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Sample records for scanning lidar error

  1. Conically scanning lidar error in complex terrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhat Bingöl

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Conically scanning lidars assume the flow to be homogeneous in order to deduce the horizontal wind speed. However, in mountainous or complex terrain this assumption is not valid implying a risk that the lidar will derive an erroneous wind speed. The magnitude of this error is measured by collocating a meteorological mast and a lidar at two Greek sites, one hilly and one mountainous. The maximum error for the sites investigated is of the order of 10 %. In order to predict the error for various wind directions the flows at both sites are simulated with the linearized flow model, WAsP Engineering 2.0. The measurement data are compared with the model predictions with good results for the hilly site, but with less success at the mountainous site. This is a deficiency of the flow model, but the methods presented in this paper can be used with any flow model.

  2. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  3. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  4. Evaluation of three lidar scanning strategies for turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Jennifer F.; Klein, Petra M.; Wharton, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Several errors occur when a traditional Doppler beam swinging (DBS) or velocity-azimuth display (VAD) strategy is used to measure turbulence with a lidar. To mitigate some of these errors, a scanning strategy was recently developed which employs six beam positions to independently estimate the u,...

  5. An error reduction algorithm to improve lidar turbulence estimates for wind energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. Newman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Remote-sensing devices such as lidars are currently being investigated as alternatives to cup anemometers on meteorological towers for the measurement of wind speed and direction. Although lidars can measure mean wind speeds at heights spanning an entire turbine rotor disk and can be easily moved from one location to another, they measure different values of turbulence than an instrument on a tower. Current methods for improving lidar turbulence estimates include the use of analytical turbulence models and expensive scanning lidars. While these methods provide accurate results in a research setting, they cannot be easily applied to smaller, vertically profiling lidars in locations where high-resolution sonic anemometer data are not available. Thus, there is clearly a need for a turbulence error reduction model that is simpler and more easily applicable to lidars that are used in the wind energy industry. In this work, a new turbulence error reduction algorithm for lidars is described. The Lidar Turbulence Error Reduction Algorithm, L-TERRA, can be applied using only data from a stand-alone vertically profiling lidar and requires minimal training with meteorological tower data. The basis of L-TERRA is a series of physics-based corrections that are applied to the lidar data to mitigate errors from instrument noise, volume averaging, and variance contamination. These corrections are applied in conjunction with a trained machine-learning model to improve turbulence estimates from a vertically profiling WINDCUBE v2 lidar. The lessons learned from creating the L-TERRA model for a WINDCUBE v2 lidar can also be applied to other lidar devices. L-TERRA was tested on data from two sites in the Southern Plains region of the United States. The physics-based corrections in L-TERRA brought regression line slopes much closer to 1 at both sites and significantly reduced the sensitivity of lidar turbulence errors to atmospheric stability. The accuracy of machine

  6. Wind speed errors for LIDARs and SODARs in complex terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, S

    2008-01-01

    All commercial LIDARs and SODARs are monostatic and hence sample distributed volumes to construct wind vector components. We use an analytic potential flow model to estimate errors arising for a range of LIDAR and SODAR configurations on hills and escarpments. Wind speed errors peak at a height relevant to wind turbines and can be typically 20%

  7. Wind speed errors for LIDARs and SODARs in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, S [Physics Department, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland (New Zealand) and School of Computing, Science and Engineering, University of Salford, M5 4WT (United Kingdom)], E-mail: s.bradley@auckland.ac.nz

    2008-05-01

    All commercial LIDARs and SODARs are monostatic and hence sample distributed volumes to construct wind vector components. We use an analytic potential flow model to estimate errors arising for a range of LIDAR and SODAR configurations on hills and escarpments. Wind speed errors peak at a height relevant to wind turbines and can be typically 20%.

  8. Deploying scanning lidars at coastal sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Simon, Elliot

    that the most desirable sites are away from sand dunes and with some significant elevation above the sea surface, such as at the top of a cliff. Coastal planning restrictions in Denmark are quite restrictive and it was important to allow sufficient time to obtain permission from the relevant authorities....... At the same time, with our particular application, the authorities and land owners were quite favourably inclined to give permission to temporary installations in support of wind energy research. The report concludes with the final positions and a pictorial description of the three RUNE scanning lidars....

  9. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  10. High resolution wind turbine wake measurements with a scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, T. G.; Maniaci, D. C.; Naughton, B. T.

    2017-01-01

    High-resolution lidar wake measurements are part of an ongoing field campaign being conducted at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology facility by Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. One...

  11. Laser safety in design of near-infrared scanning LIDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, X.; Elgin, D.

    2015-05-01

    3D LIDARs (Light Detection and Ranging) with 1.5μm nanosecond pulse lasers have been increasingly used in different applications. The main reason for their popularity is that these LIDARs have high performance while at the same time can be made eye-safe. Because the laser hazard effect on eyes or skin at this wavelength region (industrial mining applications. We have incorporated the laser safety requirements in the LIDAR design and conducted laser safety analysis for different operational scenarios. While 1.5μm is normally said to be the eye-safe wavelength, in reality a high performance 3D LIDAR needs high pulse energy, small beam size and high pulse repetition frequency (PRF) to achieve long range, high resolution and high density images. The resulting radiant exposure of its stationary beam could be many times higher than the limit for a Class 1 laser device. Without carefully choosing laser and scanning parameters, including field-of-view, scan speed and pattern, a scanning LIDAR can't be eye- or skin-safe based only on its wavelength. This paper discusses the laser safety considerations in the design of eye-safe scanning LIDARs, including laser pulse energy, PRF, beam size and scanning parameters in two basic designs of scanning mechanisms, i.e. galvanometer based scanner and Risley prism based scanner. The laser safety is discussed in terms of device classification, nominal ocular hazard distance (NOHD) and safety glasses optical density (OD).

  12. LiDAR error estimation with WAsP engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingöl, Ferhat; Mann, Jakob; Foussekis, D.

    2008-01-01

    The LiDAR measurements, vertical wind profile in any height between 10 to 150m, are based on assumption that the measured wind is a product of a homogenous wind. In reality there are many factors affecting the wind on each measurement point which the terrain plays the main role. To model Li......DAR measurements and predict possible error in different wind directions for a certain terrain we have analyzed two experiment data sets from Greece. In both sites LiDAR and met. mast data have been collected and the same conditions are simulated with Riso/DTU software, WAsP Engineering 2.0. Finally measurement...

  13. Study on analysis from sources of error for Airborne LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, H. C.; Yan, Q.; Liu, Z. J.; Zuo, Z. Q.; Xu, Q. Q.; Li, F. F.; Song, C.

    2016-11-01

    With the advancement of Aerial Photogrammetry, it appears that to obtain geo-spatial information of high spatial and temporal resolution provides a new technical means for Airborne LIDAR measurement techniques, with unique advantages and broad application prospects. Airborne LIDAR is increasingly becoming a new kind of space for earth observation technology, which is mounted by launching platform for aviation, accepting laser pulses to get high-precision, high-density three-dimensional coordinate point cloud data and intensity information. In this paper, we briefly demonstrates Airborne laser radar systems, and that some errors about Airborne LIDAR data sources are analyzed in detail, so the corresponding methods is put forwarded to avoid or eliminate it. Taking into account the practical application of engineering, some recommendations were developed for these designs, which has crucial theoretical and practical significance in Airborne LIDAR data processing fields.

  14. A Scanning scheimpflug lidar system developed for urban pollution monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Guan, Peng; Mei, Liang

    2018-04-01

    A scanning Scheimpflug lidar system based on the Scheimpflug principle has been developed by employing a high power multimode 808 nm laser diode and a highly integrated CMOS sensor in Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Northern China. Atmospheric scanning measurements in urban area were performed for the studies of particle emission sources.

  15. The new scanning iron lidar, current state and future developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lautenbach, J.; Höffner, J.; Menzel, P.; Keller, P.

    2005-08-01

    This paper gives an update on the design and developments of the new scanning Doppler iron temperature lidar. Continuous temperature profiles in the altitude range from 50 to 105 km are derived by using the iron resonance and Rayleigh backscatter signal of this lidar. We show a common volume measurement with the well established potassium and Rayleigh-Mie-Raman (RMR) lidar at the Leibniz-Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) in Kühlungsborn (Germany, 54°N). The iron lidar temperatures match quite well and have an uncertainty of 0.4K at the top of the iron layer. Improvements for daylight capability are under development and will be pointed out.

  16. Airborne LIDAR borsight error calibration based on surface coincide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Fangyan; Li, Guoqing; Zuo, Zhengli; Li, Dong; Qi, Zengying; Qiu, Wen; Tan, Junxiang

    2014-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) is a system which can directly collect three-dimensional coordinate information of ground point and laser reflection strength information. With the wide application of LIDAR system, users hope to get more accurate results. Boresight error has an important effect on data accuracy and thus, it is thought that eliminating the error is very important. In recent years, many methods have been proposed to eliminate the error. Generally, they can be categorized into tie point method and surface matching method. In this paper, we propose another method called try value method based on surface coincide that is used in actual production by many companies. The method is simple and operable. Further, the efficacy of the method was demonstrated by analyzing the data from Zhangye city

  17. Turbulence estimation from a continuous-wave scanning lidar (SpinnerLidar)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnhoorn, J.G.; Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2017-01-01

    out, and 2) the mixing of velocity covariances from other components into the line-of-sight variance measurements. However, turbulence measurements based on upwind horizontal rotor plane scanning of the line-of-sight variance measurements combined with ensemble-averaged Doppler spectra width...... deviations averaged over 10-min sampling periods are compared. Lidar variances are inherently more prone to noise which always yields a positive bias. The 5.3 % higher turbulence level measured by the SpinnerLidar relative to the cup anemometer may equally well be attributed to truncation of turbulent...

  18. Technical errors in planar bone scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Sleiman Y; Collier, B David; Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Khalil, Magdy M

    2004-09-01

    Optimal technique for planar bone scanning improves image quality, which in turn improves diagnostic efficacy. Because planar bone scanning is one of the most frequently performed nuclear medicine examinations, maintaining high standards for this examination is a daily concern for most nuclear medicine departments. Although some problems such as patient motion are frequently encountered, the degraded images produced by many other deviations from optimal technique are rarely seen in clinical practice and therefore may be difficult to recognize. The objectives of this article are to list optimal techniques for 3-phase and whole-body bone scanning, to describe and illustrate a selection of deviations from these optimal techniques for planar bone scanning, and to explain how to minimize or avoid such technical errors.

  19. Investigation of turbulence measurements with a continuous wave, conically scanning LiDAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Rozenn; Mikkelsen, Torben; Courtney, Michael

    averaging is done in two steps: 1) the weighted averaging of the wind speed in the probe volume of the laser beam; 2) the averaging of the wind speeds occurring on the circular path described by the conically scanning lidar. Therefore the standard deviation measured by a lidar resolves only the turbulence...... of a continuous wave, conically scanning Zephir lidar. First, the wind speed standard deviation measured by such a lidar gives on average 80% of the standard deviation measured by a cup anemometer. This difference is due to the spatial averaging inherently made by a cw conically scanning lidar. The spatial...

  20. Quantifying Vegetation Structure with Lightweight, Rapid-Scanning Terrestrial Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, I.; Genest, D.; Saenz, E. J.; Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.; Peri, F.; Schaaf, C.

    2016-12-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) is proving a competent technology for observing vegetation structure. Terrestrial laser scanners (TLS) are ground-based instruments which utilize hundreds of thousands to millions of lidar observations to provide detailed structural and reflective information of their surroundings. TLS has enjoyed initial success as a validation tool for satellite and airborne estimates of vegetation structure, and are producing independent estimates with increasing accuracy. Reconstruction techniques for TLS observations of vegetation have also improved rapidly, especially for trees. However, uncertainties and challenges still remain in TLS modelling of vegetation structure, especially in geometrically complex ecosystems such as tropical forests (where observation extent and density is hampered by occlusion) and highly temporally dynamic coastal ecosystems (such as saltmarshes and mangroves), where observations may be restricted to narrow microstates. Some of these uncertainties can be mitigated, and challenges met, through the use of lidar instruments optimized for favorable deployment logistics through low weight, rapid scanning, and improved durability. We have conducted studies of vegetation structure in temperate and tropical forests, saltmarshes and mangroves, utilizing a highly portable TLS with considerable deployment flexibility, the Compact Biomass Lidar (CBL). We show results from studies in the temperate Long Term Ecological Research site of Harvard Forest (MA, USA); the tropical forested long-term Carbono sites of La Selva Biological Station (Sarapiqui, Costa Rica); and the saltmarsh LTER of Plum Island (MA, USA). These results demonstrate the improvements to observations in these ecosystems which are facilitated by the specifications of the CBL (and similar TLS) which are optimized for favorable deployment logistics and flexibility. We show the benefits of increased numbers of scanning positions, and specialized deployment

  1. Application of simulated lidar scanning patterns to constrained Gaussian turbulence fields for load validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a method for incorporating wind velocity measurements from multiple-point scanning lidars into threedimensional wind turbulence time series serving as input to wind turbine load simulations. Simulated lidar scanning patterns are implemented by imposing constraints on randomly gener...

  2. Stratospheric temperature measurement with scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer for wind retrieval from mobile Rayleigh Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Haiyun; Dou, Xiankang; Shangguan, Mingjia; Zhao, Ruocan; Sun, Dongsong; Wang, Chong; Qiu, Jiawei; Shu, Zhifeng; Xue, Xianghui; Han, Yuli; Han, Yan

    2014-09-08

    Temperature detection remains challenging in the low stratosphere, where the Rayleigh integration lidar is perturbed by aerosol contamination and ozone absorption while the rotational Raman lidar is suffered from its low scattering cross section. To correct the impacts of temperature on the Rayleigh Doppler lidar, a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) based on cavity scanning Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI) is developed. By considering the effect of the laser spectral width, Doppler broadening of the molecular backscatter, divergence of the light beam and mirror defects of the FPI, a well-behaved transmission function is proved to show the principle of HSRL in detail. Analysis of the statistical error of the HSRL is carried out in the data processing. A temperature lidar using both HSRL and Rayleigh integration techniques is incorporated into the Rayleigh Doppler wind lidar. Simultaneous wind and temperature detection is carried out based on the combined system at Delhi (37.371°N, 97.374°E; 2850 m above the sea level) in Qinghai province, China. Lower Stratosphere temperature has been measured using HSRL between 18 and 50 km with temporal resolution of 2000 seconds. The statistical error of the derived temperatures is between 0.2 and 9.2 K. The temperature profile retrieved from the HSRL and wind profile from the Rayleigh Doppler lidar show good agreement with the radiosonde data. Specifically, the max temperature deviation between the HSRL and radiosonde is 4.7 K from 18 km to 36 km, and it is 2.7 K between the HSRL and Rayleigh integration lidar from 27 km to 34 km.

  3. Scanning, Multibeam, Single Photon Lidars for Rapid, Large Scale, High Resolution, Topographic and Bathymetric Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John J. Degnan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Several scanning, single photon sensitive, 3D imaging lidars are herein described that operate at aircraft above ground levels (AGLs between 1 and 11 km, and speeds in excess of 200 knots. With 100 beamlets and laser fire rates up to 60 kHz, we, at the Sigma Space Corporation (Lanham, MD, USA, have interrogated up to 6 million ground pixels per second, all of which can record multiple returns from volumetric scatterers such as tree canopies. High range resolution has been achieved through the use of subnanosecond laser pulsewidths, detectors and timing receivers. The systems are presently being deployed on a variety of aircraft to demonstrate their utility in multiple applications including large scale surveying, bathymetry, forestry, etc. Efficient noise filters, suitable for near realtime imaging, have been shown to effectively eliminate the solar background during daytime operations. Geolocation elevation errors measured to date are at the subdecimeter level. Key differences between our Single Photon Lidars, and competing Geiger Mode lidars are also discussed.

  4. Canopy wake measurements using multiple scanning wind LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markfort, C. D.; Carbajo Fuertes, F.; Iungo, V.; Stefan, H. G.; Porte-Agel, F.

    2014-12-01

    Canopy wakes have been shown, in controlled wind tunnel experiments, to significantly affect the fluxes of momentum, heat and other scalars at the land and water surface over distances of ˜O(1 km), see Markfort et al. (EFM, 2013). However, there are currently no measurements of the velocity field downwind of a full-scale forest canopy. Point-based anemometer measurements of wake turbulence provide limited insight into the extent and details of the wake structure, whereas scanning Doppler wind LiDARs can provide information on how the wake evolves in space and varies over time. For the first time, we present measurements of the velocity field in the wake of a tall patch of forest canopy. The patch consists of two uniform rows of 40-meter tall deciduous, plane trees, which border either side of the Allée de Dorigny, near the EPFL campus. The canopy is approximately 250 m long, and it is approximately 40 m wide, along the direction of the wind. A challenge faced while making field measurements is that the wind rarely intersects a canopy normal to the edge. The resulting wake flow may be deflected relative to the mean inflow. Using multiple LiDARs, we measure the evolution of the wake due to an oblique wind blowing over the canopy. One LiDAR is positioned directly downwind of the canopy to measure the flow along the mean wind direction and the other is positioned near the canopy to evaluate the transversal component of the wind and how it varies with downwind distance from the canopy. Preliminary results show that the open trunk space near the base of the canopy results in a surface jet that can be detected just downwind of the canopy and farther downwind dissipates as it mixes with the wake flow above. A time-varying recirculation zone can be detected by the periodic reversal of the velocity near the surface, downwind of the canopy. The implications of canopy wakes for measurement and modeling of surface fluxes will be discussed.

  5. Rapid, high-resolution measurement of leaf area and leaf orientation using terrestrial LiDAR scanning data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, Brian N; Mahaffee, Walter F

    2017-01-01

    The rapid evolution of high performance computing technology has allowed for the development of extremely detailed models of the urban and natural environment. Although models can now represent sub-meter-scale variability in environmental geometry, model users are often unable to specify the geometry of real domains at this scale given available measurements. An emerging technology in this field has been the use of terrestrial LiDAR scanning data to rapidly measure the three-dimensional geometry of trees, such as the distribution of leaf area. However, current LiDAR methods suffer from the limitation that they require detailed knowledge of leaf orientation in order to translate projected leaf area into actual leaf area. Common methods for measuring leaf orientation are often tedious or inaccurate, which places constraints on the LiDAR measurement technique. This work presents a new method to simultaneously measure leaf orientation and leaf area within an arbitrarily defined volume using terrestrial LiDAR data. The novelty of the method lies in the direct measurement of the fraction of projected leaf area G from the LiDAR data which is required to relate projected leaf area to total leaf area, and in the new way in which radiation transfer theory is used to calculate leaf area from the LiDAR data. The method was validated by comparing LiDAR-measured leaf area to (1) ‘synthetic’ or computer-generated LiDAR data where the exact area was known, and (2) direct measurements of leaf area in the field using destructive sampling. Overall, agreement between the LiDAR and reference measurements was very good, showing a normalized root-mean-squared-error of about 15% for the synthetic tests, and 13% in the field. (paper)

  6. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-07-10

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies-INS and LiDAR SLAM-into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV) platform-NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  7. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. The drift errors of velocity, position, and heading angles in an INS will accumulate over time, and on-line calibration is a must for sustaining positioning accuracy. SLAM performance is poor in featureless environments where the matching errors can significantly increase. Each standalone positioning method cannot offer a sustainable navigation solution with acceptable accuracy. This paper integrates two complementary technologies—INS and LiDAR SLAM—into one navigation frame with a loosely coupled Extended Kalman Filter (EKF to use the advantages and overcome the drawbacks of each system to establish a stable long-term navigation process. Static and dynamic field tests were carried out with a self-developed Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV platform—NAVIS. The results prove that the proposed approach can provide positioning accuracy at the centimetre level for long-term operations, even in a featureless indoor environment.

  8. Determination of smoke plume and layer heights using scanning lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir A. Kovalev; Alexander Petkov; Cyle Wold; Shawn Urbanski; Wei Min Hao

    2009-01-01

    The methodology of using mobile scanning lidar data for investigation of smoke plume rise and high-resolution smoke dispersion is considered. The methodology is based on the lidar-signal transformation proposed recently [Appl. Opt. 48, 2559 (2009)]. In this study, similar methodology is used to create the atmospheric heterogeneity height indicator (HHI...

  9. Dose error analysis for a scanned proton beam delivery system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutrakon, G; Wang, N; Miller, D W; Yang, Y

    2010-01-01

    All particle beam scanning systems are subject to dose delivery errors due to errors in position, energy and intensity of the delivered beam. In addition, finite scan speeds, beam spill non-uniformities, and delays in detector, detector electronics and magnet responses will all contribute errors in delivery. In this paper, we present dose errors for an 8 x 10 x 8 cm 3 target of uniform water equivalent density with 8 cm spread out Bragg peak and a prescribed dose of 2 Gy. Lower doses are also analyzed and presented later in the paper. Beam energy errors and errors due to limitations of scanning system hardware have been included in the analysis. By using Gaussian shaped pencil beams derived from measurements in the research room of the James M Slater Proton Treatment and Research Center at Loma Linda, CA and executing treatment simulations multiple times, statistical dose errors have been calculated in each 2.5 mm cubic voxel in the target. These errors were calculated by delivering multiple treatments to the same volume and calculating the rms variation in delivered dose at each voxel in the target. The variations in dose were the result of random beam delivery errors such as proton energy, spot position and intensity fluctuations. The results show that with reasonable assumptions of random beam delivery errors, the spot scanning technique yielded an rms dose error in each voxel less than 2% or 3% of the 2 Gy prescribed dose. These calculated errors are within acceptable clinical limits for radiation therapy.

  10. Scanning elastic lidar observations of aerosol transport in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Adrian; Dominguez, Victor; Dobryansky, Selma; Wu, Yonghua; Arend, Mark; Vladutescu, Daniela Viviana; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2018-04-01

    In this study, spatial distribution of aerosols in New York City is observed using a scanning eyesafe 532 nm elastic-backscatter micro-pulse lidar system. Observations show dynamics of the boundary layer and inhomogeneous distribution and transport of aerosols. The data acquired are complemented with simultaneous measurements of particulate matter and wind speed and direction. Furthermore, the system observations are validated by comparing them with a colocated multi-wavelength lidar.

  11. Reduction of measurement errors in OCT scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, E. N.; Tabla, P. M.; Sallese, M.; Torga, J. R.

    2018-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-destructive optical technique, which uses a light source with a wide band width that focuses on a point in the sample to determine the distance (strictly, the optical path difference, OPD) between this point and a reference surface. The point can be superficial or at an interior interface of the sample (transparent or semitransparent), allowing topographies and / or tomographies in different materials. The Michelson interferometer is the traditional experimental scheme for this technique, in which a beam of light is divided into two arms, one the reference and the other the sample. The overlap of reflected light in the sample and in the reference generates an interference signal that gives us information about the OPD between arms. In this work, we work on the experimental configuration in which the reference signal and the reflected signal in the sample travel on the same arm, improving the quality of the interference signal. Among the most important aspects of this improvement we can mention that the noise and errors produced by the relative reference-sample movement and by the dispersion of the refractive index are considerably reduced. It is thus possible to obtain 3D images of surfaces with a spatial resolution in the order of microns. Results obtained on the topography of metallic surfaces, glass and inks printed on paper are presented.

  12. Re-Normalization Method of Doppler Lidar Signal for Error Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Nakgyu; Baik, Sunghoon; Park, Seungkyu; Kim, Donglyul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dukhyeon [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In this paper, we presented a re-normalization method for the fluctuations of Doppler signals from the various noises mainly due to the frequency locking error for a Doppler lidar system. For the Doppler lidar system, we used an injection-seeded pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the transmitter and an iodine filter as the Doppler frequency discriminator. For the Doppler frequency shift measurement, the transmission ratio using the injection-seeded laser is locked to stabilize the frequency. If the frequency locking system is not perfect, the Doppler signal has some error due to the frequency locking error. The re-normalization process of the Doppler signals was performed to reduce this error using an additional laser beam to an Iodine cell. We confirmed that the renormalized Doppler signal shows the stable experimental data much more than that of the averaged Doppler signal using our calibration method, the reduced standard deviation was 4.838 Χ 10{sup -3}.

  13. Simulated full-waveform lidar compared to Riegl VZ-400 terrestrial laser scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Angela M.; Olsen, Richard C.; Béland, Martin

    2016-05-01

    A 3-D Monte Carlo ray-tracing simulation of LiDAR propagation models the reflection, transmission and ab- sorption interactions of laser energy with materials in a simulated scene. In this presentation, a model scene consisting of a single Victorian Boxwood (Pittosporum undulatum) tree is generated by the high-fidelity tree voxel model VoxLAD using high-spatial resolution point cloud data from a Riegl VZ-400 terrestrial laser scanner. The VoxLAD model uses terrestrial LiDAR scanner data to determine Leaf Area Density (LAD) measurements for small volume voxels (20 cm sides) of a single tree canopy. VoxLAD is also used in a non-traditional fashion in this case to generate a voxel model of wood density. Information from the VoxLAD model is used within the LiDAR simulation to determine the probability of LiDAR energy interacting with materials at a given voxel location. The LiDAR simulation is defined to replicate the scanning arrangement of the Riegl VZ-400; the resulting simulated full-waveform LiDAR signals compare favorably to those obtained with the Riegl VZ-400 terrestrial laser scanner.

  14. Scanning Lidar Spatial Calibration and Alignment Method for Wind Turbine Wake Characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herges, Thomas; Maniaci, David; Naughton, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory conducted a field campaign at the Scaled Wind Farm Technology (SWiFT) Facility using a customized scanning lidar from the Technical University of Denmark. The results from this field campaign will support the validation...

  15. An Error Analysis of Structured Light Scanning of Biological Tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; Wilm, Jakob; Aanæs, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents an error analysis and correction model for four structured light methods applied to three common types of biological tissue; skin, fat and muscle. Despite its many advantages, structured light is based on the assumption of direct reflection at the object surface only......, statistical linear model based on the scan geometry. As such, scans can be corrected without introducing any specially designed pattern strategy or hardware. We can effectively reduce the error in a structured light scanner applied to biological tissue by as much as factor of two or three........ This assumption is violated by most biological material e.g. human skin, which exhibits subsurface scattering. In this study, we find that in general, structured light scans of biological tissue deviate significantly from the ground truth. We show that a large portion of this error can be predicted with a simple...

  16. Monitoring and Quantifying Particles Emissions around Industrial Sites with Scanning Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobois, L.; Royer, P.; Parmentier, R.; Brooks, M.; Knoepfle, A.; Alexander, J.; Stidwell, P.; Kumar, R.

    2018-04-01

    Scanning Coherent Doppler Lidars have been used over the last decade for measuring wind for applications in wind energy [1], meteorology [2] and aviation [3]. They allow for accurate measurements of wind speeds up to a distance of 10 km based on the Doppler shift effect of aerosols. The signal reflectivity (CNR or Carrier-to-Noise Ratio) profiles can also be retrieved from the strength of the Lidar signal. In this study, we will present the developments of algorithm for retrieving aerosol optical properties like the relative attenuated backscatter coefficient and the mass concentration of particles. The use of these algorithms during one operational trial in Point Samson, Western Australia to monitor fugitive emissions over a mine will be presented. This project has been initiated by the Australian Department of Environment Regulations to better determine the impact of the Port on the neighboring town. During the trial in Summer, the strong impact of turbulence refractive index on Lidar performances has been observed. Multiple methodologies have been applied to reduce this impact with more or less success. At the end, a dedicated setup and configuration have been established that allow to properly observe the plumes of the mine with the scanning Lidar. The Lidar data has also been coupled to beta attenuation in-situ sensors for retrieving mass concentration maps. A few case of dispersion of plumes will be presented showing the necessity to combine both the wind and aerosol data.

  17. Investigating the influence of LiDAR ground surface errors on the utility of derived forest inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade T. Tinkham; Alistair M. S. Smith; Chad Hoffman; Andrew T. Hudak; Michael J. Falkowski; Mark E. Swanson; Paul E. Gessler

    2012-01-01

    Light detection and ranging, or LiDAR, effectively produces products spatially characterizing both terrain and vegetation structure; however, development and use of those products has outpaced our understanding of the errors within them. LiDAR's ability to capture three-dimensional structure has led to interest in conducting or augmenting forest inventories with...

  18. Evaluation of the Wind Flow Variability Using Scanning Doppler Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, S. C.; Pichugina, Y. L.; Brewer, A.

    2016-12-01

    Better understanding of the wind flow variability at the heights of the modern turbines is essential to accurately assess of generated wind power and efficient turbine operations. Nowadays the wind energy industry often utilizes scanning Doppler lidar to measure wind-speed profiles at high spatial and temporal resolution.The study presents wind flow features captured by scanning Doppler lidars during the second Wind Forecast and Improvement Project (WFIP 2) sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This 18-month long experiment in the Columbia River Basin aims to improve model wind forecasts complicated by mountain terrain, coastal effects, and numerous wind farms.To provide a comprehensive dataset to use for characterizing and predicting meteorological phenomena important to Wind Energy, NOAA deployed scanning, pulsed Doppler lidars to two sites in Oregon, one at Wasco, located upstream of all wind farms relative to the predominant westerly flow in the region, and one at Arlington, located in the middle of several wind farms.In this presentation we will describe lidar scanning patterns capable of providing data in conical, or vertical-slice modes. These individual scans were processed to obtain 15-min averaged profiles of wind speed and direction in real time. Visualization of these profiles as time-height cross sections allows us to analyze variability of these parameters with height, time and location, and reveal periods of rapid changes (ramp events). Examples of wind flow variability between two sites of lidar measurements along with examples of reduced wind velocity downwind of operating turbines (wakes) will be presented.

  19. An Online Solution of LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System for Indoor Mobile Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoji Niu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Multisensors (LiDAR/IMU/CAMERA integrated Simultaneous Location and Mapping (SLAM technology for navigation and mobile mapping in a GNSS-denied environment, such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons, becomes a promising solution. An online (real-time version of such system can extremely extend its applications, especially for indoor mobile mapping. However, the real-time response issue of multisensors is a big challenge for an online SLAM system, due to the different sampling frequencies and processing time of different algorithms. In this paper, an online Extended Kalman Filter (EKF integrated algorithm of LiDAR scan matching and IMU mechanization for Unmanned Ground Vehicle (UGV indoor navigation system is introduced. Since LiDAR scan matching is considerably more time consuming than the IMU mechanism, the real-time synchronous issue is solved via a one-step-error-state-transition method in EKF. Stationary and dynamic field tests had been performed using a UGV platform along typical corridor of office building. Compared to the traditional sequential postprocessed EKF algorithm, the proposed method can significantly mitigate the time delay of navigation outputs under the premise of guaranteeing the positioning accuracy, which can be used as an online navigation solution for indoor mobile mapping.

  20. From LIDAR Scanning to 3d FEM Analysis for Complex Surface and Underground Excavations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun, K.; Kemeny, J.

    2017-12-01

    Light detection and ranging (LIDAR) has been a prevalent remote-sensing technology applied in the geological fields due to its high precision and ease to use. One of the major applications is to use the detailed geometrical information of underground structures as a basis for the generation of three-dimensional numerical model that can be used in FEM analysis. To date, however, straightforward techniques in reconstructing numerical model from the scanned data of underground structures have not been well established or tested. In this paper, we propose a comprehensive approach integrating from LIDAR scanning to finite element numerical analysis, specifically converting LIDAR 3D point clouds of object containing complex surface geometry into finite element model. This methodology has been applied to the Kartchner Caverns in Arizona for the stability analysis. Numerical simulations were performed using the finite element code ABAQUS. The results indicate that the highlights of our technologies obtained from LIDAR is effective and provide reference for other similar engineering project in practice.

  1. Geometrical modelling of scanning probe microscopes and characterization of errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinello, F; Savio, E; Bariani, P; Carmignato, S

    2009-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) allow quantitative evaluation of surface topography with ultra-high resolution, as a result of accurate actuation combined with the sharpness of tips. SPMs measure sequentially, by scanning surfaces in a raster fashion: topography maps commonly consist of data sets ideally reported in an orthonormal rectilinear Cartesian coordinate system. However, due to scanning errors and measurement distortions, the measurement process is far from the ideal Cartesian condition. The paper addresses geometrical modelling of the scanning system dynamics, presenting a mathematical model which describes the surface metric x-, y- and z- coordinates as a function of the measured x'-, y'- and z'-coordinates respectively. The complete mathematical model provides a relevant contribution to characterization and calibration, and ultimately to traceability, of SPMs, when applied for quantitative characterization

  2. Coastal wind study based on Sentinel-1 and ground-based scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, Charlotte Bay; Badger, Merete; Pena Diaz, Alfredo

    Winds in the coastal zone have importance for near-shore wind farm planning. Recently the Danish Energy Agency gave new options for placing offshore wind farms much closer to the coastlines than previously. The new tender areas are located from 3 to 8 km from the coast. Ground-based scanning lidar...... located on land can partly cover this area out to around 15 km. In order to improve wind farm planning for near-shore coastal areas, the project‘Reducing the Uncertainty of Near-shore Energy estimates from meso- and micro-scale wind models’ (RUNE) is established. The measurement campaign starts October....... The various observation types have advantages and limitations; one advantage of both the Sentinel-1 and the scanning lidar is that they both observe wind fields covering a large area and so can be combined for studying the spatial variability of winds. Sentinel-1 are being processed near-real-time at DTU Wind...

  3. LiDAR Scan Matching Aided Inertial Navigation System in GNSS-Denied Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jian; Chen, Yuwei; Niu, Xiaoji; Wang, Li; Chen, Liang; Liu, Jingbin; Shi, Chuang; Hyyppä, Juha

    2015-01-01

    A new scan that matches an aided Inertial Navigation System (INS) with a low-cost LiDAR is proposed as an alternative to GNSS-based navigation systems in GNSS-degraded or -denied environments such as indoor areas, dense forests, or urban canyons. In these areas, INS-based Dead Reckoning (DR) and Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM) technologies are normally used to estimate positions as separate tools. However, there are critical implementation problems with each standalone system. Th...

  4. Can Wind Lidars Measure Turbulence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Gottschall, Julia

    2011-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the conical scanning technique to measure the velocity field. The model captures the effect of volume illumination and coni...

  5. UAV-borne lidar with MEMS mirror-based scanning capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasturi, Abhishek; Milanovic, Veljko; Atwood, Bryan H.; Yang, James

    2016-05-01

    Firstly, we demonstrated a wirelessly controlled MEMS scan module with imaging and laser tracking capability which can be mounted and flown on a small UAV quadcopter. The MEMS scan module was reduced down to a small volume of smartphone via Bluetooth while flying on a drone, and could project vector content, text, and perform laser based tracking. Also, a "point-and-range" LiDAR module was developed for UAV applications based on low SWaP (Size, Weight and Power) gimbal-less MEMS mirror beam-steering technology and off-the-shelf OEM LRF modules. For demonstration purposes of an integrated laser range finder module, we used a simple off-the-shelf OEM laser range finder (LRF) with a 100m range, +/-1.5mm accuracy, and 4Hz ranging capability. The LRFs receiver optics were modified to accept 20° of angle, matching the transmitter's FoR. A relatively large (5.0mm) diameter MEMS mirror with +/-10° optical scanning angle was utilized in the demonstration to maintain the small beam divergence of the module. The complete LiDAR prototype can fit into a small volume of battery. The MEMS mirror based LiDAR system allows for ondemand ranging of points or areas within the FoR without altering the UAV's position. Increasing the LRF ranging frequency and stabilizing the pointing of the laser beam by utilizing the onboard inertial sensors and the camera are additional goals of the next design.

  6. CLOSE RANGE HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGING INTEGRATED WITH TERRESTRIAL LIDAR SCANNING APPLIED TO ROCK CHARACTERISATION AT CENTIMETRE SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. H. Kurz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Compact and lightweight hyperspectral imagers allow the application of close range hyperspectral imaging with a ground based scanning setup for geological fieldwork. Using such a scanning setup, steep cliff sections and quarry walls can be scanned with a more appropriate viewing direction and a higher image resolution than from airborne and spaceborne platforms. Integration of the hyperspectral imagery with terrestrial lidar scanning provides the hyperspectral information in a georeferenced framework and enables measurement at centimetre scale. In this paper, three geological case studies are used to demonstrate the potential of this method for rock characterisation. Two case studies are applied to carbonate quarries where mapping of different limestone and dolomite types was required, as well as measurements of faults and layer thicknesses from inaccessible parts of the quarries. The third case study demonstrates the method using artificial lighting, applied in a subsurface scanning scenario where solar radiation cannot be utilised.

  7. Scanning lidar fluorosensor for remote diagnostic of surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneve, Luisa; Colao, Francesco; Fantoni, Roberta; Fiorani, Luca

    2013-08-01

    Scanning hyperspectral systems based on laser induced fluorescence (LIF) have been developed and realized at the ENEA allowing to obtain information of analytical and qualitative interest on different materials by the study of the emission of fluorescence. This technique, for a surface analysis, is fast, remote, not invasive and specific. A new compact setup capable of fast 2D monochromatic images acquisition on up to 90 different spectral channels in the visible/UV range will be presented. It has been recently built with the aim to increase the performances in terms of space resolution, time resolved capabilities and data acquisition speed. Major achievements have been reached by a critical review of the optical design. The results recently obtained with in-situ measurements of interest for applications in the field of cultural heritage will be shown. 2001 Elsevier Science. All rights reserved

  8. Quantifying spatial distribution of snow depth errors from LiDAR using Random Forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkham, W.; Smith, A. M.; Marshall, H.; Link, T. E.; Falkowski, M. J.; Winstral, A. H.

