WorldWideScience

Sample records for scanning lidar error

  1. Conically scanning lidar error in complex terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Bingöl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Conically scanning lidars assume the flow to be homogeneous in order to deduce the horizontal wind speed. However, in mountainous or complex terrain this assumption is not valid implying a risk that the lidar will derive an erroneous wind speed. The magnitude of this error is measured by collocating a meteorological mast and a lidar at two Greek sites, one hilly and one mountainous. The maximum error for the sites investigated is of the order of 10 %. In order to predict the error for various wind directions the flows at both sites are simulated with the linearized flow model, WAsP Engineering 2.0. The measurement data are compared with the model predictions with good results for the hilly site, but with less success at the mountainous site. This is a deficiency of the flow model, but the methods presented in this paper can be used with any flow model.

  2. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  3. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-01

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.

  4. Evaluation of three lidar scanning strategies for turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Jennifer F.; Klein, Petra M.; Wharton, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    .Results indicate that the six-beam strategy mitigates some of the errors caused by VAD and DBS scans, but the strategy is strongly affected by errors in the variance measured at the different beam positions. The ZephIR and WindCube lidars overestimated horizontal variance values by over 60% under unstable......Several errors occur when a traditional Doppler beam swinging (DBS) or velocity-azimuth display (VAD) strategy is used to measure turbulence with a lidar. To mitigate some of these errors, a scanning strategy was recently developed which employs six beam positions to independently estimate the u, v...

  5. Error Sources in Proccessing LIDAR Based Bridge Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, H.; Chen, S. E.; Liu, W.

    2017-09-01

    Bridge inspection is a critical task in infrastructure management and is facing unprecedented challenges after a series of bridge failures. The prevailing visual inspection was insufficient in providing reliable and quantitative bridge information although a systematic quality management framework was built to ensure visual bridge inspection data quality to minimize errors during the inspection process. The LiDAR based remote sensing is recommended as an effective tool in overcoming some of the disadvantages of visual inspection. In order to evaluate the potential of applying this technology in bridge inspection, some of the error sources in LiDAR based bridge inspection are analysed. The scanning angle variance in field data collection and the different algorithm design in scanning data processing are the found factors that will introduce errors into inspection results. Besides studying the errors sources, advanced considerations should be placed on improving the inspection data quality, and statistical analysis might be employed to evaluate inspection operation process that contains a series of uncertain factors in the future. Overall, the development of a reliable bridge inspection system requires not only the improvement of data processing algorithms, but also systematic considerations to mitigate possible errors in the entire inspection workflow. If LiDAR or some other technology can be accepted as a supplement for visual inspection, the current quality management framework will be modified or redesigned, and this would be as urgent as the refine of inspection techniques.

  6. ERROR SOURCES IN PROCCESSING LIDAR BASED BRIDGE INSPECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Bridge inspection is a critical task in infrastructure management and is facing unprecedented challenges after a series of bridge failures. The prevailing visual inspection was insufficient in providing reliable and quantitative bridge information although a systematic quality management framework was built to ensure visual bridge inspection data quality to minimize errors during the inspection process. The LiDAR based remote sensing is recommended as an effective tool in overcoming some of the disadvantages of visual inspection. In order to evaluate the potential of applying this technology in bridge inspection, some of the error sources in LiDAR based bridge inspection are analysed. The scanning angle variance in field data collection and the different algorithm design in scanning data processing are the found factors that will introduce errors into inspection results. Besides studying the errors sources, advanced considerations should be placed on improving the inspection data quality, and statistical analysis might be employed to evaluate inspection operation process that contains a series of uncertain factors in the future. Overall, the development of a reliable bridge inspection system requires not only the improvement of data processing algorithms, but also systematic considerations to mitigate possible errors in the entire inspection workflow. If LiDAR or some other technology can be accepted as a supplement for visual inspection, the current quality management framework will be modified or redesigned, and this would be as urgent as the refine of inspection techniques.

  7. An error reduction algorithm to improve lidar turbulence estimates for wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Newman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing devices such as lidars are currently being investigated as alternatives to cup anemometers on meteorological towers for the measurement of wind speed and direction. Although lidars can measure mean wind speeds at heights spanning an entire turbine rotor disk and can be easily moved from one location to another, they measure different values of turbulence than an instrument on a tower. Current methods for improving lidar turbulence estimates include the use of analytical turbulence models and expensive scanning lidars. While these methods provide accurate results in a research setting, they cannot be easily applied to smaller, vertically profiling lidars in locations where high-resolution sonic anemometer data are not available. Thus, there is clearly a need for a turbulence error reduction model that is simpler and more easily applicable to lidars that are used in the wind energy industry. In this work, a new turbulence error reduction algorithm for lidars is described. The Lidar Turbulence Error Reduction Algorithm, L-TERRA, can be applied using only data from a stand-alone vertically profiling lidar and requires minimal training with meteorological tower data. The basis of L-TERRA is a series of physics-based corrections that are applied to the lidar data to mitigate errors from instrument noise, volume averaging, and variance contamination. These corrections are applied in conjunction with a trained machine-learning model to improve turbulence estimates from a vertically profiling WINDCUBE v2 lidar. The lessons learned from creating the L-TERRA model for a WINDCUBE v2 lidar can also be applied to other lidar devices. L-TERRA was tested on data from two sites in the Southern Plains region of the United States. The physics-based corrections in L-TERRA brought regression line slopes much closer to 1 at both sites and significantly reduced the sensitivity of lidar turbulence errors to atmospheric stability. The accuracy of machine

  8. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  9. Measurement of turbulence spectra using scanning pulsed wind lidars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.; Mann, J.

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent velocity spectra, as measured by a scanning pulsed wind lidar (WindCube), are analyzed. The relationship between ordinary velocity spectra and lidar derived spectra is mathematically very complex, and deployment of the three-dimensional spectral velocity tensor is necessary. The resulting

  10. Can we estimate precipitation rate during snowfall using a scanning terrestrial LiDAR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeWinter, A. L.; Bair, E. H.; Davis, R. E.; Finnegan, D. C.; Gutmann, E. D.; Dozier, J.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate snowfall measurements in windy areas have proven difficult. To examine a new approach, we have installed an automatic scanning terrestrial LiDAR at Mammoth Mountain, CA. With this LiDAR, we have demonstrated effective snow depth mapping over a small study area of several hundred m2. The LiDAR also produces dense point clouds by detecting falling and blowing hydrometeors during storms. Daily counts of airborne detections from the LiDAR show excellent agreement with automated and manual snow water equivalent measurements, suggesting that LiDAR observations have the potential to directly estimate precipitation rate. Thus, we suggest LiDAR scanners offer advantages over precipitation radars, which could lead to more accurate precipitation rate estimates. For instance, uncertainties in mass-diameter and mass-fall speed relationships used in precipitation radar, combined with low reflectivity of snow in the microwave spectrum, produce errors of up to 3X in snowfall rates measured by radar. Since snow has more backscatter in the near-infrared wavelengths used by LiDAR compared to the wavelengths used by radar, and the LiDAR detects individual hydrometeors, our approach has more potential for directly estimating precipitation rate. A key uncertainty is hydrometeor mass. At our study site, we have also installed a Multi Angle Snowflake Camera (MASC) to measure size, fallspeed, and mass of individual hydrometeors. By combining simultaneous MASC and LiDAR measurements, we can estimate precipitation density and rate.

  11. Atmospheric Lidar with Cross-Track Scanning Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An eye-safe, multispectral cross-track scan subsystem with a large receiver aperture and a narrow FOV is proposed for the NASA Cloud Physics Lidar to increase...

  12. Atmospheric Lidar with Cross-Track Scanning Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An eye-safe, multispectral cross-track scan subsystem with a large receiver aperture and a narrow FOV is proposed for the NASA Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) to increase...

  13. Turbulence estimation from a continuous-wave scanning lidar (SpinnerLidar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnhoorn, J.G.; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2017-01-01

    measurements has earlier been shown to provide unfiltered, un-truncated line-of-sight turbulence measurements [1], [2]. Turbulence measurements from a continuous-wave scanning lidar, i.e. the DTU SpinnerLidar, mounted on the nacelle of the CART3 turbine at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) wind...

  14. Measurement of turbulence spectra using scanning pulsed wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    Turbulent velocity spectra, as measured by a scanning pulsed wind lidar (WindCube), are analyzed. The relationship between ordinary velocity spectra and lidar derived spectra is mathematically very complex, and deployment of the three-dimensional spectral velocity tensor is necessary. The resulting...... scanning lidar spectra depend on beam angles, line-of-sight averaging, sampling rate, and the full three-dimensional structure of the turbulence being measured, in a convoluted way. The model captures the attenuation and redistribution of the spectral energy at high and low wave numbers very well....... The model and measured spectra are in good agreement at two analyzed heights for the u and w components of the velocity field. An interference phenomenon is observed, both in the model and the measurements, when the diameter of the scanning circle divided by the mean wind speed is a multiple of the time...

  15. Error Correction Method for Wind Speed Measured with Doppler Wind LIDAR at Low Altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingyi; Feng, Changzhong; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-11-01

    For the purpose of obtaining global vertical wind profiles, the Atmospheric Dynamics Mission Aeolus of European Space Agency (ESA), carrying the first spaceborne Doppler lidar ALADIN (Atmospheric LAser Doppler INstrument), is going to be launched in 2015. DLR (German Aerospace Center) developed the A2D (ALADIN Airborne Demonstrator) for the prelaunch validation. A ground-based wind lidar for wind profile and wind field scanning measurement developed by Ocean University of China is going to be used for the ground-based validation after the launch of Aeolus. In order to provide validation data with higher accuracy, an error correction method is investigated to improve the accuracy of low altitude wind data measured with Doppler lidar based on iodine absorption filter. The error due to nonlinear wind sensitivity is corrected, and the method for merging atmospheric return signal is improved. The correction method is validated by synchronous wind measurements with lidar and radiosonde. The results show that the accuracy of wind data measured with Doppler lidar at low altitude can be improved by the proposed error correction method.

  16. The high spectral resolution (scanning) lidar (HSRL)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eloranta, E. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Lidars enable the spatial resolution of optical depth variation in clouds. The optical depth must be inverted from the backscatter signal, a process which is complicated by the fact that both molecular and aerosol backscatter signals are present. The HSRL has the advantage of allowing these two signals to be separated. It has a huge dynamic range, allowing optical depth retrieval for t = 0.01 to 3. Depolarization is used to determine the nature of hydrometeors present. Experiments show that water clouds must almost always be taken into account during cirrus observations. An exciting new development is the possibility of measuring effective radius via diffraction peak width and variable field-of-view measurements. 2 figs.

  17. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One...... of the primary objectives is to collect experimental data to improve the predictive capability of wind plant computational models to represent the response of the turbine wake to varying inflow conditions and turbine operating states. The present work summarizes the experimental setup and illustrates several...

  18. Validation of sentinel-1A SAR coastal wind speeds against scanning LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsbahs, Tobias Torben; Badger, Merete; Karagali, Ioanna

    2017-01-01

    with respect to the distance to shore by validation against scanning LiDARs. Comparison of 15 Sentinel-1A wind retrievals using the GMF called C-band model 5.N (CMOD5.N) versus LiDARs show good agreement. It is found, when nondimenionalising with a reference point, that wind speed reductions are between 4......% and 8% from 3 km to 1 km from shore. Findings indicate that SAR wind retrievals give reliable wind speed measurements as close as 1 km to the shore. Comparisons of SAR winds versus two different LiDAR configurations yield root mean square error (RMSE) of 1.31 ms-1 and 1.42 ms-1 for spatially averaged...

  19. Quantification of LiDAR measurement uncertainty through propagation of errors due to sensor sub-systems and terrain morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goulden, T.; Hopkinson, C.

    2013-12-01

    The quantification of LiDAR sensor measurement uncertainty is important for evaluating the quality of derived DEM products, compiling risk assessment of management decisions based from LiDAR information, and enhancing LiDAR mission planning capabilities. Current quality assurance estimates of LiDAR measurement uncertainty are limited to post-survey empirical assessments or vendor estimates from commercial literature. Empirical evidence can provide valuable information for the performance of the sensor in validated areas; however, it cannot characterize the spatial distribution of measurement uncertainty throughout the extensive coverage of typical LiDAR surveys. Vendor advertised error estimates are often restricted to strict and optimal survey conditions, resulting in idealized values. Numerical modeling of individual pulse uncertainty provides an alternative method for estimating LiDAR measurement uncertainty. LiDAR measurement uncertainty is theoretically assumed to fall into three distinct categories, 1) sensor sub-system errors, 2) terrain influences, and 3) vegetative influences. This research details the procedures for numerical modeling of measurement uncertainty from the sensor sub-system (GPS, IMU, laser scanner, laser ranger) and terrain influences. Results show that errors tend to increase as the laser scan angle, altitude or laser beam incidence angle increase. An experimental survey over a flat and paved runway site, performed with an Optech ALTM 3100 sensor, showed an increase in modeled vertical errors of 5 cm, at a nadir scan orientation, to 8 cm at scan edges; for an aircraft altitude of 1200 m and half scan angle of 15°. In a survey with the same sensor, at a highly sloped glacial basin site absent of vegetation, modeled vertical errors reached over 2 m. Validation of error models within the glacial environment, over three separate flight lines, respectively showed 100%, 85%, and 75% of elevation residuals fell below error predictions. Future

  20. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.; Mikkelsen, T.; Sjöholm, M.

    2017-05-01

    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One of the primary objectives is to collect experimental data to improve the predictive capability of wind plant computational models to represent the response of the turbine wake to varying inflow conditions and turbine operating states. The present work summarizes the experimental setup and illustrates several wake measurement example cases. The cases focus on demonstrating the impact of the atmospheric conditions on the wake shape and position, and exhibit a sample of the data that has been made public through the Department of Energy Atmosphere to Electrons Data Archive and Portal.

  1. Quantifying Vegetation Structure with Lightweight, Rapid-Scanning Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, I.; Genest, D.; Saenz, E. J.; Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.; Peri, F.; Schaaf, C.

    2016-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) is proving a competent technology for observing vegetation structure. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) are ground-based instruments which utilize hundreds of thousands to millions of lidar observations to provide detailed structural and reflective information of their surroundings. TLS has enjoyed initial success as a validation tool for satellite and airborne estimates of vegetation structure, and are producing independent estimates with increasing accuracy. Reconstruction techniques for TLS observations of vegetation have also improved rapidly, especially for trees. However, uncertainties and challenges still remain in TLS modelling of vegetation structure, especially in geometrically complex ecosystems such as tropical forests (where observation extent and density is hampered by occlusion) and highly temporally dynamic coastal ecosystems (such as saltmarshes and mangroves), where observations may be restricted to narrow microstates. Some of these uncertainties can be mitigated, and challenges met, through the use of lidar instruments optimized for favorable deployment logistics through low weight, rapid scanning, and improved durability. We have conducted studies of vegetation structure in temperate and tropical forests, saltmarshes and mangroves, utilizing a highly portable TLS with considerable deployment flexibility, the Compact Biomass Lidar (CBL). We show results from studies in the temperate Long Term Ecological Research site of Harvard Forest (MA, USA); the tropical forested long-term Carbono sites of La Selva Biological Station (Sarapiqui, Costa Rica); and the saltmarsh LTER of Plum Island (MA, USA). These results demonstrate the improvements to observations in these ecosystems which are facilitated by the specifications of the CBL (and similar TLS) which are optimized for favorable deployment logistics and flexibility. We show the benefits of increased numbers of scanning positions, and specialized deployment

  2. Testing and validation of multi-lidar scanning strategies for wind energy applications: Testing and validation of multi-lidar scanning strategies for wind energy applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer F. [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA; Current affiliation: National Wind Technology Center, National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden Colorado USA; Bonin, Timothy A. [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA; Current affiliation: Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences, University of Colorado, and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Earth System Research Laboratory, Boulder Colorado USA; Klein, Petra M. [School of Meteorology, University of Oklahoma, Norman Oklahoma USA; Wharton, Sonia [Atmospheric, Earth and Energy Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore California USA; Newsom, Rob K. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland Washington USA

    2016-03-16

    Several factors cause lidars to measure different values of turbulence than an anemometer on a tower, including volume averaging, instrument noise, and the use of a scanning circle to estimate the wind field. One way to avoid the use of a scanning circle is to deploy multiple scanning lidars and point them toward the same volume in space to collect velocity measurements and extract high-resolution turbulence information. This paper explores the use of two multi-lidar scanning strategies, the tri-Doppler technique and the virtual tower technique, for measuring 3-D turbulence. In Summer 2013, a vertically profiling Leosphere WindCube lidar and three Halo Photonics Streamline lidars were operated at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement site to test these multi-lidar scanning strategies. During the first half of the field campaign, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every second. Next, all three scanning lidars were used to build a “virtual tower” above the WindCube lidar. Results indicate that the tri-Doppler technique measures higher values of horizontal turbulence than the WindCube lidar under stable atmospheric conditions, reduces variance contamination under unstable conditions, and can measure highresolution profiles of mean wind speed and direction. The virtual tower technique provides adequate turbulence information under stable conditions but cannot capture the full temporal variability of turbulence experienced under unstable conditions because of the time needed to readjust the scans.

  3. Study and mitigation of calibration error sources in a water vapour Raman lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Leslie; Bock, Olivier; Bosser, Pierre; Thom, Christian; Pelon, Jacques

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of water vapour throughout the atmosphere is important for many scientific applications (weather forecasting, climate research, calibration of GNSS altimetry measurements). Measuring water vapour remains a technical challenge because of its high variability in space and time. The major issues are achieving long-term stability (e.g., for climate trends monitoring) and high accuracy (e.g. for calibration/validation applications). LAREG and LOEMI at Institut National de l'Information Géographique et Forestière (IGN) have developed a mobile scanning water vapour Raman lidar in collaboration with LATMOS at CNRS. This system aims at providing high accuracy water vapour measurements throughout the troposphere for calibrating GNSS wet delay signals and thus improving vertical positioning. Current developments aim at improving the calibration method and long term stability of the system to allow the Raman lidar to be used as a reference instrument. The IGN-LATMOS lidar was deployed in the DEMEVAP (Development of Methodologies for Water Vapour Measurement) campaign that took place in 2011 at the Observatoire de Haute Provence. The goals of DEMEVAP were to inter-compare different water vapour sounding techniques (lidars, operational and research radiosondes, GPS,…) and to study various calibration methods for the Raman lidar. A significant decrease of the signals and of the calibration constants of the IGN-LATMOS Raman lidar has been noticed all along the campaign. This led us to study the likely sources of uncertainty and drifts in each part of the instrument: emission, reception and detection. We inventoried several error sources as well as instability sources. The impact of the temperature dependence of the Raman lines on the filter transmission or the fluorescence in the fibre, are examples of the error sources. We investigated each error source and each instability source (uncontrolled laser beam jitter, temporal fluctuations of the photomultiplier

  4. Stratospheric temperature measurement with scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for wind retrieval from mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyun; Dou, Xiankang; Shangguan, Mingjia; Zhao, Ruocan; Sun, Dongsong; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jiawei; Shu, Zhifeng; Xue, Xianghui; Han, Yuli; Han, Yan

    2014-09-08

    Temperature detection remains challenging in the low stratosphere, where the Rayleigh integration lidar is perturbed by aerosol contamination and ozone absorption while the rotational Raman lidar is suffered from its low scattering cross section. To correct the impacts of temperature on the Rayleigh Doppler lidar, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on cavity scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is developed. By considering the effect of the laser spectral width, Doppler broadening of the molecular backscatter, divergence of the light beam and mirror defects of the FPI, a well-behaved transmission function is proved to show the principle of HSRL in detail. Analysis of the statistical error of the HSRL is carried out in the data processing. A temperature lidar using both HSRL and Rayleigh integration techniques is incorporated into the Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. Simultaneous wind and temperature detection is carried out based on the combined system at Delhi (37.371°N, 97.374°E; 2850 m above the sea level) in Qinghai province, China. Lower Stratosphere temperature has been measured using HSRL between 18 and 50 km with temporal resolution of 2000 seconds. The statistical error of the derived temperatures is between 0.2 and 9.2 K. The temperature profile retrieved from the HSRL and wind profile from the Rayleigh Doppler lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde data. Specifically, the max temperature deviation between the HSRL and radiosonde is 4.7 K from 18 km to 36 km, and it is 2.7 K between the HSRL and Rayleigh integration lidar from 27 km to 34 km.

  5. Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous wave, conically scanning LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Mikkelsen, Torben; Courtney, Michael

    of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar. First, the wind speed standard deviation measured by such a lidar gives on average 80% of the standard deviation measured by a cup anemometer. This difference is due to the spatial averaging inherently made by a cw conically scanning lidar. The spatial...... suggest a volumetric filtering of the turbulence to represent the effect of the spatial averaging operated by a lidar when measuring the wind speed. We then evaluate this model by comparing the theoretical results to experimental data obtained with several Zephir systems, for both turbulence quantities....

  6. Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous wave, conically scanning LiDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, R.; Mikkelsen, T.; Courtney, M.

    2009-03-15

    LIDAR systems are getting more and more accurate and reliable. It has been shown many times that the mean horizontal wind speed measured by a lidar over flat terrain compares very well with that measured by a cup anemometer. But can a lidar measure turbulence? Here we investigate the case of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar. First, the wind speed standard deviation measured by such a lidar gives on average 80% of the standard deviation measured by a cup anemometer. This difference is due to the spatial averaging inherently made by a cw conically scanning lidar. The spatial averaging is done in two steps: 1) the weighted averaging of the wind speed in the probe volume of the laser beam; 2) the averaging of the wind speeds occurring on the circular path described by the conically scanning lidar. Therefore the standard deviation measured by a lidar resolves only the turbulence structures larger than a length scale depending on the circle diameter and the mean wind speed (range of magnitude: 100m). However, the Zephir lidar gives another turbulence quantity, the so-called turbulence parameter, which can resolve turbulence structures with a smaller length scale. In this paper, we suggest a volumetric filtering of the turbulence to represent the effect of the spatial averaging operated by a lidar when measuring the wind speed. We then evaluate this model by comparing the theoretical results to experimental data obtained with several Zephir systems, for both turbulence quantities. (au)

  7. Wind shear proportional errors in the horizontal wind speed sensed by focused, range gated lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Courtney, Michael; Parmentier, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 10-minute average horizontal wind speeds sensed with lidar and mast mounted cup anemometers, at 60 to 116 meters altitude at Hovsore, are compared. The lidar deviation from the cup value as a function of wind velocity and wind shear is studied in a 2-parametric regression analysis which reveals...... an altitude dependent relation between the lidar error and the wind shear. A likely explanation for this relation is an error in the intended sensing altitude. At most this error is estimated to 9 in which induced errors in the horizontal wind velocity of up to 0.5 m/s as compared to a cup at the intended...... for wind velocity and wind shear dependent errors are discussed. The 2-parametric regression analysis described in this paper is proven to be a better approach when acceptance testing and calibrating lidars....

  8. Vertical profiles of the 3-D wind velocity retrieved from multiple wind lidars performing triple range-height-indicator scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Mithu; Valerio Iungo, G.; Ashton, Ryan; Brewer, W. Alan; Choukulkar, Aditya; Delgado, Ruben; Lundquist, Julie K.; Shaw, William J.; Wilczak, James M.; Wolfe, Daniel

    2017-02-01

    Vertical profiles of 3-D wind velocity are retrieved from triple range-height-indicator (RHI) scans performed with multiple simultaneous scanning Doppler wind lidars. This test is part of the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA) campaign carried out at the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory. The three wind velocity components are retrieved and then compared with the data acquired through various profiling wind lidars and high-frequency wind data obtained from sonic anemometers installed on a 300 m meteorological tower. The results show that the magnitude of the horizontal wind velocity and the wind direction obtained from the triple RHI scans are generally retrieved with good accuracy. However, poor accuracy is obtained for the evaluation of the vertical velocity, which is mainly due to its typically smaller magnitude and to the error propagation connected with the data retrieval procedure and accuracy in the experimental setup.

  9. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Brian N.; Mahaffee, Walter F.

    2017-06-01

    The rapid evolution of high performance computing technology has allowed for the development of extremely detailed models of the urban and natural environment. Although models can now represent sub-meter-scale variability in environmental geometry, model users are often unable to specify the geometry of real domains at this scale given available measurements. An emerging technology in this field has been the use of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data to rapidly measure the three-dimensional geometry of trees, such as the distribution of leaf area. However, current LiDAR methods suffer from the limitation that they require detailed knowledge of leaf orientation in order to translate projected leaf area into actual leaf area. Common methods for measuring leaf orientation are often tedious or inaccurate, which places constraints on the LiDAR measurement technique. This work presents a new method to simultaneously measure leaf orientation and leaf area within an arbitrarily defined volume using terrestrial LiDAR data. The novelty of the method lies in the direct measurement of the fraction of projected leaf area G from the LiDAR data which is required to relate projected leaf area to total leaf area, and in the new way in which radiation transfer theory is used to calculate leaf area from the LiDAR data. The method was validated by comparing LiDAR-measured leaf area to (1) ‘synthetic’ or computer-generated LiDAR data where the exact area was known, and (2) direct measurements of leaf area in the field using destructive sampling. Overall, agreement between the LiDAR and reference measurements was very good, showing a normalized root-mean-squared-error of about 15% for the synthetic tests, and 13% in the field.

  10. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies—INS and LiDAR SLAM—into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform—NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment. PMID:26184206

  11. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-07-10

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  12. Attitude-error compensation for airborne down-looking synthetic-aperture imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guang-yuan; Sun, Jian-feng; Zhou, Yu; Lu, Zhi-yong; Zhang, Guo; Cai, Guang-yu; Liu, Li-ren

    2017-11-01

    Target-coordinate transformation in the lidar spot of the down-looking synthetic-aperture imaging lidar (SAIL) was performed, and the attitude errors were deduced in the process of imaging, according to the principle of the airborne down-looking SAIL. The influence of the attitude errors on the imaging quality was analyzed theoretically. A compensation method for the attitude errors was proposed and theoretically verified. An airborne down-looking SAIL experiment was performed and yielded the same results. A point-by-point error-compensation method for solving the azimuthal-direction space-dependent attitude errors was also proposed.

  13. Determination of smoke plume and layer heights using scanning lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir A. Kovalev; Alexander Petkov; Cyle Wold; Shawn Urbanski; Wei Min Hao

    2009-01-01

    The methodology of using mobile scanning lidar data for investigation of smoke plume rise and high-resolution smoke dispersion is considered. The methodology is based on the lidar-signal transformation proposed recently [Appl. Opt. 48, 2559 (2009)]. In this study, similar methodology is used to create the atmospheric heterogeneity height indicator (HHI...

  14. Development of a scanning micro-pulse lidar for aerosol and cloud detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chao; Wang, Zhangjun; Meng, Xiangqian; Qu, Junle; Du, Libin; Li, Xianxin; Lv, Bin; Kabanov, V. V.

    2014-11-01

    A scanning micro-pulse lidar (MPL) was developed by Institute of Oceanographic Instrumentation, Shandong Academy of Sciences, which can be used for routine observations of optical properties, temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol and cloud in the lower troposphere. In addition to the optical system design, the design of 3 dimensional (3-D) scanning system controlled by servo motors is analyzed, including servo motor selection and mechanical design. Through the measurements in Qingdao, it is proved that 3-D scanning system can control the lidar azimuth/elevation scanning with high precision. The lidar has good performance and can provide time-height indication (THI), range-height indication (RHI) and plane-position indication (PPI) of lidar signals which can well reflect the temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric aerosol.

  15. SURFACE COMPLEXITY COMPONENT OF LIDAR POINT CLOUD ERROR CHARACTERIZATION

    OpenAIRE

    C. Toth; Grejner-Brzezinska, D.

    2012-01-01

    There are several data product characterization methods to describe LiDAR data quality. Typically based on guidelines developed by government or professional societies, these techniques require the statistical analysis of vertical differences at known checkpoints (surface patches) to obtain a measure of the vertical accuracy. More advanced methods attempt to also characterize the horizontal accuracy of the LiDAR point cloud, using measurements at LiDAR-specific targets or other man-m...

  16. An Error-Reduction Algorithm to Improve Lidar Turbulence Estimates for Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer F.; Clifton, Andrew

    2016-08-01

    Currently, cup anemometers on meteorological (met) towers are used to measure wind speeds and turbulence intensity to make decisions about wind turbine class and site suitability. However, as modern turbine hub heights increase and wind energy expands to complex and remote sites, it becomes more difficult and costly to install met towers at potential sites. As a result, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidars) are now commonly used by wind farm managers and researchers to estimate the flow field at heights spanned by a turbine. While lidars can accurately estimate mean wind speeds and wind directions, there is still a large amount of uncertainty surrounding the measurement of turbulence with lidars. This uncertainty in lidar turbulence measurements is one of the key roadblocks that must be overcome in order to replace met towers with lidars for wind energy applications. In this talk, a model for reducing errors in lidar turbulence estimates is presented. Techniques for reducing errors from instrument noise, volume averaging, and variance contamination are combined in the model to produce a corrected value of the turbulence intensity (TI), a commonly used parameter in wind energy. In the next step of the model, machine learning techniques are used to further decrease the error in lidar TI estimates.

  17. An Airborne Scanning LiDAR System for Ocean and Coastal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reineman, B. D.; Lenain, L.; Castel, D.; Melville, W. K.

    2008-12-01

    We have developed an airborne scanning LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) system and demonstrated its functionality for terrestrial and oceanographic measurements. Differential GPS (DGPS) and an Inertial Navigation System (INS) are synchronized with the LiDAR, providing end result vertical rms errors of approximately 6~cm. Flying 170~m above the surface, we achieve a point density of ~ 0.7 m-2 and a swath width of 90 to 120~m over ocean and 200~m over land. Georeferencing algorithms were developed in-house and earth-referenced data are available several hours after acquisition. Surveys from the system are compared with ground DGPS surveys and existing airborne surveys of fixed targets. Twelve research flights in a Piper Twin Comanche from August 2007 to July 2008 have provided topography of the Southern California coastline and sea surface wave fields in the nearshore ocean environment. Two of the flights also documented the results of the October 2007 landslide on Mt.~Soledad in La Jolla, California. Eight research flights aboard a Cessna Caravan surveyed the topography, lagoon, reef, and surrounding seas of Lady Elliot Island (LEI) in Australia's Great Barrier Reef in April 2008. We describe applications for the system, including coastal topographic surveys, wave measurements, reef research, and ship wake studies.

  18. Acquisition of a Leica ScanStation II LIDAR unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-01

    The funding will be used to purchase a LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) unit to generate external funding in many diverse areas. The investigators will initially seek funding from NSF, transportation agencies, and emergency management agencies for...

  19. Practical analytical backscatter error bars for elastic one-component lidar inversion algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Reba, M Nadzri Md; Sicard, Michaël; Comerón, Adolfo

    2010-06-10

    We present an analytical formulation to compute the total-backscatter range-dependent error bars from the well-known Klett's elastic-lidar inversion algorithm. A combined error-propagation and statistical formulation approach is used to assess inversion errors in response to the following error sources: observation noise (i.e., signal-to-noise ratio) in the reception channel, the user's uncertainty in the backscatter calibration, and in the (range-dependent) total extinction-to-backscatter ratio provided. The method is validated using a Monte Carlo procedure, where the error bars are computed by inversion of a large population of noisy generated lidar signals, for total optical depths tau < or = 5 and typical user uncertainties, all of which yield a practical tool to compute the sought-after error bars.

  20. Calculation of the overlap factor for scanning LiDAR based on the tridimensional ray-tracing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ruiqiang; Jiang, Yuesong; Wen, Luhong; Wen, Donghai

    2017-06-01

    The overlap factor is used to evaluate the LiDAR light collection ability. Ranging LiDAR is mainly determined by the optical configuration. However, scanning LiDAR, equipped with a scanning mechanism to acquire a 3D coordinate points cloud for a specified target, is essential in considering the scanning effect at the same time. Otherwise, scanning LiDAR will reduce the light collection ability and even cannot receive any echo. From this point of view, we propose a scanning LiDAR overlap factor calculation method based on the tridimensional ray-tracing method, which can be applied to scanning LiDAR with any special laser intensity distribution, any type of telescope (reflector, refractor, or mixed), and any shape obstruction (i.e., the reflector of a coaxial optical system). A case study for our LiDAR with a scanning mirror is carried out, and a MATLAB program is written to analyze the laser emission and reception process. Sensitivity analysis is carried out as a function of scanning mirror rotation speed and detector position, and the results guide how to optimize the overlap factor for our LiDAR. The results of this research will have a guiding significance in scanning LiDAR design and assembly.

  1. Systematic error of lidar profiles caused by a polarization-dependent receiver transmission: quantification and error correction scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattis, Ina; Tesche, Matthias; Grein, Matthias; Freudenthaler, Volker; Müller, Detlef

    2009-05-10

    Signals of many types of aerosol lidars can be affected with a significant systematic error, if depolarizing scatterers are present in the atmosphere. That error is caused by a polarization-dependent receiver transmission. In this contribution we present an estimation of the magnitude of this systematic error. We show that lidar signals can be biased by more than 20%, if linearly polarized laser light is emitted, if both polarization components of the backscattered light are measured with a single detection channel, and if the receiver transmissions for these two polarization components differ by more than 50%. This signal bias increases with increasing ratio between the two transmission values (transmission ratio) or with the volume depolarization ratio of the scatterers. The resulting error of the particle backscatter coefficient increases with decreasing backscatter ratio. If the particle backscatter coefficients are to have an accuracy better than 5%, the transmission ratio has to be in the range between 0.85 and 1.15. We present a method to correct the measured signals for this bias. We demonstrate an experimental method for the determination of the transmission ratio. We use collocated measurements of a lidar system strongly affected by this signal bias and an unbiased reference system to verify the applicability of the correction scheme. The errors in the case of no correction are illustrated with example measurements of fresh Saharan dust.

  2. An Error Analysis of Structured Light Scanning of Biological Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; Wilm, Jakob; Aanæs, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an error analysis and correction model for four structured light methods applied to three common types of biological tissue; skin, fat and muscle. Despite its many advantages, structured light is based on the assumption of direct reflection at the object surface only....... This assumption is violated by most biological material e.g. human skin, which exhibits subsurface scattering. In this study, we find that in general, structured light scans of biological tissue deviate significantly from the ground truth. We show that a large portion of this error can be predicted with a simple......, statistical linear model based on the scan geometry. As such, scans can be corrected without introducing any specially designed pattern strategy or hardware. We can effectively reduce the error in a structured light scanner applied to biological tissue by as much as factor of two or three....

  3. Scanning Lidar Spatial Calibration and Alignment Method for Wind Turbine Wake Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, Thomas; Maniaci, David; Naughton, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a field campaign at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. The results from this field campaign will support the validation of ...

  4. Evaluation of the Wind Flow Variability Using Scanning Doppler Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, S. C.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Brewer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Better understanding of the wind flow variability at the heights of the modern turbines is essential to accurately assess of generated wind power and efficient turbine operations. Nowadays the wind energy industry often utilizes scanning Doppler lidar to measure wind-speed profiles at high spatial and temporal resolution.The study presents wind flow features captured by scanning Doppler lidars during the second Wind Forecast and Improvement Project (WFIP 2) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This 18-month long experiment in the Columbia River Basin aims to improve model wind forecasts complicated by mountain terrain, coastal effects, and numerous wind farms.To provide a comprehensive dataset to use for characterizing and predicting meteorological phenomena important to Wind Energy, NOAA deployed scanning, pulsed Doppler lidars to two sites in Oregon, one at Wasco, located upstream of all wind farms relative to the predominant westerly flow in the region, and one at Arlington, located in the middle of several wind farms.In this presentation we will describe lidar scanning patterns capable of providing data in conical, or vertical-slice modes. These individual scans were processed to obtain 15-min averaged profiles of wind speed and direction in real time. Visualization of these profiles as time-height cross sections allows us to analyze variability of these parameters with height, time and location, and reveal periods of rapid changes (ramp events). Examples of wind flow variability between two sites of lidar measurements along with examples of reduced wind velocity downwind of operating turbines (wakes) will be presented.

  5. Albedo Observation by Hayabusa2 LIDAR: Instrument Performance and Error Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Ryuhei; Senshu, Hiroki; Namiki, Noriyuki; Mizuno, Takahide; Abe, Shinsuke; Yoshida, Fumi; Noda, Hirotomo; Hirata, Naru; Oshigami, Shoko; Araki, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Koji

    2017-07-01

    The Japanese asteroid explorer Hayabusa2 was launched at the end of 2014. Hayabusa2 is supposed to observe the near-Earth C-type asteroid 162173 Ryugu (1999 JU3) and bring surface material samples back to Earth in 2020. It is equipped with Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) instrument for laser ranging which can be used to measure the intensities of transmitted and received pulses. The intensity data can be used to estimate the normal albedo of Ryugu at a laser wavelength of 1.064 μm. To perform this estimation, we determined the transfer functions of the laser module and receiver to convert the intensity data into pulse energies, along with the utilization ratio of the returned pulse energy, through verification tests of the LIDAR flight model. Then, we evaluated the error of the normal albedo. This error is affected not only by the performance of the LIDAR but also by the slope and roughness of the asteroid's surface. In this paper, we focus on the error in the normal albedo due only to the instrument error, which will be 18.0 % in an observation at a nominal altitude of 20 km.

  6. Coastal wind study based on Sentinel-1 and ground-based scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    Winds in the coastal zone have importance for near-shore wind farm planning. Recently the Danish Energy Agency gave new options for placing offshore wind farms much closer to the coastlines than previously. The new tender areas are located from 3 to 8 km from the coast. Ground-based scanning lidar...... located on land can partly cover this area out to around 15 km. In order to improve wind farm planning for near-shore coastal areas, the project‘Reducing the Uncertainty of Near-shore Energy estimates from meso- and micro-scale wind models’ (RUNE) is established. The measurement campaign starts October....... The various observation types have advantages and limitations; one advantage of both the Sentinel-1 and the scanning lidar is that they both observe wind fields covering a large area and so can be combined for studying the spatial variability of winds. Sentinel-1 are being processed near-real-time at DTU Wind...

  7. Development of a wing-beat-modulation scanning lidar system for insect studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauc, Martin Jan; Fristrup, Kurt M.; Shaw, Joseph A.

    2017-08-01

    The spatial distributions of flying insects are not well understood since most sampling methods - Malaise traps, sticky traps, vacuum traps, light traps - are not suited to documenting movements or changing distributions of various insects on short time scales. These methods also capture and kill the insects. To noninvasively monitor the spatial distributions of flying insects, we developed and implemented a scanning lidar system that measured wing-beat-modulated scattered laser light. The oscillating signal from wing-beat returns allowed for reliable separation of lidar returns for insects and stationary objects. Transmitting and receiving optics were mounted to a telescope that was attached to a scanning mount. As it scanned, the lidar collected and analyzed the light scattered from insect wings of various species. Mount position and pulse time-of-flight determined spatial location and spectral analysis of the backscattered light provided clues to insect identity. During one day of a four-day field campaign at Grand Teton National Park in June of 2016, 76 very likely insects and 662 somewhat likely insects were detected, with a maximum range to the insect of 87.6 m for very likely insects

  8. CLOSE RANGE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING INTEGRATED WITH TERRESTRIAL LIDAR SCANNING APPLIED TO ROCK CHARACTERISATION AT CENTIMETRE SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Kurz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Compact and lightweight hyperspectral imagers allow the application of close range hyperspectral imaging with a ground based scanning setup for geological fieldwork. Using such a scanning setup, steep cliff sections and quarry walls can be scanned with a more appropriate viewing direction and a higher image resolution than from airborne and spaceborne platforms. Integration of the hyperspectral imagery with terrestrial lidar scanning provides the hyperspectral information in a georeferenced framework and enables measurement at centimetre scale. In this paper, three geological case studies are used to demonstrate the potential of this method for rock characterisation. Two case studies are applied to carbonate quarries where mapping of different limestone and dolomite types was required, as well as measurements of faults and layer thicknesses from inaccessible parts of the quarries. The third case study demonstrates the method using artificial lighting, applied in a subsurface scanning scenario where solar radiation cannot be utilised.

  9. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, M F; Kühn, M.; Petrovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement......This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short......-range WindScanner Lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning Lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dualLidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling time scales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were...

  10. Optimization design of spectral discriminator for high-spectral-resolution lidar based on error analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Huige; Zhang, Zhanfei; Hua, Hangbo; Zhang, Jiaqi; Hua, Dengxin; Wang, Yufeng; He, Tingyao

    2017-03-06

    Accurate aerosol optical properties could be obtained via the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) technique, which employs a narrow spectral filter to suppress the Rayleigh or Mie scattering in lidar return signals. The ability of the filter to suppress Rayleigh or Mie scattering is critical for HSRL. Meanwhile, it is impossible to increase the rejection of the filter without limitation. How to optimize the spectral discriminator and select the appropriate suppression rate of the signal is important to us. The HSRL technology was thoroughly studied based on error propagation. Error analyses and sensitivity studies were carried out on the transmittance characteristics of the spectral discriminator. Moreover, ratwo different spectroscopic methods for HSRL were described and compared: one is to suppress the Mie scattering; the other is to suppress the Rayleigh scattering. The corresponding HSRLs were simulated and analyzed. The results show that excessive suppression of Rayleigh scattering or Mie scattering in a high-spectral channel is not necessary if the transmittance of the spectral filter for molecular and aerosol scattering signals can be well characterized. When the ratio of transmittance of the spectral filter for aerosol scattering and molecular scattering is less than 0.1 or greater than 10, the detection error does not change much with its value. This conclusion implies that we have more choices for the high-spectral discriminator in HSRL. Moreover, the detection errors of HSRL regarding the two spectroscopic methods vary greatly with the atmospheric backscattering ratio. To reduce the detection error, it is necessary to choose a reasonable spectroscopic method. The detection method of suppressing the Rayleigh signal and extracting the Mie signal can achieve less error in a clear atmosphere, while the method of suppressing the Mie signal and extracting the Rayleigh signal can achieve less error in a polluted atmosphere.

  11. Effect of target color and scanning geometry on terrestrial LiDAR point-cloud noise and plane fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Martinez, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Point-cloud coordinate information derived from terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is important for several applications in surveying and civil engineering. Plane fitting and segmentation of target-surfaces is an important step in several applications such as in the monitoring of structures. Reliable parametric modeling and segmentation relies on the underlying quality of the point-cloud. Therefore, understanding how point-cloud errors affect fitting of planes and segmentation is important. Point-cloud intensity, which accompanies the point-cloud data, often goes hand-in-hand with point-cloud noise. This study uses industrial particle boards painted with eight different colors (black, white, grey, red, green, blue, brown, and yellow) and two different sheens (flat and semi-gloss) to explore how noise and plane residuals vary with scanning geometry (i.e., distance and incidence angle) and target-color. Results show that darker colors, such as black and brown, can produce point clouds that are several times noisier than bright targets, such as white. In addition, semi-gloss targets manage to reduce noise in dark targets by about 2-3 times. The study of plane residuals with scanning geometry reveals that, in many of the cases tested, residuals decrease with increasing incidence angles, which can assist in understanding the distribution of plane residuals in a dataset. Finally, a scheme is developed to derive survey guidelines based on the data collected in this experiment. Three examples demonstrate that users should consider instrument specification, required precision of plane residuals, required point-spacing, target-color, and target-sheen, when selecting scanning locations. Outcomes of this study can aid users to select appropriate instrumentation and improve planning of terrestrial LiDAR data-acquisition.

  12. Compensation of sampling error in frequency scanning interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yue; Lin, Jiarui; Yang, Linghui; Ren, Yongjie

    2018-01-01

    Absolute distance measurement techniques are of significant interest in the field of large volume metrology. Ones which could offer an ability of ADM and high accuracy will improve the efficiency and the quality of large assemblies. Frequency scanning interferometry (FSI) is a kind of ADM technique which use a variable synthetic-wavelength achieved by tuning the optical frequency continuously. FSI could offer a relative accuracy of several ppm in a range of tens of meters. In a FSI ranging system, it is necessary to get knowledge of the tuning range of optical frequency, which could be done by using of gas absorption cell, femtosecond laser comb, F-P etalon and the most used: a predicted auxiliary interferometer. As the result of the measurement is calculated by the tuning range of optical frequency, a length drift of the auxiliary interferometer will make a contribution in error of the result. Analysis of sampling error caused by the drift of the auxiliary interferometer has been done and a real-time compensation system has been proposed to minimize the drift of the auxiliary interferometer. The simulation has proved the analysis and the error has been decreased.

  13. Ground-based mobile scanning LIDAR for remote sensing of contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Homburg

    Full Text Available Air traffic is a source of trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Contrails readily form from water vapor exhausts under favorable meteorological conditions. Since contrails are ice crystal clouds like natural cirrus clouds, they bear a greenhouse potential which has to be investigated. The IFU has built a scanning lidar system employing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the emitter and a 52-cm diameter telescope as the receiver. Signals are processed in several channels to investigate depolarization and wavelength dependencies of the light backscattered from ice crystals. These investigations are aimed at the formation and life cycles of contrails, their optical properties, and their climatological consequences in areas of dense air traffic. The experimental lidar setup is described and a sample measurement is shown.

  14. Ground-based mobile scanning LIDAR for remote sensing of contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Freudenthaler

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic is a source of trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Contrails readily form from water vapor exhausts under favorable meteorological conditions. Since contrails are ice crystal clouds like natural cirrus clouds, they bear a greenhouse potential which has to be investigated. The IFU has built a scanning lidar system employing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the emitter and a 52-cm diameter telescope as the receiver. Signals are processed in several channels to investigate depolarization and wavelength dependencies of the light backscattered from ice crystals. These investigations are aimed at the formation and life cycles of contrails, their optical properties, and their climatological consequences in areas of dense air traffic. The experimental lidar setup is described and a sample measurement is shown.

  15. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dooren, M. F.; Kühn, M.; PetroviĆ, V.; Bottasso, C. L.; Campagnolo, F.; Sjöholm, M.; Angelou, N.; Mikkelsen, T.; Croce, A.; Zasso, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short-range WindScanner Lidars to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning Lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The dual- Lidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling time scales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement of wake profiles on a line as well as wake area scans were executed to illustrate the applicability of Lidar scanning to measuring small scale wind flow effects. The downsides of Lidar with respect to the hot wire probes are the larger measurement probe volume and the loss of some measurements due to moving blades. In contrast, the benefits are the high flexibility in conducting both point measurements and area scanning, and the fact that remote sensing techniques do not disturb the flow while measuring. The research campaign revealed a high potential for using short-range WindScanner Lidar for accurately measuring small scale flow structures in a wind tunnel.

  16. Scan Line Based Road Marking Extraction from Mobile LiDAR Point Clouds†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li; Liu, Hua; Tan, Junxiang; Li, Zan; Xie, Hong; Chen, Changjun

    2016-01-01

    Mobile Mapping Technology (MMT) is one of the most important 3D spatial data acquisition technologies. The state-of-the-art mobile mapping systems, equipped with laser scanners and named Mobile LiDAR Scanning (MLS) systems, have been widely used in a variety of areas, especially in road mapping and road inventory. With the commercialization of Advanced Driving Assistance Systems (ADASs) and self-driving technology, there will be a great demand for lane-level detailed 3D maps, and MLS is the most promising technology to generate such lane-level detailed 3D maps. Road markings and road edges are necessary information in creating such lane-level detailed 3D maps. This paper proposes a scan line based method to extract road markings from mobile LiDAR point clouds in three steps: (1) preprocessing; (2) road points extraction; (3) road markings extraction and refinement. In preprocessing step, the isolated LiDAR points in the air are removed from the LiDAR point clouds and the point clouds are organized into scan lines. In the road points extraction step, seed road points are first extracted by Height Difference (HD) between trajectory data and road surface, then full road points are extracted from the point clouds by moving least squares line fitting. In the road markings extraction and refinement step, the intensity values of road points in a scan line are first smoothed by a dynamic window median filter to suppress intensity noises, then road markings are extracted by Edge Detection and Edge Constraint (EDEC) method, and the Fake Road Marking Points (FRMPs) are eliminated from the detected road markings by segment and dimensionality feature-based refinement. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by three data samples and the experiment results indicate that road points are well extracted from MLS data and road markings are well extracted from road points by the applied method. A quantitative study shows that the proposed method achieves an average

  17. UAV-borne lidar with MEMS mirror-based scanning capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Abhishek; Milanovic, Veljko; Atwood, Bryan H.; Yang, James

    2016-05-01

    Firstly, we demonstrated a wirelessly controlled MEMS scan module with imaging and laser tracking capability which can be mounted and flown on a small UAV quadcopter. The MEMS scan module was reduced down to a small volume of smartphone via Bluetooth while flying on a drone, and could project vector content, text, and perform laser based tracking. Also, a "point-and-range" LiDAR module was developed for UAV applications based on low SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) gimbal-less MEMS mirror beam-steering technology and off-the-shelf OEM LRF modules. For demonstration purposes of an integrated laser range finder module, we used a simple off-the-shelf OEM laser range finder (LRF) with a 100m range, +/-1.5mm accuracy, and 4Hz ranging capability. The LRFs receiver optics were modified to accept 20° of angle, matching the transmitter's FoR. A relatively large (5.0mm) diameter MEMS mirror with +/-10° optical scanning angle was utilized in the demonstration to maintain the small beam divergence of the module. The complete LiDAR prototype can fit into a small volume of camera are additional goals of the next design.

