and sensorimotor loops emerge as playing a more central, subtle and complex role in the organization of behavior. The model is based on a novel “iterant deformable sensorimotor medium (IDSM),” designed such that trajectories taken through sensorimotor-space increase the likelihood that in the future, similar trajectories will be taken. We couple the IDSM to sensors and motors of a simulated robot, and show that under certain conditions, the IDSM conditions, the IDSM forms self-maintaining patterns of activity that operate across the IDSM, the robot's body, and the environment. We present various environments and the resulting habits that form in them. The model acts as an abstraction of habits at a much needed sensorimotor “meso-scale” between microscopic neuron-based models and macroscopic descriptions of behavior. Finally, we discuss how this model and extensions of it can help us understand aspects of behavioral self-organization, historicity and autonomy that remain out of the scope of contemporary representationalist frameworks. PMID:25152724

  6. Sensorimotor Adaptability Training Improves Motor and Dual-Task Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomberg, J.J.; Peters, B.T.; Mulavara, A.P.; Brady, R.; Batson, C.; Cohen, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    The overall objective of our project is to develop a sensorimotor adaptability (SA) training program designed to facilitate recovery of functional capabilities when astronauts transition to different gravitational environments. The goal of our current study was to determine if SA training using variation in visual flow and support surface motion produces improved performance in a novel sensory environment and demonstrate the retention characteristics of SA training.

  7. Neuronal coding of auditory sensorimotor gating in medial prefrontal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Attila; Petykó, Zoltán; Gálosi, Rita; Szabó, Imre; Karádi, Kázmér; Feldmann, Ádám; Péczely, László; Kállai, Veronika; Karádi, Zoltán; Lénárd, László

    2017-05-30

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is thought to be an essential brain region for sensorimotor gating. The exact neuronal mechanisms, however, have not been extensively investigated yet by delicate single unit recording methods Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle response is a broadly used important tool to investigate the inhibitory processes of sensorimotor gating. The present study was designed to examine the neuronal mechanisms of sensorimotor gating in the mPFC in freely moving rats. In these experiments, the animals were subjected to both pulse alone and prepulse+pulse stimulations. Head acceleration and the neuronal activity of the mPFC were simultaneously recorded. To adequately measure the startle reflex, a new headstage with 3D-accelerometer was created. The duration of head acceleration was longer in pulse alone trials than in prepulse+pulse trial conditions, and the amplitude of head movements was significantly larger during the pulse alone than during the prepulse+pulse situations. Single unit activities in the mPFC were recorded by means of chronically implanted tetrodes during acoustic stimulation evoked startle response and PPI. High proportion of medial prefrontal cortical neurons responded to these stimulations by characteristic firing patterns: short duration equal and unequal excitatory, medium duration excitatory, and long duration excitatory and inhibitory responses were recorded. The present findings, first time in the literature, demonstrated the startle and PPI elicited neuronal activity changes of the mPFC, and thus, provided evidence for a key role of this limbic forebrain area in sensorimotor gating process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Sensorimotor impairment of speech auditory feedback processing in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behroozmand, Roozbeh; Phillip, Lorelei; Johari, Karim; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Chris; Hickok, Gregory; Fridriksson, Julius

    2018-01-15

    We investigated the brain network involved in speech sensorimotor processing by studying patients with post-stroke aphasia using an altered auditory feedback (AAF) paradigm. We combined lesion-symptom-mapping analysis and behavioral testing to examine the pervasiveness of speech sensorimotor deficits and their relationship with cortical damage. Sixteen participants with aphasia and sixteen neurologically intact individuals completed a speech task under AAF. The task involved producing speech vowel sounds under the real-time pitch-shifted auditory feedback alteration. This task provided an objective measure for each individual's ability to compensate for mismatch (error) in speech auditory feedback. Results indicated that compensatory speech responses to AAF were significantly diminished in participants with aphasia compared with control. We observed that within the aphasic group, subjects with lower scores on the speech repetition task exhibited greater degree of diminished responses. Lesion-symptom-mapping analysis revealed that the onset phase (50-150 ms) of diminished AAF responses were predicted by damage to auditory cortical regions within the superior and middle temporal gyrus, whereas the rising phase (150-250 ms) and the peak (250-350 ms) of diminished AAF responses were predicted with damage to the inferior frontal gyrus and supramarginal gyrus areas, respectively. These findings suggest that damage to the auditory, motor, and auditory-motor integration networks are associated with impaired sensorimotor function for speech error processing. We suggest that a sensorimotor integration network, as revealed by brain regions related to temporal specific components of AAF responses, is related to speech processing and specific aspects of speech impairment, notably repetition deficits, in individuals with aphasia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neural representation of the sensorimotor speech-action-repository