    2013-12-01

    There is increasing need to characterize the distribution of snow in complex terrain using remote sensing approaches, especially in isolated mountainous regions that are often water-limited, the principal source of terrestrial freshwater, and sensitive to climatic shifts and variations. We apply intensive topographic surveys, multi-temporal LiDAR, and Random Forest modeling to quantify snow volume and characterize associated errors across seven land cover types in a semi-arid mountainous catchment at a 1 and 4 m spatial resolution. The LiDAR-based estimates of both snow-off surface topology and snow depths were validated against ground-based measurements across the catchment. Comparison of LiDAR-derived snow depths to manual snow depth surveys revealed that LiDAR based estimates were more accurate in areas of low lying vegetation such as shrubs (RMSE = 0.14 m) as compared to areas consisting of tree cover (RMSE = 0.20-0.35 m). The highest errors were found along the edge of conifer forests (RMSE = 0.35 m), however a second conifer transect outside the catchment had much lower errors (RMSE = 0.21 m). This difference is attributed to the wind exposure of the first site that led to highly variable snow depths at short spatial distances. The Random Forest modeled errors deviated from the field measured errors with a RMSE of 0.09-0.34 m across the different cover types. Results show that snow drifts, which are important for maintaining spring and summer stream flows and establishing and sustaining water-limited plant species, contained 30 × 5-6% of the snow volume while only occupying 10% of the catchment area similar to findings by prior physically-based modeling approaches. This study demonstrates the potential utility of combining multi-temporal LiDAR with Random Forest modeling to quantify the distribution of snow depth with a reasonable degree of accuracy. Future work could explore the utility of Terrestrial LiDAR Scanners to produce validation of snow-on surface

  9. Cloud fraction and cloud base measurements from scanning Doppler lidar during WFIP-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, T.; Long, C.; Lantz, K. O.; Choukulkar, A.; Pichugina, Y. L.; McCarty, B.; Banta, R. M.; Brewer, A.; Marquis, M.

    2017-12-01

    The second Wind Forecast Improvement Project (WFIP-2) consisted of an 18-month field deployment of a variety of instrumentation with the principle objective of validating and improving NWP forecasts for wind energy applications in complex terrain. As a part of the set of instrumentation, several scanning Doppler lidars were installed across the study domain to primarily measure profiles of the mean wind and turbulence at high-resolution within the planetary boundary layer. In addition to these measurements, Doppler lidar observations can be used to directly quantify the cloud fraction and cloud base, since clouds appear as a high backscatter return. These supplementary measurements of clouds can then be used to validate cloud cover and other properties in NWP output. Herein, statistics of the cloud fraction and cloud base height from the duration of WFIP-2 are presented. Additionally, these cloud fraction estimates from Doppler lidar are compared with similar measurements from a Total Sky Imager and Radiative Flux Analysis (RadFlux) retrievals at the Wasco site. During mostly cloudy to overcast conditions, estimates of the cloud radiating temperature from the RadFlux methodology are also compared with Doppler lidar measured cloud base height.

  10. Effect of target color and scanning geometry on terrestrial LiDAR point-cloud noise and plane fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkas, Dimitrios; Martinez, Aaron

    2018-01-01

    Point-cloud coordinate information derived from terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is important for several applications in surveying and civil engineering. Plane fitting and segmentation of target-surfaces is an important step in several applications such as in the monitoring of structures. Reliable parametric modeling and segmentation relies on the underlying quality of the point-cloud. Therefore, understanding how point-cloud errors affect fitting of planes and segmentation is important. Point-cloud intensity, which accompanies the point-cloud data, often goes hand-in-hand with point-cloud noise. This study uses industrial particle boards painted with eight different colors (black, white, grey, red, green, blue, brown, and yellow) and two different sheens (flat and semi-gloss) to explore how noise and plane residuals vary with scanning geometry (i.e., distance and incidence angle) and target-color. Results show that darker colors, such as black and brown, can produce point clouds that are several times noisier than bright targets, such as white. In addition, semi-gloss targets manage to reduce noise in dark targets by about 2-3 times. The study of plane residuals with scanning geometry reveals that, in many of the cases tested, residuals decrease with increasing incidence angles, which can assist in understanding the distribution of plane residuals in a dataset. Finally, a scheme is developed to derive survey guidelines based on the data collected in this experiment. Three examples demonstrate that users should consider instrument specification, required precision of plane residuals, required point-spacing, target-color, and target-sheen, when selecting scanning locations. Outcomes of this study can aid users to select appropriate instrumentation and improve planning of terrestrial LiDAR data-acquisition.

  11. Ground-based mobile scanning LIDAR for remote sensing of contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Homburg

    Full Text Available Air traffic is a source of trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Contrails readily form from water vapor exhausts under favorable meteorological conditions. Since contrails are ice crystal clouds like natural cirrus clouds, they bear a greenhouse potential which has to be investigated. The IFU has built a scanning lidar system employing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the emitter and a 52-cm diameter telescope as the receiver. Signals are processed in several channels to investigate depolarization and wavelength dependencies of the light backscattered from ice crystals. These investigations are aimed at the formation and life cycles of contrails, their optical properties, and their climatological consequences in areas of dense air traffic. The experimental lidar setup is described and a sample measurement is shown.

  12. Ground-based mobile scanning LIDAR for remote sensing of contrails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Freudenthaler

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Air traffic is a source of trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Contrails readily form from water vapor exhausts under favorable meteorological conditions. Since contrails are ice crystal clouds like natural cirrus clouds, they bear a greenhouse potential which has to be investigated. The IFU has built a scanning lidar system employing a pulsed Nd:YAG laser as the emitter and a 52-cm diameter telescope as the receiver. Signals are processed in several channels to investigate depolarization and wavelength dependencies of the light backscattered from ice crystals. These investigations are aimed at the formation and life cycles of contrails, their optical properties, and their climatological consequences in areas of dense air traffic. The experimental lidar setup is described and a sample measurement is shown.

  13. Industrial site particulate pollution monitoring with an eye-safe and scanning industrial fiber lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanger, Brigitte; Fougeres, Andre; Talbot, Mario

    2001-02-01

    12 Over the past few years, INO has developed an Industrial Fiber Lidar (IFL). It enables the particulate pollution monitoring on industrial sites. More particularly, it has been used to take measurements of particulate concentration at Port Facilities of an aluminum plant during boat unloading. It is an eye-safe and portable lidar. It uses a fiber laser also developed at INO emitting 1.7 microJoules at 1534 nm with a pulse repetition frequency of 5 kHz. Given the harsh environment of an industrial site, all the sensitive equipment like the laser source, detector, computer and acquisition electronics are located in a building and connected to the optical module, placed outside, via optical fibers up to 500 m long. The fiber link also offers all the flexibility for placing the optical module at a proper location. The optical module is mounted on a two axis scanning platform, able to perform an azimuth scan of 0 to 355 deg and an elevation scan of +/- 90 deg, which enables the scanning of zones defined by the user. On this industrial site, materials like bauxite, alumina, spathfluor and calcined coke having mass extinction coefficients ranging from 0.53 to 2.7 m2/g can be detected. Data for different measurement configurations have been obtained. Concentration values have been calculated for measurements in a hopper, along a wharf and over the urban area close to the port facilities. The lidar measurements have been compared to high volume samplers. Based on these comparisons, it has been established that the IFL is able to monitor the relative fluctuations of dust concentrations. It can be integrated to the process control of the industrial site for alarm generation when concentrations are above threshold.

  14. Design validation of an eye-safe scanning aerosol lidar with the Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) at Hampton University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, Dale A.; Higdon, N. S.; Ponsardin, Patrick L.; Sanchez, David; Chyba, Thomas H.; Temple, Doyle A.; Gong, Wei; Battle, Russell; Edmondson, Mika; Futrell, Anne; Harper, David; Haughton, Lincoln; Johnson, Demetra; Lewis, Kyle; Payne-Baggott, Renee S.

    2002-01-01

    ITTs Advanced Engineering and Sciences Division and the Hampton University Center for Lidar and Atmospheric Sciences Students (CLASS) team have worked closely to design, fabricate and test an eye-safe, scanning aerosol-lidar system that can be safely deployed and used by students form a variety of disciplines. CLASS is a 5-year undergraduate- research training program funded by NASA to provide hands-on atmospheric-science and lidar-technology education. The system is based on a 1.5 micron, 125 mJ, 20 Hz eye-safe optical parametric oscillator (OPO) and will be used by the HU researchers and students to evaluate the biological impact of aerosols, clouds, and pollution a variety of systems issues. The system design tasks we addressed include the development of software to calculate eye-safety levels and to model lidar performance, implementation of eye-safety features in the lidar transmitter, optimization of the receiver using optical ray tracing software, evaluation of detectors and amplifiers in the near RI, test of OPO and receiver technology, development of hardware and software for laser and scanner control and video display of the scan region.

  15. LOSA-M3: multi-wave polarization scanning lidar for research of the troposphere and cirrus clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokhanenko, G. P.; Balin, Yu. S.; Klemasheva, M. G.; Penner, I. E.; Nasonov, S. V.; Samoilova, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    Lidar is designed to study the aerosol fields of the troposphere and the polarization characteristics of crystal clouds. Two laser wavelengths are used - 1064 and 532 nm, elastic scattering signals and spontaneous Raman scattering of nitrogen (607 nm) are recorded. Lidar is made in a mobile version, allowing its transportation by road and working under expeditionary conditions. The lidar transceiver is placed on a scanning column, which allows to change the direction of sounding within the upper hemisphere at a speed of 1 degree per second. The polarization characteristics of the transmitter and receiver can be changed by rotating the phase plates synchronously with the the laser pulses. In combination with conical scanning of the lidar, this makes it possible to detect the anisotropy of scattering and the possible azimuthal orientation of the crystal particles.

  16. Application of the Ultraviolet Scanning Elastic Backscatter LiDAR for the Investigation of Aerosol Variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Gao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the aerosol variability over the southwest region of Slovenia, an ultraviolet scanning elastic backscatter LiDAR was utilized to make the vertical scan for atmospheric probing. With the assumption of horizontal atmospheric homogeneity, aerosol optical variables were retrieved from the horizontal pixel data points of two-dimensional range-height-indicator (RHI diagrams by using a multiangle retrieval method, in which optical depth is defined as the slope of the resulting linear function when height is kept constant. To make the data retrieval feasible and precise, a series of key procedures complemented the data processing, including construction of the RHI diagram, correction of Rayleigh scattering, assessment of horizontal atmospheric homogeneity and retrieval of aerosol optical variables. The measurement example demonstrated the feasibility of the ultraviolet scanning elastic backscatter LiDAR in the applications of the retrieval of aerosol extinction and determination of the atmospheric boundary layer height. Three months’ data combined with the modeling of air flow trajectories using Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model were analyzed to investigate aerosol variability. The average value of aerosol extinction with the presence of land-based air masses from the European continent was found to be two-times larger than that influenced by marine aerosols from the Mediterranean or Adriatic Sea.

  17. Determination of the smoke-plume heights with scanning lidar using alternative functions for establishing the atmospheric heterogeneity locations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir A. Kovalev; Alexander Petkov; Cyle Wold; Wei Min Hao

    2010-01-01

    Data-processing techniques for the scanning lidar data are considered that allow determining the upper and lower boundaries of the smoke plume or smoke layering in the vicinity of wildfires. The task is fulfilled by utilizing the Atmospheric Heterogeneity Height Indicator (AHHI). The AHHI is a histogram, which shows a number of heterogeneity events defined by scanning...

  18. Reducing classification error of grassland overgrowth by combing low-density lidar acquisitions and optical remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkänen, T. P.; Käyhkö, N.

    2017-08-01

    Mapping structural changes in vegetation dynamics has, for a long time, been carried out using satellite images, orthophotos and, more recently, airborne lidar acquisitions. Lidar has established its position as providing accurate material for structure-based analyses but its limited availability, relatively short history, and lack of spectral information, however, are generally impeding the use of lidar data for change detection purposes. A potential solution in respect of detecting both contemporary vegetation structures and their previous trajectories is to combine lidar acquisitions with optical remote sensing data, which can substantially extend the coverage, span and spectral range needed for vegetation mapping. In this study, we tested the simultaneous use of a single low-density lidar data set, a series of Landsat satellite frames and two high-resolution orthophotos to detect vegetation succession related to grassland overgrowth, i.e. encroachment of woody plants into semi-natural grasslands. We built several alternative Random Forest models with different sets of variables and tested the applicability of respective data sources for change detection purposes, aiming at distinguishing unchanged grassland and woodland areas from overgrown grasslands. Our results show that while lidar alone provides a solid basis for indicating structural differences between grassland and woodland vegetation, and orthophoto-generated variables alone are better in detecting successional changes, their combination works considerably better than its respective parts. More specifically, a model combining all the used data sets reduces the total error from 17.0% to 11.0% and omission error of detecting overgrown grasslands from 56.9% to 31.2%, when compared to model constructed solely based on lidar data. This pinpoints the efficiency of the approach where lidar-generated structural metrics are combined with optical and multitemporal observations, providing a workable framework to

  19. Analysis of 3D Scan Measurement Distribution with Application to a Multi-Beam Lidar on a Rotating Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Jesús; Plaza-Leiva, Victoria; Mandow, Anthony; Gomez-Ruiz, Jose Antonio; Serón, Javier; García-Cerezo, Alfonso

    2018-01-30

    Multi-beam lidar (MBL) rangefinders are becoming increasingly compact, light, and accessible 3D sensors, but they offer limited vertical resolution and field of view. The addition of a degree-of-freedom to build a rotating multi-beam lidar (RMBL) has the potential to become a common solution for affordable rapid full-3D high resolution scans. However, the overlapping of multiple-beams caused by rotation yields scanning patterns that are more complex than in rotating single beam lidar (RSBL). In this paper, we propose a simulation-based methodology to analyze 3D scanning patterns which is applied to investigate the scan measurement distribution produced by the RMBL configuration. With this purpose, novel contributions include: (i) the adaption of a recent spherical reformulation of Ripley's K function to assess 3D sensor data distribution on a hollow sphere simulation; (ii) a comparison, both qualitative and quantitative, between scan patterns produced by an ideal RMBL based on a Velodyne VLP-16 (Puck) and those of other 3D scan alternatives (i.e., rotating 2D lidar and MBL); and (iii) a new RMBL implementation consisting of a portable tilting platform for VLP-16 scanners, which is presented as a case study for measurement distribution analysis as well as for the discussion of actual scans from representative environments. Results indicate that despite the particular sampling patterns given by a RMBL, its homogeneity even improves that of an equivalent RSBL.

  20. Analysis of 3D Scan Measurement Distribution with Application to a Multi-Beam Lidar on a Rotating Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza-Leiva, Victoria; Serón, Javier

    2018-01-01

    Multi-beam lidar (MBL) rangefinders are becoming increasingly compact, light, and accessible 3D sensors, but they offer limited vertical resolution and field of view. The addition of a degree-of-freedom to build a rotating multi-beam lidar (RMBL) has the potential to become a common solution for affordable rapid full-3D high resolution scans. However, the overlapping of multiple-beams caused by rotation yields scanning patterns that are more complex than in rotating single beam lidar (RSBL). In this paper, we propose a simulation-based methodology to analyze 3D scanning patterns which is applied to investigate the scan measurement distribution produced by the RMBL configuration. With this purpose, novel contributions include: (i) the adaption of a recent spherical reformulation of Ripley’s K function to assess 3D sensor data distribution on a hollow sphere simulation; (ii) a comparison, both qualitative and quantitative, between scan patterns produced by an ideal RMBL based on a Velodyne VLP-16 (Puck) and those of other 3D scan alternatives (i.e., rotating 2D lidar and MBL); and (iii) a new RMBL implementation consisting of a portable tilting platform for VLP-16 scanners, which is presented as a case study for measurement distribution analysis as well as for the discussion of actual scans from representative environments. Results indicate that despite the particular sampling patterns given by a RMBL, its homogeneity even improves that of an equivalent RSBL. PMID:29385705

  1. Large Scale Textured Mesh Reconstruction from Mobile Mapping Images and LIDAR Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boussaha, M.; Vallet, B.; Rives, P.

    2018-05-01

    The representation of 3D geometric and photometric information of the real world is one of the most challenging and extensively studied research topics in the photogrammetry and robotics communities. In this paper, we present a fully automatic framework for 3D high quality large scale urban texture mapping using oriented images and LiDAR scans acquired by a terrestrial Mobile Mapping System (MMS). First, the acquired points and images are sliced into temporal chunks ensuring a reasonable size and time consistency between geometry (points) and photometry (images). Then, a simple, fast and scalable 3D surface reconstruction relying on the sensor space topology is performed on each chunk after an isotropic sampling of the point cloud obtained from the raw LiDAR scans. Finally, the algorithm proposed in (Waechter et al., 2014) is adapted to texture the reconstructed surface with the images acquired simultaneously, ensuring a high quality texture with no seams and global color adjustment. We evaluate our full pipeline on a dataset of 17 km of acquisition in Rouen, France resulting in nearly 2 billion points and 40000 full HD images. We are able to reconstruct and texture the whole acquisition in less than 30 computing hours, the entire process being highly parallel as each chunk can be processed independently in a separate thread or computer.

  2. LARGE SCALE TEXTURED MESH RECONSTRUCTION FROM MOBILE MAPPING IMAGES AND LIDAR SCANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boussaha

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The representation of 3D geometric and photometric information of the real world is one of the most challenging and extensively studied research topics in the photogrammetry and robotics communities. In this paper, we present a fully automatic framework for 3D high quality large scale urban texture mapping using oriented images and LiDAR scans acquired by a terrestrial Mobile Mapping System (MMS. First, the acquired points and images are sliced into temporal chunks ensuring a reasonable size and time consistency between geometry (points and photometry (images. Then, a simple, fast and scalable 3D surface reconstruction relying on the sensor space topology is performed on each chunk after an isotropic sampling of the point cloud obtained from the raw LiDAR scans. Finally, the algorithm proposed in (Waechter et al., 2014 is adapted to texture the reconstructed surface with the images acquired simultaneously, ensuring a high quality texture with no seams and global color adjustment. We evaluate our full pipeline on a dataset of 17 km of acquisition in Rouen, France resulting in nearly 2 billion points and 40000 full HD images. We are able to reconstruct and texture the whole acquisition in less than 30 computing hours, the entire process being highly parallel as each chunk can be processed independently in a separate thread or computer.

  3. A hybrid 3D LIDAR imager based on pixel-by-pixel scanning and DS-OCDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Yongwan

    2016-03-01

    We propose a new hybrid 3D light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, which measures a scene with 1280 x 600 pixels at a refresh rate of 60fps. The emitted pulses of each pixel are modulated by direct sequence optical code division multiple access (DS-OCDMA) techniques. The modulated pulses include a unique device identification number, the pixel position in the line, and a checksum. The LIDAR emits the modulated pulses periodically without waiting to receive returning light at the detector. When all the pixels are completely through the process, the travel time, amplitude, width, and speed are used by the pixel-by-pixel scanning LIDAR imager to generate point cloud data as the measured results. We programmed the entire hybrid 3D LIDAR operation in a simulator to observe the functionality accomplished by our proposed model.

  4. Next Generation Scanning LIDAR Systems for Optimizing Wake Turbulence Separation Minima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Thobois

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have been performed to better understand the behavior of wake vortices with regards to aircraft characteristics and weather conditionsover the pastten years. These studies have led to the development of the aircraft RECATegorization (RECAT programs in Europe and in USA. Its phase one focused on redefining distance separation matrix with six static aircraft wake turbulence categories instead of three with the current International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO regulations. In Europe, the RECAT-EU regulation is now entering under operational implementation atseveral key airports. As proven by several research projects in the past, LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR sensors are considered as the ground truth wake vortex measurements for assessing the safety impact of a new wake turbulence regulation at an airport in quantifying the risks given the local specificities. LIDAR’s can also be used to perform risk monitoring after the implementation. In this paper, the principle to measure wake vortices with scanning coherent Doppler LIDARs is described as well as its dedicated post-processing. Finally the use of WINDCUBELIDAR based solution for supporting the implementation of new wake turbulenceregulation is described along with satisfyingresults that have permitted the monitoring of the wake vortex encounter risk after the implementation of a new wake turbulence regulation.

  5. Subtropical Cirrus Properties Derived from GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements during CAMEX 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Wang, Z.; Demoz, B.

    2004-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) was stationed on Andros Island, Bahamas for the third Convection and Moisture Experiment (CAMEX 3) held in August - September, 1998 and acquired an extensive set of water vapor and cirrus cloud measurements (Whiteman et al., 2001). The cirrus data studied here have been segmented by generating mechanism. Distinct differences in the optical properties of the clouds are found when the cirrus are hurricane-induced versus thunderstom-induced. Relationships of cirrus cloud optical depth, mean cloud temperature, and layer mean extinction-to-backscatter ratio (S) are presented and compared with mid-latitude and tropical results. Hurricane-induced cirrus clouds are found to generally possess lower values of S than thunderstorm induced clouds. Comparison of these measurements of S are made with other studies revealing at times large differences in the measurements. Given that S is a required parameter for spacebased retrievals of cloud optical depth using backscatter lidar, these large diffaences in S measurements present difficulties for space-based retrievals of cirrus cloud extinction and optical depth.

  6. A portable scanning lidar for real-time detection of fugitive dust emissions from multisource facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmitt, G.D. [Simpson Weather Associates, Inc., Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A 400 mj, incoherent, pulsed, scanning CO{sub 2} lidar referred to as the Portable Laser for Coal Emission Mapping (PLACEM) is combined with a real-time version of EPA`s Industrial Source Complex - Short Term (ISCST) model to map TSP concentrations and dry deposition of fugitive particulate emissions from multiple sources within a coal handling complex. A Simpson Weather Associates concept, funded by Pier IX (a subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Handling Company), PLACEM was developed in response to the need for an eye-safe laser technique for (1) assessing the relative contribution of intermittent dust generating activities and sources within a coal transshipment facility, (2) evaluating the efficiency of various dust control measures, and (3) developing a means to assess compliance with pending Clean Air Act (CAA, 1990) regulations requiring Continuous Emission Monitoring (CEM). Integration of the PLACEM observations with the ISCST2 provides a means of dynamically calibrating the model for use with conventional in situ particulate monitors. Both simulated and real observations are presented to demonstrate the viability and utility of this lidar/model approach to fugitive emission monitoring.

  7. Comparison and validation of wake vortex characteristics collected at different airports by different scanning lidar sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thobois, Ludovic; Cariou, Jean-Pierre; Cappellazzo, Valerio; Musson, Christian; Treve, Vincent

    2018-04-01

    traffic mix, the weather conditions and their impact on the wake vortex decay. After implementation, the risk monitoring might perform in-depth analysis of wake vortex encounter reported by pilots. For all the mentioned steps, the use of scanning Doppler LIDARs is the only experimental sensor capable of measuring the localization and the circulation of the wake vortices and to provide ground truth wake vortex measurements. Next generation operational LIDARs need to be developed to address in a cost effective way these operational needs. Furthermore, a specific configuration and methodology need to be developed to ensure the accuracy of the wake vortex data. Such a LIDAR based wake vortex solution has been tested at Paris Charles De Gaulle which implemented the RECAT-EU wake separation scheme. The wake vortex circulation, initial spacing and decay measured have been compared to the data collected in London Heathrow by a different LIDAR sensor. The results indicated that the initial circulation, the time to demise, the decay curve evolution and the vortex spacing are very coherent between the two databases.

  8. Comparison and validation of wake vortex characteristics collected at different airports by different scanning lidar sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thobois Ludovic

    2018-01-01

    local ATM rules, the traffic mix, the weather conditions and their impact on the wake vortex decay. After implementation, the risk monitoring might perform in-depth analysis of wake vortex encounter reported by pilots. For all the mentioned steps, the use of scanning Doppler LIDARs is the only experimental sensor capable of measuring the localization and the circulation of the wake vortices and to provide ground truth wake vortex measurements. Next generation operational LIDARs need to be developed to address in a cost effective way these operational needs. Furthermore, a specific configuration and methodology need to be developed to ensure the accuracy of the wake vortex data. Such a LIDAR based wake vortex solution has been tested at Paris Charles De Gaulle which implemented the RECAT-EU wake separation scheme. The wake vortex circulation, initial spacing and decay measured have been compared to the data collected in London Heathrow by a different LIDAR sensor. The results indicated that the initial circulation, the time to demise, the decay curve evolution and the vortex spacing are very coherent between the two databases.

  9. Wind field re-construction of 3D Wake measurements from a turbine-installed scanning lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, Tommy; Astrup, Poul

    High-resolution wake flow measurements obtained from a turbine-mounted scanning lidar have been obtained from 1D to 5D behind a V27 test turbine. The measured line-of-sight projected wind speeds have, in connection with a fast CFD wind field reconstruction model, been used to generate 3D wind fie...

  10. MULTISPECTRAL AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING - A NEW TREND IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIDAR TECHNOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakuła Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanning (ALS is the one of the most accurate remote sensing techniques for data acquisition where the terrain and its coverage is concerned. Modern scanners have been able to scan in two or more channels (frequencies of the laser recently. This gives the rise to the possibility of obtaining diverse information about an area with the different spectral properties of objects. The paper presents an example of a multispectral ALS system - Titan by Optech - with the possibility of data including the analysis of digital elevation models accuracy and data density. As a result of the study, the high relative accuracy of LiDAR acquisition in three spectral bands was proven. The mean differences between digital terrain models (DTMs were less than 0.03 m. The data density analysis showed the influence of the laser wavelength. The points clouds that were tested had average densities of 25, 23 and 20 points per square metre respectively for green (G, near-infrared (NIR and shortwave-infrared (SWIR lasers. In this paper, the possibility of the generation of colour composites using orthoimages of laser intensity reflectance and its classification capabilities using data from airborne multispectral laser scanning for land cover mapping are also discussed and compared with conventional photogrammetric techniques.

  11. Quantifying error of lidar and sodar Doppler beam swinging measurements of wind turbine wakes using computational fluid dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundquist, J. K.; Churchfield, M. J.; Lee, S.; Clifton, A.

    2015-02-01

    Wind-profiling lidars are now regularly used in boundary-layer meteorology and in applications such as wind energy and air quality. Lidar wind profilers exploit the Doppler shift of laser light backscattered from particulates carried by the wind to measure a line-of-sight (LOS) velocity. The Doppler beam swinging (DBS) technique, used by many commercial systems, considers measurements of this LOS velocity in multiple radial directions in order to estimate horizontal and vertical winds. The method relies on the assumption of homogeneous flow across the region sampled by the beams. Using such a system in inhomogeneous flow, such as wind turbine wakes or complex terrain, will result in errors. To quantify the errors expected from such violation of the assumption of horizontal homogeneity, we simulate inhomogeneous flow in the atmospheric boundary layer, notably stably stratified flow past a wind turbine, with a mean wind speed of 6.5 m s-1 at the turbine hub-height of 80 m. This slightly stable case results in 15° of wind direction change across the turbine rotor disk. The resulting flow field is sampled in the same fashion that a lidar samples the atmosphere with the DBS approach, including the lidar range weighting function, enabling quantification of the error in the DBS observations. The observations from the instruments located upwind have small errors, which are ameliorated with time averaging. However, the downwind observations, particularly within the first two rotor diameters downwind from the wind turbine, suffer from errors due to the heterogeneity of the wind turbine wake. Errors in the stream-wise component of the flow approach 30% of the hub-height inflow wind speed close to the rotor disk. Errors in the cross-stream and vertical velocity components are also significant: cross-stream component errors are on the order of 15% of the hub-height inflow wind speed (1.0 m s-1) and errors in the vertical velocity measurement exceed the actual vertical velocity

  12. Validation of long-range scanning lidars deployed around the Høvsøre Test Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lea, Guillaume; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes validation tests performed on the long-range scanning lidars prior to deployment in the RUNE campaign. Position and speed accuracy tests have been performed at a range of 5km from the Høvsøre met mast. This range is typical of ranges for near-coastal resource measurements....... The accuracy of the beam positioning was checked by comparing the predicted position to the position found from hard-target returns from the mast. Radial speeds measured by the lidar were also found to be in close agreement with the mast measured wind speeds projected in the line of sight direction....

  13. Design and implementation of 3D LIDAR based on pixel-by-pixel scanning and DS-OCDMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Eom, Jeongsook; Park, Yongwan

    2017-02-01

    We designed a prototype for testing feasibility of a proposed light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system, which was designed to encode pixel location information in its laser pulses using the direct-sequence optical code division multiple access method in conjunction with a scanning-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror. The prototype was built using commercial o -the-shelf optical components and development kits. It comprised of an optical modulator, an amplified photodetector, an MEMS mirror development kit, an analog-to-digital converter evaluation module, a digital signal processor with ARM evaluation kit and a Windows personal computer. The prototype LIDAR system has capable of acquiring 120 x 32-pixel images at 5 frames/s. We measured a watering pot to demonstrate the imaging performance of the prototype LIDAR system.

  14. LIDAR AND INS FUSION IN PERIODS OF GPS OUTAGES FOR MOBILE LASER SCANNING MAPPING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Klein

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning systems are becoming an increasingly popular means to obtain 3D coverage on a large scale. To perform the mapping, the exact position of the vehicle must be known throughout the trajectory. Exact position is achieved via integration of Global Positioning Systems (GPS and Inertial Navigation Systems (INS. Yet, in urban environments, cases of complete or even partial GPS outages may occur leaving the navigation solution to rely only on the INS. The INS navigation solution degrades with time as the Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU measurements contains noise, which permeates into the navigation equations. Degradation of the position determination leads to loss of data in such segments. To circumvent such drift and its effects, we propose fusing INS with lidar data by using building edges. This detection of edges is then translated into position data, which is used as an aiding to the INS. It thereby enables the determination of the vehicle position with a satisfactory level accuracy, sufficient to perform the laser-scanning based mapping in those outage periods.

  15. Characterization of wind velocities in the upstream induction zone of a wind turbine using scanning continuous-wave lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simley, Eric; Angelou, Nikolas; Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh

    2016-01-01

    As a wind turbine generates power, induced velocities, lower than the freestream velocity, will be present upstream of the turbine due to perturbation of the flow by the rotor. In this study, the upstream induction zone of a 225kW horizontal axis Vestas V27 wind turbine located at the Danish...... Technical University’s Risø campus is investigated using a scanning Light Detection and Ranging (lidar) system. Three short-range continuous-wave “WindScanner” lidars are positioned in the field around the V27 turbine allowing detection of all three components of the wind velocity vectors within...... the induction zone. The time-averaged mean wind speeds at different locations in the upstream induction zone are measured by scanning a horizontal plane at hub height and a vertical plane centered at the middle of the rotor extending roughly 1.5 rotor diameters (D) upstream of the rotor. Turbulence statistics...

  16. Achieving Accuracy Requirements for Forest Biomass Mapping: A Data Fusion Method for Estimating Forest Biomass and LiDAR Sampling Error with Spaceborne Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesano, P. M.; Cook, B. D.; Sun, G.; Simard, M.; Zhang, Z.; Nelson, R. F.; Ranson, K. J.; Lutchke, S.; Blair, J. B.

    2012-01-01

    The synergistic use of active and passive remote sensing (i.e., data fusion) demonstrates the ability of spaceborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and multispectral imagery for achieving the accuracy requirements of a global forest biomass mapping mission. This data fusion approach also provides a means to extend 3D information from discrete spaceborne LiDAR measurements of forest structure across scales much larger than that of the LiDAR footprint. For estimating biomass, these measurements mix a number of errors including those associated with LiDAR footprint sampling over regional - global extents. A general framework for mapping above ground live forest biomass (AGB) with a data fusion approach is presented and verified using data from NASA field campaigns near Howland, ME, USA, to assess AGB and LiDAR sampling errors across a regionally representative landscape. We combined SAR and Landsat-derived optical (passive optical) image data to identify forest patches, and used image and simulated spaceborne LiDAR data to compute AGB and estimate LiDAR sampling error for forest patches and 100m, 250m, 500m, and 1km grid cells. Forest patches were delineated with Landsat-derived data and airborne SAR imagery, and simulated spaceborne LiDAR (SSL) data were derived from orbit and cloud cover simulations and airborne data from NASA's Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor (L VIS). At both the patch and grid scales, we evaluated differences in AGB estimation and sampling error from the combined use of LiDAR with both SAR and passive optical and with either SAR or passive optical alone. This data fusion approach demonstrates that incorporating forest patches into the AGB mapping framework can provide sub-grid forest information for coarser grid-level AGB reporting, and that combining simulated spaceborne LiDAR with SAR and passive optical data are most useful for estimating AGB when measurements from LiDAR are limited because they minimized

  17. Exploring structures of the Rochefort Cave (Belgium) with 3D models from LIDAR scans and UAV photoscans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watlet, A.; Triantafyllou, A.; Kaufmann, O.; Le Mouelic, S.

    2016-12-01

    Amongst today's techniques that are able to produce 3D point clouds, LIDAR and UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) photogrammetry are probably the most commonly used. Both methods have their own advantages and limitations. LIDAR scans create high resolution and high precision 3D point clouds, but such methods are generally costly, especially for sporadic surveys. Compared to LIDAR, UAV (e.g. drones) are cheap and flexible to use in different types of environments. Moreover, the photogrammetric processing workflow of digital images taken with UAV becomes easier with the rise of many affordable software packages (e.g., Agisoft PhotoScan, MicMac, VisualSFM). In this canvas, we present a challenging study made at the Rochefort Cave Laboratory (South Belgium) comprising surface and underground surveys. The main chamber of the cave ( 10000 m³) was the principal target of the study. A LIDAR scan and an UAV photoscan were acquired underground, producing respective 3D models. An additional 3D photoscan was performed at the surface, in the sinkhole in direct connection with the main chamber. The main goal of the project is to combine this different datasets for quantifying the orientation of inaccessible geological structures (e.g. faults, tectonic and gravitational joints, and sediments bedding), and for comparing them to structural data surveyed on the field. To go through structural interpretations, we used a subsampling method merging neighboured model polygons that have similar orientations, allowing statistical analyses of polygons spatial distribution. The benefit of this method is to verify the spatial continuity of in-situ structural measurements to larger scale. Roughness and colorimetric/spectral analyses may also be of great interest for several geosciences purposes by discriminating different facies among the geological beddings. Amongst others, this study was helpful to precise the local petrophysical properties associated with particular geological layers, what

  18. Development of teaching modules for geology and engineering coursework using terrestrial LiDAR scanning systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarbrough, L. D.; Katzenstein, K.

    2012-12-01

    Exposing students to active and local examples of physical geologic processes is beneficial to the learning process. Students typically respond with interest to examples that use state-of-the-art technologies to investigate local or regional phenomena. For lower cognitive level of learning (e.g. knowledge, comprehension, and application), the use of "close-to-home" examples ensures that students better understand concepts. By providing these examples, the students may already have a familiarity or can easily visit the location. Furthermore, these local and regional examples help students to offer quickly other examples of similar phenomena. Investigation of these examples using normal photographic techniques, as well as a more sophisticated 3-D Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) (AKA Terrestrial Laser Scanning or TLS) system, allows students to gain a better understanding of the scale and the mechanics of the geologic processes and hazards. The systems are used for research, teaching and outreach efforts and depending on departmental policies can be accessible to students are various learning levels. TLS systems can yield scans at sub-centimeter resolution and contain surface reflectance of targets. These systems can serve a number of learning goals that are essential for training geoscientists and engineers. While querying the data to answer geotechnical or geomorphologic related questions, students will develop skills using large, spatial databases. The upper cognitive level of learning (e.g. analysis, synthesis, and evaluation) is also promoted by using a subset of the data and correlating the physical geologic process of stream bank erosion and rock slope failures with mathematical and computer models using the scanned data. Students use the examples and laboratory exercises to help build their engineering judgment skills with Earth materials. The students learn not only applications of math and engineering science but also the economic and social implication

  19. Three-dimensional structure of wind turbine wakes as measured by scanning lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodini, Nicola; Zardi, Dino; Lundquist, Julie K.

    2017-08-01

    The lower wind speeds and increased turbulence that are characteristic of turbine wakes have considerable consequences on large wind farms: turbines located downwind generate less power and experience increased turbulent loads. The structures of wakes and their downwind impacts are sensitive to wind speed and atmospheric variability. Wake characterization can provide important insights for turbine layout optimization in view of decreasing the cost of wind energy. The CWEX-13 field campaign, which took place between June and September 2013 in a wind farm in Iowa, was designed to explore the interaction of multiple wakes in a range of atmospheric stability conditions. Based on lidar wind measurements, we extend, present, and apply a quantitative algorithm to assess wake parameters such as the velocity deficits, the size of the wake boundaries, and the location of the wake centerlines. We focus on wakes from a row of four turbines at the leading edge of the wind farm to explore variations between wakes from the edge of the row (outer wakes) and those from turbines in the center of the row (inner wakes). Using multiple horizontal scans at different elevations, a three-dimensional structure of wakes from the row of turbines can be created. Wakes erode very quickly during unstable conditions and can in fact be detected primarily in stable conditions in the conditions measured here. During stable conditions, important differences emerge between the wakes of inner turbines and the wakes of outer turbines. Further, the strong wind veer associated with stable conditions results in a stretching of the wake structures, and this stretching manifests differently for inner and outer wakes. These insights can be incorporated into low-order wake models for wind farm layout optimization or for wind power forecasting.