  18. Wind field re-construction of 3D Wake measurements from a turbine-installed scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, Tommy; Astrup, Poul

    fields in the scan planes consisting of all three wind components. The combination of a fast-scanning wind lidar and a corresponding fast wind field reconstruction model is shown to be able to provide detailed wind data useful for proactive steering of wakes in real time and also for advanced feed......High-resolution wake flow measurements obtained from a turbine-mounted scanning lidar have been obtained from 1D to 5D behind a V27 test turbine. The measured line-of-sight projected wind speeds have, in connection with a fast CFD wind field reconstruction model, been used to generate 3D wind...

  19. Determination of the smoke-plume heights with scanning lidar using alternative functions for establishing the atmospheric heterogeneity locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir A. Kovalev; Alexander Petkov; Cyle Wold; Wei Min Hao

    2010-01-01

    Data-processing techniques for the scanning lidar data are considered that allow determining the upper and lower boundaries of the smoke plume or smoke layering in the vicinity of wildfires. The task is fulfilled by utilizing the Atmospheric Heterogeneity Height Indicator (AHHI). The AHHI is a histogram, which shows a number of heterogeneity events defined by scanning...

  20. MAPPING THE RISK OF FOREST WIND DAMAGE USING AIRBORNE SCANNING LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saarinen

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind damage is known for causing threats to sustainable forest management and yield value in boreal forests. Information about wind damage risk can aid forest managers in understanding and possibly mitigating damage impacts. The objective of this research was to better understand and quantify drivers of wind damage, and to map the probability of wind damage. To accomplish this, we used open-access airborne scanning light detection and ranging (LiDAR data. The probability of wind-induced forest damage (PDAM in southern Finland (61°N, 23°E was modelled for a 173 km2 study area of mainly managed boreal forests (dominated by Norway spruce and Scots pine and agricultural fields. Wind damage occurred in the study area in December 2011. LiDAR data were acquired prior to the damage in 2008. High spatial resolution aerial imagery, acquired after the damage event (January, 2012 provided a source of model calibration via expert interpretation. A systematic grid (16 m x 16 m was established and 430 sample grid cells were identified systematically and classified as damaged or undamaged based on visual interpretation using the aerial images. Potential drivers associated with PDAM were examined using a multivariate logistic regression model. Risk model predictors were extracted from the LiDAR-derived surface models. Geographic information systems (GIS supported spatial mapping and identification of areas of high PDAM across the study area. The risk model based on LiDAR data provided good agreement with detected risk areas (73 % with kappa-value 0,47. The strongest predictors in the risk model were mean canopy height and mean elevation. Our results indicate that open-access LiDAR data sets can be used to map the probability of wind damage risk without field data, providing valuable information for forest management planning.

  1. Continuously scanning time-correlated single-photon-counting single-pixel 3-D lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksson, Markus; Larsson, Håkan; Grönwall, Christina; Tolt, Gustav

    2017-03-01

    Time-correlated single-photon-counting (TCSPC) lidar provides very high resolution range measurements. This makes the technology interesting for three-dimensional imaging of complex scenes with targets behind foliage or other obscurations. TCSPC is a statistical method that demands integration of multiple measurements toward the same area to resolve objects at different distances within the instantaneous field-of-view. Point-by-point scanning will demand significant overhead for the movement, increasing the measurement time. Here, the effect of continuously scanning the scene row-by-row is investigated and signal processing methods to transform this into low-noise point clouds are described. The methods are illustrated using measurements of a characterization target and an oak and hazel copse. Steps between different surfaces of less than 5 cm in range are resolved as two surfaces.

  2. Reducing classification error of grassland overgrowth by combing low-density lidar acquisitions and optical remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, T. P.; Käyhkö, N.

    2017-08-01

    Mapping structural changes in vegetation dynamics has, for a long time, been carried out using satellite images, orthophotos and, more recently, airborne lidar acquisitions. Lidar has established its position as providing accurate material for structure-based analyses but its limited availability, relatively short history, and lack of spectral information, however, are generally impeding the use of lidar data for change detection purposes. A potential solution in respect of detecting both contemporary vegetation structures and their previous trajectories is to combine lidar acquisitions with optical remote sensing data, which can substantially extend the coverage, span and spectral range needed for vegetation mapping. In this study, we tested the simultaneous use of a single low-density lidar data set, a series of Landsat satellite frames and two high-resolution orthophotos to detect vegetation succession related to grassland overgrowth, i.e. encroachment of woody plants into semi-natural grasslands. We built several alternative Random Forest models with different sets of variables and tested the applicability of respective data sources for change detection purposes, aiming at distinguishing unchanged grassland and woodland areas from overgrown grasslands. Our results show that while lidar alone provides a solid basis for indicating structural differences between grassland and woodland vegetation, and orthophoto-generated variables alone are better in detecting successional changes, their combination works considerably better than its respective parts. More specifically, a model combining all the used data sets reduces the total error from 17.0% to 11.0% and omission error of detecting overgrown grasslands from 56.9% to 31.2%, when compared to model constructed solely based on lidar data. This pinpoints the efficiency of the approach where lidar-generated structural metrics are combined with optical and multitemporal observations, providing a workable framework to

  3. Measurement method of high spectral resolution lidar with a multimode laser and a scanning Mach-Zehnder interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yoshitaka; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Ristori, Pablo; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Otero, Lidia; Quel, Eduardo

    2017-07-20

    A simple high spectral resolution lidar technique using a multi-longitudinal mode laser is proposed for measuring aerosol extinction and backscattering coefficients. A scanning interferometer having the same free spectral range as the mode spacing of the laser is used to separate Rayleigh from Mie scattering. Scanning the interferometer in the span of one fringe, the lidar signals at the minimum and maximum Mie-scattering transmission are measured. The Rayleigh scattering signal is analyzed from these signals, and the aerosol extinction coefficient is derived. The interferometer transmittance for Mie scattering is calibrated with the reference signals taken with a portion of the transmitted laser beam.

  4. 3D wake measurements from a scanning wind lidar in combination with a fast wind field reconstruction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, T. G.; Astrup, Poul

    2017-01-01

    -Stokes CFD code “Lincom Cyclop-buster model,”3 the corresponding 3D wind vector field (u, v, w) can be reconstructed under constraints for conservation of mass and momentum. The resulting model calculated line-of-sight projections of the 3D wind velocity vectors will become consistent with the line......High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) facility1 by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning “DTU SpinnerLidar”2 from the Technical...... University of Denmark. The purpose of the SpinnerLidar measurements at SWIFT is to measure the response of a V27 turbine wake to varying inflow conditions and turbine operating states. Although our fast scanning SpinnerLidar is able to measure the line-of-sight projected wind speed at up to 400 points per...

  5. Application of simulated lidar scanning patterns to constrained Gaussian turbulence fields for load validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    of this study, we assess the influence of the proposed method on the statistical uncertainty in wind turbine extreme and fatigue loads. The main conclusion is that introducing lidar measurements as turbulence constraints in load simulations may bring significant reduction in load and energy production...... uncertainty, not accounting for any additional uncertainty from real measurements. The constrained turbulence method is most efficient for prediction of energy production and loads governed by the turbulence intensity and the thrust force, while for other load components such as tower base side-to-side moment...... generated Gaussian turbulence fields in compliance with the Mann model for neutral stability. The expected efficiency of various scanning patterns is estimated by means of the explained variance associated with the constrained field. A numerical study is made using the HAWC2 aeroelastic software, whereby...

  6. Coastal wind study based on Sentinel-1 and ground-based scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahsbahs, Tobias Torben; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    fields from the Sentinel-1A satellite using APL/NOAA’s SAROPS system with GFS model wind directions as input. For the presented cases CMOD5.n is used. Ground-based scanning lidar located on land can also cover near shore areas. In order to improve wind farm planning for near-shore coastal areas......Winds in the coastal zone have importance for near-shore wind farm planning. Recently the Danish Energy Agency gave new options for placing offshore wind farms much closer to the coastlines than previously. SAR wind retrievals give uniquely detailed spatial information on offshore wind fields. Wind...... maps can be retrieved from SAR observations at resolutions finer than 1 km. The high resolution make SAR images suitable for wind retrievals in the coastal zone, but the Geophysical Model Functions (GMF) for the wind retrieval are tuned for open sea conditions [1]. DTU routinely retrieves SAR wind...

  7. Simulating the Effects of the Airborne Lidar Scanning Angle, Flying Altitude, and Pulse Density for Forest Foliage Profile Retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiming Qin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Foliage profile is a key biophysical parameter for forests. Airborne Light Detection and Ranging is an effective tool for vegetation parameter retrieval. Data acquisition conditions influence the estimation of biophysical parameters. To acquire accurate foliage profiles at the lowest cost, we used simulations to explore the effects of data acquisition conditions on forest foliage profile retrieval. First, a 3-D forest scene and the airborne small-footprint full-waveform LiDAR data were simulated by the DART model. Second, the foliage profile was estimated from LiDAR data based on a Geometric Optical and Radiative Transfer model. Lastly, the effects of the airborne LiDAR scanning angle, flying altitude, and pulse density on foliage profile retrieval were explored. The results indicated that the scanning angle was an important factor in the foliage profile retrieval, and the optimal scanning angle was 20°. The optimal scanning angle was independent of flying altitude and pulse density, and combinations of multiple scanning angles could improve the accuracy of the foliage profile estimation. The flying altitude and pulse density had little influence on foliage profile retrieval at plot level and could be ignored. In general, our study provides reliable information for selecting the optimal instrument operational parameters to acquire more accurate foliage profiles and minimize data acquisition costs.

  8. Design and implementation of 3D LIDAR based on pixel-by-pixel scanning and DS-OCDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Yongwan

    2017-02-01

    We designed a prototype for testing feasibility of a proposed light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, which was designed to encode pixel location information in its laser pulses using the direct-sequence optical code division multiple access method in conjunction with a scanning-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror. The prototype was built using commercial o -the-shelf optical components and development kits. It comprised of an optical modulator, an amplified photodetector, an MEMS mirror development kit, an analog-to-digital converter evaluation module, a digital signal processor with ARM evaluation kit and a Windows personal computer. The prototype LIDAR system has capable of acquiring 120 x 32-pixel images at 5 frames/s. We measured a watering pot to demonstrate the imaging performance of the prototype LIDAR system.

  9. Measurements of wind turbulence parameters by a conically scanning coherent Doppler lidar in the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalikho, Igor N.; Banakh, Viktor A.

    2017-11-01

    The method and results of lidar studies of spatiotemporal variability of wind turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer are reported. The measurements were conducted by a Stream Line pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (PCDL) with the use of conical scanning by a probing beam around the vertical axis. Lidar data are used to estimate the kinetic energy of turbulence, turbulent energy dissipation rate, integral scale of turbulence, and momentum fluxes. The dissipation rate was determined from the azimuth structure function of radial velocity within the inertial subrange of turbulence. When estimating the kinetic energy of turbulence from lidar data, we took into account the averaging of radial velocity over the sensing volume. The integral scale of turbulence was determined on the assumption that the structure of random irregularities of the wind field is described by the von Kármán model. The domain of applicability of the used method and the accuracy of the estimation of turbulence parameters were determined. Turbulence parameters estimated from Stream Line lidar measurement data and from data of a sonic anemometer were compared.

  10. Mapping Snow Depth From Ka-Band Interferometry: Proof Of Concept And Comparison With Scanning Lidar Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moller, D.; Andreadis, K.; Bormann, K. J.; Painter, T. H.; Hensley, S.

    2016-12-01

    Snow cover and its melt dominate sources in many of the world's mountainous regions, and in adjacent areas dependent on river flows originating from mountain basins. However, snow water equivalent (SWE) across Earth is very poorly known. Our inability to measure and track distribution of SWE severely hampers our skill in modeling snow cover for climate and hydrology. In 2013, NASA/JPL began an ambitious program to solve the need for distributed SWE and coincident snow albedo, developing the Airborne Snow Observatory (ASO). The SWE component of the ASO comes from the scanning lidar, which is used to map distributed topography for snow-free and snow-on conditions and in turn snow depth with an unbiased uncertainty of 8 cm. SWE is generated then with modeling of snow density, constrained by available in situ measurements. ASO has provided full basin and distributed mapping of SWE leading to unique discoveries for water cycle science. While these measurements provide critical measurements, an identical path to space with lidar is not presently available and suffers from cloud cover. We investigate the capacity of a Ka-band single pass interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) GLISTIN (Glacier and Ice Surface Topography Interferometer) to map snow topography/snow depth in a complex mountain basin independent of cloud cover. As a proof-of-concept, GLISTIN overflew a portion of the ASO site in the Sierra Nevada in August 2012 (snow-off) and again in April 2013 (snow-on). Despite it being a "low-snow year"whereby the snow-depth is largely decimetric in a region of high topographic complexity, the quantitative and qualitative comparisons of GLISTIN and ASO are encouraging. Our methodology includes: 1) classification of tree-contaminated regions using the InSAR correlation data at high spatial resolution; 2) data calibration of the InSAR height-data; and 3) generation of bare-Earth digital elevation models at coarsened resolution. Our initial GLISTIN

  11. Characterization of wind velocities in the upstream induction zone of a wind turbine using scanning continuous-wave lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simley, Eric; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2016-01-01

    Technical University’s Risø campus is investigated using a scanning Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) system. Three short-range continuous-wave “WindScanner” lidars are positioned in the field around the V27 turbine allowing detection of all three components of the wind velocity vectors within...... in the induction zone are studied by more rapidly scanning along individual lines perpendicular to the rotor at different radial distances from the hub. The mean velocity measurements reveal that the longitudinal velocity reductions become greater closer to the rotor plane and closer to the center of the rotor...... 9% and 3% of the freestream longitudinal wind speed were measured for the abovementioned high and low CP values, respectively. Turbulence statistics, calculated using 2.5-min time series, suggest that the standard deviation of the longitudinal wind component decreases close to the rotor, while...

  12. Can Wind Lidars Measure Turbulence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Gottschall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the conical scanning technique to measure the velocity field. The model captures the effect of volume illumination...... and conical scanning. The predictions are compared with the measurements from the ZephIR, WindCube, and sonic anemometers at a flat terrain test site under different atmospheric stability conditions. The sonic measurements are used at several heights on a meteorological mast in combination with lidars...... that are placed on the ground. Results show that the systematic errors are up to 90% for the vertical velocity variance, whereas they are up to 70% for the horizontal velocity variance. For the ZephIR, the systematic errors increase with height, whereas for the WindCube, they decrease with height. The systematic...

  13. Anticipating, measuring, and minimizing MEMS mirror scan error to improve laser scanning microscopy's speed and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, John P; York, Andrew G; Shroff, Hari

    2017-01-01

    We describe a method to speed up microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror scanning by > 20x, while also improving scan accuracy. We use Landweber deconvolution to determine an input voltage which would produce a desired output, based on the measured MEMS impulse response. Since the MEMS is weakly nonlinear, the observed behavior deviates from expectations, and we iteratively improve our input to minimize this deviation. This allows customizable MEMS angle vs. time with <1% deviation from the desired scan pattern. We demonstrate our technique by optimizing a point scanning microscope's raster patterns to image mammal submandibular gland and pollen at ~10 frames/s.

  14. Large off-nadir scan angle of airborne LiDAR can severely affect the estimates of forest structure metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jing; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Jones, Simon; Wang, Tiejun; Heurich, Marco; Zhu, Xi; Shi, Yifang

    2018-02-01

    Gap fraction (Pgap) and vertical gap fraction profile (vertical Pgap profile) are important forest structural metrics. Accurate estimation of Pgap and vertical Pgap profile is therefore critical for many ecological applications, including leaf area index (LAI) mapping, LAI profile estimation and wildlife habitat modelling. Although many studies estimated Pgap and vertical Pgap profile from airborne LiDAR data, the scan angle was often overlooked and a nadir view assumed. However, the scan angle can be off-nadir and highly variable in the same flight strip or across different flight strips. In this research, the impact of off-nadir scan angle on Pgap and vertical Pgap profile was evaluated, for several forest types. Airborne LiDAR data from nadir (0°∼7°), small off-nadir (7°∼23°), and large off-nadir (23°∼38°) directions were used to calculate both Pgap and vertical Pgap profile. Digital hemispherical photographs (DHP) acquired during fieldwork were used as references for validation. Our results show that angular Pgap from airborne LiDAR correlates well with angular Pgap from DHP (R2 = 0.74, 0.87, and 0.67 for nadir, small off-nadir and large off-nadir direction). But underestimation of Pgap from LiDAR amplifies at large off-nadir scan angle. By comparing Pgap and vertical Pgap profiles retrieved from different directions, it is shown that scan angle impact on Pgap and vertical Pgap profile differs amongst different forest types. The difference is likely to be caused by different leaf angle distribution and canopy architecture in these forest types. Statistical results demonstrate that the scan angle impact is more severe for plots with discontinuous or sparse canopies. These include coniferous plots, and deciduous or mixed plots with between-crown gaps. In these discontinuous plots, Pgap and vertical Pgap profiles are maximum when observed from nadir direction, and then rapidly decrease with increasing scan angle. The results of this research have many

  15. Exploring structures of the Rochefort Cave (Belgium) with 3D models from LIDAR scans and UAV photoscans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, A.; Triantafyllou, A.; Kaufmann, O.; Le Mouelic, S.

    2016-12-01

    Amongst today's techniques that are able to produce 3D point clouds, LIDAR and UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry are probably the most commonly used. Both methods have their own advantages and limitations. LIDAR scans create high resolution and high precision 3D point clouds, but such methods are generally costly, especially for sporadic surveys. Compared to LIDAR, UAV (e.g. drones) are cheap and flexible to use in different types of environments. Moreover, the photogrammetric processing workflow of digital images taken with UAV becomes easier with the rise of many affordable software packages (e.g., Agisoft PhotoScan, MicMac, VisualSFM). In this canvas, we present a challenging study made at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (South Belgium) comprising surface and underground surveys. The main chamber of the cave ( 10000 m³) was the principal target of the study. A LIDAR scan and an UAV photoscan were acquired underground, producing respective 3D models. An additional 3D photoscan was performed at the surface, in the sinkhole in direct connection with the main chamber. The main goal of the project is to combine this different datasets for quantifying the orientation of inaccessible geological structures (e.g. faults, tectonic and gravitational joints, and sediments bedding), and for comparing them to structural data surveyed on the field. To go through structural interpretations, we used a subsampling method merging neighboured model polygons that have similar orientations, allowing statistical analyses of polygons spatial distribution. The benefit of this method is to verify the spatial continuity of in-situ structural measurements to larger scale. Roughness and colorimetric/spectral analyses may also be of great interest for several geosciences purposes by discriminating different facies among the geological beddings. Amongst others, this study was helpful to precise the local petrophysical properties associated with particular geological layers, what

  16. Development of teaching modules for geology and engineering coursework using terrestrial LiDAR scanning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, L. D.; Katzenstein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Exposing students to active and local examples of physical geologic processes is beneficial to the learning process. Students typically respond with interest to examples that use state-of-the-art technologies to investigate local or regional phenomena. For lower cognitive level of learning (e.g. knowledge, comprehension, and application), the use of "close-to-home" examples ensures that students better understand concepts. By providing these examples, the students may already have a familiarity or can easily visit the location. Furthermore, these local and regional examples help students to offer quickly other examples of similar phenomena. Investigation of these examples using normal photographic techniques, as well as a more sophisticated 3-D Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) (AKA Terrestrial Laser Scanning or TLS) system, allows students to gain a better understanding of the scale and the mechanics of the geologic processes and hazards. The systems are used for research, teaching and outreach efforts and depending on departmental policies can be accessible to students are various learning levels. TLS systems can yield scans at sub-centimeter resolution and contain surface reflectance of targets. These systems can serve a number of learning goals that are essential for training geoscientists and engineers. While querying the data to answer geotechnical or geomorphologic related questions, students will develop skills using large, spatial databases. The upper cognitive level of learning (e.g. analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) is also promoted by using a subset of the data and correlating the physical geologic process of stream bank erosion and rock slope failures with mathematical and computer models using the scanned data. Students use the examples and laboratory exercises to help build their engineering judgment skills with Earth materials. The students learn not only applications of math and engineering science but also the economic and social implication

  17. Three-dimensional structure of wind turbine wakes as measured by scanning lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Nicola; Zardi, Dino; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2017-08-01

    The lower wind speeds and increased turbulence that are characteristic of turbine wakes have considerable consequences on large wind farms: turbines located downwind generate less power and experience increased turbulent loads. The structures of wakes and their downwind impacts are sensitive to wind speed and atmospheric variability. Wake characterization can provide important insights for turbine layout optimization in view of decreasing the cost of wind energy. The CWEX-13 field campaign, which took place between June and September 2013 in a wind farm in Iowa, was designed to explore the interaction of multiple wakes in a range of atmospheric stability conditions. Based on lidar wind measurements, we extend, present, and apply a quantitative algorithm to assess wake parameters such as the velocity deficits, the size of the wake boundaries, and the location of the wake centerlines. We focus on wakes from a row of four turbines at the leading edge of the wind farm to explore variations between wakes from the edge of the row (outer wakes) and those from turbines in the center of the row (inner wakes). Using multiple horizontal scans at different elevations, a three-dimensional structure of wakes from the row of turbines can be created. Wakes erode very quickly during unstable conditions and can in fact be detected primarily in stable conditions in the conditions measured here. During stable conditions, important differences emerge between the wakes of inner turbines and the wakes of outer turbines. Further, the strong wind veer associated with stable conditions results in a stretching of the wake structures, and this stretching manifests differently for inner and outer wakes. These insights can be incorporated into low-order wake models for wind farm layout optimization or for wind power forecasting.

  18. Temporal Prediction Errors Affect Short-Term Memory Scanning Response Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M

    2016-11-01

    The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning. Participants performed temporal predictions while they maintained information in memory. Model inference revealed that PEs affected memory scanning response time independently of the memory-set size effect. We discuss the results within the context of formal and mechanistic models of short-term memory scanning and predictive coding, a Bayes-based theory of brain function. We state the hypothesis that our finding could be associated with weak frontostriatal connections and weak striatal activity.

  19. Volumetric LiDAR scanning of a wind turbine wake and comparison with a 3D analytical wake model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    A correct estimation of the future power production is of capital importance whenever the feasibility of a future wind farm is being studied. This power estimation relies mostly on three aspects: (1) a reliable measurement of the wind resource in the area, (2) a well-established power curve of the future wind turbines and, (3) an accurate characterization of the wake effects; the latter being arguably the most challenging one due to the complexity of the phenomenon and the lack of extensive full-scale data sets that could be used to validate analytical or numerical models. The current project addresses the problem of obtaining a volumetric description of a full-scale wake of a 2MW wind turbine in terms of velocity deficit and turbulence intensity using three scanning wind LiDARs and two sonic anemometers. The characterization of the upstream flow conditions is done by one scanning LiDAR and two sonic anemometers, which have been used to calculate incoming vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, wind direction and an approximation to turbulence intensity, as well as the thermal stability of the atmospheric boundary layer. The characterization of the wake is done by two scanning LiDARs working simultaneously and pointing downstream from the base of the wind turbine. The direct LiDAR measurements in terms of radial wind speed can be corrected using the upstream conditions in order to provide good estimations of the horizontal wind speed at any point downstream of the wind turbine. All this data combined allow for the volumetric reconstruction of the wake in terms of velocity deficit as well as turbulence intensity. Finally, the predictions of a 3D analytical model [1] are compared to the 3D LiDAR measurements of the wind turbine. The model is derived by applying the laws of conservation of mass and momentum and assuming a Gaussian distribution for the velocity deficit in the wake. This model has already been validated using high resolution wind-tunnel measurements

  20. Lidar to lidar calibration phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents a feasibility study of a lidar to lidar (L2L) calibration procedure. Phase one of the project was conducted at Høvsøre, Denmark. Two windcubes were placed next to the 116m met mast and different methods were applied to obtain the sensing height error of the lidars. The purpose...... is to find the most consistent method and use it in a potential lidar to lidar calibration procedure....

  1. Analysis on the dynamic error for optoelectronic scanning coordinate measurement network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shendong; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui; Guo, Siyang; Ren, Yongjie

    2018-01-01

    Large-scale dynamic three-dimension coordinate measurement technique is eagerly demanded in equipment manufacturing. Noted for advantages of high accuracy, scale expandability and multitask parallel measurement, optoelectronic scanning measurement network has got close attention. It is widely used in large components jointing, spacecraft rendezvous and docking simulation, digital shipbuilding and automated guided vehicle navigation. At present, most research about optoelectronic scanning measurement network is focused on static measurement capacity and research about dynamic accuracy is insufficient. Limited by the measurement principle, the dynamic error is non-negligible and restricts the application. The workshop measurement and positioning system is a representative which can realize dynamic measurement function in theory. In this paper we conduct deep research on dynamic error resources and divide them two parts: phase error and synchronization error. Dynamic error model is constructed. Based on the theory above, simulation about dynamic error is carried out. Dynamic error is quantized and the rule of volatility and periodicity has been found. Dynamic error characteristics are shown in detail. The research result lays foundation for further accuracy improvement.

  2. Error analysis of terrestrial laser scanning data by means of spherical statistics and 3D graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartero, Aurora; Armesto, Julia; Rodríguez, Pablo G; Arias, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete analysis of the positional errors of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data based on spherical statistics and 3D graphs. Spherical statistics are preferred because of the 3D vectorial nature of the spatial error. Error vectors have three metric elements (one module and two angles) that were analyzed by spherical statistics. A study case has been presented and discussed in detail. Errors were calculating using 53 check points (CP) and CP coordinates were measured by a digitizer with submillimetre accuracy. The positional accuracy was analyzed by both the conventional method (modular errors analysis) and the proposed method (angular errors analysis) by 3D graphics and numerical spherical statistics. Two packages in R programming language were performed to obtain graphics automatically. The results indicated that the proposed method is advantageous as it offers a more complete analysis of the positional accuracy, such as angular error component, uniformity of the vector distribution, error isotropy, and error, in addition the modular error component by linear statistics.

  3. Determination of the smoke-plume heights and their dynamics with ground-based scanning LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Kovalev; A. Petkov; C. Wold; S. Urbanski; W. M. Hao

    2015-01-01

    Lidar-data processing techniques are analyzed, which allow determining smoke-plume heights and their dynamics and can be helpful for the improvement of smoke dispersion and air quality models. The data processing algorithms considered in the paper are based on the analysis of two alternative characteristics related to the smoke dispersion process: the regularized...

  4. Variations of the Wake Height over the Bolund Escarpment Measured by a Scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Julia; Mann, Jakob; Angelou, Nikolas

    2016-01-01

    The wake zone behind the escarpment of the Bolund peninsula in the Roskilde Fjord, Denmark, has been investigated with the help of a continuous-wave Doppler lidar. The instrument measures the line-of-sight wind speed 390 times per second in highly resolved 7- m tall profiles by rapidly changing t...

  5. Complex Terrain and Wind Lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat

    This thesis includes the results of a PhD study about complex terrain and wind lidars. The study mostly focuses on hilly and forested areas. Lidars have been used in combination with cups, sonics and vanes, to reach the desired vertical measurement heights. Several experiments are performed...... in complex terrain sites and the measurements are compared with two different flow models; a linearised flow model LINCOM and specialised forest model SCADIS. In respect to the lidar performance in complex terrain, the results showed that horizontal wind speed errors measured by a conically scanning lidar...... models and the comparison of the measurement data with the flow model outputs showed that the mean wind speed calculated by LINCOM model was only reliable between 1 and 2 tree height (h) above canopy. The SCADIS model reported better correlation with the measurements in forest up to ∼6h. At the forest...

  6. Development and Testing of a Scanning Differential Absorption Lidar For Carbon Sequestration Site Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukup, B.; Johnson, W.; Repasky, K. S.; Carlsten, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    A scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for carbon sequestration site monitoring is under development and testing at Montana State University. The laser transmitter uses two tunable discrete mode laser diodes (DMLD) operating in the continuous wave (cw) mode with one locked to the on-line absorption wavelength at 1571.4067 nm and the second operating at the off-line wavelength at 1571.2585 nm. Two in-line fiber optic switches are used to switch between on-line and off-line operation. After the fiber optic switches, an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is used to generate a pulse train used to injection seed an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to produce eye-safe laser pulses with maximum pulse energies of 66 J and a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz. The DIAL receiver uses a 28 cm diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect that backscattered light, which is then monitored using a fiber coupled photo-multiplier tube (PMT) module operating in the photon counting mode. The PMT has a 3% quantum efficiency, a dark count rate of 90 kHz, and a maximum count rate of 1 MHz. Recently, a fiber coupled avalanche photodiode (APD) operating in the geiger mode has been incorporated into the DIAL receiver. The APD has a quantum efficiency of 10%, a dark count rate of 10 kHz, and a maximum count rate of 1 MHz and provides a much larger dynamic range than the PMT. Both the PMT and APD provide TTL logic pulses that are monitored using a multichannel scaler card used to count the return photons as a function of time of flight and are thus interchangeable. The DIAL instrument was developed at the 1.571 m wavelength to take advantage of commercial-off-the-shelf components. The instrument is operated using a custom Labview program that switches to the DMLD operating at the on-line wavelength, locks this laser to a user defined wavelength setting, and collects return signals for a user defined time. The control program switches to the DMLD operating at the off

  7. A Portable Airborne Scanning Lidar System for Ocean and Coastal Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-26

    October 2007 landslide on Mt. Soledad in La Jolla, California, was documented by two of the flights. The topography, lagoon, reef, and surrounding...airborne lidar surveys are in good agreement with the manual surveys (,10-cm rms dif- ference for exposed targets). d. Mt. Soledad landslide In previous... Soledad in La Jolla, California, which occurred on 3 October 2007. The landslide destroyed three homes, left eight others uninhabitable, and led to

  8. An Algorithm to Identify and Localize Suitable Dock Locations from 3-D LiDAR Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    7 5.2 OpenCV ...this algorithm to inspire their own ideas. Figure 4: Velodyne HDL-32E LiDAR (Velodyne 2011) 8 5.2 OpenCV The final algorithm also uses...techniques while not losing time by writing algorithms, it was decided that OpenCV would be used for the image processing steps just as PCL was used for the

  9. Space-borne remote sensing of CO2 by IPDA lidar with heterodyne detection: random error estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvienko, G. G.; Sukhanov, A. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Possibilities of measuring the CO2 column concentration by spaceborne integrated path differential lidar (IPDA) signals in the near IR absorption bands are investigated. It is shown that coherent detection principles applied in the nearinfrared spectral region promise a high sensitivity for the measurement of the integrated dry air column mixing ratio of the CO2. The simulations indicate that for CO2 the target observational requirements (0.2%) for the relative random error can be met with telescope aperture 0.5 m, detector bandwidth 10 MHz, laser energy per impulse 0.3 mJ and averaging 7500 impulses. It should also be noted that heterodyne technique allows to significantly reduce laser power and receiver overall dimensions compared to direct detection.

  10. A Novel Concept for Observing Land-Surface-Atmosphere Feedback Based on a Synergy of Scanning Lidar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulfmeyer, V.; Turner, D. D.; Mauder, M.; Behrendt, A.; Ingwersen, J.; Streck, T.

    2015-12-01

    Improved simulations of land-surface-atmosphere interaction are fundamental for improving weather forecast and climate models. This requires observations of 2D fields of surface fluxes and the 3D structure of the atmospheric boundary layer simultaneously. A novel strategy is introduced for studying land-surface exchange and entrainment processes in the convective boundary layer (CBL) over complex terrain by means of a new generation of remote sensing systems. The sensor synergy consists of scanning Doppler lidar (DL), water-vapor differential absorption lidar (WVDIAL), and temperature rotational Raman lidar (TRRL) systems supported by surface in-situ measurements. The 2D measurements of surface fluxes are realized by the operation of a DL, a WVDIAL, and a TRRL along the same line-of-sight (LOS) in a range-height-indicator (RHI) mode whereas the other DL is performing a series of cross track RHI scans along this LOS. This new setup enables us to determine the friction velocity as well as surface sensible and latent heat fluxes by closing the complete set of Monin-Obukhov similarity relationships under a variety of surface layer stability conditions and different land cover and soil properties. As this closure is performed at all DL crossing points along the LOS, this is a strategy towards a 2D mapping of surface fluxes entirely based on remote sensing systems. Further details are presented at the conference. The second configuration is the simultaneous vertical profiling of vertical wind, humidity and temperature by DL, WVDIAL and TRRL so that latent heat and sensible heat flux profiles as well as a variety of different turbulent moments can be measured in the CBL. Consequently, by alternating of RHI scanning and vertical pointing modes, entrainment fluxes and surface fluxes can be measured almost simultaneously. This novel strategy has been realized for the first time during the Surface Atmospheric Boundary Layer Exchange (SABLE) campaign in the Kraichgau region

  11. Fusion of Remote Sensing Methods, UAV Photogrammetry and LiDAR Scanning products for monitoring fluvial dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lendzioch, Theodora; Langhammer, Jakub; Hartvich, Filip

    2015-04-01

    Fusion of remote sensing data is a common and rapidly developing discipline, which combines data from multiple sources with different spatial and spectral resolution, from satellite sensors, aircraft and ground platforms. Fusion data contains more detailed information than each of the source and enhances the interpretation performance and accuracy of the source data and produces a high-quality visualisation of the final data. Especially, in fluvial geomorphology it is essential to get valuable images in sub-meter resolution to obtain high quality 2D and 3D information for a detailed identification, extraction and description of channel features of different river regimes and to perform a rapid mapping of changes in river topography. In order to design, test and evaluate a new approach for detection of river morphology, we combine different research techniques from remote sensing products to drone-based photogrammetry and LiDAR products (aerial LiDAR Scanner and TLS). Topographic information (e.g. changes in river channel morphology, surface roughness, evaluation of floodplain inundation, mapping gravel bars and slope characteristics) will be extracted either from one single layer or from combined layers in accordance to detect fluvial topographic changes before and after flood events. Besides statistical approaches for predictive geomorphological mapping and the determination of errors and uncertainties of the data, we will also provide 3D modelling of small fluvial features.

  12. Signal restoration method for restraining the range walk error of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode lidar in acquiring a merged three-dimensional image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lu; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yong; Wu, Long; Yang, Chenghua; Yang, Xu; Zhang, Zijing; Zhao, Yuan

    2017-04-10

    The fluctuation in the number of signal photoelectrons will cause a range walk error in a Geiger-mode avalanche photodiode (Gm-APD) lidar, which significantly depends on the target intensity. For a nanosecond-pulsed laser, the range walk error of traditional time-of-flight will cause deterioration. A new signal restoration method, based on the Poisson probability response model and the center-of-mass algorithm, is proposed to restrain the range walk error. We obtain a high-precision depth and intensity merged 3D image using this method. The range accuracy is 0.6 cm, and the intensity error is less than 3%.

  13. 3D Scan of Ornamental Column (huabiao Using Terrestrial LiDAR and Hand-held Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In ancient China, Huabiao was a type of ornamental column used to decorate important buildings. We carried out 3D scan of a Huabiao located in Peking University, China. This Huabiao was built no later than 1742. It is carved by white marble, 8 meters in height. Clouds and various postures of dragons are carved on its body. Two instruments were used to acquire the point cloud of this Huabiao, a terrestrial LiDAR (Riegl VZ-1000 and a hand-held imager (Mantis Vision F5. In this paper, the details of the experiment were described, including the differences between these two instruments, such as working principle, spatial resolution, accuracy, instrument dimension and working flow. The point clouds obtained respectively by these two instruments were compared, and the registered point cloud of Huabiao was also presented. These should be of interest and helpful for the research communities of archaeology and heritage.

  14. Error Aggregation in the Reengineering Process from 3D Scanning to Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer G. Michaeli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aims to study the aggregation of dimensional errors in the reengineering processes using 3D scanning and printing without initial design drawings. A 57-tooth spur gear is used as an example to facilitate the discussion. Two approaches are investigated. The first one builds the gear model based upon measurement taken from a caliper, and the second approach uses a 3D scanner to collect geometry data. Dimensional errors in each stage of these two approaches are investigated. Particular attention is paid to the geometry data flow in the reengineering process from data acquisition and editing to model construction. Recommendations are made in regard to error estimation and alleviation.

  15. Real-time phase error compensation in phase sensitive scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaoyu; Sun, Lin; Wang, Jia; Tan, Qiaofeng

    2015-07-01

    Phase measurements are critical for investigations on the optical properties of surface plasmon polariton (SPP) nanostructures. In this paper, a real-time phase error compensation method based on a phase sensitive scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) measurement system is proposed. The method adopts the common optical path configuration and CMR (common-mode rejection) principle. It can be seen that the phase error compensation is real-time and mainly relies on optical devices, therefore neither post processing nor previous knowledge of environmental effects is required. The causes of the phase drift errors are discussed. We demonstrate experimentally the effectiveness of this method by measuring a SPP focusing device. Regardless of the drift velocity, degree of linearity, or phase accuracy, the compensation method shows great improvement compared to the previous phase sensitive SNOMs. All the measured distributions are in good agreement with theoretical simulations obtained by the finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method.

  16. Application of terrestrial scanning LIDAR to study the evolution of Quisoquipina Glacier in the Cordillera Vilcanota, Cusco - Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, Nilton; Macedo, Nicolas; Sanchez, Olivier; Huggel, Christian; Giraldez, Claudia; Schauwecker, Simone; Drenkhan, Fabian; Frey, Holger; Molina, Edwin; Sikos, Felipe

    2017-04-01

    Tropical glaciers are highly sensitive to alterations in climate and therefore good indicators for global climate change. Glaciers located in Peru represent 71% of all tropical glaciers in the world, and have shown a significant area reduction of about 43% within the last 40 years mainly due to the increase in surface temperature. Tropical glaciers play a particular role as freshwater reservoirs and buffers to river discharge variability and water scarcity within a pronounced wet and dry season. Their monitoring is extraordinarily important but few studies exist on mass balance. The Cordillera Vilcanota, at the origin of the Rio Vilcanota-Urubamba, contains about 25% of all glaciers in Peru. In recent decades, glacier shrinkage has accelerated in this mountain range. Between 1988 and 2010, glacier area was reduced at an annual rate of about 4 km2 (1.1 %) from some 360 km2 to about 270 km2 (25%). A total volume loss of 40-45% (from 17-20 km3 to 9.2-12.4 km3) can be estimated for the period 1962-2006, with an accelerated rate since the 1980s. Terrestrial scanning LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) surveys represent nowadays the most powerful tool to accurately map its inaccessible glacier surfaces. A laser scanner enables researchers to capture laser range data at a rate of thousands of x, y, z and laser-intensity points per second; such data can be used to construct a very accurate 3D model of the surveyed surface. We used a terrestrial LiDAR sensor (Optech ILRIS 3D-LR) for intensively monitoring the changes occurred at volume and front glacier: the Quisoquipina glacier. In August and October 2015, August and December 2016, four terrestrial scanning LIDAR surveys have been carried out in order to monitor the evolution of the glacier. The comparison between repeated surveys showed significant retreats in the front, area and volume of the glacier (e.g. lost volume 375000 m3 between august 2015 and December 2016, in 80812 m2 of area of study).

  17. SIMULATING VARIOUS TERRESTRIAL AND UAV LIDAR SCANNING CONFIGURATIONS FOR UNDERSTORY FOREST STRUCTURE MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hämmerle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about the 3D structure of understory vegetation is of high relevance in forestry research and management (e.g., for complete biomass estimations. However, it has been hardly investigated systematically with state-of-the-art methods such as static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS or laser scanning from unmanned aerial vehicle platforms (ULS. A prominent challenge for scanning forests is posed by occlusion, calling for proper TLS scan position or ULS flight line configurations in order to achieve an accurate representation of understory vegetation. The aim of our study is to examine the effect of TLS or ULS scanning strategies on (1 the height of individual understory trees and (2 understory canopy height raster models. We simulate full-waveform TLS and ULS point clouds of a virtual forest plot captured from various combinations of max. 12 TLS scan positions or 3 ULS flight lines. The accuracy of the respective datasets is evaluated with reference values given by the virtually scanned 3D triangle mesh tree models. TLS tree height underestimations range up to 1.84 m (15.30 % of tree height for single TLS scan positions, but combining three scan positions reduces the underestimation to maximum 0.31 m (2.41 %. Combining ULS flight lines also results in improved tree height representation, with a maximum underestimation of 0.24 m (2.15 %. The presented simulation approach offers a complementary source of information for efficient planning of field campaigns aiming at understory vegetation modelling.

  18. Simulating Various Terrestrial and Uav LIDAR Scanning Configurations for Understory Forest Structure Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerle, M.; Lukač, N.; Chen, K.-C.; Koma, Zs.; Wang, C.-K.; Anders, K.; Höfle, B.

    2017-09-01

    Information about the 3D structure of understory vegetation is of high relevance in forestry research and management (e.g., for complete biomass estimations). However, it has been hardly investigated systematically with state-of-the-art methods such as static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or laser scanning from unmanned aerial vehicle platforms (ULS). A prominent challenge for scanning forests is posed by occlusion, calling for proper TLS scan position or ULS flight line configurations in order to achieve an accurate representation of understory vegetation. The aim of our study is to examine the effect of TLS or ULS scanning strategies on (1) the height of individual understory trees and (2) understory canopy height raster models. We simulate full-waveform TLS and ULS point clouds of a virtual forest plot captured from various combinations of max. 12 TLS scan positions or 3 ULS flight lines. The accuracy of the respective datasets is evaluated with reference values given by the virtually scanned 3D triangle mesh tree models. TLS tree height underestimations range up to 1.84 m (15.30 % of tree height) for single TLS scan positions, but combining three scan positions reduces the underestimation to maximum 0.31 m (2.41 %). Combining ULS flight lines also results in improved tree height representation, with a maximum underestimation of 0.24 m (2.15 %). The presented simulation approach offers a complementary source of information for efficient planning of field campaigns aiming at understory vegetation modelling.

  19. Effects of Systematic and Random Errors on the Retrieval of Particle Microphysical Properties from Multiwavelength Lidar Measurements Using Inversion with Regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Whiteman, David N.; Veselovskii, Igor; Kolgotin, Alexei; Korenskiy, Michael; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the effects of systematic and random errors on the inversion of multiwavelength (MW) lidar data using the well-known regularization technique to obtain vertically resolved aerosol microphysical properties. The software implementation used here was developed at the Physics Instrumentation Center (PIC) in Troitsk (Russia) in conjunction with the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Its applicability to Raman lidar systems based on backscattering measurements at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) and extinction measurements at two wavelengths (355 and 532 nm) has been demonstrated widely. The systematic error sensitivity is quantified by first determining the retrieved parameters for a given set of optical input data consistent with three different sets of aerosol physical parameters. Then each optical input is perturbed by varying amounts and the inversion is repeated. Using bimodal aerosol size distributions, we find a generally linear dependence of the retrieved errors in the microphysical properties on the induced systematic errors in the optical data. For the retrievals of effective radius, number/surface/volume concentrations and fine-mode radius and volume, we find that these results are not significantly affected by the range of the constraints used in inversions. But significant sensitivity was found to the allowed range of the imaginary part of the particle refractive index. Our results also indicate that there exists an additive property for the deviations induced by the biases present in the individual optical data. This property permits the results here to be used to predict deviations in retrieved parameters when multiple input optical data are biased simultaneously as well as to study the influence of random errors on the retrievals. The above results are applied to questions regarding lidar design, in particular for the spaceborne multiwavelength lidar under consideration for the upcoming ACE mission.

  20. Spatial-temporal analysis of coherent offshore wind field structures measured by scanning Doppler-lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valldecabres, L.; Friedrichs, W.; von Bremen, L.; Kühn, M.

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of the spatial and temporal power fluctuations of a simplified wind farm model is conducted on four offshore wind fields data sets, two from lidar measurements and two from LES under unstable and neutral atmospheric conditions. The integral length scales of the horizontal wind speed computed in the streamwise and the cross-stream direction revealed the elongation of the structures in the direction of the mean flow. To analyse the effect of the structures on the power output of a wind turbine, the aggregated equivalent power of two wind turbines with different turbine spacing in the streamwise and cross-stream direction is analysed at different time scales under 10 minutes. The fact of considering the summation of the power of two wind turbines smooths out the fluctuations of the power output of a single wind turbine. This effect, which is stronger with increasing spacing between turbines, can be seen in the aggregation of the power of two wind turbines in the streamwise direction. Due to the anti-correlation of the coherent structures in the cross-stream direction, this smoothing effect is stronger when the aggregated power is computed with two wind turbines aligned orthogonally to the mean flow direction.

  1. A time-space synchronization of coherent Doppler scanning lidars for 3D measurements of wind fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola

    -dimensional flow field by emitting the laser beams from the three spatially separated lidars, directing them to intersect, and moving the beam intersection over an area of interest. Each individual lidar was engineered to be powered by two real servo motors, and one virtual stepper motor. The stepper motor...

  2. On the instrumental characterization of a 3-λ scanning lidar to monitor industrial flames and its application for retrieving optical and microphysical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Rascado, Juan Luis; da Costa, Renata; Esteban Bedoya, Andrés; Guardani, Roberto; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Efrain Bastidas, Álvaro; Landulfo, Eduardo

    2015-04-01

    The emission of pollutants in megacities and industrial areas can have strong impact, not only from an environmental point of view, but also for human health. Cubatão (23° 53' S, 46° 26' W, 10 m asl) has been one of the most industrialized city in Brazil (located at São Paulo state coast) during the last decades. This work deals with the recent advances made on a 3-λ scanning lidar placed at this industrial region. Special attention has been paid to the characterization of the electronic performance of this lidar system. For this goal, the quality assurance tests, regularly applied in well-established lidar networks such as LALINET [Guerrero-Rascado et al., 2014] and EARLINET [Pappalardo et al. 2014], were applied to the Cubatão scanning lidar in order to improve the knowledge of its performing itself and to design protocols for correcting lidar signal for undesirable instrumental effects. The application of the results derived from these quality assurance tests together with the state-of-the-art methodologies to map the particle optical and microphysical properties inside industrial flares demonstrate the potential of this lidar for the study and measurement of industrial emissions. References: J. L. Guerrero-Rascado, E. Landulfo, J. C. Antuña, H. M. J. Barbosa, B. Barja, A. E. Bastidas, A. E. Bedoya, R. da Costa, R. Estevan, R. N. Forno, D. A. Gouveia, C. Jiménez, E. G. Larroza, F. J. S. Lopes, E. Montilla-Rosero, G. A. Moreira, W. M. Nakaema, D. Nisperuza, L. Otero, J. V. Pallotta, S. Papandrea, E. Pawelko, E. J. Quel, P. Ristori, P. F. Rodrigues, J. Salvador, M. F. Sánchez, and A. Silva, "Towards an instrumental harmonization in the framework of LAINET: dataset of technical specifications", Proceedings of SPIE 2014, vol. 9246, 92460O-1 -- 92460O-14, doi: 10.1117/12.2066873 (2014) G. Pappalardo, A. Amodeo, A. Apituley, A. Comerón, V. Freudenthaler, H. Linné, A. Ansmann, J. Bösenberg, G. D'Amico, I. Mattis, L. Mona, U. Wandinger, V. Amiridis, L

  3. Lidar to lidar calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  4. 5 V Compatible Two-Axis PZT Driven MEMS Scanning Mirror with Mechanical Leverage Structure for Miniature LiDAR Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liangchen; Zhang, Gaofei; You, Zheng

    2017-03-05

    The MEMS (Micro-Electronical Mechanical System) scanning mirror is an optical MEMS device that can scan laser beams across one or two dimensions. MEMS scanning mirrors can be applied in a variety of applications, such as laser display, bio-medical imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). These commercial applications have recently created a great demand for low-driving-voltage and low-power MEMS mirrors. However, no reported two-axis MEMS scanning mirror is available for usage in a universal supplying voltage such as 5 V. In this paper, we present an ultra-low voltage driven two-axis MEMS scanning mirror which is 5 V compatible. In order to realize low voltage and low power, a two-axis MEMS scanning mirror with mechanical leverage driven by PZT (Lead zirconate titanate) ceramic is designed, modeled, fabricated and characterized. To further decrease the power of the MEMS scanning mirror, a new method of impedance matching for PZT ceramic driven by a two-frequency mixed signal is established. As experimental results show, this MEMS scanning mirror reaches a two-axis scanning angle of 41.9° × 40.3° at a total driving voltage of 4.2 Vpp and total power of 16 mW. The effective diameter of reflection of the mirror is 2 mm and the operating frequencies of two-axis scanning are 947.51 Hz and 1464.66 Hz, respectively.