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia eEckers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A speech-action-repository (SAR or mental syllabary has been proposed as a central module for sensorimotor processing of syllables. In this approach, syllables occurring frequently within language are assumed to be stored as holistic sensorimotor patterns, while non-frequent syllables need to be assembled from sub-syllabic units. Thus, frequent syllables are processed efficiently and quickly during production or perception by a direct activation of their sensorimotor patterns. Whereas several behavioral psycholinguistic studies provided evidence in support of the existence of a syllabary, fMRI studies have failed to demonstrate its neural reality. In the present fMRI study a reaction paradigm using homogeneous vs. heterogeneous syllable blocks are used during overt vs. covert speech production and auditory vs. visual presentation modes. Two complementary data analyses were performed: (1 in a logical conjunction, activation for syllable processing independent of input modality and response mode was assessed, in order to support the assumption of existence of a supramodal hub within a SAR. (2 In addition priming effects in the BOLD response in homogeneous vs. heterogeneous blocks were measured in order to identify brain regions, which indicate reduced activity during multiple production/perception repetitions of a specific syllable in order to determine state maps. Auditory-visual conjunction analysis revealed an activation network comprising bilateral precentral gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus (area 44. These results are compatible with the notion of a supramodal hub within the SAR. The main effect of homogeneity priming revealed an activation pattern of areas within frontal, temporal, and parietal lobe. These findings are taken to represent sensorimotor state maps of the SAR. In conclusion, the present study provided preliminary evidence for a SAR.

  10. Saccades and pursuit: two outcomes of a single sensorimotor process

    OpenAIRE

    Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Lefèvre, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    Saccades and smooth pursuit eye movements are two different modes of oculomotor control. Saccades are primarily directed toward stationary targets whereas smooth pursuit is elicited to track moving targets. In recent years, behavioural and neurophysiological data demonstrated that both types of eye movements work in synergy for visual tracking. This suggests that saccades and pursuit are two outcomes of a single sensorimotor process that aims at orienting the visual axis.

  11. Cleaning efficacy using two engine-driven systems versus manual instrumentation in curved root canals: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zmener, Osvaldo; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Alvarez Serrano, Susana; Hernandez, Sandra R

    2011-09-01

    This ex vivo study evaluated the cleanliness of curved root canal walls after chemomechanical instrumentation using two automated systems versus manual instrumentation while using a standardized irrigation protocol. Thirty mesial root canals of extracted human first and second mandibular molars were prepared with the TiLOS hybrid engine-driven instrumentation system (Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT) (n = 10), ProTaper engine-driven file series (n = 10), and manual instrumentation (n = 10). Irrigation was performed using alternately 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 17% EDTA followed by rinsing with distilled water. After the roots were split longitudinally, the presence of debris and/or smear layer was visualized using serial scanning electron microscopic digital photomicrographs taken at 1, 5, and 10 mm from the working length. Mean scores for debris and the smear layer were calculated and statistically analyzed for significance (P .05) were found between TiLOS and ProTaper (Dentsply/Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK) groups, whereas both performed significantly better than the manual instrumentation group. Engine-driven TiLOS and ProTaper instrumentation systems combined with a standardized irrigation protocol produced cleaner root canal walls than the manual instrumentation technique although complete cleanliness was not achieved. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Contributors to focal plane nonuniformity and their impact on linewidth control in DUV step-and-scan system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govil, Pradeep K.; Tsacoyeanes, James G.; Eron, Randell P.; Walters, Dave

    1998-06-01

    A significant contributor to linewidth control in a step and scan system is the focal plane nonuniformity. The various sources contributing to this focus nonuniformity such as wafer and reticle flatness will be discussed. Effective wafer flatness presented in the form of flatness variation histograms, as a function of focus sensor fill factor will be presented. A clear understanding of the effective wafer plane flatness variation is important in predicting lithographic tool linewidth control performance. Statistical approaches using joint probability distributions to combine various error sources will be developed. Data will be presented to show that the systematic error sources can be represented reasonably well by uniform distributions, and random error sources by Gaussian distributions. It will also be shown that the focal system performance estimated using this approach could accurately predict system performance and its impact on linewidth control. This allows determination of significant contributors to the focal plane nonuniformity, which is important in establishing the lithographic tool areas of improvements. Data illustrating the influence of contributors such as wafer and reticle flatness, and optical field curvature on linewidth control will presented together with a statistical metrology for incorporating them into a meaningful focal plane error budget.