  20. Scanning Raman lidar for tropospheric water vapor profiling and GPS path delay correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarniewicz, Jerome; Bock, Olivier; Pelon, Jacques R.; Thom, Christian

    2002-01-01

    The design of a ground based and transportable combined Raman elastic-backscatter lidar for the remote sensing of lower tropospheric water vapor and nitrogen concentration is described. This lidar is intended to be used for an external calibration of the wet path delay of GPS signals. A description of the method used to derive water vapor and nitrogen profiles in the lower troposphere is given. The instrument has been tested during the ESCOMPTE campaign in June 2001 and first measurements are presented.

  1. Lidar to lidar calibration phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents a feasibility study of a lidar to lidar (L2L) calibration procedure. Phase one of the project was conducted at Høvsøre, Denmark. Two windcubes were placed next to the 116m met mast and different methods were applied to obtain the sensing height error of the lidars. The purpose...... is to find the most consistent method and use it in a potential lidar to lidar calibration procedure....

  2. 3D wake measurements from a scanning wind lidar in combination with a fast wind field reconstruction model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Herges, T. G.; Astrup, Poul

    2017-01-01

    University of Denmark. The purpose of the SpinnerLidar measurements at SWIFT is to measure the response of a V27 turbine wake to varying inflow conditions and turbine operating states. Although our fast scanning SpinnerLidar is able to measure the line-of-sight projected wind speed at up to 400 points per......-Stokes CFD code “Lincom Cyclop-buster model,”3 the corresponding 3D wind vector field (u, v, w) can be reconstructed under constraints for conservation of mass and momentum. The resulting model calculated line-of-sight projections of the 3D wind velocity vectors will become consistent with the line...

  3. Demonstration and uncertainty analysis of synchronised scanning lidar measurements of 2-D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, Marijn Floris; Campagnolo, Filippo; Sjöholm, Mikael

    2017-01-01

    to demonstrate the benefits of synchronised scanning lidars in such experimental surroundings for the first time. The duallidar system can provide fully synchronised trajectory scans with sampling timescales ranging from seconds to minutes. First, staring mode measurements were compared to hot-wire probe...... as wake area scans were executed to illustrate the applicability of lidar scanning to the measurement of small-scale wind flow effects. An extensive uncertainty analysis was executed to assess the accuracy of the method. The downsides of lidar with respect to the hotwire probes are the larger measurement...... probe volume, which compromises the ability to measure turbulence, and the possible loss of a small part of the measurements due to hard target beam reflection. In contrast, the benefits are the high flexibility in conducting both point measurements and area scanning and the fact that remote sensing...

  4. Effects of bathymetric lidar errors on flow properties predicted with a multi-dimensional hydraulic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. McKean; D. Tonina; C. Bohn; C. W. Wright

    2014-01-01

    New remote sensing technologies and improved computer performance now allow numerical flow modeling over large stream domains. However, there has been limited testing of whether channel topography can be remotely mapped with accuracy necessary for such modeling. We assessed the ability of the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar, to support a multi-dimensional...

  5. Volumetric LiDAR scanning of a wind turbine wake and comparison with a 3D analytical wake model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2016-04-01

    A correct estimation of the future power production is of capital importance whenever the feasibility of a future wind farm is being studied. This power estimation relies mostly on three aspects: (1) a reliable measurement of the wind resource in the area, (2) a well-established power curve of the future wind turbines and, (3) an accurate characterization of the wake effects; the latter being arguably the most challenging one due to the complexity of the phenomenon and the lack of extensive full-scale data sets that could be used to validate analytical or numerical models. The current project addresses the problem of obtaining a volumetric description of a full-scale wake of a 2MW wind turbine in terms of velocity deficit and turbulence intensity using three scanning wind LiDARs and two sonic anemometers. The characterization of the upstream flow conditions is done by one scanning LiDAR and two sonic anemometers, which have been used to calculate incoming vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed, wind direction and an approximation to turbulence intensity, as well as the thermal stability of the atmospheric boundary layer. The characterization of the wake is done by two scanning LiDARs working simultaneously and pointing downstream from the base of the wind turbine. The direct LiDAR measurements in terms of radial wind speed can be corrected using the upstream conditions in order to provide good estimations of the horizontal wind speed at any point downstream of the wind turbine. All this data combined allow for the volumetric reconstruction of the wake in terms of velocity deficit as well as turbulence intensity. Finally, the predictions of a 3D analytical model [1] are compared to the 3D LiDAR measurements of the wind turbine. The model is derived by applying the laws of conservation of mass and momentum and assuming a Gaussian distribution for the velocity deficit in the wake. This model has already been validated using high resolution wind-tunnel measurements

  6. Nurses' Behaviors and Visual Scanning Patterns May Reduce Patient Identification Errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquard, Jenna L.; Henneman, Philip L.; He, Ze; Jo, Junghee; Fisher, Donald L.; Henneman, Elizabeth A.

    2011-01-01

    Patient identification (ID) errors occurring during the medication administration process can be fatal. The aim of this study is to determine whether differences in nurses' behaviors and visual scanning patterns during the medication administration process influence their capacities to identify patient ID errors. Nurse participants (n = 20)…

  7. Temporal Prediction Errors Affect Short-Term Memory Scanning Response Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, Roberto; Silva, Angélica M

    2016-11-01

    The Sternberg short-term memory scanning task has been used to unveil cognitive operations involved in time perception. Participants produce time intervals during the task, and the researcher explores how task performance affects interval production - where time estimation error is the dependent variable of interest. The perspective of predictive behavior regards time estimation error as a temporal prediction error (PE), an independent variable that controls cognition, behavior, and learning. Based on this perspective, we investigated whether temporal PEs affect short-term memory scanning. Participants performed temporal predictions while they maintained information in memory. Model inference revealed that PEs affected memory scanning response time independently of the memory-set size effect. We discuss the results within the context of formal and mechanistic models of short-term memory scanning and predictive coding, a Bayes-based theory of brain function. We state the hypothesis that our finding could be associated with weak frontostriatal connections and weak striatal activity.

  8. Determination of the smoke-plume heights and their dynamics with ground-based scanning LIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Kovalev; A. Petkov; C. Wold; S. Urbanski; W. M. Hao

    2015-01-01

    Lidar-data processing techniques are analyzed, which allow determining smoke-plume heights and their dynamics and can be helpful for the improvement of smoke dispersion and air quality models. The data processing algorithms considered in the paper are based on the analysis of two alternative characteristics related to the smoke dispersion process: the regularized...

  9. Laser scan of the Grimming Mts. (Austria) with the latest LiDAR VZ-4000 equipment: preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Harald; Hatzenbichler, Georg; Amon, Philipp; Fallah, Mohammad; Tari, Gabor; Grasemann, Bernhard

    2013-04-01

    As part of a cooperation project between OMV, RIEGL and the University of Vienna the new LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) VZ-4000 laser scanner was tested at the Grimming Mts. of the Eastern Alps in Austria. The prominent Grimming Mts. lies in the eastern part of the Dachstein Massif at the southern margin of the Northern Calcareous Alps. The Grimming, with a peak of 2,351 m above sea level, is one of the highest isolated mountains in Europe. Because of its spectacular topography, the Grimming has been used as an important surface reference mark since 1822. From a structural geology standpoint, the Grimming forms a huge antiform made up of dominantly well-bedded Triassic Dachstein Limestone. Because of the relatively well exposed bedrock surfaces above the tree-line and the fairly complex internal structure, the Grimming Mts. provides an ideal target for testing new high resolution laser scan techniques and devices. The maximum distance from the scanning positions on the nearby valley floor to the mountain face was about 4,500 m and the generated point cloud has an average resolution of 25 points per square meter. The purpose of this work was to test the latest version of the high resolution LiDAR laser equipment in a setting which falls beyond the capabilities of most existing LiDAR devices. The results of the pilot study include high-resolution spatial data on bedding planes, fault planes and the thickness variations of individual beds within the Dachstein Limestone. For the first time, the data obtained can be directly used to generate the proper 3D geometry of folds and faults observed on the Grimming Mts. This leads to a modern understanding of this prominent Alpine anticline in terms of structural geology.

  10. Analysis on the dynamic error for optoelectronic scanning coordinate measurement network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shendong; Yang, Linghui; Lin, Jiarui; Guo, Siyang; Ren, Yongjie

    2018-01-01

    Large-scale dynamic three-dimension coordinate measurement technique is eagerly demanded in equipment manufacturing. Noted for advantages of high accuracy, scale expandability and multitask parallel measurement, optoelectronic scanning measurement network has got close attention. It is widely used in large components jointing, spacecraft rendezvous and docking simulation, digital shipbuilding and automated guided vehicle navigation. At present, most research about optoelectronic scanning measurement network is focused on static measurement capacity and research about dynamic accuracy is insufficient. Limited by the measurement principle, the dynamic error is non-negligible and restricts the application. The workshop measurement and positioning system is a representative which can realize dynamic measurement function in theory. In this paper we conduct deep research on dynamic error resources and divide them two parts: phase error and synchronization error. Dynamic error model is constructed. Based on the theory above, simulation about dynamic error is carried out. Dynamic error is quantized and the rule of volatility and periodicity has been found. Dynamic error characteristics are shown in detail. The research result lays foundation for further accuracy improvement.

  11. Space-borne remote sensing of CO2 by IPDA lidar with heterodyne detection: random error estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matvienko, G. G.; Sukhanov, A. Y.

    2015-11-01

    Possibilities of measuring the CO2 column concentration by spaceborne integrated path differential lidar (IPDA) signals in the near IR absorption bands are investigated. It is shown that coherent detection principles applied in the nearinfrared spectral region promise a high sensitivity for the measurement of the integrated dry air column mixing ratio of the CO2. The simulations indicate that for CO2 the target observational requirements (0.2%) for the relative random error can be met with telescope aperture 0.5 m, detector bandwidth 10 MHz, laser energy per impulse 0.3 mJ and averaging 7500 impulses. It should also be noted that heterodyne technique allows to significantly reduce laser power and receiver overall dimensions compared to direct detection.

  12. Inelastic hyperspectral lidar for aquatic ecosystems monitoring and landscape plant scanning test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guangyu; Malmqvist, Elin; Rydhmer, Klas; Strand, Alfred; Bianco, Giuseppe; Hansson, Lars-Anders; Svanberg, Sune; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2018-04-01

    We have developed an aquatic inelastic hyperspectral lidar with unrestricted focal-depth and enough sensitivity and spatio-temporal resolution to detect and resolve position and behavior of individual sub-millimeter aquatic organisms. We demonstrate ranging with monitoring of elastic echoes, water Raman signals and fluorescence from chlorophyllbearing phytoplankton and dye tagged organisms. The system is based on a blue CW diode laser and a Scheimpflug optical arrangement.

  13. Inelastic hyperspectral lidar for aquatic ecosystems monitoring and landscape plant scanning test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Guangyu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed an aquatic inelastic hyperspectral lidar with unrestricted focal-depth and enough sensitivity and spatio-temporal resolution to detect and resolve position and behavior of individual sub-millimeter aquatic organisms. We demonstrate ranging with monitoring of elastic echoes, water Raman signals and fluorescence from chlorophyllbearing phytoplankton and dye tagged organisms. The system is based on a blue CW diode laser and a Scheimpflug optical arrangement.

  14. Error estimation of deformable image registration of pulmonary CT scans using convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppenhof, Koen A J; Pluim, Josien P W

    2018-04-01

    Error estimation in nonlinear medical image registration is a nontrivial problem that is important for validation of registration methods. We propose a supervised method for estimation of registration errors in nonlinear registration of three-dimensional (3-D) images. The method is based on a 3-D convolutional neural network that learns to estimate registration errors from a pair of image patches. By applying the network to patches centered around every voxel, we construct registration error maps. The network is trained using a set of representative images that have been synthetically transformed to construct a set of image pairs with known deformations. The method is evaluated on deformable registrations of inhale-exhale pairs of thoracic CT scans. Using ground truth target registration errors on manually annotated landmarks, we evaluate the method's ability to estimate local registration errors. Estimation of full domain error maps is evaluated using a gold standard approach. The two evaluation approaches show that we can train the network to robustly estimate registration errors in a predetermined range, with subvoxel accuracy. We achieved a root-mean-square deviation of 0.51 mm from gold standard registration errors and of 0.66 mm from ground truth landmark registration errors.

  15. Error analysis of terrestrial laser scanning data by means of spherical statistics and 3D graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuartero, Aurora; Armesto, Julia; Rodríguez, Pablo G; Arias, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a complete analysis of the positional errors of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data based on spherical statistics and 3D graphs. Spherical statistics are preferred because of the 3D vectorial nature of the spatial error. Error vectors have three metric elements (one module and two angles) that were analyzed by spherical statistics. A study case has been presented and discussed in detail. Errors were calculating using 53 check points (CP) and CP coordinates were measured by a digitizer with submillimetre accuracy. The positional accuracy was analyzed by both the conventional method (modular errors analysis) and the proposed method (angular errors analysis) by 3D graphics and numerical spherical statistics. Two packages in R programming language were performed to obtain graphics automatically. The results indicated that the proposed method is advantageous as it offers a more complete analysis of the positional accuracy, such as angular error component, uniformity of the vector distribution, error isotropy, and error, in addition the modular error component by linear statistics.

  16. Error analysis of motion correction method for laser scanning of moving objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, S.; Lohani, B.

    2014-05-01

    The limitation of conventional laser scanning methods is that the objects being scanned should be static. The need of scanning moving objects has resulted in the development of new methods capable of generating correct 3D geometry of moving objects. Limited literature is available showing development of very few methods capable of catering to the problem of object motion during scanning. All the existing methods utilize their own models or sensors. Any studies on error modelling or analysis of any of the motion correction methods are found to be lacking in literature. In this paper, we develop the error budget and present the analysis of one such `motion correction' method. This method assumes availability of position and orientation information of the moving object which in general can be obtained by installing a POS system on board or by use of some tracking devices. It then uses this information along with laser scanner data to apply correction to laser data, thus resulting in correct geometry despite the object being mobile during scanning. The major application of this method lie in the shipping industry to scan ships either moving or parked in the sea and to scan other objects like hot air balloons or aerostats. It is to be noted that the other methods of "motion correction" explained in literature can not be applied to scan the objects mentioned here making the chosen method quite unique. This paper presents some interesting insights in to the functioning of "motion correction" method as well as a detailed account of the behavior and variation of the error due to different sensor components alone and in combination with each other. The analysis can be used to obtain insights in to optimal utilization of available components for achieving the best results.

  17. Volumetric scans of wind turbine wakes performed with three simultaneous wind LiDARs under different atmospheric stability regimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iungo, Giacomo Valerio; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Aerodynamic optimization of wind farm layout is a crucial task to reduce wake effects on downstream wind turbines, thus to maximize wind power harvesting. However, downstream evolution and recovery of wind turbine wakes are strongly affected by the characteristics of the incoming atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flow, such as wind shear and turbulence intensity, which are in turn affected by the ABL thermal stability. In order to characterize the downstream evolution of wakes produced by full-scale wind turbines under different atmospheric conditions, wind velocity measurements were performed with three wind LiDARs. The volumetric scans are performed by continuously sweeping azimuthal and elevation angles of the LiDARs in order to cover a 3D volume that includes the wind turbine wake. The minimum wake velocity deficit is then evaluated as a function of the downstream location for different atmospheric conditions. It is observed that the ABL thermal stability has a significant effect on the wake evolution, and the wake recovers faster under convective conditions

  18. 3D Scan of Ornamental Column (huabiao Using Terrestrial LiDAR and Hand-held Imager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In ancient China, Huabiao was a type of ornamental column used to decorate important buildings. We carried out 3D scan of a Huabiao located in Peking University, China. This Huabiao was built no later than 1742. It is carved by white marble, 8 meters in height. Clouds and various postures of dragons are carved on its body. Two instruments were used to acquire the point cloud of this Huabiao, a terrestrial LiDAR (Riegl VZ-1000 and a hand-held imager (Mantis Vision F5. In this paper, the details of the experiment were described, including the differences between these two instruments, such as working principle, spatial resolution, accuracy, instrument dimension and working flow. The point clouds obtained respectively by these two instruments were compared, and the registered point cloud of Huabiao was also presented. These should be of interest and helpful for the research communities of archaeology and heritage.

  19. Improving three-tier environmental assessment model by using a 3D scanning FLS-AM series hyperspectral lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samberg, Andre; Babichenko, Sergei; Poryvkina, Larisa

    2005-05-01

    Delay between the time when natural disaster, for example, oil accident in coastal water, occurred and the time when environmental protection actions, for example, water and shoreline clean-up, started is of significant importance. Mostly remote sensing techniques are considered as (near) real-time and suitable for multiple tasks. These techniques in combination with rapid environmental assessment methodologies would form multi-tier environmental assessment model, which allows creating (near) real-time datasets and optimizing sampling scenarios. This paper presents the idea of three-tier environmental assessment model. Here all three tiers are briefly described to show the linkages between them, with a particular focus on the first tier. Furthermore, it is described how large-scale environmental assessment can be improved by using an airborne 3-D scanning FLS-AM series hyperspectral lidar. This new aircraft-based sensor is typically applied for oil mapping on sea/ground surface and extracting optical features of subjects. In general, a sampling network, which is based on three-tier environmental assessment model, can include ship(s) and aircraft(s). The airborne 3-D scanning FLS-AM series hyperspectral lidar helps to speed up the whole process of assessing of area of natural disaster significantly, because this is a real-time remote sensing mean. For instance, it can deliver such information as georeferenced oil spill position in WGS-84, the estimated size of the whole oil spill, and the estimated amount of oil in seawater or on ground. All information is produced in digital form and, thus, can be directly transferred into a customer"s GIS (Geographical Information System) system.

  20. ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error in scanning Kelvin probe microscope measurements: Detection and correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yan; Shannon, Mark A.

    2006-01-01

    The dependence of the contact potential difference (CPD) reading on the ac driving amplitude in scanning Kelvin probe microscope (SKPM) hinders researchers from quantifying true material properties. We show theoretically and demonstrate experimentally that an ac driving amplitude dependence in the SKPM measurement can come from a systematic error, and it is common for all tip sample systems as long as there is a nonzero tracking error in the feedback control loop of the instrument. We further propose a methodology to detect and to correct the ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error in SKPM measurements. The true contact potential difference can be found by applying a linear regression to the measured CPD versus one over ac driving amplitude data. Two scenarios are studied: (a) when the surface being scanned by SKPM is not semiconducting and there is an ac driving amplitude dependent systematic error; (b) when a semiconductor surface is probed and asymmetric band bending occurs when the systematic error is present. Experiments are conducted using a commercial SKPM and CPD measurement results of two systems: platinum-iridium/gap/gold and platinum-iridium/gap/thermal oxide/silicon are discussed

  1. Evaluation and mitigation of potential errors in radiochromic film dosimetry due to film curvature at scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Antony L; Bradley, David A; Nisbet, Andrew

    2015-03-08

    This work considers a previously overlooked uncertainty present in film dosimetry which results from moderate curvature of films during the scanning process. Small film samples are particularly susceptible to film curling which may be undetected or deemed insignificant. In this study, we consider test cases with controlled induced curvature of film and with film raised horizontally above the scanner plate. We also evaluate the difference in scans of a film irradiated with a typical brachytherapy dose distribution with the film naturally curved and with the film held flat on the scanner. Typical naturally occurring curvature of film at scanning, giving rise to a maximum height 1 to 2 mm above the scan plane, may introduce dose errors of 1% to 4%, and considerably reduce gamma evaluation passing rates when comparing film-measured doses with treatment planning system-calculated dose distributions, a common application of film dosimetry in radiotherapy. The use of a triple-channel dosimetry algorithm appeared to mitigate the error due to film curvature compared to conventional single-channel film dosimetry. The change in pixel value and calibrated reported dose with film curling or height above the scanner plate may be due to variations in illumination characteristics, optical disturbances, or a Callier-type effect. There is a clear requirement for physically flat films at scanning to avoid the introduction of a substantial error source in film dosimetry. Particularly for small film samples, a compression glass plate above the film is recommended to ensure flat-film scanning. This effect has been overlooked to date in the literature.

  2. Effects of Systematic and Random Errors on the Retrieval of Particle Microphysical Properties from Multiwavelength Lidar Measurements Using Inversion with Regularization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel Perez; Whiteman, David N.; Veselovskii, Igor; Kolgotin, Alexei; Korenskiy, Michael; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the effects of systematic and random errors on the inversion of multiwavelength (MW) lidar data using the well-known regularization technique to obtain vertically resolved aerosol microphysical properties. The software implementation used here was developed at the Physics Instrumentation Center (PIC) in Troitsk (Russia) in conjunction with the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. Its applicability to Raman lidar systems based on backscattering measurements at three wavelengths (355, 532 and 1064 nm) and extinction measurements at two wavelengths (355 and 532 nm) has been demonstrated widely. The systematic error sensitivity is quantified by first determining the retrieved parameters for a given set of optical input data consistent with three different sets of aerosol physical parameters. Then each optical input is perturbed by varying amounts and the inversion is repeated. Using bimodal aerosol size distributions, we find a generally linear dependence of the retrieved errors in the microphysical properties on the induced systematic errors in the optical data. For the retrievals of effective radius, number/surface/volume concentrations and fine-mode radius and volume, we find that these results are not significantly affected by the range of the constraints used in inversions. But significant sensitivity was found to the allowed range of the imaginary part of the particle refractive index. Our results also indicate that there exists an additive property for the deviations induced by the biases present in the individual optical data. This property permits the results here to be used to predict deviations in retrieved parameters when multiple input optical data are biased simultaneously as well as to study the influence of random errors on the retrievals. The above results are applied to questions regarding lidar design, in particular for the spaceborne multiwavelength lidar under consideration for the upcoming ACE mission.

  3. SIMULATING VARIOUS TERRESTRIAL AND UAV LIDAR SCANNING CONFIGURATIONS FOR UNDERSTORY FOREST STRUCTURE MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hämmerle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Information about the 3D structure of understory vegetation is of high relevance in forestry research and management (e.g., for complete biomass estimations. However, it has been hardly investigated systematically with state-of-the-art methods such as static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS or laser scanning from unmanned aerial vehicle platforms (ULS. A prominent challenge for scanning forests is posed by occlusion, calling for proper TLS scan position or ULS flight line configurations in order to achieve an accurate representation of understory vegetation. The aim of our study is to examine the effect of TLS or ULS scanning strategies on (1 the height of individual understory trees and (2 understory canopy height raster models. We simulate full-waveform TLS and ULS point clouds of a virtual forest plot captured from various combinations of max. 12 TLS scan positions or 3 ULS flight lines. The accuracy of the respective datasets is evaluated with reference values given by the virtually scanned 3D triangle mesh tree models. TLS tree height underestimations range up to 1.84 m (15.30 % of tree height for single TLS scan positions, but combining three scan positions reduces the underestimation to maximum 0.31 m (2.41 %. Combining ULS flight lines also results in improved tree height representation, with a maximum underestimation of 0.24 m (2.15 %. The presented simulation approach offers a complementary source of information for efficient planning of field campaigns aiming at understory vegetation modelling.

  4. Simulating Various Terrestrial and Uav LIDAR Scanning Configurations for Understory Forest Structure Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämmerle, M.; Lukač, N.; Chen, K.-C.; Koma, Zs.; Wang, C.-K.; Anders, K.; Höfle, B.

    2017-09-01

    Information about the 3D structure of understory vegetation is of high relevance in forestry research and management (e.g., for complete biomass estimations). However, it has been hardly investigated systematically with state-of-the-art methods such as static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) or laser scanning from unmanned aerial vehicle platforms (ULS). A prominent challenge for scanning forests is posed by occlusion, calling for proper TLS scan position or ULS flight line configurations in order to achieve an accurate representation of understory vegetation. The aim of our study is to examine the effect of TLS or ULS scanning strategies on (1) the height of individual understory trees and (2) understory canopy height raster models. We simulate full-waveform TLS and ULS point clouds of a virtual forest plot captured from various combinations of max. 12 TLS scan positions or 3 ULS flight lines. The accuracy of the respective datasets is evaluated with reference values given by the virtually scanned 3D triangle mesh tree models. TLS tree height underestimations range up to 1.84 m (15.30 % of tree height) for single TLS scan positions, but combining three scan positions reduces the underestimation to maximum 0.31 m (2.41 %). Combining ULS flight lines also results in improved tree height representation, with a maximum underestimation of 0.24 m (2.15 %). The presented simulation approach offers a complementary source of information for efficient planning of field campaigns aiming at understory vegetation modelling.

  5. Spatial-temporal analysis of coherent offshore wind field structures measured by scanning Doppler-lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valldecabres, L.; Friedrichs, W.; von Bremen, L.; Kühn, M.

    2016-09-01

    An analysis of the spatial and temporal power fluctuations of a simplified wind farm model is conducted on four offshore wind fields data sets, two from lidar measurements and two from LES under unstable and neutral atmospheric conditions. The integral length scales of the horizontal wind speed computed in the streamwise and the cross-stream direction revealed the elongation of the structures in the direction of the mean flow. To analyse the effect of the structures on the power output of a wind turbine, the aggregated equivalent power of two wind turbines with different turbine spacing in the streamwise and cross-stream direction is analysed at different time scales under 10 minutes. The fact of considering the summation of the power of two wind turbines smooths out the fluctuations of the power output of a single wind turbine. This effect, which is stronger with increasing spacing between turbines, can be seen in the aggregation of the power of two wind turbines in the streamwise direction. Due to the anti-correlation of the coherent structures in the cross-stream direction, this smoothing effect is stronger when the aggregated power is computed with two wind turbines aligned orthogonally to the mean flow direction.

  6. Detection of treatment setup errors between two CT scans for patients with head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezzell, Leah C.; Hansen, Eric K.; Quivey, Jeanne M.; Xia Ping

    2007-01-01

    Accuracy of treatment setup for head and neck patients undergoing intensity-modulated radiation therapy is of paramount importance. The conventional method using orthogonal portal images can only detect translational setup errors while the most frequent setup errors for head and neck patients could be rotational errors. With the rapid development of image-guided radiotherapy, three-dimensional images are readily acquired and can be used to detect both translational and rotational setup errors. The purpose of this study is to determine the significance of rotational variations between two planning CT scans acquired for each of eight head and neck patients, who experienced substantial weight loss or tumor shrinkage. To this end, using a rigid body assumption, we developed an in-house computer program that utilizes matrix transformations to align point bony landmarks with an incremental best-fit routine. The program returns the quantified translational and rotational shifts needed to align the scans of each patient. The program was tested using a phantom for a set of known translational and rotational shifts. For comparison, a commercial treatment planning system was used to register the two CT scans and estimate the translational errors for these patients. For the eight patients, we found that the average magnitudes and standard deviations of the rotational shifts about the transverse, anterior-posterior, and longitudinal axes were 1.7±2.3 deg., 0.8±0.7 deg., and 1.8±1.1 deg., respectively. The average magnitudes and standard deviations of the translational shifts were 2.5±2.6 mm, 2.9±2.8 mm, 2.7±1.7 mm while the differences detected between our program and the CT-CT fusion method were 1.8±1.3 mm, 3.3±5.4 mm, and 3.0±3.4 mm in the left-right, anterior-posterior, and superior-inferior directions, respectively. A trend of larger rotational errors resulting in larger translational differences between the two methods was observed. In conclusion, conventional

  7. Optimizing Lidars for Wind Turbine Control Applications—Results from the IEA Wind Task 32 Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Simley

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available IEA Wind Task 32 serves as an international platform for the research community and industry to identify and mitigate barriers to the use of lidars in wind energy applications. The workshop “Optimizing Lidar Design for Wind Energy Applications” was held in July 2016 to identify lidar system properties that are desirable for wind turbine control applications and help foster the widespread application of lidar-assisted control (LAC. One of the main barriers this workshop aimed to address is the multidisciplinary nature of LAC. Since lidar suppliers, wind turbine manufacturers, and researchers typically focus on their own areas of expertise, it is possible that current lidar systems are not optimal for control purposes. This paper summarizes the results of the workshop, addressing both practical and theoretical aspects, beginning with a review of the literature on lidar optimization for control applications. Next, barriers to the use of lidar for wind turbine control are identified, such as availability and reliability concerns, followed by practical suggestions for mitigating those barriers. From a theoretical perspective, the optimization of lidar scan patterns by minimizing the error between the measurements and the rotor effective wind speed of interest is discussed. Frequency domain methods for directly calculating measurement error using a stochastic wind field model are reviewed and applied to the optimization of several continuous wave and pulsed Doppler lidar scan patterns based on commercially-available systems. An overview of the design process for a lidar-assisted pitch controller for rotor speed regulation highlights design choices that can impact the usefulness of lidar measurements beyond scan pattern optimization. Finally, using measurements from an optimized scan pattern, it is shown that the rotor speed regulation achieved after optimizing the lidar-assisted control scenario via time domain simulations matches the performance

  8. Scanning vertical distributions of typical aerosols along the Yangtze River using elastic lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shidong; Liu, Cheng; Xie, Zhouqing; Dong, Yunsheng; Hu, Qihou; Fan, Guangqiang; Chen, Zhengyi; Zhang, Tianshu; Duan, Jingbo; Zhang, Pengfei; Liu, Jianguo

    2018-07-01

    In recent years, China has experienced heavy air pollution, especially haze caused by particulate matter (PM). The compositions, horizontal distributions, transport, and chemical formation mechanisms of PM and its precursors have been widely investigated in China based on near-ground measurements. However, the understanding of the distributions and physical and chemical processes of PM in the vertical direction remains limited. In this study, an elastic lidar was employed to investigate the vertical profiles of aerosols along the Yangtze River during the Yangtze River Campaign of winter 2015. Some typical aerosols were identified and some events were analyzed in three cases. Dust aerosols can be transported from the Gobi Desert to the Yangtze River basin across a long distance at both low and high altitudes in early December. The transport route was perpendicular to the ship track, suggesting that the dust aerosols may have affected a large area. Moreover, during transport, some dust was also affected by the areas below its transport route since some anthropogenic pollutants were mixed with the dust and changed some of its optical properties. Biomass-burning aerosols covering a distant range along the Yangtze River were identified. This result directly shows the impact areas of biomass-burning aerosols in some agricultural fields. Some directly emitted aerosol plumes were observed, and direct effects of such plumes were limited both temporally and spatially. In addition, an aerosol plume with very low linear depolarization ratios, probably formed through secondary processes, was also observed. These results can help us better understand aerosols in large spatial scales in China and can be useful to regional haze studies. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Lidar to lidar calibration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Villanueva, Héctor

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  10. Improving LiDAR Biomass Model Uncertainty through Non-Destructive Allometry and Plot-level 3D Reconstruction with Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stovall, A. E.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Future NASA and ESA satellite missions plan to better quantify global carbon through detailed observations of forest structure, but ultimately rely on uncertain ground measurement approaches for calibration and validation. A significant amount of the uncertainty in estimating plot-level biomass can be attributed to inadequate and unrepresentative allometric relationships used to convert plot-level tree measurements to estimates of aboveground biomass. These allometric equations are known to have high errors and biases, particularly in carbon rich forests because they were calibrated with small and often biased samples of destructively harvested trees. To overcome this issue, a non-destructive methodology for estimating tree and plot-level biomass has been proposed through the use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS). We investigated the potential for using TLS as a ground validation approach in LiDAR-based biomass mapping though virtual plot-level tree volume reconstruction and biomass estimation. Plot-level biomass estimates were compared on the Virginia-based Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute's SIGEO forest with full 3D reconstruction, TLS allometry, and Jenkins et al. (2003) allometry. On average, full 3D reconstruction ultimately provided the lowest uncertainty estimate of plot-level biomass (9.6%), followed by TLS allometry (16.9%) and the national equations (20.2%). TLS offered modest improvements to the airborne LiDAR empirical models, reducing RMSE from 16.2% to 14%. Our findings suggest TLS plot acquisitions and non-destructive allometry can play a vital role for reducing uncertainty in calibration and validation data for biomass mapping in the upcoming NASA and ESA missions.

  11. 5 V Compatible Two-Axis PZT Driven MEMS Scanning Mirror with Mechanical Leverage Structure for Miniature LiDAR Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Liangchen; Zhang, Gaofei; You, Zheng

    2017-03-05

    The MEMS (Micro-Electronical Mechanical System) scanning mirror is an optical MEMS device that can scan laser beams across one or two dimensions. MEMS scanning mirrors can be applied in a variety of applications, such as laser display, bio-medical imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR). These commercial applications have recently created a great demand for low-driving-voltage and low-power MEMS mirrors. However, no reported two-axis MEMS scanning mirror is available for usage in a universal supplying voltage such as 5 V. In this paper, we present an ultra-low voltage driven two-axis MEMS scanning mirror which is 5 V compatible. In order to realize low voltage and low power, a two-axis MEMS scanning mirror with mechanical leverage driven by PZT (Lead zirconate titanate) ceramic is designed, modeled, fabricated and characterized. To further decrease the power of the MEMS scanning mirror, a new method of impedance matching for PZT ceramic driven by a two-frequency mixed signal is established. As experimental results show, this MEMS scanning mirror reaches a two-axis scanning angle of 41.9° × 40.3° at a total driving voltage of 4.2 Vpp and total power of 16 mW. The effective diameter of reflection of the mirror is 2 mm and the operating frequencies of two-axis scanning are 947.51 Hz and 1464.66 Hz, respectively.

  12. A time-space synchronization of coherent Doppler scanning lidars for 3D measurements of wind fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasiljevic, Nikola

    initiates the laser pulse emission and acquisition of the backscattered light, while the two servo motors conduct the scanner head rotation that provides means to direct the laser pulses into the atmosphere. By controlling the rotation of the three motors from the motion controller the strict......-dimensional flow field by emitting the laser beams from the three spatially separated lidars, directing them to intersect, and moving the beam intersection over an area of interest. Each individual lidar was engineered to be powered by two real servo motors, and one virtual stepper motor. The stepper motor...... synchronization and time control of the emission, steering and acquisition were achieved, resulting that the complete lidar measurement process is controlled from the single hardware component. The system was formed using a novel approach, in which the master computer simultaneously coordinates the remote lidars...

  13. Evaluation of errors in determination of DNA melting curve registered with differential scanning calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lando, D.Y.; Fridman, A.S.; Galyuk, E.N.; Dalyan, Y.B.; Grigoryan, I.E.; Haroutiunian, S.G.

    2013-01-01

    The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is more sensitive than UV absorption spectrophotometry as a tool for the measurement of DNA melting curves. The advantage of DSC is a direct determination of differential melting curves (DMC) obtained without numerical differentiation. However, the difference between the helix-coil transition enthalpies of AT and GC base pairs can cause distortions in the shape of melting curve. Up to date, the errors caused by those distortions were not evaluated. In this study, a simple procedure of recalculation of a calorimetric DMC into a real DMC is developed. It demonstrates that the 'real' melting curve and differential melting curve deviate very slightly from the same two curves calculated from DSC data. The melting temperature and the temperature melting range are usually the same even if the difference in the enthalpies is several times higher than a real one

  14. Potential errors in optical density measurements due to scanning side in EBT and EBT2 Gafchromic film dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desroches, Joannie; Bouchard, Hugo; Lacroix, Frédéric

    2010-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the effect on the measured optical density of scanning on either side of a Gafchromic EBT and EBT2 film using an Epson (Epson Canada Ltd., Toronto, Ontario) 10000XL flat bed scanner. Calibration curves were constructed using EBT2 film scanned in landscape orientation in both reflection and transmission mode on an Epson 10000XL scanner. Calibration curves were also constructed using EBT film. Potential errors due to an optical density difference from scanning the film on either side ("face up" or "face down") were simulated. Scanning the film face up or face down on the scanner bed while keeping the film angular orientation constant affects the measured optical density when scanning in reflection mode. In contrast, no statistically significant effect was seen when scanning in transmission mode. This effect can significantly affect relative and absolute dose measurements. As an application example, the authors demonstrate potential errors of 17.8% by inverting the film scanning side on the gamma index for 3%-3 mm criteria on a head and neck intensity modulated radiotherapy plan, and errors in absolute dose measurements ranging from 10% to 35% between 2 and 5 Gy. Process consistency is the key to obtaining accurate and precise results in Gafchromic film dosimetry. When scanning in reflection mode, care must be taken to place the film consistently on the same side on the scanner bed.