  5. 5 V Compatible Two-Axis PZT Driven MEMS Scanning Mirror with Mechanical Leverage Structure for Miniature LiDAR Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangchen Ye

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The MEMS (Micro-Electronical Mechanical System scanning mirror is an optical MEMS device that can scan laser beams across one or two dimensions. MEMS scanning mirrors can be applied in a variety of applications, such as laser display, bio-medical imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR. These commercial applications have recently created a great demand for low-driving-voltage and low-power MEMS mirrors. However, no reported two-axis MEMS scanning mirror is available for usage in a universal supplying voltage such as 5 V. In this paper, we present an ultra-low voltage driven two-axis MEMS scanning mirror which is 5 V compatible. In order to realize low voltage and low power, a two-axis MEMS scanning mirror with mechanical leverage driven by PZT (Lead zirconate titanate ceramic is designed, modeled, fabricated and characterized. To further decrease the power of the MEMS scanning mirror, a new method of impedance matching for PZT ceramic driven by a two-frequency mixed signal is established. As experimental results show, this MEMS scanning mirror reaches a two-axis scanning angle of 41.9° × 40.3° at a total driving voltage of 4.2 Vpp and total power of 16 mW. The effective diameter of reflection of the mirror is 2 mm and the operating frequencies of two-axis scanning are 947.51 Hz and 1464.66 Hz, respectively.

  6. Lidar to lidar calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and correspondi...

  7. Linear models for airborne-laser-scanning-based operational forest inventory with small field sample size and highly correlated LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Virpi; Kauranne, Tuomo; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Modern operational forest inventory often uses remotely sensed data that cover the whole inventory area to produce spatially explicit estimates of forest properties through statistical models. The data obtained by airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) correlate well with many forest inventory variables, such as the tree height, the timber volume, and the biomass. To construct an accurate model over thousands of hectares, LiDAR data must be supplemented with several hundred field sample measurements of forest inventory variables. This can be costly and time consuming. Different LiDAR-data-based and spatial-data-based sampling designs can reduce the number of field sample plots needed. However, problems arising from the features of the LiDAR data, such as a large number of predictors compared with the sample size (overfitting) or a strong correlation among predictors (multicollinearity), may decrease the accuracy and precision of the estimates and predictions. To overcome these problems, a Bayesian linear model with the singular value decomposition of predictors, combined with regularization, is proposed. The model performance in predicting different forest inventory variables is verified in ten inventory areas from two continents, where the number of field sample plots is reduced using different sampling designs. The results show that, with an appropriate field plot selection strategy and the proposed linear model, the total relative error of the predicted forest inventory variables is only 5%–15% larger using 50 field sample plots than the error of a linear model estimated with several hundred field sample plots when we sum up the error due to both the model noise variance and the model’s lack of fit.

  8. An error-dependent model of instrument-scanning behavior in commercial airline pilots. Ph.D. Thesis - May 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    A new flexible model of pilot instrument scanning behavior is presented which assumes that the pilot uses a set of deterministic scanning patterns on the pilot's perception of error in the state of the aircraft, and the pilot's knowledge of the interactive nature of the aircraft's systems. Statistical analyses revealed that a three stage Markov process composed of the pilot's three predicted lookpoints (LP), occurring 1/30, 2/30, and 3/30 of a second prior to each LP, accurately modelled the scanning behavior of 14 commercial airline pilots while flying steep turn maneuvers in a Boeing 737 flight simulator. The modelled scanning data for each pilot were not statistically different from the observed scanning data in comparisons of mean dwell time, entropy, and entropy rate. These findings represent the first direct evidence that pilots are using deterministic scanning patterns during instrument flight. The results are interpreted as direct support for the error dependent model and suggestions are made for further research that could allow for identification of the specific scanning patterns suggested by the model.

  9. Quasi-analytical determination of noise-induced error limits in lidar retrieval of aerosol backscatter coefficient by the elastic, two-component algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicard, Michaël; Comerón, Adolfo; Rocadenbosch, Francisco; Rodríguez, Alejandro; Muñoz, Constantino

    2009-01-10

    The elastic, two-component algorithm is the most common inversion method for retrieving the aerosol backscatter coefficient from ground- or space-based backscatter lidar systems. A quasi-analytical formulation of the statistical error associated to the aerosol backscatter coefficient caused by the use of real, noise-corrupted lidar signals in the two-component algorithm is presented. The error expression depends on the signal-to-noise ratio along the inversion path and takes into account "instantaneous" effects, the effect of the signal-to-noise ratio at the range where the aerosol backscatter coefficient is being computed, as well as "memory" effects, namely, both the effect of the signal-to-noise ratio in the cell where the inversion is started and the cumulative effect of the noise between that cell and the actual cell where the aerosol backscatter coefficient is evaluated. An example is shown to illustrate how the "instantaneous" effect is reduced when averaging the noise-contaminated signal over a number of cells around the range where the inversion is started.

  10. LIDAR Velodyne HDL-64E Calibration Using Pattern Planes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Atanacio-Jiménez

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a method for calibration of the Velodyne HDL‐64E scanning LIDAR system. The principal contribution was expressed by a pattern calibration signature, the mathematical model and the numerical algorithm for computing the calibration parameters of the LIDAR. In this calibration pattern the main objective is to minimize systematic errors due to geometric calibration factor. It describes an algorithm for solution of the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters. Finally, its uncertainty was calculated from the standard deviation of calibration result errors.

  11. An international collaborative family-based whole genome quantitative trait linkage scan for myopic refractive error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Diana; Li, Yi-Ju; Guggenheim, Jeremy A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate quantitative trait loci linked to refractive error, we performed a genome-wide quantitative trait linkage analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism markers and family data from five international sites.......To investigate quantitative trait loci linked to refractive error, we performed a genome-wide quantitative trait linkage analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism markers and family data from five international sites....

  12. Helios: a Multi-Purpose LIDAR Simulation Framework for Research, Planning and Training of Laser Scanning Operations with Airborne, Ground-Based Mobile and Stationary Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, S.; Höfle, B.

    2016-06-01

    In many technical domains of modern society, there is a growing demand for fast, precise and automatic acquisition of digital 3D models of a wide variety of physical objects and environments. Laser scanning is a popular and widely used technology to cover this demand, but it is also expensive and complex to use to its full potential. However, there might exist scenarios where the operation of a real laser scanner could be replaced by a computer simulation, in order to save time and costs. This includes scenarios like teaching and training of laser scanning, development of new scanner hardware and scanning methods, or generation of artificial scan data sets to support the development of point cloud processing and analysis algorithms. To test the feasibility of this idea, we have developed a highly flexible laser scanning simulation framework named Heidelberg LiDAR Operations Simulator (HELIOS). HELIOS is implemented as a Java library and split up into a core component and multiple extension modules. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to define scanner, platform and scene models and to configure the behaviour of modules. Modules were developed and implemented for (1) loading of simulation assets and configuration (i.e. 3D scene models, scanner definitions, survey descriptions etc.), (2) playback of XML survey descriptions, (3) TLS survey planning (i.e. automatic computation of recommended scanning positions) and (4) interactive real-time 3D visualization of simulated surveys. As a proof of concept, we show the results of two experiments: First, a survey planning test in a scene that was specifically created to evaluate the quality of the survey planning algorithm. Second, a simulated TLS scan of a crop field in a precision farming scenario. The results show that HELIOS fulfills its design goals.

  13. Phase Error Caused by Speed Mismatch Analysis in the Line-Scan Defect Detection by Using Fourier Transform Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryi Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase error caused by the speed mismatch issue is researched in the line-scan images capturing 3D profile measurement. The experimental system is constructed by a line-scan CCD camera, an object moving device, a digital fringe pattern projector, and a personal computer. In the experiment procedure, the detected object is moving relative to the image capturing system by using a motorized translation stage in a stable velocity. The digital fringe pattern is projected onto the detected object, and then the deformed patterns are captured and recorded in the computer. The object surface profile can be calculated by the Fourier transform profilometry. However, the moving speed mismatch error will still exist in most of the engineering application occasion even after an image system calibration. When the moving speed of the detected object is faster than the expected value, the captured image will be compressed in the moving direction of the detected object. In order to overcome this kind of measurement error, an image recovering algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the original compressed image. Thus, the phase values can be extracted much more accurately by the reconstructed images. And then, the phase error distribution caused by the speed mismatch is analyzed by the simulation and experimental methods.

  14. Spatial and optical parameters of contrails in the vortex and dispersion regime determined by means of a ground-based scanning lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenthaler, V.; Homburg, F.; Jaeger, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The spatial growth of individual condensation trails (contrails) of commercial aircrafts in the time range from 15 s to 60 min behind the aircraft is investigated by means of a ground-based scanning backscatter lidar. The growth in width is mainly governed by wind shear and varies between 18 m/min and 140 m/min. The growth of the cross-section varies between 3500 m{sup 2}/min and 25000 m{sup 2}/min. These values are in agreement with results of model calculations and former field measurements. The vertical growth is often limited by boundaries of the humid layer at flight level, but values up to 18 m/min were observed. Optical parameters like depolarization, optical depth and lidar ratio, i.e. the extinction-to-backscatter ratio, have been retrieved from the measurements at a wavelength of 532 nm. The linear depolarization rises from values as low as 0.06 for a young contrail (10 s old) to values around 0.5, typical for aged contrails. The latter indicates the transition from non-crystalline to crystalline particles in persistent contrails within a few minutes. The scatter of depolarization values measured in individual contrails is narrow, independent of the contrails age, and suggests a rather uniform growth of the particles inside a contrail. (author) 18 refs.

  15. The spatial concentration of dust emissions measured by using 3D scanning lidar in the open storage yards of steel-making company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Chou, Huann-Ming; Sun, Shu-Huang; Lee, Jiann-Shen

    2017-06-01

    The wind-blown dust emissions frequently occur in the open storage yards of steel-making companies. Tracking the dust source and monitoring their dispersion are rather difficult. This type of open-air storage yards poses many environmental hazards. The 3-D scanning lidar system is effective in environmental monitoring (e.g., dust) with high temporal and spatial resolution, which is lacking in traditional ground-based measurement. The objective of this paper is to make an attempt for the flux estimation of dust concentration by using lidar system. Further, we investigate the dynamical process of dust and their relationship with local air quality monitoring data. The results show that the material storage erosion by wind ( 3.6 m/s) could cause dust to elevate up to 20m height above the material storage, and produces the flux of dust around 674 mg/s. The flux of dust is proportional to the dust mass concentration (PM10) measured by commercial ambient particular monitors.

  16. Direct Georeferencing of Stationary LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike mobile survey systems, stationary survey systems are given very little direct georeferencing attention. Direct Georeferencing is currently being used in several mobile applications, especially in terrestrial and airborne LiDAR systems. Georeferencing of stationary terrestrial LiDAR scanning data, however, is currently performed indirectly through using control points in the scanning site. The indirect georeferencing procedure is often troublesome; the availability of control stations within the scanning range is not always possible. Also, field procedure can be laborious and involve extra equipment and target setups. In addition, the conventional method allows for possible human error due to target information bookkeeping. Additionally, the accuracy of this procedure varies according to the quality of the control used. By adding a dual GPS antenna apparatus to the scanner setup, thereby supplanting the use of multiple ground control points scattered throughout the scanning site, we mitigate not only the problems associated with indirect georeferencing but also induce a more efficient set up procedure while maintaining sufficient precision. In this paper, we describe a new method for determining the 3D absolute orientation of LiDAR point cloud using GPS measurements from two antennae firmly mounted on the optical head of a stationary LiDAR system. In this paper, the general case is derived where the orientation angles are not small; this case completes the theory of stationary LiDAR direct georeferencing. Simulation and real world field experimentation of the prototype implementation suggest a precision of about 0.05 degrees (~1 milli-radian for the three orientation angles.

  17. A Proposal to Localize Fermi GBM GRBs Through Coordinated Scanning of the GBM Error Circle via Optical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Linnemann, J. T.; Tollefson, K.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Bhat, P. N.; Sonbas, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of implementing a system that will coordinate ground-based optical telescopes to cover the Fermi GBM Error Circle (EC). The aim of the system is to localize GBM detected GRBs and facilitate multi-wavelength follow-up from space and ground. This system will optimize the observing locations in the GBM EC based on individual telescope location, Field of View (FoV) and sensitivity. The proposed system will coordinate GBM EC scanning by professional as well as amateur astronomers around the world. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the feasibility of the project are presented.

  18. Complex terrain and wind lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingoel, F.

    2009-08-15

    This thesis includes the results of a PhD study about complex terrain and wind lidars. The study mostly focuses on hilly and forested areas. Lidars have been used in combination with cups, sonics and vanes, to reach the desired vertical measurement heights. Several experiments are performed in complex terrain sites and the measurements are compared with two different flow models; a linearised flow model LINCOM and specialised forest model SCADIS. In respect to the lidar performance in complex terrain, the results showed that horizontal wind speed errors measured by a conically scanning lidar can be of the order of 3-4% in moderately-complex terrain and up to 10% in complex terrain. The findings were based on experiments involving collocated lidars and meteorological masts, together with flow calculations over the same terrains. The lidar performance was also simulated with the commercial software WAsP Engineering 2.0 and was well predicted except for some sectors where the terrain is particularly steep. Subsequently, two experiments were performed in forested areas; where the measurements are recorded at a location deep-in forest and at the forest edge. Both sites were modelled with flow models and the comparison of the measurement data with the flow model outputs showed that the mean wind speed calculated by LINCOM model was only reliable between 1 and 2 tree height (h) above canopy. The SCADIS model reported better correlation with the measurements in forest up to approx6h. At the forest edge, LINCOM model was used by allocating a slope half-in half out of the forest based on the suggestions of previous studies. The optimum slope angle was reported as 17 deg.. Thus, a suggestion was made to use WAsP Engineering 2.0 for forest edge modelling with known limitations and the applied method. The SCADIS model worked better than the LINCOM model at the forest edge but the model reported closer results to the measurements at upwind than the downwind and this should be

  19. Shear and Turbulence Effects on Lidar Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Sathe, Ameya; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. It is known that lidar wind speed measure-ments are affected by both turbulence and wind shear. This report explains the mechanisms behind these sensitivities. For turbulence, it is found that errors in the scalar mean speed...... are usually only small. However, particularly in re-spect of a lidar calibration procedure, turbulence induced errors in the cup anemometer speed are seen to be signifi-cantly larger. Wind shear is shown to induce measurement errors both due to possible imperfections in the lidar sensing height and due...... to the averaging of a non-linear speed profile. Both effects in combination have to be included when modelling the lidar error. Attempts to evaluate the lidar error from ex-perimental data have not been successful probably due to a lack of detailed knowledge of both the wind shear and the actual lidar sensing...

  20. 2-D tomography of volcanic CO2 from scanning hard-target differential absorption lidar: the case of Solfatara, Campi Flegrei (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queißer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-11-01

    Solfatara is part of the active volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy), a densely populated urban area where ground uplift and increasing ground temperature are observed, connected with rising rates of CO2 emission. A major pathway of CO2 release at Campi Flegrei is diffuse soil degassing, and therefore quantifying diffuse CO2 emission rates is of vital interest. Conventional in situ probing of soil gas emissions with accumulation chambers is accurate over a small footprint but requires significant time and effort to cover large areas. An alternative approach is differential absorption lidar, which allows for a fast and spatially integrated measurement. Here, a portable hard-target differential absorption lidar has been used to acquire horizontal 1-D profiles of column-integrated CO2 concentration at the Solfatara crater. To capture heterogenic features in the CO2 distribution, a 2-D tomographic map of the CO2 distribution has been inverted from the 1-D profiles. The scan was performed one-sided, which is unfavorable for the inverse problem. Nonetheless, the result is in agreement with independent measurements and furthermore confirms an area of anomalous CO2 degassing along the eastern edge as well as the center of the Solfatara crater. The method may have important implications for measurements of degassing features that can only be accessed from limited angles, such as airborne sensing of volcanic plumes. CO2 fluxes retrieved from the 2-D map are comparable, but modestly higher than emission rates from previous studies, perhaps reflecting an increase in CO2 flux or a more integrated measurement or both.

  1. AN IV CATHETER FRAGMENTS DURING MDCT SCANNING OF HUMAN ERROR: EXPERIMENTAL AND REPRODUCIBLE MICROSCOPIC MAGNIFICATION ANALYSIS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kweon, Dae Cheol [Dept. of Radiologic Science, Shin Heung College, Uijeongbu (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jong Woong [Dept. of of Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital at Gang-dong, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Ji Won [Dept. of Radiological Science, Jeonju University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Sung Hwan [Dept. of of Prosthetics and Orthotics, Korean National College of Rehabilitation and Welfare, Pyeongtaek (Korea, Republic of); Dong, Kyung Rae [Dept. of Radiological Technology, Gwangju Health College University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Won Kwan [Dept. of of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    The use of intravenous catheters are occasionally complicated by intravascular fragments and swelling of the catheter fragments. We present a patient in whom an intravenous catheter fragments was retrieved from the dorsal metacarpal vein following its incidental CT examination detection. The case of demonstrates the utility of microscopy and multi-detector CT in localizing small of subtle intravenous catheter fragments as a human error. A case of IV catheter fragments in the metacarpal vein, in which reproducible and microscopy data allowed complete localization of a missing fragments and guided surgery with respect to the optimal incision site for fragments removal. These reproducible studies may help to determine the best course of action and treatment for the patient who presents with such a case.

  2. lidar change detection using building models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Angela M.; Runyon, Scott C.; Jalobeanu, Andre; Esterline, Chelsea H.; Kruse, Fred A.

    2014-06-01

    Terrestrial LiDAR scans of building models collected with a FARO Focus3D and a RIEGL VZ-400 were used to investigate point-to-point and model-to-model LiDAR change detection. LiDAR data were scaled, decimated, and georegistered to mimic real world airborne collects. Two physical building models were used to explore various aspects of the change detection process. The first model was a 1:250-scale representation of the Naval Postgraduate School campus in Monterey, CA, constructed from Lego blocks and scanned in a laboratory setting using both the FARO and RIEGL. The second model at 1:8-scale consisted of large cardboard boxes placed outdoors and scanned from rooftops of adjacent buildings using the RIEGL. A point-to-point change detection scheme was applied directly to the point-cloud datasets. In the model-to-model change detection scheme, changes were detected by comparing Digital Surface Models (DSMs). The use of physical models allowed analysis of effects of changes in scanner and scanning geometry, and performance of the change detection methods on different types of changes, including building collapse or subsistence, construction, and shifts in location. Results indicate that at low false-alarm rates, the point-to-point method slightly outperforms the model-to-model method. The point-to-point method is less sensitive to misregistration errors in the data. Best results are obtained when the baseline and change datasets are collected using the same LiDAR system and collection geometry.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT LIDAR SYSTEM CALIBRATION TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miller

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With light detection and ranging (LiDAR now being a crucial tool for engineering products and on the fly spatial analysis, it is necessary for the user community to have standardized calibration methods. The three methods in this study were developed and proven by the Digital Photogrammetry Research Group (DPRG for airborne LiDAR systems and are as follows; Simplified, Quasi-Rigorous, and Rigorous. In lieu of using expensive control surfaces for calibration, these methods compare overlapping LiDAR strips to estimate the systematic errors. These systematic errors are quantified by these methods and include the lever arm biases, boresight biases, range bias and scan angle scale bias. These three methods comprehensively represent all of the possible flight configurations and data availability and this paper will test the limits of the method with the most assumptions, the simplified calibration, by using data that violates the assumptions it’s math model is based on and compares the results to the quasi-rigorous and rigorous techniques. The overarching goal is to provide a LiDAR system calibration that does not require raw measurements which can be carried out with minimal control and flight lines to reduce costs. This testing is unique because the terrain used for calibration does not contain gable roofs, all other LiDAR system calibration testing and development has been done with terrain containing features with high geometric integrity such as gable roofs.

  4. Topographic laser ranging and scanning principles and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Jie

    2008-01-01

    A systematic, in-depth introduction to theories and principles of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology is long overdue, as it is the most important geospatial data acquisition technology to be introduced in recent years. An advanced discussion, this text fills the void.Professionals in fields ranging from geology, geography and geoinformatics to physics, transportation, and law enforcement will benefit from this comprehensive discussion of topographic LiDAR principles, systems, data acquisition, and data processing techniques. The book covers ranging and scanning fundamentals, and broad, contemporary analysis of airborne LiDAR systems, as well as those situated on land and in space. The authors present data collection at the signal level in terms of waveforms and their properties; at the system level with regard to calibration and georeferencing; and at the data level to discuss error budget, quality control, and data organization. They devote the bulk of the book to LiDAR data processing and inform...

  5. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L. B.; Strahler, Alan H.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S.; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A.; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J.; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρapp), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρapp are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρapp error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρapp from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars. PMID:26950126

  6. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Li

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL, a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρapp, a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρapp are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρapp error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρapp from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars.

  7. Estimating forest biomass and identifying low-intensity logging areas using airborne scanning lidar in Antimary State Forest, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V.N. d' Oliveira; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik. Andersen

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate above ground forest biomass and identify areas disturbed by selective logging in a 1000 ha Brazilian tropical forest in the Antimary State Forest using airborne lidar data. The study area consisted of three management units, two of which were unlogged, while the third unit was selectively logged at a low intensity. A...

  8. Improving Lidar Turbulence Estimates for Wind Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer F.; Clifton, Andrew; Churchfield, Matthew J.; Klein, Petra

    2016-10-06

    Remote sensing devices (e.g., lidars) are quickly becoming a cost-effective and reliable alternative to meteorological towers for wind energy applications. Although lidars can measure mean wind speeds accurately, these devices measure different values of turbulence intensity (TI) than an instrument on a tower. In response to these issues, a lidar TI error reduction model was recently developed for commercially available lidars. The TI error model first applies physics-based corrections to the lidar measurements, then uses machine-learning techniques to further reduce errors in lidar TI estimates. The model was tested at two sites in the Southern Plains where vertically profiling lidars were collocated with meteorological towers. This presentation primarily focuses on the physics-based corrections, which include corrections for instrument noise, volume averaging, and variance contamination. As different factors affect TI under different stability conditions, the combination of physical corrections applied in L-TERRA changes depending on the atmospheric stability during each 10-minute time period. This stability-dependent version of L-TERRA performed well at both sites, reducing TI error and bringing lidar TI estimates closer to estimates from instruments on towers. However, there is still scatter evident in the lidar TI estimates, indicating that there are physics that are not being captured in the current version of L-TERRA. Two options are discussed for modeling the remainder of the TI error physics in L-TERRA: machine learning and lidar simulations. Lidar simulations appear to be a better approach, as they can help improve understanding of atmospheric effects on TI error and do not require a large training data set.

  9. A six-beam method to measure turbulence statistics using ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Vasiljevic, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    display (VAD) method that is routinely used in commercial wind lidars, and which usually results in significant averaging effects of measured turbulence. In the VAD method, the high frequency radial velocity measurements are used instead of their variances. The measurements are performed using a pulsed......A so-called six-beam method is proposed to measure atmospheric turbulence using a ground-based wind lidar. This method requires measurement of the radial velocity variances at five equally spaced azimuth angles on the base of a scanning cone and one measurement at the centre of the scanning circle......, i.e.using a vertical beam at the same height. The scanning configuration is optimized to minimize the sum of the random errors in the measurement of the second-order moments of the components (u;v;w) of the wind field. We present this method as an alternative to the so-called velocity azimuth...

  10. A six-beam method to measure turbulence statistics using ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Vasiljevic, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    display (VAD) method that is routinely used in commercial wind lidars, and which usually results in significant averaging effects of measured turbulence. In the VAD method, the high frequency radial velocity measurements are used instead of their variances. The measurements are performed using a pulsed......A so-called six-beam method is proposed to measure atmospheric turbulence using a ground-based wind lidar. This method requires measurement of the radial velocity variances at five equally spaced azimuth angles on the base of a scanning cone and one measurement at the center of the scanning circle......, i.e.using a vertical beam at the same height. The scanning configuration is optimized to minimize the sum of the random errors in the measurement of the second-order moments of the components (u,v,w) of the wind field. We present this method as an alternative to the so-called velocity azimuth...

  11. Augmented Reality Based Doppler Lidar Data Visualization: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherukuru N. W.

    2016-01-01

    As a proof of concept, we used the lidar data from a recent field campaign and developed a smartphone application to view the lidar scan in augmented reality. In this paper, we give a brief methodology of this feasibility study, present the challenges and promises of using AR technology in conjunction with Doppler wind lidars.

  12. Lidar Turbulence Measurements for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Sathe, Ameya; Gottschall, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the velocity azimuth display technique to measure the velocity vector. The model is developed for the line-of-sight averagi...

  13. Lidar to lidar calibration of Ground-based Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  14. Correction function in the Lidar equation and the solution techniques for CO2 Lidar date reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Lea, T. K.; Schotland, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    For lidar systems with long laser pulses the unusual behavior of the near-range signals causes serious difficulties and large errors in reduction. The commonly used lidar equation is no longer applicable since the convolution of the laser pulse with the atmospheric parameter distributions should be taken into account. It is important to give more insight into this problem and find the solution techniques. Starting from the original equation, a general form is suggested for the single scattering lidar equation where a correction function Cr is introduced. The correction Function Cr(R) derived from the original equation indicates the departure from the normal lidar equation. Examples of Cr(R) for a coaxial CO2 lidar system are presented. The Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) errors caused by the differences of Cr(R) for H2O measurements are plotted against height.

  15. Industrial fiber lidar: some applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Brigitte; Fougeres, Andre; Talbot, Mario; Roy, Gilles

    2000-12-01

    In recent years, INO has developed an eye-safe, transportable industrial fiber lidar (IFL) for industrial applications of pollution control during handling of loose materials'2. However, it can also be used for other applications like urban particulates monitoring, cloud mapping, and unattended surveillance. The IPL is a compact and direct scanning lidar. It is based on 1140's diode pumped Erbium doped fiber laser, which delivers an energy of 1 .5microJoules in l2ns pulses with a high repetition rate of 10kHz at an eye-safe wavelength of 1.5microns. 1140's lidar system is composed of a lidar head containing the transmitter-receiver optics in a biaxial configuration mounted on a scanning platform. The lidar head is connected to the laser source and detector via optical fibers. A computer controls the scanning platform via an optical RS- 232 communication link. This allows remote operation since sensitive equipment like the laser and the computer can be located away from the surveillance site in an environmentally controlled room. The TEL characteristics and results obtained from monitoring in an urban area and field trials on surveillance of hard targets and transmission through obscurants will be detailed.

  16. Lidar to lidar calibration of Ground-based Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and correspondi...

  17. A Comparison of sector-scan and dual Doppler wind measurements at Høvsøre Test Station – one lidar or two?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Elliot; Courtney, Michael

    two devices in tandem (dual Doppler) or employ a single Doppler scanning strategy such as PPI (plan position indicator, or sector scan) which allows for estimation of the two component horizontal wind vector. In preparation for a six month long measurement campaign along the Danish North Sea, a one....... Sector scan results also indicate very good agreement with the met-mast, corresponding within 0.2% for wind speed, with an R2 of 0.998. The sector scan results for wind speed exhibit larger amounts of scatter than with dual Doppler, however the bias is centred around the regression line which gives good...

  18. Meta-analysis of gene–environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiao; Verhoeven, Virginie J. M.; Wojciechowski, Robert; Barathi, Veluchamy A.; Hysi, Pirro G.; Guggenheim, Jeremy A.; Höhn, René; Vitart, Veronique; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Yamashiro, Kenji; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yi; Haller, Toomas; Xie, Jing; Delcourt, Cécile; Pirastu, Mario; Wedenoja, Juho; Gharahkhani, Puya; Venturini, Cristina; Miyake, Masahiro; Hewitt, Alex W.; Guo, Xiaobo; Mazur, Johanna; Huffman, Jenifer E.; Williams, Katie M.; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Wilson, James F.; Joshi, Peter K.; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M.; Simpson, Claire L.; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Igo, Robert P.; Mirshahi, Alireza; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Blettner, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Seppala, Ilkka; Zeller, Tanja; Meitinger, Thomas; Ried, Janina S.; Gieger, Christian; Portas, Laura; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M.; Amin, Najaf; Uitterlinden, André G.; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Xu; Tai-Hui Boh, Eileen; Ikram, M. Kamran; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Vincent; Zhou, Lei; Ho, Candice E. H.; Lim, Wan'e; Beuerman, Roger W.; Siantar, Rosalynn; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga; Mihailov, Evelin; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Hayward, Caroline; Luben, Robert N.; Foster, Paul J.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Hoi-Suen; Mitchell, Paul; Metspalu, Andres; Aung, Tin; Young, Terri L.; He, Mingguang; Pärssinen, Olavi; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Jin Wang, Jie; Williams, Cathy; Jonas, Jost B.; Teo, Yik-Ying; Mackey, David A.; Oexle, Konrad; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Paterson, Andrew D.; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Baird, Paul N.; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E. Bailey; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Hammond, Christopher J.; Klaver, Caroline C. W.; Saw, Seang-Mei; Rahi, Jugnoo S.; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Kemp, John P.; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Smith, George Davey; Craig, Jamie E.; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Fogarty, Rhys D.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Chew, Emily; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Martin, Nicholas G.; MacGregor, Stuart; Xu, Liang; Schache, Maria; Nangia, Vinay; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Wright, Alan F.; Fondran, Jeremy R.; Lass, Jonathan H.; Feng, Sheng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J.; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia; Tam, Pancy O.; Jhanji, Vishal; Young, Alvin L.; Döring, Angela; Raffel, Leslie J.; Cotch, Mary-Frances; Li, Xiaohui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K.H.; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Fossarello, Maurizio; Fleck, Brian; Yazar, Seyhan; Tideman, Jan Willem L.; Tedja, Milly; Deangelis, Margaret M.; Morrison, Margaux; Farrer, Lindsay; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Mäkelä, Kari Matti

    2016-01-01

    Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10−5), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery of these loci represents an important advance in understanding how gene and environment interactions contribute to the heterogeneity of myopia. PMID:27020472

  19. Meta-analysis of gene-environment-wide association scans accounting for education level identifies additional loci for refractive error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Qiao; Verhoeven, Virginie J M; Wojciechowski, Robert; Barathi, Veluchamy A; Hysi, Pirro G; Guggenheim, Jeremy A; Höhn, René; Vitart, Veronique; Khawaja, Anthony P; Yamashiro, Kenji; Hosseini, S Mohsen; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lu, Yi; Haller, Toomas; Xie, Jing; Delcourt, Cécile; Pirastu, Mario; Wedenoja, Juho; Gharahkhani, Puya; Venturini, Cristina; Miyake, Masahiro; Hewitt, Alex W; Guo, Xiaobo; Mazur, Johanna; Huffman, Jenifer E; Williams, Katie M; Polasek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Vatavuk, Zoran; Wilson, James F; Joshi, Peter K; McMahon, George; St Pourcain, Beate; Evans, David M; Simpson, Claire L; Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Igo, Robert P; Mirshahi, Alireza; Cougnard-Gregoire, Audrey; Bellenguez, Céline; Blettner, Maria; Raitakari, Olli; Kähönen, Mika; Seppala, Ilkka; Zeller, Tanja; Meitinger, Thomas; Ried, Janina S; Gieger, Christian; Portas, Laura; van Leeuwen, Elisabeth M; Amin, Najaf; Uitterlinden, André G; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Hofman, Albert; Vingerling, Johannes R; Wang, Ya Xing; Wang, Xu; Tai-Hui Boh, Eileen; Ikram, M Kamran; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Gupta, Preeti; Tan, Vincent; Zhou, Lei; Ho, Candice E H; Lim, Wan'e; Beuerman, Roger W; Siantar, Rosalynn; Tai, E-Shyong; Vithana, Eranga; Mihailov, Evelin; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Hayward, Caroline; Luben, Robert N; Foster, Paul J; Klein, Barbara E K; Klein, Ronald; Wong, Hoi-Suen; Mitchell, Paul; Metspalu, Andres; Aung, Tin; Young, Terri L; He, Mingguang; Pärssinen, Olavi; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Jin Wang, Jie; Williams, Cathy; Jonas, Jost B; Teo, Yik-Ying; Mackey, David A; Oexle, Konrad; Yoshimura, Nagahisa; Paterson, Andrew D; Pfeiffer, Norbert; Wong, Tien-Yin; Baird, Paul N; Stambolian, Dwight; Wilson, Joan E Bailey; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Hammond, Christopher J; Klaver, Caroline C W; Saw, Seang-Mei; Rahi, Jugnoo S; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Kemp, John P; Timpson, Nicholas J; Smith, George Davey; Craig, Jamie E; Burdon, Kathryn P; Fogarty, Rhys D; Iyengar, Sudha K; Chew, Emily; Janmahasatian, Sarayut; Martin, Nicholas G; MacGregor, Stuart; Xu, Liang; Schache, Maria; Nangia, Vinay; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Wright, Alan F; Fondran, Jeremy R; Lass, Jonathan H; Feng, Sheng; Zhao, Jing Hua; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick J; Rantanen, Taina; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pang, Chi Pui; Chen, Li Jia; Tam, Pancy O; Jhanji, Vishal; Young, Alvin L; Döring, Angela; Raffel, Leslie J; Cotch, Mary-Frances; Li, Xiaohui; Yip, Shea Ping; Yap, Maurice K H; Biino, Ginevra; Vaccargiu, Simona; Fossarello, Maurizio; Fleck, Brian; Yazar, Seyhan; Tideman, Jan Willem L; Tedja, Milly; Deangelis, Margaret M; Morrison, Margaux; Farrer, Lindsay; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Wei; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; Meguro, Akira; Mäkelä, Kari Matti

    2016-03-29

    Myopia is the most common human eye disorder and it results from complex genetic and environmental causes. The rapidly increasing prevalence of myopia poses a major public health challenge. Here, the CREAM consortium performs a joint meta-analysis to test single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) main effects and SNP × education interaction effects on refractive error in 40,036 adults from 25 studies of European ancestry and 10,315 adults from 9 studies of Asian ancestry. In European ancestry individuals, we identify six novel loci (FAM150B-ACP1, LINC00340, FBN1, DIS3L-MAP2K1, ARID2-SNAT1 and SLC14A2) associated with refractive error. In Asian populations, three genome-wide significant loci AREG, GABRR1 and PDE10A also exhibit strong interactions with education (P<8.5 × 10(-5)), whereas the interactions are less evident in Europeans. The discovery of these loci represents an important advance in understanding how gene and environment interactions contribute to the heterogeneity of myopia.

  20. Lidar to lidar calibration phase 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the results from phase 2 of a lidar to lidar (L2L) calibration procedure. Phase two of the project included two measurement campaigns conducted at given sites. The purpose was to find out if the lidar-to-lidar calibration procedure can be conducted with similar results...

  1. An Evaluation of the Errors in Cephalometric Measurements on Scanned Lateral Cephalometric Images using Computerized Cephalometric Program and Conventional Tracings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priteshkumar Sureshchand Ganna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and objective: The aim of this study was to compare the cephalometric measurements using Nemoceph software with manual tracings. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 60 lateral Cephalometric radiographs of patients randomly selected from the existing records of patients of Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, KVG Dental College and Hospital, Sullia, Dakshina Kannada. Nineteen angular and 11 linear measurements were analyzed on each radiograph. All the lateral cephalographs were hand-traced and the same Cephalographs were then scanned and were then digitally traced with Nemoceph software. The results were then tabulated in Microsoft excel. The level of significance (p-value was 0.05 and was set at p < 0.05. Paired t-test was performed using SPSS software for comparison between tracing done by manual method and by Nemoceph software. Results: Significant differences were found between the two methods for five (four angular and one linear out of 30 measurements. Those five were saddle angle, articular angle, upper lip to E-Line, Frankfort horizontal to lower incisor axis angle and lower incisor axis to mandibular plane angle. Conclusion: Both angular and linear measurements were accurate and reliable. Except, few measurements showing highly significant differences, the validity of the measurements with the Nemoceph software and with the conventional method were highly correlated.

  2. Improving Lidar Turbulence Estimates for Wind Energy: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer; Clifton, Andrew; Churchfield, Matthew; Klein, Petra

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing devices (e.g., lidars) are quickly becoming a cost-effective and reliable alternative to meteorological towers for wind energy applications. Although lidars can measure mean wind speeds accurately, these devices measure different values of turbulence intensity (TI) than an instrument on a tower. In response to these issues, a lidar TI error reduction model was recently developed for commercially available lidars. The TI error model first applies physics-based corrections to the lidar measurements, then uses machine-learning techniques to further reduce errors in lidar TI estimates. The model was tested at two sites in the Southern Plains where vertically profiling lidars were collocated with meteorological towers. Results indicate that the model works well under stable conditions but cannot fully mitigate the effects of variance contamination under unstable conditions. To understand how variance contamination affects lidar TI estimates, a new set of equations was derived in previous work to characterize the actual variance measured by a lidar. Terms in these equations were quantified using a lidar simulator and modeled wind field, and the new equations were then implemented into the TI error model.

  3. Heterogeneous Boundary Layers through the Diurnal Cycle: Evaluation of the WRF Wind Farm Parameterization using Scanning Lidar Observations and Wind Turbine Power Measurements during a Range of Stability Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.

    2015-12-01

    As wind energy deployment increases, questions arise regarding impacts on local climates and how these impacts evolve with the diurnal cycle of the boundary layer. Satellite observations suggest nocturnal increases of surface temperatures, and measurements of turbine wakes document stronger and more persistent reductions of wind speed and increases in turbulence downwind of turbines during stable conditions. Validations of mesoscale parameterizations of these effects have been constrained to idealized conditions defined by neutrally-stratified conditions and/or limited wind directions and wind speeds, or by comparison to idealized large-eddy simulations. Synthesis of conventional meteorological measurements and unconventional measurements can offer unique insights for validating models over a large heterogeneous domain. The CWEX-13 field experiment provides an extensive dataset for such validation at spatial scales on the order of 10 km in a range of atmospheric stability and wind conditions. CWEX-13 took place within a 300 MW wind farm in central Iowa during summer 2013 and featured strong diurnal cycles. The wind turbines are sited irregularly, creating a heterogenous "canopy". Three profiling lidars, numerous surface flux stations, and a scanning lidar sampled wakes from multiple turbines. Further, the wind farm owner/operator has provided access to turbine power production and wind speed measurement data for model validation, providing ~ 200 measurements of proxies that integrate the wind profile over the rotor disk, from 40 m to 120 m above the surface. Building on previous work that identified optimal physics options, grid configurations, and boundary condition data sets by comparison to lidar wind profile measurements, we execute simulations with the WRF Wind Farm Parameterization for a ten-day period featuring moderate winds and strong diurnal cycles. We evaluate simulations with different modeling choices (e.g., vertical resolution, approaches to

  4. Demonstration of Two Portable Scanning LiDAR Systems Flown at Low-Altitude for Investigating Coastal Sea Surface Topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorg Hacker

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the efficacy of a commercial portable 2D laser scanner (operating at a wavelength close to 1,000 nm deployed from a fixed-wing aircraft for measuring the sea surface topography and wave profiles over coastal waters. The LiDAR instrumentation enabled simultaneous measurements of the 2D laser scanner with two independent inertial navigation units, and also simultaneous measurements with a more advanced 2D laser scanner (operating at a wavelength near 1,500 nm. The latter scanner is used routinely for accurately measuring terrestrial topography and was used as a benchmark in this study. We present examples of sea surface topography and wave profiles based on low altitude surveys (< ~300 m over coastal waters in the vicinity of Cape de Couedic, Kangaroo Island, South Australia and over the surf zone adjacent to the mouth of the Murray River, South Australia. Relative wave heights in the former survey are shown to be consistent with relative wave heights observed from a waverider buoy located near Cape de Couedic during the LiDAR survey. The sea surface topography of waves in the surf zone was successfully mapped with both laser scanners resolving relative wave height variations and fine structure of the sea surface to within approximately 10 cm. A topographic map of the sea surface referenced to the airborne sensor frame transforms to an accurate altimetry map which may be used with airborne electromagnetic instrumentation to provide an averaged altimetry covering a portion of the larger electromagnetic footprint. This averaged altimetry is deemed to be significantly more reliable as a measurement of altimetry than spot measurements using a nadir-looking laser altimeter and would therefore improve upon the use of airborne electromagnetic methods for bathymetric mapping in surf-zone waters. The aperture range of the scanner does not necessarily determine the swath. We observed that instead, the maximum swath at a given altitude was

  5. Glenoid version by CT scan: an analysis of clinical measurement error and introduction of a protocol to reduce variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunt, Fabian van de [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pearl, Michael L.; Lee, Eric K.; Peng, Lauren; Didomenico, Paul [Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Recent studies have challenged the accuracy of conventional measurements of glenoid version. Variability in the orientation of the scapula from individual anatomical differences and patient positioning, combined with differences in observer measurement practices, have been identified as sources of variability. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility and reliability of clinically available software that allows manipulation of three-dimensional images in order to bridge the variance between clinical and anatomic version in a clinical setting. Twenty CT scans of normal glenoids of patients who had proximal humerus fractures were measured for version. Four reviewers first measured version in a conventional manner (clinical version), measurements were made again (anatomic version) after employing a protocol for reformatting the CT data to align the coronal and sagittal planes with the superior-inferior axis of the glenoid, and the scapular body, respectively. The average value of clinical retroversion for all reviewers and all subjects was -1.4 (range, -16 to 21 ), as compared to -3.2 (range, -21 to 6 ) when measured from reformatted images. The mean difference between anatomical and clinical version was 1.9 ± 5.6 but ranged on individual measurements from -13 to 26 . In no instance did all four observers choose the same image slice from the sequence of images. This study confirmed the variation in glenoid version dependent on scapular orientation previously identified in other studies using scapular models, and presents a clinically accessible protocol to correct for scapular orientation from the patient's CT data. (orig.)

  6. Ultra-Miniature Lidar Scanner for Launch Range Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Jason

    2012-01-01

    The most critical component in lidar is its laser scanner, which delivers pulsed or CW laser to target with desirable field of view (FOV). Most existing lidars use a rotating or oscillating mirror for scanning, resulting in several drawbacks. A lidar scanning technology was developed that could achieve very high scanning speed, with an ultra-miniature size and much lighter weight. This technology promises at least a 10x performance improvement in these areas over existing lidar scanners. Features of the proposed ultra-miniature lidar scanner include the ability to make the entire scanner <2 mm in diameter; very high scanning speed (e.g. 5 - 20 kHz, in contrast to several hundred Hz in existing scanners); structure design to meet stringent requirements on size, weight, power, and compactness for various applications; and the scanning speed and FOV can be altered for obtaining high image resolutions of targeted areas and for diversified uses.

  7. Lidar-based estimates of aboveground biomass in the continental US and Mexico using ground, airborne, and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross Nelson; Hank Margolis; Paul Montesano; Guoqing Sun; Bruce Cook; Larry Corp; Hans-Erik Andersen; Ben deJong; Fernando Paz Pellat; Thaddeus Fickel; Jobriath Kauffman; Stephen Prisley

    2017-01-01

    Existing national forest inventory plots, an airborne lidar scanning (ALS) system, and a space profiling lidar system (ICESat-GLAS) are used to generate circa 2005 estimates of total aboveground dry biomass (AGB) in forest strata, by state, in the continental United States (CONUS) and Mexico. The airborne lidar is used to link ground observations of AGB to space lidar...

  8. Pointing Verification Method for Spaceborne Lidars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Amediek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High precision acquisition of atmospheric parameters from the air or space by means of lidar requires accurate knowledge of laser pointing. Discrepancies between the assumed and actual pointing can introduce large errors due to the Doppler effect or a wrongly assumed air pressure at ground level. In this paper, a method for precisely quantifying these discrepancies for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems is presented. The method is based on the comparison of ground elevations derived from the lidar ranging data with high-resolution topography data obtained from a digital elevation model and allows for the derivation of the lateral and longitudinal deviation of the laser beam propagation direction. The applicability of the technique is demonstrated by using experimental data from an airborne lidar system, confirming that geo-referencing of the lidar ground spot trace with an uncertainty of less than 10 m with respect to the used digital elevation model (DEM can be obtained.

  9. A study of respiration-correlated cone-beam CT scans to correct target positioning errors in radiotherapy of thoracic cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, J. P.; McNamara, J.; Yorke, E.; Pham, H.; Rimner, A.; Rosenzweig, K. E.; Mageras, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is increasingly widespread usage of cone-beam CT (CBCT) for guiding radiation treatment in advanced-stage lung tumors, but difficulties associated with daily CBCT in conventionally fractionated treatments include imaging dose to the patient, increased workload and longer treatment times. Respiration-correlated cone-beam CT (RC-CBCT) can improve localization accuracy in mobile lung tumors, but further increases the time and workload for conventionally fractionated treatments. This study investigates whether RC-CBCT-guided correction of systematic tumor deviations in standard fractionated lung tumor radiation treatments is more effective than 2D image-based correction of skeletal deviations alone. A second study goal compares respiration-correlated vs respiration-averaged images for determining tumor deviations. Methods: Eleven stage II–IV nonsmall cell lung cancer patients are enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective off-line protocol using RC-CBCT guidance to correct for systematic errors in GTV position. Patients receive a respiration-correlated planning CT (RCCT) at simulation, daily kilovoltage RC-CBCT scans during the first week of treatment and weekly scans thereafter. Four types of correction methods are compared: (1) systematic error in gross tumor volume (GTV) position, (2) systematic error in skeletal anatomy, (3) daily skeletal corrections, and (4) weekly skeletal corrections. The comparison is in terms of weighted average of the residual GTV deviations measured from the RC-CBCT scans and representing the estimated residual deviation over the treatment course. In the second study goal, GTV deviations computed from matching RCCT and RC-CBCT are compared to deviations computed from matching respiration-averaged images consisting of a CBCT reconstructed using all projections and an average-intensity-projection CT computed from the RCCT. Results: Of the eleven patients in the GTV-based systematic correction protocol, two required no correction

  10. CALIPSO lidar ratio retrieval over the ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josset, Damien; Rogers, Raymond; Pelon, Jacques; Hu, Yongxiang; Liu, Zhaoyan; Omar, Ali; Zhai, Peng-Wang

    2011-09-12

    We are demonstrating on a few cases the capability of CALIPSO to retrieve the 532 nm lidar ratio over the ocean when CloudSat surface scattering cross section is used as a constraint. We are presenting the algorithm used and comparisons with the column lidar ratio retrieved by the NASA airborne high spectral resolution lidar. For the three cases presented here, the agreement is fairly good. The average CALIPSO 532 nm column lidar ratio bias is 13.7% relative to HSRL, and the relative standard deviation is 13.6%. Considering the natural variability of aerosol microphysical properties, this level of accuracy is significant since the lidar ratio is a good indicator of aerosol types. We are discussing dependencies of the accuracy of retrieved aerosol lidar ratio on atmospheric aerosol homogeneity, lidar signal to noise ratio, and errors in the optical depth retrievals. We are obtaining the best result (bias 7% and standard deviation around 6%) for a nighttime case with a relatively constant lidar ratio (in the vertical) indicative of homogeneous aerosol type.