  13. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  14. Reducing scan angle using adaptive prior knowledge for a limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for conformal arc radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yawei; Yin, Fang-Fang; Zhang, You; Ren, Lei

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop an adaptive prior knowledge guided image estimation technique to reduce the scan angle needed in the limited-angle intrafraction verification (LIVE) system for 4D-CBCT reconstruction. The LIVE system has been previously developed to reconstruct 4D volumetric images on-the-fly during arc treatment for intrafraction target verification and dose calculation. In this study, we developed an adaptive constrained free-form deformation reconstruction technique in LIVE to further reduce the scanning angle needed to reconstruct the 4D-CBCT images for faster intrafraction verification. This technique uses free form deformation with energy minimization to deform prior images to estimate 4D-CBCT based on kV-MV projections acquired in extremely limited angle (orthogonal 3°) during the treatment. Note that the prior images are adaptively updated using the latest CBCT images reconstructed by LIVE during treatment to utilize the continuity of the respiratory motion. The 4D digital extended-cardiac-torso (XCAT) phantom and a CIRS 008A dynamic thoracic phantom were used to evaluate the effectiveness of this technique. The reconstruction accuracy of the technique was evaluated by calculating both the center-of-mass-shift (COMS) and 3D volume-percentage-difference (VPD) of the tumor in reconstructed images and the true on-board images. The performance of the technique was also assessed with varied breathing signals against scanning angle, lesion size, lesion location, projection sampling interval, and scanning direction. In the XCAT study, using orthogonal-view of 3° kV and portal MV projections, this technique achieved an average tumor COMS/VPD of 0.4  ±  0.1 mm/5.5  ±  2.2%, 0.6  ±  0.3 mm/7.2  ±  2.8%, 0.5  ±  0.2 mm/7.1  ±  2.6%, 0.6  ±  0.2 mm/8.3  ±  2.4%, for baseline drift, amplitude variation, phase shift, and patient breathing signal variation

  15. Affective and sensorimotor components of emotional prosody generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichon, Swann; Kell, Christian A

    2013-01-23

    Although advances have been made regarding how the brain perceives emotional prosody, the neural bases involved in the generation of affective prosody remain unclear and debated. Two models have been forged on the basis of clinical observations: a first model proposes that the right hemisphere sustains production and comprehension of emotional prosody, while a second model proposes that emotional prosody relies heavily on basal ganglia. Here, we tested their predictions in two functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments that used a cue-target paradigm, which allows distinguishing affective from sensorimotor aspects of emotional prosody generation. Both experiments show that when participants prepare for emotional prosody, bilateral ventral striatum is specifically activated and connected to temporal poles and anterior insula, regions in which lesions frequently cause dysprosody. The bilateral dorsal striatum is more sensitive to cognitive and motor aspects of emotional prosody preparation and production and is more strongly connected to the sensorimotor speech network compared with the ventral striatum. Right lateralization during increased prosodic processing is confined to the posterior superior temporal sulcus, a region previously associated with perception of emotional prosody. Our data thus provide physiological evidence supporting both models and suggest that bilateral basal ganglia are involved in modulating motor behavior as a function of affective state. Right lateralization of cortical regions mobilized for prosody control could point to efficient processing of slowly changing acoustic speech parameters in the ventral stream and thus identify sensorimotor processing as an important factor contributing to right lateralization of prosody.

  16. Incremental learning of Bayesian sensorimotor models: from low-level behaviours to large-scale structure of the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diard, Julien; Gilet, Estelle; Simonin, Éva; Bessière, Pierre

    2010-12-01

    This paper concerns the incremental learning of hierarchies of representations of space in artificial or natural cognitive systems. We propose a mathematical formalism for defining space representations (Bayesian Maps) and modelling their interaction in hierarchies of representations (sensorimotor interaction operator). We illustrate our formalism with a robotic experiment. Starting from a model based on the proximity to obstacles, we learn a new one related to the direction of the light source. It provides new behaviours, like phototaxis and photophobia. We then combine these two maps so as to identify parts of the environment where the way the two modalities interact is recognisable. This classification is a basis for learning a higher level of abstraction map that describes the large-scale structure of the environment. In the final model, the perception-action cycle is modelled by a hierarchy of sensorimotor models of increasing time and space scales, which provide navigation strategies of increasing complexities.