  15. Technical Note: Potential errors in optical density measurements due to scanning side in EBT and EBT2 Gafchromic film dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desroches, Joannie; Bouchard, Hugo; Lacroix, Frederic

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the effect on the measured optical density of scanning on either side of a Gafchromic EBT and EBT2 film using an Epson (Epson Canada Ltd., Toronto, Ontario) 10000XL flat bed scanner. Methods: Calibration curves were constructed using EBT2 film scanned in landscape orientation in both reflection and transmission mode on an Epson 10000XL scanner. Calibration curves were also constructed using EBT film. Potential errors due to an optical density difference from scanning the film on either side (''face up'' or ''face down'') were simulated. Results: Scanning the film face up or face down on the scanner bed while keeping the film angular orientation constant affects the measured optical density when scanning in reflection mode. In contrast, no statistically significant effect was seen when scanning in transmission mode. This effect can significantly affect relative and absolute dose measurements. As an application example, the authors demonstrate potential errors of 17.8% by inverting the film scanning side on the gamma index for 3%--3 mm criteria on a head and neck intensity modulated radiotherapy plan, and errors in absolute dose measurements ranging from 10% to 35% between 2 and 5 Gy. Conclusions: Process consistency is the key to obtaining accurate and precise results in Gafchromic film dosimetry. When scanning in reflection mode, care must be taken to place the film consistently on the same side on the scanner bed.

  16. Linear models for airborne-laser-scanning-based operational forest inventory with small field sample size and highly correlated LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junttila, Virpi; Kauranne, Tuomo; Finley, Andrew O.; Bradford, John B.

    2015-01-01

    Modern operational forest inventory often uses remotely sensed data that cover the whole inventory area to produce spatially explicit estimates of forest properties through statistical models. The data obtained by airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) correlate well with many forest inventory variables, such as the tree height, the timber volume, and the biomass. To construct an accurate model over thousands of hectares, LiDAR data must be supplemented with several hundred field sample measurements of forest inventory variables. This can be costly and time consuming. Different LiDAR-data-based and spatial-data-based sampling designs can reduce the number of field sample plots needed. However, problems arising from the features of the LiDAR data, such as a large number of predictors compared with the sample size (overfitting) or a strong correlation among predictors (multicollinearity), may decrease the accuracy and precision of the estimates and predictions. To overcome these problems, a Bayesian linear model with the singular value decomposition of predictors, combined with regularization, is proposed. The model performance in predicting different forest inventory variables is verified in ten inventory areas from two continents, where the number of field sample plots is reduced using different sampling designs. The results show that, with an appropriate field plot selection strategy and the proposed linear model, the total relative error of the predicted forest inventory variables is only 5%–15% larger using 50 field sample plots than the error of a linear model estimated with several hundred field sample plots when we sum up the error due to both the model noise variance and the model’s lack of fit.

  17. Estimating forest structural characteristics using the airborne LiDAR scanning system and a near-real time profiling laser system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Kaiguang

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) directly measures canopy vertical structures, and provides an effective remote sensing solution to accurate and spatially-explicit mapping of forest characteristics, such as canopy height and Leaf Area Index. However, many factors, such as large data volume and high costs for data acquisition, precludes the operational and practical use of most currently available LiDARs for frequent and large-scale mapping. At the same time, a growing need is arising for real-time remote sensing platforms, e.g., to provide timely information for urgent applications. This study aims to develop an airborne profiling LiDAR system, featured with on-the-fly data processing, for near real- or real-time forest inventory. The development of such a system involves implementing the on-board data processing and analysis as well as building useful regression-based models to relate LiDAR measurements with forest biophysical parameters. This work established a paradigm for an on-the-fly airborne profiling LiDAR system to inventory regional forest resources in real- or near real-time. The system was developed based on an existing portable airborne laser system (PALS) that has been previously assembled at NASA by Dr. Ross Nelson. Key issues in automating PALS as an on-the-fly system were addressed, including the design of an archetype for the system workflow, the development of efficient and robust algorithms for automatic data processing and analysis, the development of effective regression models to predict forest biophysical parameters from LiDAR measurements, and the implementation of an integrated software package to incorporate all the above development. This work exploited the untouched potential of airborne laser profilers for real-time forest inventory, and therefore, documented an initial step toward developing airborne-laser-based, on-the-fly, real-time, forest inventory systems. Results from this work demonstrated the utility and effectiveness of

  18. Demonstration of synchronised scanning Lidar measurements of 2D velocity fields in a boundary-layer wind tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dooren, M F; Kühn, M.; Petrovic, V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper combines the currently relevant research methodologies of scaled wind turbine model experiments in wind tunnels with remote-sensing short-range WindScanner Lidar measurement technology. The wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano was equipped with three wind turbine models and two short...... compared to hot wire probe measurements commonly used in wind tunnels. This yielded goodness of fit coefficients of 0.969 and 0.902 for the 1 Hz averaged u- and v-components of the wind speed, respectively, validating the 2D measurement capability of the Lidar scanners. Subsequently, the measurement...... for accurately measuring small scale flow structures in a wind tunnel....

  19. Measurement of the Flow Over Two Parallel Mountain Ridges in the Nighttime Stable Boundary Layer With Scanning Lidar Systems at the Perdigão 2017 Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildmann, N.; Kigle, S.; Gerz, T.; Bell, T.; Klein, P. M.

    2017-12-01

    For onshore wind energy production, the highest wind potential is often found on exposed spots like hilltops, mountain ridges or escarpments with heterogeneous land cover. The understanding of the flow field in such complex terrain in the relevant heights where wind power is generated is an ongoing field of research. The German Aerospace Center (DLR) contributed to the NEWA (New European Wind Atlas) experiment in the province of Perdigão (Portugal) with three long-range Doppler wind lidar of type Leosphere Windcube-200S from May to June 2017. In the experiment, a single wind energy converter (WEC) of type Enercon E82 is situated on a forested mountain ridge. In main wind direction, which is from South-West and almost perpendicular to the ridge, a valley and then a second mountain ridge in a distance of approximately 1.4 km follow. Two of the DLR lidar instruments are placed downstream and in line with the main wind direction and the WEC. One of these instruments is placed in the valley, and the other one on the distant mountain ridge. This line-up allows coplanar scanning of the flow in the valley and over the ridge tops and thus the determination of horizontal and vertical wind components. The third DLR system, placed on the WEC ridge, and an additional scanning lidar from the University of Oklahoma, placed in the valley, are used to determine the cross-wind component of the flow. Regular flow features that were observed with this lidar setup in the six weeks of the intensive operation period are jet-like layers of high wind speeds that occur during the night from a North-Easterly direction. These jets are found to have wind speeds up to 13 m s-1 and are very variable with regards to their maximum speed, height and broadness. Depending on the Froude number of the flow, waves are forming over the two mountain ridges with either a stable wavelength that equals the mountain ridge distance, or more dynamic higher frequency oscillations. All of these flow features are

  20. An Improved Calibration Method for a Rotating 2D LIDAR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadan Zeng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved calibration method of a rotating two-dimensional light detection and ranging (R2D-LIDAR system, which can obtain the 3D scanning map of the surroundings. The proposed R2D-LIDAR system, composed of a 2D LIDAR and a rotating unit, is pervasively used in the field of robotics owing to its low cost and dense scanning data. Nevertheless, the R2D-LIDAR system must be calibrated before building the geometric model because there are assembled deviation and abrasion between the 2D LIDAR and the rotating unit. Hence, the calibration procedures should contain both the adjustment between the two devices and the bias of 2D LIDAR itself. The main purpose of this work is to resolve the 2D LIDAR bias issue with a flat plane based on the Levenberg–Marquardt (LM algorithm. Experimental results for the calibration of the R2D-LIDAR system prove the reliability of this strategy to accurately estimate sensor offsets with the error range from −15 mm to 15 mm for the performance of capturing scans.

  1. An Improved Calibration Method for a Rotating 2D LIDAR System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Yadan; Yu, Heng; Dai, Houde; Song, Shuang; Lin, Mingqiang; Sun, Bo; Jiang, Wei; Meng, Max Q-H

    2018-02-07

    This paper presents an improved calibration method of a rotating two-dimensional light detection and ranging (R2D-LIDAR) system, which can obtain the 3D scanning map of the surroundings. The proposed R2D-LIDAR system, composed of a 2D LIDAR and a rotating unit, is pervasively used in the field of robotics owing to its low cost and dense scanning data. Nevertheless, the R2D-LIDAR system must be calibrated before building the geometric model because there are assembled deviation and abrasion between the 2D LIDAR and the rotating unit. Hence, the calibration procedures should contain both the adjustment between the two devices and the bias of 2D LIDAR itself. The main purpose of this work is to resolve the 2D LIDAR bias issue with a flat plane based on the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm. Experimental results for the calibration of the R2D-LIDAR system prove the reliability of this strategy to accurately estimate sensor offsets with the error range from -15 mm to 15 mm for the performance of capturing scans.

  2. Normal variants and artifacts in bone scan: potential for errors in interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee

    2004-01-01

    Bone scan is one of the most frequently performed studies in nuclear medicine. In bone scan, the amount of radioisotope taken up by lesion depends primarily on the local rate of bone turnover rather than on the bone mass. Bone scan is extremely sensitive for detecting bony abnormalities. However, abnormalities that appear on bone scan may not always represent disease. The normal scan appearances may be affected not only by skeletal physiology and anatomy but also by a variety of technical factors which can influence image quality. Many normal variants and artifacts may appear on bone scan. They could simulate a pathologic process and could mislead into the wrong diagnostic interpretation. Therefore, their recognition is necessary to avoid misdiagnosis. A nuclear medicine physician should be aware of variable appearance of the normal variants and artifacts on bone scan. In this article, a variety of normal variants and artifacts mimicking real pathologic lesion in bone scan interpretation are discussed and illustrated

  3. Errors in dual-energy X-ray scanning of the hip because of nonuniform fat distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothill, Peter; Weir, Nicholas; Loveland, John

    2014-01-01

    The variable proportion of fat in overlying soft tissue is a potential source of error in dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements of bone mineral. The effect on spine scanning has previously been assessed from cadaver studies and from computed tomography (CT) scans of soft tissue distribution. We have now applied the latter technique to DXA hip scanning. The CT scans performed for clinical purposes were used to derive mean adipose tissue thicknesses over bone and background areas for total hip and femoral neck. The former was always lower. More importantly, the fat thickness differences varied among subjects. Errors because of bone marrow fat were deduced from CT measurements of marrow thickness and assumed fat proportions of marrow. The effect of these differences on measured bone mineral density was deduced from phantom measurements of the bone equivalence of fat. Uncertainties of around 0.06g/cm(2) are similar to those previously reported for spine scanning and the results from cadaver measurements. They should be considered in assessing the diagnostic accuracy of DXA scanning. Copyright © 2014 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Influence of material surface on the scanning error of a powder-free 3D measuring system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurz, Michael; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2015-11-01

    This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of a powder-free three-dimensional (3D) measuring system (CEREC Omnicam, Sirona), when scanning the surface of a material at different angles. Additionally, the influence of water was investigated. Nine different materials were combined with human tooth surface (enamel) to create n = 27 specimens. These materials were: Controls (InCoris TZI and Cerec Guide Bloc), ceramics (Vitablocs® Mark II and IPS Empress CAD), metals (gold and amalgam) and composites (Tetric Ceram, Filtek Supreme A2B and A2E). The highly polished samples were scanned at different angles with and without water. The 216 scans were then analyzed and descriptive statistics were obtained. The height difference between the tooth and material surfaces, as measured with the 3D scans, ranged from 0.83 μm (±2.58 μm) to -14.79 μm (±3.45 μm), while the scan noise on the materials was between 3.23 μm (±0.79 μm) and 14.24 μm (±6.79 μm) without considering the control groups. Depending on the thickness of the water film, measurement errors in the order of 300-1,600 μm could be observed. The inaccuracies between the tooth and material surfaces, as well as the scan noise for the materials, were within the range of error for measurements used for conventional impressions and are therefore negligible. The presence of water, however, greatly affects the scan. The tested powder-free 3D measuring system can safely be used to scan different material surfaces without the prior application of a powder, although drying of the surface prior to scanning is highly advisable.

  5. Helios: a Multi-Purpose LIDAR Simulation Framework for Research, Planning and Training of Laser Scanning Operations with Airborne, Ground-Based Mobile and Stationary Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, S.; Höfle, B.

    2016-06-01

    In many technical domains of modern society, there is a growing demand for fast, precise and automatic acquisition of digital 3D models of a wide variety of physical objects and environments. Laser scanning is a popular and widely used technology to cover this demand, but it is also expensive and complex to use to its full potential. However, there might exist scenarios where the operation of a real laser scanner could be replaced by a computer simulation, in order to save time and costs. This includes scenarios like teaching and training of laser scanning, development of new scanner hardware and scanning methods, or generation of artificial scan data sets to support the development of point cloud processing and analysis algorithms. To test the feasibility of this idea, we have developed a highly flexible laser scanning simulation framework named Heidelberg LiDAR Operations Simulator (HELIOS). HELIOS is implemented as a Java library and split up into a core component and multiple extension modules. Extensible Markup Language (XML) is used to define scanner, platform and scene models and to configure the behaviour of modules. Modules were developed and implemented for (1) loading of simulation assets and configuration (i.e. 3D scene models, scanner definitions, survey descriptions etc.), (2) playback of XML survey descriptions, (3) TLS survey planning (i.e. automatic computation of recommended scanning positions) and (4) interactive real-time 3D visualization of simulated surveys. As a proof of concept, we show the results of two experiments: First, a survey planning test in a scene that was specifically created to evaluate the quality of the survey planning algorithm. Second, a simulated TLS scan of a crop field in a precision farming scenario. The results show that HELIOS fulfills its design goals.

  6. 3D pulsed chaos lidar system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hao; Chen, Chih-Ying; Chen, Jun-Da; Pan, Da-Kung; Ting, Kai-Ting; Lin, Fan-Yi

    2018-04-30

    We develop an unprecedented 3D pulsed chaos lidar system for potential intelligent machinery applications. Benefited from the random nature of the chaos, conventional CW chaos lidars already possess excellent anti-jamming and anti-interference capabilities and have no range ambiguity. In our system, we further employ self-homodyning and time gating to generate a pulsed homodyned chaos to boost the energy-utilization efficiency. Compared to the original chaos, we show that the pulsed homodyned chaos improves the detection SNR by more than 20 dB. With a sampling rate of just 1.25 GS/s that has a native sampling spacing of 12 cm, we successfully achieve millimeter-level accuracy and precision in ranging. Compared with two commercial lidars tested side-by-side, namely the pulsed Spectroscan and the random-modulation continuous-wave Lidar-lite, the pulsed chaos lidar that is in compliance with the class-1 eye-safe regulation shows significantly better precision and a much longer detection range up to 100 m. Moreover, by employing a 2-axis MEMS mirror for active laser scanning, we also demonstrate real-time 3D imaging with errors of less than 4 mm in depth.

  7. The spatial concentration of dust emissions measured by using 3D scanning lidar in the open storage yards of steel-making company

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Chih-Wei; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Chou, Huann-Ming; Sun, Shu-Huang; Lee, Jiann-Shen

    2017-06-01

    The wind-blown dust emissions frequently occur in the open storage yards of steel-making companies. Tracking the dust source and monitoring their dispersion are rather difficult. This type of open-air storage yards poses many environmental hazards. The 3-D scanning lidar system is effective in environmental monitoring (e.g., dust) with high temporal and spatial resolution, which is lacking in traditional ground-based measurement. The objective of this paper is to make an attempt for the flux estimation of dust concentration by using lidar system. Further, we investigate the dynamical process of dust and their relationship with local air quality monitoring data. The results show that the material storage erosion by wind ( 3.6 m/s) could cause dust to elevate up to 20m height above the material storage, and produces the flux of dust around 674 mg/s. The flux of dust is proportional to the dust mass concentration (PM10) measured by commercial ambient particular monitors.

  8. Spatial and optical parameters of contrails in the vortex and dispersion regime determined by means of a ground-based scanning lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenthaler, V; Homburg, F; Jaeger, H [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The spatial growth of individual condensation trails (contrails) of commercial aircrafts in the time range from 15 s to 60 min behind the aircraft is investigated by means of a ground-based scanning backscatter lidar. The growth in width is mainly governed by wind shear and varies between 18 m/min and 140 m/min. The growth of the cross-section varies between 3500 m{sup 2}/min and 25000 m{sup 2}/min. These values are in agreement with results of model calculations and former field measurements. The vertical growth is often limited by boundaries of the humid layer at flight level, but values up to 18 m/min were observed. Optical parameters like depolarization, optical depth and lidar ratio, i.e. the extinction-to-backscatter ratio, have been retrieved from the measurements at a wavelength of 532 nm. The linear depolarization rises from values as low as 0.06 for a young contrail (10 s old) to values around 0.5, typical for aged contrails. The latter indicates the transition from non-crystalline to crystalline particles in persistent contrails within a few minutes. The scatter of depolarization values measured in individual contrails is narrow, independent of the contrails age, and suggests a rather uniform growth of the particles inside a contrail. (author) 18 refs.

  9. Spatial and optical parameters of contrails in the vortex and dispersion regime determined by means of a ground-based scanning lidar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freudenthaler, V.; Homburg, F.; Jaeger, H. [Fraunhofer-Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung (IFU), Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The spatial growth of individual condensation trails (contrails) of commercial aircrafts in the time range from 15 s to 60 min behind the aircraft is investigated by means of a ground-based scanning backscatter lidar. The growth in width is mainly governed by wind shear and varies between 18 m/min and 140 m/min. The growth of the cross-section varies between 3500 m{sup 2}/min and 25000 m{sup 2}/min. These values are in agreement with results of model calculations and former field measurements. The vertical growth is often limited by boundaries of the humid layer at flight level, but values up to 18 m/min were observed. Optical parameters like depolarization, optical depth and lidar ratio, i.e. the extinction-to-backscatter ratio, have been retrieved from the measurements at a wavelength of 532 nm. The linear depolarization rises from values as low as 0.06 for a young contrail (10 s old) to values around 0.5, typical for aged contrails. The latter indicates the transition from non-crystalline to crystalline particles in persistent contrails within a few minutes. The scatter of depolarization values measured in individual contrails is narrow, independent of the contrails age, and suggests a rather uniform growth of the particles inside a contrail. (author) 18 refs.

  10. Error estimation of deformable image registration of pulmonary CT scans using convolutional neural networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eppenhof, K.A.J.; Pluim, J.P.W.

    2018-01-01

    Error estimation in nonlinear medical image registration is a nontrivial problem that is important for validation of registration methods. We propose a supervised method for estimation of registration errors in nonlinear registration of three-dimensional (3-D) images. The method is based on a 3-D

  11. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase one, volume 3 : use of scanning LiDAR in structural evaluation of bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This volume introduces several applications of remote bridge inspection technologies studied in : this Integrated Remote Sensing and Visualization (IRSV) study using ground-based LiDAR : systems. In particular, the application of terrestrial LiDAR fo...

  12. An international collaborative family-based whole genome quantitative trait linkage scan for myopic refractive error

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, Diana; Li, Yi-Ju; Guggenheim, Jeremy A

    2012-01-01

    To investigate quantitative trait loci linked to refractive error, we performed a genome-wide quantitative trait linkage analysis using single nucleotide polymorphism markers and family data from five international sites....

  13. Complex terrain and wind lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bingoel, F.

    2009-08-15

    This thesis includes the results of a PhD study about complex terrain and wind lidars. The study mostly focuses on hilly and forested areas. Lidars have been used in combination with cups, sonics and vanes, to reach the desired vertical measurement heights. Several experiments are performed in complex terrain sites and the measurements are compared with two different flow models; a linearised flow model LINCOM and specialised forest model SCADIS. In respect to the lidar performance in complex terrain, the results showed that horizontal wind speed errors measured by a conically scanning lidar can be of the order of 3-4% in moderately-complex terrain and up to 10% in complex terrain. The findings were based on experiments involving collocated lidars and meteorological masts, together with flow calculations over the same terrains. The lidar performance was also simulated with the commercial software WAsP Engineering 2.0 and was well predicted except for some sectors where the terrain is particularly steep. Subsequently, two experiments were performed in forested areas; where the measurements are recorded at a location deep-in forest and at the forest edge. Both sites were modelled with flow models and the comparison of the measurement data with the flow model outputs showed that the mean wind speed calculated by LINCOM model was only reliable between 1 and 2 tree height (h) above canopy. The SCADIS model reported better correlation with the measurements in forest up to approx6h. At the forest edge, LINCOM model was used by allocating a slope half-in half out of the forest based on the suggestions of previous studies. The optimum slope angle was reported as 17 deg.. Thus, a suggestion was made to use WAsP Engineering 2.0 for forest edge modelling with known limitations and the applied method. The SCADIS model worked better than the LINCOM model at the forest edge but the model reported closer results to the measurements at upwind than the downwind and this should be

  14. Phase Error Caused by Speed Mismatch Analysis in the Line-Scan Defect Detection by Using Fourier Transform Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryi Hu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The phase error caused by the speed mismatch issue is researched in the line-scan images capturing 3D profile measurement. The experimental system is constructed by a line-scan CCD camera, an object moving device, a digital fringe pattern projector, and a personal computer. In the experiment procedure, the detected object is moving relative to the image capturing system by using a motorized translation stage in a stable velocity. The digital fringe pattern is projected onto the detected object, and then the deformed patterns are captured and recorded in the computer. The object surface profile can be calculated by the Fourier transform profilometry. However, the moving speed mismatch error will still exist in most of the engineering application occasion even after an image system calibration. When the moving speed of the detected object is faster than the expected value, the captured image will be compressed in the moving direction of the detected object. In order to overcome this kind of measurement error, an image recovering algorithm is proposed to reconstruct the original compressed image. Thus, the phase values can be extracted much more accurately by the reconstructed images. And then, the phase error distribution caused by the speed mismatch is analyzed by the simulation and experimental methods.

  15. Forest Inventory with Terrestrial LiDAR: A Comparison of Static and Hand-Held Mobile Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Bauwens

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of static terrestrial laser scanning (TLS in forest inventories is becoming more effective. Nevertheless, the occlusion effect is still limiting the processing efficiency to extract forest attributes. The use of a mobile laser scanner (MLS would reduce this occlusion. In this study, we assessed and compared a hand-held mobile laser scanner (HMLS with two TLS approaches (single scan: SS, and multi scan: MS for the estimation of several forest parameters in a wide range of forest types and structures. We found that SS is competitive to extract the ground surface of forest plots, while MS gives the best result to describe the upper part of the canopy. The whole cross-section at 1.3 m height is scanned for 91% of the trees (DBH > 10 cm with the HMLS leading to the best results for DBH estimates (bias of −0.08 cm and RMSE of 1.11 cm, compared to no fully-scanned trees for SS and 42% fully-scanned trees for MS. Irregularities, such as bark roughness and non-circular cross-section may explain the negative bias encountered for all of the scanning approaches. The success of using MLS in forests will allow for 3D structure acquisition on a larger scale and in a time-efficient manner.

  16. Correction of phase-shifting error in wavelength scanning digital holographic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Xiangchao; Xu, Min; Zhang, Hao; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2018-05-01

    Digital holographic microscopy is a promising method for measuring complex micro-structures with high slopes. A quasi-common path interferometric apparatus is adopted to overcome environmental disturbances, and an acousto-optic tunable filter is used to obtain multi-wavelength holograms. However, the phase shifting error caused by the acousto-optic tunable filter reduces the measurement accuracy and, in turn, the reconstructed topographies are erroneous. In this paper, an accurate reconstruction approach is proposed. It corrects the phase-shifting errors by minimizing the difference between the ideal interferograms and the recorded ones. The restriction on the step number and uniformity of the phase shifting is relaxed in the interferometry, and the measurement accuracy for complex surfaces can also be improved. The universality and superiority of the proposed method are demonstrated by practical experiments and comparison to other measurement methods.

  17. A Proposal to Localize Fermi GBM GRBs Through Coordinated Scanning of the GBM Error Circle via Optical Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Linnemann, J. T.; Tollefson, K.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Bhat, P. N.; Sonbas, E.; Gehrels, N.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the feasibility of implementing a system that will coordinate ground-based optical telescopes to cover the Fermi GBM Error Circle (EC). The aim of the system is to localize GBM detected GRBs and facilitate multi-wavelength follow-up from space and ground. This system will optimize the observing locations in the GBM EC based on individual telescope location, Field of View (FoV) and sensitivity. The proposed system will coordinate GBM EC scanning by professional as well as amateur astronomers around the world. The results of a Monte Carlo simulation to investigate the feasibility of the project are presented.

  18. Using the Rapid-Scanning, Ultra-Portable, Canopy Biomass Lidar (CBL) Alone and In Tandem with the Full-Waveform Dual-Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL) to Establish Forest Structure and Biomass Estimates in a Variety of Ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaaf, C.; Paynter, I.; Saenz, E. J.; Li, Z.; Strahler, A. H.; Peri, F.; Erb, A.; Raumonen, P.; Muir, J.; Howe, G.; Hewawasam, K.; Martel, J.; Douglas, E. S.; Chakrabarti, S.; Cook, T.; Schaefer, M.; Newnham, G.; Jupp, D. L. B.; van Aardt, J. A.; Kelbe, D.; Romanczyk, P.; Faulring, J.

    2014-12-01

    Terrestrial lidars are increasingly being deployed in a variety of ecosystems to calibrate and validate large scale airborne and spaceborne estimates of forest structure and biomass. While these lidars provide a wealth of high resolution information on canopy structure and understory vegetation, they tend to be expensive, slow scanning and somewhat ponderous to deploy. Therefore, frequent deployments and characterization of larger areas of a hectare or more can still be challenging. This suggests a role for low cost, ultra-portable, rapid scanning (but lower resolution) instruments -- particularly in scanning extreme environments and as a way to augment and extend strategically placed scans from the more highly capable lidars. The Canopy Biomass Lidar (CBL) is an inexpensive, highly portable, fast-scanning (33 seconds), time-of-flight, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) instrument, built in collaboration with RIT, by U Mass Boston. The instrument uses a 905nm SICK time of flight laser with a 0.25o resolution and 30m range. The higher resolution, full-waveform Dual Wavelength Echidna® Lidar (DWEL), developed by Boston University, U Mass Lowell and U Mass Boston, builds on the Australian CSIRO single wavelength, full-waveform Echidna® Validation Instrument (EVI), but utilizes two simultaneous laser pulses at 1064 and 1548 nm to separate woody returns from those of foliage at a range of up to 100m range. The UMass Boston CBL has been deployed in rangelands (San Joaquin Experimental Range, CA), high altitude conifers (Sierra National Forest, CA), mixed forests (Harvard Forest LTER MA), tropical forests (La Selva and Sirena Biological Stations, Costa Rica), eucalypts (Karawatha, Brisbane TERN, Australia), and woodlands (Alice Holt Forest, UK), frequently along-side the DWEL, as well as in more challenging environments such as mangrove forests (Corcovado National Park, Costa Rica) and Massachusetts salt marshes and eroding bluffs (Plum Island LTER, and UMass Boston

  19. Topographic laser ranging and scanning principles and processing

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Jie

    2008-01-01

    A systematic, in-depth introduction to theories and principles of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) technology is long overdue, as it is the most important geospatial data acquisition technology to be introduced in recent years. An advanced discussion, this text fills the void.Professionals in fields ranging from geology, geography and geoinformatics to physics, transportation, and law enforcement will benefit from this comprehensive discussion of topographic LiDAR principles, systems, data acquisition, and data processing techniques. The book covers ranging and scanning fundamentals, and broad, contemporary analysis of airborne LiDAR systems, as well as those situated on land and in space. The authors present data collection at the signal level in terms of waveforms and their properties; at the system level with regard to calibration and georeferencing; and at the data level to discuss error budget, quality control, and data organization. They devote the bulk of the book to LiDAR data processing and inform...

  20. All-Fiber Airborne Coherent Doppler Lidar to Measure Wind Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An all-fiber airborne pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (CDL prototype at 1.54μm is developed to measure wind profiles in the lower troposphere layer. The all-fiber single frequency pulsed laser is operated with pulse energy of 300μJ, pulse width of 400ns and pulse repetition rate of 10kHz. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest pulse energy of all-fiber eye-safe single frequency laser that is used in airborne coherent wind lidar. The telescope optical diameter of monostatic lidar is 100 mm. Velocity-Azimuth-Display (VAD scanning is implemented with 20 degrees elevation angle in 8 different azimuths. Real-time signal processing board is developed to acquire and process the heterodyne mixing signal with 10000 pulses spectra accumulated every second. Wind profiles are obtained every 20 seconds. Several experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of the lidar. We have carried out airborne wind lidar experiments successfully, and the wind profiles are compared with aerological theodolite and ground based wind lidar. Wind speed standard error of less than 0.4m/s is shown between airborne wind lidar and balloon aerological theodolite.

  1. Radiometric Calibration of a Dual-Wavelength, Full-Waveform Terrestrial Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhan; Jupp, David L B; Strahler, Alan H; Schaaf, Crystal B; Howe, Glenn; Hewawasam, Kuravi; Douglas, Ewan S; Chakrabarti, Supriya; Cook, Timothy A; Paynter, Ian; Saenz, Edward J; Schaefer, Michael

    2016-03-02

    Radiometric calibration of the Dual-Wavelength Echidna(®) Lidar (DWEL), a full-waveform terrestrial laser scanner with two simultaneously-pulsing infrared lasers at 1064 nm and 1548 nm, provides accurate dual-wavelength apparent reflectance (ρ(app)), a physically-defined value that is related to the radiative and structural characteristics of scanned targets and independent of range and instrument optics and electronics. The errors of ρ(app) are 8.1% for 1064 nm and 6.4% for 1548 nm. A sensitivity analysis shows that ρ(app) error is dominated by range errors at near ranges, but by lidar intensity errors at far ranges. Our semi-empirical model for radiometric calibration combines a generalized logistic function to explicitly model telescopic effects due to defocusing of return signals at near range with a negative exponential function to model the fall-off of return intensity with range. Accurate values of ρ(app) from the radiometric calibration improve the quantification of vegetation structure, facilitate the comparison and coupling of lidar datasets from different instruments, campaigns or wavelengths and advance the utilization of bi- and multi-spectral information added to 3D scans by novel spectral lidars.

  2. Estimating forest biomass and identifying low-intensity logging areas using airborne scanning lidar in Antimary State Forest, Acre State, Western Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus V.N. d' Oliveira; Stephen E. Reutebuch; Robert J. McGaughey; Hans-Erik. Andersen

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate above ground forest biomass and identify areas disturbed by selective logging in a 1000 ha Brazilian tropical forest in the Antimary State Forest using airborne lidar data. The study area consisted of three management units, two of which were unlogged, while the third unit was selectively logged at a low intensity. A...

  3. A Comparison of sector-scan and dual Doppler wind measurements at Høvsøre Test Station – one lidar or two?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simon, Elliot; Courtney, Michael

    from the coast). Ground based remote sensing has numerous advantages over traditional in-situ (offshore met mast) and buoy based installations, mainly in terms or cost, complexity, and failure/delay risk. Since each lidar can only measure a portion of the wind vector, it is necessary to either deploy...

  4. Lidar to lidar calibration of Ground-based Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Sergio; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the result of the lidar to lidar calibration performed for ground-based lidar. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference lidar wind speed measurements with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding...... lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from the reference lidar measurements are given for information only....

  5. Lidars as an operational tool for meteorology and advanced atmospheric research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeonov, Valentin; Dinoev, Todor; Serikov, Ilya; Froidevaux, Martin; Bartlome, Marcel; Calpini, Bertrand; Bobrovnikov, Sergei; Ristori, Pablo; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc; Archinov, Yury

    2010-05-01

    The talk will present the concept and observation results of three advanced lidar systems developed recently at the Swiss federal Institute of Technology- Lausanne (EPFL) Switzerland. Two of the systems are Raman lidars for simultaneous water vapor, temperature and aerosol observations and the third one is an ozone UV DIAL system. The Ranan lidars use vibrational water vapor and nitrogen signals to derive water vapor mixing ratio and temperature, aerosol extinction and backscatter are measured using pure-rotational Raman and elastic signals. The first Raman lidar (RALMO) is a fully automated, water vapor /temperature/aerosol lidar developed for operational use by the Swiss meteorological office (MeteoSiss). The lidar supplies water vapor mixing ratio and temperature plus aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients at 355 nm. The operational range of the lidar is 100-7000 m (night time) and 100- 5000 m (daytime) with time resolution of 30 min. The spatial resolution varies with height from 25 to 300 m in order to maintain the maximum measurement error of 10%. The system is designed to provide long-term database with minimal instrument-induced variations in time of the measured parameters. The lidar has been in regular operation in the main aerological station of Meteoswiss- Payerne since September 2008. The second Raman lidar is a new generation, solar-blind system with an operational range 10-500 m and high spatial (1.5 m) and temporal (1 s) resolutions designed for simultaneous humidity, temperature, and aerosol measurements in the lower atmosphere. To maintain the measurement accuracy while operating with fixed spatial and temporal resolution, the receiver is designed to provide lower than ten dynamic range of the signals within the distance range of the lidar. The lidar has 360° azimuth and 240°elevation scanning ability. The lidar was used in two field campaigns aiming to study the structure of the lower atmosphere over complex terrains and, in particular

  6. Lidar Remote Sensing for Industry and Environment Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N. (Editor); Itabe, Toshikazu (Editor); Sugimoto, Nobuo (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. Keynote paper: Overview of lidar technology for industrial and environmental monitoring in Japan. 2. lidar technology I: NASA's future active remote sensing mission for earth science. Geometrical detector consideration s in laser sensing application (invited paper). 3. Lidar technology II: High-power femtosecond light strings as novel atmospheric probes (invited paper). Design of a compact high-sensitivity aerosol profiling lidar. 4. Lasers for lidars: High-energy 2 microns laser for multiple lidar applications. New submount requirement of conductively cooled laser diodes for lidar applications. 5. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds I: Lidar monitoring of clouds and aerosols at the facility for atmospheric remote sensing (invited paper). Measurement of asian dust by using multiwavelength lidar. Global monitoring of clouds and aerosols using a network of micropulse lidar systems. 6. Troposphere aerosols and clouds II: Scanning lidar measurements of marine aerosol fields at a coastal site in Hawaii. 7. Tropospheric aerosols and clouds III: Formation of ice cloud from asian dust particles in the upper troposphere. Atmospheric boundary layer observation by ground-based lidar at KMITL, Thailand (13 deg N, 100 deg. E). 8. Boundary layer, urban pollution: Studies of the spatial correlation between urban aerosols and local traffic congestion using a slant angle scanning on the research vessel Mirai. 9. Middle atmosphere: Lidar-observed arctic PSC's over Svalbard (invited paper). Sodium temperature lidar measurements of the mesopause region over Syowa Station. 10. Differential absorption lidar (dIAL) and DOAS: Airborne UV DIAL measurements of ozone and aerosols (invited paper). Measurement of water vapor, surface ozone, and ethylene using differential absorption lidar. 12. Space lidar I: Lightweight lidar telescopes for space applications (invited paper). Coherent lidar development for Doppler wind measurement from the International Space

  7. Implication of spot position error on plan quality and patient safety in pencil-beam-scanning proton therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Juan; Beltran, Chris J., E-mail: beltran.chris@mayo.edu; Herman, Michael G. [Division of Medical Physics, Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota 55905 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To quantitatively and systematically assess dosimetric effects induced by spot positioning error as a function of spot spacing (SS) on intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) plan quality and to facilitate evaluation of safety tolerance limits on spot position. Methods: Spot position errors (PE) ranging from 1 to 2 mm were simulated. Simple plans were created on a water phantom, and IMPT plans were calculated on two pediatric patients with a brain tumor of 28 and 3 cc, respectively, using a commercial planning system. For the phantom, a uniform dose was delivered to targets located at different depths from 10 to 20 cm with various field sizes from 2{sup 2} to 15{sup 2} cm{sup 2}. Two nominal spot sizes, 4.0 and 6.6 mm of 1 σ in water at isocenter, were used for treatment planning. The SS ranged from 0.5 σ to 1.5 σ, which is 2–6 mm for the small spot size and 3.3–9.9 mm for the large spot size. Various perturbation scenarios of a single spot error and systematic and random multiple spot errors were studied. To quantify the dosimetric effects, percent dose error (PDE) depth profiles and the value of percent dose error at the maximum dose difference (PDE [ΔDmax]) were used for evaluation. Results: A pair of hot and cold spots was created per spot shift. PDE[ΔDmax] is found to be a complex function of PE, SS, spot size, depth, and global spot distribution that can be well defined in simple models. For volumetric targets, the PDE [ΔDmax] is not noticeably affected by the change of field size or target volume within the studied ranges. In general, reducing SS decreased the dose error. For the facility studied, given a single spot error with a PE of 1.2 mm and for both spot sizes, a SS of 1σ resulted in a 2% maximum dose error; a SS larger than 1.25 σ substantially increased the dose error and its sensitivity to PE. A similar trend was observed in multiple spot errors (both systematic and random errors). Systematic PE can lead to noticeable hot

  8. Augmented Reality Based Doppler Lidar Data Visualization: Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherukuru N. W.

    2016-01-01

    As a proof of concept, we used the lidar data from a recent field campaign and developed a smartphone application to view the lidar scan in augmented reality. In this paper, we give a brief methodology of this feasibility study, present the challenges and promises of using AR technology in conjunction with Doppler wind lidars.