  11. Development and Deployment of a Compact Eye-Safe Scanning Differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Spatial Mapping of Carbon Dioxide for Monitoring/Verification/Accounting at Geologic Sequestration Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repasky, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for monitoring carbon dioxide has been developed. The laser transmitter uses two tunable discrete mode laser diodes (DMLD) operating in the continuous wave (cw) mode with one locked to the online absorption wavelength and the other operating at the offline wavelength. Two in-line fiber optic switches are used to switch between online and offline operation. After the fiber optic switch, an acousto- optic modulator (AOM) is used to generate a pulse train used to injection seed an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to produce eye-safe laser pulses with maximum pulse energies of 66 {micro}J, a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz, and an operating wavelength of 1.571 {micro}m. The DIAL receiver uses a 28 cm diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect that backscattered light, which is then monitored using a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) module operating in the photon counting mode. The DIAL instrument has been operated from a laboratory environment on the campus of Montana State University, at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site located in the agricultural research area on the western end of the Montana State University campus, and at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership site located in north-central Montana. DIAL data has been collected and profiles have been validated using a co-located Licor LI-820 Gas Analyzer point sensor.

  12. Comparisons of aerosol backscatter using satellite and ground lidars: implications for calibrating and validating spaceborne lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmestad, Gary; Forrister, Haviland; Grigas, Tomas; O'Dowd, Colin

    2017-02-15

    The Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) instrument on the polar orbiter Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) is an elastic backscatter lidar that produces a global uniformly-calibrated aerosol data set. Several Calibration/Validation (Cal/Val) studies for CALIOP conducted with ground-based lidars and CALIOP data showed large aerosol profile disagreements, both random and systematic. In an attempt to better understand these problems, we undertook a series of ground-based lidar measurements in Atlanta, Georgia, which did not provide better agreement with CALIOP data than the earlier efforts, but rather prompted us to investigate the statistical limitations of such comparisons. Meaningful Cal/Val requires intercomparison data sets with small enough uncertainties to provide a check on the maximum expected calibration error. For CALIOP total attenuated backscatter, reducing the noise to the required level requires averaging profiles along the ground track for distances of at least 1,500 km. Representative comparison profiles often cannot be acquired with ground-based lidars because spatial aerosol inhomogeneities introduce systematic error into the averages. These conclusions have implications for future satellite lidar Cal/Val efforts, because planned satellite lidars measuring aerosol backscatter, wind vector, and CO2 concentration profiles may all produce data requiring considerable along-track averaging for meaningful Cal/Val.

  13. A motion correction method for indoor robot based on lidar feature extraction and matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Jiansong; Guo, Yu; Wei, Yang; Li, Zheng; Zhao, Yeming; Wang, Lirong; Chen, Xiaohe

    2018-01-01

    For robots used for the indoor environment detection, positioning and navigation with a Light Detection and Ranging system (Lidar), the accuracy of map building, positioning and navigation, is largely restricted by the motion accuracy. Due to manufacture error and transmission error of the mechanical structure, sensors easily affected by the environment and other factors, robots' cumulative motion error is inevitable. This paper presents a series of methods and solutions to overcome those problems, such as point set partition and feature extraction methods for processing Lidar scan points, feature matching method to correct the motion process, with less computation, more reasonable and rigorous threshold, wider scope of application, higher efficiency and accuracy. While extracting environment features and building indoor maps, these methods analyze the motion error of the robot and correct it, improving the accuracy of movement and map without any additional hardware. Experiments prove that the rotation error and translation error of the robot platform used in experiments can by reduced by 50% and by 70% respectively. The methods evidently improve the motion accuracy with a strong effectiveness and practicality.

  14. Turbulence measurements using six lidar beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    components of the Reynolds stress tensor, which arises because, in a VAD scan the lidar beams are combined to obtain different components of the wind field. In this work we demonstrate theoretically, how the contamination by the cross components can be avoided by using the measured variances of the line......-of-sight velocities of six lidar beams. Under certain assumptions the volume averaging can then be avoided using the ensemble averaged line-ofsight Doppler velocity spectra. In this way, we can then in principle measure the true turbulence using six lidar beams....

  15. Field evaluation of remote wind sensing technologies: Shore-based and buoy mounted LIDAR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, Thomas [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    2017-11-03

    will be transferred to the Garrad Hassan (a subcontractor to Fishermen’s Energy) for incorporation in to the validation database, which is accessible to other scientific team members. Data collection times and durations will be determined by the PI and Co-PIs in consultation with instrument engineers to ensure the capture of data representative of the expected range of mid-Atlantic atmospheric conditions (e.g., temperature, moisture, coastal low pressure systems, tropical systems, rain, snow, fog). The collection and processing of the data is a function of site specific measurement requirements (Kelley et.al. 2007; Hannon et.al. 2008). To determine the optimal profiles of wind speed and direction from the LIDAR radial velocities as a function of azimuth angle, rigorous estimates of the bias and random error of each radial velocity estimate are required. Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies, Inc., under contract with Fishermen’s Energy, will provide analyses of raw and processed data using various scan patterns to determine optimal performance settings for the pulsed scanning LIDAR. Once optimized, appropriate processing and analyses techniques will be evaluated by Garrad Hassan for use in validating the accuracy of the LIDAR wind field measurements against the standard anemometer measurements from the meteorological masts. The most attractive capability of the scanning LIDAR is the ability to provide high spatial resolution observations in a three-dimensional volume which provides superior statistical accuracy due to the large number of samples obtained. Each radial scan provides measurements in 100 range gates over a distance of 10 to 12 km at an update rate of 5 to 10 Hz and rotation of 2.5° per second. Each rotation at a fixed azimuth requires 2.4 minutes. Depending on the number of azimuths desired a complete scan can take up to 10 minutes or longer to complete. Once collected the radial velocities are processed to produce vector wind velocity estimates based

  16. Assessment of Photogrammetry Structure-from-Motion Compared to Terrestrial LiDAR Scanning for Generating Digital Elevation Models. Application to the Austre Lovéenbreen Polar Glacier Basin, Spitsbergen 79°N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolle, F.; Friedt, J. M.; Bernard, É.; Prokop, A.; Griselin, M.

    2014-12-01

    is mandatory during the image acquisition phase: compliance with acquisition rules reducing digital processing errors helps minimizing the uncertainty on the point cloud absolute position in its coordinate system. 3D models from SfM are compared with terrestrial LiDAR acquisitions for resolution assesment.

  17. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicks Shannon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror’s movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  18. Automating the Purple Crow Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Shannon; Sica, R. J.; Argall, P. S.

    2016-06-01

    The Purple Crow LiDAR (PCL) was built to measure short and long term coupling between the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere. The initial component of my MSc. project is to automate two key elements of the PCL: the rotating liquid mercury mirror and the Zaber alignment mirror. In addition to the automation of the Zaber alignment mirror, it is also necessary to describe the mirror's movement and positioning errors. Its properties will then be added into the alignment software. Once the alignment software has been completed, we will compare the new alignment method with the previous manual procedure. This is the first among several projects that will culminate in a fully-automated lidar. Eventually, we will be able to work remotely, thereby increasing the amount of data we collect. This paper will describe the motivation for automation, the methods we propose, preliminary results for the Zaber alignment error analysis, and future work.

  19. Automatic extraction of pavement markings on streets from point cloud data of mobile LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhong, Ruofei; Tang, Tao; Wang, Liuzhao; Liu, Xianlin

    2017-08-01

    Pavement markings provide an important foundation as they help to keep roads users safe. Accurate and comprehensive information about pavement markings assists the road regulators and is useful in developing driverless technology. Mobile light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems offer new opportunities to collect and process accurate pavement markings’ information. Mobile LiDAR systems can directly obtain the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of an object, thus defining spatial data and the intensity of (3D) objects in a fast and efficient way. The RGB attribute information of data points can be obtained based on the panoramic camera in the system. In this paper, we present a novel method process to automatically extract pavement markings using multiple attribute information of the laser scanning point cloud from the mobile LiDAR data. This method process utilizes a differential grayscale of RGB color, laser pulse reflection intensity, and the differential intensity to identify and extract pavement markings. We utilized point cloud density to remove the noise and used morphological operations to eliminate the errors. In the application, we tested our method process on different sections of roads in Beijing, China, and Buffalo, NY, USA. The results indicated that both correctness (p) and completeness (r) were higher than 90%. The method process of this research can be applied to extract pavement markings from huge point cloud data produced by mobile LiDAR.

  20. Demystifying LiDAR technologies for temperate rainforest in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Demetrios Gatziolis

    2013-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR), also known as airborne laser scanning, is a rapidly emerging technology for remote sensing. Used to help map, monitor, and assess natural resources, LiDAR data were first embraced by forestry professionals in Scandinavia as a tool for conducting forest inventories in the mid to late 1990s. Thus early LiDAR theory and applications...

  1. Eye-safe diode laser Doppler lidar with a MEMS beam-scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel Doppler lidar that employs a cw diode laser operating at 1.5 μm and a micro-electro-mechanical-system scanning mirror (MEMS-SM). In this work, two functionalities of the lidar system are demonstrated. Firstly, we describe the capability to effectively steer the lidar probe beam...

  2. Lidar Detection of Explosives Traces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrovnikov Sergei M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of remote detection of traces of explosives using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene (TNT, hexogen (RDX, trotyl-hexogen (Comp B, octogen (HMX, and tetryl with a scanning lidar detector of traces of nitrogen-containing explosives at a distance of 5 m are presented.

  3. PROBING NEAR-SURFACE ATMOSPHERIC TURBULENCE WITH LIDAR MEASUREMENTS AND HIGH-RESOLUTION HYDRODYNAMIC MODELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. KAO; D. COOPER; ET AL

    2000-11-01

    As lidar technology is able to provide fast data collection at a resolution of meters in an atmospheric volume, it is imperative to promote a modeling counterpart of the lidar capability. This paper describes an integrated capability based on data from a scanning water vapor lidar and a high-resolution hydrodynamic model (HIGRAD) equipped with a visualization routine (VIEWER) that simulates the lidar scanning. The purpose is to better understand the spatial and temporal representativeness of the lidar measurements and, in turn, to extend their utility in studying turbulence fields in the atmospheric boundary layer. Raman lidar water vapor data collected over the Pacific warm pool and the simulations with the HIGRAD code are used for identifying the underlying physics and potential aliasing effects of spatially resolved lidar measurements. This capability also helps improve the trade-off between spatial-temporal resolution and coverage of the lidar measurements.

  4. Benchmarking of a treatment planning system for spot scanning proton therapy: Comparison and analysis of robustness to setup errors of photon IMRT and proton SFUD treatment plans of base of skull meningioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, R., E-mail: ruth.harding2@wales.nhs.uk [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand Abertawe Bro Morgannwg University Health Board, Medical Physics and Clinical Engineering, Swansea SA2 8QA (United Kingdom); Trnková, P.; Lomax, A. J. [Paul Scherrer Institute, Centre for Proton Therapy, Villigen 5232 (Switzerland); Weston, S. J.; Lilley, J.; Thompson, C. M.; Cosgrove, V. P. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Short, S. C. [Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oncology and Clinical Research, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand St James’s Institute of Oncology, Oncology, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Loughrey, C. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Oncology, Leeds LS9 7TF (United Kingdom); Thwaites, D. I. [St James’s Institute of Oncology, Medical Physics and Engineering, Leeds LS9 7TF, United Kingdomand Institute of Medical Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: Base of skull meningioma can be treated with both intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and spot scanned proton therapy (PT). One of the main benefits of PT is better sparing of organs at risk, but due to the physical and dosimetric characteristics of protons, spot scanned PT can be more sensitive to the uncertainties encountered in the treatment process compared with photon treatment. Therefore, robustness analysis should be part of a comprehensive comparison between these two treatment methods in order to quantify and understand the sensitivity of the treatment techniques to uncertainties. The aim of this work was to benchmark a spot scanning treatment planning system for planning of base of skull meningioma and to compare the created plans and analyze their robustness to setup errors against the IMRT technique. Methods: Plans were produced for three base of skull meningioma cases: IMRT planned with a commercial TPS [Monaco (Elekta AB, Sweden)]; single field uniform dose (SFUD) spot scanning PT produced with an in-house TPS (PSI-plan); and SFUD spot scanning PT plan created with a commercial TPS [XiO (Elekta AB, Sweden)]. A tool for evaluating robustness to random setup errors was created and, for each plan, both a dosimetric evaluation and a robustness analysis to setup errors were performed. Results: It was possible to create clinically acceptable treatment plans for spot scanning proton therapy of meningioma with a commercially available TPS. However, since each treatment planning system uses different methods, this comparison showed different dosimetric results as well as different sensitivities to setup uncertainties. The results confirmed the necessity of an analysis tool for assessing plan robustness to provide a fair comparison of photon and proton plans. Conclusions: Robustness analysis is a critical part of plan evaluation when comparing IMRT plans with spot scanned proton therapy plans.

  5. 1999 USACE Bathymetric LiDAR: Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS (Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey) system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  6. 2001 USACE Bathymetric LiDAR: Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS (Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey) system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  7. 2000 USACE Bathymetric LiDAR: Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS (Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey) system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  8. Upwind D1. Uncertainties in wind assessment with LIDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter

    In this report sources influencing wind assessments with lidars are listed and discussed. Comparisons with mast mounted cup anemometers are presented and the magnitudes of the errors from the listed error sources are estimated. Finally an attempt to define uncertainty windows for the current stat...... of the two commercial wind sensing lidars is presented. The results in this report give important feedback on system improvements to manufacturers and an estimation of the current ability for wind farm developers which are potential users....

  9. Comparing RIEGL RiCOPTER UAV LiDAR Derived Canopy Height and DBH with Terrestrial LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Benjamin; Lau, Alvaro; Bartholomeus, Harm M; Kooistra, Lammert

    2017-10-17

    In recent years, LIght Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) and especially Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) systems have shown the potential to revolutionise forest structural characterisation by providing unprecedented 3D data. However, manned Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) requires costly campaigns and produces relatively low point density, while TLS is labour intense and time demanding. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne laser scanning can be the way in between. In this study, we present first results and experiences with the RIEGL RiCOPTER with VUX ® -1UAV ALS system and compare it with the well tested RIEGL VZ-400 TLS system. We scanned the same forest plots with both systems over the course of two days. We derived Digital Terrain Model (DTMs), Digital Surface Model (DSMs) and finally Canopy Height Model (CHMs) from the resulting point clouds. ALS CHMs were on average 11.5 c m higher in five plots with different canopy conditions. This showed that TLS could not always detect the top of canopy. Moreover, we extracted trunk segments of 58 trees for ALS and TLS simultaneously, of which 39 could be used to model Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). ALS DBH showed a high agreement with TLS DBH with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and root mean square error of 4.24 c m . We conclude that RiCOPTER has the potential to perform comparable to TLS for estimating forest canopy height and DBH under the studied forest conditions. Further research should be directed to testing UAV-borne LiDAR for explicit 3D modelling of whole trees to estimate tree volume and subsequently Above-Ground Biomass (AGB).

  10. Comparing RIEGL RiCOPTER UAV LiDAR Derived Canopy Height and DBH with Terrestrial LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Brede

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, LIght Detection And Ranging (LiDAR and especially Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS systems have shown the potential to revolutionise forest structural characterisation by providing unprecedented 3D data. However, manned Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS requires costly campaigns and produces relatively low point density, while TLS is labour intense and time demanding. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV-borne laser scanning can be the way in between. In this study, we present first results and experiences with the RIEGL RiCOPTER with VUX ® -1UAV ALS system and compare it with the well tested RIEGL VZ-400 TLS system. We scanned the same forest plots with both systems over the course of two days. We derived Digital Terrain Model (DTMs, Digital Surface Model (DSMs and finally Canopy Height Model (CHMs from the resulting point clouds. ALS CHMs were on average 11.5 c m higher in five plots with different canopy conditions. This showed that TLS could not always detect the top of canopy. Moreover, we extracted trunk segments of 58 trees for ALS and TLS simultaneously, of which 39 could be used to model Diameter at Breast Height (DBH. ALS DBH showed a high agreement with TLS DBH with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and root mean square error of 4.24 c m . We conclude that RiCOPTER has the potential to perform comparable to TLS for estimating forest canopy height and DBH under the studied forest conditions. Further research should be directed to testing UAV-borne LiDAR for explicit 3D modelling of whole trees to estimate tree volume and subsequently Above-Ground Biomass (AGB.

  11. Lidar calibration experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Mikkelsen, T.; Streicher, J.

    1997-01-01

    A series of atmospheric aerosol diffusion experiments combined with lidar detection was conducted to evaluate and calibrate an existing retrieval algorithm for aerosol backscatter lidar systems. The calibration experiments made use of two (almost) identical mini-lidar systems for aerosol cloud...... detection to test the reproducibility and uncertainty of lidars. Lidar data were obtained from both single-ended and double-ended Lidar configurations. A backstop was introduced in one of the experiments and a new method was developed where information obtained from the backstop can be used in the inversion...... algorithm. Independent in-situ aerosol plume concentrations were obtained from a simultaneous tracer gas experiment with SF6, and comparisons with the two lidars were made. The study shows that the reproducibility of the lidars is within 15%, including measurements from both sides of a plume...

  12. LIDAR Research & Development Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The LIDAR Research and Development labs are used to investigate and improve LIDAR components such as laser sources, optical signal detectors and optical filters. The...

  13. Wind Measurement LIDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Systems & Processes Engineering Corporation (SPEC) proposes a Wind Measurement LIDAR whose sensor assembly is composed of SPEC Gen IV LIDAR seeker, with 12.8...

  14. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostetler, Chris [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Ferrare, Richard [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL

  15. A New Framework for Quantifying Lidar Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer, F.; Clifton, Andrew; Bonin, Timothy A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2017-03-24

    As wind turbine sizes increase and wind energy expands to more complex and remote sites, remote sensing devices such as lidars are expected to play a key role in wind resource assessment and power performance testing. The switch to remote sensing devices represents a paradigm shift in the way the wind industry typically obtains and interprets measurement data for wind energy. For example, the measurement techniques and sources of uncertainty for a remote sensing device are vastly different from those associated with a cup anemometer on a meteorological tower. Current IEC standards discuss uncertainty due to mounting, calibration, and classification of the remote sensing device, among other parameters. Values of the uncertainty are typically given as a function of the mean wind speed measured by a reference device. However, real-world experience has shown that lidar performance is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions, such as wind shear, turbulence, and aerosol content. At present, these conditions are not directly incorporated into the estimated uncertainty of a lidar device. In this presentation, we propose the development of a new lidar uncertainty framework that adapts to current flow conditions and more accurately represents the actual uncertainty inherent in lidar measurements under different conditions. In this new framework, sources of uncertainty are identified for estimation of the line-of-sight wind speed and reconstruction of the three-dimensional wind field. These sources are then related to physical processes caused by the atmosphere and lidar operating conditions. The framework is applied to lidar data from an operational wind farm to assess the ability of the framework to predict errors in lidar-measured wind speed.

  16. Distributed Dimensonality-Based Rendering of LIDAR Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brédif, M.; Vallet, B.; Ferrand, B.

    2015-08-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are now commonly acquiring lidar scans of urban environments for an increasing number of applications such as 3D reconstruction and mapping, urban planning, urban furniture monitoring, practicability assessment for persons with reduced mobility (PRM)... MMS acquisitions are usually huge enough to incur a usability bottleneck for the increasing number of non-expert user that are not trained to process and visualize these huge datasets through specific softwares. A vast majority of their current need is for a simple 2D visualization that is both legible on screen and printable on a static 2D medium, while still conveying the understanding of the 3D scene and minimizing the disturbance of the lidar acquisition geometry (such as lidar shadows). The users that motivated this research are, by law, bound to precisely georeference underground networks for which they currently have schematics with no or poor absolute georeferencing. A solution that may fit their needs is thus a 2D visualization of the MMS dataset that they could easily interpret and on which they could accurately match features with their user datasets they would like to georeference. Our main contribution is two-fold. First, we propose a 3D point cloud stylization for 2D static visualization that leverages a Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-like local geometry analysis. By skipping the usual and error-prone estimation of a ground elevation, this rendering is thus robust to non-flat areas and has no hard-to-tune parameters such as height thresholds. Second, we implemented the corresponding rendering pipeline so that it can scale up to arbitrary large datasets by leveraging the Spark framework and its Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD) and Dataframe abstractions.

  17. Lidar base specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidemann, Hans Karl

    2012-01-01

    In late 2009, a $14.3 million allocation from the “American Recovery and Reinvestment Act” for new light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data prompted the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program (NGP) to develop a common base specification for all lidar data acquired for The National Map. Released as a draft in 2010 and formally published in 2012, the USGS–NGP “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” (now Lidar Base Specification) was quickly embraced as the foundation for numerous state, county, and foreign country lidar specifications. Prompted by a growing appreciation for the wide applicability and inherent value of lidar, a USGS-led consortium of Federal agencies commissioned a National Enhanced Elevation Assessment (NEEA) study in 2010 to quantify the costs and benefits of a national lidar program. A 2012 NEEA report documented a substantial return on such an investment, defined five Quality Levels (QL) for elevation data, and recommended an 8-year collection cycle of Quality Level 2 (QL2) lidar data as the optimum balance of benefit and affordability. In response to the study, the USGS–NGP established the 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) in 2013 as the interagency vehicle through which the NEEA recommendations could be realized. Lidar is a fast evolving technology, and much has changed in the industry since the final draft of the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” was written. Lidar data have improved in accuracy and spatial resolution, geospatial accuracy standards have been revised by the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS), industry standard file formats have been expanded, additional applications for lidar have become accepted, and the need for interoperable data across collections has been realized. This revision to the “Lidar Base Specification Version 1.0” publication addresses those changes and provides continued guidance towards a nationally consistent lidar dataset.

  18. Interest of a Full-Waveform Flown UV Lidar to Derive Forest Vertical Structures and Aboveground Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Shang

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Amongst all the methodologies readily available to estimate forest canopy and aboveground carbon (AGC, in-situ plot surveys and airborne laser scanning systems appear to be powerful assets. However, they are limited to relatively local scales. In this work, we have developed a full-waveform UV lidar, named ULICE (Ultraviolet LIdar for Canopy Experiment, as an airborne demonstrator for future space missions, with an eventual aim to retrieve forest properties at the global scale. The advantage of using the UV wavelength for a demonstrator is its low multiple scattering in the canopy. Based on realistic airborne lidar data from the well-documented Fontainebleau forest site (south-east of Paris, France, which is representative of managed deciduous forests in temperate climate zones, we estimate the uncertainties in the retrieval of forest vertical structures and AGC. A complete uncertainty study using Monte Carlo approaches is performed for both the lidar-derived tree top height (TTH and AGC. Our results show a maximum error of 1.2 m (16 tC ha‑1 for the TTH (AGC assessment. Furthermore, the study of leaf effect on AGC estimate for mid-latitude deciduous forests highlights the possibility for using calibration obtained during only one season to retrieve the AGC during the other, by applying winter and summer airborne measurements.

  19. Detection of Wind Evolution and Lidar Trajectory Optimization for Lidar-Assisted Wind Turbine Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schlipf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in remote sensing are offering a promising opportunity to rethink conventional control strategies of wind turbines. With technologies such as lidar, the information about the incoming wind field - the main disturbance to the system - can be made available ahead of time. Initial field testing of collective pitch feedforward control shows, that lidar measurements are only beneficial if they are filtered properly to avoid harmful control action. However, commercial lidar systems developed for site assessment are usually unable to provide a usable signal for real time control. Recent research shows, that the correlation between the measurement of rotor effective wind speed and the turbine reaction can be modeled and that the model can be used to optimize a scan pattern. This correlation depends on several criteria such as turbine size, position of the measurements, measurement volume, and how the wind evolves on its way towards the rotor. In this work the longitudinal wind evolution is identified with the line-of-sight measurements of a pulsed lidar system installed on a large commercial wind turbine. This is done by staring directly into the inflowing wind during operation of the turbine and fitting the coherence between the wind at different measurement distances to an exponential model taking into account the yaw misalignment, limitation to line-of-sight measurements and the pulse volume. The identified wind evolution is then used to optimize the scan trajectory of a scanning lidar for lidar-assisted feedforward control in order to get the best correlation possible within the constraints of the system. Further, an adaptive filer is fitted to the modeled correlation to avoid negative impact of feedforward control because of uncorrelated frequencies of the wind measurement. The main results of the presented work are a first estimate of the wind evolution in front of operating wind turbines and an approach which manufacturers of

  20. Optical Backscattering Measured by Airborne Lidar and Underwater Glider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Churnside

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The optical backscattering from particles in the ocean is an important quantity that has been measured by remote sensing techniques and in situ instruments. In this paper, we compare estimates of this quantity from airborne lidar with those from an in situ instrument on an underwater glider. Both of these technologies allow much denser sampling of backscatter profiles than traditional ship surveys. We found a moderate correlation (R = 0.28, p < 10−5, with differences that are partially explained by spatial and temporal sampling mismatches, variability in particle composition, and lidar retrieval errors. The data suggest that there are two different regimes with different scattering properties. For backscattering coefficients below about 0.001 m−1, the lidar values were generally greater than the glider values. For larger values, the lidar was generally lower than the glider. Overall, the results are promising and suggest that airborne lidar and gliders provide comparable and complementary information on optical particulate backscattering.

  1. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 2: Lidar anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Bingöl, Ferhat

    2010-01-01

    ) a fetch-limited beech forest site taken at 48–175 m a.g.l. (above ground level), (2) a reference site in flat agricultural terrain and (3) a second reference site in complex terrain are presented. The method to derive flow tilt angles and mean vertical velocities from lidar has several advantages compared...... alignment error at a multitude of heights. Disadvantages with estimating vertical velocities from a lidar compared to mast-based measurements are potentially slightly increased levels of statistical errors due to limited sampling time, because the sampling is disjunct, and a requirement for homogeneous flow...... vertical velocity, whereas the error due to flow inhomogeneity on the horizontal mean wind speed is independent of the lidar beam angle. For the presented measurements over forest, it is evaluated that the systematic error due to the inhomogeneity of the flow is less than 0.2°. The results of the vertical...

  2. High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldsmith, John [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-04-01

    High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) systems provide vertical profiles of optical depth, backscatter cross-section, depolarization, and backscatter phase function. All HSRL measurements are absolutely calibrated by reference to molecular scattering, which is measured at each point in the lidar profile. Like the Raman lidar but unlike simple backscatter lidars such as the micropulse lidar, the HSRL can measure backscatter cross-sections and optical depths without prior assumptions about the scattering properties of the atmosphere. The depolarization observations also allow robust discrimination between ice and water clouds. In addition, rigorous error estimates can be computed for all measurements. A very narrow, angular field of view reduces multiple scattering contributions. The small field of view, coupled with a narrow optical bandwidth, nearly eliminates noise due to scattered sunlight. There are two operational U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility HSRL systems, one at the Barrow North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site and the other in the second ARM Mobile Facility (AMF2) collection of instrumentation.

  3. Low-pass parabolic FFT filter for airborne and satellite lidar signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhongke; Liu, Bo; Liu, Enhai; Yue, Yongjian

    2015-10-14

    In order to reduce random errors of the lidar signal inversion, a low-pass parabolic fast Fourier transform filter (PFFTF) was introduced for noise elimination. A compact airborne Raman lidar system was studied, which applied PFFTF to process lidar signals. Mathematics and simulations of PFFTF along with low pass filters, sliding mean filter (SMF), median filter (MF), empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet transform (WT) were studied, and the practical engineering value of PFFTF for lidar signal processing has been verified. The method has been tested on real lidar signal from Wyoming Cloud Lidar (WCL). Results show that PFFTF has advantages over the other methods. It keeps the high frequency components well and reduces much of the random noise simultaneously for lidar signal processing.

  4. Low-Pass Parabolic FFT Filter for Airborne and Satellite Lidar Signal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongke Jiao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce random errors of the lidar signal inversion, a low-pass parabolic fast Fourier transform filter (PFFTF was introduced for noise elimination. A compact airborne Raman lidar system was studied, which applied PFFTF to process lidar signals. Mathematics and simulations of PFFTF along with low pass filters, sliding mean filter (SMF, median filter (MF, empirical mode decomposition (EMD and wavelet transform (WT were studied, and the practical engineering value of PFFTF for lidar signal processing has been verified. The method has been tested on real lidar signal from Wyoming Cloud Lidar (WCL. Results show that PFFTF has advantages over the other methods. It keeps the high frequency components well and reduces much of the random noise simultaneously for lidar signal processing.

  5. Monolithic high peak-power coherent Doppler lidar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotov, Leonid V.; Töws, Albert; Kurtz, Alfred; Bobkov, Konstantin K.; Aleshkina, Svetlana S.; Bubnov, Mikhail M.; Lipatov, Denis S.; Guryanov, Alexey N.; Likhachev, Mikhail

    2016-03-01

    In this work we present a monolithic lidar system, based on a newly-developed double-clad large mode area (LMA) polarization-maintaining Er-doped fiber and specially designed LMA passive components. Optimization of the fiber designs resulted in as high as 100 W of SBS limited peak power. The amplifier and its passive components (circulator and collimator) were integrated in an existing lidar system. The enhanced lidar system provides three times increase of scanning range compared to one based on standard telecom-grade amplifiers.

  6. Ground-based lidar remote sensing of contrails

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, H.; Freudenthaler, V.; Homburg, F.; Sussmann, R. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    A ground-based scanning lidar system with built-in CCD camera has been developed to investigate aerosols and persistent contrails in air traffic corridors with respect to growth and microphysical and optical properties. By calibrating CCD camera images with lidar information the optical depth of larger areas of contrail cover within the 40 degree viewing angle of the camera can be determined. This technique has been extended to investigate contrails in AVHRR satellite images. (orig.) 144 figs., 42 tabs., 497 refs.

  7. Inversion of oceanographic profiling lidars by a perturbation to a linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churnside, James H; Marchbanks, Richard D

    2017-06-20

    We present a simple, robust inversion for airborne oceanographic lidar profiles. A linear regression to the logarithm of the return is followed by a perturbation to obtain a backscatter estimate. For typical thin plankton layer examples, errors are expected to be applied to lidar data off the coast of Florida, where the correlation between lidar backscatter at 5 m and surface chlorophyll concentration from satellite ocean color measurements was 0.92.

  8. Low-Pass Parabolic FFT Filter for Airborne and Satellite Lidar Signal Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Zhongke Jiao; Bo Liu; Enhai Liu; Yongjian Yue

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce random errors of the lidar signal inversion, a low-pass parabolic fast Fourier transform filter (PFFTF) was introduced for noise elimination. A compact airborne Raman lidar system was studied, which applied PFFTF to process lidar signals. Mathematics and simulations of PFFTF along with low pass filters, sliding mean filter (SMF), median filter (MF), empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet transform (WT) were studied, and the practical engineering value of PFFTF for l...

  9. Regularized algorithm for Raman lidar data processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shcherbakov, Valery

    2007-08-01

    A regularized algorithm that has the potential to improve the quality of Raman lidar data processing is presented. Compared to the conventional scheme, the proposed algorithm has the advantage, which results from the fact that it is based on a well-posed procedure. That is, the profile of the aerosol backscatter coefficient is computed directly, using the explicit relationships, without numerical differentiation. Thereafter, the profile of the lidar ratio is retrieved as a regularized solution of a first-kind Volterra integral equation. Once these two steps have been completed, the profile of the aerosol extinction coefficient is computed by a straightforward multiplication. The numerical simulations demonstrated that the proposed algorithm provides good accuracy and resolution of aerosol profile retrievals. The error analysis showed that the retrieved profiles are continuous functions of the measurement errors and of the a priori information uncertainties.

  10. Lidar User’s Manual

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Lance William

    2011-01-01

    This is intended to be a user’s manual for the upgraded USU Rayleigh lidar. As such, it begins with a discussion of the purpose of a lidar. This is followed by a brief explanation of the fundamentals of Rayleigh scatter lidar. Next the reasons for and benefits of upgrading the lidar are discussed and as well as how the upgrade was accomplished. After establishing this basis, instructions are provided for operating the lidar, performing basic maintenance, and aligning various components.

  11. Lidar profilers in the context of wind energy–a verification procedure for traceable measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottschall, Julia; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    2012-01-01

    a repeatable test. Second, a linear regression is applied to the data for each height. The third step is a bin-average analysis of the lidar error, i.e. the difference between the lidar and reference measurements, forming the basis for the ensuing uncertainty estimation. The results of the verification test...

  12. Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, R. K. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Shippert, T. R. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Wind speed and direction, together with pressure, temperature, and relative humidity, are the most fundamental atmospheric state parameters. Accurate measurement of these parameters is crucial for numerical weather prediction. Vertically resolved wind measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer are particularly important for modeling pollutant and aerosol transport. Raw data from a scanning coherent Doppler lidar system can be processed to generate accurate height-resolved measurements of wind speed and direction in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  13. Using lidar to characterize particles from point and diffuse sources in an agricultural field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides the means to quantitatively evaluate the spatial and temporal variability of particulate emissions from agricultural activities. Aglite is a three-wavelength portable scanning lidar system built at the Energy Dynamics Laboratory (EDL) to measure the spati...

  14. Lidar and airborne investigation of smoke plume characteristics: Kootenai Creek Fire case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Urbanski; V. Kovalev; W. M. Hao; C. Wold; A. Petkov

    2010-01-01

    A ground-based scanning lidar was utilized with a set of airborne instruments to acquire measurements of smoke plume dynamics, smoke aerosol distribution and chemical composition in the vicinity of active wildfires in the western U.S. A new retrieval technique was used for processing lidar multiangle measurements. The technique determines the location of...

  15. Essentials of LIDAR multiangle data processing methodology for smoke polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. A. Kovalev; A. Petkov; C. Wold; S. Urbanski; W. M. Hao

    2009-01-01

    Mobile scanning lidar is the most appropriate tool for monitoring wildfire smoke-plume dynamics and optical properties. Lidar is the only remote sensing instrument capable of obtaining detailed three-dimensional range-resolved information for smoke distributions and optical properties over ranges of 10+ km at different wavelengths simultaneously.

  16. Mapping above- and below-ground carbon pools in boreal forests: The case for airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terje Kristensen; Erik Naesset; Mikael Ohlson; Paul V. Bolstad; Randall. Kolka

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of evidence has demonstrated that airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) systems can be an effective tool in measuring and monitoring above-ground forest tree biomass. However, the potential of lidar as an all-round tool for assisting in assessment of carbon (C) stocks in soil and non-tree vegetation components of the forest...

  17. Comparison of 3D turbulence measurements using three staring wind lidars and a sonic anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Cariou, J.-P.; Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Three pulsed lidars were used in staring, non-scanning mode, placed so that their beams crossed close to a 3D sonic anemometer. The goal is to compare lidar volume averaged wind measurement with point measurement reference sensors and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D turbulence...

  18. Three-dimensional canopy fuel loading predicted using upward and downward sensing LiDAR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas S. Skowronski; Kenneth L. Clark; Matthew Duveneck; John. Hom

    2011-01-01

    We calibrated upward sensing profiling and downward sensing scanning LiDAR systems to estimates of canopy fuel loading developed from field plots and allometric equations, and then used the LiDAR datasets to predict canopy bulk density (CBD) and crown fuel weight (CFW) in wildfire prone stands in the New Jersey Pinelands. LiDAR-derived height profiles were also...

  19. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  20. Measurement Error in Atomic-Scale Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy—Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) Mapping of a Model Oxide Interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spurgeon, Steven R.; Du, Yingge; Chambers, Scott A.

    2017-04-05

    Abstract

    With the development of affordable aberration correctors, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies of complex interfaces can now be conducted at high spatial resolution at laboratories worldwide. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in particular has grown in popularity, as it enables elemental mapping over a wide range of ionization energies. However, the interpretation of atomically resolved data is greatly complicated by beam–sample interactions that are often overlooked by novice users. Here we describe the practical factors—namely, sample thickness and the choice of ionization edge—that affect the quantification of a model perovskite oxide interface. Our measurements of the same sample, in regions of different thickness, indicate that interface profiles can vary by as much as 2–5 unit cells, depending on the spectral feature. This finding is supported by multislice simulations, which reveal that on-axis maps of even perfectly abrupt interfaces exhibit significant delocalization. Quantification of thicker samples is further complicated by channeling to heavier sites across the interface, as well as an increased signal background. We show that extreme care must be taken to prepare samples to minimize channeling effects and argue that it may not be possible to extract atomically resolved information from many chemical maps.

  1. Measurement Error in Atomic-Scale Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy-Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (STEM-EDS) Mapping of a Model Oxide Interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurgeon, Steven R; Du, Yingge; Chambers, Scott A

    2017-06-01

    With the development of affordable aberration correctors, analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) studies of complex interfaces can now be conducted at high spatial resolution at laboratories worldwide. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) in particular has grown in popularity, as it enables elemental mapping over a wide range of ionization energies. However, the interpretation of atomically resolved data is greatly complicated by beam-sample interactions that are often overlooked by novice users. Here we describe the practical factors-namely, sample thickness and the choice of ionization edge-that affect the quantification of a model perovskite oxide interface. Our measurements of the same sample, in regions of different thickness, indicate that interface profiles can vary by as much as 2-5 unit cells, depending on the spectral feature. This finding is supported by multislice simulations, which reveal that on-axis maps of even perfectly abrupt interfaces exhibit significant delocalization. Quantification of thicker samples is further complicated by channeling to heavier sites across the interface, as well as an increased signal background. We show that extreme care must be taken to prepare samples to minimize channeling effects and argue that it may not be possible to extract atomically resolved information from many chemical maps.

  2. Calibration and Validation of a Detailed Architectural Canopy Model Reconstruction for the Simulation of Synthetic Hemispherical Images and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Bremer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Canopy density measures such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI have become standardized mapping products derived from airborne and terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (aLiDAR and tLiDAR, respectively data. A specific application of LiDAR point clouds is their integration into radiative transfer models (RTM of varying complexity. Using, e.g., ray tracing, this allows flexible simulations of sub-canopy light condition and the simulation of various sensors such as virtual hemispherical images or waveform LiDAR on a virtual forest plot. However, the direct use of LiDAR data in RTMs shows some limitations in the handling of noise, the derivation of surface areas per LiDAR point and the discrimination of solid and porous canopy elements. In order to address these issues, a strategy upgrading tLiDAR and Digital Hemispherical Photographs (DHP into plausible 3D architectural canopy models is suggested. The presented reconstruction workflow creates an almost unbiased virtual 3D representation of branch and leaf surface distributions, minimizing systematic errors due to the object–sensor relationship. The models are calibrated and validated using DHPs. Using the 3D models for simulations, their capabilities for the description of leaf density distributions and the simulation of aLiDAR and DHP signatures are shown. At an experimental test site, the suitability of the models, in order to systematically simulate and evaluate aLiDAR based LAI predictions under various scan settings is proven. This strategy makes it possible to show the importance of laser point sampling density, but also the diversity of scan angles and their quantitative effect onto error margins.

  3. The Lidar Cyclops Syndrome Bypassed: 3D Wind Field Measurements from a Turbine mounted Lidar in combination with a fast CFD solver

    OpenAIRE

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Astrup, Poul; van Dooren, Marijn Floris

    2016-01-01

    Although a single Lidar can scan the line-of-sight projected wind components at multiple points upwind in front of a rotating wind turbine, it is in principle not possible to resolve all three wind components of the wind velocity vectors simultaneously from a single lidar. This is known as the “Lidar Cyclops syndrome” with reference to the one-eyed Cyclops in old Greek mythology. However, by feeding a single lidar’s line-of-sight (LOS) rotor plane scanned wind speeds to a fast CFD solver, it ...

  4. The impact of lidar elevation uncertainty on mapping intertidal habitats on barrier islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Wang, Lei; Borchert, Sinéad M.; Day, Richard H.; Feher, Laura C.; Osland, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    While airborne lidar data have revolutionized the spatial resolution that elevations can be realized, data limitations are often magnified in coastal settings. Researchers have found that airborne lidar can have a vertical error as high as 60 cm in densely vegetated intertidal areas. The uncertainty of digital elevation models is often left unaddressed; however, in low-relief environments, such as barrier islands, centimeter differences in elevation can affect exposure to physically demanding abiotic conditions, which greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. In this study, we used airborne lidar elevation data, in situ elevation observations, lidar metadata, and tide gauge information to delineate low-lying lands and the intertidal wetlands on Dauphin Island, a barrier island along the coast of Alabama, USA. We compared three different elevation error treatments, which included leaving error untreated and treatments that used Monte Carlo simulations to incorporate elevation vertical uncertainty using general information from lidar metadata and site-specific Real-Time Kinematic Global Position System data, respectively. To aid researchers in instances where limited information is available for error propagation, we conducted a sensitivity test to assess the effect of minor changes to error and bias. Treatment of error with site-specific observations produced the fewest omission errors, although the treatment using the lidar metadata had the most well-balanced results. The percent coverage of intertidal wetlands was increased by up to 80% when treating the vertical error of the digital elevation models. Based on the results from the sensitivity analysis, it could be reasonable to use error and positive bias values from literature for similar environments, conditions, and lidar acquisition characteristics in the event that collection of site-specific data is not feasible and information in the lidar metadata is insufficient. The methodology presented in

  5. Development of a Dynamic Lidar Uncertainty Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clifton, Andrew [WindForS; Bonin, Timothy [CIRES/NOAA ESRL; Choukulkar, Aditya [CIRES/NOAA ESRL; Brewer, W. Alan [NOAA ESRL; Delgado, Ruben [University of Maryland Baltimore County

    2017-08-07

    errors in lidar-measured wind speed. The results show how uncertainty varies over time and can be used to help select data with different levels of uncertainty for different applications, for example, low uncertainty data for power performance testing versus all data for plant performance monitoring.

  6. Lidar 2009 - All Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing classified points of all returns. We have 3 classifications Unclassified, Ground, Low points. The average Ground Sample...

  7. LIDAR: Malheur NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — LiDAR has been identified by the Malheur Lake Work Group as critical tool for planning, management, and restoration across the Harney Basin. In particular, this...

  8. 2004 Maine Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata document describes the collection and processing of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data over an area along the coast of Maine. Data was collected...

  9. LIDAR: Malheur NWR

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This project was funded through the Region 1 Inventory and Monitoring Initiative RFP in 2011. LiDAR has been identified by the Malheur Lake Work Group as critical...

  10. 2004 Connecticut Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. Using a combination of laser rangefinding, GPS positioning...

  11. INITIAL TESTS AND ACCURACY ASSESMENT OF A COMPACT MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Julge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning (MLS is a faster and cost-effective alternative to static laser scanning, even though there is a slight trade-off in accuracy. This contribution describes a compact mobile laser scanning system mounted on a vehicle. The technical parameters of the used system components, i.e. a small LIDAR sensor Velodyne VLP-16 and a dual antenna GNSS/INS system Advanced Navigation Spatial Dual, are reviewed, along with the integration of these components for spatial data acquisition. Calculation principles of 3D coordinates from the real-time data of all the involved sensors are discussed. The field tests were carried out in a controlled environment of a parking lot and at different velocities. Experiments were carried out to test the ability of the GNSS/INS system to cope with difficult conditions, e.g. sudden movements due to cornering or swerving. The accuracy of the resulting MLS point cloud is evaluated with respect to high-accuracy static terrestrial laser scanning data. Problems regarding combining LIDAR, GNSS and INS sensors are outlined, as well as the initial accuracy assessments. Initial tests revealed errors related to insufficient quality of inertial data and a need for the trajectory post-processing calculations. Although this study was carried out while the system was mounted on a car, there is potential for operating the system on an unmanned aerial vehicle, all-terrain vehicle or in a backpack mode due to its relatively compact size.

  12. Installation report - Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project.......The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project....

  13. Augmented Reality Based Doppler Lidar Data Visualization: Promises and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, N. W.; Calhoun, R.

    2016-06-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology in which the enables the user to view virtual content as if it existed in real world. We are exploring the possibility of using this technology to view radial velocities or processed wind vectors from a Doppler wind lidar, thus giving the user an ability to see the wind in a literal sense. This approach could find possible applications in aviation safety, atmospheric data visualization as well as in weather education and public outreach. As a proof of concept, we used the lidar data from a recent field campaign and developed a smartphone application to view the lidar scan in augmented reality. In this paper, we give a brief methodology of this feasibility study, present the challenges and promises of using AR technology in conjunction with Doppler wind lidars.

  14. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  15. Development of a High Energy Amplifier for an Airborne Coherent Wind Turbulence Lidar Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The capacity of coherent LIDAR systems to produce a continuous, real-time, 3D scan of wind velocities via detection of backscatter of atmospheric aerosols in...

  16. Hydrographic & Topographic LIDAR Acquisition, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Bathymetric Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  17. Algorithm Development for a Coherent Fiber Lidar as a Wake Vortex Monitoring Sensor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The capacity of coherent Lidar systems to produce a continuous, real-time, 3D scan of wind velocities via detection of backscatter of atmospheric aerosols in...

  18. Airborne LiDAR : a new source of traffic flow data, executive summary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    LiDAR (or airborne laser scanning) systems became a : dominant player in high-precision spatial data : acquisition in the late 90s. This new technology : quickly established itself as the main source of surface : information in commercial mapping,...

  19. Airborne LiDAR : a new source of traffic flow data : executive summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    LiDAR (or airborne laser scanning) systems became a : dominant player in high-precision spatial data : acquisition in the late 90s. This new technology : quickly established itself as the main source of surface : information in commercial mapping,...

  20. 2014 OLC Lidar: Colville, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI, a Quantum Spatial company, has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Colville study area. This study area is...

  1. 2015 OLC Lidar: Okanogan WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Okanogan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  2. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Chelan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Chelan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  3. Sonoma County, CA, 2013 Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sonoma County Vegetation Mapping and LiDAR Consortium retained WSI to provide lidar and Orthophoto data and derived products in Sonoma County, CA. A classified LAS...

  4. 2006 Volusia County, Florida Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is the lidar data for Volusia County, Florida, approximately 1,432 square miles, acquired in early March of 2006. A total of 143 flight lines of Lidar...

  5. 2012 USGS Lidar: Juneau (AK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This task order is for planning, acquisition, processing, and derivative products of LiDAR data to be collected for Juneau, Alaska. LiDAR data, and derivative...

  6. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Uncertain LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    The problem of Model predictive control (MPC) of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) measurements is considered. A nonlinear dynamical model of the wind turbine is obtained. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points, which are determined...... by the effective wind speed on the rotor disc. We take the wind speed as a scheduling variable. The wind speed is measurable ahead of the turbine using LIDARs, therefore, the scheduling variable is known for the entire prediction horizon. By taking the advantage of having future values of the scheduling variable...... on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, the MPC without error compensation and an MPC with re-linearization at each sample point...

  7. Lidar-based mapping of flood control levees in south Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Lim, Samsung; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2016-01-01

    Flood protection in south Louisiana is largely dependent on earthen levees, and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina the state’s levee system has received intense scrutiny. Accurate elevation data along the levees are critical to local levee district managers responsible for monitoring and maintaining the extensive system of non-federal levees in coastal Louisiana. In 2012, high resolution airborne lidar data were acquired over levees in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana, and a mobile terrestrial lidar survey was conducted for selected levee segments using a terrestrial lidar scanner mounted on a truck. The mobile terrestrial lidar data were collected to test the feasibility of using this relatively new technology to map flood control levees and to compare the accuracy of the terrestrial and airborne lidar. Metrics assessing levee geometry derived from the two lidar surveys are also presented as an efficient, comprehensive method to quantify levee height and stability. The vertical root mean square error values of the terrestrial lidar and airborne lidar digital-derived digital terrain models were 0.038 m and 0.055 m, respectively. The comparison of levee metrics derived from the airborne and terrestrial lidar-based digital terrain models showed that both types of lidar yielded similar results, indicating that either or both surveying techniques could be used to monitor geomorphic change over time. Because airborne lidar is costly, many parts of the USA and other countries have never been mapped with airborne lidar, and repeat surveys are often not available for change detection studies. Terrestrial lidar provides a practical option for conducting repeat surveys of levees and other terrain features that cover a relatively small area, such as eroding cliffs or stream banks, and dunes.