  17. Associations between Measures of Structural Morphometry and Sensorimotor Performance in Individuals with Nonspecific Low Back Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caeyenberghs, K; Pijnenburg, M; Goossens, N; Janssens, L; Brumagne, S

    2017-01-01

    To date, most structural brain imaging studies in individuals with nonspecific low back pain have evaluated volumetric changes. These alterations are particularly found in sensorimotor-related areas. Although it is suggested that specific measures, such as cortical surface area and cortical thickness, reflect different underlying neural architectures, the literature regarding these different measures in individuals with nonspecific low back pain is limited. Therefore, the current study was designed to investigate the association between the performance on a sensorimotor task, more specifically the sit-to-stand-to-sit task, and cortical surface area and cortical thickness in individuals with nonspecific low back pain and healthy controls. Seventeen individuals with nonspecific low back pain and 17 healthy controls were instructed to perform 5 consecutive sit-to-stand-to-sit movements as fast as possible. In addition, T1-weighted anatomic scans of the brain were acquired and analyzed with FreeSurfer. Compared with healthy controls, individuals with nonspecific low back pain needed significantly more time to perform 5 sit-to-stand-to-sit movements (P low back pain compared with controls. Furthermore, decreased cortical thickness of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex was associated with lower sit-to-stand-to-sit performance on an unstable support surface in individuals with nonspecific low back pain and healthy controls (r = -0.47, P pain intensity and cortical thickness of the superior frontal gyrus (r = 0.70, P pain intensity in individuals with nonspecific low back pain. No associations were found between cortical surface area and the pain characteristics in this group. The current study suggests that cortical thickness may contribute to different aspects of sit-to-stand-to-sit performance and perceived pain intensity in individuals with nonspecific low back pain. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Feasibility of CT-based 3D anatomic mapping with a scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slagowski, Jordan M.; Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Dunkerley, David A. P.; Speidel, Michael A.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates the feasibility of obtaining CT-derived 3D surfaces from data provided by the scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) system. Simulated SBDX short-scan acquisitions of a Shepp-Logan and a thorax phantom containing a high contrast spherical volume were generated. 3D reconstructions were performed using a penalized weighted least squares method with total variation regularization (PWLS-TV), as well as a more efficient variant employing gridding of projection data to parallel rays (gPWLS-TV). Voxel noise, edge blurring, and surface accuracy were compared to gridded filtered back projection (gFBP). PWLS reconstruction of a noise-free reduced-size Shepp-Logan phantom had 1.4% rRMSE. In noisy gPWLS-TV reconstructions of a reduced-size thorax phantom, 99% of points on the segmented sphere perimeter were within 0.33, 0.47, and 0.70 mm of the ground truth, respectively, for fluences comparable to imaging through 18.0, 27.2, and 34.6 cm acrylic. Surface accuracies of gFBP and gPWLS-TV were similar at high fluences, while gPWLS-TV offered improvement at the lowest fluence. The gPWLS-TV voxel noise was reduced by 60% relative to gFBP, on average. High-contrast linespread functions measured 1.25 mm and 0.96 mm (FWHM) for gPWLS-TV and gFBP. In a simulation of gated and truncated projection data from a full-sized thorax, gPWLS-TV reconstruction yielded segmented surface points which were within 1.41 mm of ground truth. Results support the feasibility of 3D surface segmentation with SBDX. Further investigation of artifacts caused by data truncation and patient motion is warranted.

  19. Development of an automatic scanning system for nuclear emulsion analysis in the OPERA experiment and study of neutrino interactions location; Developpement d'un systeme ultra rapide pour le scan des emulsions nucleaires d'OPERA et etude sur la localistion des vertex de l'interaction des neutrinos a l'aide de ce systeme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrabito, L

    2007-10-15

    Following Super Kamiokande and K2K experiments, Opera (Oscillation Project with Emulsion tracking Apparatus), aims to confirm neutrino oscillation in the atmospheric sector. Taking advantage of a technique already employed in Chorus and in Donut, the Emulsion Cloud Chamber (ECC), Opera will be able to observe the {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {nu}{sub {tau}} oscillation, through the {nu}{sub {tau}} appearance in a pure {nu}{sub {mu}} beam. The Opera experiment, with its {approx} 100000 m{sup 2} of nuclear emulsions, needs a very fast automatic scanning system. Optical and mechanics components have been customized in order to achieve a speed of about 20 cm{sup 2}/hour per emulsion layer (44 {mu}m thick), while keeping a sub-micro-metric resolution. The first part of this thesis was dedicated to the optimization of 4 scanning systems at the French scanning station, based in Lyon. An experimental study on a dry objective scanning system has also been realized. The obtained results show that the performances of dry scanning are similar with respect to the traditional oil scanning, so that it can be successfully used for Opera. The second part of this work was devoted to the study of the neutrino interaction location and reconstruction strategy actually used in Opera. A dedicated test beam was performed at CERN in order to simulate Opera conditions. The obtained results definitely confirm that the proposed strategy is well adapted for tau search. (author)