  9. APPLICABILITY ANALYSIS OF CLOTH SIMULATION FILTERING ALGORITHM FOR MOBILE LIDAR POINT CLOUD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Cai

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Classifying the original point clouds into ground and non-ground points is a key step in LiDAR (light detection and ranging data post-processing. Cloth simulation filtering (CSF algorithm, which based on a physical process, has been validated to be an accurate, automatic and easy-to-use algorithm for airborne LiDAR point cloud. As a new technique of three-dimensional data collection, the mobile laser scanning (MLS has been gradually applied in various fields, such as reconstruction of digital terrain models (DTM, 3D building modeling and forest inventory and management. Compared with airborne LiDAR point cloud, there are some different features (such as point density feature, distribution feature and complexity feature for mobile LiDAR point cloud. Some filtering algorithms for airborne LiDAR data were directly used in mobile LiDAR point cloud, but it did not give satisfactory results. In this paper, we explore the ability of the CSF algorithm for mobile LiDAR point cloud. Three samples with different shape of the terrain are selected to test the performance of this algorithm, which respectively yields total errors of 0.44 %, 0.77 % and1.20 %. Additionally, large area dataset is also tested to further validate the effectiveness of this algorithm, and results show that it can quickly and accurately separate point clouds into ground and non-ground points. In summary, this algorithm is efficient and reliable for mobile LiDAR point cloud.

  10. Lidar to lidar calibration phase 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Courtney, Michael

    This report presents the results from phase 2 of a lidar to lidar (L2L) calibration procedure. Phase two of the project included two measurement campaigns conducted at given sites. The purpose was to find out if the lidar-to-lidar calibration procedure can be conducted with similar results...

  11. Study of Diagenetic Features in Rudist Buildups of Cretaceous Edwards Formation Using Ground Based Hyperspectral Scanning and Terrestrial LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krupnik, D.; Khan, S.; Okyay, U.; Hartzell, P. J.; Biber, K.

    2015-12-01

    Ground based remote sensing is a novel technique for development of digital outcrop models which can be instrumental in performing detailed qualitative and quantitative sedimentological analysis for the study of depositional environment, diagenetic processes, and hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. For this investigation, ground-based hyperspectral data collection is combined with terrestrial LiDAR to study outcrops of Late Albian rudist buildups of the Edwards formation in the Lake Georgetown Spillway in Williamson County, Texas. The Edwards formation consists of shallow water deposits of reef and associated inter-reef facies, including rudist bioherms and biostromes. It is a significant aquifer and was investigated as a hydrocarbon play in south central Texas. Hyperspectral data were used to map compositional variation in the outcrop by distinguishing spectral properties unique to each material. Lithological variation was mapped in detail to investigate the structure and composition of rudist buildups. Hyperspectral imagery was registered to a 3D model produced from the LiDAR point cloud with an accuracy of up to one pixel. Flat-topped toucasid-rich bioherm facies were distinguished from overlying toucasid-rich biostrome facies containing chert nodules, overlying sucrosic dolostones, and uppermost peloid wackestones and packstones of back-reef facies. Ground truth was established by petrographic study of samples from this area and has validated classification products of remote sensing data. Several types of porosity were observed and have been associated with increased dolomitization. This ongoing research involves integration of remotely sensed datasets to analyze geometrical and compositional properties of this carbonate formation at a finer scale than traditional methods have achieved and seeks to develop a workflow for quick and efficient ground based remote sensing-assisted outcrop studies.

  12. Influence of material surface on the scanning error of a powder-free 3D measuring system

    OpenAIRE

    Kurz, Michael; Attin, Thomas; Mehl, Albert

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES This study aims to evaluate the accuracy of a powder-free three-dimensional (3D) measuring system (CEREC Omnicam, Sirona), when scanning the surface of a material at different angles. Additionally, the influence of water was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS Nine different materials were combined with human tooth surface (enamel) to create n = 27 specimens. These materials were: Controls (InCoris TZI and Cerec Guide Bloc), ceramics (Vitablocs® Mark II and IPS Empress CAD), met...

  13. Investigation of the Impact of the Upstream Induction Zone on LIDAR Measurement Accuracy for Wind Turbine Control Applications using Large-Eddy Simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simley, Eric; Pao, Lucy Y; Gebraad, Pieter; Churchfield, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    Several sources of error exist in lidar measurements for feedforward control of wind turbines including the ability to detect only radial velocities, spatial averaging, and wind evolution. This paper investigates another potential source of error: the upstream induction zone. The induction zone can directly affect lidar measurements and presents an opportunity for further decorrelation between upstream wind and the wind that interacts with the rotor. The impact of the induction zone is investigated using the combined CFD and aeroelastic code SOWFA. Lidar measurements are simulated upstream of a 5 MW turbine rotor and the true wind disturbances are found using a wind speed estimator and turbine outputs. Lidar performance in the absence of an induction zone is determined by simulating lidar measurements and the turbine response using the aeroelastic code FAST with wind inputs taken far upstream of the original turbine location in the SOWFA wind field. Results indicate that while measurement quality strongly depends on the amount of wind evolution, the induction zone has little effect. However, the optimal lidar preview distance and circular scan radius change slightly due to the presence of the induction zone

  14. Pointing Verification Method for Spaceborne Lidars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Amediek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High precision acquisition of atmospheric parameters from the air or space by means of lidar requires accurate knowledge of laser pointing. Discrepancies between the assumed and actual pointing can introduce large errors due to the Doppler effect or a wrongly assumed air pressure at ground level. In this paper, a method for precisely quantifying these discrepancies for airborne and spaceborne lidar systems is presented. The method is based on the comparison of ground elevations derived from the lidar ranging data with high-resolution topography data obtained from a digital elevation model and allows for the derivation of the lateral and longitudinal deviation of the laser beam propagation direction. The applicability of the technique is demonstrated by using experimental data from an airborne lidar system, confirming that geo-referencing of the lidar ground spot trace with an uncertainty of less than 10 m with respect to the used digital elevation model (DEM can be obtained.

  15. A generalized adaptive mathematical morphological filter for LIDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zheng

    Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) technology has become the primary method to derive high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTMs), which are essential for studying Earth's surface processes, such as flooding and landslides. The critical step in generating a DTM is to separate ground and non-ground measurements in a voluminous point LIDAR dataset, using a filter, because the DTM is created by interpolating ground points. As one of widely used filtering methods, the progressive morphological (PM) filter has the advantages of classifying the LIDAR data at the point level, a linear computational complexity, and preserving the geometric shapes of terrain features. The filter works well in an urban setting with a gentle slope and a mixture of vegetation and buildings. However, the PM filter often removes ground measurements incorrectly at the topographic high area, along with large sizes of non-ground objects, because it uses a constant threshold slope, resulting in "cut-off" errors. A novel cluster analysis method was developed in this study and incorporated into the PM filter to prevent the removal of the ground measurements at topographic highs. Furthermore, to obtain the optimal filtering results for an area with undulating terrain, a trend analysis method was developed to adaptively estimate the slope-related thresholds of the PM filter based on changes of topographic slopes and the characteristics of non-terrain objects. The comparison of the PM and generalized adaptive PM (GAPM) filters for selected study areas indicates that the GAPM filter preserves the most "cut-off" points removed incorrectly by the PM filter. The application of the GAPM filter to seven ISPRS benchmark datasets shows that the GAPM filter reduces the filtering error by 20% on average, compared with the method used by the popular commercial software TerraScan. The combination of the cluster method, adaptive trend analysis, and the PM filter allows users without much experience in

  16. Lidar-based estimates of aboveground biomass in the continental US and Mexico using ground, airborne, and satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross Nelson; Hank Margolis; Paul Montesano; Guoqing Sun; Bruce Cook; Larry Corp; Hans-Erik Andersen; Ben deJong; Fernando Paz Pellat; Thaddeus Fickel; Jobriath Kauffman; Stephen Prisley

    2017-01-01

    Existing national forest inventory plots, an airborne lidar scanning (ALS) system, and a space profiling lidar system (ICESat-GLAS) are used to generate circa 2005 estimates of total aboveground dry biomass (AGB) in forest strata, by state, in the continental United States (CONUS) and Mexico. The airborne lidar is used to link ground observations of AGB to space lidar...

  17. Evaluating Mesoscale Simulations of the Coastal Flow Using Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floors, R.; Hahmann, A. N.; Peña, A.

    2018-03-01

    The atmospheric flow in the coastal zone is investigated using lidar and mast measurements and model simulations. Novel dual-Doppler scanning lidars were used to investigate the flow over a 7 km transect across the coast, and vertically profiling lidars were used to study the vertical wind profile at offshore and onshore positions. The Weather, Research and Forecasting model is set up in 12 different configurations using 2 planetary boundary layer schemes, 3 horizontal grid spacings and varied sources of land use, and initial and lower boundary conditions. All model simulations describe the observed mean wind profile well at different onshore and offshore locations from the surface up to 500 m. The simulated mean horizontal wind speed gradient across the shoreline is close to that observed, although all simulations show wind speeds that are slightly higher than those observed. Inland at the lowest observed height, the model has the largest deviations compared to the observations. Taylor diagrams show that using ERA-Interim data as boundary conditions improves the model skill scores. Simulations with 0.5 and 1 km horizontal grid spacing show poorer model performance compared to those with a 2 km spacing, partially because smaller resolved wave lengths degrade standard error metrics. Modeled and observed velocity spectra were compared and showed that simulations with the finest horizontal grid spacing resolved more high-frequency atmospheric motion.

  18. An Evaluation of the Errors in Cephalometric Measurements on Scanned Lateral Cephalometric Images using Computerized Cephalometric Program and Conventional Tracings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priteshkumar Sureshchand Ganna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim and objective: The aim of this study was to compare the cephalometric measurements using Nemoceph software with manual tracings. Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 60 lateral Cephalometric radiographs of patients randomly selected from the existing records of patients of Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, KVG Dental College and Hospital, Sullia, Dakshina Kannada. Nineteen angular and 11 linear measurements were analyzed on each radiograph. All the lateral cephalographs were hand-traced and the same Cephalographs were then scanned and were then digitally traced with Nemoceph software. The results were then tabulated in Microsoft excel. The level of significance (p-value was 0.05 and was set at p < 0.05. Paired t-test was performed using SPSS software for comparison between tracing done by manual method and by Nemoceph software. Results: Significant differences were found between the two methods for five (four angular and one linear out of 30 measurements. Those five were saddle angle, articular angle, upper lip to E-Line, Frankfort horizontal to lower incisor axis angle and lower incisor axis to mandibular plane angle. Conclusion: Both angular and linear measurements were accurate and reliable. Except, few measurements showing highly significant differences, the validity of the measurements with the Nemoceph software and with the conventional method were highly correlated.

  19. Glenoid version by CT scan: an analysis of clinical measurement error and introduction of a protocol to reduce variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bunt, Fabian van de [VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Pearl, Michael L.; Lee, Eric K.; Peng, Lauren; Didomenico, Paul [Kaiser Permanente, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Recent studies have challenged the accuracy of conventional measurements of glenoid version. Variability in the orientation of the scapula from individual anatomical differences and patient positioning, combined with differences in observer measurement practices, have been identified as sources of variability. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility and reliability of clinically available software that allows manipulation of three-dimensional images in order to bridge the variance between clinical and anatomic version in a clinical setting. Twenty CT scans of normal glenoids of patients who had proximal humerus fractures were measured for version. Four reviewers first measured version in a conventional manner (clinical version), measurements were made again (anatomic version) after employing a protocol for reformatting the CT data to align the coronal and sagittal planes with the superior-inferior axis of the glenoid, and the scapular body, respectively. The average value of clinical retroversion for all reviewers and all subjects was -1.4 (range, -16 to 21 ), as compared to -3.2 (range, -21 to 6 ) when measured from reformatted images. The mean difference between anatomical and clinical version was 1.9 ± 5.6 but ranged on individual measurements from -13 to 26 . In no instance did all four observers choose the same image slice from the sequence of images. This study confirmed the variation in glenoid version dependent on scapular orientation previously identified in other studies using scapular models, and presents a clinically accessible protocol to correct for scapular orientation from the patient's CT data. (orig.)

  20. Glenoid version by CT scan: an analysis of clinical measurement error and introduction of a protocol to reduce variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunt, Fabian van de; Pearl, Michael L.; Lee, Eric K.; Peng, Lauren; Didomenico, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have challenged the accuracy of conventional measurements of glenoid version. Variability in the orientation of the scapula from individual anatomical differences and patient positioning, combined with differences in observer measurement practices, have been identified as sources of variability. The purpose of this study was to explore the utility and reliability of clinically available software that allows manipulation of three-dimensional images in order to bridge the variance between clinical and anatomic version in a clinical setting. Twenty CT scans of normal glenoids of patients who had proximal humerus fractures were measured for version. Four reviewers first measured version in a conventional manner (clinical version), measurements were made again (anatomic version) after employing a protocol for reformatting the CT data to align the coronal and sagittal planes with the superior-inferior axis of the glenoid, and the scapular body, respectively. The average value of clinical retroversion for all reviewers and all subjects was -1.4 (range, -16 to 21 ), as compared to -3.2 (range, -21 to 6 ) when measured from reformatted images. The mean difference between anatomical and clinical version was 1.9 ± 5.6 but ranged on individual measurements from -13 to 26 . In no instance did all four observers choose the same image slice from the sequence of images. This study confirmed the variation in glenoid version dependent on scapular orientation previously identified in other studies using scapular models, and presents a clinically accessible protocol to correct for scapular orientation from the patient's CT data. (orig.)

  1. Integrated remote sensing and visualization (IRSV) system for transportation infrastructure operations and management, phase two, volume 3 : advanced consideration in LiDAR technology for bridge evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report describes Phase Two enhancement of terrestrial LiDAR scanning for bridge damage : evaluation that was initially developed in Phase One. Considering the spatial and reflectivity : information contained in LiDAR scans, two detection algorit...

  2. Field evaluation of remote wind sensing technologies: Shore-based and buoy mounted LIDAR systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrington, Thomas [Stevens Inst. of Technology, Hoboken, NJ (United States)

    2017-11-03

    will be transferred to the Garrad Hassan (a subcontractor to Fishermen’s Energy) for incorporation in to the validation database, which is accessible to other scientific team members. Data collection times and durations will be determined by the PI and Co-PIs in consultation with instrument engineers to ensure the capture of data representative of the expected range of mid-Atlantic atmospheric conditions (e.g., temperature, moisture, coastal low pressure systems, tropical systems, rain, snow, fog). The collection and processing of the data is a function of site specific measurement requirements (Kelley et.al. 2007; Hannon et.al. 2008). To determine the optimal profiles of wind speed and direction from the LIDAR radial velocities as a function of azimuth angle, rigorous estimates of the bias and random error of each radial velocity estimate are required. Lockheed Martin Coherent Technologies, Inc., under contract with Fishermen’s Energy, will provide analyses of raw and processed data using various scan patterns to determine optimal performance settings for the pulsed scanning LIDAR. Once optimized, appropriate processing and analyses techniques will be evaluated by Garrad Hassan for use in validating the accuracy of the LIDAR wind field measurements against the standard anemometer measurements from the meteorological masts. The most attractive capability of the scanning LIDAR is the ability to provide high spatial resolution observations in a three-dimensional volume which provides superior statistical accuracy due to the large number of samples obtained. Each radial scan provides measurements in 100 range gates over a distance of 10 to 12 km at an update rate of 5 to 10 Hz and rotation of 2.5° per second. Each rotation at a fixed azimuth requires 2.4 minutes. Depending on the number of azimuths desired a complete scan can take up to 10 minutes or longer to complete. Once collected the radial velocities are processed to produce vector wind velocity estimates based

  3. The marbll experiment: towards a martian wind lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Määttänen Anni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Operating a lidar on Mars would fulfill the need of accessing wind and aerosol profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer. This is the purpose of the MARs Boundary Layer Lidar (MARBLL instrument. We report recent developments of this compact direct-detection wind lidar designed to operate from the surface of Mars. A new laser source has been developed and an azimuthal scanning capability has been added. Preliminary results of a field campaign are presented.

  4. Development and Deployment of a Compact Eye-Safe Scanning Differential absorption Lidar (DIAL) for Spatial Mapping of Carbon Dioxide for Monitoring/Verification/Accounting at Geologic Sequestration Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Repasky, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A scanning differential absorption lidar (DIAL) instrument for monitoring carbon dioxide has been developed. The laser transmitter uses two tunable discrete mode laser diodes (DMLD) operating in the continuous wave (cw) mode with one locked to the online absorption wavelength and the other operating at the offline wavelength. Two in-line fiber optic switches are used to switch between online and offline operation. After the fiber optic switch, an acousto- optic modulator (AOM) is used to generate a pulse train used to injection seed an erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) to produce eye-safe laser pulses with maximum pulse energies of 66 {micro}J, a pulse repetition frequency of 15 kHz, and an operating wavelength of 1.571 {micro}m. The DIAL receiver uses a 28 cm diameter Schmidt-Cassegrain telescope to collect that backscattered light, which is then monitored using a photo-multiplier tube (PMT) module operating in the photon counting mode. The DIAL instrument has been operated from a laboratory environment on the campus of Montana State University, at the Zero Emission Research Technology (ZERT) field site located in the agricultural research area on the western end of the Montana State University campus, and at the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership site located in north-central Montana. DIAL data has been collected and profiles have been validated using a co-located Licor LI-820 Gas Analyzer point sensor.

  5. Differential absorption and Raman lidar for water vapor profile measurements - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, William B.

    1991-01-01

    Differential absorption lidar and Raman lidar have been applied to the range-resolved measurements of water vapor density for more than 20 years. Results have been obtained using both lidar techniques that have led to improved understanding of water vapor distributions in the atmosphere. This paper reviews the theory of the measurements, including the sources of systematic and random error; the progress in lidar technology and techniques during that period, including a brief look at some of the lidar systems in development or proposed; and the steps being taken to improve such lidar systems.

  6. M3RSM: Many-to-Many Multi-Resolution Scan Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    a localization problem), or may be derived from a LIDAR scan earlier in the robot’s trajectory (a SLAM problem). The reference map is generally...Mapping ( SLAM ) systems prevent the unbounded accumulation of error. A typical approach with laser range-finder data is to compute the posterior...even greater bottleneck than the SLAM optimiza- tion itself. In our multi-robot mapping system, over a dozen robots explored an area simultaneously [14

  7. A study of respiration-correlated cone-beam CT scans to correct target positioning errors in radiotherapy of thoracic cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santoro, J. P.; McNamara, J.; Yorke, E.; Pham, H.; Rimner, A.; Rosenzweig, K. E.; Mageras, G. S. [Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States); Department of Medical Physics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York 10065 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: There is increasingly widespread usage of cone-beam CT (CBCT) for guiding radiation treatment in advanced-stage lung tumors, but difficulties associated with daily CBCT in conventionally fractionated treatments include imaging dose to the patient, increased workload and longer treatment times. Respiration-correlated cone-beam CT (RC-CBCT) can improve localization accuracy in mobile lung tumors, but further increases the time and workload for conventionally fractionated treatments. This study investigates whether RC-CBCT-guided correction of systematic tumor deviations in standard fractionated lung tumor radiation treatments is more effective than 2D image-based correction of skeletal deviations alone. A second study goal compares respiration-correlated vs respiration-averaged images for determining tumor deviations. Methods: Eleven stage II-IV nonsmall cell lung cancer patients are enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective off-line protocol using RC-CBCT guidance to correct for systematic errors in GTV position. Patients receive a respiration-correlated planning CT (RCCT) at simulation, daily kilovoltage RC-CBCT scans during the first week of treatment and weekly scans thereafter. Four types of correction methods are compared: (1) systematic error in gross tumor volume (GTV) position, (2) systematic error in skeletal anatomy, (3) daily skeletal corrections, and (4) weekly skeletal corrections. The comparison is in terms of weighted average of the residual GTV deviations measured from the RC-CBCT scans and representing the estimated residual deviation over the treatment course. In the second study goal, GTV deviations computed from matching RCCT and RC-CBCT are compared to deviations computed from matching respiration-averaged images consisting of a CBCT reconstructed using all projections and an average-intensity-projection CT computed from the RCCT. Results: Of the eleven patients in the GTV-based systematic correction protocol, two required no correction

  8. A study of respiration-correlated cone-beam CT scans to correct target positioning errors in radiotherapy of thoracic cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoro, J. P.; McNamara, J.; Yorke, E.; Pham, H.; Rimner, A.; Rosenzweig, K. E.; Mageras, G. S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is increasingly widespread usage of cone-beam CT (CBCT) for guiding radiation treatment in advanced-stage lung tumors, but difficulties associated with daily CBCT in conventionally fractionated treatments include imaging dose to the patient, increased workload and longer treatment times. Respiration-correlated cone-beam CT (RC-CBCT) can improve localization accuracy in mobile lung tumors, but further increases the time and workload for conventionally fractionated treatments. This study investigates whether RC-CBCT-guided correction of systematic tumor deviations in standard fractionated lung tumor radiation treatments is more effective than 2D image-based correction of skeletal deviations alone. A second study goal compares respiration-correlated vs respiration-averaged images for determining tumor deviations. Methods: Eleven stage II–IV nonsmall cell lung cancer patients are enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective off-line protocol using RC-CBCT guidance to correct for systematic errors in GTV position. Patients receive a respiration-correlated planning CT (RCCT) at simulation, daily kilovoltage RC-CBCT scans during the first week of treatment and weekly scans thereafter. Four types of correction methods are compared: (1) systematic error in gross tumor volume (GTV) position, (2) systematic error in skeletal anatomy, (3) daily skeletal corrections, and (4) weekly skeletal corrections. The comparison is in terms of weighted average of the residual GTV deviations measured from the RC-CBCT scans and representing the estimated residual deviation over the treatment course. In the second study goal, GTV deviations computed from matching RCCT and RC-CBCT are compared to deviations computed from matching respiration-averaged images consisting of a CBCT reconstructed using all projections and an average-intensity-projection CT computed from the RCCT. Results: Of the eleven patients in the GTV-based systematic correction protocol, two required no correction

  9. Demystifying LiDAR technologies for temperate rainforest in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Demetrios Gatziolis

    2013-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR), also known as airborne laser scanning, is a rapidly emerging technology for remote sensing. Used to help map, monitor, and assess natural resources, LiDAR data were first embraced by forestry professionals in Scandinavia as a tool for conducting forest inventories in the mid to late 1990s. Thus early LiDAR theory and applications...

  10. Eye-safe diode laser Doppler lidar with a MEMS beam-scanner

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Pedersen, Christian; Rodrigo, Peter John

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel Doppler lidar that employs a cw diode laser operating at 1.5 μm and a micro-electro-mechanical-system scanning mirror (MEMS-SM). In this work, two functionalities of the lidar system are demonstrated. Firstly, we describe the capability to effectively steer the lidar probe beam...

  11. Automatic extraction of pavement markings on streets from point cloud data of mobile LiDAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Yang; Zhong, Ruofei; Liu, Xianlin; Tang, Tao; Wang, Liuzhao

    2017-01-01

    Pavement markings provide an important foundation as they help to keep roads users safe. Accurate and comprehensive information about pavement markings assists the road regulators and is useful in developing driverless technology. Mobile light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems offer new opportunities to collect and process accurate pavement markings’ information. Mobile LiDAR systems can directly obtain the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of an object, thus defining spatial data and the intensity of (3D) objects in a fast and efficient way. The RGB attribute information of data points can be obtained based on the panoramic camera in the system. In this paper, we present a novel method process to automatically extract pavement markings using multiple attribute information of the laser scanning point cloud from the mobile LiDAR data. This method process utilizes a differential grayscale of RGB color, laser pulse reflection intensity, and the differential intensity to identify and extract pavement markings. We utilized point cloud density to remove the noise and used morphological operations to eliminate the errors. In the application, we tested our method process on different sections of roads in Beijing, China, and Buffalo, NY, USA. The results indicated that both correctness ( p ) and completeness ( r ) were higher than 90%. The method process of this research can be applied to extract pavement markings from huge point cloud data produced by mobile LiDAR. (paper)

  12. Automatic extraction of pavement markings on streets from point cloud data of mobile LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhong, Ruofei; Tang, Tao; Wang, Liuzhao; Liu, Xianlin

    2017-08-01

    Pavement markings provide an important foundation as they help to keep roads users safe. Accurate and comprehensive information about pavement markings assists the road regulators and is useful in developing driverless technology. Mobile light detection and ranging (LiDAR) systems offer new opportunities to collect and process accurate pavement markings’ information. Mobile LiDAR systems can directly obtain the three-dimensional (3D) coordinates of an object, thus defining spatial data and the intensity of (3D) objects in a fast and efficient way. The RGB attribute information of data points can be obtained based on the panoramic camera in the system. In this paper, we present a novel method process to automatically extract pavement markings using multiple attribute information of the laser scanning point cloud from the mobile LiDAR data. This method process utilizes a differential grayscale of RGB color, laser pulse reflection intensity, and the differential intensity to identify and extract pavement markings. We utilized point cloud density to remove the noise and used morphological operations to eliminate the errors. In the application, we tested our method process on different sections of roads in Beijing, China, and Buffalo, NY, USA. The results indicated that both correctness (p) and completeness (r) were higher than 90%. The method process of this research can be applied to extract pavement markings from huge point cloud data produced by mobile LiDAR.

  13. 2015 OLC Lidar: Chelan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Chelan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  14. LIDAR Research & Development Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The LIDAR Research and Development labs are used to investigate and improve LIDAR components such as laser sources, optical signal detectors and optical filters. The...

  15. Wind Ressources in Complex Terrain investigated with Synchronized Lidar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J.; Menke, R.; Vasiljevic, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Perdigao experiment was performed by a number of European and American universities in Portugal 2017, and it is probably the largest field campaign focussing on wind energy ressources in complex terrain ever conducted. 186 sonic anemometers on 50 masts, 20 scanning wind lidars and a host of other instruments were deployed. The experiment is a part of an effort to make a new European wind atlas. In this presentation we investigate whether scanning the wind speed over ridges in this complex terrain with multiple Doppler lidars can lead to an efficient mapping of the wind resources at relevant positions. We do that by having pairs of Doppler lidars scanning 80 m above the ridges in Perdigao. We compare wind resources obtained from the lidars and from the mast-mounted sonic anemometers at 80 m on two 100 m masts, one on each of the two ridges. In addition, the scanning lidar measurements are also compared to profiling lidars on the ridges. We take into account the fact that the profiling lidars may be biased due to the curvature of the streamlines over the instrument, see Bingol et al, Meteorolog. Z. vol. 18, pp. 189-195 (2009). We also investigate the impact of interruptions of the lidar measurements on the estimated wind resource. We calculate the relative differences of wind along the ridge from the lidar measurements and compare those to the same obtained from various micro-scale models. A particular subject investigated is how stability affects the wind resources. We often observe internal gravity waves with the scanning lidars during the night and we quantify how these affect the relative wind speed on the ridges.

  16. System analysis and simulation of airborne scannerless 3D imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Pan; Hao, Qiwei; Chen, Siying

    2009-11-01

    Airborne non-scanned 3D imaging lidar is a recently developed method for remote sensing. The design method and flow of the system parameters round with the spatial resolution are established and explained in detail with examples. An evaluation indicator of data coverage is proposed to optimize the imaging control method. Pixel aliasing in all directions are analyzed, the possible factors cause the aliasing are stated, including the time control error, atmospheric disturbance and platform shake. At last, a parallel data output format is proposed to eliminate the timing mismatch of image data and POS parameters.

  17. Impacts of Random Attitude Measurement Errors on Airborne Laser Scanning Image%姿态角随机测量误差对机载激光扫描成像的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建军; 徐立军; 李小路

    2011-01-01

    The impacts of random attitude measurement errors on the positioning accuracy of laser footprints and digital surface model (DSM) accuracy of airborne lidar are studied. The principle of airborne lidar is analyzed. The transformation formulas between the random attitude measurement errors and the positioning errors of laser footprints are derived. Three terrains are simulated and the impacts of the random attitude measurement errors on laser point clouds and the corresponding DSM of the three terrains are analyzed. A semi-physical simulation experiment is carried out. The impacts of the random attitude measurement errors on the positioning accuracy of laser footprints and the DSM accuracy are quantitatively evaluated. The simulation and experimental results show that the random attitude measurement errors decrease the accuracy of laser point cloud and DSM. With the parameters used in this research, the horizontal coordinate errors caused by the random attitude measurement errors are about 4~ 5 times higher of the vertical coordinate error. In addition, when the random attitude measurement errors increase 10 times, the coordinate errors of laser point cloud increase about 10 times, while the error of the DSM increases by about 40 times statistically.%研究了姿态角随机测量误差对机载激光雷达激光脚点定位精度和数字表面模型(DSM)精度的影响.分析了机载激光雷达的工作原理,推导了姿态角随机测量误差与激光脚点定位误差之间的传递关系.通过数值仿真,模拟了3种地形,研究了姿态角随机测量误差对点云及DSM的影响规律.通过半实物仿真实验,定最评价了姿态角随机测量误差对激光脚点定位精度和DSM精度的影响.仿真和实验结果表明,姿态角随机测量误差造成激光脚点定位精度和DSM精度降低.姿态角随机测量误差造成激光脚点平面坐标误差增加较大,是高程误差的4~5倍;当姿态角随机测量误差增大10

  18. Comparing RIEGL RiCOPTER UAV LiDAR Derived Canopy Height and DBH with Terrestrial LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brede, Benjamin; Lau, Alvaro; Bartholomeus, Harm M; Kooistra, Lammert

    2017-10-17

    In recent years, LIght Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) and especially Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) systems have shown the potential to revolutionise forest structural characterisation by providing unprecedented 3D data. However, manned Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS) requires costly campaigns and produces relatively low point density, while TLS is labour intense and time demanding. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV)-borne laser scanning can be the way in between. In this study, we present first results and experiences with the RIEGL RiCOPTER with VUX ® -1UAV ALS system and compare it with the well tested RIEGL VZ-400 TLS system. We scanned the same forest plots with both systems over the course of two days. We derived Digital Terrain Model (DTMs), Digital Surface Model (DSMs) and finally Canopy Height Model (CHMs) from the resulting point clouds. ALS CHMs were on average 11.5 c m higher in five plots with different canopy conditions. This showed that TLS could not always detect the top of canopy. Moreover, we extracted trunk segments of 58 trees for ALS and TLS simultaneously, of which 39 could be used to model Diameter at Breast Height (DBH). ALS DBH showed a high agreement with TLS DBH with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 and root mean square error of 4.24 c m . We conclude that RiCOPTER has the potential to perform comparable to TLS for estimating forest canopy height and DBH under the studied forest conditions. Further research should be directed to testing UAV-borne LiDAR for explicit 3D modelling of whole trees to estimate tree volume and subsequently Above-Ground Biomass (AGB).

  19. Lidar calibration experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Mikkelsen, T.; Streicher, J.

    1997-01-01

    detection to test the reproducibility and uncertainty of lidars. Lidar data were obtained from both single-ended and double-ended Lidar configurations. A backstop was introduced in one of the experiments and a new method was developed where information obtained from the backstop can be used in the inversion...... algorithm. Independent in-situ aerosol plume concentrations were obtained from a simultaneous tracer gas experiment with SF6, and comparisons with the two lidars were made. The study shows that the reproducibility of the lidars is within 15%, including measurements from both sides of a plume...

  20. A New Framework for Quantifying Lidar Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer, F.; Clifton, Andrew; Bonin, Timothy A.; Churchfield, Matthew J.

    2017-03-24

    As wind turbine sizes increase and wind energy expands to more complex and remote sites, remote sensing devices such as lidars are expected to play a key role in wind resource assessment and power performance testing. The switch to remote sensing devices represents a paradigm shift in the way the wind industry typically obtains and interprets measurement data for wind energy. For example, the measurement techniques and sources of uncertainty for a remote sensing device are vastly different from those associated with a cup anemometer on a meteorological tower. Current IEC standards discuss uncertainty due to mounting, calibration, and classification of the remote sensing device, among other parameters. Values of the uncertainty are typically given as a function of the mean wind speed measured by a reference device. However, real-world experience has shown that lidar performance is highly dependent on atmospheric conditions, such as wind shear, turbulence, and aerosol content. At present, these conditions are not directly incorporated into the estimated uncertainty of a lidar device. In this presentation, we propose the development of a new lidar uncertainty framework that adapts to current flow conditions and more accurately represents the actual uncertainty inherent in lidar measurements under different conditions. In this new framework, sources of uncertainty are identified for estimation of the line-of-sight wind speed and reconstruction of the three-dimensional wind field. These sources are then related to physical processes caused by the atmosphere and lidar operating conditions. The framework is applied to lidar data from an operational wind farm to assess the ability of the framework to predict errors in lidar-measured wind speed.

  1. Wind observations above an urban river using a new lidar technique, scintillometry and anemometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, C.R. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Finnish Meteorological Institute, Erik Palmenin aukio 1, Helsinki, 00101 (Finland); Pauscher, L. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Ward, H.C. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, Oxfordshire, OX10 8BB (United Kingdom); Kotthaus, S. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Barlow, J.F., E-mail: j.f.barlow@reading.ac.uk [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Gouvea, M. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom); Lane, S.E. [Department of Meteorology, University of Reading, Reading, RG6 6BB (United Kingdom); Grimmond, C.S.B. [King' s College London, Department of Geography, London, WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    Airflow along rivers might provide a key mechanism for ventilation in cities: important for air quality and thermal comfort. Airflow varies in space and time in the vicinity of rivers. Consequently, there is limited utility in point measurements. Ground-based remote sensing offers the opportunity to study 3D airflow in locations which are difficult to observe with conventional approaches. For three months in the winter and spring of 2011, the airflow above the River Thames in central London was observed using a scanning Doppler lidar, a scintillometer and sonic anemometers. First, an inter-comparison showed that lidar-derived mean wind-speed estimates compare almost as well to sonic anemometers (root-mean-square error (rmse) 0.65-0.68 m s{sup -1}) as comparisons between sonic anemometers (0.35-0.73 m s{sup -1}). Second, the lidar duo-beam operating strategy provided horizontal transects of wind vectors (comparison with scintillometer rmse 1.12-1.63 m s{sup -1}) which revealed mean and turbulent airflow across the river and surrounds; in particular, channelled airflow along the river and changes in turbulence quantities consistent with the roughness changes between built and river environments. The results have important consequences for air quality and dispersion around urban rivers, especially given that many cities have high traffic rates on roads located on riverbanks. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An inter-comparison was made between lidar-derived winds and regular anemometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A new lidar operating technique was developed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Airflow features above an urban river included channelling of wind.

  2. Wind observations above an urban river using a new lidar technique, scintillometry and anemometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, C.R.; Pauscher, L.; Ward, H.C.; Kotthaus, S.; Barlow, J.F.; Gouvea, M.; Lane, S.E.; Grimmond, C.S.B.

    2013-01-01

    Airflow along rivers might provide a key mechanism for ventilation in cities: important for air quality and thermal comfort. Airflow varies in space and time in the vicinity of rivers. Consequently, there is limited utility in point measurements. Ground-based remote sensing offers the opportunity to study 3D airflow in locations which are difficult to observe with conventional approaches. For three months in the winter and spring of 2011, the airflow above the River Thames in central London was observed using a scanning Doppler lidar, a scintillometer and sonic anemometers. First, an inter-comparison showed that lidar-derived mean wind-speed estimates compare almost as well to sonic anemometers (root-mean-square error (rmse) 0.65–0.68 m s −1 ) as comparisons between sonic anemometers (0.35–0.73 m s −1 ). Second, the lidar duo-beam operating strategy provided horizontal transects of wind vectors (comparison with scintillometer rmse 1.12–1.63 m s −1 ) which revealed mean and turbulent airflow across the river and surrounds; in particular, channelled airflow along the river and changes in turbulence quantities consistent with the roughness changes between built and river environments. The results have important consequences for air quality and dispersion around urban rivers, especially given that many cities have high traffic rates on roads located on riverbanks. -- Highlights: ► An inter-comparison was made between lidar-derived winds and regular anemometry. ► A new lidar operating technique was developed. ► Airflow features above an urban river included channelling of wind.

  3. Portable Atmosphere Scanning LIDAR, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address the NASA need for innovative instrumentation to support its current and future missions related to the investigation of Earth's ecosystem, Physical Optics...

  4. Gluing for Raman lidar systems using the lamp mapping technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Monique; Venable, Demetrius; Whiteman, David N

    2014-12-20

    In the context of combined analog and photon counting (PC) data acquisition in a Lidar system, glue coefficients are defined as constants used for converting an analog signal into a virtual PC signal. The coefficients are typically calculated using Lidar profile data taken under clear, nighttime conditions since, in the presence of clouds or high solar background, it is difficult to obtain accurate glue coefficients from Lidar backscattered data. Here we introduce a new method in which we use the lamp mapping technique (LMT) to determine glue coefficients in a manner that does not require atmospheric profiles to be acquired and permits accurate glue coefficients to be calculated when adequate Lidar profile data are not available. The LMT involves scanning a halogen lamp over the aperture of a Lidar receiver telescope such that the optical efficiency of the entire detection system is characterized. The studies shown here involve two Raman lidar systems; the first from Howard University and the second from NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. The glue coefficients determined using the LMT and the Lidar backscattered method agreed within 1.2% for the water vapor channel and within 2.5% for the nitrogen channel for both Lidar systems. We believe this to be the first instance of the use of laboratory techniques for determining the glue coefficients for Lidar data analysis.