  8. Windscanner: 3-D wind and turbulence measurements from three steerable doppler lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben; Mann, Jakob; Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    of the turbine, 2) near the turbine, and 3) in the wakes of the turbine rotors. Our first proto-type Windscanner is now being built from three commercially available Continuous Wave (CW) wind lidars modified with fast adjustable focus length and equipped with 2-D prism-based scan heads, in conjunction...... with a commercially available pulsed wind lidar for extended vertical profiling range. Design, construction and initial testing of the new 3-D wind lidar scanning facility are described and the functionality of the Windscanner and its potential as a new research facility within the wind energy community is discussed....

  9. Analysis of Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption During the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    measurements showed 1 ppm random errors for 8-10 km altitudes and 30 sec averaging times. For the 2010 ASCENDS campaigns we flew the CO2lidar on the NASA DC-8 and added an 02lidar channel. During July 2010 we made measurements of CO2 and O2 column absorption during longer flights over Railroad Valley NV, the Pacific Ocean and over Lamont OK. CO2 measurements were made with 30 steps/scan, 300 scans/sec and improved line resolution and receiver sensitivity. Analysis of the 2010 CO2 measurements shows the expected linear change of DOD with altitude. For measurements at altitudes> 6 km the random errors were 0.3 ppm for 80 sec averaging times. For the summer 2011 ASCENDS campaigns we made further improvements to the lidar's CO2 line scan and receiver sensitivity. We demonstrated measurements over the California Central Valley, to stratus cloud tops over the Pacific Ocean, over mountain regions with snow, and over several areas with broken clouds. Details of the lidar measurements and their analysis will be described in the presentation.

  10. Cotton phenotyping with lidar from a track-mounted platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew N.; Gore, Michael A.; Thompson, Alison

    2016-05-01

    High-Throughput Phenotyping (HTP) is a discipline for rapidly identifying plant architectural and physiological responses to environmental factors such as heat and water stress. Experiments conducted since 2010 at Maricopa, Arizona with a three-fold sensor group, including thermal infrared radiometers, active visible/near infrared reflectance sensors, and acoustic plant height sensors, have shown the validity of HTP with a tractor-based system. However, results from these experiments also show that accuracy of plant phenotyping is limited by the system's inability to discriminate plant components and their local environmental conditions. This limitation may be overcome with plant imaging and laser scanning which can help map details in plant architecture and sunlit/shaded leaves. To test the capability for mapping cotton plants with a laser system, a track-mounted platform was deployed in 2015 over a full canopy and defoliated cotton crop consisting of a scanning LIDAR driven by Arduinocontrolled stepper motors. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at 0.1 m/s while collecting LIDAR scans at 25 Hz (0.1667 deg. beam). These tests showed that an autonomous LIDAR platform can reduce HTP logistical problems and provide the capability to accurately map cotton plants and cotton bolls. A prototype track-mounted platform was developed to test the use of LIDAR scanning for High- Throughput Phenotyping (HTP). The platform was deployed in 2015 at Maricopa, Arizona over a senescent cotton crop. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at LIDAR scans at 25 Hz (0.1667 deg. beam). Scanning data mapped the canopy heights and widths, and detected cotton bolls.

  11. Alternative method for determining the constant offset in lidar signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, Vladimir A; Wold, Cyle; Petkov, Alexander; Hao, Wei Min

    2009-05-01

    We present an alternative method for determining the total offset in lidar signal created by a daytime background-illumination component and electrical or digital offset. Unlike existing techniques, here the signal square-range-correction procedure is initially performed using the total signal recorded by lidar, without subtraction of the offset component. While performing the square-range correction, the lidar-signal monotonic change due to the molecular component of the atmosphere is simultaneously compensated. After these corrections, the total offset is found by determining the slope of the above transformed signal versus a function that is defined as a ratio of the squared range and two molecular scattering components, the backscatter and transmittance. The slope is determined over a far end of the measurement range where aerosol loading is zero or, at least, minimum. An important aspect of this method is that the presence of a moderate aerosol loading over the far end does not increase dramatically the error in determining the lidar-signal offset. The comparison of the new technique with a conventional technique of the total-offset estimation is made using simulated and experimental data. The one-directional and multiangle measurements are analyzed and specifics in the estimate of the uncertainty limits due to remaining shifts in the inverted lidar signals are discussed. The use of the new technique allows a more accurate estimate of the signal constant offset, and accordingly, yields more accurate lidar-signal inversion results.

  12. Assessing LiDAR elevation data for KDOT applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    LiDAR-based elevation surveys are a cost-effective means for mapping topography over large areas. LiDAR : surveys use an airplane-mounted or ground-based laser radar unit to scan terrain. Post-processing techniques are : applied to remove vegetation ...

  13. Monitoring selective logging in western Amazonia with repeat lidar flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Andersen; S.E. Reutebuch; R.J. McGaughey; M.V.N. d' Oliveira; M. Keller

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the use of repeat flight, airborne laser scanning data (lidar) for estimating changes associated with low-impact selective logging (approx. 10-15 m3 ha−1 = 5-7% of total standing volume harvested) in natural tropical forests in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, we investigated change in area...

  14. Lidar detection of carbon dioxide in volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Maio, Giovanni; Del Franco, Mario; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Volcanic gases give information on magmatic processes. In particular, anomalous releases of carbon dioxide precede volcanic eruptions. Up to now, this gas has been measured in volcanic plumes with conventional measurements that imply the severe risks of local sampling and can last many hours. For these reasons and for the great advantages of laser sensing, the thorough development of volcanic lidar has been undertaken at the Diagnostics and Metrology Laboratory (UTAPRAD-DIM) of the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA). In fact, lidar profiling allows one to scan remotely volcanic plumes in a fast and continuous way, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. Two differential absorption lidar instruments will be presented in this paper: BILLI (BrIdge voLcanic LIdar), based on injection seeded Nd:YAG laser, double grating dye laser, difference frequency mixing (DFM) and optical parametric amplifier (OPA), and VULLI (VULcamed Lidar), based on injection seeded Nd:YAG laser and optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The first one is funded by the ERC (European Research Council) project BRIDGE and the second one by the ERDF (European Regional Development Fund) project VULCAMED. While VULLI has not yet been tested in a volcanic site, BILLI scanned the gas emitted by Pozzuoli Solfatara (Campi Flegrei volcanic area, Naples, Italy) during a field campaign carried out from 13 to 17 October 2014. Carbon dioxide concentration maps were retrieved remotely in few minutes in the crater area. Lidar measurements were in good agreement with well-established techniques, based on different operating principles. To our knowledge, it is the first time that carbon dioxide in a volcanic plume is retrieved by lidar, representing the first direct measurement of this kind ever performed on an active volcano and showing the high potential of laser remote sensing in geophysical research.

  15. Mapping Urban Forest Leaf Area Index Using Lidar: A Comparison of Gap Fraction Inversion and Allometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonzo, M.; Bookhagen, B.; McFadden, J. P.; Sun, A.; Roberts, D. A.

    2014-12-01

    In urban areas leaf area index (LAI) is a key ecosystem structural attribute with implications for energy and water balance, gas exchange, and anthropogenic energy use. Typically, citywide LAI estimates are extrapolated from those made on forest inventory sample plots through intensive crown measurement and allometric scaling. This is a time- and labor-intensive process yielding coarse spatial resolution results. In this study we generate spatially explicit estimates of LAI using high-point density airborne lidar throughout our study area in downtown Santa Barbara, CA. We implement two theoretically distinct modeling approaches. First, based on hemispherical photography at our 71 field plots, we estimate effective LAI using scan-angle corrected lidar laser penetration metrics (LPM). For our second approach, we adapt existing allometric equations for use with a suite of crown structural metrics (e.g., tree height, crown base height) measured with lidar. This approach allows for estimates of LAI to be made at the individual tree crown scale (ITC). This is important for evaluating fine-scale interactions between canopy and urban surfaces. The LPM method resulted in good agreement with field estimates (r2 = 0.80) and a slope of near unity (β = 0.998) using a model that assumed a spherical leaf angle distribution. Within ITC segments that were automatically delineated using watershed segmentation, lidar estimates of crown structure closely paralleled field measurements (r2=0.87 for crown length). LAI estimates based on the lidar structural variables corresponded well with estimates from field measurements (r2 = 0.84). Agreement between the LPM and allometric lidar methods was also strong across the 71 validation plots (r2 = 0.88) and among 450 sample points (r2 = 0.72) randomly distributed throughout the citywide maps. This is notably higher than the agreement between the hemiphoto and allometric ground-based estimates (r2 = 0.56). The allometric approach generally

  16. Lidar-based Research and Innovation at DTU Wind Energy - a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.

    2014-06-01

    As wind turbines during the past decade have increased in size so have the challenges met by the atmospheric boundary-layer meteorologists and the wind energy society to measure and characterize the huge-volume wind fields surpassing and driving them. At the DTU Wind Energy test site "Østerild" for huge wind turbines, the hub-height of a recently installed 8 MW Vestas V164 turbine soars 143 meters up above the ground, and its rotor of amazing 164 meters in diameter make the turbine tips flicker 225 meters into the sky. Following the revolution in photonics-based telecommunication at the turn of the Millennium new fibre-based wind lidar technologies emerged and DTU Wind Energy, at that time embedded within Rise National Laboratory, began in collaboration with researchers from wind lidar companies to measure remote sensed wind profiles and turbulence structures within the atmospheric boundary layer with the emerging, at that time new, all-fibre-based 1.55 μ coherent detection wind lidars. Today, ten years later, DTU Wind Energy routinely deploys ground-based vertical profilers instead of met masts for high-precision measurements of mean wind profiles and turbulence profiles. At the departments test site "Høvsøre" DTU Wind Energy also routinely calibrate and accredit wind lidar manufactures wind lidars. Meanwhile however, new methodologies for power curve assessment based on ground-based and nacelle based lidars have also emerged. For improving the turbines power curve assessments and for advancing their control with feed-forward wind measurements experience has also been gained with wind lidars installed on turbine nacelles and integrated into the turbines rotating spinners. A new mobile research infrastructure WindScanner.dk has also emerged at DTU Wind Energy. Wind and turbulence fields are today scanned from sets of three simultaneously in space and time synchronized scanning lidars. One set consists of three fast scanning continuous-wave based wind lidars

  17. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE): An Airborne Direct Detection Doppler Lidar Instrument Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Bruce; McGill, Matthew; Schwemmer, Geary; Hardesty, Michael; Brewer, Alan; Wilkerson, Thomas; Atlas, Robert; Sirota, Marcos; Lindemann, Scott

    2006-01-01

    Global measurement of tropospheric winds is a key measurement for understanding atmospheric dynamics and improving numerical weather prediction. Global wind profiles remain a high priority for the operational weather community and also for a variety of research applications including studies of the global hydrologic cycle and transport studies of aerosols and trace species. In addition to space based winds, a high altitude airborne system flown on UAV or other advanced platforms would be of great interest for studying mesoscale dynamics and hurricanes. The Tropospheric Wind Lidar Technology Experiment (TWiLiTE) project was selected in 2005 by the NASA Earth Sun Technology Office as part of the Instrument Incubator Program. TWiLiTE will leverage significant research and development investments in key technologies made in the past several years. The primary focus will be on integrating these sub-systems into a complete molecular direct detection Doppler wind lidar system designed for autonomous operation on a high altitude aircraft, such as the NASA WB57, so that the nadir viewing lidar will be able to profile winds through the full troposphere. TWiLiTE is a collaboration involving scientists and technologists from NASA Goddard, NOAA ESRL, Utah State University Space Dynamics Lab and industry partners Michigan Aerospace Corporation and Sigma Space Corporation. NASA Goddard and it's partners have been at the forefront in the development of key lidar technologies (lasers, telescopes, scanning systems, detectors and receivers) required to enable spaceborne global wind lidar measurement. The TWiLiTE integrated airborne Doppler lidar instrument will be the first demonstration of a airborne scanning direct detection Doppler lidar and will serve as a critical milestone on the path to a fixture spaceborne tropospheric wind system. The completed system will have the capability to profile winds in clear air from the aircraft altitude of 18 h to the surface with 250 m vertical

  18. EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 1: Pre-processing of raw lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Giuseppe; Amodeo, Aldo; Mattis, Ina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we describe an automatic tool for the pre-processing of aerosol lidar data called ELPP (EARLINET Lidar Pre-Processor). It is one of two calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC), the automatic tool for the analysis of EARLINET data. ELPP is an open source module that executes instrumental corrections and data handling of the raw lidar signals, making the lidar data ready to be processed by the optical retrieval algorithms. According to the specific lidar configuration, ELPP automatically performs dead-time correction, atmospheric and electronic background subtraction, gluing of lidar signals, and trigger-delay correction. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio of the pre-processed signals can be improved by means of configurable time integration of the raw signals and/or spatial smoothing. ELPP delivers the statistical uncertainties of the final products by means of error propagation or Monte Carlo simulations. During the development of ELPP, particular attention has been payed to make the tool flexible enough to handle all lidar configurations currently used within the EARLINET community. Moreover, it has been designed in a modular way to allow an easy extension to lidar configurations not yet implemented. The primary goal of ELPP is to enable the application of quality-assured procedures in the lidar data analysis starting from the raw lidar data. This provides the added value of full traceability of each delivered lidar product. Several tests have been performed to check the proper functioning of ELPP. The whole SCC has been tested with the same synthetic data sets, which were used for the EARLINET algorithm inter-comparison exercise. ELPP has been successfully employed for the automatic near-real-time pre-processing of the raw lidar data measured during several EARLINET inter-comparison campaigns as well as during intense field campaigns.

  19. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  20. Lidar 2009 - IMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — ESRI Grids 1 meter resolution are created from the ground classified lidar points. The tiles are delivered in 5,000m by 5,000m tiles. The ESRI grids are exported to...

  1. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, M.

    2013-01-15

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report presents four concepts for performing such a nacelle lidar calibration. Of the four methods, two are found to be immediately relevant and are pursued in some detail. The first of these is a line of sight calibration method in which both lines of sight (for a two beam lidar) are individually calibrated by accurately aligning the beam to pass close to a reference wind speed sensor. A testing procedure is presented, reporting requirements outlined and the uncertainty of the method analysed. It is seen that the main limitation of the line of sight calibration method is the time required to obtain a representative distribution of radial wind speeds. An alternative method is to place the nacelle lidar on the ground and incline the beams upwards to bisect a mast equipped with reference instrumentation at a known height and range. This method will be easier and faster to implement and execute but the beam inclination introduces extra uncertainties. A procedure for conducting such a calibration is presented and initial indications of the uncertainties given. A discussion of the merits and weaknesses of the two methods is given together with some proposals for the next important steps to be taken in this work. (Author)

  2. 2004 Alaska Lidar Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data sets are generated using the OPTECH ALTM 70 kHz LIDAR system mounted onboard AeroMap's twin-engine Cessna 320 aircraft. Classified data sets such as this...

  3. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  4. Imaging doppler lidar for wind turbine wake profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, David J.

    2015-11-19

    An imaging Doppler lidar (IDL) enables the measurement of the velocity distribution of a large volume, in parallel, and at high spatial resolution in the wake of a wind turbine. Because the IDL is non-scanning, it can be orders of magnitude faster than conventional coherent lidar approaches. Scattering can be obtained from naturally occurring aerosol particles. Furthermore, the wind velocity can be measured directly from Doppler shifts of the laser light, so the measurement can be accomplished at large standoff and at wide fields-of-view.

  5. Lidar Measurements of Ozone in the Upper Troposphere – Lower Stratosphere at Siberian Lidar Station in Tomsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanovskii O. A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of DIAL measurements of the vertical ozone distribution at the Siberian lidar station. Sensing is performed according to the method of differential absorption and scattering at wavelength pair of 299/341 nm, which are, respectively, the first and second Stokes components of SRS conversion of 4th harmonic of Nd:YAG laser (266 nm in hydrogen. Lidar with receiving mirror 0.5 m in diameter is used to implement sensing of vertical ozone distribution in altitude range of 6-16 km. The temperature correction of zone absorption coefficients is introduced in the software to reduce the retrieval errors.

  6. 2006 MDEQ Camp Shelby, MS Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the acquisition and processing of bare earth lidar data, raw point cloud lidar data, lidar intensity data, and floodmap breaklines...

  7. Change Detection from differential airborne LiDAR using a weighted Anisotropic Iterative Closest Point Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Kusari, A.; Glennie, C. L.; Oskin, M. E.; Hinojosa-Corona, A.; Borsa, A. A.; Arrowsmith, R.

    2013-12-01

    Differential LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) from repeated surveys has recently emerged as an effective tool to measure three-dimensional (3D) change for applications such as quantifying slip and spatially distributed warping associated with earthquake ruptures, and examining the spatial distribution of beach erosion after hurricane impact. Currently, the primary method for determining 3D change is through the use of the iterative closest point (ICP) algorithm and its variants. However, all current studies using ICP have assumed that all LiDAR points in the compared point clouds have uniform accuracy. This assumption is simplistic given that the error for each LiDAR point is variable, and dependent upon highly variable factors such as target range, angle of incidence, and aircraft trajectory accuracy. Therefore, to rigorously determine spatial change, it would be ideal to model the random error for every LiDAR observation in the differential point cloud, and use these error estimates as apriori weights in the ICP algorithm. To test this approach, we implemented a rigorous LiDAR observation error propagation method to generate estimated random error for each point in a LiDAR point cloud, and then determine 3D displacements between two point clouds using an anistropic weighted ICP algorithm. The algorithm was evaluated by qualitatively and quantitatively comparing post earthquake slip estimates from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah Earthquake between a uniform weight and anistropically weighted ICP algorithm, using pre-event LiDAR collected in 2006 by Instituto Nacional de Estadística y Geografía (INEGI), and post-event LiDAR collected by The National Center for Airborne Laser Mapping (NCALM).

  8. Assessing the performance of the GEDI spaceborne lidar instrument using a waveform lidar simulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, S.; Tang, H.; Blair, J. B.; Dubayah, R.; Armston, J.; Sun, X.; Hofton, M. A.; Duncanson, L.; Kellner, J. R.; Marselis, S.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics mission will mount a multi-track, full-waveform lidar on the International Space Station optimised for the measurement of forest canopy height and structure. Data from GEDI will be used to produce maps of biomass, canopy height, vegetation structure and other biophysical parameters. Simulations of GEDI signals from airborne laser scanning (ALS) and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) are being used to inform instrument development and to calibrate data product algorithms prior to launch. The GEDI simulator, capable of simulating any large-footprint lidar signal from ALS or TLS data, is presented and validated against waveform data from the Laser Vegetation and Ice Sensor (LVIS). data. We show that the simulator accurately reproduces large-footprint lidar wavefoms over a range of forest types, heights, canopy covers and slopes and correctly represents instrument noise. Our validation of the simulator performance shows that it can be used to investigate GEDI algorithm behaviour and to calibrate the empirical relationships required for biomass. In particular we assess ground finding accuracy, upon which all products derived from GEDI depend, across a large ALS database covering all conditions likely to be encountered by GEDI. We confirm that ground finding accuracy depends only on canopy cover, slope and signal to noise ratio. A novel ground finding method which avoids outliers that may skew product values, is presented and tested with the simulator. Lastly, simulator results are combined with global maps of estimated canopy cover to predict the likely instrument performance in different regions of the world.

  9. Medication Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for You Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Medical Errors and Patient Safety Centers for Disease Control and ... Quality Chasm Series National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & ...

  10. Error Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Li, Z.

    2001-01-01

    In coding theory the problem of decoding focuses on error vectors. In the simplest situation code words are $(0,1)$-vectors, as are the received messages and the error vectors. Comparison of a received word with the code words yields a set of error vectors. In deciding on the original code word,

  11. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  12. Rectangular Relief Diffraction Gratings for Coherent Lidar Beam Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, H. J.; Dixit, S. N.; Shore, B. W.; Chambers, D. M.; Britten, J. A.; Kavaya, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    LIDAR systems require a light transmitting system for sending a laser light pulse into space and a receiving system for collecting the retro-scattered light, separating it from the outgoing beam and analyzing the received signal for calculating wind velocities. Currently, a shuttle manifested coherent LIDAR experiment called SPARCLE (SPAce Readiness Coherent Lidar Experiment) includes a silicon wedge (or prism) in its design in order to deflect the outgoing beam 30 degrees relative to the incident direction. The intent of this paper is to present two optical design approaches that may enable the replacement of the optical wedge component (in future, larger aperture, post-SPARCLE missions) with a surface relief transmission diffraction grating. Such a grating could be etched into a lightweight, flat, fused quartz substrate. The potential advantages of a diffractive beam deflector include reduced weight, reduced power requirements for the driving scanning motor, reduced optical sensitivity to thermal gradients, and increased dynamic stability.

  13. Mapping Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Pools in Boreal Forests: The Case for Airborne Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Terje; Næsset, Erik; Ohlson, Mikael; Bolstad, Paul V; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of evidence has demonstrated that airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) systems can be an effective tool in measuring and monitoring above-ground forest tree biomass. However, the potential of lidar as an all-round tool for assisting in assessment of carbon (C) stocks in soil and non-tree vegetation components of the forest ecosystem has been given much less attention. Here we combine the use airborne small footprint scanning lidar with fine-scale spatial C data relating to vegetation and the soil surface to describe and contrast the size and spatial distribution of C pools within and among multilayered Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands. Predictor variables from lidar derived metrics delivered precise models of above- and below-ground tree C, which comprised the largest C pool in our study stands. We also found evidence that lidar canopy data correlated well with the variation in field layer C stock, consisting mainly of ericaceous dwarf shrubs and herbaceous plants. However, lidar metrics derived directly from understory echoes did not yield significant models. Furthermore, our results indicate that the variation in both the mosses and soil organic layer C stock plots appears less influenced by differences in stand structure properties than topographical gradients. By using topographical models from lidar ground returns we were able to establish a strong correlation between lidar data and the organic layer C stock at a stand level. Increasing the topographical resolution from plot averages (~2000 m2) towards individual grid cells (1 m2) did not yield consistent models. Our study demonstrates a connection between the size and distribution of different forest C pools and models derived from airborne lidar data, providing a foundation for future research concerning the use of lidar for assessing and monitoring boreal forest C.

  14. Mapping Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Pools in Boreal Forests: The Case for Airborne Lidar.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terje Kristensen

    Full Text Available A large and growing body of evidence has demonstrated that airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar systems can be an effective tool in measuring and monitoring above-ground forest tree biomass. However, the potential of lidar as an all-round tool for assisting in assessment of carbon (C stocks in soil and non-tree vegetation components of the forest ecosystem has been given much less attention. Here we combine the use airborne small footprint scanning lidar with fine-scale spatial C data relating to vegetation and the soil surface to describe and contrast the size and spatial distribution of C pools within and among multilayered Norway spruce (Picea abies stands. Predictor variables from lidar derived metrics delivered precise models of above- and below-ground tree C, which comprised the largest C pool in our study stands. We also found evidence that lidar canopy data correlated well with the variation in field layer C stock, consisting mainly of ericaceous dwarf shrubs and herbaceous plants. However, lidar metrics derived directly from understory echoes did not yield significant models. Furthermore, our results indicate that the variation in both the mosses and soil organic layer C stock plots appears less influenced by differences in stand structure properties than topographical gradients. By using topographical models from lidar ground returns we were able to establish a strong correlation between lidar data and the organic layer C stock at a stand level. Increasing the topographical resolution from plot averages (~2000 m2 towards individual grid cells (1 m2 did not yield consistent models. Our study demonstrates a connection between the size and distribution of different forest C pools and models derived from airborne lidar data, providing a foundation for future research concerning the use of lidar for assessing and monitoring boreal forest C.

  15. Improved CO [lidar detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, P.L.; Busch, G.E.; Thompson, D.C.; Remelius, D.K.; Wells, F.D.

    1999-07-18

    A high sensitivity, CO{sub 2} lidar detector, based on recent advances in ultra-low noise, readout integrated circuits (ROIC), is being developed. This detector will combine a high speed, low noise focal plane array (FPA) with a dispersive grating spectrometer. The spectrometer will filter the large background flux, thereby reducing the limiting background photon shot noise. In order to achieve the desired low noise levels, the HgCdTe FPA will be cooled to {approximately}50K. High speed, short pulse operation of the lidar system should enable the detector to operate with the order of a few noise electrons in the combined detector/ ROIC output. Current receiver design concepts will be presented, along with their expected noise performance.

  16. Innovative fiber-laser architecture-based compact wind lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Tracy, Allen; Vetorino, Steve; Higgins, Richard; Sibell, Russ

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes an innovative, compact and eyesafe coherent lidar system developed for use in wind and wake vortex sensing applications. This advanced lidar system is field ruggedized with reduced size, weight, and power consumption (SWaP) configured based on an all-fiber and modular architecture. The all-fiber architecture is developed using a fiber seed laser that is coupled to uniquely configured fiber amplifier modules and associated photonic elements including an integrated 3D scanner. The scanner provides user programmable continuous 360 degree azimuth and 180 degree elevation scan angles. The system architecture eliminates free-space beam alignment issues and allows plug and play operation using graphical user interface software modules. Besides its all fiber architecture, the lidar system also provides pulsewidth agility to aid in improving range resolution. Operating at 1.54 microns and with a PRF of up to 20 KHz, the wind lidar is air cooled with overall dimensions of 30" x 46" x 60" and is designed as a Class 1 system. This lidar is capable of measuring wind velocities greater than 120 +/- 0.2 m/s over ranges greater than 10 km and with a range resolution of less than 15 m. This compact and modular system is anticipated to provide mobility, reliability, and ease of field deployment for wind and wake vortex measurements. The current lidar architecture is amenable for trace gas sensing and as such it is being evolved for airborne and space based platforms. In this paper, the key features of wind lidar instrumentation and its functionality are discussed followed by results of recent wind forecast measurements on a wind farm.

  17. An Inter-Comparison Study of Multi- and DBS Lidar Measurements in Complex Terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Pauscher

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Wind measurements using classical profiling lidars suffer from systematic measurement errors in complex terrain. Moreover, their ability to measure turbulence quantities is unsatisfactory for wind-energy applications. This paper presents results from a measurement campaign during which multiple WindScanners were focused on one point next to a reference mast in complex terrain. This multi-lidar (ML technique is also compared to a profiling lidar using the Doppler beam swinging (DBS method. First- and second-order statistics of the radial wind velocities from the individual instruments and the horizontal wind components of several ML combinations are analysed in comparison to sonic anemometry and DBS measurements. The results for the wind speed show significantly reduced scatter and directional error for the ML method in comparison to the DBS lidar. The analysis of the second-order statistics also reveals a significantly better correlation for the ML technique than for the DBS lidar, when compared to the sonic. However, the probe volume averaging of the lidars leads to an attenuation of the turbulence at high wave numbers. Also the configuration (i.e., angles of the WindScanners in the ML method seems to be more important for turbulence measurements. In summary, the results clearly show the advantages of the ML technique in complex terrain and indicate that it has the potential to achieve significantly higher accuracy in measuring turbulence quantities for wind-energy applications than classical profiling lidars.

  18. Statistical correction of lidar-derived digital elevation models with multispectral airborne imagery in tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) is a valuable tool for collecting large amounts of elevation data across large areas; however, the limited ability to penetrate dense vegetation with lidar hinders its usefulness for measuring tidal marsh platforms. Methods to correct lidar elevation data are available, but a reliable method that requires limited field work and maintains spatial resolution is lacking. We present a novel method, the Lidar Elevation Adjustment with NDVI (LEAN), to correct lidar digital elevation models (DEMs) with vegetation indices from readily available multispectral airborne imagery (NAIP) and RTK-GPS surveys. Using 17 study sites along the Pacific coast of the U.S., we achieved an average root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.072 m, with a 40–75% improvement in accuracy from the lidar bare earth DEM. Results from our method compared favorably with results from three other methods (minimum-bin gridding, mean error correction, and vegetation correction factors), and a power analysis applying our extensive RTK-GPS dataset showed that on average 118 points were necessary to calibrate a site-specific correction model for tidal marshes along the Pacific coast. By using available imagery and with minimal field surveys, we showed that lidar-derived DEMs can be adjusted for greater accuracy while maintaining high (1 m) resolution.

  19. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Gregorio

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R2 > 0.85 were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift.

  20. LIDAR wind speed measurements at a Taiwan onshore wind park

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Lin, Ta-Hui; Hsuan, Chung-Yao; Li, Yu-Cheng; Yang, Ya-Fei; Tai, Tzy-Hwan; Huang, Chien-Cheng

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of wind speed and wind direction were carried out using a Leosphere Windcube LIDAR system at a Taiwan onshore wind park. The Lidar shot a total of five laser beams to the atmosphere to collect the light-of-sight (LOS) velocity. Four beams were sent successively in four cardinal directions along a 28° scanning cone angle, followed by a fifth, vertical beam. An unchangeable sampling rate of approximately 1.2 Hz was set in the LIDAR system to collect the LOS velocity. The supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data from two GE 1.5 MW wind turbines near the LIDAR deployment site were acquired for the whole measuring period from February 4 to February 16 of 2015. The SCADA data include the blade angular velocity, the wind velocity measured at hub height from an anemometer mounted on the nacelle, the wind turbine yaw angle, and power production; each parameter was recorded as averages over 1-min periods. The data analysis involving the LIDAR measurements and the SCADA data were performed to obtain the turbulent flow statistics. The results show that the turbine power production has significant dependence to the wind speed, wind direction, turbulence intensity and wind shear.

  1. Impacts of Tree Height-Dbh Allometry on Lidar-Based Tree Aboveground Biomass Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, R.

    2016-06-01

    Lidar has been widely used in tree aboveground biomass (AGB) estimation at plot or stand levels. Lidar-based AGB models are usually constructed with the ground AGB reference as the response variable and lidar canopy indices as predictor variables. Tree diameter at breast height (dbh) is the major variable of most allometric models for estimating reference AGB. However, lidar measurements are mainly related to tree vertical structure. Therefore, tree height-dbh allometric model residuals are expected to have a large impact on lidar-based AGB model performance. This study attempts to investigate sensitivity of lidar-based AGB model to the decreasing strength of height-dbh relationship using a Monte Carlo simulation approach. Striking decrease in R2 and increase in relative RMSE were found in lidar-based AGB model, as the variance of height-dbh model residuals grew. I, therefore, concluded that individual tree height-dbh model residuals fundamentally introduce errors to lidar-AGB models.

  2. Optimization of eyesafe avalanche photodiode lidar for automobile safety and autonomous navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George M.

    2017-03-01

    Newly emerging accident-reducing, driver-assistance, and autonomous-navigation technology for automobiles is based on real-time three-dimensional mapping and object detection, tracking, and classification using lidar sensors. Yet, the lack of lidar sensors suitable for meeting application requirements appreciably limits practical widespread use of lidar in trucking, public livery, consumer cars, and fleet automobiles. To address this need, a system-engineering perspective to eyesafe lidar-system design for high-level advanced driver-assistance sensor systems and a design trade study including 1.5-μm spot-scanned, line-scanned, and flash-lidar systems are presented. A cost-effective lidar instrument design is then proposed based on high-repetition-rate diode-pumped solid-state lasers and high-gain, low-excess-noise InGaAs avalanche photodiode receivers and focal plane arrays. Using probabilistic receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, derived from measured component performance, a compact lidar system is proposed that is capable of 220 m ranging with 5-cm accuracy, which can be readily scaled to a 360-deg field of regard.

  3. Remote sensing of Sonoran Desert vegetation structure and phenology with ground-based LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Duran, Cesar M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  4. Lidar measurements of cloud extinction coefficient distribution and its forward scattering phase function according to multiply scattered lidar returns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jinhuan; Huang, Qirong

    1992-01-01

    The study of the inversion algorithm for the single scatter lidar equation, for quantitative determination of cloud (or aerosol) optical properties, has received much attention over the last thirty years. Some of the difficulties associated with the solution of this equation are not yet solved. One problem is that a single scatter lidar equation has two unknowns. Because of this, the determination of the far-end boundary value, in the case of Klett's algorithm, is a problem if the atmosphere is optically inhomogeneous. Another difficulty concerns multiple scattering. There is a large error in the extinction distribution solution, in many cases, if only the single scattering component is considered, while neglecting the multiple scattering component. However, the use of multiple scattering in the remote sensing of aerosol or cloud optical properties is promising. In our early study, an inversion method for simultaneous determination of the cloud (or aerosol) Extinction Coefficient Distribution (ECD) and its Forward Scattering Phase Function (FSPF) was proposed according to multiply scattered lidar returns with two fields of view for the receiver. The method is based on a parameterized multiple scatter lidar equation. This paper is devoted to further numerical tests and an experimental study of lidar measurements of cloud ECD and FSPF using this method.

  5. Application of short-range dual-Doppler lidars to evaluate the coherence of turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheynet, Etienne; Jakobsen, Jasna Bogunović; Snæbjörnsson, Jónas

    2016-01-01

    Two synchronized continuous wave scanning lidars are used to study the coherence of the along-wind and across-wind velocity components. The goal is to evaluate the potential of the lidar technology for application in wind engineering. The wind lidars were installed on the Lysefjord Bridge during ...... the integral length scales, which could not be explained by the laser beam averaging effect alone. On the other hand, the spatial averaging effect does not seem to have any significant effect on the coherence....

  6. Development of State of the Art Solid State Lasers for Altimetry and other LIDAR Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Richard B.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes work performed and research accomplished through the end of 1997. During this time period, we have designed and fabricated two lasers for flight LIDAR applications to medium altitudes (Laser Vegetation Imaging System designs LVIS 1 and LVIS 2), designed one earth orbiting LIDAR transmitter (VCL-Alt), and continued work on a high rep-rate LIDAR laser (Raster Scanned Altimeter, RASCAL). Additionally, a 'White Paper' was prepared which evaluates the current state of the art of Nd:YAG lasers and projects efficiencies to the year 2004. This report is attached as Appendix 1 of this report.

  7. Stationary LiDAR for traffic and safety applications - vehicles interpretation and tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the T-Scan project is to develop a data processing module for a novel LiDAR-based traffic scanner to collect highly accurate microscopic traffic data at road intersections. : T-Scan uses Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology that...

  8. Collection, Processing, and Accuracy of Mobile Terrestrial Lidar Survey Data in the Coastal Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    with the scanner pointed orthogonally off the passenger side and scanning offshore (Figure 3, A). The radar system is also operated while lidar...scanning. The concept of operations (CONOPS) for the radar system and the accompanying data will be covered in a separate report. After the offshore...3 2.2 Operational procedures

  9. Lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) Remote Measurements of STS-3 Ground Cloud Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-04-01

    mobile Uidar test bed can successfully track ground clouds from an observation point greater than 7 kilometers distant and acquire cloud main body and...complex distribution of H20, HCL, A1 203 and Al Cl 3 . Aging of the cloud is subject to particle settling, chemical recomposition , growth, evaporative 11...reconstructed from the video recording of the launch. At this time the main body of the expanding cloud was beneath the lidar scan and the first lidar

  10. LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Koenig, Kristina; Griesbaum, Luisa; Kiefer, Andreas; Hämmerle, Martin; Eitel, Jan; Koma, Zsófia

    2015-04-01

    Our physical environment undergoes constant changes in space and time with strongly varying triggers, frequencies, and magnitudes. Monitoring these environmental changes is crucial to improve our scientific understanding of complex human-environmental interactions and helps us to respond to environmental change by adaptation or mitigation. The three-dimensional (3D) description of the Earth surface features and the detailed monitoring of surface processes using 3D spatial data have gained increasing attention within the last decades, such as in climate change research (e.g., glacier retreat), carbon sequestration (e.g., forest biomass monitoring), precision agriculture and natural hazard management. In all those areas, 3D data have helped to improve our process understanding by allowing quantifying the structural properties of earth surface features and their changes over time. This advancement has been fostered by technological developments and increased availability of 3D sensing systems. In particular, LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technology, also referred to as laser scanning, has made significant progress and has evolved into an operational tool in environmental research and geosciences. The main result of LiDAR measurements is a highly spatially resolved 3D point cloud. Each point within the LiDAR point cloud has a XYZ coordinate associated with it and often additional information such as the strength of the returned backscatter. The point cloud provided by LiDAR contains rich geospatial, structural, and potentially biochemical information about the surveyed objects. To deal with the inherently unorganized datasets and the large data volume (frequently millions of XYZ coordinates) of LiDAR datasets, a multitude of algorithms for automatic 3D object detection (e.g., of single trees) and physical surface description (e.g., biomass) have been developed. However, so far the exchange of datasets and approaches (i.e., extraction algorithms) among LiDAR users

  11. Polarization properties of receiving telescopes in atmospheric remote sensing polarization lidars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Liu, Dong; Huang, Zihao; Wang, Binyu; Bai, Jian; Cheng, Zhongtao; Zhang, Yupeng; Tang, Peijun; Yang, Liming; Su, Lin

    2017-08-20

    A receiving telescope is an indispensable component in an atmospheric remote sensing polarization lidar. In order to achieve accurate atmospheric depolarization measurements, it is necessary to study the polarization properties of receiving telescopes, which are embodied by their Mueller matrices. In this paper, the Mueller matrices of receiving telescopes are obtained by ray tracing with space vectors. The relationship between the measurement errors of the atmospheric depolarization parameter and the elements of the Mueller matrix of receiving telescopes is derived. The polarization properties of receiving telescopes in terms of orientation, field of view, and F number are analyzed, respectively. By comparing two common receiving telescopes in linear and circular polarization lidars, it is found that the measurement errors caused by the Newton telescopes in circular polarization lidars are significantly greater than those in linear polarization lidars, while the performances of the Cassegrain telescopes in the two lidars are almost identical. What is more, the measurement errors caused by the Cassegrain telescopes are much less than the counterparts caused by the Newton telescopes. According to the comparison results, the optimal telescopes are respectively presented for polarization lidars working in different polarization states and laser wavelengths.

  12. Three-beam aerosol backscatter correlation lidar for wind profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Radhakrishnan Mylapore, Anand

    2017-03-01

    The development of a three-beam aerosol backscatter correlation (ABC) light detection and ranging (lidar) to measure wind characteristics for wake vortex and plume tracking applications is discussed. This is a direct detection elastic lidar that uses three laser transceivers, operating at 1030-nm wavelength with ˜10-kHz pulse repetition frequency and nanosec class pulse widths, to directly obtain three components of wind velocities. By tracking the motion of aerosol structures along and between three near-parallel laser beams, three-component wind speed profiles along the field-of-view of laser beams are obtained. With three 8-in. transceiver modules, placed in a near-parallel configuration on a two-axis pan-tilt scanner, the lidar measures wind speeds up to 2 km away. Optical flow algorithms have been adapted to obtain the movement of aerosol structures between the beams. Aerosol density fluctuations are cross-correlated between successive scans to obtain the displacements of the aerosol features along the three axes. Using the range resolved elastic backscatter data from each laser beam, which is scanned over the volume of interest, a three-dimensional map of aerosol density can be generated in a short time span. The performance of the ABC wind lidar prototype, validated using sonic anemometer measurements, is discussed.

  13. 2006 Fulton County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of Fulton County. The Fulton County LiDAR Survey project area consists of approximately 690.5 square...

  14. REGISTRATION WITH ARCHIVED LIDAR DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. L. Y. Magtalas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Georeferencing gathered images is a common step before performing spatial analysis and other processes on acquired datasets using unmanned aerial systems (UAS. Methods of applying spatial information to aerial images or their derivatives is through onboard GPS (Global Positioning Systems geotagging, or through tying of models through GCPs (Ground Control Points acquired in the field. Currently, UAS (Unmanned Aerial System derivatives are limited to meter-levels of accuracy when their generation is unaided with points of known position on the ground. The use of ground control points established using survey-grade GPS or GNSS receivers can greatly reduce model errors to centimeter levels. However, this comes with additional costs not only with instrument acquisition and survey operations, but also in actual time spent in the field. This study uses a workflow for cloud-based post-processing of UAS data in combination with already existing LiDAR data. The georeferencing of the UAV point cloud is executed using the Iterative Closest Point algorithm (ICP. It is applied through the open-source CloudCompare software (Girardeau-Montaut, 2006 on a ‘skeleton point cloud’. This skeleton point cloud consists of manually extracted features consistent on both LiDAR and UAV data. For this cloud, roads and buildings with minimal deviations given their differing dates of acquisition are considered consistent. Transformation parameters are computed for the skeleton cloud which could then be applied to the whole UAS dataset. In addition, a separate cloud consisting of non-vegetation features automatically derived using CANUPO classification algorithm (Brodu and Lague, 2012 was used to generate a separate set of parameters. Ground survey is done to validate the transformed cloud. An RMSE value of around 16 centimeters was found when comparing validation data to the models georeferenced using the CANUPO cloud and the manual skeleton cloud. Cloud-to-cloud distance

  15. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  16. Medical error

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QuickSilver

    Studies in the USA have shown that medical error is the 8th most common cause of death.2,3. The most common causes of medical error are:- administration of the wrong medication or wrong dose of the correct medication, using the wrong route of administration, giving a treatment to the wrong patient or at the wrong time.4 ...

  17. LiDAR point classification based on sparse representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Nan; Pfeifer, Norbert; Liu, Chun

    2017-04-01

    other classed should be nearly zero. Therefore, SRC use the reconstruction error associated with each class to do data classification. A section of airborne LiDAR points of Vienna city is used and classified into 6classes: ground, roofs, vegetation, covered ground, walls and other points. Only 6 training samples from each class are taken. For the final classification result, ground and covered ground are merged into one same class(ground). The classification accuracy for ground is 94.60%, roof is 95.47%, vegetation is 85.55%, wall is 76.17%, other object is 20.39%.

  18. Tree Species Detection Accuracies Using Discrete Point Lidar and Airborne Waveform Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric C. Turnblom

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Species information is a key component of any forest inventory. However, when performing forest inventory from aerial scanning Lidar data, species classification can be very difficult. We investigated changes in classification accuracy while identifying five individual tree species (Douglas-fir, western redcedar, bigleaf maple, red alder, and black cottonwood in the Pacific Northwest United States using two data sets: discrete point Lidar data alone and discrete point data in combination with waveform Lidar data. Waveform information included variables which summarize the frequency domain representation of all waveforms crossing individual trees. Discrete point data alone provided 79.2 percent overall accuracy (kappa = 0.74 for all 5 species and up to 97.8 percent (kappa = 0.96 when comparing individual pairs of these 5 species. Incorporating waveform information improved the overall accuracy to 85.4 percent (kappa = 0.817 for five species, and in several two-species comparisons. Improvements were most notable in comparing the two conifer species and in comparing two of the three hardwood species.

  19. Further Studies of Forest Structure Parameter Retrievals Using the Echidna® Ground-Based Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Yang, X.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Li, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.; Culvenor, D.; Jupp, D.; Newnham, G.; Lovell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Ongoing work with the Echidna® Validation Instrument (EVI), a full-waveform, ground-based scanning lidar (1064 nm) developed by Australia's CSIRO and deployed by Boston University in California conifers (2008) and New England hardwood and softwood (conifer) stands (2007, 2009, 2010), confirms the importance of slope correction in forest structural parameter retrieval; detects growth and disturbance over periods of 2-3 years; provides a new way to measure the between-crown clumping factor in leaf area index retrieval using lidar range; and retrieves foliage profiles with more lower-canopy detail than a large-footprint aircraft scanner (LVIS), while simulating LVIS foliage profiles accurately from a nadir viewpoint using a 3-D point cloud. Slope correction is important for accurate retrieval of forest canopy structural parameters, such as mean diameter at breast height (DBH), stem count density, basal area, and above-ground biomass. Topographic slope can induce errors in parameter retrievals because the horizontal plane of the instrument scan, which is used to identify, measure, and count tree trunks, will intersect trunks below breast height in the uphill direction and above breast height in the downhill direction. A test of three methods at southern Sierra Nevada conifer sites improved the range of correlations of these EVI-retrieved parameters with field measurements from 0.53-0.68 to 0.85-0.93 for the best method. EVI scans can detect change, including both growth and disturbance, in periods of two to three years. We revisited three New England forest sites scanned in 2007-2009 or 2007-2010. A shelterwood stand at the Howland Experimental Forest, Howland, Maine, showed increased mean DBH, above-ground biomass and leaf area index between 2007 and 2009. Two stands at the Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts, suffered reduced leaf area index and reduced stem count density as the result of an ice storm that damaged the stands. At one stand, broken tops were

  20. Three-dimensional lidar point-cloud visualization and analysis of coseismic deformation using LidarViewer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskin, M. E.; Kreylos, O.; Banesh, D.; Hamann, B.; Gold, P. O.; Elliott, A. J.; Hinojosa, A.; Kellogg, L. H.

    2012-12-01

    We summarize new point-cloud analysis techniques, and results obtained from lidar data collected from the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake surface rupture, using LidarViewer, an open-source software platform developed at the UC Davis KeckCAVES. Imaging of earthquake deformation with multi-resolution and multi-temporal lidar presents several challenges for visualization and analysis. Instruments, data resolution, and even the geodetic reference frame may change significantly between surveys. Grid-based techniques fail to adequately represent fully 3-D features, such as scarps and vegetation, and introduce aliasing artifacts that are especially troublesome when the deformation signal sought is less than the point spacing. Once obtained, the resulting dense field of 3-D vectors derived from differential lidar are difficult to visualize together with the terrain, limiting interpretation of these results. Points are the native, resolution-independent format of lidar, but working with massive point data sets can overwhelm system memory. LidarViewer overcomes these challenges using hierarchal data storage, view-dependent rendering, and an efficient, recursive data analysis framework. Pre-earthquake airborne lidar, collected as part of a regional survey, are very sparse (0.013 pts/m2) compared to the post-earthquake survey (9 pts/m2). A simple, \\chi2 minimization approach to matching these data sets takes advantage of this dramatic resolution difference to extract 3-D ground motion. We visualize the resulting displacement field in a 3-D environment using streamline-based approaches, colored by elevation change, and superimposed on the post-earthquake topography. This fused data product encourages exploration and assessment of the deformation signal and its relationship to landscape features, such as fault scarps, vegetation, and topographic relief. Terrestrial lidar scans collected within two weeks of the earthquake reveal the surface rupture at centimeter resolution

  1. Prediction of Canopy Heights over a Large Region Using Heterogeneous Lidar Datasets: Efficacy and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Gopalakrishnan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generating accurate and unbiased wall-to-wall canopy height maps from airborne lidar data for large regions is useful to forest scientists and natural resource managers. However, mapping large areas often involves using lidar data from different projects, with varying acquisition parameters. In this work, we address the important question of whether one can accurately model canopy heights over large areas of the Southeastern US using a very heterogeneous dataset of small-footprint, discrete-return airborne lidar data (with 76 separate lidar projects. A unique aspect of this effort is the use of nationally uniform and extensive field data (~1800 forested plots from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA program of the US Forest Service. Preliminary results are quite promising: Over all lidar projects, we observe a good correlation between the 85th percentile of lidar heights and field-measured height (r = 0.85. We construct a linear regression model to predict subplot-level dominant tree heights from distributional lidar metrics (R2 = 0.74, RMSE = 3.0 m, n = 1755. We also identify and quantify the importance of several factors (like heterogeneity of vegetation, point density, the predominance of hardwoods or softwoods, the average height of the forest stand, slope of the plot, and average scan angle of lidar acquisition that influence the efficacy of predicting canopy heights from lidar data. For example, a subset of plots (coefficient of variation of vegetation heights <0.2 significantly reduces the RMSE of our model from 3.0–2.4 m (~20% reduction. We conclude that when all these elements are factored into consideration, combining data from disparate lidar projects does not preclude robust estimation of canopy heights.

  2. Refractive Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... halos around bright lights, squinting, headaches, or eye strain. Glasses or contact lenses can usually correct refractive errors. Laser eye surgery may also be a possibility. NIH: National Eye ...