  20. Differential developmental trajectories for CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression in limbic/associative and sensorimotor cortical areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heng, Lijun; Beverley, Joel A; Steiner, Heinz; Tseng, Kuei Y

    2011-04-01

    Cannabis use during adolescence is associated with an increased risk for schizophrenia and other disorders. The neuronal basis is unclear, but prefrontal cortical mechanisms have been implicated. Here, we investigated developmental changes in the endocannabinoid system by assessing expression and function of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in prefrontal and other cortical areas in juvenile (postnatal day 25, P25), adolescent (P40), and adult (P70) rats. Overall, the expression of CB1 receptors in the cortex is highest in juveniles and drops thereafter toward adult levels. However, CB1 receptor expression follows distinct developmental trajectories in different cortical areas. The most pronounced and progressive decrease in CB1 expression was observed in medial prefrontal and other limbic/associative regions. In contrast, major changes in sensorimotor cortices occurred only after P40. We also assessed electrophysiological measures of CB1 receptor function and found that CB1-dependent inhibition of synaptic transmission in the prefrontal cortex follows the same developmental trajectory as observed for receptor expression. Together, these findings indicate that CB1 receptor-mediated signaling decreases during development but is differentially regulated in limbic/associative vs. sensorimotor systems. Therefore, cannabis use during adolescence likely differentially affects limbic/associative and sensorimotor cortical circuits. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Exercise Effects on the Brain and Sensorimotor Function in Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; Cassady, K.; De Dios, Y. E.; Szecsy, D.; Gadd, N.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, R. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight microgravity results in cephalad fluid shifts and deficits in posture control and locomotion. Effects of microgravity on sensorimotor function have been investigated on Earth using head down tilt bed rest (HDBR). HDBR serves as a spaceflight analogue because it mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. Preliminary results from our prior 70 days HDBR studies showed that HDBR is associated with focal gray matter (GM) changes and gait and balance deficits, as well as changes in brain functional connectivity. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers we investigated whether exercise reduces the effects of HDBR on GM, functional connectivity, and motor performance. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effects of exercise on brain health. We therefore hypothesized that an exercise intervention during HDBR could potentially mitigate the effects of HDBR on the central nervous system. Eighteen subjects were assessed before (12 and 7 days), during (7, 30, and 70 days) and after (8 and 12 days) 70 days of 6-degrees HDBR at the NASA HDBR facility in UTMB, Galveston, TX, US. Each subject was randomly assigned to a control group or one of two exercise groups. Exercise consisted of daily supine exercise which started 20 days before the start of HDBR. The exercise subjects participated either in regular aerobic and resistance exercise (e.g. squat, heel raise, leg press, cycling and treadmill running), or aerobic and resistance exercise using a flywheel apparatus (rowing). Aerobic and resistance exercise intensity in both groups was similar, which is why we collapsed the two exercise groups for the current experiment. During each time point T1-weighted MRI scans and resting state functional connectivity scans were obtained using a 3T Siemens scanner. Focal changes over time in GM density were assessed using voxel based morphometry (VBM8) under SPM. Changes in resting state functional connectivity was assessed

  2. OBSCAN Observer Scanning System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program deployed on commercial fishing vessels. After the data...

  3. Weak interactions in clobazam-lactose mixtures examined by differential scanning calorimetry: Comparison with the captopril-lactose system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toscani, S. [Departement de Chimie - UMR 6226, Faculte des Sciences, Universite de Rennes 1, Batiment 10B, 263 avenue du General Leclerc, F-35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Cornevin, L. [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); Burgot, G., E-mail: Gwenola.burgot@univ-rennes1.fr [Universite de Rennes 1, Faculte de Pharmacie, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, EA 1274 ' Mouvement, sports, sante' , 2 Avenue Leon Bernard, F-35043 Rennes Cedex (France); CHGR Rennes, Pole Medico-Technique Pharmacie, F-357