  5. Final Technical Report for Interagency Agreement No. DE-SC0005453 “Characterizing Aerosol Distributions, Types, and Optical and Microphysical Properties using the NASA Airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) and the Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP)”

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hostetler, Chris [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States); Ferrare, Richard [NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    Measurements of the vertical profile of atmospheric aerosols and aerosol optical and microphysical characteristics are required to: 1) determine aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcing, 2) compute radiative flux and heating rate profiles, 3) assess model simulations of aerosol distributions and types, and 4) establish the ability of surface and space-based remote sensors to measure the indirect effect. Consequently the ASR program calls for a combination of remote sensing and in situ measurements to determine aerosol properties and aerosol influences on clouds and radiation. As part of our previous DOE ASP project, we deployed the NASA Langley airborne High Spectral Resolution Lidar (HSRL) on the NASA B200 King Air aircraft during major field experiments in 2006 (MILAGRO and MaxTEX), 2007 (CHAPS), 2009 (RACORO), and 2010 (CalNex and CARES). The HSRL provided measurements of aerosol extinction (532 nm), backscatter (532 and 1064 nm), and depolarization (532 and 1064 nm). These measurements were typically made in close temporal and spatial coincidence with measurements made from DOE-funded and other participating aircraft and ground sites. On the RACORO, CARES, and CalNEX missions, we also deployed the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) Research Scanning Polarimeter (RSP). RSP provided intensity and degree of linear polarization over a broad spectral and angular range enabling column-average retrievals of aerosol optical and microphysical properties. Under this project, we analyzed observations and model results from RACORO, CARES, and CalNex and accomplished the following objectives. 1. Identified aerosol types, characterize the vertical distribution of the aerosol types, and partition aerosol optical depth by type, for CARES and CalNex using HSRL data as we have done for previous missions. 2. Investigated aerosol microphysical and macrophysical properties using the RSP. 3. Used the aerosol backscatter and extinction profiles measured by the HSRL

  6. Radar and Lidar Radar DEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liskovich, Diana; Simard, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Using radar and lidar data, the aim is to improve 3D rendering of terrain, including digital elevation models (DEM) and estimates of vegetation height and biomass in a variety of forest types and terrains. The 3D mapping of vegetation structure and the analysis are useful to determine the role of forest in climate change (carbon cycle), in providing habitat and as a provider of socio-economic services. This in turn will lead to potential for development of more effective land-use management. The first part of the project was to characterize the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission DEM error with respect to ICESat/GLAS point estimates of elevation. We investigated potential trends with latitude, canopy height, signal to noise ratio (SNR), number of LiDAR waveform peaks, and maximum peak width. Scatter plots were produced for each variable and were fitted with 1st and 2nd degree polynomials. Higher order trends were visually inspected through filtering with a mean and median filter. We also assessed trends in the DEM error variance. Finally, a map showing how DEM error was geographically distributed globally was created.

  7. Statistical properties of mean stand biomass estimators in a LIDAR-based double sampling forest survey design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Anderson; J. Breidenbach

    2007-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (LIDAR) can be a valuable tool in double-sampling forest survey designs. LIDAR-derived forest structure metrics are often highly correlated with important forest inventory variables, such as mean stand biomass, and LIDAR-based synthetic regression estimators have the potential to be highly efficient compared to single-stage estimators, which...

  8. 2015 Lowndes County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Lidar for Lowndes County, GA with the option to Collect Lidar in Cook and Tift Counties, GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task...

  9. 2015 OLC Lidar: Wasco, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Wasco County, WA, study area. The Oregon LiDAR Consortium's Wasco County...

  10. 3D turbulence measurements in inhomogeneous boundary layers with three wind LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbajo Fuertes, Fernando; Valerio Iungo, Giacomo; Porté-Agel, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    One of the most challenging tasks in atmospheric anemometry is obtaining reliable turbulence measurements of inhomogeneous boundary layers at heights or in locations where is not possible or convenient to install tower-based measurement systems, e.g. mountainous terrain, cities, wind farms, etc. Wind LiDARs are being extensively used for the measurement of averaged vertical wind profiles, but they can only successfully accomplish this task under the limiting conditions of flat terrain and horizontally homogeneous flow. Moreover, it has been shown that common scanning strategies introduce large systematic errors in turbulence measurements, regardless of the characteristics of the flow addressed. From the point of view of research, there exist a variety of techniques and scanning strategies to estimate different turbulence quantities but most of them rely in the combination of raw measurements with atmospheric models. Most of those models are only valid under the assumption of horizontal homogeneity. The limitations stated above can be overcome by a new triple LiDAR technique which uses simultaneous measurements from three intersecting Doppler wind LiDARs. It allows for the reconstruction of the three-dimensional velocity vector in time as well as local velocity gradients without the need of any turbulence model and with minimal assumptions [EGU2013-9670]. The triple LiDAR technique has been applied to the study of the flow over the campus of EPFL in Lausanne (Switzerland). The results show the potential of the technique for the measurement of turbulence in highly complex boundary layer flows. The technique is particularly useful for micrometeorology and wind engineering studies.

  11. The Use of Three-Dimensional Convolutional Neural Networks to Interpret LiDAR for Forest Inventory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Ayrey

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available As light detection and ranging (LiDAR technology becomes more available, it has become common to use these datasets to generate remotely sensed forest inventories across landscapes. Traditional methods for generating these inventories employ the use of height and proportion metrics to measure LiDAR returns and relate these back to field data using predictive models. Here, we employ a three-dimensional convolutional neural network (CNN, a deep learning technique that scans the LiDAR data and automatically generates useful features for predicting forest attributes. We test the accuracy in estimating forest attributes using the three-dimensional implementations of different CNN models commonly used in the field of image recognition. Using the best performing model architecture, we compared CNN performance to models developed using traditional height metrics. The results of this comparison show that CNNs produced 12% less prediction error when estimating biomass, 6% less in estimating tree count, and 2% less when estimating the percentage of needleleaf trees. We conclude that using CNNs can be a more accurate means of interpreting LiDAR data for forest inventories compared to standard approaches.

  12. Comparison of 3D turbulence measurements using three staring wind lidars and a sonic anemometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, J; Courtney, M S; Mikkelsen, T; Wagner, R; Lindeloew, P; Sjoeholm, M; Enevoldsen, K; Cariou, J-P; Parmentier, R

    2008-01-01

    Three pulsed lidars were used in staring, non-scanning mode, placed so that their beams crossed close to a 3D sonic anemometer. The goal is to compare lidar volume averaged wind measurement with point measurement reference sensors and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D turbulence measurements with lidars. The results show a very good correlation between the lidar and the sonic times series. The variance of the velocity measured by the lidar is attenuated due to spatial filtering, and the amount of attenuation can be predicted theoretically

  13. Detection of Wind Evolution and Lidar Trajectory Optimization for Lidar-Assisted Wind Turbine Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Schlipf

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in remote sensing are offering a promising opportunity to rethink conventional control strategies of wind turbines. With technologies such as lidar, the information about the incoming wind field - the main disturbance to the system - can be made available ahead of time. Initial field testing of collective pitch feedforward control shows, that lidar measurements are only beneficial if they are filtered properly to avoid harmful control action. However, commercial lidar systems developed for site assessment are usually unable to provide a usable signal for real time control. Recent research shows, that the correlation between the measurement of rotor effective wind speed and the turbine reaction can be modeled and that the model can be used to optimize a scan pattern. This correlation depends on several criteria such as turbine size, position of the measurements, measurement volume, and how the wind evolves on its way towards the rotor. In this work the longitudinal wind evolution is identified with the line-of-sight measurements of a pulsed lidar system installed on a large commercial wind turbine. This is done by staring directly into the inflowing wind during operation of the turbine and fitting the coherence between the wind at different measurement distances to an exponential model taking into account the yaw misalignment, limitation to line-of-sight measurements and the pulse volume. The identified wind evolution is then used to optimize the scan trajectory of a scanning lidar for lidar-assisted feedforward control in order to get the best correlation possible within the constraints of the system. Further, an adaptive filer is fitted to the modeled correlation to avoid negative impact of feedforward control because of uncorrelated frequencies of the wind measurement. The main results of the presented work are a first estimate of the wind evolution in front of operating wind turbines and an approach which manufacturers of

  14. Filtering Photogrammetric Point Clouds Using Standard LIDAR Filters Towards DTM Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z.; Gerke, M.; Vosselman, G.; Yang, M. Y.

    2018-05-01

    Digital Terrain Models (DTMs) can be generated from point clouds acquired by laser scanning or photogrammetric dense matching. During the last two decades, much effort has been paid to developing robust filtering algorithms for the airborne laser scanning (ALS) data. With the point cloud quality from dense image matching (DIM) getting better and better, the research question that arises is whether those standard Lidar filters can be used to filter photogrammetric point clouds as well. Experiments are implemented to filter two dense matching point clouds with different noise levels. Results show that the standard Lidar filter is robust to random noise. However, artefacts and blunders in the DIM points often appear due to low contrast or poor texture in the images. Filtering will be erroneous in these locations. Filtering the DIM points pre-processed by a ranking filter will bring higher Type II error (i.e. non-ground points actually labelled as ground points) but much lower Type I error (i.e. bare ground points labelled as non-ground points). Finally, the potential DTM accuracy that can be achieved by DIM points is evaluated. Two DIM point clouds derived by Pix4Dmapper and SURE are compared. On grassland dense matching generates points higher than the true terrain surface, which will result in incorrectly elevated DTMs. The application of the ranking filter leads to a reduced bias in the DTM height, but a slightly increased noise level.

  15. Optical Backscattering Measured by Airborne Lidar and Underwater Glider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Churnside

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The optical backscattering from particles in the ocean is an important quantity that has been measured by remote sensing techniques and in situ instruments. In this paper, we compare estimates of this quantity from airborne lidar with those from an in situ instrument on an underwater glider. Both of these technologies allow much denser sampling of backscatter profiles than traditional ship surveys. We found a moderate correlation (R = 0.28, p < 10−5, with differences that are partially explained by spatial and temporal sampling mismatches, variability in particle composition, and lidar retrieval errors. The data suggest that there are two different regimes with different scattering properties. For backscattering coefficients below about 0.001 m−1, the lidar values were generally greater than the glider values. For larger values, the lidar was generally lower than the glider. Overall, the results are promising and suggest that airborne lidar and gliders provide comparable and complementary information on optical particulate backscattering.

  16. Evaluating lidar point densities for effective estimation of aboveground biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhuoting; Dye, Dennis G.; Stoker, Jason M.; Vogel, John M.; Velasco, Miguel G.; Middleton, Barry R.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) 3D Elevation Program (3DEP) was recently established to provide airborne lidar data coverage on a national scale. As part of a broader research effort of the USGS to develop an effective remote sensing-based methodology for the creation of an operational biomass Essential Climate Variable (Biomass ECV) data product, we evaluated the performance of airborne lidar data at various pulse densities against Landsat 8 satellite imagery in estimating above ground biomass for forests and woodlands in a study area in east-central Arizona, U.S. High point density airborne lidar data, were randomly sampled to produce five lidar datasets with reduced densities ranging from 0.5 to 8 point(s)/m2, corresponding to the point density range of 3DEP to provide national lidar coverage over time. Lidar-derived aboveground biomass estimate errors showed an overall decreasing trend as lidar point density increased from 0.5 to 8 points/m2. Landsat 8-based aboveground biomass estimates produced errors larger than the lowest lidar point density of 0.5 point/m2, and therefore Landsat 8 observations alone were ineffective relative to airborne lidar for generating a Biomass ECV product, at least for the forest and woodland vegetation types of the Southwestern U.S. While a national Biomass ECV product with optimal accuracy could potentially be achieved with 3DEP data at 8 points/m2, our results indicate that even lower density lidar data could be sufficient to provide a national Biomass ECV product with accuracies significantly higher than that from Landsat observations alone.

  17. Registration of airborne LiDAR data and aerial images based on straight lines and POS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Quanye; Xu, Biao; Cao, Hui

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents a registration method which based on straight lines primitive. Firstly, 2D straight lines are extracted from aerial images using Canny operator and straight line fitting. In the similar way, 3D straight lines are extracted from LiDAR range images which derive from laser scanning point cloud. Secondly, 3D straight lines are projected to aerial images using collinearity equations and Position and Orientation System (POS) data. Then the corresponding lines are determined by straight line error. At last, each image's new exterior orientation elements are calculated by generalized point (straight line) photogrammetry.

  18. Improvement on Timing Accuracy of LIDAR for Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, G.; Huang, W.; Zhou, X.; Huang, Y.; He, C.; Li, X.; Zhang, L.

    2018-05-01

    The traditional timing discrimination technique for laser rangefinding in remote sensing, which is lower in measurement performance and also has a larger error, has been unable to meet the high precision measurement and high definition lidar image. To solve this problem, an improvement of timing accuracy based on the improved leading-edge timing discrimination (LED) is proposed. Firstly, the method enables the corresponding timing point of the same threshold to move forward with the multiple amplifying of the received signal. Then, timing information is sampled, and fitted the timing points through algorithms in MATLAB software. Finally, the minimum timing error is calculated by the fitting function. Thereby, the timing error of the received signal from the lidar is compressed and the lidar data quality is improved. Experiments show that timing error can be significantly reduced by the multiple amplifying of the received signal and the algorithm of fitting the parameters, and a timing accuracy of 4.63 ps is achieved.

  19. Low-pass parabolic FFT filter for airborne and satellite lidar signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Zhongke; Liu, Bo; Liu, Enhai; Yue, Yongjian

    2015-10-14

    In order to reduce random errors of the lidar signal inversion, a low-pass parabolic fast Fourier transform filter (PFFTF) was introduced for noise elimination. A compact airborne Raman lidar system was studied, which applied PFFTF to process lidar signals. Mathematics and simulations of PFFTF along with low pass filters, sliding mean filter (SMF), median filter (MF), empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and wavelet transform (WT) were studied, and the practical engineering value of PFFTF for lidar signal processing has been verified. The method has been tested on real lidar signal from Wyoming Cloud Lidar (WCL). Results show that PFFTF has advantages over the other methods. It keeps the high frequency components well and reduces much of the random noise simultaneously for lidar signal processing.

  20. Meteorology and lidar data from the URAHFREP field trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ott, Søren; Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans

    2002-01-01

    to the HF release. The instrumentation included various types of HF sensors, thermocouple arrays, a fully instrumented release rig, a passive smokemachine, a meteorological mast and a lidar backscatter system. This report deals exclusively with the meteorological data and the lidar data. The trials cover...... a range meteorological conditions. These include neutral conditions with relatively highwindspeed and low humidity as well as unstable conditions with low windspeed and high humidity, the most favorable conditions for lift-off to occur. The lidar was used to scan vertical cross-plume slices 100 meter...

  1. Comparison of 3D turbulence measurements using three staring wind lidars and a sonic anemometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Cariou, J.-P.; Courtney, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Three pulsed lidars were used in staring, non-scanning mode, placed so that their beams crossed close to a 3D sonic anemometer. The goal is to compare lidar volume averaged wind measurement with point measurement reference sensors and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D turbulence mea...... measurements with lidars. The results show a very good correlation between the lidar and the sonic times series. The variance of the velocity measured by the Mar is attenuated due to spatial filtering, and the amount of attenuation can be predicted theoretically.......Three pulsed lidars were used in staring, non-scanning mode, placed so that their beams crossed close to a 3D sonic anemometer. The goal is to compare lidar volume averaged wind measurement with point measurement reference sensors and to demonstrate the feasibility of performing 3D turbulence...

  2. Lidar signal-to-noise ratio improvements: Considerations and techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassebo, Yasser Y.

    minimize detected sky background noise while maintaining maximum lidar signal throughput. Measurements, carried at 532 nm, show as much as a factor of 10 improvement in SNR and the attainable lidar range up to 34% over conventional un-polarized schemes. For vertically pointing lidars, the largest improvements are limited to the early morning and late afternoon hours, while for lidars scanning azimuthally and in elevation at angles other than vertical, significant improvements are achievable over more extended time periods. Observed changes in SNR improvements were also related to relative humidity and modification of underlying aerosol microphysics. A second, distinct objective of this research was to utilize multiwavelength lidar techniques to separate plume and cloud particles. Choice of the study location and time for this work was driven mainly by the availability of satellite data collected by NASA INTEX-NA and NOAA NEAQS experiment over New York City on July 21, 2004 in support of MODIS imagery. The lidar results identify smoke plumes over New York City and validate the plume source origin location using NOAA-HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis. Surface measurements, at the time, from in-situ particle counters are presented and show no enhanced PM2.5 loading. This result is supported by lidar measurements, which confirm that nearly all of the aerosol plumes are located above the normal aerosol boundary layer showing that satellite measurements are often incomplete and are not sufficient for assessing surface air quality.

  3. A study of total measurement error in tomographic gamma scanning to assay nuclear material with emphasis on a bias issue for low-activity samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burr, T.L.; Mercer, D.J.; Prettyman, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    Field experience with the tomographic gamma scanner to assay nuclear material suggests that the analysis techniques can significantly impact the assay uncertainty. For example, currently implemented image reconstruction methods exhibit a positive bias for low-activity samples. Preliminary studies indicate that bias reduction could be achieved at the expense of increased random error variance. In this paper, the authors examine three possible bias sources: (1) measurement error in the estimated transmission matrix, (2) the positivity constraint on the estimated mass of nuclear material, and (3) improper treatment of the measurement error structure. The authors present results from many small-scale simulation studies to examine this bias/variance tradeoff for a few image reconstruction methods in the presence of the three possible bias sources

  4. A LIDAR-Based Tree Canopy Characterization under Simulated Uneven Road Condition: Advance in Tree Orchard Canopy Profile Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Shen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In real outdoor canopy profile detection, the accuracy of a LIDAR scanner to measure canopy structure is affected by a potentially uneven road condition. The level of error associated with attitude angles from undulations in the ground surface can be reduced by developing appropriate correction algorithm. This paper proposes an offline attitude angle offset correction algorithm based on a 3D affine coordinate transformation. The validity of the correction algorithm is verified by conducting an indoor experiment. The experiment was conducted on an especially designed canopy profile measurement platform. During the experiment, an artificial tree and a tree-shaped carved board were continuously scanned at constant laser scanner travel speed and detection distances under simulated bumpy road conditions. Acquired LIDAR laser scanner raw data was processed offline by exceptionally developed MATLAB program. The obtained results before and after correction method show that the single attitude angle offset correction method is able to correct the distorted data points in tree-shaped carved board profile measurement, with a relative error of 5%, while the compound attitude angle offset correction method is effective to reduce the error associated with compound attitude angle deviation from the ideal scanner pose, with relative error of 7%.

  5. The impact of forest structure and spatial scale on the relationship between ground plot above ground biomass and GEDI lidar waveforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armston, J.; Marselis, S.; Hancock, S.; Duncanson, L.; Tang, H.; Kellner, J. R.; Calders, K.; Disney, M.; Dubayah, R.

    2017-12-01

    The NASA Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) will place a multi-beam waveform lidar instrument on the International Space Station (ISS) to provide measurements of forest vertical structure globally. These measurements of structure will underpin empirical modelling of above ground biomass density (AGBD) at the scale of individual GEDI lidar footprints (25m diameter). The GEDI pre-launch calibration strategy for footprint level models relies on linking AGBD estimates from ground plots with GEDI lidar waveforms simulated from coincident discrete return airborne laser scanning data. Currently available ground plot data have variable and often large uncertainty at the spatial resolution of GEDI footprints due to poor colocation, allometric model error, sample size and plot edge effects. The relative importance of these sources of uncertainty partly depends on the quality of ground measurements and region. It is usually difficult to know the magnitude of these uncertainties a priori so a common approach to mitigate their influence on model training is to aggregate ground plot and waveform lidar data to a coarser spatial scale (0.25-1ha). Here we examine the impacts of these principal sources of uncertainty using a 3D simulation approach. Sets of realistic tree models generated from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) data or parametric modelling matched to tree inventory data were assembled from four contrasting forest plots across tropical rainforest, deciduous temperate forest, and sclerophyll eucalypt woodland sites. These tree models were used to simulate geometrically explicit 3D scenes with variable tree density, size class and spatial distribution. GEDI lidar waveforms are simulated over ground plots within these scenes using monte carlo ray tracing, allowing the impact of varying ground plot and waveform colocation error, forest structure and edge effects on the relationship between ground plot AGBD and GEDI lidar waveforms to be directly assessed. We

  6. Doppler Lidar Wind Value-Added Product

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsom, R. K. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Sivaraman, C. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Shippert, T. R. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States); Riihimaki, L. D. [DOE ARM Climate Research Facility, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Wind speed and direction, together with pressure, temperature, and relative humidity, are the most fundamental atmospheric state parameters. Accurate measurement of these parameters is crucial for numerical weather prediction. Vertically resolved wind measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer are particularly important for modeling pollutant and aerosol transport. Raw data from a scanning coherent Doppler lidar system can be processed to generate accurate height-resolved measurements of wind speed and direction in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  7. 2003 Oahu Coastline Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. Using a combination of laser rangefinding, GPS positioning...

  8. Alexandrite Lidar Receiver

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wilkerson, Thomas

    2000-01-01

    ...". The chosen vendor, Orca Photonics, In. (Redmond, WA), in close collaboration with USU personnel, built a portable, computerized lidar system that not only is suitable as a receiver for a near IR alexandrite laser, but also contains an independent Nd...

  9. LIDAR Thomson scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    This collection contains 21 papers on the application and development of LIDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) Thomson scattering techniques for the determination of spatially resolved electron temperature and density in magnetic confinement experiments, particularly tokamaks. Refs, figs and tabs

  10. Lidar 2009 - All Returns

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — LIDAR-derived binary (.las) files containing classified points of all returns. We have 3 classifications Unclassified, Ground, Low points. The average Ground Sample...

  11. LIDAR Wind Speed Measurements of Evolving Wind Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simley, E.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-07-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems are able to measure the speed of incoming wind before it interacts with a wind turbine rotor. These preview wind measurements can be used in feedforward control systems designed to reduce turbine loads. However, the degree to which such preview-based control techniques can reduce loads by reacting to turbulence depends on how accurately the incoming wind field can be measured. Past studies have assumed Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, which implies that turbulence remains unchanged as it advects downwind at the mean wind speed. With Taylor's hypothesis applied, the only source of wind speed measurement error is distortion caused by the LIDAR. This study introduces wind evolution, characterized by the longitudinal coherence of the wind, to LIDAR measurement simulations to create a more realistic measurement model. A simple model of wind evolution is applied to a frozen wind field used in previous studies to investigate the effects of varying the intensity of wind evolution. LIDAR measurements are also evaluated with a large eddy simulation of a stable boundary layer provided by the National Center for Atmospheric Research. Simulation results show the combined effects of LIDAR errors and wind evolution for realistic turbine-mounted LIDAR measurement scenarios.

  12. Holographic Raman lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We have constructed a Raman lidar system that incorporates a holographic optical element. By resolving just 3 nitrogen lines in the Resonance Raman spectroscopy (RRS) spectrum, temperature fits as good as 1% at altitudes of 20km can be made in 30 minutes. Due to the narrowband selectivity of the HOE, the lidar provides measurements over a continuous 24hr period. By adding a 4th channel to capture the Rayleigh backscattered light, temperature profiles can be extended to 80km

  13. Installation report - Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Villanueva, Héctor

    The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project.......The report describes the installation, configuration and data transfer for the ground-based lidar. The unit is provided by a customer but is installed and operated by DTU while in this project....

  14. Lidar and airborne investigation of smoke plume characteristics: Kootenai Creek Fire case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Urbanski; V. Kovalev; W. M. Hao; C. Wold; A. Petkov

    2010-01-01

    A ground-based scanning lidar was utilized with a set of airborne instruments to acquire measurements of smoke plume dynamics, smoke aerosol distribution and chemical composition in the vicinity of active wildfires in the western U.S. A new retrieval technique was used for processing lidar multiangle measurements. The technique determines the location of...

  15. Essentials of LIDAR multiangle data processing methodology for smoke polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. A. Kovalev; A. Petkov; C. Wold; S. Urbanski; W. M. Hao

    2009-01-01

    Mobile scanning lidar is the most appropriate tool for monitoring wildfire smoke-plume dynamics and optical properties. Lidar is the only remote sensing instrument capable of obtaining detailed three-dimensional range-resolved information for smoke distributions and optical properties over ranges of 10+ km at different wavelengths simultaneously.

  16. Development of a Dynamic Lidar Uncertainty Framework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Jennifer [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Clifton, Andrew [WindForS; Bonin, Timothy [CIRES/NOAA ESRL; Choukulkar, Aditya [CIRES/NOAA ESRL; Brewer, W. Alan [NOAA ESRL; Delgado, Ruben [University of Maryland Baltimore County

    2017-08-07

    errors in lidar-measured wind speed. The results show how uncertainty varies over time and can be used to help select data with different levels of uncertainty for different applications, for example, low uncertainty data for power performance testing versus all data for plant performance monitoring.

  17. Flow tilt angles near forest edges - Part 2: Lidar anemometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, Ebba; Mann, Jakob; Bingöl, Ferhat

    2010-01-01

    to sonic anemometry; there is no flow distortion caused by the instrument itself, there are no temperature effects and the instrument misalignment can be corrected for by assuming zero tilt angle at high altitudes. Contrary to mast-based instruments, the lidar measures the wind field with the exact same...... alignment error at a multitude of heights. Disadvantages with estimating vertical velocities from a lidar compared to mast-based measurements are potentially slightly increased levels of statistical errors due to limited sampling time, because the sampling is disjunct, and a requirement for homogeneous flow...

  18. Pulsed Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric CO2 Column Absorption and Range During the ASCENDS 2009-2011 Airborne Campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, J. B.; Weaver, C. J.; Riris, H.; Mao, J.; Sun, X.; Allan, G. R.; Hasselbrack, W. E.; Browell, E. V.

    2012-01-01

    altitude. The measurements showed -1 ppm random errors for 8-10 km altitudes and -30 sec averaging times. For the 2010 ASCENDS campaigns we flew the CO2 lidar on the NASA DC-8 and added an O2 lidar channel. During July 2010 we made measurements of CO2 and O2 column absorption during longer flights over Railroad Valley NV, the Pacific Ocean and over Lamont OK. CO2 measurements were made with 30 steps/scan, 300 scans/sec and improved line resolution and receiver sensitivity. Analysis of the 2010 CO2 measurements shows the expected -linear change of DOD with altitude. For measurements at altitudes> 6 km the random errors were 0.3 ppm for 80 sec averaging times. For the summer 2011 ASCENDS campaigns we made further improvements to the lidar's CO2 line scan and receiver sensitivity. The seven flights in the 2011 Ascends campaign were flown over a wide variety of surface and cloud conditions in the US, which produced a wide variety of lidar signal conditions. Details of the lidar measurements and their analysis will be described in the presentation.

  19. Water Mapping Using Multispectral Airborne LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, W. Y.; Shaker, A.; LaRocque, P. E.

    2018-04-01

    This study investigates the use of the world's first multispectral airborne LiDAR sensor, Optech Titan, manufactured by Teledyne Optech to serve the purpose of automatic land-water classification with a particular focus on near shore region and river environment. Although there exist recent studies utilizing airborne LiDAR data for shoreline detection and water surface mapping, the majority of them only perform experimental testing on clipped data subset or rely on data fusion with aerial/satellite image. In addition, most of the existing approaches require manual intervention or existing tidal/datum data for sample collection of training data. To tackle the drawbacks of previous approaches, we propose and develop an automatic data processing workflow for land-water classification using multispectral airborne LiDAR data. Depending on the nature of the study scene, two methods are proposed for automatic training data selection. The first method utilizes the elevation/intensity histogram fitted with Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to preliminarily split the land and water bodies. The second method mainly relies on the use of a newly developed scan line elevation intensity ratio (SLIER) to estimate the water surface data points. Regardless of the training methods being used, feature spaces can be constructed using the multispectral LiDAR intensity, elevation and other features derived from these parameters. The comprehensive workflow was tested with two datasets collected for different near shore region and river environment, where the overall accuracy yielded better than 96 %.

  20. Augmented Reality Based Doppler Lidar Data Visualization: Promises and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, N. W.; Calhoun, R.

    2016-06-01

    Augmented reality (AR) is a technology in which the enables the user to view virtual content as if it existed in real world. We are exploring the possibility of using this technology to view radial velocities or processed wind vectors from a Doppler wind lidar, thus giving the user an ability to see the wind in a literal sense. This approach could find possible applications in aviation safety, atmospheric data visualization as well as in weather education and public outreach. As a proof of concept, we used the lidar data from a recent field campaign and developed a smartphone application to view the lidar scan in augmented reality. In this paper, we give a brief methodology of this feasibility study, present the challenges and promises of using AR technology in conjunction with Doppler wind lidars.

  1. The impact of lidar elevation uncertainty on mapping intertidal habitats on barrier islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enwright, Nicholas M.; Wang, Lei; Borchert, Sinéad M.; Day, Richard H.; Feher, Laura C.; Osland, Michael J.

    2018-01-01

    While airborne lidar data have revolutionized the spatial resolution that elevations can be realized, data limitations are often magnified in coastal settings. Researchers have found that airborne lidar can have a vertical error as high as 60 cm in densely vegetated intertidal areas. The uncertainty of digital elevation models is often left unaddressed; however, in low-relief environments, such as barrier islands, centimeter differences in elevation can affect exposure to physically demanding abiotic conditions, which greatly influence ecosystem structure and function. In this study, we used airborne lidar elevation data, in situ elevation observations, lidar metadata, and tide gauge information to delineate low-lying lands and the intertidal wetlands on Dauphin Island, a barrier island along the coast of Alabama, USA. We compared three different elevation error treatments, which included leaving error untreated and treatments that used Monte Carlo simulations to incorporate elevation vertical uncertainty using general information from lidar metadata and site-specific Real-Time Kinematic Global Position System data, respectively. To aid researchers in instances where limited information is available for error propagation, we conducted a sensitivity test to assess the effect of minor changes to error and bias. Treatment of error with site-specific observations produced the fewest omission errors, although the treatment using the lidar metadata had the most well-balanced results. The percent coverage of intertidal wetlands was increased by up to 80% when treating the vertical error of the digital elevation models. Based on the results from the sensitivity analysis, it could be reasonable to use error and positive bias values from literature for similar environments, conditions, and lidar acquisition characteristics in the event that collection of site-specific data is not feasible and information in the lidar metadata is insufficient. The methodology presented in

  2. Calibration and Validation of a Detailed Architectural Canopy Model Reconstruction for the Simulation of Synthetic Hemispherical Images and Airborne LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Bremer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Canopy density measures such as the Leaf Area Index (LAI have become standardized mapping products derived from airborne and terrestrial Light Detection And Ranging (aLiDAR and tLiDAR, respectively data. A specific application of LiDAR point clouds is their integration into radiative transfer models (RTM of varying complexity. Using, e.g., ray tracing, this allows flexible simulations of sub-canopy light condition and the simulation of various sensors such as virtual hemispherical images or waveform LiDAR on a virtual forest plot. However, the direct use of LiDAR data in RTMs shows some limitations in the handling of noise, the derivation of surface areas per LiDAR point and the discrimination of solid and porous canopy elements. In order to address these issues, a strategy upgrading tLiDAR and Digital Hemispherical Photographs (DHP into plausible 3D architectural canopy models is suggested. The presented reconstruction workflow creates an almost unbiased virtual 3D representation of branch and leaf surface distributions, minimizing systematic errors due to the object–sensor relationship. The models are calibrated and validated using DHPs. Using the 3D models for simulations, their capabilities for the description of leaf density distributions and the simulation of aLiDAR and DHP signatures are shown. At an experimental test site, the suitability of the models, in order to systematically simulate and evaluate aLiDAR based LAI predictions under various scan settings is proven. This strategy makes it possible to show the importance of laser point sampling density, but also the diversity of scan angles and their quantitative effect onto error margins.

  3. 2014 OLC Lidar: Colville, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI, a Quantum Spatial company, has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Colville study area. This study area is...

  4. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Chelan

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Chelan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  5. 2015 OLC Lidar: Okanogan WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Okanogan FEMA study area. This study area is located in...

  6. 2012 USGS Lidar: Juneau (AK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This task order is for planning, acquisition, processing, and derivative products of LiDAR data to be collected for Juneau, Alaska. LiDAR data, and derivative...

  7. UpWind D1. Uncertainties in wind assessment with LIDAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeloew-Marsden, P.

    2009-01-15

    In this report sources influencing wind assessments with lidars are listed and discussed. Comparisons with mast mounted cup anemometers are presented and the magnitudes of the errors from the listed error sources are estimated. Finally an attempt to define uncertainty windows for the current state of the two commercial wind sensing lidars is presented. The results in this report give important feedback on system improvements to manufacturers and an estimation of the current ability for wind farm developers which are potential users. (author)

  8. Hydrographic & Topographic LIDAR Acquisition, Northwest Coast, Washington State - Bathymetric Survey Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data were collected by the SHOALS-1000T(Scanning Hydrographic Operational Airborne Lidar Survey)system which consists of an airborne laser transmitter/receiver...

  9. Model Predictive Control of Wind Turbines using Uncertain LIDAR Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    , we simplify state prediction for the MPC. Consequently, the control problem of the nonlinear system is simplified into a quadratic programming. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation time, which is the traveling time of wind from the LIDAR measurement point to the rotor. An algorithm based......The problem of Model predictive control (MPC) of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) measurements is considered. A nonlinear dynamical model of the wind turbine is obtained. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points, which are determined...... on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, the MPC without error compensation and an MPC with re-linearization at each sample point...

  10. LSNR Airborne LIDAR Mapping System Design and Early Results (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, K.; Carter, W. E.; Slatton, K. C.

    2009-12-01

    Low signal-to-noise ratio (LSNR) detection techniques allow for implementation of airborne light detection and range (LIDAR) instrumentation aboard platforms with prohibitive power, size, and weight restrictions. The University of Florida has developed the Coastal Area Tactical-mapping System (CATS), a prototype LSNR LIDAR system capable of single photon laser ranging. CATS is designed to operate in a fixed-wing aircraft flying 600 m above ground level, producing 532 nm, 480 ps, 3 μJ output pulses at 8 kHz. To achieve continuous coverage of the terrain with 20 cm spatial resolution in a single pass, a 10x10 array of laser beamlets is scanned. A Risley prism scanner (two rotating V-coated optical wedges) allows the array of laser beamlets to be deflected in a variety of patterns, including conical, spiral, and lines at selected angles to the direction of flight. Backscattered laser photons are imaged onto a 100 channel (10x10 segmented-anode) photomultiplier tube (PMT) with a micro-channel plate (MCP) amplifier. Each channel of the PMT is connected to a multi-stop 2 GHz event timer. Here we report on tests in which ranges for known targets were accumulated for repeated laser shots and statistical analyses were applied to evaluate range accuracy, minimum separation distance, bathymetric mapping depth, and atmospheric scattering. Ground-based field test results have yielded 10 cm range accuracy and sub-meter feature identification at variable scan settings. These experiments also show that a secondary surface can be detected at a distance of 15 cm from the first. Range errors in secondary surface identification for six separate trials were within 7.5 cm, or within the timing resolution limit of the system. Operating at multi-photon sensitivity may have value for situations in which high ambient noise precludes single-photon sensitivity. Low reflectivity targets submerged in highly turbid waters can cause detection issues. CATS offers the capability to adjust the

  11. Lidar-based mapping of flood control levees in south Louisiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Lim, Samsung; Palaseanu-Lovejoy, Monica; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.

    2016-01-01

    Flood protection in south Louisiana is largely dependent on earthen levees, and in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina the state’s levee system has received intense scrutiny. Accurate elevation data along the levees are critical to local levee district managers responsible for monitoring and maintaining the extensive system of non-federal levees in coastal Louisiana. In 2012, high resolution airborne lidar data were acquired over levees in Lafourche Parish, Louisiana, and a mobile terrestrial lidar survey was conducted for selected levee segments using a terrestrial lidar scanner mounted on a truck. The mobile terrestrial lidar data were collected to test the feasibility of using this relatively new technology to map flood control levees and to compare the accuracy of the terrestrial and airborne lidar. Metrics assessing levee geometry derived from the two lidar surveys are also presented as an efficient, comprehensive method to quantify levee height and stability. The vertical root mean square error values of the terrestrial lidar and airborne lidar digital-derived digital terrain models were 0.038 m and 0.055 m, respectively. The comparison of levee metrics derived from the airborne and terrestrial lidar-based digital terrain models showed that both types of lidar yielded similar results, indicating that either or both surveying techniques could be used to monitor geomorphic change over time. Because airborne lidar is costly, many parts of the USA and other countries have never been mapped with airborne lidar, and repeat surveys are often not available for change detection studies. Terrestrial lidar provides a practical option for conducting repeat surveys of levees and other terrain features that cover a relatively small area, such as eroding cliffs or stream banks, and dunes.

  12. Aerosol characteristics inversion based on the improved lidar ratio profile with the ground-based rotational Raman-Mie lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hongzhu; Zhang, Yinchao; Chen, Siying; Chen, He; Guo, Pan

    2018-06-01

    An iterative method, based on a derived inverse relationship between atmospheric backscatter coefficient and aerosol lidar ratio, is proposed to invert the lidar ratio profile and aerosol extinction coefficient. The feasibility of this method is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Simulation results show the inversion accuracy of aerosol optical properties for iterative method can be improved in the near-surface aerosol layer and the optical thick layer. Experimentally, as a result of the reduced insufficiency error and incoherence error, the aerosol optical properties with higher accuracy can be obtained in the near-surface region and the region of numerical derivative distortion. In addition, the particle component can be distinguished roughly based on this improved lidar ratio profile.