  3. 2012 Oregon Lidar Consortium (OLC) Lidar: Keno (OR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon Keno Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

  4. High-resolution measurements of humidity and temperature with lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrendt, Andreas; Wulfmeyer, Volker; Spaeth, Florian; Hammann, Eva; Muppa, Shravan Kumar; Metzendorf, Simon; Riede, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    3-dimensional thermodynamic fields of temperature and moisture including their turbulent fluctuations have been observed with the two scanning lidar systems of University of Hohenheim in three field campaigns in 2013 and 2014. In this contribution, we will introduce these two self-developed instruments and illustrate their performance with measurement examples. Finally, an outlook to envisioned future research activities with the new data sets of the instruments is given. Our temperature lidar is based on the rotational Raman technique. The scanning rotational Raman lidar (RRL) uses a seeded frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser at a wavelength of 355 nm. A two-mirror scanner with a 40-cm telescope collects the atmospheric backscatter signals. Humidity measurements are made with a scanning water vapor differential absorption lidar (DIAL) which uses a titanium sapphire laser at 820 nm as transmitter. This laser is pumped with a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser and injection-seeded for switching between the online and offline wavelengths. The DIAL receiver consists of a scanning 80-cm telescope. The measured temperature and humidity profiles of both instruments have typical resolutions of only a few seconds and 100 m in the atmospheric boundary layer both in day- and night-time. Recent field experiments with the RRL and the DIAL of University of Hohenheim were (1) the HD(CP)2 Prototype Experiment (HOPE) in spring 2013 in western Germany - this activity is embedded in the project HD(CP)2 (High-definition clouds and precipitation for advancing climate prediction); (2) a measurement campaign in Hohenheim in autumn 2013; (3) the campaign SABLE (Surface Atmospheric Boundary Layer Exchange) in south-western Germany in summer 2014. The collected moisture and temperature data will serve as initial thermodynamic fields for forecast experiments related to the formation of clouds and precipitation. Due to their high resolution and high precision, the systems are capable of resolving

  5. Underwater Chaotic Lidar using Blue Laser Diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumbaugh, Luke K.

    cavity. The possibility of overcoming this limit by increasing optical feedback strength is discussed. 2. Power scaling in the blue-green spectrum using no optical frequency doubler. Synchronization of two 462 nm blue InGaN laser diodes by bi-directional optical injection is demonstrated for the first time in laboratory experiments. The improvement in chaotic intensity modulation signal strength is demonstrated to be 2.5x over the single-diode case. The signal strength is again shown to be limited by the onset of internal cavity lasing. The synchronized-laser arrangement is shown to be theoretically equivalent to a single-diode scenario in which the optical feedback is amplified by 2x, supporting the idea that increased optical feedback strength can be used to scale optical chaotic modulation of InGaN diodes to high powers. 3. Underwater impulse response measurements using a calibrated chaotic lidar system. An underwater chaotic lidar system using two synchronized diodes as transmitters is demonstrated in laboratory experiments for the first time. Reflective impulse response measurements using the lidar system are made in free space, and in a variety of clear and turbid water conditions, using a quasi-monostatic (i.e. co-located transmitter and receiver) arrangement. A calibration routine is implemented that increases accuracy and instantaneous dynamic range of the impulse response measurement, resulting in a baseline temporal resolution of 750 ps and a PSLR of over 10 dB. The calibrated system is shown to be able to simultaneously measure localized and distributed reflections, and to allow separation of the localized ( i.e. surface and target) reflections from the distributed ( i.e. backscatter) returns in several domains. Accurate range measurement with sub-inch typical error is demonstrated in laboratory water tank tests, which show accurate measurement through >6 feet of turbid water, as limited by the experimental water tank setup. Strong performance to the limit of

  6. Generic methodology for calibrating profiling nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    Improving power performance assessment by measuring at different heights has been demonstrated using ground-based profiling LIDARs. More recently, nacelle-mounted lidars studies have shown promising capabilities to assess power performance. Using nacelle lidars avoids the erection of expensive...... meteorology masts, especially offshore. A new generation of commercially developed profiling nacelle lidars has sophisticated measurement capabilities. As for any other measuring system, lidars measurements have uncertainties. Their estimation is the ultimate goal of a calibration. Field calibration...... procedures have been developed for non-profiling nacelle lidars. However, their specificity to one type of lidar or another highlights the need for developing generic calibration procedures. Such procedures should be applicable to any type of existing and upcoming lidar technology. Profiling nacelle lidars...

  7. Imaging display method for airborne oceanographic LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jon P.; Keck, Timothy; Umehara, Michael J.

    1990-09-01

    Typical airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) used for oceanographic measurements collect data at rates in the range of 1 Megabyte per second. This paper presents a method for organizing and displaying this great bulk of data to allow screening for areas of interest. In addition, this method can be transferred to dedicated hardware, to provide a 100% real time data display system at a reasonable cost. A typical airborne LIDAR system contains a scanning transceiver, and digitizes returned waveforms as the aircraft ffies some search pattern. Thus the data is inherently four dimensional (intensity and three spatial dimensions). This method reliesupon collapsing the four dimensional data into three dimensions; color and X,Y screen coordinates. This is doneby translating depth into an RGB color mix, and return intensity into RGB intensity. Thus color represents depth, and brightness represents signal strength. This data is then displayed on a high resolution color display. In order for this to be successful, some preprocessing is necessary to normalize the waveforms, so that changes in the displayreflect changes in the water column. In addition, some digital filtering is beneficial to increase the signal to noise ratio. This system is currentlyimplemented in Greenhills 'C' under CLIX (UnixVport toClipper) running on a Zaiaz 933 compute engine, with RASIL graphics software package on a Zaiaz FB 640 Graphics frame buffer. This hardware provides 5 MIPS average execution rate and 16.7 million colors on a 768 x 576 pixel display.

  8. Forest structures retrieval from LiDAR onboard ULA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien; Marnas, Fabien; Sanak, Joseph

    2013-04-01

    Following the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, the assessment of forest carbon stock is one of the main elements for a better understanding of the carbon cycle and its evolution following the climate change. The forests sequester 80% of the continental biospheric carbon and this efficiency is a function of the tree species and the tree health. The airborne backscatter LiDAR onboard the ultra light aircraft (ULA) can provide the key information on the forest vertical structures and evolution in the time. The most important structural parameter is the tree top height, which is directly linked to the above-ground biomass using non-linear relationships. In order to test the LiDAR capability for retrieving the tree top height, the LiDAR ULICE (Ultraviolet LIdar for Canopy Experiment) has been used over different forest types, from coniferous (maritime pins) to deciduous (oaks, hornbeams ...) trees. ULICE works at the wavelength of 355 nm with a sampling along the line-of-sight between 15 and 75 cm. According to the LiDAR signal to noise ratio (SNR), two different algorithms have been used in our study. The first algorithm is a threshold method directly based on the comparison between the LiDAR signal and the noise distributions, while the second one used a low pass filter by fitting a Gaussian curve family. In this paper, we will present these two algorithms and their evolution as a function of the SNR. The main error sources will be also discussed and assessed for each algorithm. The results show that these algorithms have great potential for ground-segment of future space borne LiDAR missions dedicated to the forest survey at the global scale. Acknowledgements: the canopy LiDAR system ULICE has been developed by CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique). It has been deployed with the support of CNES (Centre National d'Etude Spariales) and ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). We acknowledge the ULA pilots Franck Toussaint for logistical help

  9. 2013 USGS Lidar: Norfolk (VA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Laser Mapping Specialist, Inc (LMSI) and The Atlantic Group (Atlantic) provided high accuracy, calibrated multiple return LiDAR for roughly 1,130 square miles around...

  10. 2009 SCDNR Horry County Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sanborn Map Company completed the original classification of the multiple return LiDAR of Horry County, South Carolina in 2009. In 2013, Dewberry was tasked with...

  11. 2009 SCDNR Berkeley County Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sanborn Map Company completed the original classification of the multiple return LiDAR of Berkeley County, South Carolina in 2009. In 2013, Dewberry was tasked with...

  12. 2014 NJMC Lidar: Hackensack Meadowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In February 2014, Quantum Spatial, Inc. (QSI) was contracted by the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission (NJMC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in...

  13. 2006 FEMA Lidar: Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The FEMA Task Order 26 LiDAR data set was collected by Airborne 1 Corporation of El Segundo, California in September - December of 2006 for URS Corp.

  14. 2005 Baltimore County Maryland Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2005, Sanborn as part of the Dewberry team was contracted to execute a LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) survey campaign to collect the...

  15. Alabama 2003 Lidar Coverage, USACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Gulf of Mexico in the summer of 2003. The data...

  16. 2004 USACE Puerto Rico Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This record describes Light Detection and Ranging (Lidar) data acquired for the island of Puerto Rico. The data were acquired for USACE, St. Louis District by 3001,...

  17. 2014 Mobile County, AL Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic was contracted to acquire high resolution topographic LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data located in Mobile County, Alabama. The intent was to collect...

  18. Methane LIDAR Laser Technology Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Fibertek proposes to develop laser technology intended to meet NASA's need for innovative lidar technologies for atmospheric measurements of methane. NASA and the...

  19. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  20. 2009 Chatham County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR generated point cloud acquired in spring 2009 for Chatham County, Georgia for the Metropolitan Planning Commission. The data are classified as follows: Class 1...

  1. 2009 SCDRN Lidar: Florence County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for Florence County, SC. Utilizing multi-return...

  2. Refractive errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefer, Ulrich; Kraus, Christina; Baumbach, Peter; Ungewiß, Judith; Michels, Ralf

    2016-10-14

    All over the world, refractive errors are among the most frequently occuring treatable distur - bances of visual function. Ametropias have a prevalence of nearly 70% among adults in Germany and are thus of great epidemiologic and socio-economic relevance. In the light of their own clinical experience, the authors review pertinent articles retrieved by a selective literature search employing the terms "ametropia, "anisometropia," "refraction," "visual acuity," and epidemiology." In 2011, only 31% of persons over age 16 in Germany did not use any kind of visual aid; 63.4% wore eyeglasses and 5.3% wore contact lenses. Refractive errors were the most common reason for consulting an ophthalmologist, accounting for 21.1% of all outpatient visits. A pinhole aperture (stenopeic slit) is a suitable instrument for the basic diagnostic evaluation of impaired visual function due to optical factors. Spherical refractive errors (myopia and hyperopia), cylindrical refractive errors (astigmatism), unequal refractive errors in the two eyes (anisometropia), and the typical optical disturbance of old age (presbyopia) cause specific functional limitations and can be detected by a physician who does not need to be an ophthalmologist. Simple functional tests can be used in everyday clinical practice to determine quickly, easily, and safely whether the patient is suffering from a benign and easily correctable type of visual impairment, or whether there are other, more serious underlying causes.

  3. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  4. Fast Registration of Terrestrial LIDAR Point Cloud and Sequence Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, J.; Zhang, W.; Zhu, Y.; Shen, A.

    2017-09-01

    Image has rich color information, and it can help to promote recognition and classification of point cloud. The registration is an important step in the application of image and point cloud. In order to give the rich texture and color information for LiDAR point cloud, the paper researched a fast registration method of point cloud and sequence images based on the ground-based LiDAR system. First, calculating transformation matrix of one of sequence images based on 2D image and LiDAR point cloud; second, using the relationships of position and attitude information among multi-angle sequence images to calculate all transformation matrixes in the horizontal direction; last, completing the registration of point cloud and sequence images based on the collinear condition of image point, projective center and LiDAR point. The experimental results show that the method is simple and fast, and the stitching error between adjacent images is litter; meanwhile, the overall registration accuracy is high, and the method can be used in engineering application.

  5. Entanglement-enhanced lidars for simultaneous range and velocity measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Quntao; Zhang, Zheshen; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2017-10-01

    Lidar is a well-known optical technology for measuring a target's range and radial velocity. We describe two lidar systems that use entanglement between transmitted signals and retained idlers to obtain significant quantum enhancements in simultaneous measurements of these parameters. The first entanglement-enhanced lidar circumvents the Arthurs-Kelly uncertainty relation for simultaneous measurements of range and radial velocity from the detection of a single photon returned from the target. This performance presumes there is no extraneous (background) light, but is robust to the round-trip loss incurred by the signal photons. The second entanglement-enhanced lidar—which requires a lossless, noiseless environment—realizes Heisenberg-limited accuracies for both its range and radial-velocity measurements, i.e., their root-mean-square estimation errors are both proportional to 1 /M when M signal photons are transmitted. These two lidars derive their entanglement-based enhancements from the use of a unitary transformation that takes a signal-idler photon pair with frequencies ωS and ωI and converts it to a signal-idler photon pair whose frequencies are (ωS+ωI)/2 and (ωS-ωI)/2 . Insight into how this transformation provides its benefits is provided through an analogy to continuous-variable superdense coding.

  6. Relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudimetla, V. S. Rao

    1996-01-01

    An effort was initiated last year in the Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center to examine and incorporate, if necessary, the effects of relativity in the design of space-based lidar systems. A space-based lidar system, named AEOLUS, is under development at Marshall Space Flight Center and it will be used to accurately measure atmospheric wind profiles. Effects of relativity were also observed in the performance of space-based systems, for example in case of global positioning systems, and corrections were incorporated into the design of instruments. During the last summer, the effects of special relativity on the design of space-based lidar systems were studied in detail, by analyzing the problem of laser scattering off a fixed target when the source and a co-located receiver are moving on a spacecraft. Since the proposed lidar system uses a coherent detection system, errors even in the order of a few microradians must be corrected to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio. Previous analysis assumed that the ground is flat and the spacecraft is moving parallel to the ground, and developed analytical expressions for the location, direction and Doppler shift of the returning radiation. Because of the assumptions used in that analysis, only special relativity effects were involved. In this report, that analysis is extended to include general relativity and calculate its effects on the design.

  7. Special Relativity Corrections for Space-Based Lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    RaoGudimetla, Venkata S.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The theory of special relativity is used to analyze some of the physical phenomena associated with space-based coherent Doppler lidars aimed at Earth and the atmosphere. Two important cases of diffuse scattering and retroreflection by lidar targets are treated. For the case of diffuse scattering, we show that for a coaligned transmitter and receiver on the moving satellite, there is no angle between transmitted and returned radiation. However, the ray that enters the receiver does not correspond to a retroreflected ray by the target. For the retroreflection case there is misalignment between the transmitted ray and the received ray. In addition, the Doppler shift in the frequency and the amount of tip for the receiver aperture when needed are calculated, The error in estimating wind because of the Doppler shift in the frequency due to special relativity effects is examined. The results are then applied to a proposed space-based pulsed coherent Doppler lidar at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for wind and aerosol backscatter measurements. The lidar uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and the received frequencies to determine the atmospheric wind velocities. We show that the special relativity effects are small for the proposed system.

  8. Structure-From-Motion in 3D Space Using 2D Lidars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Geol Choi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel structure-from-motion methodology using 2D lidars (Light Detection And Ranging. In 3D space, 2D lidars do not provide sufficient information for pose estimation. For this reason, additional sensors have been used along with the lidar measurement. In this paper, we use a sensor system that consists of only 2D lidars, without any additional sensors. We propose a new method of estimating both the 6D pose of the system and the surrounding 3D structures. We compute the pose of the system using line segments of scan data and their corresponding planes. After discarding the outliers, both the pose and the 3D structures are refined via nonlinear optimization. Experiments with both synthetic and real data show the accuracy and robustness of the proposed method.

  9. Assessing the Severity of Wind Gusts with Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Bos

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Lidars have gained a lot of popularity in the field of wind energy, partly because of their potential to be used for wind turbine control. By scanning the oncoming wind field, any threats such as gusts can be detected early and high loads can be avoided by taking preventive actions. Unfortunately, lidars suffer from some inherent weaknesses that hinder measuring gusts; e.g., the averaging of high-frequency fluctuations and only measuring along the line of sight. This paper proposes a method to construct a useful signal from a lidar by fitting a homogeneous Gaussian velocity field to a set of scattered measurements. The output signal, an along-wind force, acts as a measure for the damaging potential of an oncoming gust and is shown to agree with the rotor-effective wind speed (a similar control input, but derived directly from the wind turbine’s shaft torque. Low data availability and the disadvantage of not knowing the velocity between the lidar beams is translated into uncertainty and integrated in the output signal. This allows a designer to establish a control strategy based on risk, with the ultimate goal to reduce the extreme loads during operation.

  10. Lidar Scanning of Momentum Flux in the Marine Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Mann, Jakob; Courtney, Michael

    Momentum flux measurements are important for describing the wind profile in the atmospheric boundary layer, modeling the atmospheric flow over water, the accounting of exchange processes between air and sea, etc. It is also directly related to the friction velocity, which is a velocity scale...... required for wind engineering. Estimations of friction velocity over the sea can be performed by combining wind speed measurements, a sea roughness length formulation and the surface-layer wind profile, i.e. a bulk-derived method. This method was tested in Peña et al. (2008) by comparison with direct...

  11. Profiling of poorly stratified smoky atmospheres with scanning lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Kovalev; Cyle Wold; Alexander Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2012-01-01

    The multiangle data processing technique is considered based on using the signal measured in zenith (or close to zenith) as a core source for extracting the information about the vertical atmospheric aerosol loading. The multiangle signals are used as the auxiliary data to extract the vertical transmittance profile from the zenith signal. Simulated and experimental...

  12. The Lidar Cyclops Syndrome Bypassed: 3D Wind Field Measurements from a Turbine mounted Lidar in combination with a fast CFD solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Astrup, Poul; van Dooren, Marijn Floris

    component can easily be calculated simultaneously in a consistent matter. The linearized CFD model used is a linearized Fourier version of Navier-Stokes equations (LINCOM) which conserves mass and momentum. Following a full rotor plane lidar scan consisting of 400 LOS wind speed measurements The LINCOM CFD...

  13. Accuracy assessment of a mobile terrestrial lidar survey at Padre Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Samsung; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Reynolds, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    The higher point density and mobility of terrestrial laser scanning (light detection and ranging (lidar)) is desired when extremely detailed elevation data are needed for mapping vertically orientated complex features such as levees, dunes, and cliffs, or when highly accurate data are needed for monitoring geomorphic changes. Mobile terrestrial lidar scanners have the capability for rapid data collection on a larger spatial scale compared with tripod-based terrestrial lidar, but few studies have examined the accuracy of this relatively new mapping technology. For this reason, we conducted a field test at Padre Island National Seashore of a mobile lidar scanner mounted on a sport utility vehicle and integrated with a position and orientation system. The purpose of the study was to assess the vertical and horizontal accuracy of data collected by the mobile terrestrial lidar system, which is georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. To accomplish the study objectives, independent elevation data were collected by conducting a high-accuracy global positioning system survey to establish the coordinates and elevations of 12 targets spaced throughout the 12 km transect. These independent ground control data were compared to the lidar scanner-derived elevations to quantify the accuracy of the mobile lidar system. The performance of the mobile lidar system was also tested at various vehicle speeds and scan density settings (e.g. field of view and linear point spacing) to estimate the optimal parameters for desired point density. After adjustment of the lever arm parameters, the final point cloud accuracy was 0.060 m (east), 0.095 m (north), and 0.053 m (height). The very high density of the resulting point cloud was sufficient to map fine-scale topographic features, such as the complex shape of the sand dunes.

  14. Impact Assesment of a Doppler Wind Lidar for NPOESS/OSSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masutani, M.; Lord, S. J.; Woollen, J. C.; Derber, J. C.; Emmitt, D.; Wood, S. A.; Greco, S.; Terry, J.; Atlas, R.; Kleespies, T.; Sun, H.

    2002-05-01

    technology neutral potential impact. Scanning: wavelength; data sampling strategies: various error characterizations are tested through the bracketing OSSE. The initial results show the impact is sensitive to error assignment. The results show that scanning is most important particularly in upper atmosphere. Penetration important in lower troposphere. Designing systematic errors, various representativeness errors, and large scale correlated errors for both existing instruments and DWL are being developed. . OSSEs for atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) and cloud motion vectors are under preparation. OSSE for other instruments such as cross track infrared sounder (CrIS), conically scanning microwave imager/sounder (CMIS), advanced technology microwave sounder (ATMS) are also being considered. Through OSSEs at operational centers, the operational data assimilation systems will be ready to handle new data in time for the launch. This process involves the evaluation of the operational load, the development of the data base and data-processing, and a quality control system. All of this development will accelerate the operational use of data from the future instruments.

  15. Doppler Lidar Vector Retrievals and Atmospheric Data Visualization in Mixed/Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nihanth Wagmi

    Environmental remote sensing has seen rapid growth in the recent years and Doppler wind lidars have gained popularity primarily due to their non-intrusive, high spatial and temporal measurement capabilities. While lidar applications early on, relied on the radial velocity measurements alone, most of the practical applications in wind farm control and short term wind prediction require knowledge of the vector wind field. Over the past couple of years, multiple works on lidars have explored three primary methods of retrieving wind vectors viz., using homogeneous windfield assumption, computationally extensive variational methods and the use of multiple Doppler lidars. Building on prior research, the current three-part study, first demonstrates the capabilities of single and dual Doppler lidar retrievals in capturing downslope windstorm-type flows occurring at Arizona's Barringer Meteor Crater as a part of the METCRAX II field experiment. Next, to address the need for a reliable and computationally efficient vector retrieval for adaptive wind farm control applications, a novel 2D vector retrieval based on a variational formulation was developed and applied on lidar scans from an offshore wind farm and validated with data from a cup and vane anemometer installed on a nearby research platform. Finally, a novel data visualization technique using Mixed Reality (MR)/ Augmented Reality (AR) technology is presented to visualize data from atmospheric sensors. MR is an environment in which the user's visual perception of the real world is enhanced with live, interactive, computer generated sensory input (in this case, data from atmospheric sensors like Doppler lidars). A methodology using modern game development platforms is presented and demonstrated with lidar retrieved wind fields. In the current study, the possibility of using this technology to visualize data from atmospheric sensors in mixed reality is explored and demonstrated with lidar retrieved wind fields as well as

  16. Analysis of spatial correlation in predictive models of forest variables that use LiDAR auxiliary information

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Mauro; Vicente J. Monleon; H. Temesgen; L.A. Ruiz

    2017-01-01

    Accounting for spatial correlation of LiDAR model errors can improve the precision of model-based estimators. To estimate spatial correlation, sample designs that provide close observations are needed, but their implementation might be prohibitively expensive. To quantify the gains obtained by accounting for the spatial correlation of model errors, we examined (

  17. MRI Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

  18. Bone Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  19. LIDAR Investigations of the 2009 American Samoa Tsunami

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, J. L.; Olsen, M. J.

    2009-12-01

    A reconnaissance team was mobilized to American Samoa and Western Samoa in the days that followed the Mw 8.0 earthquake and destructive tsunami. The Geo-Engineering Extreme Events Reconnaissance (GEER) team was assembled to investigate the geotechnical effects of both the earthquake event and the tsunami effects on the coastal environment. The team also made observations on structural engineering and lifeline aspects, although these were not the primary focus. The GEER team employed a number of useful technologies to facilitate effective reconnaissance. Each team member utilized a common GPS unit and laptop with a Google Earth GIS database to track visited locations. The team also deployed with LIDAR equipment to map areas of tsunami devastation to include scour, erosion, and structural damage. The LIDAR scanning was performed in Pago Pago, Alao, Tula, Leone and Poloa on the island of Western Samoa. In Pago Pago, the scans map the location of several debris piles and damaged structures. In Alao, scour around a foundation was mapped using the TLS. The structure atop the foundation was completely destroyed. Finally, the scans also show the location of beach sediment that was washed up off of the beach. In Tula, scans were performed to show the damages to several buildings in the village. A scan was done adjacent to the beach to show some of the coastal erosion and damages and map sediment dislocation. In Leone, structural damage to buildings and bridges were mapped (see Figure). The scans also map scouring along a rock wall along the riverside and a substantial amount of erosion that occurred along one of the river banks. In the village of Poloa, scans show the location of the trim line, where the tsunami waves reached. Also, damages to structures, such as a school building, were recorded along with the location of fresh coral deposited on the beach, scour and erosion. The LIDAR data was important to the investigation for multiple reasons. First, it provided a quick

  20. Extrapolation of contrail investigations by LIDAR to larger scale measurements. Analysis and calibration of CCD camera and satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.

  1. LiDAR for data efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    This report documents the AHMCT research project: LiDAR for Data Efficiency for the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT). The research objective was to evaluate mobile LiDAR technology to enhance safety, determine efficiency ga...

  2. 2006 Volusia County Florida LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is the lidar data for Volusia County, Florida, approximately 1,432 square miles, acquired in early March of 2006. A total of 143 flight lines of Lidar...

  3. HAYABUSA LIDAR V2.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The HAYABUSA spacecraft included a LIght Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) altimeter. The primary objective of LIDAR was to establish the range between the HAYABUSA...

  4. 2014 PSLC Lidar: City of Redmond

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In February 2014, Quantum Spatial (QSI) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the City of...

  5. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Big Wood, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Big Wood 2015 study area. This study area is located in...

  6. 2015 OLC FEMA Lidar: Snake River, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Snake River FEMA study area. This study area is located...

  7. 2004 SWFWMD Citrus County Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & LIDAR mapping of Citrus County, FL. The mapping consists of LIDAR data collection, contour generation, and production...

  8. 2002 Willapa Bay LiDAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA contracted with Spencer B. Gross, Inc. (SBG) to obtain airborne LiDAR of Willapa Bay, Washington during low tide conditions. The LiDAR data was processed to...

  9. 3D Flash LIDAR Space Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Advanced Scientific Concepts, Inc. (ASC) is a small business that has developed 3D Flash LIDAR systems for space and terrestrial applications. 3D Flash LIDAR is...

  10. 2014 Horry County, South Carolina Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of lidar point cloud data. This project required lidar data to be acquired over Horry County, South Carolina. The total area of the Horry...

  11. 2015 Oregon Department Forestry Lidar: Northwest OR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GeoTerra, Inc. was selected by Oregon Department of Forestry to provide Lidar remote sensing data including LAZ files of the classified Lidar points and surface...

  12. 2008 St. Johns County, FL Countywide Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne terrestrial LiDAR was collected for St. Johns County, FL. System Parameters/Flight Plan. The LiDAR system acquisition parameters were developed based on a...

  13. 2011 South Carolina DNR Lidar: York County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,500 square miles in York, Pickens, Anderson, and Oconee Counties in South Carolina. This metadata covers the LiDAR produced...

  14. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  15. 2007 USGS Lidar: Canyon Fire (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Southern California Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is to provide high accuracy LIDAR data. These datasets will be the initial acquisition to support...

  16. LIDAR for atmosphere research over Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the LIDAR for atmosphere research over Africa and current initiatives being undertaken in South Africa. A mobile LIDAR system is being developed at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) National Laser Centre...

  17. 2010 ARRA Lidar: 4 Southeast Counties (MI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Southeast Michigan LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Monroe, St. Clair, Macomb, and Livingston Counties SEMCOG CONTRACT:...

  18. 2011 ARRA Lidar: Willacy County (TX)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This task order is for planning, acquisition, processing, and derivative products of LiDAR data to be collected for a portion of Willacy County, Texas. LiDAR data,...

  19. Elevation - LIDAR Survey - Roseau County, Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LIDAR Data for Roseau County Minnesota. This project consists of approximately 87 square miles of LIDAR mapping in Roseau County, Minnesota at two sites: area 1,...

  20. Registration Procedures for Terrestrial Laser Scanning in Geomorphologic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B. D.; Kayen, R.; Minasian, D.

    2006-12-01

    Terrestrial based laser scanning, from either vehicle or tripod mounts allows the collection of geomorphologic data at previously unprecedented detail and volume. However, despite the ease of collecting this data in many settings, post-processing datasets collected without laser-visible reflectors within individual scans can lead to difficulties in both registration and georeferencing procedures. We have been actively involved in gathering data sets from a number of different environments and have been developing various techniques to post-process the data using surface registration methods. These methods use the point cloud or model surface to find a best-fit of the three-dimensional terrain. Recently, we have collected laser scan data of levee breaches in New Orleans following Hurricane Katrina, a glacial cirque basin in the Canadian Rockies, a deep-seated landslide mass in Ventura County, California, rapidly evolving coastal bluffs in Central California, and sand bars and archeological sites in Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. In each of these projects, setting up accurately surveyed reflectors was impractical due to the locations dynamic and fairly inaccessible setting. Robust surface registration procedures were therefore needed to provide accurate terrain models. We have used laser scanning results from these projects to assess the efficiency of the various post- processing methodologies for obtaining final registered and georeferenced point clouds and surface models. We compared registration results obtained both with and without accurate GPS coordinates for the laser scanner origin (Ventura and coastal landslides), use of a supporting total station unit (Grand Canyon), and collection of DGPS data on targets imaged in the LIDAR data after the scanning process (Katrina Levees). In many of these settings, the model fit improved by four times, from a root mean square error of 20 cm to 5cm when accurately surveyed coordinates were utilized for the laser scan

  1. Remote Sensing of Sonoran Desert Vegetation Structure and Phenology with Ground-Based LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel B. Sankey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  2. Calibration of Nacelle-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for a two-beam nacelle based lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements....

  3. Calibration of Nacelle-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for a four-beam nacelle based lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark.Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements...... with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements....

  4. Detection of Atmospheric Composition Based on Lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jinye; Tong Yala; Yang Xiaoling; Gong Jiaoli [School of science, Hubei University of Technology, Wuhan 430068 (China); Gong Wei, E-mail: yezi.zh@163.com [State Key Laboratory for Information Engineering in Surveying, Mapping and Remote Sensing, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-02-01

    A summary overview about the types of lidar and their own applications on atmosphere detection is presented. Measurement of atmospheric aerosols by Mie lidar and Raman lidar is focused. The vertical profiles of aerosols in the atmosphere are retrieved. And at the same time, through analyzing aerosol vertical content distribution, the atmosphere boundary layer and the cloud are also observed. All the results show that the lidar has good performance on detecting the atmospheric composition.

  5. Using CO2 Lidar for Standoff Detection of a Perfluorocarbon Tracer in Air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser,J.H.; Smith, S.; Sedlacek, A.

    2008-02-06

    ) from the lidar (the lidar beam path was limited by site constraints and was {approx}100 meters). When one door of each of the cars was opened (sequentially), the lidar was clearly able to determine which vehicles had been tagged and which one was not. The lidar is probably capable of greater than 0.5 kilometer standoff distances based on the extreme amount of signal return achieved (so much that the system had to be de-tuned). The BNL lidar system, while optimized to the extent possible with available parts and budget, was not as sensitive as it could be. Steps to improve the lidar are detailed in this report and include using a better laser system (for more stable power output), dual wavelengths (to improve the sensitivity and allow common mode noise reduction and to allow the use of the lidar in a scanning configuration), heterodyning (for range resolved PFT detection) and an off-axis optical configuration (for improved near field sensitivity).

  6. LIDAR forest inventory with single-tree, double- and single-phase procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Parker; David L. Evans

    2009-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data at 0.5- to 2-m postings were used with doublesample, stratified inventory procedures involving single-tree attribute relationships in mixed, natural, and planted species stands to yield sampling errors (one-half the confidence interval expressed as a percentage of the mean) ranging from ±2.1 percent to ±11.5...

  7. Using LiDAR surveys to document floods: A case study of the 2008 Iowa flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bo; Krajewski, Witold F.; Goska, Radek; Young, Nathan

    2017-10-01

    Can we use Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), an emergent remote sensing technology with wide applications, to document floods with high accuracy? To explore the feasibility of this application, we propose a method to extract distributed inundation depths from a LiDAR survey conducted during flooding. This method consists of three steps: (1) collecting LiDAR data during flooding; (2) classifying the LiDAR observational points as flooded water surface points and non-flooded points, and generating a floodwater surface elevation model; and (3) subtracting the bare earth Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from the flood surface elevation model to obtain a flood depth map. We applied this method to the 2008 Iowa flood in the United States and evaluated the results using the high-water mark measurements, flood extent extracted from SPOT (Small Programmable Object Technology) imagery, and the near-simultaneously acquired aerial photography. The root mean squared error of the LiDAR-derived floodwater surface profile to high-water marks was 30 cm, the consistency between the two flooded areas derived from LiDAR and SPOT imagery was 72% (81% if suspicious isolated ponds in the SPOT-derived extent were removed), and LiDAR-derived flood extent had a horizontal resolution of ∼3 m. This work demonstrates that LiDAR technology has the potential to provide calibration and validation reference data with appreciable accuracy for improved flood inundation modeling.

  8. Automation of lidar-based hydrologic feature extraction workflows using GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borlongan, Noel Jerome B.; de la Cruz, Roel M.; Olfindo, Nestor T.; Perez, Anjillyn Mae C.

    2016-10-01

    With the advent of LiDAR technology, higher resolution datasets become available for use in different remote sensing and GIS applications. One significant application of LiDAR datasets in the Philippines is in resource features extraction. Feature extraction using LiDAR datasets require complex and repetitive workflows which can take a lot of time for researchers through manual execution and supervision. The Development of the Philippine Hydrologic Dataset for Watersheds from LiDAR Surveys (PHD), a project under the Nationwide Detailed Resources Assessment Using LiDAR (Phil-LiDAR 2) program, created a set of scripts, the PHD Toolkit, to automate its processes and workflows necessary for hydrologic features extraction specifically Streams and Drainages, Irrigation Network, and Inland Wetlands, using LiDAR Datasets. These scripts are created in Python and can be added in the ArcGIS® environment as a toolbox. The toolkit is currently being used as an aid for the researchers in hydrologic feature extraction by simplifying the workflows, eliminating human errors when providing the inputs, and providing quick and easy-to-use tools for repetitive tasks. This paper discusses the actual implementation of different workflows developed by Phil-LiDAR 2 Project 4 in Streams, Irrigation Network and Inland Wetlands extraction.

  9. Laser scanning of a recirculation zone on the Bolund escarpment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Angelou, Nikolas; Sjöholm, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    . The instrument measures the line-ofsight velocity 390 times per second and scans ten wind profiles from the ground up to seven meters per second. The results will be used to test computational fluid dynamics models for flow over terrain, and has relevance for wind energy. The development of multiple lidar...

  10. Hardware in the Loop Performance Assessment of LIDAR-Based Spacecraft Pose Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2017-09-24

    In this paper an original, easy to reproduce, semi-analytic calibration approach is developed for hardware-in-the-loop performance assessment of pose determination algorithms processing point cloud data, collected by imaging a non-cooperative target with LIDARs. The laboratory setup includes a scanning LIDAR, a monocular camera, a scaled-replica of a satellite-like target, and a set of calibration tools. The point clouds are processed by uncooperative model-based algorithms to estimate the target relative position and attitude with respect to the LIDAR. Target images, acquired by a monocular camera operated simultaneously with the LIDAR, are processed applying standard solutions to the Perspective-n-Points problem to get high-accuracy pose estimates which can be used as a benchmark to evaluate the accuracy attained by the LIDAR-based techniques. To this aim, a precise knowledge of the extrinsic relative calibration between the camera and the LIDAR is essential, and it is obtained by implementing an original calibration approach which does not need ad-hoc homologous targets (e.g., retro-reflectors) easily recognizable by the two sensors. The pose determination techniques investigated by this work are of interest to space applications involving close-proximity maneuvers between non-cooperative platforms, e.g., on-orbit servicing and active debris removal.

  11. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungsig Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1 a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2 co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm; and (3 a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm.

  12. Assessing LiDAR elevation data for KDOT applications : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    LiDAR-based elevation surveys : are a cost-effective means for : mapping topography over large : areas. LiDAR surveys use an : airplane-mounted or ground-based : laser radar unit to scan terrain. : Post-processing techniques are : applied to remove v...

  13. Development of LIDAR-guided sprayer to synchronize spray outputs with canopy structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable-rate application is an effective way for nursery and orchard growers to reduce pesticide use and potential contaminations to the environment. To realize this goal, an intelligent air-assisted sprayer implementing a high speed laser scanning sensor (LIDAR) was developed to vary spray output ...

  14. Challenges in noise removal from Doppler spectra acquired by a continuous-wave lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelou, Nikolas; Foroughi Abari, Farzad; Mann, Jakob

    2012-01-01

    This paper is focused on the required post processing of Doppler spectra, acquired from a continuous-wave coherent lidar at high sampling rates (400 Hz) and under rapid scanning of the laser beam. In particular, the necessary steps followed for extracting the wind speed from such Doppler spectra ...

  15. LiDAR Point Cloud and Stereo Image Point Cloud Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    and tree health information, resulting in a complete model of the forest inventory . LiDAR collected point clouds and stereo-image-derived point...N. C., Pitt, D., & Woods, M. (2013). The utility of image-based point clouds for forest inventory : a comparison with airborne laser scanning

  16. An investigation of rock fall and pore water pressure using LIDAR in Highway 63 rock cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research work is compare LIDAR scanning measurements of rock fall with the natural changes in groundwater level to determining the effect of water pressures (levels) on rock fall. To collect the information of rock cut volume chan...

  17. Airborne LiDAR : a new source of traffic flow data, research implementation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    LiDAR (or airborne laser scanning) systems became a dominant player in high-precision spatial data acquisition in the late 90's. This new technology quickly established itself as the main source of surface information in commercial mapping, deliverin...

  18. Data processing technique for multiangle lidar sounding of poorly stratified polluted atmospheres: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyle E. Wold; Vladimir A. Kovalev; Alexander P. Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2012-01-01

    Scanning elastic lidar, which can operate in different slant directions, is the most appropriate remote sensing tool for investigating the optical properties of smoke-polluted atmospheres. However, the commonly used methodologies of multiangle measurements are based on the assumption of horizontal stratification of the searched atmosphere1,2. When working in real...

  19. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  20. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  1. Measuring Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD and Aerosol Profiles Simultaneously with a Camera Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnes John

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available CLidar or camera lidar is a simple, inexpensive technique to measure nighttime tropospheric aerosol profiles. Stars in the raw data images used in the CLidar analysis can also be used to calculate aerosol optical depth simultaneously. A single star can be used with the Langley method or multiple star pairs can be used to reduce the error. The estimated error from data taken under clear sky conditions at Mauna Loa Observatory is approximately +/- 0.01.

  2. Modeling Aboveground Biomass in Hulunber Grassland Ecosystem by Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Discrete Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongliang; Xin, Xiaoping; Shao, Quanqin; Brolly, Matthew; Zhu, Zhiliang; Chen, Jin

    2017-01-19

    Accurate canopy structure datasets, including canopy height and fractional cover, are required to monitor aboveground biomass as well as to provide validation data for satellite remote sensing products. In this study, the ability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) discrete light detection and ranging (lidar) was investigated for modeling both the canopy height and fractional cover in Hulunber grassland ecosystem. The extracted mean canopy height, maximum canopy height, and fractional cover were used to estimate the aboveground biomass. The influences of flight height on lidar estimates were also analyzed. The main findings are: (1) the lidar-derived mean canopy height is the most reasonable predictor of aboveground biomass (R² = 0.340, root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 81.89 g·m-2, and relative error of 14.1%). The improvement of multiple regressions to the R² and RMSE values is unobvious when adding fractional cover in the regression since the correlation between mean canopy height and fractional cover is high; (2) Flight height has a pronounced effect on the derived fractional cover and details of the lidar data, but the effect is insignificant on the derived canopy height when the flight height is within the range (lidar returns.

  3. Modeling Aboveground Biomass in Hulunber Grassland Ecosystem by Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Discrete Lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongliang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate canopy structure datasets, including canopy height and fractional cover, are required to monitor aboveground biomass as well as to provide validation data for satellite remote sensing products. In this study, the ability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV discrete light detection and ranging (lidar was investigated for modeling both the canopy height and fractional cover in Hulunber grassland ecosystem. The extracted mean canopy height, maximum canopy height, and fractional cover were used to estimate the aboveground biomass. The influences of flight height on lidar estimates were also analyzed. The main findings are: (1 the lidar-derived mean canopy height is the most reasonable predictor of aboveground biomass (R2 = 0.340, root-mean-square error (RMSE = 81.89 g·m−2, and relative error of 14.1%. The improvement of multiple regressions to the R2 and RMSE values is unobvious when adding fractional cover in the regression since the correlation between mean canopy height and fractional cover is high; (2 Flight height has a pronounced effect on the derived fractional cover and details of the lidar data, but the effect is insignificant on the derived canopy height when the flight height is within the range (<100 m. These findings are helpful for modeling stable regressions to estimate grassland biomass using lidar returns.

  4. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available causes scattering. • Absorbtion by gases and particles attenuates the beam as it propagates • Fraction of energy is backscattered in the direction of the LiDAR system and is available for detection. LiDAR Platforms Airborne Satellite Slide 3 © CSIR... 2008 www.csir.co.za Mobile Ground-based Phoenix Mars Mission Slide 4 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za System 3-D View Slide 5 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za System Block Diagram Slide 6...

  5. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  6. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  7. Precision and shortcomings of yaw error estimation using spinner-based light detection and ranging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Knud Abildgaard; Hansen, Morten Hartvig; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    When extracting energy from the wind using horizontal axis wind turbines, the ability to align the rotor axis with the mean wind direction is crucial. In previous work, a method for estimating the yaw error based on measurements from a spinner mounted light detection and ranging (LIDAR) device......, the shortcomings of using a spinner mounted LIDAR for yaw error estimation are discussed. The extended simulation study shows that with the applied method, the yaw error can be estimated with a precision of a few degrees, even in highly turbulent flows. Applying the method to experimental data reveals an average...... yaw error of approximately 9° during a period of 2 h, and good correlation is seen between LIDAR-based estimates and met-mast data. The final discussion suggests a number of challenges of the method when applied to measurements in complex flow. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  8. Lava flow texture LiDAR signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whelley, P.; Garry, W. B.; Scheidt, S. P.; Irwin, R. P., III; Fox, J.; Bleacher, J. E.; Hamilton, C. W.

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution point clouds and digital elevation models (DEMs) are used to investigate lava textures on the Big Island of Hawaii. An experienced geologist can distinguish fresh or degraded lava textures (e.g., blocky, a'a and pahoehoe) visually in the field. Lava texture depends significantly on eruption conditions, and it is therefore instructive, if accurately determined. In places where field investigations are prohibitive (e.g., Mercury, Venus, the Moon, Mars, Io and remote regions on Earth) lava texture must be assessed from remote sensing data. A reliable method for differentiating lava textures in remote sensing data remains elusive. We present preliminary results comparing properties of lava textures observed in airborne and terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne data, in this study, were collected in 2011 by Airborne 1 Corporation and have a ~1m point spacing. The authors collected the terrestrial data during a May 2014 field season. The terrestrial scans have a heterogeneous point density. Points close to the scanner are 1 mm apart while 200 m in the distance points are 10 cm apart. Both platforms offer advantages and disadvantages beyond the differences in scale. Terrestrial scans are a quantitative representation of what a geologist sees "on the ground". Airborne scans are a point of view routinely imaged by other remote sensing tools, and can therefore be quickly compared to complimentary data sets (e.g., spectral scans or image data). Preliminary results indicate that LiDAR-derived surface roughness, from both platforms, is useful for differentiating lava textures, but at different spatial scales. As all lava types are quite rough, it is not simply roughness that is the most advantageous parameter; rather patterns in surface roughness can be used to differentiate lava surfaces of varied textures. This work will lead to faster and more reliable volcanic mapping efforts for planetary exploration as well as terrestrial

  9. Airborne lidar-based estimates of tropical forest structure in complex terrain: opportunities and trade-offs for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitold, Veronika; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas C; Cook, Bruce D; Shimabukuro, Yosio E

    2015-12-01

    Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical forests remain large sources of uncertainty in the global carbon budget. Airborne lidar remote sensing is a powerful tool for estimating aboveground biomass, provided that lidar measurements penetrate dense forest vegetation to generate accurate estimates of surface topography and canopy heights. Tropical forest areas with complex topography present a challenge for lidar remote sensing. We compared digital terrain models (DTM) derived from airborne lidar data from a mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil to 35 ground control points measured with survey grade GNSS receivers. The terrain model generated from full-density (~20 returns m-2) data was highly accurate (mean signed error of 0.19 ± 0.97 m), while those derived from reduced-density datasets (8 m-2, 4 m-2, 2 m-2 and 1 m-2) were increasingly less accurate. Canopy heights calculated from reduced-density lidar data declined as data density decreased due to the inability to accurately model the terrain surface. For lidar return densities below 4 m-2, the bias in height estimates translated into errors of 80-125 Mg ha-1 in predicted aboveground biomass. Given the growing emphasis on the use of airborne lidar for forest management, carbon monitoring, and conservation efforts, the results of this study highlight the importance of careful survey planning and consistent sampling for accurate quantification of aboveground biomass stocks and dynamics. Approaches that rely primarily on canopy height to estimate aboveground biomass are sensitive to DTM errors from variability in lidar sampling density.

  10. Airborne Lidar-Based Estimates of Tropical Forest Structure in Complex Terrain: Opportunities and Trade-Offs for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitold, Veronika; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas C.; Cook, Bruce D.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical forests remain large sources of uncertainty in the global carbon budget. Airborne lidar remote sensing is a powerful tool for estimating aboveground biomass, provided that lidar measurements penetrate dense forest vegetation to generate accurate estimates of surface topography and canopy heights. Tropical forest areas with complex topography present a challenge for lidar remote sensing. Results: We compared digital terrain models (DTM) derived from airborne lidar data from a mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil to 35 ground control points measured with survey grade GNSS receivers. The terrain model generated from full-density (approx. 20 returns/sq m) data was highly accurate (mean signed error of 0.19 +/-0.97 m), while those derived from reduced-density datasets (8/sq m, 4/sq m, 2/sq m and 1/sq m) were increasingly less accurate. Canopy heights calculated from reduced-density lidar data declined as data density decreased due to the inability to accurately model the terrain surface. For lidar return densities below 4/sq m, the bias in height estimates translated into errors of 80-125 Mg/ha in predicted aboveground biomass. Conclusions: Given the growing emphasis on the use of airborne lidar for forest management, carbon monitoring, and conservation efforts, the results of this study highlight the importance of careful survey planning and consistent sampling for accurate quantification of aboveground biomass stocks and dynamics. Approaches that rely primarily on canopy height to estimate aboveground biomass are sensitive to DTM errors from variability in lidar sampling density.

  11. An All-Fiber, Modular, Compact Wind Lidar for Wind Sensing and Wake Vortex Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Sibell, Russ; Vetorino, Steve; Higgins, Richard; Tracy, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative, compact and eyesafe coherent lidar system developed for wind and wake vortex sensing applications. With an innovative all-fiber and modular transceiver architecture, the wind lidar system has reduced size, weight and power requirements, and provides enhanced performance along with operational elegance. This all-fiber architecture is developed around fiber seed laser coupled to uniquely configured fiber amplifier modules. The innovative features of this lidar system, besides its all fiber architecture, include pulsewidth agility and user programmable 3D hemispherical scanner unit. Operating at a wavelength of 1.5457 microns and with a PRF of up to 20 KHz, the lidar transmitter system is designed as a Class 1 system with dimensions of 30"(W) x 46"(L) x 60"(H). With an operational range exceeding 10 km, the wind lidar is configured to measure wind velocities of greater than 120 m/s with an accuracy of +/- 0.2 m/s and allow range resolution of less than 15 m. The dynamical configuration capability of transmitted pulsewidths from 50 ns to 400 ns allows high resolution wake vortex measurements. The scanner uses innovative liquid metal slip ring and is built using 3D printer technology with light weight nylon. As such, it provides continuous 360 degree azimuth and 180 degree elevation scan angles with an incremental motion of 0.001 degree. The lidar system is air cooled and requires 110 V for its operation. This compact and modular lidar system is anticipated to provide mobility, reliability, and ease of field deployment for wind and wake vortex measurements. Currently, this wind lidar is undergoing validation tests under various atmospheric conditions. Preliminary results of these field measurements of wind characteristics that were recently carried out in Colorado are discussed.