  13. Measuring Oscillating Walking Paths with a LIDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Palacín

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the analysis of different walking paths registered using a Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR laser range sensor in order to measure oscillating trajectories during unsupervised walking. The estimate of the gait and trajectory parameters were obtained with a terrestrial LIDAR placed 100 mm above the ground with the scanning plane parallel to the floor to measure the trajectory of the legs without attaching any markers or modifying the floor. Three different large walking experiments were performed to test the proposed measurement system with straight and oscillating trajectories. The main advantages of the proposed system are the possibility to measure several steps and obtain average gait parameters and the minimum infrastructure required. This measurement system enables the development of new ambulatory applications based on the analysis of the gait and the trajectory during a walk.

  14. Coaxial direct-detection lidar-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a coaxial direct-detection LIDAR system for measuring velocity, temperature and/or particulate density. The system comprises a laser source for emitting a laser light beam having a lasing center frequency along an emission path. The system further comprises an optical....... Finally, the system comprises a detector system arranged to receive the return signal from the optical delivery system, the detector system comprising a narrowband optical filter and a detector, the narrowband optical filter having a filter center frequency of a pass-band, wherein the center lasing...... frequency and/or the center filter frequency may be scanned. The invention further relates to an aircraft airspeed measurement device, and a wind turbine airspeed measurement device comprising the LIDAR system....

  15. INITIAL TESTS AND ACCURACY ASSESMENT OF A COMPACT MOBILE LASER SCANNING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Julge

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning (MLS is a faster and cost-effective alternative to static laser scanning, even though there is a slight trade-off in accuracy. This contribution describes a compact mobile laser scanning system mounted on a vehicle. The technical parameters of the used system components, i.e. a small LIDAR sensor Velodyne VLP-16 and a dual antenna GNSS/INS system Advanced Navigation Spatial Dual, are reviewed, along with the integration of these components for spatial data acquisition. Calculation principles of 3D coordinates from the real-time data of all the involved sensors are discussed. The field tests were carried out in a controlled environment of a parking lot and at different velocities. Experiments were carried out to test the ability of the GNSS/INS system to cope with difficult conditions, e.g. sudden movements due to cornering or swerving. The accuracy of the resulting MLS point cloud is evaluated with respect to high-accuracy static terrestrial laser scanning data. Problems regarding combining LIDAR, GNSS and INS sensors are outlined, as well as the initial accuracy assessments. Initial tests revealed errors related to insufficient quality of inertial data and a need for the trajectory post-processing calculations. Although this study was carried out while the system was mounted on a car, there is potential for operating the system on an unmanned aerial vehicle, all-terrain vehicle or in a backpack mode due to its relatively compact size.

  16. Initial Tests and Accuracy Assesment of a Compact Mobile Laser Scanning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julge, K.; Ellmann, A.; Vajakas, T.; Kolka, R.

    2016-06-01

    Mobile laser scanning (MLS) is a faster and cost-effective alternative to static laser scanning, even though there is a slight trade-off in accuracy. This contribution describes a compact mobile laser scanning system mounted on a vehicle. The technical parameters of the used system components, i.e. a small LIDAR sensor Velodyne VLP-16 and a dual antenna GNSS/INS system Advanced Navigation Spatial Dual, are reviewed, along with the integration of these components for spatial data acquisition. Calculation principles of 3D coordinates from the real-time data of all the involved sensors are discussed. The field tests were carried out in a controlled environment of a parking lot and at different velocities. Experiments were carried out to test the ability of the GNSS/INS system to cope with difficult conditions, e.g. sudden movements due to cornering or swerving. The accuracy of the resulting MLS point cloud is evaluated with respect to high-accuracy static terrestrial laser scanning data. Problems regarding combining LIDAR, GNSS and INS sensors are outlined, as well as the initial accuracy assessments. Initial tests revealed errors related to insufficient quality of inertial data and a need for the trajectory post-processing calculations. Although this study was carried out while the system was mounted on a car, there is potential for operating the system on an unmanned aerial vehicle, all-terrain vehicle or in a backpack mode due to its relatively compact size.

  17. Monitoring selective logging in western Amazonia with repeat lidar flights

    Science.gov (United States)

    H.E. Andersen; S.E. Reutebuch; R.J. McGaughey; M.V.N. d' Oliveira; M. Keller

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to test the use of repeat flight, airborne laser scanning data (lidar) for estimating changes associated with low-impact selective logging (approx. 10-15 m3 ha−1 = 5-7% of total standing volume harvested) in natural tropical forests in the Western Brazilian Amazon. Specifically, we investigated change in area...

  18. Assessing LiDAR elevation data for KDOT applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    LiDAR-based elevation surveys are a cost-effective means for mapping topography over large areas. LiDAR : surveys use an airplane-mounted or ground-based laser radar unit to scan terrain. Post-processing techniques are : applied to remove vegetation ...

  19. Atmospheric aerosol and gas sensing using Scheimpflug lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Liang; Brydegaard, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    This work presents a new lidar technique for atmospheric remote sensing based on Scheimpflug principle, which describes the relationship between nonparallel image- and object-planes[1]. When a laser beam is transmitted into the atmosphere, the implication is that the backscattering echo of the entire illuminated probe volume can be in focus simultaneously without diminishing the aperture. The range-resolved backscattering echo can be retrieved by using a tilted line scan or two-dimensional CCD/CMOS camera. Rather than employing nanosecond-pulsed lasers, cascade detectors, and MHz signal sampling, all of high cost and complexity, we have developed a robust and inexpensive atmospheric lidar system based on compact laser diodes and array detectors. We present initial applications of the Scheimpflug lidar for atmospheric aerosol monitoring in bright sunlight, with a 3 W, 808 nm CW laser diode. Kilohertz sampling rates are also achieved with applications for wind speed and entomology [2]. Further, a proof-of-principle demonstration of differential absorption lidar (DIAL) based on the Scheimpflug lidar technique is presented [3]. By utilizing a 30 mW narrow band CW laser diode emitting at around 760 nm, the detailed shape of an oxygen absorption line can be resolved remotely with an integration time of 6 s and measurement cycle of 1 minute during night time. The promising results demonstrated in this work show potential for the Scheimpflug lidar technique for remote atmospheric aerosol and gas sensing, and renews hope for robust and realistic instrumentation for atmospheric lidar sensing. [1] F. Blais, "Review of 20 years of range sensor development," Journal of Electronic Imaging, vol. 13, pp. 231-243, Jan 2004. [2] M. Brydegaard, A. Gebru, and S. Svanberg, "Super resolution laser radar with blinking atmospheric particles - application to interacting flying insects " Progress In Electromagnetics Research, vol. 147, pp. 141-151, 2014. [3] L. Mei and M. Brydegaard

  20. Lidar detection of carbon dioxide in volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Santoro, Simone; Parracino, Stefano; Maio, Giovanni; Del Franco, Mario; Aiuppa, Alessandro

    2015-06-01

    Volcanic gases give information on magmatic processes. In particular, anomalous releases of carbon dioxide precede volcanic eruptions. Up to now, this gas has been measured in volcanic plumes with conventional measurements that imply the severe risks of local sampling and can last many hours. For these reasons and for the great advantages of laser sensing, the thorough development of volcanic lidar has been undertaken at the Diagnostics and Metrology Laboratory (UTAPRAD-DIM) of the Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development (ENEA). In fact, lidar profiling allows one to scan remotely volcanic plumes in a fast and continuous way, and with high spatial and temporal resolution. Two differential absorption lidar instruments will be presented in this paper: BILLI (BrIdge voLcanic LIdar), based on injection seeded Nd:YAG laser, double grating dye laser, difference frequency mixing (DFM) and optical parametric amplifier (OPA), and VULLI (VULcamed Lidar), based on injection seeded Nd:YAG laser and optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The first one is funded by the ERC (European Research Council) project BRIDGE and the second one by the ERDF (European Regional Development Fund) project VULCAMED. While VULLI has not yet been tested in a volcanic site, BILLI scanned the gas emitted by Pozzuoli Solfatara (Campi Flegrei volcanic area, Naples, Italy) during a field campaign carried out from 13 to 17 October 2014. Carbon dioxide concentration maps were retrieved remotely in few minutes in the crater area. Lidar measurements were in good agreement with well-established techniques, based on different operating principles. To our knowledge, it is the first time that carbon dioxide in a volcanic plume is retrieved by lidar, representing the first direct measurement of this kind ever performed on an active volcano and showing the high potential of laser remote sensing in geophysical research.

  1. Statistical-uncertainty-based adaptive filtering of lidar signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuehrer, P. L.; Friehe, C. A.; Hristov, T. S.; Cooper, D. I.; Eichinger, W. E.

    2000-01-01

    An adaptive filter signal processing technique is developed to overcome the problem of Raman lidar water-vapor mixing ratio (the ratio of the water-vapor density to the dry-air density) with a highly variable statistical uncertainty that increases with decreasing photomultiplier-tube signal strength and masks the true desired water-vapor structure. The technique, applied to horizontal scans, assumes only statistical horizontal homogeneity. The result is a variable spatial resolution water-vapor signal with a constant variance out to a range limit set by a specified signal-to-noise ratio. The technique was applied to Raman water-vapor lidar data obtained at a coastal pier site together with in situ instruments located 320 m from the lidar. The micrometerological humidity data were used to calibrate the ratio of the lidar gains of the H 2 O and the N 2 photomultiplier tubes and set the water-vapor mixing ratio variance for the adaptive filter. For the coastal experiment the effective limit of the lidar range was found to be approximately 200 m for a maximum noise-to-signal variance ratio of 0.1 with the implemented data-reduction procedure. The technique can be adapted to off-horizontal scans with a small reduction in the constraints and is also applicable to other remote-sensing devices that exhibit the same inherent range-dependent signal-to-noise ratio problem. (c) 2000 Optical Society of America

  2. 2004 Alaska Lidar Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data sets are generated using the OPTECH ALTM 70 kHz LIDAR system mounted onboard AeroMap's twin-engine Cessna 320 aircraft. Classified data sets such as this...

  3. Calibrating nacelle lidars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Courtney, M.

    2013-01-15

    Nacelle mounted, forward looking wind lidars are beginning to be used to provide reference wind speed measurements for the power performance testing of wind turbines. In such applications, a formal calibration procedure with a corresponding uncertainty assessment will be necessary. This report presents four concepts for performing such a nacelle lidar calibration. Of the four methods, two are found to be immediately relevant and are pursued in some detail. The first of these is a line of sight calibration method in which both lines of sight (for a two beam lidar) are individually calibrated by accurately aligning the beam to pass close to a reference wind speed sensor. A testing procedure is presented, reporting requirements outlined and the uncertainty of the method analysed. It is seen that the main limitation of the line of sight calibration method is the time required to obtain a representative distribution of radial wind speeds. An alternative method is to place the nacelle lidar on the ground and incline the beams upwards to bisect a mast equipped with reference instrumentation at a known height and range. This method will be easier and faster to implement and execute but the beam inclination introduces extra uncertainties. A procedure for conducting such a calibration is presented and initial indications of the uncertainties given. A discussion of the merits and weaknesses of the two methods is given together with some proposals for the next important steps to be taken in this work. (Author)

  4. Nacelle lidar power curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Wagner, Rozenn

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  5. Lidar 2009 - IMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — ESRI Grids 1 meter resolution are created from the ground classified lidar points. The tiles are delivered in 5,000m by 5,000m tiles. The ESRI grids are exported to...

  6. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  7. Raman Lidar Measurements During the International H2O Project. 2; Instrument Comparisons and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, D. N.; Demoz, B.; DiGirolamo, P.; Corner, J.; Veselovskii, I.; Evans, K.; Wang, Z.; Sabatino, D.; Schwemmer, G.; Gentry, B.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA/GSFC Scanning Raman Lidar (SRL) participated in the International H2O Project (IHOP) that occurred in May and June, 2002 in the midwestern part of the U. S. The SRL system configuration and methods of data analysis were described in part I of this paper. In this second part, comparisons of SRL water vapor measurements and those of chilled mirror radiosonde and LASE airborne water vapor lidar are performed. Two case studies are presented; one for daytime and one for nighttime. The daytime case study is of a convectively driven boundary layer event and is used to characterize the SRL water vapor random error characteristics. The nighttime case study is of a thunderstorm-generated cirrus cloud case that is studied in it s meteorological context. Upper tropospheric humidification due to precipitation from the cirrus cloud is quantified as is the cirrus cloud ice water content and particle depolarization ratio. These detailed cirrus cloud measurements are being used in a cirrus cloud modeling study.

  8. Windscanner: 3-D wind and turbulence measurements from three steerable doppler lidars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, T; Mann, J; Courtney, M; Sjoeholm, M

    2008-01-01

    At RISOe DTU we has started to build a new-designed laser-based lidar scanning facility for detailed remote measurements of the wind fields engulfing the huge wind turbines of today. Our aim is to measure in real-time 3D wind vector data at several hundred points every second: 1) upstream of the turbine, 2) near the turbine, and 3) in the wakes of the turbine rotors. Our first proto-type Windscanner is now being built from three commercially available Continuous Wave (CW) wind lidars modified with fast adjustable focus length and equipped with 2-D prism-based scan heads, in conjunction with a commercially available pulsed wind lidar for extended vertical profiling range. Design, construction and initial testing of the new 3-D wind lidar scanning facility are described and the functionality of the Windscanner and its potential as a new research facility within the wind energy community is discussed

  9. Four Methods for LIDAR Retrieval of Microscale Wind Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Naini

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates four wind retrieval methods for micro-scale meteorology applications with volume and time resolution in the order of 30m3 and 5 s. Wind field vectors are estimated using sequential time-lapse volume images of aerosol density fluctuations. Suitably designed mono-static scanning backscatter LIDAR systems, which are sensitive to atmospheric density aerosol fluctuations, are expected to be ideal for this purpose. An important application is wind farm siting and evaluation. In this case, it is necessary to look at the complicated region between the earth’s surface and the boundary layer, where wind can be turbulent and fractal scaling from millimeter to kilometer. The methods are demonstrated using first a simple randomized moving hard target, and then with a physics based stochastic space-time dynamic turbulence model. In the latter case the actual vector wind field is known, allowing complete space-time error analysis. Two of the methods, the semblance method and the spatio-temporal method, are found to be most suitable for wind field estimation.

  10. Lidar-based Research and Innovation at DTU Wind Energy - a Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikkelsen, T.

    2014-06-01

    As wind turbines during the past decade have increased in size so have the challenges met by the atmospheric boundary-layer meteorologists and the wind energy society to measure and characterize the huge-volume wind fields surpassing and driving them. At the DTU Wind Energy test site "Østerild" for huge wind turbines, the hub-height of a recently installed 8 MW Vestas V164 turbine soars 143 meters up above the ground, and its rotor of amazing 164 meters in diameter make the turbine tips flicker 225 meters into the sky. Following the revolution in photonics-based telecommunication at the turn of the Millennium new fibre-based wind lidar technologies emerged and DTU Wind Energy, at that time embedded within Rise National Laboratory, began in collaboration with researchers from wind lidar companies to measure remote sensed wind profiles and turbulence structures within the atmospheric boundary layer with the emerging, at that time new, all-fibre-based 1.55 μ coherent detection wind lidars. Today, ten years later, DTU Wind Energy routinely deploys ground-based vertical profilers instead of met masts for high-precision measurements of mean wind profiles and turbulence profiles. At the departments test site "Høvsøre" DTU Wind Energy also routinely calibrate and accredit wind lidar manufactures wind lidars. Meanwhile however, new methodologies for power curve assessment based on ground-based and nacelle based lidars have also emerged. For improving the turbines power curve assessments and for advancing their control with feed-forward wind measurements experience has also been gained with wind lidars installed on turbine nacelles and integrated into the turbines rotating spinners. A new mobile research infrastructure WindScanner.dk has also emerged at DTU Wind Energy. Wind and turbulence fields are today scanned from sets of three simultaneously in space and time synchronized scanning lidars. One set consists of three fast scanning continuous-wave based wind lidars

  11. EARLINET Single Calculus Chain - technical - Part 1: Pre-processing of raw lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Giuseppe; Amodeo, Aldo; Mattis, Ina; Freudenthaler, Volker; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we describe an automatic tool for the pre-processing of aerosol lidar data called ELPP (EARLINET Lidar Pre-Processor). It is one of two calculus modules of the EARLINET Single Calculus Chain (SCC), the automatic tool for the analysis of EARLINET data. ELPP is an open source module that executes instrumental corrections and data handling of the raw lidar signals, making the lidar data ready to be processed by the optical retrieval algorithms. According to the specific lidar configuration, ELPP automatically performs dead-time correction, atmospheric and electronic background subtraction, gluing of lidar signals, and trigger-delay correction. Moreover, the signal-to-noise ratio of the pre-processed signals can be improved by means of configurable time integration of the raw signals and/or spatial smoothing. ELPP delivers the statistical uncertainties of the final products by means of error propagation or Monte Carlo simulations. During the development of ELPP, particular attention has been payed to make the tool flexible enough to handle all lidar configurations currently used within the EARLINET community. Moreover, it has been designed in a modular way to allow an easy extension to lidar configurations not yet implemented. The primary goal of ELPP is to enable the application of quality-assured procedures in the lidar data analysis starting from the raw lidar data. This provides the added value of full traceability of each delivered lidar product. Several tests have been performed to check the proper functioning of ELPP. The whole SCC has been tested with the same synthetic data sets, which were used for the EARLINET algorithm inter-comparison exercise. ELPP has been successfully employed for the automatic near-real-time pre-processing of the raw lidar data measured during several EARLINET inter-comparison campaigns as well as during intense field campaigns.

  12. Models to estimate volume of individual trees by morphometry of crowns obtained with lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evandro Orfanó Figueiredo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The volumetric estimate from digital scanning of the forests through the use of LIDAR increases the precision of forest management techniques in planning tropical forest logging operations. The use of this remote detection technology allows the incorporation of crown morphometric variables which are still little known and little used due to the difficulty of collecting field data for volume equations. The objective of this study was to build equations capable of estimating the stem volume of dominant and codominant individual trees from the crown's morphometry obtained by airborne LIDAR, considering two forest inventory situations: a with the collection of diameter at breast height (DBH, and crown morphometric variables obtained from LIDAR data and b using only the crown morphometry variables. For the selection of models the factors considered were: the correlation matrix of predictor variables and the combination of variables that generates the best results by statistical criteria Syx, Syx(% and Pressp, and that were homoscedastic and had a normal and independent distribution of errors. The influence analysis was performed for the best equations. The results for the statistical fit of the equations to the two situations allowed the selection of models with and without DBH, with R2aj.( % values of a 92.92 and b 79.44, Syx(% values of a 16.73 and b 27.47, and, Pressp criterion values of a 201.15 m6 and b 537.47 m6, respectively. Through morphometric variables it was possible to develop equations capable of accurately estimating the stem volume of dominant and codominant trees in tropical forests.

  13. Laser scanning of a recirculation zone on the Bolund escarpment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Angelou, Nikolas; Sjöholm, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Rapid variations in the height of the recirculation zone are measured with a scanning wind lidar over a small escarpment on the Bolund Peninsula. The lidar is essentially a continuous-wave laser Doppler anemometer with the capability of rapidly changing the focus distance and the beam direction....... The instrument measures the line-ofsight velocity 390 times per second and scans ten wind profiles from the ground up to seven meters per second. The results will be used to test computational fluid dynamics models for flow over terrain, and has relevance for wind energy. The development of multiple lidar...

  14. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Wasco, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Wasco County, WA, study area. The Oregon LiDAR Consortium's Wasco County...

  15. 2006 MDEQ Camp Shelby, MS Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the acquisition and processing of bare earth lidar data, raw point cloud lidar data, lidar intensity data, and floodmap breaklines...

  16. Novel Methods for Measuring LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrey, E.; Hayes, D. J.; Fraver, S.; Weiskittel, A.; Cook, B.; Kershaw, J.

    2017-12-01

    The estimation of forest biometrics from airborne LiDAR data has become invaluable for quantifying forest carbon stocks, forest and wildlife ecology research, and sustainable forest management. The area-based approach is arguably the most common method for developing enhanced forest inventories from LiDAR. It involves taking a series of vertical height measurements of the point cloud, then using those measurements with field measured data to develop predictive models. Unfortunately, there is considerable variation in methodology for collecting point cloud data, which can vary in pulse density, seasonality, canopy penetrability, and instrument specifications. Today there exists a wealth of public LiDAR data, however the variation in acquisition parameters makes forest inventory prediction by traditional means unreliable across the different datasets. The goal of this project is to test a series of novel point cloud measurements developed along a conceptual spectrum of human interpretability, and then to use the best measurements to develop regional enhanced forest inventories on Northern New England's and Atlantic Canada's public LiDAR. Similarly to a field-based inventory, individual tree crowns are being segmented, and summary statistics are being used as covariates. Established competition and structural indices are being generated using each tree's relationship to one another, whilst existing allometric equations are being used to estimate diameter and biomass of each tree measured in the LiDAR. Novel metrics measuring light interception, clusteredness, and rugosity are also being measured as predictors. On the other end of the human interpretability spectrum, convolutional neural networks are being employed to directly measure both the canopy height model, and the point clouds by scanning each using two and three dimensional kernals trained to identify features useful for predicting biological attributes such as biomass. Predictive models will be trained and

  17. Imaging doppler lidar for wind turbine wake profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bossert, David J.

    2015-11-19

    An imaging Doppler lidar (IDL) enables the measurement of the velocity distribution of a large volume, in parallel, and at high spatial resolution in the wake of a wind turbine. Because the IDL is non-scanning, it can be orders of magnitude faster than conventional coherent lidar approaches. Scattering can be obtained from naturally occurring aerosol particles. Furthermore, the wind velocity can be measured directly from Doppler shifts of the laser light, so the measurement can be accomplished at large standoff and at wide fields-of-view.

  18. CHARACTERIZING URBAN VOLUMETRY USING LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Santos

    2013-05-01

    Most common metrics are based on area (2D measurements. These include indicators like impervious area per capita or surface occupied by green areas, having usually as primary source a spectral image obtained through a satellite or airborne camera. More recently, laser scanning data has become available for large-scale applications. Such sensors acquire altimetric information and are used to produce Digital Surface Models (DSM. In this context, LiDAR data available for the city is explored along with demographic information, and a framework to produce volumetric (3D urban indexes is proposed, and measures like Built Volume per capita, Volumetric Density and Volumetric Homogeneity are computed.

  19. Lidar: air pollution applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collis, R.T.H.

    1977-01-01

    This introduction to the use of lidar in air pollution applications is mainly concerned with its capability to detect and monitor atmospheric particulates by elastic backscattering. Even when quite imperceptible to the eye, such particulates may be detected at ranges of several kilometers even by lidars of modest performance. This capability is valuable in connection with air pollution in the following ways: by mapping and tracking inhomogeneities in particulate concentration, atmospheric structure and motion may be monitored; measurements of the optical properties of the atmosphere provide an indication of turbidity or of particulate number or mass concentrations; and the capability of obtaining at a single point return signals from remote atmospheric volumes makes it possible to make range-resolved measurements of gaseous concentration along the path by using the resonant absorption of energy of appropriate wavelengths

  20. Challenges in miniaturized automotive long-range lidar system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fersch, Thomas; Weigel, Robert; Koelpin, Alexander

    2017-05-01

    This paper discusses the current technical limitations posed on endeavors to miniaturize lidar systems for use in automotive applications and how to possibly extend those limits. The focus is set on long-range scanning direct time of flight LiDAR systems using APD photodetectors. Miniaturization evokes severe problems in ensuring absolute laser safety while maintaining the systems' performance in terms of maximum range, signal-to-noise ratio, detection probability, pixel density, or frame rate. Based on hypothetical but realistic specifications for an exemplary system the complete lidar signal path is calculated. The maximum range of the system is used as a general performance indicator. It is determined with the minimum signal-to-noise ratio required to detect an object. Various system parameters are varied to find their impact on the system's range. The reduction of the laser's pulse width and the right choice for the transimpedance amplifier's amplification have shown to be practicable measures to double the system's range.

  1. Advances and perspectives in bathymetry by airborne lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoqing; Wang, Chenxi; Li, Mingyan; Wang, Yuefeng; Ye, Siqi; Han, Caiyun

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the history of the airborne lidar and the development stages of the technology are reviewed. The basic principle of airborne lidar and the method of processing point-cloud data were discussed. At present, single point laser scanning method is widely used in bathymetric survey. Although the method has high ranging accuracy, the data processing and hardware system is too much complicated and expensive. For this reason, this paper present a kind of improved dual-frequency method for bathymetric and sea surface survey, in this method 176 units of 1064nm wavelength laser has been used by push-broom scanning and due to the airborne power limits still use 532nm wavelength single point for bathymetric survey by zigzag scanning. We establish a spatial coordinates for obtaining the WGS-84 of point cloud by using airborne POS system.

  2. Comparisons of Simultaneously Acquired Airborne Sfm Photogrammetry and Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, C. F.

    2014-12-01

    Digital elevation models (DEMs) created using images from a consumer DSLR camera are compared against simultaneously acquired LiDAR on a number of airborne mapping projects across Alaska, California and Utah. The aircraft used is a Cessna 180, and is equipped with the University of Alaska Geophysical Institute (UAF-GI) scanning airborne LiDAR system. This LiDAR is the same as described in Johnson et al, 2013, and is the principal instrument used for NASA's Operation IceBridge flights in Alaska. The system has been in extensive use since 2009, and is particularly well characterized with dozens of calibration flights and a careful program of boresight angle determination and monitoring. The UAF-GI LiDAR has a precision of +/- 8 cm and accuracy of +/- 15 cm. The photogrammetry DEM simultaneously acquired with the LiDAR relies on precise shutter timing using an event marker input to the IMU associated with the LiDAR system. The photo positions are derived from the fully coupled GPS/IMU processing, which samples at 100 Hz and is able to directly calculate the antenna to image plane offset displacements from the full orientation data. This use of the GPS/IMU solution means that both the LiDAR and Cessna 180 photogrammetry DEM share trajectory input data, however no orientation data nor ground control is used for the photorammetry processing. The photogrammetry DEMs are overlaid on the LiDAR point cloud and analyzed for horizontal shifts or warps relative to the LiDAR. No warping or horizontal shifts have been detectable for a number of photogrammetry DEMs. Vertical offsets range from +/- 30 cm, with a typical standard deviation about that mean of 10 cm or better. LiDAR and photogrammetry function inherently differently over trees and brush, and direct comparisons between the two methods show much larger differences over vegetated areas. Finally, the differences in flight patterns associated with the two methods will be discussed, highlighting the photogrammetry

  3. Mapping Above- and Below-Ground Carbon Pools in Boreal Forests: The Case for Airborne Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, Terje; Næsset, Erik; Ohlson, Mikael; Bolstad, Paul V; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    A large and growing body of evidence has demonstrated that airborne scanning light detection and ranging (lidar) systems can be an effective tool in measuring and monitoring above-ground forest tree biomass. However, the potential of lidar as an all-round tool for assisting in assessment of carbon (C) stocks in soil and non-tree vegetation components of the forest ecosystem has been given much less attention. Here we combine the use airborne small footprint scanning lidar with fine-scale spatial C data relating to vegetation and the soil surface to describe and contrast the size and spatial distribution of C pools within and among multilayered Norway spruce (Picea abies) stands. Predictor variables from lidar derived metrics delivered precise models of above- and below-ground tree C, which comprised the largest C pool in our study stands. We also found evidence that lidar canopy data correlated well with the variation in field layer C stock, consisting mainly of ericaceous dwarf shrubs and herbaceous plants. However, lidar metrics derived directly from understory echoes did not yield significant models. Furthermore, our results indicate that the variation in both the mosses and soil organic layer C stock plots appears less influenced by differences in stand structure properties than topographical gradients. By using topographical models from lidar ground returns we were able to establish a strong correlation between lidar data and the organic layer C stock at a stand level. Increasing the topographical resolution from plot averages (~2000 m2) towards individual grid cells (1 m2) did not yield consistent models. Our study demonstrates a connection between the size and distribution of different forest C pools and models derived from airborne lidar data, providing a foundation for future research concerning the use of lidar for assessing and monitoring boreal forest C.

  4. Development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar for measuring middle atmosphere winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunath, K.; Patra, A. K.; Narayana Rao, D.

    Interpretation of most of the middle and upper atmospheric dynamical and chemical data relies on the climatological description of the wind field Rayleigh Doppler lidar is one instrument which monitors wind profiles continuously though continuity is limited to clear meteorological conditions in the middle atmosphere A Doppler wind lidar operating in incoherent mode gives excellent wind and temperature information at these altitudes with necessary spectral sensitivity It observes atmospheric winds by measuring the spectral shift of the scattered light due to the motions of atmospheric molecules with background winds and temperature by spectral broadening The presentation is about the design and development of Incoherent Doppler lidar to obtain wind information in the height regions of 30-65 km The paper analyses and describes various types of techniques that can be adopted viz Edge technique and Fringe Imaging technique The paper brings out the scientific objectives configuration simulations error sources and technical challenges involved in the development of Rayleigh Doppler lidar The presentation also gives a novel technique for calibrating the lidar

  5. Comparison of Two Independent LIDAR-Based Pitch Control Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunne, F.; Schlipf, D.; Pao, L. Y.

    2012-08-01

    Two different lidar-based feedforward controllers have previously been designed for the NREL 5 MW wind turbine model under separate studies. Feedforward controller A uses a finite-impulse-response design, with 5 seconds of preview, and three rotating lidar measurements. Feedforward controller B uses a static-gain design, with the preview time defined by the pitch actuator dynamics, a simulation of a real nacelle-based scanning lidar system, and a lowpass filter defined by the lidar configuration. These controllers are now directly compared under the same lidar configuration, in terms of fatigue load reduction, rotor speed regulation, and power capture. The various differences in design choices are discussed and compared. We also compare frequency plots of individual pitch feedforward and collective pitch feedforward load reductions, and we see that individual pitch feedforward is effective mainly at the once-per-revolution and twice-per-revolution frequencies. We also explain how to determine the required preview time by breaking it down into separate parts, and we then compare it to the expected preview time available.

  6. Lidar system for air-pollution monitoring over urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalenko, Irina V.; Shcheglov, Djolinard A.; Molodtsov, Nikolai A.

    1997-05-01

    The atmospheric environmental situation over the urban area of a large city is determined by a complex combination of anthropogenic pollution and meteorological factors. The efficient way to provide three-dimensional mapping of gaseous pollutants over wide areas is utilization of lidar systems employing tunable narrowband transmitters. The paper presented describes activity of RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' in the field of lidar atmospheric monitoring. The project 'mobile remote sensing system based on tunable laser transmitter for environmental monitoring' is developed under financial support of International Scientific and Technology Center (Moscow). The objective of the project is design, construction and field testing of a DIAL-technique system. The lidar transmitter consists of an excimer laser pumping dye laser, BBO crystal frequency doubler, and scanning flat mirror. Sulfur dioxide and atomic mercury have been selected as pollutants for field tests of the lidar system under development. A recent large increase in Moscow traffic stimulated taking into consideration also the remote sensing of lower troposphere ozone because of the photochemical smog problem. The status of the project is briefly discussed. The current activity includes also collecting of environmental data relevant to lidar remote sensing. Main attention is paid to pollutant concentration levels over Moscow city and Moscow district areas.

  7. Measurement of Spray Drift with a Specifically Designed Lidar System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorio, Eduard; Torrent, Xavier; Planas de Martí, Santiago; Solanelles, Francesc; Sanz, Ricardo; Rocadenbosch, Francesc; Masip, Joan; Ribes-Dasi, Manel; Rosell-Polo, Joan R

    2016-04-08

    Field measurements of spray drift are usually carried out by passive collectors and tracers. However, these methods are labour- and time-intensive and only provide point- and time-integrated measurements. Unlike these methods, the light detection and ranging (lidar) technique allows real-time measurements, obtaining information with temporal and spatial resolution. Recently, the authors have developed the first eye-safe lidar system specifically designed for spray drift monitoring. This prototype is based on a 1534 nm erbium-doped glass laser and an 80 mm diameter telescope, has scanning capability, and is easily transportable. This paper presents the results of the first experimental campaign carried out with this instrument. High coefficients of determination (R² > 0.85) were observed by comparing lidar measurements of the spray drift with those obtained by horizontal collectors. Furthermore, the lidar system allowed an assessment of the drift reduction potential (DRP) when comparing low-drift nozzles with standard ones, resulting in a DRP of 57% (preliminary result) for the tested nozzles. The lidar system was also used for monitoring the evolution of the spray flux over the canopy and to generate 2-D images of these plumes. The developed instrument is an advantageous alternative to passive collectors and opens the possibility of new methods for field measurement of spray drift.

  8. Statistical correction of lidar-derived digital elevation models with multispectral airborne imagery in tidal marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Kevin J.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Thorne, Karen M.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) is a valuable tool for collecting large amounts of elevation data across large areas; however, the limited ability to penetrate dense vegetation with lidar hinders its usefulness for measuring tidal marsh platforms. Methods to correct lidar elevation data are available, but a reliable method that requires limited field work and maintains spatial resolution is lacking. We present a novel method, the Lidar Elevation Adjustment with NDVI (LEAN), to correct lidar digital elevation models (DEMs) with vegetation indices from readily available multispectral airborne imagery (NAIP) and RTK-GPS surveys. Using 17 study sites along the Pacific coast of the U.S., we achieved an average root mean squared error (RMSE) of 0.072 m, with a 40–75% improvement in accuracy from the lidar bare earth DEM. Results from our method compared favorably with results from three other methods (minimum-bin gridding, mean error correction, and vegetation correction factors), and a power analysis applying our extensive RTK-GPS dataset showed that on average 118 points were necessary to calibrate a site-specific correction model for tidal marshes along the Pacific coast. By using available imagery and with minimal field surveys, we showed that lidar-derived DEMs can be adjusted for greater accuracy while maintaining high (1 m) resolution.

  9. Four-wavelength lidar evaluation of particle characteristics and aerosol densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthe, E. E.; Livingston, J. M.; Delateur, S. A.; Nielsen, N. B.

    1985-06-01

    The SRI International four-wavelength (0.53, 1.06, 3.8, 10.6 micron) lidar systems was used during the SNOW-ONE-B and Smoke Week XI/SNOW-TWO field experiments to validate its capabilities in assessing obscurant optical and physical properties. The lidar viewed along a horizontal path terminated by a passive reflector. Data examples were analyzed in terms of time-dependent transmission, wavelength dependence of optical depth, and range-resolved extinction coefficients. Three methods were used to derive extinction data from the lidar signatures. These were target method, Klett method and experimental data method. The results of the field and analysis programs are reported in the journal and conference papers that are appended to this report, and include: comparison study of lidar extinction methods, submitted to applied optics, error analysis of lidar solution techniques for range-resolved extinction coefficients based on observational data, smoke/obscurants symposium 9, Four--Wavelength Lidar Measurements from smoke week 6/SNOW-TWO, smoke/obscurants symposium 8, SNOW-ONE-B multiple-wavelength lidar measurements. Snow symposium 3, and lidar applications for obscurant evaluations, smoke/obscurants Symposium 7. The report also provides a summary of background work leading to this project, and of project results.

  10. Let’s agree on the casing of Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deering, Carol; Stoker, Jason M.

    2014-01-01

    Is it lidar, Lidar, LiDAR, LIDAR, LiDar, LiDaR, or liDAR? A comprehensive review of the scientific/technical literature reveals seven different casings of this short form for light detection and ranging. And there could be more.

  11. Remote sensing of Sonoran Desert vegetation structure and phenology with ground-based LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankey, Joel B.; Munson, Seth M.; Webb, Robert H.; Wallace, Cynthia S.A.; Duran, Cesar M.

    2015-01-01

    Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  12. 2006 Fulton County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) LAS dataset is a survey of Fulton County. The Fulton County LiDAR Survey project area consists of approximately 690.5 square...

  13. Optimization of eyesafe avalanche photodiode lidar for automobile safety and autonomous navigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, George M.

    2017-03-01

    Newly emerging accident-reducing, driver-assistance, and autonomous-navigation technology for automobiles is based on real-time three-dimensional mapping and object detection, tracking, and classification using lidar sensors. Yet, the lack of lidar sensors suitable for meeting application requirements appreciably limits practical widespread use of lidar in trucking, public livery, consumer cars, and fleet automobiles. To address this need, a system-engineering perspective to eyesafe lidar-system design for high-level advanced driver-assistance sensor systems and a design trade study including 1.5-μm spot-scanned, line-scanned, and flash-lidar systems are presented. A cost-effective lidar instrument design is then proposed based on high-repetition-rate diode-pumped solid-state lasers and high-gain, low-excess-noise InGaAs avalanche photodiode receivers and focal plane arrays. Using probabilistic receiver-operating-characteristic analysis, derived from measured component performance, a compact lidar system is proposed that is capable of 220 m ranging with 5-cm accuracy, which can be readily scaled to a 360-deg field of regard.