  12. Use of airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect ground displacement hazards to water systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, J.P.; Hu, Jiawen; Kayen, R.E.; Lembo, A.J.; Collins, B.D.; Davis, C.A.; O'Rourke, T. D.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the use of multiepoch airborne and terrestrial lidar to detect and measure ground displacements of sufficient magnitude to damage buried pipelines and other water system facilities that might result, for example, from earthquake or rainfall-induced landslides. Lidar scans are performed at three sites with coincident measurements by total station surveying. Relative horizontal accuracy is evaluated by measurements of lateral dimensions of well defined objects such as buildings and tanks; we find misfits ranging from approximately 5 to 12 cm, which is consistent with previous work. The bias and dispersion of lidar elevation measurements, relative to total station surveying, is assessed at two sites: (1) a power plant site (PP2) with vegetated steeply sloping terrain; and (2) a relatively flat and unvegetated site before and after trenching operations were performed. At PP2, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and a standard deviation of approximately 70 cm, whereas terrestrial lidar did not produce useful results due to beam divergence issues and inadequate sampling of the study region. At the trench site, airborne lidar showed minimal elevation bias and reduced standard deviation relative to PP2 (6-20 cm), whereas terrestrial lidar was nearly unbiased with very low dispersion (4-6 cm). Pre- and posttrench bias-adjusted normalized residuals showed minimal to negligible correlation, but elevation change was affected by relative bias between epochs. The mean of elevation change bias essentially matches the difference in means of pre- and posttrench elevation bias, whereas elevation change standard deviation is sensitive to the dispersion of individual epoch elevations and their correlation coefficient. The observed lidar bias and standard deviations enable reliable detection of damaging ground displacements for some pipelines types (e.g., welded steel) but not all (e.g., concrete with unwelded, mortared joints). ?? ASCE 2009.

  13. LIDAR wind speed measurements from a rotating spinner (SpinnerEx 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelou, N.; Mikkelsen, Torben; Hansen, Kasper H.; Sjoeholm, M.; Harris, M.

    2010-08-15

    In the context of the increasing application of remote sensing techniques in wind energy, the feasibility of upwind observations via a spinner-mounted wind lidar was tested during the SpinnerEx 2009 experiment. The objective was to install a QinetiQ (Natural Power) ZephIR lidar in the rotating spinner of a MW-sized wind turbine, and investigate the approaching wind fields from this vantage point. Time series of wind speed measurements from the lidar with 50 Hz sampling rate were successfully obtained for approximately 60 days, during the measurement campaign lasting from April to August 2009. In this report, information is given regarding the experimental setup and the lidar's operation parameters. The geometrical model used for the reconstruction of the scanning pattern of the lidar is described. This model takes into account the lidar's pointing direction, the spinner axis's vertical tilt and the wind turbine's yaw relative to the mean wind speed direction. The data analysis processes are documented. A methodology for the calculation of the yaw misalignment of the wind turbine relative to the wind direction, as a function of various averaging times, is proposed, using the lidar's instantaneous line-of-sight radial wind speed measurements. Two different setups have been investigated in which the approaching wind field was measured at distances of 0.58 OE and 1.24 OE rotor diameters upwind, respectively. For both setups, the instantaneous yaw misalignment of the turbine has been estimated from the lidar measurements. Data from an adjacent meteorological mast as well as data logged within the wind turbine's control system were used to evaluate the results. (author)

  14. Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Doppler Lidar during XPIA: Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, Rob [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    In March and April of 2015, the ARM Doppler lidar that was formerly operated at the Tropical Western Pacific site in Darwin, Australia (S/N 0710-08) was deployed to the Boulder Atmospheric Observatory (BAO) for the eXperimental Planetary boundary-layer Instrument Assessment (XPIA) field campaign. The goal of the XPIA field campaign was to investigate methods of using multiple Doppler lidars to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional measurements of winds and turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer, and to characterize the uncertainties in these measurements. The ARM Doppler lidar was one of many Doppler lidar systems that participated in this study. During XPIA the 300-m tower at the BAO site was instrumented with well-calibrated sonic anemometers at six levels. These sonic anemometers provided highly accurate reference measurements against which the lidars could be compared. Thus, the deployment of the ARM Doppler lidar during XPIA offered a rare opportunity for the ARM program to characterize the uncertainties in their lidar wind measurements. Results of the lidar-tower comparison indicate that the lidar wind speed measurements are essentially unbiased (~1cm s-1), with a random error of approximately 50 cm s-1. Two methods of uncertainty estimation were tested. The first method was found to produce uncertainties that were too low. The second method produced estimates that were more accurate and better indicators of data quality. As of December 2015, the first method is being used by the ARM Doppler lidar wind value-added product (VAP). One outcome of this work will be to update this VAP to use the second method for uncertainty estimation.

  15. Improved Model for Depth Bias Correction in Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhu Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LiDAR bathymetry (ALB is efficient and cost effective in obtaining shallow water topography, but often produces a low-accuracy sounding solution due to the effects of ALB measurements and ocean hydrological parameters. In bathymetry estimates, peak shifting of the green bottom return caused by pulse stretching induces depth bias, which is the largest error source in ALB depth measurements. The traditional depth bias model is often applied to reduce the depth bias, but it is insufficient when used with various ALB system parameters and ocean environments. Therefore, an accurate model that considers all of the influencing factors must be established. In this study, an improved depth bias model is developed through stepwise regression in consideration of the water depth, laser beam scanning angle, sensor height, and suspended sediment concentration. The proposed improved model and a traditional one are used in an experiment. The results show that the systematic deviation of depth bias corrected by the traditional and improved models is reduced significantly. Standard deviations of 0.086 and 0.055 m are obtained with the traditional and improved models, respectively. The accuracy of the ALB-derived depth corrected by the improved model is better than that corrected by the traditional model.

  16. Reflectance Intensity Assisted Automatic and Accurate Extrinsic Calibration of 3D LiDAR and Panoramic Camera Using a Printed Chessboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weimin; Sakurada, Ken; Kawaguchi, Nobuo

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a novel method for fully automatic and convenient extrinsic calibration of a 3D LiDAR and a panoramic camera with a normally printed chessboard. The proposed method is based on the 3D corner estimation of the chessboard from the sparse point cloud generated by one frame scan of the LiDAR. To estimate the corners, we formulate a full-scale model of the chessboard and fit it to the segmented 3D points of the chessboard. The model is fitted by optimizing the cost function under constraints of correlation between the reflectance intensity of laser and the color of the chessboard's patterns. Powell's method is introduced for resolving the discontinuity problem in optimization. The corners of the fitted model are considered as the 3D corners of the chessboard. Once the corners of the chessboard in the 3D point cloud are estimated, the extrinsic calibration of the two sensors is converted to a 3D-2D matching problem. The corresponding 3D-2D points are used to calculate the absolute pose of the two sensors with Unified Perspective-n-Point (UPnP). Further, the calculated parameters are regarded as initial values and are refined using the Levenberg-Marquardt method. The performance of the proposed corner detection method from the 3D point cloud is evaluated using simulations. The results of experiments, conducted on a Velodyne HDL-32e LiDAR and a Ladybug3 camera under the proposed re-projection error metric, qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate the accuracy and stability of the final extrinsic calibration parameters.

  17. Automatic River Network Extraction from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderal, E. N.; Valcarcel, N.; Delgado, J.; Sevilla, C.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES) has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI) within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network) and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network), and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files), and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS), which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri) and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  18. AUTOMATIC RIVER NETWORK EXTRACTION FROM LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Maderal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network, and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files, and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS, which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  19. Exploring the Atmosphere with Lidars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2 by oxygen and water molecules at heightz, respectively and T(zo' z) is the transmission correction term (ratio of atmospheric transmissivity at oxygen Raman backscattering to that of water vapor Raman scattering from the !idar at height Zo to height z). Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL). A DIAL system is similar to a LIDAR ...

  20. Analysis of Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption in the ASCENDS 2011 and 2013 Airborne Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.; Ramanathan, A.; Mao, J.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W.; Weaver, C. J.; Browell, E. V.

    2013-12-01

    We have developed a pulsed, wavelength-resolved IPDA lidar technique for measuring the tropospheric CO2 concentrations as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. The CO2 lidar flies on NASA's DC-8 aircraft and measures the atmospheric backscatter profiles and shape of the 1572.33 nm absorption line using 250 mW average laser power, 30 wavelength samples per scan with 300 scans per second. Our post-flight analysis estimates the lidar range and pulse energies at each wavelength every second. We then solve for the optimum CO2 absorption line shape, and calculated the Differential Optical Depth (DOD) at the line peak and the column average CO2 concentrations. We compared these to radiative transfer calculations based on the HITRAN 2008 database, the atmospheric conditions, and the CO2 concentrations sampled by in-situ sensors on the aircraft. Our team participated in the ASCENDS science flights during July and August 2011. These flights were made over a wide variety of surface and cloud conditions near the US, including over the central valley of California, over several mountain ranges, over both broken and solid stratus cloud deck over the Pacific Ocean, over thin and broken clouds above the US Southwest and Iowa, and over forests near the WLEF tower in Wisconsin. Most flights had 5-6 altitude steps to > 12 km, and clear CO2 absorption line shapes were recorded. Analyses show the retrievals of lidar range and CO2 column absorption, as well as estimates of CO2 mixing ratio worked well when measuring over topography with rapidly changing height and reflectivity, through thin clouds and to stratus cloud tops. For regions where the CO2 concentration was relatively constant, the measured CO2 absorption profile (averaged for 50 sec) matched the predicted profile to better than 1% RMS error for all flight altitudes. For 10 second averaging, the scatter in the retrievals was typically 2-3 ppm and was limited by signal shot noise (i.e. the signal photon count). For flight

  1. Analysis of elevation changes detected from multi-temporal LiDAR surveys in forested landslide terrain in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W.J.; Coe, J.A.; Kaya, B.S.; Ma, Liwang

    2010-01-01

    We examined elevation changes detected from two successive sets of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in the northern Coast Range of Oregon. The first set of LiDAR data was acquired during leafon conditions and the second set during leaf-off conditions. We were able to successfully identify and map active landslides using a differential digital elevation model (DEM) created from the two LiDAR data sets, but this required the use of thresholds (0.50 and 0.75 m) to remove noise from the differential elevation data, visual pattern recognition of landslideinduced elevation changes, and supplemental QuickBird satellite imagery. After mapping, we field-verified 88 percent of the landslides that we had mapped with high confidence, but we could not detect active landslides with elevation changes of less than 0.50 m. Volumetric calculations showed that a total of about 18,100 m3 of material was missing from landslide areas, probably as a result of systematic negative elevation errors in the differential DEM and as a result of removal of material by erosion and transport. We also examined the accuracies of 285 leaf-off LiDAR elevations at four landslide sites using Global Positioning System and total station surveys. A comparison of LiDAR and survey data indicated an overall root mean square error of 0.50 m, a maximum error of 2.21 m, and a systematic error of 0.09 m. LiDAR ground-point densities were lowest in areas with young conifer forests and deciduous vegetation, which resulted in extensive interpolations of elevations in the leaf-on, bare-earth DEM. For optimal use of multi-temporal LiDAR data in forested areas, we recommend that all data sets be flown during leaf-off seasons.

  2. MERLIN (Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission): an Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierangelo, C.; Millet, B.; Esteve, F.; Alpers, M.; Ehret, G.; Flamant, P.; Berthier, S.; Gibert, F.; Chomette, O.; Edouart, D.; Deniel, C.; Bousquet, P.; Chevallier, F.

    2016-06-01

    The Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission (MERLIN), currently in phase B, is a joint cooperation between France and Germany on the development, launch and operation of a methane (CH4) monitoring satellite. MERLIN is focused on global measurements of the spatial and temporal gradients of atmospheric CH4, the second most anthropogenic gas, with a precision and accuracy sufficient to constrain Methane fluxes significantly better than with the current observation network. For the first time, measurements of atmospheric composition will be performed from space thanks to an IPDA (Integrated Path Differential Absorption) LIDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging). This payload is under the responsibility of the German space agency (DLR), while the platform (MYRIADE Evolutions product line) is developed by the French space agency (CNES). The IPDA technique relies on DIAL (Differential Absorption LIDAR) measurements using a pulsed laser emitting at two wavelengths, one wavelength accurately locked on a spectral feature of the methane absorption line, and the other wavelength free from absorption to be used as reference. This technique enables measurements in all seasons, at all latitudes. It also guarantees almost no contamination by aerosols or water vapour cross-sensitivity, and thus has the advantage of an extremely low level of systematic error on the dry-air column mixing ratio of CH4.

  3. Lidar configurations for wind turbine control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Mann, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Lidar sensors have proved to be very beneficial in the wind energy industry. They can be used for yaw correction, feed-forward pitch control and load verification. However, the current lidars are expensive. One way to reduce the price is to use lidars with few measurement points. Finding the best...... by the lidar is compared against the effective wind speed on a wind turbine rotor both theoretically and through simulations. The study provides some results to choose the best configuration of the lidar with few measurement points....... configuration of an inexpensive lidar in terms of number of measurement points, the measurement distance and the opening angle is the subject of this study. In order to solve the problem, a lidar model is developed and used to measure wind speed in a turbulence box. The effective wind speed measured......Lidar sensors have proved to be very beneficial in the wind energy industry. They can be used for yaw correction, feed-forward pitch control and load verification. However, the current lidars are expensive. One way to reduce the price is to use lidars with few measurement points. Finding the best...

  4. Analysis of Two-Dimensional Inflow Measurements by Lidar-Based Wind Scanners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer Forsting, Alexander Raul; Troldborg, Niels; Sathe, Ameya

    jump induced by the turbine. Modeling and understanding the induction zone is key to establishing lidars as an industry standard for power and load estimations. Successfully modelling the upstream effects of the turbine, though, necessitates validation via measurements. The in-house developed short......The DTU led UniTTe project (unitte.dk) wants to establish lidars for power and load estimations for modern wind turbines. As these novel methods rely on scanning the flow upstream of the turbine, they come under the influence of the turbine induction zone [2], which develops due to the pressure...

  5. The fence experiment – full-scale lidar-based shelter observations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Bechmann, Andreas; Conti, Davide

    2016-01-01

    We present shelter measurements of a fence from a field experiment in Denmark. The measurements were performed with three lidars scanning on a vertical plane downwind of the fence. Inflow conditions are based on sonic observations of a nearby mast. For fence-undisturbed conditions, the lidars......’ measurements agree well with those from the sonics and, at the mast position, the average inflow conditions are well described by the logarithmic profile. Seven cases are defined based on the 5 relative wind direction to the fence, the fence porosity, and the inflow conditions. The larger the relative...

  6. Error Budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    We calculate opacity from k (hn)=-ln[T(hv)]/pL, where T(hv) is the transmission for photon energy hv, p is sample density, and L is path length through the sample. The density and path length are measured together by Rutherford backscatter. Δk = $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial T$ ΔT + $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial (pL)$. We can re-write this in terms of fractional error as Δk/k = Δ1n(T)/T + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission itself is calculated from T=(U-E)/(V-E)=B/B0, where B is transmitted backlighter (BL) signal and B0 is unattenuated backlighter signal. Then ΔT/T=Δln(T)=ΔB/B+ΔB0/B0, and consequently Δk/k = 1/T (ΔB/B + ΔB$_0$/B$_0$ + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission is measured in the range of 0.2

  7. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Tulalip Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC)to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  8. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Nooksack

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In July 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  9. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Saddle Mountain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  10. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  11. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  12. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  13. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  14. 2006 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of Western Lewis County for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data set covers...

  15. 2012 MEGIS Topographic Lidar: Statewide Lidar Project Areas 2 and 3 (Mid-Coastal Cleanup), Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data is a remotely sensed high resolution elevation data collected by an airborne platform. The LiDAR sensor uses a combination of laser range finding, GPS...

  16. 2012 MEGIS Topographic Lidar: Statewide Lidar Project Area 1 (Aroostook), Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data is a remotely sensed high resolution elevation data collected by an airborne platform. The LiDAR sensor uses a combination of laser range finding, GPS...

  17. Shape Detection from Raw LiDAR Data with Subspace Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Xu, Kai

    2017-09-01

    LiDAR scanning has become a prevalent technique for digitalizing large-scale outdoor scenes. However, the raw LiDAR data often contain imperfections, e.g., missing large regions, anisotropy of sampling density, and contamination of noise and outliers, which are the major obstacles that hinder its more ambitious and higher level applications in digital city modeling. Observing that 3D urban scenes can be locally described with several low dimensional subspaces, we propose to locally classify the neighborhoods of the scans to model the substructures of the scenes. The key enabler is the adaptive kernel-scale scoring, filtering and clustering of substructures, making it possible to recover the local structures at all points simultaneously, even in the presence of severe data imperfections. Integrating the local analyses leads to robust shape detection from raw LiDAR data. On this basis, we develop several urban scene applications and verify them on a number of LiDAR scans with various complexities and styles, which demonstrates the effectiveness and robustness of our methods.

  18. 2004 Southwest Florida Water Management District Lidar: Sarasota District

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the ortho & lidar mapping of Sarasota County, FL. The mapping consists of lidar data collected using a Leica ALS-40 Lidar Sensor,...

  19. DRAWING FOR TRAFFIC MARKING USING BIDIRECTIONAL GRADIENT-BASED DETECTION WITH MMS LIDAR INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014. The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  20. Drawing for Traffic Marking Using Bidirectional Gradient-Based Detection with MMS LIDAR Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, G.; Takeda, H.; Nakamura, K.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014). The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  1. An Inter-Comparison Study of Multi- and DBS Lidar Measurements in Complex Terrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauscher, Lukas; Vasiljevic, Nikola; Callies, Doron

    2016-01-01

    Wind measurements using classical profiling lidars suffer from systematic measurement errors in complex terrain. Moreover, their ability to measure turbulence quantities is unsatisfactory for wind-energy applications. This paper presents results from a measurement campaign during which multiple...... seems to be more important for turbulence measurements. In summary, the results clearly show the advantages of the ML technique in complex terrain and indicate that it has the potential to achieve significantly higher accuracy in measuring turbulence quantities for wind-energy applications than...... WindScanners were focused on one point next to a reference mast in complex terrain. This multi-lidar (ML) technique is also compared to a profiling lidar using the Doppler beam swinging (DBS) method. First- and second-order statistics of the radial wind velocities from the individual instruments...

  2. The Registration and Segmentation of Heterogeneous Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Durgham, Mohannad M.

    Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) mapping has been emerging over the past few years as a mainstream tool for the dense acquisition of three dimensional point data. Besides the conventional mapping missions, LiDAR systems have proven to be very useful for a wide spectrum of applications such as forestry, structural deformation analysis, urban mapping, and reverse engineering. The wide application scope of LiDAR lead to the development of many laser scanning technologies that are mountable on multiple platforms (i.e., airborne, mobile terrestrial, and tripod mounted), this caused variations in the characteristics and quality of the generated point clouds. As a result of the increased popularity and diversity of laser scanners, one should address the heterogeneous LiDAR data post processing (i.e., registration and segmentation) problems adequately. Current LiDAR integration techniques do not take into account the varying nature of laser scans originating from various platforms. In this dissertation, the author proposes a methodology designed particularly for the registration and segmentation of heterogeneous LiDAR data. A data characterization and filtering step is proposed to populate the points' attributes and remove non-planar LiDAR points. Then, a modified version of the Iterative Closest Point (ICP), denoted by the Iterative Closest Projected Point (ICPP) is designed for the registration of heterogeneous scans to remove any misalignments between overlapping strips. Next, a region-growing-based heterogeneous segmentation algorithm is developed to ensure the proper extraction of planar segments from the point clouds. Validation experiments show that the proposed heterogeneous registration can successfully align airborne and terrestrial datasets despite the great differences in their point density and their noise level. In addition, similar testes have been conducted to examine the heterogeneous segmentation and it is shown that one is able to identify common

  3. Lidar data used in the COFIN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Nielsen, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the Lidar data used in the COFIN project. The Lidar data have been obtained from several ground level dispersion experiments over flat and complex terrain. The method for treating the data and the conditons under which the data wereobtained are described in detail. Finally we...... describe the Tools to extract and visualize the Lidar data. Data, report, and visualisation tools are available on the Risø FTP server....

  4. Ozone Lidar Observations for Air Quality Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lihua; Newchurch, Mike; Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Huang, Guanyu; Pour-Biazar, Arastoo; Koshak, William; Follette-Cook, Melanie B.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; McGee, Thomas J.; hide

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone lidars are well suited to measuring the high spatio-temporal variability of this important trace gas. Furthermore, lidar measurements in conjunction with balloon soundings, aircraft, and satellite observations provide substantial information about a variety of atmospheric chemical and physical processes. Examples of processes elucidated by ozone-lidar measurements are presented, and modeling studies using WRF-Chem, RAQMS, and DALES/LES models illustrate our current understanding and shortcomings of these processes.

  5. Synthesis of Transportation Applications of Mobile LIDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Keith Williams; Michael J. Olsen; Gene V. Roe; Craig Glennie

    2013-01-01

    A thorough review of available literature was conducted to inform of advancements in mobile LIDAR technology, techniques, and current and emerging applications in transportation. The literature review touches briefly on the basics of LIDAR technology followed by a more in depth description of current mobile LIDAR trends, including system components and software. An overview of existing quality control procedures used to verify the accuracy of the collected data is presented. A collection of c...

  6. GRIP LIDAR ATMOSPHERIC SENSING EXPERIMENT (LASE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) dataset was collected by NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system, which is an airborne...

  7. NAMMA LIDAR ATMOSPHERIC SENSING EXPERIMENT (LASE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system using the DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) system was operated during the NASA African Monsoon...

  8. GRIP LIDAR ATMOSPHERIC SENSING EXPERIMENT (LASE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system is an airborne DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) system used to measure water vapor, aerosols, and...

  9. Potential of Spaceborne Lidar Measurements of Carbon Dioxide and Methane Emissions from Strong Point Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Kiemle

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Emissions from strong point sources, primarily large power plants, are a major portion of the total CO2 emissions. International climate agreements will increasingly require their independent monitoring. A satellite-based, double-pulse, direct detection Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA Lidar with the capability to actively target point sources has the potential to usefully complement the current and future GHG observing system. This initial study uses simple approaches to determine the required Lidar characteristics and the expected skill of spaceborne Lidar plume detection and emission quantification. A Gaussian plume model simulates the CO2 or CH4 distribution downstream of the sources. A Lidar simulator provides the instrument characteristics and dimensions required to retrieve the emission rates, assuming an ideal detector configuration. The Lidar sampling frequency, the footprint distance to the emitting source and the error of an individual measurement are of great importance. If wind speed and direction are known and environmental conditions are ideal, an IPDA Lidar on a 500-km orbit with 2 W average power in the 1.6 µm CO2 absorption band, 500 Hz pulse repetition frequency, 50 m footprint at sea level and 0.7 m telescope diameter can be expected to measure CO2 emission rates of 20 Mt/a with an average accuracy better than 3% up to a distance of 3 km away from the source. CH4 point source emission rates can be quantified with comparable skill if they are larger than 10 kt/a, or if the Lidar pulse repetition frequency is augmented.

  10. Improving salt marsh digital elevation model accuracy with full-waveform lidar and nonparametric predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jeffrey N.; Parrish, Christopher E.; Ward, Larry G.; Burdick, David M.

    2018-03-01

    Salt marsh vegetation tends to increase vertical uncertainty in light detection and ranging (lidar) derived elevation data, often causing the data to become ineffective for analysis of topographic features governing tidal inundation or vegetation zonation. Previous attempts at improving lidar data collected in salt marsh environments range from simply computing and subtracting the global elevation bias to more complex methods such as computing vegetation-specific, constant correction factors. The vegetation specific corrections can be used along with an existing habitat map to apply separate corrections to different areas within a study site. It is hypothesized here that correcting salt marsh lidar data by applying location-specific, point-by-point corrections, which are computed from lidar waveform-derived features, tidal-datum based elevation, distance from shoreline and other lidar digital elevation model based variables, using nonparametric regression will produce better results. The methods were developed and tested using full-waveform lidar and ground truth for three marshes in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Five different model algorithms for nonparametric regression were evaluated, with TreeNet's stochastic gradient boosting algorithm consistently producing better regression and classification results. Additionally, models were constructed to predict the vegetative zone (high marsh and low marsh). The predictive modeling methods used in this study estimated ground elevation with a mean bias of 0.00 m and a standard deviation of 0.07 m (0.07 m root mean square error). These methods appear very promising for correction of salt marsh lidar data and, importantly, do not require an existing habitat map, biomass measurements, or image based remote sensing data such as multi/hyperspectral imagery.

  11. Parallel Landscape Driven Data Reduction & Spatial Interpolation Algorithm for Big LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR topographic data provide highly accurate digital terrain information, which is used widely in applications like creating flood insurance rate maps, forest and tree studies, coastal change mapping, soil and landscape classification, 3D urban modeling, river bank management, agricultural crop studies, etc. In this paper, we focus mainly on the use of LiDAR data in terrain modeling/Digital Elevation Model (DEM generation. Technological advancements in building LiDAR sensors have enabled highly accurate and highly dense LiDAR point clouds, which have made possible high resolution modeling of terrain surfaces. However, high density data result in massive data volumes, which pose computing issues. Computational time required for dissemination, processing and storage of these data is directly proportional to the volume of the data. We describe a novel technique based on the slope map of the terrain, which addresses the challenging problem in the area of spatial data analysis, of reducing this dense LiDAR data without sacrificing its accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever landscape-driven data reduction algorithm. We also perform an empirical study, which shows that there is no significant loss in accuracy for the DEM generated from a 52% reduced LiDAR dataset generated by our algorithm, compared to the DEM generated from an original, complete LiDAR dataset. For the accuracy of our statistical analysis, we perform Root Mean Square Error (RMSE comparing all of the grid points of the original DEM to the DEM generated by reduced data, instead of comparing a few random control points. Besides, our multi-core data reduction algorithm is highly scalable. We also describe a modified parallel Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW spatial interpolation method and show that the DEMs it generates are time-efficient and have better accuracy than the one’s generated by the traditional IDW method.

  12. NWP Forecast Errors of Boundary Layer Flow in Complex Terrain Observed During the Second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP2) Field Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James M.

    2017-04-01

    The Second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP2) is a U.S. Department of Energy and NOAA-led program whose goal is to improve the accuracy of NWP forecasts of wind speed in complex terrain for wind energy applications. WFIP2 includes a field campaign held in the vicinity of the Columbia River Basin in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S., which began in October 2015, and will continue through March, 2017. As part of WFIP2 a large suite of in-situ and remote sensing instrumentation has been deployed, including a network of three 449 MHz radar wind profilers (RWP's) with RASS, eight 915 MHz RWP's with RASS, 18 sodars, 4 profiling microwave radiometers, 5 scanning lidars, 5 profiling lidars, a network of 10 microbarographs, and many surface meteorological stations. Key NWP forecast models utilized for WFIP2 are the 13 km resolution Rapid Refresh (RAP), 3km High Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR), 0.75km HRRR-Nest, and the 12 km North American Mesoscale (NAM) forecast system. Preliminary results from WFIP2 will be presented, including seasonal variations of model forecast errors of wind speed, direction, temperature and humidity profiles and boundary layer depths; meteorological phenomena producing large forecast errors; and the relative skill of the various NWP forecasting systems. Diurnal time height cross-sections of the model's mean bias and RMSE are evaluated for each of the models, providing a holistic view of model accuracy at simulating boundary layer structure. Model errors are analyzed as a function of season (3 month averages) and location, and show the impact of increasing model resolution on forecast skill. Seasonal averages of model biases and RMSE provide more robust results than do shorter case study episodes, and can be used to verify that model errors found in shorter case study episodes are in fact representative. The results are used to identify specific model weaknesses and the corresponding parameterization schemes that are in greatest need of

  13. Air aerosol pollution and lidar measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorov, Alexander D.; Kopp, Ilia Z.; Perelman, Anri Y.

    1995-09-01

    The means and techniques of lidar sounding are nowadays widely used to obtain the data on the aerosol pollution of the atmosphere, including the industrial emissions and atmospheric characteristics around highways. To add to that scope, pioneering unconventional lidar sounding of optical and microphysical aerosol characteristics was organized during the recent field programs: CLE (Leningrad, 1984), Soviet-American AUTOEX experiment (Leningrad, 1988), Leningrad experiment (1991). The paper presents lidar data obtained from these programs. The problem of interpreting lidar measurements data is discussed. The relationships between optical and microphysical aerosol characteristics are analysed.

  14. LAND COVER INFORMATION EXTRACTION USING LIDAR DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Shaker, A; N. El-Ashmawy

    2012-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) systems are used intensively in terrain surface modelling based on the range data determined by the LiDAR sensors. LiDAR sensors record the distance between the sensor and the targets (range data) with a capability to record the strength of the backscatter energy reflected from the targets (intensity data). The LiDAR sensors use the near-infrared spectrum range which has high separability in the reflected energy from different targets. This characteristic i...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  17. Improved cloud-phase determination of low-level liquid and mixed-phase clouds by enhanced polarimetric lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Stillwell

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The unambiguous retrieval of cloud phase from polarimetric lidar observations is dependent on the assumption that only cloud scattering processes affect polarization measurements. A systematic bias of the traditional lidar depolarization ratio can occur due to a lidar system's inability to accurately measure the entire backscattered signal dynamic range, and these biases are not always identifiable in traditional polarimetric lidar systems. This results in a misidentification of liquid water in clouds as ice, which has broad implications on evaluating surface energy budgets. The Clouds Aerosol Polarization and Backscatter Lidar at Summit, Greenland employs multiple planes of linear polarization, and photon counting and analog detection schemes, to self evaluate, correct, and optimize signal combinations to improve cloud classification. Using novel measurements of diattenuation that are sensitive to both horizontally oriented ice crystals and counting system nonlinear effects, unambiguous measurements are possible by over constraining polarization measurements. This overdetermined capability for cloud-phase determination allows for system errors to be identified and quantified in terms of their impact on cloud properties. It is shown that lidar system dynamic range effects can cause errors in cloud-phase fractional occurrence estimates on the order of 30 % causing errors in attribution of cloud radiative effects on the order of 10–30 %. This paper presents a method to identify and remove lidar system effects from atmospheric polarization measurements and uses co-located sensors at Summit to evaluate this method. Enhanced measurements are achieved in this work with non-orthogonal polarization retrievals as well as analog and photon counting detection facilitating a more complete attribution of radiative effects linked to cloud properties.

  18. Research on the space-borne coherent wind lidar technique and the prototype experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Long; Tao, Yuliang; An, Chao; Yang, Jukui; Du, Guojun; Zheng, Yongchao

    2016-10-01

    Space-borne coherent wind lidar technique is considered as one of the most promising and appropriate remote Sensing methods for successfully measuring the whole global vector wind profile between the lower atmosphere and the middle atmosphere. Compared with other traditional methods, the space-borne coherent wind lidar has some advantages, such as, the all-day operation; many lidar systems can be integrated into the same satellite because of the light-weight and the small size, eye-safe wavelength, and being insensitive to the background light. Therefore, this coherent lidar could be widely applied into the earth climate research, disaster monitoring, numerical weather forecast, environment protection. In this paper, the 2μm space-borne coherent wind lidar system for measuring the vector wind profile is proposed. And the technical parameters about the sub-system of the coherent wind lidar are simulated and the all sub-system schemes are proposed. For sake of validating the technical parameters of the space-borne coherent wind lidar system and the optical off-axis telescope, the weak laser signal detection technique, etc. The proto-type coherent wind lidar is produced and the experiments for checking the performance of this proto-type coherent wind lidar are finished with the hard-target and the soft target, and the horizontal wind and the vertical wind profile are measured and calibrated, respectively. For this proto-type coherent wind lidar, the wavelength is 1.54μm, the pulse energy 80μJ, the pulse width 300ns, the diameter of the off-axis telescope 120mm, the single wedge for cone scanning with the 40°angle, and the two dualbalanced InGaAs detector modules are used. The experiment results are well consisted with the simulation process, and these results show that the wind profile between the vertical altitude 4km can be measured, the accuracy of the wind velocity and the wind direction are better than 1m/s and +/-10°, respectively.

  19. AREA-BASED SNOW DAMAGE CLASSIFICATION OF FOREST CANOPIES USING BI- TEMPORAL LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Vastaranta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Multitemporal LiDAR data provide means for mapping structural changes in forest canopies. We demonstrate the use of area-based estimation method for snow damage assessment. Change features of bi-temporal LiDAR point height distributions were used as predictors in combination with in situ training data. In the winter 2009–2010, snow damages occurred in Hyytiälä (62°N, 24°E, southern Finland. Snow load resulted in broken, bent and fallen trees changing the canopy structure. The damages were documented at the tree level at permanent field plots and dense LiDAR data from 2007 and 2010 were used in the analyses. A 5 × 5-m grid was established in one pine%ndash;spruce stand and change metrics from the LiDAR point height distribution were extracted for the cells. Cells were classified as damaged (n = 43 or undamaged (n = 42 based on the field data. Stepwise logistic regression detected the damaged cells with an overall accuracy of 78.6% (Kappa = 0.57. The best predictors were differences in h-distribution percentage points 5, 35, 40, 50 and 70 of first-or-single return data. The tentative results from the single stand suggest that dense bi-temporal LiDAR data and an area-based approach could be feasible in mapping canopy changes. The accuracy of the point h-distribution is dependent on the pulse density per grid cell. Depending on the time span between LiDAR acquisitions, the natural changes of the h- distributions due to tree growth need to be accounted for as well as differences in the scanning geometry, which can substantially affect the LiDAR h-metrics.

  20. LIDAR Data Acquisition and Processing for assessing critical fuel parameters: the case study of Bosco dell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia, A.; Zampino, A.; Lasaponara, R.; Lanorte, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the last decades, the abandonment of rural areas has caused an increasing accumulation of fuels (the organic matter available for ignition and combustion) which is considered very critical for the whole Mediterranean Basin because fire ignition and propagation depend strongly on the availability and structure of wild land fuels. Detailed information on fuel properties (e.g. fuel load, spatial arrangement, structure, status etc.) and fuel distribution are essential for supporting (i) fuel management, (ii) fire behaviour prediction (iii) real-time fire suppression tactics and (iv) logistics decisions. Airborne full-waveform laser scanning (ALS) is a potential tool for accurately and effectively assessing critical fuel parameters (including canopy bulk density, canopy height, canopy fuel weight, and canopy base height) over forest areas. The LIDAR is an active high resolution technology capable to provide accurate three dimensional forest structure measurements. The aim of this paper is to develop the use of lidar (LIght Detection and Ranging) remote sensing for accurately and effectively assessing fuel critical parameters in a natural protected area (Bosco dell'Incoronata) located in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy). Lidar data acquisition was carried out on April 2008 for both Bosco dell'Incoronata and surrounding areas. An integrated approach was used to identify and characterize critical fuel parameters using a combination of lidar height bins and ortophotos. Estimates of fuel properties were compared with in-situ data collected at the same time (more or less) as the LIDAR data acquisition. Specific goals of our analysis include: (1) developing lidar derived products and the methodology to use them for assessing critical fuel parameters, and (2) producing spatially explicit digital fuel maps. The obtained results pointed out that LIDAR-based fuel properties and prediction models can be fruitfully used for mapping critical fuel parameters (including canopy

  1. ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGIES FOR THE ESTIMATION OF LOCAL POINT DENSITY INDEX: MOVING TOWARDS ADAPTIVE LIDAR DATA PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, LiDAR systems have been established as a leading technology for the acquisition of high density point clouds over physical surfaces. These point clouds will be processed for the extraction of geo-spatial information. Local point density is one of the most important properties of the point cloud that highly affects the performance of data processing techniques and the quality of extracted information from these data. Therefore, it is necessary to define a standard methodology for the estimation of local point density indices to be considered for the precise processing of LiDAR data. Current definitions of local point density indices, which only consider the 2D neighbourhood of individual points, are not appropriate for 3D LiDAR data and cannot be applied for laser scans from different platforms. In order to resolve the drawbacks of these methods, this paper proposes several approaches for the estimation of the local point density index which take the 3D relationship among the points and the physical properties of the surfaces they belong to into account. In the simplest approach, an approximate value of the local point density for each point is defined while considering the 3D relationship among the points. In the other approaches, the local point density is estimated by considering the 3D neighbourhood of the point in question and the physical properties of the surface which encloses this point. The physical properties of the surfaces enclosing the LiDAR points are assessed through eigen-value analysis of the 3D neighbourhood of individual points and adaptive cylinder methods. This paper will discuss these approaches and highlight their impact on various LiDAR data processing activities (i.e., neighbourhood definition, region growing, segmentation, boundary detection, and classification. Experimental results from airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data verify the efficacy of considering local point density variation for

  2. Three-dimension imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, John J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    This invention is directed to a 3-dimensional imaging lidar, which utilizes modest power kHz rate lasers, array detectors, photon-counting multi-channel timing receivers, and dual wedge optical scanners with transmitter point-ahead correction to provide contiguous high spatial resolution mapping of surface features including ground, water, man-made objects, vegetation and submerged surfaces from an aircraft or a spacecraft.

  3. Modeling Forest Biomass and Growth: Coupling Long-Term Inventory and Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Chad; Finley, Andrew O.; Cook, Bruce D.; Weiskittel, Andrew; Woodall, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Combining spatially-explicit long-term forest inventory and remotely sensed information from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) datasets through statistical models can be a powerful tool for predicting and mapping above-ground biomass (AGB) at a range of geographic scales. We present and examine a novel modeling approach to improve prediction of AGB and estimate AGB growth using LiDAR data. The proposed model accommodates temporal misalignment between field measurements and remotely sensed data-a problem pervasive in such settings-by including multiple time-indexed measurements at plot locations to estimate AGB growth. We pursue a Bayesian modeling framework that allows for appropriately complex parameter associations and uncertainty propagation through to prediction. Specifically, we identify a space-varying coefficients model to predict and map AGB and its associated growth simultaneously. The proposed model is assessed using LiDAR data acquired from NASA Goddard's LiDAR, Hyper-spectral & Thermal imager and field inventory data from the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Bradley, Maine. The proposed model outperformed the time-invariant counterpart models in predictive performance as indicated by a substantial reduction in root mean squared error. The proposed model adequately accounts for temporal misalignment through the estimation of forest AGB growth and accommodates residual spatial dependence. Results from this analysis suggest that future AGB models informed using remotely sensed data, such as LiDAR, may be improved by adapting traditional modeling frameworks to account for temporal misalignment and spatial dependence using random effects.

  4. Retrieval and analysis of a polarized high-spectral-resolution lidar for profiling aerosol optical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong; Yang, Yongying; Cheng, Zhongtao; Huang, Hanlu; Zhang, Bo; Ling, Tong; Shen, Yibing

    2013-06-03

    Taking advantage of the broad spectrum of the Cabannes-Brillouin scatter from atmospheric molecules, the high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) technique employs a narrow spectral filter to separate the aerosol and molecular scattering components in the lidar return signals and therefore can obtain the aerosol optical properties as well as the lidar ratio (i.e., the extinction-to-backscatter ratio) which is normally selected or modeled in traditional backscatter lidars. A polarized HSRL instrument, which employs an interferometric spectral filter, is under development at the Zhejiang University (ZJU), China. In this paper, the theoretical basis to retrieve the aerosol lidar ratio, depolarization ratio and extinction and backscatter coefficients, is presented. Error analyses and sensitivity studies have been carried out on the spectral transmittance characteristics of the spectral filter. The result shows that a filter that has as small aerosol transmittance (i.e., large aerosol rejection rate) and large molecular transmittance as possible is desirable. To achieve accurate retrieval, the transmittance of the spectral filter for molecular and aerosol scattering signals should be well characterized.

  5. Lidar-measured winds from space: A key component for weather and climate prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wayman E.; Emmitt, George D.; Robertson, Franklin; Atlas, Robert M.; Molinari, John E.; Bowdle, David A.; Paegle, Jan; Hardesty, R. Michael; Menzies, Robert T.; Krishnamurti, T. N.

    1995-01-01

    The deployment of a space-based Doppler lidar would provide information that is fundamental to advancing the understanding and prediction of weather and climate. This paper reviews the concepts of wind measurement by Doppler lidar, highlights the results of some observing system simulation experiments with lidar winds, and discusses the important advances in earth system science anticipated with lidar winds. Observing system simulation experiments, conducted using two different general circulation models, have shown (1) that there is a significant improvement in the forecast accuracy over the Southern Hemisphere and tropical oceans resulting from the assimilation of simulated satellite wind data, and (2) that wind data are significantly more effective than temperature or moisture data in controlling analysis error. Because accurate wind observations are currently almost entirely unavailable for the vast majority of tropical cyclones worldwide, lidar winds have the potential to substan- tially improve tropical cyclone forecasts. Similarly, to improve water vapor flux divergence calculations, a direct measure of the ageostrophic wind is needed since the present level of uncer- tainty cannot be reduced with better temperature and moisture soundings alone.

  6. LIDAR Metrology for Prescription Characterization and Alignment of Large Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eegholm, B.; Eichhorn, W.; von Handorf, R.; Hayden, J.; Ohl, R.; Wenzel, G.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the use of LIDAR, or "laser radar," (LR) as a fast, accurate, and non-contact tool for the measurement of the radius of curvature (RoC) of large mirrors. We report the results of a demonstration of this concept using a commercial laser radar system. We measured the RoC of a 1.4m x 1m spherical mirror with a nominal RoC of 4.6 m with a manufacturing tolerance of 4600mm +/- 6mm. The prescription of the mirror is related to its role as ground support equipment used in the test of part of the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). The RoC of such a large mirror is not easily measured without contacting the surface. From a position near the center of curvature of the mirror, the LIDAR scanned the mirror surface, sampling it with 1 point per 3.5 sq cm. The measurement consisted of 3983 points and lasted only a few minutes. The laser radar uses the LIDAR signal to provide range, and encoder information from angular azimuth and elevation rotation stages provide the spherical coordinates of a given point. A best-fit to a sphere of the measured points was performed. The resulting RoC was within 20 ppm of the nominal RoC, also showing good agreement with the results of a laser tracker-based, contact metrology. This paper also discusses parameters such as test alignment, scan density, and optical surface type, as well as future possible application for full prescription characterization of aspherical mirrors, including radius, conic, off-axis distance, and aperture.

  7. Landslide stability analysis on basis of LIDAR data extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas M.; Dong, Mei; Azzam, Rafig

    2010-05-01

    Currently, existing contradictory between remediation and acquisition from natural resource induces a series of divergences. With regard to open pit mining, legal regulation requires human to fill back the open pit area with water or recreate new landscape by other materials; on the other hand, human can not help excavating the mining area due to the shortage of power resource. However, to engineering geologists, one coincident problem which takes place not only in filling but also in mining operation should be paid more attention to, i.e. the slope stability analysis within these areas. There are a number of construction activities during remediation or mining process which can directly or indirectly cause slope failure. Lives can be endangered since local failure either while or after remediation; for mining process, slope failure in a bench, which carries a main haul road or is adjacent to human activity area, would be significant catastrophe to the whole mining program. The stability of an individual bench or slope is controlled by several factors, which are geological condition, morphology, climate, excavation techniques and transportation approach. The task which takes the longest time is to collect the morphological data. Consequently, it is one of the most dangerous tasks due to the time consuming in mining field. LIDAR scanning for morphological data collecting can help to skip this obstacle since advantages of LIDAR techniques as follows: • Dynamic range available on the market: from 3 m to beyond 1 km, • Ruggedly designed for demanding field applications, • Compact, easily hand-carried and deployed by a single operator. In 2009, scanning campaigns for 2 open pit quarry have been carried out. The aim for these LIDAR detections is to construct a detailed 3D quarry model and analyze the bench stability to support the filling planning. The 3D quarry surface was built up by using PolyWorks 10.1 on basis of LIDAR data. LIDAR data refining takes an

  8. Development of an Online Archive for Terrestrial Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Christopher; Lowry, Ben; McWhirter, Jeff; Phillips, David; Meertens, Chuck

    2013-04-01

    particularly important for scan reoccupations and repeat scanning for geodetic studies. Each RAMADDA service logs its processing workflow and related parameters to retain provenance and allow for constraints on error budgets and transparent reprocessing by future investigators. In addition to storing the L0 raw scan data in proprietary format, the TLS repository will also host UNAVCO's standard L1 data product, a merged, aligned point cloud in an open format (LAS, ASCII, E57). This product is the most accessible and useful starting point for supported investigators conducting TLS-based science. While directly accessible to the UNAVCO community, the RAMADDA system also provides service-level access, enabling an external client such as the OpenTopography lidar data facility to display metadata and directly access data from the UNAVCO-based repository.

  9. Impact of a refined airborne LiDAR stochastic model for natural hazard applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, C. L.; Bolkas, D.; Fotopoulos, G.

    2016-12-01

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) is often employed to derive multi-temporal Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), that are used to estimate vertical displacement resulting from natural hazards such as landslides, rockfalls and erosion. Vertical displacements are estimated by computing the difference between two DEMs separated by a specified time period and applying a threshold to remove the inherent noise. Thus, reliable information about the accuracy of DEMs is essential. The assessment of airborne LiDAR errors is typically based on (i) independent ground control points (ii) forward error propagation utilizing the LiDAR geo-referencing equation. The latter approach is dependent on the stochastic model information of the LiDAR measurements. Furthermore, it provides the user with point-by-point accuracy estimation. In this study, a refined stochastic model is obtained through variance component estimation (VCE) for a dataset in Houston, Texas. Results show that initial stochastic information was optimistic by 35% for both horizontal coordinates and ellipsoidal heights. To assess the impact of a refined stochastic model, surface displacement simulations are evaluated. The simulations include scenarios with topographic slopes that vary from 10º to 60º, and vertical displacement of ±1 to ±5 m. Results highlight the cases where a reliable stochastic model is important. A refined stochastic model can be used in practical applications for determining appropriate noise thresholds in vertical displacement, improve quantitative analysis, and enhance relevant decision-making.

  10. Dynamic Data Filtering of Long-Range Doppler LiDAR Wind Speed Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauke Beck

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Doppler LiDARs have become flexible and versatile remote sensing devices for wind energy applications. The possibility to measure radial wind speed components contemporaneously at multiple distances is an advantage with respect to meteorological masts. However, these measurements must be filtered due to the measurement geometry, hard targets and atmospheric conditions. To ensure a maximum data availability while producing low measurement errors, we introduce a dynamic data filter approach that conditionally decouples the dependency of data availability with increasing range. The new filter approach is based on the assumption of self-similarity, that has not been used so far for LiDAR data filtering. We tested the accuracy of the dynamic data filter approach together with other commonly used filter approaches, from research and industry applications. This has been done with data from a long-range pulsed LiDAR installed at the offshore wind farm ‘alpha ventus’. There, an ultrasonic anemometer located approximately 2.8 km from the LiDAR was used as reference. The analysis of around 1.5 weeks of data shows, that the error of mean radial velocity can be minimised for wake and free stream conditions.

  11. NLAS: Improving the Accessibility and Utility of Lidar Waveform Data in the Earth Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, C. J.; Blair, J. B.; Carabajal, C. C.; Haran, T. M.; Hofton, M. A.; Khalsa, S. S.; McWhirter, J.; Meertens, C. M.; Nandigam, V.

    2011-12-01

    Lidar (Light detection and ranging) is finding an increasing number of applications in the Earth sciences. Upward trends in the number of sources and the volume and complexity of lidar data present significant challenges for existing Earth science data systems tasked with serving these data. Moreover, scientists not accustomed to working with lidar often encounter barriers in discovering, accessing, decoding, analyzing and interpreting the data. Conversely, the groups acquiring lidar data struggle to deliver data products in standardized and self-describing formats that allow the various applications communities to fully utilize their data. A collaborative project funded by the NASA ROSES ACCESS program is developing a system that provides access to and services on existing lidar data archives. Working with data from satellite, low- and high-altitude airborne and terrestrial lidar platforms, we are attempting to harmonize the terminology, quality indicators, structure and encodings of these data to improve their accessibility and utility. The Web service-based systems created by this project, called NLAS (NASA Lidar Access System), provide federated access to lidar archives hosted at the National Snow and Ice Data Center DAAC, Goddard Space Flight Center LVIS Data Center, UNAVCO, and the OpenTopography Facility at the San Diego Supercomputing Center (SDSC). NLAS systems will provide access to satellite laser altimetry data from ICESat and high altitude airborne laser scanning data from LVIS, as well as low altitude airborne LiDAR and terrestrial laser scanning data hosted at OpenTopography and UNAVCO. NLAS uses instances of RAMADDA, an open-source, web-based content repository and publishing platform, to service search, subsetting, format conversion, and data transfer requests. Automated metadata extraction and generation by RAMADDA, and the generation of reader code based on a data dictionary, eases data ingest. The OpenTopography portal acts as a client to the

  12. GEOMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LIDAR DATA BASED ON SWATH OVERLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sampath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidelines on quantifying the relative horizontal and vertical errors observed between conjugate features in the overlapping regions of lidar data. The quantification of these errors is important because their presence quantifies the geometric quality of the data. A data set can be said to have good geometric quality if measurements of identical features, regardless of their position or orientation, yield identical results. Good geometric quality indicates that the data are produced using sensor models that are working as they are mathematically designed, and data acquisition processes are not introducing any unforeseen distortion in the data. High geometric quality also leads to high geolocation accuracy of the data when the data acquisition process includes coupling the sensor with geopositioning systems. Current specifications (e.g. Heidemann 2014 do not provide adequate means to quantitatively measure these errors, even though they are required to be reported. Current accuracy measurement and reporting practices followed in the industry and as recommended by data specification documents also potentially underestimate the inter-swath errors, including the presence of systematic errors in lidar data. Hence they pose a risk to the user in terms of data acceptance (i.e. a higher potential for Type II error indicating risk of accepting potentially unsuitable data. For example, if the overlap area is too small or if the sampled locations are close to the center of overlap, or if the errors are sampled in flat regions when there are residual pitch errors in the data, the resultant Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD can still be small. To avoid this, the following are suggested to be used as criteria for defining the inter-swath quality of data: a Median Discrepancy Angle b Mean and RMSD of Horizontal Errors using DQM measured on sloping surfaces c RMSD for sampled locations from flat areas (defined as areas with less than 5

  13. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  14. Infrastructure Investment Protection with LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The primary goal of this research effort was to explore the wide variety of uses of LiDAR technology and to evaluate their : applicability to NCDOT practices. NCDOT can use this information about LiDAR in determining how and when the : technology can...

  15. Lidar measured vertical atmospheric scattering profiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    The vertical structure of the atmosphere, which is of invaluable interest to meteorologists, geo-physicists and environmental researchers, can be measured with LIDAR. A method has been proposed and applied to invert lidar signals from vertical soundings to height resolved scattering coefficients. In

  16. 2014 USGS/NRCS Lidar: Central MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS-NRCS Laurel MS 0.7m NPS LIDAR Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G13PD01086 Woolpert...

  17. 2006 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Aiken County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The LiDAR data acquisition was executed in five sessions, on March 15, 16 & 17, 2006, using a Leica ALS50 LiDAR System. Specific details about the ALS50 system...

  18. The ITER Thomson scattering core LIDAR diagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naylor, G.A.; Scannell, R.; Beurskens, M.; Walsh, M.J.; Pastor, I.; Donné, A.J.H.; Snijders, B.; Biel, W.; Meszaros, B.; Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Marot, L.

    2012-01-01

    The central electron temperature and density of the ITER plasma may be determined by Thomson scattering. A LIDAR topology is proposed in order to minimize the port access required of the ITER vacuum vessel. By using a LIDAR technique, a profile of the electron temperature and density can be

  19. 2012 USGS Lidar: Elwha River (WA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Elwha River, WA LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01088 Woolpert Order No....

  20. Development of lidar techniques for environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats

    1996-09-01

    The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system that was first described in 1987. The lidar system is based on a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. During the last few years the lidar group has focused on fluorescence imaging and mercury measurements in the troposphere. In 1994 we performed two campaigns: one fluorescence imaging measurement campaign outside Avignon, France and one unique lidar campaign at a mercury mine in Almaden, Spain. Both campaigns are described in this thesis. This thesis also describes how the mobile lidar system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW to obtain a user friendly lidar system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measured data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. All electronics and the major parts of the program are described. A new graphical technique to estimate wind speed from plumes is also discussed. First measurements have been performed with the new system. 31 refs, 19 figs, 1 tab

  1. 2013 NRCS-USGS Lidar: Lauderdale (MS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME:NRCS LAUDERDALE MS 0.7M NPS LIDAR. LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task. USGS Contract No. G10PC00057. Task Order No. G12PD000125 Woolpert...

  2. Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME:(NRCS) Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01254 Woolpert Order...

  3. Synthesis of Transportation Applications of Mobile LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Williams

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A thorough review of available literature was conducted to inform of advancements in mobile LIDAR technology, techniques, and current and emerging applications in transportation. The literature review touches briefly on the basics of LIDAR technology followed by a more in depth description of current mobile LIDAR trends, including system components and software. An overview of existing quality control procedures used to verify the accuracy of the collected data is presented. A collection of case studies provides a clear description of the advantages of mobile LIDAR, including an increase in safety and efficiency. The final sections of the review identify current challenges the industry is facing, the guidelines that currently exist, and what else is needed to streamline the adoption of mobile LIDAR by transportation agencies. Unfortunately, many of these guidelines do not cover the specific challenges and concerns of mobile LIDAR use as many have been developed for airborne LIDAR acquisition and processing. From this review, there is a lot of discussion on “what” is being done in practice, but not a lot on “how” and “how well” it is being done. A willingness to share information going forward will be important for the successful use of mobile LIDAR.

  4. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  5. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement unce...

  6. ASSESSING TEMPORAL BEHAVIOR IN LIDAR POINT CLOUDS OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schachtschneider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-driving cars and robots that run autonomously over long periods of time need high-precision and up-to-date models of the changing environment. The main challenge for creating long term maps of dynamic environments is to identify changes and adapt the map continuously. Changes can occur abruptly, gradually, or even periodically. In this work, we investigate how dense mapping data of several epochs can be used to identify the temporal behavior of the environment. This approach anticipates possible future scenarios where a large fleet of vehicles is equipped with sensors which continuously capture the environment. This data is then being sent to a cloud based infrastructure, which aligns all datasets geometrically and subsequently runs scene analysis on it, among these being the analysis for temporal changes of the environment. Our experiments are based on a LiDAR mobile mapping dataset which consists of 150 scan strips (a total of about 1 billion points, which were obtained in multiple epochs. Parts of the scene are covered by up to 28 scan strips. The time difference between the first and last epoch is about one year. In order to process the data, the scan strips are aligned using an overall bundle adjustment, which estimates the surface (about one billion surface element unknowns as well as 270,000 unknowns for the adjustment of the exterior orientation parameters. After this, the surface misalignment is usually below one centimeter. In the next step, we perform a segmentation of the point clouds using a region growing algorithm. The segmented objects and the aligned data are then used to compute an occupancy grid which is filled by tracing each individual LiDAR ray from the scan head to every point of a segment. As a result, we can assess the behavior of each segment in the scene and remove voxels from temporal objects from the global occupancy grid.

  7. Assessing Temporal Behavior in LIDAR Point Clouds of Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschneider, J.; Schlichting, A.; Brenner, C.

    2017-05-01

    Self-driving cars and robots that run autonomously over long periods of time need high-precision and up-to-date models of the changing environment. The main challenge for creating long term maps of dynamic environments is to identify changes and adapt the map continuously. Changes can occur abruptly, gradually, or even periodically. In this work, we investigate how dense mapping data of several epochs can be used to identify the temporal behavior of the environment. This approach anticipates possible future scenarios where a large fleet of vehicles is equipped with sensors which continuously capture the environment. This data is then being sent to a cloud based infrastructure, which aligns all datasets geometrically and subsequently runs scene analysis on it, among these being the analysis for temporal changes of the environment. Our experiments are based on a LiDAR mobile mapping dataset which consists of 150 scan strips (a total of about 1 billion points), which were obtained in multiple epochs. Parts of the scene are covered by up to 28 scan strips. The time difference between the first and last epoch is about one year. In order to process the data, the scan strips are aligned using an overall bundle adjustment, which estimates the surface (about one billion surface element unknowns) as well as 270,000 unknowns for the adjustment of the exterior orientation parameters. After this, the surface misalignment is usually below one centimeter. In the next step, we perform a segmentation of the point clouds using a region growing algorithm. The segmented objects and the aligned data are then used to compute an occupancy grid which is filled by tracing each individual LiDAR ray from the scan head to every point of a segment. As a result, we can assess the behavior of each segment in the scene and remove voxels from temporal objects from the global occupancy grid.

  8. Measuring Effective Leaf Area Index, Foliage Profile, and Stand Height in New England Forest Stands Using a Full-Waveform Ground-Based Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Yang, Xiaoyuan; Schull, Mithcell A.; Roman-Colon, Miguel O.; Yao, Tian; Wang, Zhuosen; Zhang, Qingling; Jupp, David L. B.; Lovell, Jenny L.; Culvenor, Darius; hide

    2011-01-01

    Effective leaf area index (LAI) retrievals from a scanning, ground-based, near-infrared (1064 nm) lidar that digitizes the full return waveform, the Echidna Validation Instrument (EVI), are in good agreement with those obtained from both hemispherical photography and the Li-Cor LAI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer. We conducted trials at 28 plots within six stands of hardwoods and conifers of varying height and stocking densities at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, Bartlett Experimental Forest, New Hampshire, and Howland Experimental Forest, Maine, in July 2007. Effective LAI values retrieved by four methods, which ranged from 3.42 to 5.25 depending on the site and method, were not significantly different ( b0.1 among four methods). The LAI values also matched published values well. Foliage profiles (leaf area with height) retrieved from the lidar scans, although not independently validated, were consistent with stand structure as observed and as measured by conventional methods. Canopy mean top height, as determined from the foliage profiles, deviated from mean RH100 values obtained from the Lidar Vegetation Imaging Sensor (LVIS) airborne large-footprint lidar system at 27 plots by .0.91 m with RMSE=2.04 m, documenting the ability of the EVI to retrieve stand height. The Echidna Validation Instrument is the first realization of the Echidna lidar concept, devised by Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO), for measuring forest structure using full-waveform, ground-based, scanning lidar.

  9. Generating passive NIR images from active LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagstrom, Shea; Broadwater, Joshua

    2016-05-01

    Many modern LIDAR platforms contain an integrated RGB camera for capturing contextual imagery. However, these RGB cameras do not collect a near-infrared (NIR) color channel, omitting information useful for many analytical purposes. This raises the question of whether LIDAR data, collected in the NIR, can be used as a substitute for an actual NIR image in this situation. Generating a LIDAR-based NIR image is potentially useful in situations where another source of NIR, such as satellite imagery, is not available. LIDAR is an active sensing system that operates very differently from a passive system, and thus requires additional processing and calibration to approximate the output of a passive instrument. We examine methods of approximating passive NIR images from LIDAR for real-world datasets, and assess differences with true NIR images.

  10. Semiconductor Laser Wind Lidar for Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi

    This thesis describes an experimentally oriented study of continuous wave (CW) coherent Doppler lidar system design. The main application is remote wind sensing for active wind turbine control using nacelle mounted lidar systems; and the primary focus is to devise an industrial instrument that can...... improve the efficiency of harvesting wind energy in commercial wind farms. This work attempts to provide a complete investigation of all the necessary building blocks in a CW wind lidar, from the light source to the optical transceiver. The basic concept of Doppler lidar is introduced along with a brief...... and demonstrated in this work. The challenge, aside from cost and compactness, is to ensure a long lifetime without regular maintenance, since the wind turbines are designed to last for 20 years. Finally, field test results of various measurement campaigns, designed to evaluate our lidar design, are presented here...

  11. Reexamination of depolarization in lidar measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimmestad, Gary G

    2008-07-20

    Almost all of the depolarization papers in the lidar literature employ a physically inappropriate notation and they use a definition of the depolarization ratio that is not linear in the quantity of interest. This depolarization lidar legacy is misleading and confusing. In particular, subscripts meaning parallel and perpendicular do not apply to atmospheric parameters, such as the volume backscatter coefficient, because (for linear polarization) the two components of the backscattered light are polarized in the transmitted sense and completely unpolarized; the unpolarized component is not "perpendicular." An analysis of lidar depolarization measurements with a particle scattering matrix recently provided in the literature yields algorithms for retrieving the depolarization parameter from either linear or circular depolarization lidar measurements. The analysis, notation, and definitions recommended here harmonize lidar depolarization analysis with radiative transfer theory, particle scattering theory, and standard polarization measurement techniques.

  12. Accuracy of biomass estimates from radar and lidar over temperate forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, R.; Siqueira, P. R.; Hensley, S.

    2011-12-01

    A better understanding of ecosystem processes requires accurate estimates of forest biomass and structure on global scales. Recently, there have been demonstrations of the ability of remote sensing instruments, such as radar and lidar, for the estimation of forest parameters from spaceborne platforms in a consistent manner. These advances can be exploited for global forest biomass accounting and structure characterization, leading to a better understanding of the global carbon cycle. The popular techniques for estimation of forest parameters from radar instruments in particular, use backscatter intensity, interferometry and polarimetric interferometry. In this paper we analyze the accuracy of biomass estimates over temperate forests of the North-Eastern United States from lidar and radar backscatter. We adopt an empirical approach, relying on ground truth data collected during DESDynI field campaigns over the Harvard and Howland Forests in 2009 and remote sensing data from LVIS, the GSFC full-waveform lidar and NASA JPL's L-band UAVSAR. UAVSAR collected data over the Harvard and Howland Forests during a deployment in 2009 where it was flown in a repeat-pass configuration collecting several fully polarimetric scenes. In a concurrent deployment of the GSFC LVIS instrument, full waveform lidar data was collected over the same region. Diameter and species information from fifteen hectares at the Harvard Forest and twenty three hectares at the Howland forest was collected during the July 2009 DESDynI field campaigns as well. We assess the accuracy of biomass estimates based on diameter measurements by using a classic statistical approach to characterize the impact of the diameter-biomass allometry at both field sites. Using a lidar error model and estimates of error in field biomass, we attempt to characterize the error in biomass estimates from common full waveform lidar metrics from LVIS data over the Harvard and Howland forests. Similarly, using a radar backscatter

  13. Calibration Methods for a Space Borne Backscatter Lidar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Lidar returns from cloud decks and from the Earth's surface are useful for calibrating single scatter lidar signals from space. To this end analytical methods (forward and backward) are presented for inverting lidar waveforms in terms of the path integrated lidar retum and the transmission losses

  14. Remote Sensing of Cloud Top Heights Using the Research Scanning Polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Kenneth; van Diedenhoven, Bastiaan; Cairns, Brian; Yorks, John; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Clouds cover roughly two thirds of the globe and act as an important regulator of Earth's radiation budget. Of these, multilayered clouds occur about half of the time and are predominantly two-layered. Changes in cloud top height (CTH) have been predicted by models to have a globally averaged positive feedback, however observational changes in CTH have shown uncertain results. Additional CTH observations are necessary to better and quantify the effect. Improved CTH observations will also allow for improved sub-grid parameterizations in large-scale models and accurate CTH information is important when studying variations in freezing point and cloud microphysics. NASA's airborne Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP) is able to measure cloud top height using a novel multi-angular contrast approach. RSP scans along the aircraft track and obtains measurements at 152 viewing angles at any aircraft location. The approach presented here aggregates measurements from multiple scans to a single location at cloud altitude using a correlation function designed to identify the location-distinct features in each scan. During NASAs SEAC4RS air campaign, the RSP was mounted on the ER-2 aircraft along with the Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL), which made simultaneous measurements of CTH. The RSPs unique method of determining CTH is presented. The capabilities of using single and combinations of channels within the approach are investigated. A detailed comparison of RSP retrieved CTHs with those of CPL reveal the accuracy of the approach. Results indicate a strong ability for the RSP to accurately identify cloud heights. Interestingly, the analysis reveals an ability for the approach to identify multiple cloud layers in a single scene and estimate the CTH of each layer. Capabilities and limitations of identifying single and multiple cloud layers heights are explored. Special focus is given to sources of error in the method including optically thin clouds, physically thick clouds, multi

  15. [Estimating individual tree aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest using airborne LiDAR technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Lei, Pi-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Taking Wugang forest farm in Xuefeng Mountain as the research object, using the airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data under leaf-on condition and field data of concomitant plots, this paper assessed the ability of using LiDAR technology to estimate aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest. A semi-automated individual tree LiDAR cloud point segmentation was obtained by using condition random fields and optimization methods. Spatial structure, waveform characteristics and topography were calculated as LiDAR metrics from the segmented objects. Then statistical models between aboveground biomass from field data and these LiDAR metrics were built. The individual tree recognition rates were 93%, 86% and 60% for coniferous, broadleaf and mixed forests, respectively. The adjusted coefficients of determination (R(2)adj) and the root mean squared errors (RMSE) for the three types of forest were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.74, and 28.22, 29.79 and 32.31 t · hm(-2), respectively. The estimation capability of model based on canopy geometric volume, tree percentile height, slope and waveform characteristics was much better than that of traditional regression model based on tree height. Therefore, LiDAR metrics from individual tree could facilitate better performance in biomass estimation.

  16. A Survey of LIDAR Technology and Its Use in Spacecraft Relative Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, John A.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) sensors from a perspective of how they can be used for spacecraft relative navigation. In addition to LIDAR technology commonly used in space applications today (e.g. scanning, flash), this paper reviews emerging LIDAR technologies gaining traction in other non-aerospace fields. The discussion will include an overview of sensor operating principles and specific pros/cons for each type of LIDAR. This paper provides a comprehensive review of LIDAR technology as applied specifically to spacecraft relative navigation. HE problem of orbital rendezvous and docking has been a consistent challenge for complex space missions since before the Gemini 8 spacecraft performed the first successful on-orbit docking of two spacecraft in 1966. Over the years, a great deal of effort has been devoted to advancing technology associated with all aspects of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) flight phase. After years of perfecting the art of crewed rendezvous with the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle programs, NASA began investigating the problem of autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR&D) to support a host of different mission applications. Some of these applications include autonomous resupply of the International Space Station (ISS), robotic servicing/refueling of existing orbital assets, and on-orbit assembly.1 The push towards a robust AR&D capability has led to an intensified interest in a number of different sensors capable of providing insight into the relative state of two spacecraft. The present work focuses on exploring the state-of-the-art in one of these sensors - LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) sensors. It should be noted that the military community frequently uses the acronym LADAR (LAser Detection And Ranging) to refer to what this paper calls LIDARs. A LIDAR is an active remote sensing device that is typically used in space applications to obtain the range to one or more

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ...

  19. Lumbar spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower ... The lumbar CT scan is good for evaluating large herniated disks, ... smaller ones. This test can be combined with a myelogram to get ...

  20. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  1. Thoracic spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - thoracic spine; Computed axial tomography scan - thoracic spine; Computed tomography scan - thoracic spine; CT scan - ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 44. US Food and Drug Administration. Computed tomography (CT). Updated August ...

  2. Full two-dimensional rotor plane inflow measurements by a spinner-integrated wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Angelou, Nikolas

    2013-01-01

    in a space filling scan pattern within a full opening angle of 60° on an upwind spherical surface. The scanner is similar to the short-range WindScanner developed at the same department. However, this implementation is only using one motor with a fixed gearing between the two prism axes in order to achieve......) located at Tjæreborg Enge in western Denmark was conducted. The new two-dimensional scanning device was integrated on top of a modified ZephIR 300 continuous-wave coherent Doppler lidar (ControlZephIR) operating at a wavelength of about 1.565 µm. The lidar was modified to stream averaged Doppler spectra...

  3. Estimation of Tropical Forest Structure Using the Full Waveform Lidar from ICESat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palace, M. W.; Hagen, S.; Braswell, B. H.; Hunter, M. O.; Ducey, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Amazon basin contains the world’s largest continuous tropical forest constituting 40% of the remaining area for this ecotype and is made up of heterogeneous canopies and forest communities with unique assemblages of tree species, complex vegetation dynamics and history, and high biodiversity. Forest structural components include canopy geometry and tree architecture, size distributions of trees, and are closely linked with ecosystem functioning. The dynamic processes of growth and disturbance are reflected in the structural components of forest. Large footprint lidar has been used to estimate biomass in tropical and temperate forests, primarily through the correlation with field measured height, basal area, and plot biomass estimates. However, in tall-stature forests height loses much of its correlation with basal area, so the height-biomass curve becomes asymptotic and is associated with greater error at large biomass values. Use of lidar in such an analysis also does not include estimations of other stand level structural properties. We used full lidar waveforms from ICESat GLAS to estimate forest stand structure. We developed a 3D canopy model that uses trunk or crown diameter distributions and allometric equations of associated crown depth and canopy height to generate a synthetic canopy. Using geometric series of tree size distributions, we generated thousands of synthetic vegetation profiles. These synthesized forest canopy profiles were rapidly and efficiently compared with lidar waveforms and matches identified using least squared difference. Using GLAS lidar waveforms, we identified patterns of forest structure across Amazonia. . Landscape level estimates of q-values derived from lidar estimates are similar to estimates of q-values from field based data from a 400 ha area in Tapajos National Forest, approximately q=1.7, with a range of 1.69 to 1.82 per 100 ha plot. Estimates comparing field data collected in areas associated specifically with a GLAS

  4. Topographic lidar survey of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, February 6, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected February 6, 2012, for Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. Point cloud data in lidar data exchange format (LAS) and bare earth digital elevation models (DEMs) in ERDAS Imagine raster format (IMG) are available as downloadable files. The point cloud data—data points described in three dimensions—were processed to extract bare earth data; therefore, the point cloud data are organized into the following classes: 1– and 17–unclassified, 2–ground, 9–water, and 10–breakline proximity. Digital Aerial Solutions, LLC, (DAS) was contracted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to collect and process these data. The lidar data were acquired at a horizontal spacing (or nominal pulse spacing) of 0.5 meters (m) or less. The USGS conducted two ground surveys in small areas on the Chandeleur Islands on February 5, 2012. DAS calculated a root mean square error (RMSEz) of 0.034 m by comparing the USGS ground survey point data to triangulated irregular network (TIN) models built from the lidar elevation data. This lidar survey was conducted to document the topography and topographic change of the Chandeleur Islands. The survey supports detailed studies of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands that resolve annual and episodic changes in beaches, berms and dunes associated with processes driven by storms, sea-level rise, and even human restoration activities. These lidar data are available to Federal, State and local governments, emergency-response officials, resource managers, and the general public.

  5. Aboveground Biomass Modeling from Field and LiDAR Data in Brazilian Amazon Tropical Rain Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C. A.; Hudak, A. T.; Vierling, L. A.; Keller, M. M.; Klauberg Silva, C. K.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical forests are an important component of global carbon stocks, but tropical forest responses to climate change are not sufficiently studied or understood. Among remote sensing technologies, airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) may be best suited for quantifying tropical forest carbon stocks. Our objective was to estimate aboveground biomass (AGB) using airborne LiDAR and field plot data in Brazilian tropical rain forest. Forest attributes such as tree density, diameter at breast height, and heights were measured at a combination of square plots and linear transects (n=82) distributed across six different geographic zones in the Amazon. Using previously published allometric equations, tree AGB was computed and then summed to calculate total AGB at each sample plot. LiDAR-derived canopy structure metrics were also computed at each sample plot, and random forest regression modelling was applied to predict AGB from selected LiDAR metrics. The LiDAR-derived AGB model was assessed using the random forest explained variation, adjusted coefficient of determination (Adj. R²), root mean square error (RMSE, both absolute and relative) and BIAS (both absolute and relative). Our findings showed that the 99th percentile of height and height skewness were the best LiDAR metrics for AGB prediction. The AGB model using these two best predictors explained 59.59% of AGB variation, with an Adj. R² of 0.92, RMSE of 33.37 Mg/ha (20.28%), and bias of -0.69 (-0.42%). This study showed that LiDAR canopy structure metrics can be used to predict AGC stocks in Tropical Forest with acceptable precision and accuracy. Therefore, we conclude that there is good potential to monitor carbon sequestration in Brazilian Tropical Rain Forest using airborne LiDAR data, large field plots, and the random forest algorithm.

  6. About offshore resource assessment with floating lidars with special respect to turbulence and extreme events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, J.; Wolken-Möhlmann, G.; Lange, B.

    2014-12-01

    Offshore resource assessment with lidars on floating platforms is a flexible and particularly cost-effective alternative to the conventional meteorological mast solution, that is considered as onshore state-of-the-art transferred to offshore sites, and may enable better and more complete wind resource assessments for the growing offshore wind sector. Wind lidar technology, and remote sensing in general, has already been proven to be a very promising technology for resource assessment and power performance testing onshore. For offshore applications and on floating platforms in particular, the motions from the floating base have to be considered in addition, affecting the wind measurements significantly and causing systematic measurement errors. We have studied the motions and the corresponding influences on lidar measurements generated by different possible offshore platforms - vessels or buoys - both in detailed simulations as well as first validation experiments. In addition to this, we have developed motion compensation algorithms that allow to correct the affected measurements and retrieve the undisturbed wind data. The motions considered and studied comprise rotations as well as translations in all six degrees of freedom. For the evaluation of the motion-affected and corrected wind data in this paper, special attention is paid to the measurement of turbulence as well as extreme wind events. The research question to be answered is if a lidar device placed on a floating platform is capable of measuring more or less the same statistics of extreme wind events as a fixed lidar device. Quantities to be investigated are: the turbulence intensity as well as the statistics of maximum wind speed values within a 10-min period, but also wind speed increments on different time scales. At this, obviously two issues are to be discussed - the influence of the lidar measurement principle on the recording of extreme wind events, and the additional impact of the superimposed

  7. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-06-01

    turbulent wind field in real-time, scanned by a lidar system with an optimized trajectory.

  8. Validation Campaigns for Sea Surface Wind and Wind Profile by Ground-Based Doppler Wind Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhishen; Wu, Songhua; Song, Xiaoquan; Liu, Bingyi; Li, Zhigang

    2010-12-01

    According to the research frame of ESA-MOST DRAGON Cooperation Program (ID5291), Chinese partners from Ocean Remote Sensing Institute of Ocean University of China have carried out a serial of campaigns for ground-based lidar validations and atmospheric observations. ORSI/OUC Doppler wind lidar has been developed and deployed to accurately measure wind speed and direction over large areas in real time -- an application useful for ADM-Aeolus VAL/CAL, aviation safety, weather forecasting and sports. The sea surface wind campaigns were successfully accomplished at the Qingdao sailing competitions during the 29th Olympic Games. The lidar located at the seashore near the sailing field, and made a horizontal scan over the sea surface, making the wind measurement in real time and then uploading the data to the local meteorological station every 10 minutes. In addition to the sea surface wind campaigns, ORSI/OUC Doppler wind lidar was deployed on the wind profile observations for the China's Shenzhou 7 spacecraft landing zone weather campaigns in September 2008 in Inner Mongolia steppe. Wind profile was tracked by the mobile Doppler lidar system to help to predict the module's landing site. During above ground tests, validation lidar is tested to be able to provide an independent and credible measurement of radial wind speed, wind profile, 3D wind vector, aerosol- backscattering ratio, aerosol extinction coefficient, extinction-to-backscatter ratio in the atmospheric boundary layer and troposphere, sea surface wind vectors, which will be an independent and very effective validation tool for upcoming ADM-Aeolus project.

  9. New advances in Dial-Lidar-based remote sensing of the volcanic CO2 flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiuppa, Alessandro; Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; D'Aleo, Roberto; Liuzzo, Marco; Maio, Giovanni; Nuvoli, Marcello

    2017-02-01

    We report here on the results of a proof-of-concept study aimed at remotely sensing the volcanic CO2 flux using a Differential Adsorption lidar (DIAL-lidar). The observations we report on were conducted on June 2014 on Stromboli volcano, where our lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) was used to scan the volcanic plume from 3 km distance from the summit vents. The obtained results prove that a remotely operating lidar can resolve a volcanic CO2 signal of a few tens of ppm (in excess to background air) over km-long optical paths. We combine these results with independent estimates of plume transport speed (from processing of UV Camera images) to derive volcanic CO2 flux time-series of ≈16-33 minutes temporal resolution. Our lidar-based CO2 fluxes range from 1.8±0.5 to 32.1±8.0 kg/s, and constrain the daily averaged CO2 emissions from Stromboli at 8.3±2.1 to 18.1±4.5 kg/s (or 718-1565 tons/day). These inferred fluxes fall within the range of earlier observations at Stromboli. They also agree well with contemporaneous CO2 flux determinations (8.4-20.1 kg/s) obtained using a standard approach that combines Multi-GAS-based in-plume readings of the CO2/SO2 ratio (≈ 8) with UV-camera sensed SO2 fluxes (1.5-3.4 kg/s). We conclude that DIAL-lidars offer new prospects for safer (remote) instrumental observations of the volcanic CO2 flux.

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OFWAVE PATTERNS ON REFRACTION IN AIRBORNE LIDAR BATHYMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Westfeld

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution investigates the effects of wave patterns on 3D point coordinate accuracy in LiDAR bathymetry. The finite diameter refracted laser pulse path passing the air/water interface is modelled differentially and in a strict manner. Typical wave patterns are simulated and their impact on the 3D coordinates at the bottom of the water body are analysed. It can be shown that the effects of waves within small LiDAR bathymetry footprints on the depth and planimetry coordinates is significant. Planimetric effects may reach several decimetres or even metres, and depth coordinate errors also reach several decimetres, even in case of horizontal water body bottom. The simplified assumption of averaging wave effects often made in many ALB applications is not only fulfilled in cases of a very large beam divergence under certain wave pattern conditions. Modern smaller beam divergence systems will mostly experience significant wave pattern dependent coordinate errors. The results presented here thus form a basis for a more strict coordinate correction if the wave pattern can be modelled from the LiDAR bathymetry water surface reflections or other observations. Moreover, it will be shown that the induced coordinate errors contain systematic parts in addition to the local wave surface dependent quasi-random part, which allows for the formulation of wave pattern type dependent correction terms.

  11. A Global Corrected SRTM DEM Product Over Vegetated Areas Using LiDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X.; Guo, Q.; Su, Y.; Hu, T.

    2016-12-01

    The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital elevation model (DEM) is one of the most complete and frequently used global-scale DEM products in various applications. However, previous studies have shown that the SRTM DEM is systematically higher than the actual land surface in vegetated mountain areas. The objective of this study is to propose a procedure to calibrate the SRTM DEM over global vegetated mountain areas. To address this, we firstly collected airborne LiDAR data over 200,000 km2 globally used as ground truth data to analyze the uncertainty of the SRTM DEM. The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS)/ICESat (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite) data were used as complementary data in areas lack of airborne LiDAR data. Secondly, we modelled the SRTM DEM error for each vegetation type using regression methods. Tree height, canopy cover, and terrain slope were used as dependent variables to model the SRTM DEM error. Finally, these regression models were used to estimate the SRTM DEM error in vegetated mountain areas without LiDAR data coverage, and therefore correct the SRTM DEM. Our results show that the new corrected SRTM DEM can significantly reduce the systematic bias of the SRTM DEM in vegetated mountain areas.

  12. Impact of pitch angle fluctuations on airborne lidar forward sensing along the flight direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeevich Gurvich, Alexander; Alexeevich Kulikov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Airborne lidar forward sensing along the flight direction can serve for notification of clear air turbulence (CAT) and help to prevent injuries or fatal air accidents. The validation of this concept was presented in the framework of the DELICAT (DEmonstration of LIdar-based CAT detection) project. However, the strong variations in signal level, which were observed during the DELICAT measurements but not explained, sometimes indicated the need of a better understanding the observational errors due to geometrical factors. In this paper, we discuss possible error sources pertinent to this technique, related to fluctuations of the flight parameters, which may lead to strong signal variations caused by the random deviations of the sensing beam from the forward flight trajectory. We analyze the variations in backscattered lidar signal caused by fluctuations of the most important forward-sensing flight parameter, the pitch angle. The fluctuation values considered in the paper correspond to the error limits of the compensational gyro platform used in civil aviation. The part of the pitch angle fluctuations not compensated for by the beam-steering device in the presence of aerosol concentration variations can lead to noticeable signal variations that can be mistakenly attributed to wind shear, turbulence, or fast evolution of the aerosol layer. We formulate the criteria that allow the recognition of signal variations caused by pitch angle fluctuations. Influence of these fluctuations is shown to be stronger for aerosol variations on smaller vertical scales. An example of DELICAT observations indicating a noticeable pitch angle fluctuation impact is presented.

  13. LAND COVER INFORMATION EXTRACTION USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Shaker

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR systems are used intensively in terrain surface modelling based on the range data determined by the LiDAR sensors. LiDAR sensors record the distance between the sensor and the targets (range data with a capability to record the strength of the backscatter energy reflected from the targets (intensity data. The LiDAR sensors use the near-infrared spectrum range which has high separability in the reflected energy from different targets. This characteristic is investigated to implement the LiDAR intensity data in land-cover classification. The goal of this paper is to investigate and evaluates the use of LiDAR data only (range and intensity data to extract land cover information. Different bands generated from the LiDAR data (Normal Heights, Intensity Texture, Surfaces Slopes, and PCA are combined with the original data to study the influence of including these layers on the classification accuracy. The Maximum likelihood classifier is used to conduct the classification process for the LiDAR Data as one of the best classification techniques from literature. A study area covering an urban district in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada, is selected to test the different band combinations to extract four information classes: buildings, roads and parking areas, trees, and low vegetation (grass areas. The results show that an overall accuracy of more than 70% can be achieved using the intensity data, and other auxiliary data generated from the range and intensity data. Bands of the Principle Component Analysis (PCA are also created from the LiDAR original and auxiliary data. Similar overall accuracy of the results can be achieved using the four bands extracted from the Principal Component Analysis (PCA.

  14. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of a test of a ground-based lidar of other type. The test was performed at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. The result as an establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided...... by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the wind vanes is also given....

  15. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li-dars......-ters pertaining in the different calibration periods. This is supported by sliding-window analyses of one lidar at one location where the same order of variation is observed as between pre-service and post-service calibrations....

  16. Detecting wind turbine wakes with nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, D. P.; Larvol, A.; Mann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Because the horizontal homogeneity assumption is violated in wakes flows, lidars face difficulties when reconstructing wind fields. Further, small-scale turbulence which is prevalent in wake flows causes Doppler spectrum widths to be broader than in the free stream. In this study the Doppler peak...... turbine is in wake by comparing the peak widths. The used lidar is inexpensive and brings instalments on every turbine within economical reach. Thus, the information gathered by the lidars can be used for improved control at wind farm level....

  17. Wind turbine wake visualization and characteristics analysis by Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Jintao; Zhai, Xiaochun; Feng, Changzhong; Wang, Guining; Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jiaping; Wang, Xitao; Li, Rongzhong; Gallacher, Daniel

    2016-05-16

    Wind power generation is growing fast as one of the most promising renewable energy sources that can serve as an alternative to fossil fuel-generated electricity. When the wind turbine generator (WTG) extracts power from the wind, the wake evolves and leads to a considerable reduction in the efficiency of the actual power generation. Furthermore, the wake effect can lead to the increase of turbulence induced fatigue loads that reduce the life time of WTGs. In this work, a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (PCDL) has been developed and deployed to visualize wind turbine wakes and to characterize the geometry and dynamics of wakes. As compared with the commercial off-the-shelf coherent lidars, the PCDL in this work has higher updating rate of 4 Hz and variable physical spatial resolution from 15 to 60 m, which improves its capability to observation the instantaneous turbulent wind field. The wind speed estimation method from the arc scan technique was evaluated in comparison with wind mast measurements. Field experiments were performed to study the turbulent wind field in the vicinity of operating WTGs in the onshore and offshore wind parks from 2013 to 2015. Techniques based on a single and a dual Doppler lidar were employed for elucidating main features of turbine wakes, including wind velocity deficit, wake dimension, velocity profile, 2D wind vector with resolution of 10 m, turbulence dissipation rate and turbulence intensity under different conditions of surface roughness. The paper shows that the PCDL is a practical tool for wind energy research and will provide a significant basis for wind farm site selection, design and optimization.

  18. INS/GPS/LiDAR Integrated Navigation System for Urban and Indoor Environments Using Hybrid Scan Matching Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yanbin; Liu, Shifei; Atia, Mohamed M; Noureldin, Aboelmagd

    2015-09-15

    This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS) alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP) based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory.

  19. INS/GPS/LiDAR Integrated Navigation System for Urban and Indoor Environments Using Hybrid Scan Matching Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanbin Gao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper takes advantage of the complementary characteristics of Global Positioning System (GPS and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR to provide periodic corrections to Inertial Navigation System (INS alternatively in different environmental conditions. In open sky, where GPS signals are available and LiDAR measurements are sparse, GPS is integrated with INS. Meanwhile, in confined outdoor environments and indoors, where GPS is unreliable or unavailable and LiDAR measurements are rich, LiDAR replaces GPS to integrate with INS. This paper also proposes an innovative hybrid scan matching algorithm that combines the feature-based scan matching method and Iterative Closest Point (ICP based scan matching method. The algorithm can work and transit between two modes depending on the number of matched line features over two scans, thus achieving efficiency and robustness concurrently. Two integration schemes of INS and LiDAR with hybrid scan matching algorithm are implemented and compared. Real experiments are performed on an Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV for both outdoor and indoor environments. Experimental results show that the multi-sensor integrated system can remain sub-meter navigation accuracy during the whole trajectory.

  20. Rotating a half-wave plate by 45°: An ideal calibration method for the gain ratio in polarization lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jing; Liu, Dong; Bi, Lei; Zhang, Kejun; Tang, Peijun; Xu, Peituo; Su, Lin; Yang, Liming

    2018-01-01

    A new method is proposed to calibrate the gain ratio for polarization lidars in this paper, which involves a half-wave plate (HWP) placed immediately upstream of the polarizing beam splitter (PBS) in the receiver of polarization lidars. Gain ratio can be determined by rotating the HWP by 45° without key assumptions. The calibration results of this new method are independent of the monitored atmosphere as well as the system errors related to the components that are upstream of the HWP. Both theoretical calculations in the framework of the Mueller-Stokes formalism and experimental measurements are carried out to validate the calibration method.

  1. Tracking of urban aerosols using combined LIDAR-based remote sensing and ground-based measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.-Y. He

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available A measuring campaign was performed over the neighboring towns of Nova Gorica in Slovenia and Gorizia in Italy on 24 and 25 May 2010, to investigate the concentration and distribution of urban aerosols. Tracking of two-dimensional spatial and temporal aerosol distributions was performed using scanning elastic LIDAR, operating at 1064 nm. In addition, PM10 concentrations of particles, NOx concentrations and meteorological data were continuously monitored within the LIDAR scanning region. Based on the data we collected, we investigated the flow dynamics and the aerosol concentrations within the lower troposphere and found an evidence for daily aerosol cycles. We observed a number of cases with spatially localized increased LIDAR returns, which are associated with the presence of point sources of particulate matter. Daily aerosol concentration cycles were also clearly visible with a peak in aerosol concentration during the morning rush hours and daily plateau at around 17:00 Central European Time. We also found that horizontal atmospheric extinction at the height of 200 m, averaged in limited region with a radius of 300 m directly above the ground-based measuring site, was linearly correlated to the PM10 concentration with a correlation coefficient of 0.84. When considering the average of the horizontal atmospheric extinction over the entire scanning region, a strong dependence on traffic conditions (concentration of NOx in the vicinity of the ground-based measuring site was observed.

  2. Regional Scale Rain-Forest Height Mapping Using Regression-Kriging of Spaceborne and Airborne LiDAR Data: Application on French Guiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Fayad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR data has been successfully used to estimate forest parameters such as canopy heights and biomass. Major limitation of LiDAR systems (airborne and spaceborne arises from their limited spatial coverage. In this study, we present a technique for canopy height mapping using airborne and spaceborne LiDAR data (from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS. First, canopy heights extracted from both airborne and spaceborne LiDAR were extrapolated from available environmental data. The estimated canopy height maps using Random Forest (RF regression from airborne or GLAS calibration datasets showed similar precisions (~6 m. To improve the precision of canopy height estimates, regression-kriging was used. Results indicated an improvement in terms of root mean square error (RMSE, from 6.5 to 4.2 m using the GLAS dataset, and from 5.8 to 1.8 m using the airborne LiDAR dataset. Finally, in order to investigate the impact of the spatial sampling of future LiDAR missions on canopy height estimates precision, six subsets were derived from the initial airborne LiDAR dataset. Results indicated that using the regression-kriging approach a precision of 1.8 m on the canopy height map was achievable with a flight line spacing of 5 km. This precision decreased to 4.8 m for flight line spacing of 50 km.

  3. Quantifying Ladder Fuels: A New Approach Using LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A. Kramer

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the relationship between LiDAR and ladder fuels in the northern Sierra Nevada, California USA. Ladder fuels are often targeted in hazardous fuel reduction treatments due to their role in propagating fire from the forest floor to tree crowns. Despite their importance, ladder fuels are difficult to quantify. One common approach is to calculate canopy base height, but this has many potential sources of error. LiDAR may be a way forward to better characterize ladder fuels, but has only been used to address this question peripherally and in only a few instances. After establishing that landscape fuel treatments reduced canopy and ladder fuels at our site, we tested which LiDAR-derived metrics best differentiated treated from untreated areas. The percent cover between 2 and 4 m had the most explanatory power to distinguish treated from untreated pixels across a range of spatial scales. When compared to independent plot-based measures of ladder fuel classes, this metric differentiated between high and low levels of ladder fuels. These findings point to several immediate applications for land managers and suggest new avenues of study that could lead to possible improvements in the way that we model wildfire behavior across forested landscapes in the US.

  4. SURFACE FITTING FILTERING OF LIDAR POINT CLOUD WITH WAVEFORM INFORMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Xing

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Full-waveform LiDAR is an active technology of photogrammetry and remote sensing. It provides more detailed information about objects along the path of a laser pulse than discrete-return topographic LiDAR. The point cloud and waveform information with high quality can be obtained by waveform decomposition, which could make contributions to accurate filtering. The surface fitting filtering method with waveform information is proposed to present such advantage. Firstly, discrete point cloud and waveform parameters are resolved by global convergent Levenberg Marquardt decomposition. Secondly, the ground seed points are selected, of which the abnormal ones are detected by waveform parameters and robust estimation. Thirdly, the terrain surface is fitted and the height difference threshold is determined in consideration of window size and mean square error. Finally, the points are classified gradually with the rising of window size. The filtering process is finished until window size is larger than threshold. The waveform data in urban, farmland and mountain areas from “WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research” are selected for experiments. Results prove that compared with traditional method, the accuracy of point cloud filtering is further improved and the proposed method has highly practical value.

  5. Surface Fitting Filtering of LIDAR Point Cloud with Waveform Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, S.; Li, P.; Xu, Q.; Wang, D.; Li, P.

    2017-09-01

    Full-waveform LiDAR is an active technology of photogrammetry and remote sensing. It provides more detailed information about objects along the path of a laser pulse than discrete-return topographic LiDAR. The point cloud and waveform information with high quality can be obtained by waveform decomposition, which could make contributions to accurate filtering. The surface fitting filtering method with waveform information is proposed to present such advantage. Firstly, discrete point cloud and waveform parameters are resolved by global convergent Levenberg Marquardt decomposition. Secondly, the ground seed points are selected, of which the abnormal ones are detected by waveform parameters and robust estimation. Thirdly, the terrain surface is fitted and the height difference threshold is determined in consideration of window size and mean square error. Finally, the points are classified gradually with the rising of window size. The filtering process is finished until window size is larger than threshold. The waveform data in urban, farmland and mountain areas from "WATER (Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research)" are selected for experiments. Results prove that compared with traditional method, the accuracy of point cloud filtering is further improved and the proposed method has highly practical value.

  6. Development of an open source LIDAR modeling framework for space or airborne multi-wavelength LIDAR in support of the ASCENDS mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliutau, D.; Prasad, N. S.

    2011-12-01

    The NRC Decadal Survey has identified the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) as an important atmospheric science mission. An accuracy of 0.5 percent or better is required for the CO2 mixing ratio retrievals. NASA LaRC, working with its partners, is developing lidar technology in the 1.57 μm CO2 and 1.26-1.27 μm O2 bands for ASCENDS measurements. Simultaneous measurement of CO2 and O2 will be used to obtain CO2 column mixing ratios (XCO2). A generalized open-source LIDAR modeling framework is being developed to quantify errors and evaluate the performance of space and airborne lidar in the 1.57-μm and 1.26-1.27-μm bands of CO2 and O2. The general character of the simulation will also allow calculations for alternative 2.05 μm band of CO2 and the A-band of oxygen being investigated by other ASCENDS groups. Such cross-comparison is useful for validation purposes. Lidar simulation package components planned are presented in Table 1 (Ref. 1, 2, 3, 4) describing the main module and auxiliary programs. Our ongoing efforts include implementation of alternative lineshapes for 1.57μm CO2 and 1.26-1.27 μm O2 bands including the effects of speed dependence and line mixing. The accuracy of alternative lineshape models will be validated through comparison of airborne simulations with test-flights data. Figure 2 presents an overview of the lidar simulation framework where geographical location, date/time input are used to derive parameters for subsequent transmission and lidar calculations. The framework will rely upon the use of several databases and satellite datasets such as CALIPSO, MODIS, Google Earth, and GEOS-5 with an option to use radiosonde data. Our lidar framework is anticipated to also become useful for analysis of other missions based on active sensing for a variety of gasses and spectral ranges. (The authors acknowledge the support from ESTO and NPP). 1) L. S. Rothman et al., JQSRT, 110, 533-572, (2009) 2) Clough S. A

  7. Lidar Observations of Atmospheric CO2 Column During 2014 Summer Flight Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bing; Harrison, F. Wallace; Fan, Tai-Fang

    2015-01-01

    lidar measurements at 11 km altitude reached 376, which was equivalent to a 10-s CO2 error 0.33 ppm. For the entire processed 2014 summer flight campaign data, the mean differences between lidar remote sensed and in-situ estimated CO2 values were about -0.013 ppm. These results indicate that current laser absorption lidar approach could meet space measurement requirements for CO2 science goals.

  8. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Aiken County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  9. 2009 - 2011 OLC Lidar DEM: Deschutes (OR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Deschutes Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries...

  10. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Barnwell County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  11. 2010 NOAA American Samoa Mobile Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains three-dimensional mobile lidar elevation data for seven villages in American Samoa on the island of Tutuila. The seven villages are: Fagaalu,...

  12. 2014 USACE NCMP Topobathy Lidar DEM: Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These Digital Elevation Model (DEM) files contain rasterized topobathy lidar elevations at a 1 m grid size, generated from data collected by the Coastal Zone Mapping...

  13. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Abbeville County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  14. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Edgefield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  15. 2012 FEMA Lidar: Middle Counties (VA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Dewberry collected LiDAR for ~3,341 square miles in various Virginia Counties, a part of Worcester County, and Hoopers Island. The acquisition was performed by...

  16. 2010 ARRA Lidar: Bamberg County (SC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Provide high density LiDAR elevation data map of Bamberg County, SC. Provide Bare Earth DEM (vegetation removal) of Bamberg County, SC.

  17. 2004 FEMA Lidar: Blackstone (MA & RI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The LIDAR-derived data was collected in the Blackstone River area. This data supports the Federal Emergency Management Agency's specifications for mapping...

  18. 2005 NCFMP Lidar: NC Statewide Phase 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne LIDAR terrain mapping data acquired March through April 2005. These data sets may represent a single geographic tile of a larger, county/sub-county data...

  19. Nonlinear filtering for LIDAR signal processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Lainiotis

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available LIDAR (Laser Integrated Radar is an engineering problem of great practical importance in environmental monitoring sciences. Signal processing for LIDAR applications involves highly nonlinear models and consequently nonlinear filtering. Optimal nonlinear filters, however, are practically unrealizable. In this paper, the Lainiotis's multi-model partitioning methodology and the related approximate but effective nonlinear filtering algorithms are reviewed and applied to LIDAR signal processing. Extensive simulation and performance evaluation of the multi-model partitioning approach and its application to LIDAR signal processing shows that the nonlinear partitioning methods are very effective and significantly superior to the nonlinear extended Kalman filter (EKF, which has been the standard nonlinear filter in past engineering applications.

  20. 2001 SRWMD BE Lidar: Alachua County (FL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This is a point dataset of elevations over the NE quadrant of the Mikesville quadrangle, Florida. The data were derived from LIDAR measurements performed in 2001....