  14. LiDAR Vegetation Investigation and Signature Analysis System (LVISA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Koenig, Kristina; Griesbaum, Luisa; Kiefer, Andreas; Hämmerle, Martin; Eitel, Jan; Koma, Zsófia

    2015-04-01

    Our physical environment undergoes constant changes in space and time with strongly varying triggers, frequencies, and magnitudes. Monitoring these environmental changes is crucial to improve our scientific understanding of complex human-environmental interactions and helps us to respond to environmental change by adaptation or mitigation. The three-dimensional (3D) description of the Earth surface features and the detailed monitoring of surface processes using 3D spatial data have gained increasing attention within the last decades, such as in climate change research (e.g., glacier retreat), carbon sequestration (e.g., forest biomass monitoring), precision agriculture and natural hazard management. In all those areas, 3D data have helped to improve our process understanding by allowing quantifying the structural properties of earth surface features and their changes over time. This advancement has been fostered by technological developments and increased availability of 3D sensing systems. In particular, LiDAR (light detection and ranging) technology, also referred to as laser scanning, has made significant progress and has evolved into an operational tool in environmental research and geosciences. The main result of LiDAR measurements is a highly spatially resolved 3D point cloud. Each point within the LiDAR point cloud has a XYZ coordinate associated with it and often additional information such as the strength of the returned backscatter. The point cloud provided by LiDAR contains rich geospatial, structural, and potentially biochemical information about the surveyed objects. To deal with the inherently unorganized datasets and the large data volume (frequently millions of XYZ coordinates) of LiDAR datasets, a multitude of algorithms for automatic 3D object detection (e.g., of single trees) and physical surface description (e.g., biomass) have been developed. However, so far the exchange of datasets and approaches (i.e., extraction algorithms) among LiDAR users

  15. Error Patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoede, C.; Li, Z.

    2001-01-01

    In coding theory the problem of decoding focuses on error vectors. In the simplest situation code words are $(0,1)$-vectors, as are the received messages and the error vectors. Comparison of a received word with the code words yields a set of error vectors. In deciding on the original code word,

  16. Application of short-range dual-Doppler lidars to evaluate the coherence of turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheynet, Etienne; Jakobsen, Jasna Bogunović; Snæbjörnsson, Jónas

    2016-01-01

    Two synchronized continuous wave scanning lidars are used to study the coherence of the along-wind and across-wind velocity components. The goal is to evaluate the potential of the lidar technology for application in wind engineering. The wind lidars were installed on the Lysefjord Bridge during...... four days in May 2014 to monitor the wind field in the horizontal plane upstream of the bridge deck. Wind records obtained by five sonic anemometers mounted on the West side of the bridge are used as reference data. Single- and two-point statistics of wind turbulence are studied, with special emphasis...

  17. Three-beam aerosol backscatter correlation lidar for wind profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Radhakrishnan Mylapore, Anand

    2017-03-01

    The development of a three-beam aerosol backscatter correlation (ABC) light detection and ranging (lidar) to measure wind characteristics for wake vortex and plume tracking applications is discussed. This is a direct detection elastic lidar that uses three laser transceivers, operating at 1030-nm wavelength with ˜10-kHz pulse repetition frequency and nanosec class pulse widths, to directly obtain three components of wind velocities. By tracking the motion of aerosol structures along and between three near-parallel laser beams, three-component wind speed profiles along the field-of-view of laser beams are obtained. With three 8-in. transceiver modules, placed in a near-parallel configuration on a two-axis pan-tilt scanner, the lidar measures wind speeds up to 2 km away. Optical flow algorithms have been adapted to obtain the movement of aerosol structures between the beams. Aerosol density fluctuations are cross-correlated between successive scans to obtain the displacements of the aerosol features along the three axes. Using the range resolved elastic backscatter data from each laser beam, which is scanned over the volume of interest, a three-dimensional map of aerosol density can be generated in a short time span. The performance of the ABC wind lidar prototype, validated using sonic anemometer measurements, is discussed.

  18. Making lidar more photogenic: creating band combinations from lidar information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Jason M.

    2010-01-01

    Over the past five to ten years the use and applicability of light detection and ranging (lidar) technology has increased dramatically. As a result, an almost exponential amount of lidar data is being collected across the country for a wide range of applications, and it is currently the technology of choice for high resolution terrain model creation, 3-dimensional city and infrastructure modeling, forestry and a wide range of scientific applications (Lin and Mills, 2010). The amount of data that is being delivered across the country is impressive. For example, the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Center for Lidar Information Coordination and Knowledge (CLICK), which is a National repository of USGS and partner lidar point cloud datasets (Stoker et al., 2006), currently has 3.5 percent of the United States covered by lidar, and has approximately another 5 percent in the processing queue. The majority of data being collected by the commercial sector are from discrete-return systems, which collect billions of lidar points in an average project. There are also a lot of discussions involving a potential National-scale Lidar effort (Stoker et al., 2008).

  19. Balloonborne lidar experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Brooke, R. W.; Hurd, A. G.

    1980-12-01

    The object of this contract was to design a balloonborne lidar experiment capable of performing nightime atmospheric density measurements in the 10 to 40 km altitude domain with a resolution of 100 meters. The payload includes a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser with outputs at 353 and 1064 nm, a telescoped receiver with PMT detectors, a command-controlled optical pointing system, and support systems, including thermal control, telemetry, command, and power. Density measurements would be made using the back-scattered 353 nm radiation data with aerosol corrections obtained from 1064 nm radiation scatterings.

  20. Compressive full waveform lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiyi; Ke, Jun

    2017-05-01

    To avoid high bandwidth detector, fast speed A/D converter, and large size memory disk, a compressive full waveform LIDAR system, which uses a temporally modulated laser instead of a pulsed laser, is studied in this paper. Full waveform data from NEON (National Ecological Observatory Network) are used. Random binary patterns are used to modulate the source. To achieve 0.15 m ranging resolution, a 100 MSPS A/D converter is assumed to make measurements. SPIRAL algorithm with canonical basis is employed when Poisson noise is considered in the low illuminated condition.

  1. Raster Vs. Point Cloud LiDAR Data Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ashmawy, N.; Shaker, A.

    2014-09-01

    Airborne Laser Scanning systems with light detection and ranging (LiDAR) technology is one of the fast and accurate 3D point data acquisition techniques. Generating accurate digital terrain and/or surface models (DTM/DSM) is the main application of collecting LiDAR range data. Recently, LiDAR range and intensity data have been used for land cover classification applications. Data range and Intensity, (strength of the backscattered signals measured by the LiDAR systems), are affected by the flying height, the ground elevation, scanning angle and the physical characteristics of the objects surface. These effects may lead to uneven distribution of point cloud or some gaps that may affect the classification process. Researchers have investigated the conversion of LiDAR range point data to raster image for terrain modelling. Interpolation techniques have been used to achieve the best representation of surfaces, and to fill the gaps between the LiDAR footprints. Interpolation methods are also investigated to generate LiDAR range and intensity image data for land cover classification applications. In this paper, different approach has been followed to classifying the LiDAR data (range and intensity) for land cover mapping. The methodology relies on the classification of the point cloud data based on their range and intensity and then converted the classified points into raster image. The gaps in the data are filled based on the classes of the nearest neighbour. Land cover maps are produced using two approaches using: (a) the conventional raster image data based on point interpolation; and (b) the proposed point data classification. A study area covering an urban district in Burnaby, British Colombia, Canada, is selected to compare the results of the two approaches. Five different land cover classes can be distinguished in that area: buildings, roads and parking areas, trees, low vegetation (grass), and bare soil. The results show that an improvement of around 10 % in the

  2. Pulsed Airborne Lidar Measurements of C02 Column Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Allan, Graham R.; Weaver, Clark J.; Mao, Jianping; Sun, Xiaoli; Hasselbrack, William E.; Rodriquez, Michael; Browell, Edward V.

    2011-01-01

    We report on airborne lidar measurements of atmospheric CO2 column density for an approach being developed as a candidate for NASA's ASCENDS mission. It uses a pulsed dual-wavelength lidar measurement based on the integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) technique. We demonstrated the approach using the CO2 measurement from aircraft in July and August 2009 over four locations. The results show clear CO2 line shape and absorption signals, which follow the expected changes with aircraft altitude from 3 to 13 km. The 2009 measurements have been analyzed in detail and the results show approx.1 ppm random errors for 8-10 km altitudes and approx.30 sec averaging times. Airborne measurements were also made in 2010 with stronger signals and initial analysis shows approx. 0.3 ppm random errors for 80 sec averaging times for measurements at altitudes> 6 km.

  3. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  4. Probabilistic change mapping from airborne LiDAR for post-disaster damage assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, A.; Runyon, S. C.; Kruse, F. A.

    2013-12-01

    When both pre- and post-event LiDAR point clouds are available, change detection can be performed to identify areas that were most affected by a disaster event, and to obtain a map of quantitative changes in terms of height differences. In the case of earthquakes in built-up areas for instance, first responders can use a LiDAR change map to help prioritize search and recovery efforts. The main challenge consists of producing reliable change maps, robust to collection conditions, free of processing artifacts (due for instance to triangulation or gridding), and taking into account the various sources of uncertainty. Indeed, datasets acquired within a few years interval are often of different point density (sometimes an order of magnitude higher for recent data), different acquisition geometries, and very likely suffer from georeferencing errors and geometric discrepancies. All these differences might not be important for producing maps from each dataset separately, but they are crucial when performing change detection. We have developed a novel technique for the estimation of uncertainty maps from the LiDAR point clouds, using Bayesian inference, treating all variables as random. The main principle is to grid all points on a common grid before attempting any comparison, as working directly with point clouds is cumbersome and time consuming. A non-parametric approach based on local linear regression was implemented, assuming a locally linear model for the surface. This enabled us to derive error bars on gridded elevations, and then elevation differences. In this way, a map of statistically significant changes could be computed - whereas a deterministic approach would not allow testing of the significance of differences between the two datasets. This approach allowed us to take into account not only the observation noise (due to ranging, position and attitude errors) but also the intrinsic roughness of the observed surfaces occurring when scanning vegetation. As only

  5. Operator errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knuefer; Lindauer

    1980-01-01

    Besides that at spectacular events a combination of component failure and human error is often found. Especially the Rasmussen-Report and the German Risk Assessment Study show for pressurised water reactors that human error must not be underestimated. Although operator errors as a form of human error can never be eliminated entirely, they can be minimized and their effects kept within acceptable limits if a thorough training of personnel is combined with an adequate design of the plant against accidents. Contrary to the investigation of engineering errors, the investigation of human errors has so far been carried out with relatively small budgets. Intensified investigations in this field appear to be a worthwhile effort. (orig.)

  6. Automatic recognition of smoke-plume signatures in lidar signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utkin, Andrei B.; Lavrov, Alexander; Vilar, Rui

    2008-10-01

    A simple and robust algorithm for lidar-signal classification based on the fast extraction of sufficiently pronounced peaks and their recognition with a perceptron, whose efficiency is enhanced by a fast nonlinear preprocessing that increases the signal dimension, is reported. The method allows smoke-plume recognition with an error rate as small as 0.31% (19 misdetections and 4 false alarms in analyzing a test set of 7409 peaks).

  7. Prediction of Canopy Heights over a Large Region Using Heterogeneous Lidar Datasets: Efficacy and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjith Gopalakrishnan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generating accurate and unbiased wall-to-wall canopy height maps from airborne lidar data for large regions is useful to forest scientists and natural resource managers. However, mapping large areas often involves using lidar data from different projects, with varying acquisition parameters. In this work, we address the important question of whether one can accurately model canopy heights over large areas of the Southeastern US using a very heterogeneous dataset of small-footprint, discrete-return airborne lidar data (with 76 separate lidar projects. A unique aspect of this effort is the use of nationally uniform and extensive field data (~1800 forested plots from the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA program of the US Forest Service. Preliminary results are quite promising: Over all lidar projects, we observe a good correlation between the 85th percentile of lidar heights and field-measured height (r = 0.85. We construct a linear regression model to predict subplot-level dominant tree heights from distributional lidar metrics (R2 = 0.74, RMSE = 3.0 m, n = 1755. We also identify and quantify the importance of several factors (like heterogeneity of vegetation, point density, the predominance of hardwoods or softwoods, the average height of the forest stand, slope of the plot, and average scan angle of lidar acquisition that influence the efficacy of predicting canopy heights from lidar data. For example, a subset of plots (coefficient of variation of vegetation heights <0.2 significantly reduces the RMSE of our model from 3.0–2.4 m (~20% reduction. We conclude that when all these elements are factored into consideration, combining data from disparate lidar projects does not preclude robust estimation of canopy heights.

  8. 2012 Oregon Lidar Consortium (OLC) Lidar DEM: Keno (OR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon Keno Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

  9. 2012 Oregon Lidar Consortium (OLC) Lidar: Keno (OR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon Keno Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral...

  10. Cotton phenotyping with lidar from a track-mounted platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Andrew N.; Gore, Michael A.; Thompson, Alison

    2016-05-01

    High-Throughput Phenotyping (HTP) is a discipline for rapidly identifying plant architectural and physiological responses to environmental factors such as heat and water stress. Experiments conducted since 2010 at Maricopa, Arizona with a three-fold sensor group, including thermal infrared radiometers, active visible/near infrared reflectance sensors, and acoustic plant height sensors, have shown the validity of HTP with a tractor-based system. However, results from these experiments also show that accuracy of plant phenotyping is limited by the system's inability to discriminate plant components and their local environmental conditions. This limitation may be overcome with plant imaging and laser scanning which can help map details in plant architecture and sunlit/shaded leaves. To test the capability for mapping cotton plants with a laser system, a track-mounted platform was deployed in 2015 over a full canopy and defoliated cotton crop consisting of a scanning LIDAR driven by Arduinocontrolled stepper motors. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at 0.1 m/s while collecting LIDAR scans at 25 Hz (0.1667 deg. beam). These tests showed that an autonomous LIDAR platform can reduce HTP logistical problems and provide the capability to accurately map cotton plants and cotton bolls. A prototype track-mounted platform was developed to test the use of LIDAR scanning for High- Throughput Phenotyping (HTP). The platform was deployed in 2015 at Maricopa, Arizona over a senescent cotton crop. Using custom Python and Tkinter code, the platform moved autonomously along a pipe-track at cotton bolls.

  11. Open quantum systems and error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani Barzegar, Alireza

    Quantum effects can be harnessed to manipulate information in a desired way. Quantum systems which are designed for this purpose are suffering from harming interaction with their surrounding environment or inaccuracy in control forces. Engineering different methods to combat errors in quantum devices are highly demanding. In this thesis, I focus on realistic formulations of quantum error correction methods. A realistic formulation is the one that incorporates experimental challenges. This thesis is presented in two sections of open quantum system and quantum error correction. Chapters 2 and 3 cover the material on open quantum system theory. It is essential to first study a noise process then to contemplate methods to cancel its effect. In the second chapter, I present the non-completely positive formulation of quantum maps. Most of these results are published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2009b,a], except a subsection on geometric characterization of positivity domain of a quantum map. The real-time formulation of the dynamics is the topic of the third chapter. After introducing the concept of Markovian regime, A new post-Markovian quantum master equation is derived, published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2005a]. The section of quantum error correction is presented in three chapters of 4, 5, 6 and 7. In chapter 4, we introduce a generalized theory of decoherence-free subspaces and subsystems (DFSs), which do not require accurate initialization (published in [Shabani and Lidar, 2005b]). In Chapter 5, we present a semidefinite program optimization approach to quantum error correction that yields codes and recovery procedures that are robust against significant variations in the noise channel. Our approach allows us to optimize the encoding, recovery, or both, and is amenable to approximations that significantly improve computational cost while retaining fidelity (see [Kosut et al., 2008] for a published version). Chapter 6 is devoted to a theory of quantum error correction (QEC

  12. Further Studies of Forest Structure Parameter Retrievals Using the Echidna® Ground-Based Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strahler, A. H.; Yao, T.; Zhao, F.; Yang, X.; Schaaf, C.; Wang, Z.; Li, Z.; Woodcock, C. E.; Culvenor, D.; Jupp, D.; Newnham, G.; Lovell, J.

    2012-12-01

    Ongoing work with the Echidna® Validation Instrument (EVI), a full-waveform, ground-based scanning lidar (1064 nm) developed by Australia's CSIRO and deployed by Boston University in California conifers (2008) and New England hardwood and softwood (conifer) stands (2007, 2009, 2010), confirms the importance of slope correction in forest structural parameter retrieval; detects growth and disturbance over periods of 2-3 years; provides a new way to measure the between-crown clumping factor in leaf area index retrieval using lidar range; and retrieves foliage profiles with more lower-canopy detail than a large-footprint aircraft scanner (LVIS), while simulating LVIS foliage profiles accurately from a nadir viewpoint using a 3-D point cloud. Slope correction is important for accurate retrieval of forest canopy structural parameters, such as mean diameter at breast height (DBH), stem count density, basal area, and above-ground biomass. Topographic slope can induce errors in parameter retrievals because the horizontal plane of the instrument scan, which is used to identify, measure, and count tree trunks, will intersect trunks below breast height in the uphill direction and above breast height in the downhill direction. A test of three methods at southern Sierra Nevada conifer sites improved the range of correlations of these EVI-retrieved parameters with field measurements from 0.53-0.68 to 0.85-0.93 for the best method. EVI scans can detect change, including both growth and disturbance, in periods of two to three years. We revisited three New England forest sites scanned in 2007-2009 or 2007-2010. A shelterwood stand at the Howland Experimental Forest, Howland, Maine, showed increased mean DBH, above-ground biomass and leaf area index between 2007 and 2009. Two stands at the Harvard Forest, Petersham, Massachusetts, suffered reduced leaf area index and reduced stem count density as the result of an ice storm that damaged the stands. At one stand, broken tops were

  13. 2009 SCDRN Lidar: Florence County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The South Carolina Department of Natural Resources (SCDNR) contracted with Sanborn to provide LiDAR mapping services for Florence County, SC. Utilizing multi-return...

  14. 2006 FEMA Lidar: Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The FEMA Task Order 26 LiDAR data set was collected by Airborne 1 Corporation of El Segundo, California in September - December of 2006 for URS Corp.

  15. 2009 SCDNR Charleston County Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Photoscience completed the original collection and classification of the multiple return LiDAR of Charleston County, South Carolina in the winter of 2006-2007. In...

  16. 2009 Chatham County Georgia Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR generated point cloud acquired in spring 2009 for Chatham County, Georgia for the Metropolitan Planning Commission. The data are classified as follows: Class 1...

  17. 2014 NJMC Lidar: Hackensack Meadowlands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In February 2014, Quantum Spatial, Inc. (QSI) was contracted by the New Jersey Meadowlands Commission (NJMC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in...

  18. Alabama 2003 Lidar Coverage, USACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — The Joint Airborne Lidar Bathymetry Technical Center of Expertise (JALBTCX) has performed a coastal survey along the Gulf of Mexico in the summer of 2003. The data...

  19. 2014 Mobile County, AL Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Atlantic was contracted to acquire high resolution topographic LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data located in Mobile County, Alabama. The intent was to collect...

  20. 2008 City of Baltimore Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In the spring of 2008, the City of Baltimore expressed an interest to upgrade the City GIS Database with mapping quality airborne LiDAR data. The City of Baltimore...

  1. 2013 USGS Lidar: Norfolk (VA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Laser Mapping Specialist, Inc (LMSI) and The Atlantic Group (Atlantic) provided high accuracy, calibrated multiple return LiDAR for roughly 1,130 square miles around...

  2. 2009 SCDNR Horry County Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Sanborn Map Company completed the original classification of the multiple return LiDAR of Horry County, South Carolina in 2009. In 2013, Dewberry was tasked with...

  3. Target 3-D reconstruction of streak tube imaging lidar based on Gaussian fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingyu; Niu, Lihong; Hu, Cuichun; Wu, Lei; Yang, Hongru; Yu, Bing

    2018-02-01

    Streak images obtained by the streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) contain the distance-azimuth-intensity information of a scanned target, and a 3-D reconstruction of the target can be carried out through extracting the characteristic data of multiple streak images. Significant errors will be caused in the reconstruction result by the peak detection method due to noise and other factors. So as to get a more precise 3-D reconstruction, a peak detection method based on Gaussian fitting of trust region is proposed in this work. Gaussian modeling is performed on the returned wave of single time channel of each frame, then the modeling result which can effectively reduce the noise interference and possesses a unique peak could be taken as the new returned waveform, lastly extracting its feature data through peak detection. The experimental data of aerial target is for verifying this method. This work shows that the peak detection method based on Gaussian fitting reduces the extraction error of the feature data to less than 10%; utilizing this method to extract the feature data and reconstruct the target make it possible to realize the spatial resolution with a minimum 30 cm in the depth direction, and improve the 3-D imaging accuracy of the STIL concurrently.

  4. LIDAR and atmosphere remote sensing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Venkataraman, S

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available using state of the art Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) instrumentation and other active and passive remote sensing tools. First “Lidar Field Campaign” • 2-day measurement campaign at University of Pretoria • First 23-hour continuous measurement... head2rightCirrus cloud morphology and dynamics. Atmospheric Research in Southern Africa and Indian Ocean (ARSAIO) Slide 24 © CSIR 2008 www.csir.co.za Middle atmosphere dynamics and thermal structure: comparative studies from...

  5. Uncovering archaeological landscapes at Angkor using lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Damian H; Fletcher, Roland J; Pottier, Christophe; Chevance, Jean-Baptiste; Soutif, Dominique; Tan, Boun Suy; Im, Sokrithy; Ea, Darith; Tin, Tina; Kim, Samnang; Cromarty, Christopher; De Greef, Stéphane; Hanus, Kasper; Bâty, Pierre; Kuszinger, Robert; Shimoda, Ichita; Boornazian, Glenn

    2013-07-30

    Previous archaeological mapping work on the successive medieval capitals of the Khmer Empire located at Angkor, in northwest Cambodia (∼9th to 15th centuries in the Common Era, C.E.), has identified it as the largest settlement complex of the preindustrial world, and yet crucial areas have remained unmapped, in particular the ceremonial centers and their surroundings, where dense forest obscures the traces of the civilization that typically remain in evidence in surface topography. Here we describe the use of airborne laser scanning (lidar) technology to create high-precision digital elevation models of the ground surface beneath the vegetation cover. We identify an entire, previously undocumented, formally planned urban landscape into which the major temples such as Angkor Wat were integrated. Beyond these newly identified urban landscapes, the lidar data reveal anthropogenic changes to the landscape on a vast scale and lend further weight to an emerging consensus that infrastructural complexity, unsustainable modes of subsistence, and climate variation were crucial factors in the decline of the classical Khmer civilization.

  6. Balloonborne lidar payloads for remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Hurd, A. G.; Rappaport, S. A.; Reidy, W. P.; Rieder, R. J.; Bedo, D. E.; Swirbalus, R. A.

    1994-02-01

    A series of lidar experiments has been conducted using the Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment payload (ABLE). These experiments included the measurement of atmospheric Rayleigh and Mie backscatter from near space (approximately 30 km) and Raman backscatter measurements of atmospheric constituents as a function of altitude. The ABLE payload consisted of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser transmitter, a 50 cm receiver telescope, and filtered photodetectors in various focal plane configurations. The payload for lidar pointing, thermal control, data handling, and remote control of the lidar system. Comparison of ABLE performance with that of a space lidar shows significant performance advantages and cost effectiveness for balloonborne lidar systems.

  7. Special Relativity Corrections for Space-Based Lidars

    Science.gov (United States)

    RaoGudimetla, Venkata S.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    The theory of special relativity is used to analyze some of the physical phenomena associated with space-based coherent Doppler lidars aimed at Earth and the atmosphere. Two important cases of diffuse scattering and retroreflection by lidar targets are treated. For the case of diffuse scattering, we show that for a coaligned transmitter and receiver on the moving satellite, there is no angle between transmitted and returned radiation. However, the ray that enters the receiver does not correspond to a retroreflected ray by the target. For the retroreflection case there is misalignment between the transmitted ray and the received ray. In addition, the Doppler shift in the frequency and the amount of tip for the receiver aperture when needed are calculated, The error in estimating wind because of the Doppler shift in the frequency due to special relativity effects is examined. The results are then applied to a proposed space-based pulsed coherent Doppler lidar at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center for wind and aerosol backscatter measurements. The lidar uses an orbiting spacecraft with a pulsed laser source and measures the Doppler shift between the transmitted and the received frequencies to determine the atmospheric wind velocities. We show that the special relativity effects are small for the proposed system.

  8. Relativity effects for space-based coherent lidar experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudimetla, V. S. Rao

    1996-01-01

    An effort was initiated last year in the Astrionics Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center to examine and incorporate, if necessary, the effects of relativity in the design of space-based lidar systems. A space-based lidar system, named AEOLUS, is under development at Marshall Space Flight Center and it will be used to accurately measure atmospheric wind profiles. Effects of relativity were also observed in the performance of space-based systems, for example in case of global positioning systems, and corrections were incorporated into the design of instruments. During the last summer, the effects of special relativity on the design of space-based lidar systems were studied in detail, by analyzing the problem of laser scattering off a fixed target when the source and a co-located receiver are moving on a spacecraft. Since the proposed lidar system uses a coherent detection system, errors even in the order of a few microradians must be corrected to achieve a good signal-to-noise ratio. Previous analysis assumed that the ground is flat and the spacecraft is moving parallel to the ground, and developed analytical expressions for the location, direction and Doppler shift of the returning radiation. Because of the assumptions used in that analysis, only special relativity effects were involved. In this report, that analysis is extended to include general relativity and calculate its effects on the design.

  9. Measurement of phase function of aerosol at different altitudes by CCD Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Peiyu; Yuan, Ke'e.; Yang, Jie; Hu, Shunxing

    2018-02-01

    The aerosols near the ground are closely related to human health and climate change, the study on which has important significance. As we all know, the aerosol is inhomogeneous at different altitudes, of which the phase function is also different. In order to simplify the retrieval algorithm, it is usually assumed that the aerosol is uniform at different altitudes, which will bring measurement error. In this work, an experimental approach is demonstrated to measure the scattering phase function of atmospheric aerosol particles at different heights by CCD lidar system, which could solve the problem of the traditional CCD lidar system in assumption of phase function. The phase functions obtained by the new experimental approach are used to retrieve the aerosol extinction coefficient profiles. By comparison of the aerosol extinction coefficient retrieved by Mie-scattering aerosol lidar and CCD lidar at night, the reliability of new experimental approach is verified.

  10. Pure Rotational Raman Lidar for Temperature Measurements from 5-40 Km Over Wuhan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yajuan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a pure rotational Raman lidar (PRR was established for the atmospheric temperature measurements from 5 km to 40 km over Wuhan, China (30.5°N, 114.5°E. To extract the expected PRR signals and simultaneously suppress the elastically backscattered light, a high-spectral resolution polychromator for light splitting and filtering was designed. Observational results revealed that the temperature difference measured by PRR lidar and the local radiosonde below 30 km was less than 3.0 K. The good agreement validated the reliability of the PRR lidar. With the 1-h integration and 150-m spatial resolution, the statistical temperature error for PRR lidar increases from 0.4 K at 10 km up to 4 K at altitudes of about 30 km. In addition, the whole night temperature profiles were obtained for study of the long-term observation of atmospheric fluctuations.

  11. Typical Applications of Airborne LIDAR Technolagy in Geological Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, X.; Xiao, C.

    2018-05-01

    The technology of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR), also referred to as Airborne Laser Scanning, is widely used for high-resolution topographic data acquisition (even under forest cover) with sub-meter planimetric and vertical accuracy. This contribution constructs the real digital terrain model to provide the direct observation data for the landscape analysis in geological domains. Based on the advantage of LiDAR, the authors mainly deal with the applications of LiDAR data to such fields as surface land collapse, landslide and fault structure extraction. The review conclusion shows that airborne LiDAR technology is becoming an indispensable tool for above mentioned issues, especially in the local and large scale investigations of micro-topography. The technology not only can identify the surface collapse, landslide boundary and subtle faulted landform, but also be able to extract the filling parameters of collapsed surface, the geomorphic parameters of landslide stability evaluation and cracks. This technology has extensive prospect of applications in geological investigation.

  12. TYPICAL APPLICATIONS OF AIRBORNE LIDAR TECHNOLAGY IN GEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Zheng

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The technology of airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR, also referred to as Airborne Laser Scanning, is widely used for high-resolution topographic data acquisition (even under forest cover with sub-meter planimetric and vertical accuracy. This contribution constructs the real digital terrain model to provide the direct observation data for the landscape analysis in geological domains. Based on the advantage of LiDAR, the authors mainly deal with the applications of LiDAR data to such fields as surface land collapse, landslide and fault structure extraction. The review conclusion shows that airborne LiDAR technology is becoming an indispensable tool for above mentioned issues, especially in the local and large scale investigations of micro-topography. The technology not only can identify the surface collapse, landslide boundary and subtle faulted landform, but also be able to extract the filling parameters of collapsed surface, the geomorphic parameters of landslide stability evaluation and cracks. This technology has extensive prospect of applications in geological investigation.

  13. Field Testing of Feedforward Collective Pitch Control on the CART2 Using a Nacelle-Based Lidar Scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Hofsäß, Martin; Cheng, Po Wen; Fleming, Paul; Scholbrock, Andrew; Wright, Alan

    2014-01-01

    This work presents the results from a field test of LIDAR assisted collective pitch control using a scanning LIDAR device installed on the nacelle of a mid-scale research turbine. A nonlinear feedforward controller is extended by an adaptive filter to remove all uncorrelated frequencies of the wind speed measurement to avoid unnecessary control action. Positive effects on the rotor speed regulation as well as on tower, blade and shaft loads have been observed in the case that the previous measured correlation and timing between the wind preview and the turbine reaction are accomplish. The feedforward controller had negative impact, when the LIDAR measurement was disturbed by obstacles in front of the turbine. This work proves, that LIDAR is valuable tool for wind turbine control not only in simulations but also under real conditions. Furthermore, the paper shows that further understanding of the relationship between the wind measurement and the turbine reaction is crucial to improve LIDAR assisted control of wind turbines

  14. Field Testing of Feedforward Collective Pitch Control on the CART2 Using a Nacelle-Based Lidar Scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlipf, David; Fleming, Paul; Haizmann, Florian; Scholbrock, Andrew; Hofsäß, Martin; Wright, Alan; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-12-01

    This work presents the results from a field test of LIDAR assisted collective pitch control using a scanning LIDAR device installed on the nacelle of a mid-scale research turbine. A nonlinear feedforward controller is extended by an adaptive filter to remove all uncorrelated frequencies of the wind speed measurement to avoid unnecessary control action. Positive effects on the rotor speed regulation as well as on tower, blade and shaft loads have been observed in the case that the previous measured correlation and timing between the wind preview and the turbine reaction are accomplish. The feedforward controller had negative impact, when the LIDAR measurement was disturbed by obstacles in front of the turbine. This work proves, that LIDAR is valuable tool for wind turbine control not only in simulations but also under real conditions. Furthermore, the paper shows that further understanding of the relationship between the wind measurement and the turbine reaction is crucial to improve LIDAR assisted control of wind turbines.

  15. Einstein's error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winterflood, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    In discussing Einstein's Special Relativity theory it is claimed that it violates the principle of relativity itself and that an anomalous sign in the mathematics is found in the factor which transforms one inertial observer's measurements into those of another inertial observer. The apparent source of this error is discussed. Having corrected the error a new theory, called Observational Kinematics, is introduced to replace Einstein's Special Relativity. (U.K.)

  16. FULLY CONVOLUTIONAL NETWORKS FOR GROUND CLASSIFICATION FROM LIDAR POINT CLOUDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rizaldy

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Deep Learning has been massively used for image classification in recent years. The use of deep learning for ground classification from LIDAR point clouds has also been recently studied. However, point clouds need to be converted into an image in order to use Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs. In state-of-the-art techniques, this conversion is slow because each point is converted into a separate image. This approach leads to highly redundant computation during conversion and classification. The goal of this study is to design a more efficient data conversion and ground classification. This goal is achieved by first converting the whole point cloud into a single image. The classification is then performed by a Fully Convolutional Network (FCN, a modified version of CNN designed for pixel-wise image classification. The proposed method is significantly faster than state-of-the-art techniques. On the ISPRS Filter Test dataset, it is 78 times faster for conversion and 16 times faster for classification. Our experimental analysis on the same dataset shows that the proposed method results in 5.22 % of total error, 4.10 % of type I error, and 15.07 % of type II error. Compared to the previous CNN-based technique and LAStools software, the proposed method reduces the total error and type I error (while type II error is slightly higher. The method was also tested on a very high point density LIDAR point clouds resulting in 4.02 % of total error, 2.15 % of type I error and 6.14 % of type II error.

  17. Fully Convolutional Networks for Ground Classification from LIDAR Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizaldy, A.; Persello, C.; Gevaert, C. M.; Oude Elberink, S. J.

    2018-05-01

    Deep Learning has been massively used for image classification in recent years. The use of deep learning for ground classification from LIDAR point clouds has also been recently studied. However, point clouds need to be converted into an image in order to use Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). In state-of-the-art techniques, this conversion is slow because each point is converted into a separate image. This approach leads to highly redundant computation during conversion and classification. The goal of this study is to design a more efficient data conversion and ground classification. This goal is achieved by first converting the whole point cloud into a single image. The classification is then performed by a Fully Convolutional Network (FCN), a modified version of CNN designed for pixel-wise image classification. The proposed method is significantly faster than state-of-the-art techniques. On the ISPRS Filter Test dataset, it is 78 times faster for conversion and 16 times faster for classification. Our experimental analysis on the same dataset shows that the proposed method results in 5.22 % of total error, 4.10 % of type I error, and 15.07 % of type II error. Compared to the previous CNN-based technique and LAStools software, the proposed method reduces the total error and type I error (while type II error is slightly higher). The method was also tested on a very high point density LIDAR point clouds resulting in 4.02 % of total error, 2.15 % of type I error and 6.14 % of type II error.

  18. Accuracy assessment of a mobile terrestrial lidar survey at Padre Island National Seashore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Samsung; Thatcher, Cindy A.; Brock, John C.; Kimbrow, Dustin R.; Danielson, Jeffrey J.; Reynolds, B.J.

    2013-01-01

    The higher point density and mobility of terrestrial laser scanning (light detection and ranging (lidar)) is desired when extremely detailed elevation data are needed for mapping vertically orientated complex features such as levees, dunes, and cliffs, or when highly accurate data are needed for monitoring geomorphic changes. Mobile terrestrial lidar scanners have the capability for rapid data collection on a larger spatial scale compared with tripod-based terrestrial lidar, but few studies have examined the accuracy of this relatively new mapping technology. For this reason, we conducted a field test at Padre Island National Seashore of a mobile lidar scanner mounted on a sport utility vehicle and integrated with a position and orientation system. The purpose of the study was to assess the vertical and horizontal accuracy of data collected by the mobile terrestrial lidar system, which is georeferenced to the Universal Transverse Mercator coordinate system and the North American Vertical Datum of 1988. To accomplish the study objectives, independent elevation data were collected by conducting a high-accuracy global positioning system survey to establish the coordinates and elevations of 12 targets spaced throughout the 12 km transect. These independent ground control data were compared to the lidar scanner-derived elevations to quantify the accuracy of the mobile lidar system. The performance of the mobile lidar system was also tested at various vehicle speeds and scan density settings (e.g. field of view and linear point spacing) to estimate the optimal parameters for desired point density. After adjustment of the lever arm parameters, the final point cloud accuracy was 0.060 m (east), 0.095 m (north), and 0.053 m (height). The very high density of the resulting point cloud was sufficient to map fine-scale topographic features, such as the complex shape of the sand dunes.

  19. The Lidar Cyclops Syndrome Bypassed: 3D Wind Field Measurements from a Turbine mounted Lidar in combination with a fast CFD solver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Torben Krogh; Astrup, Poul; van Dooren, Marijn Floris

    as the “Lidar Cyclops syndrome” with reference to the one-eyed Cyclops in old Greek mythology. However, by feeding a single lidar’s line-of-sight (LOS) rotor plane scanned wind speeds to a fast CFD solver, it has been possible to determine the entire 3D velocity vectors at each measurement point consistent...

  20. Doppler Lidar Vector Retrievals and Atmospheric Data Visualization in Mixed/Augmented Reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherukuru, Nihanth Wagmi

    Environmental remote sensing has seen rapid growth in the recent years and Doppler wind lidars have gained popularity primarily due to their non-intrusive, high spatial and temporal measurement capabilities. While lidar applications early on, relied on the radial velocity measurements alone, most of the practical applications in wind farm control and short term wind prediction require knowledge of the vector wind field. Over the past couple of years, multiple works on lidars have explored three primary methods of retrieving wind vectors viz., using homogeneous windfield assumption, computationally extensive variational methods and the use of multiple Doppler lidars. Building on prior research, the current three-part study, first demonstrates the capabilities of single and dual Doppler lidar retrievals in capturing downslope windstorm-type flows occurring at Arizona's Barringer Meteor Crater as a part of the METCRAX II field experiment. Next, to address the need for a reliable and computationally efficient vector retrieval for adaptive wind farm control applications, a novel 2D vector retrieval based on a variational formulation was developed and applied on lidar scans from an offshore wind farm and validated with data from a cup and vane anemometer installed on a nearby research platform. Finally, a novel data visualization technique using Mixed Reality (MR)/ Augmented Reality (AR) technology is presented to visualize data from atmospheric sensors. MR is an environment in which the user's visual perception of the real world is enhanced with live, interactive, computer generated sensory input (in this case, data from atmospheric sensors like Doppler lidars). A methodology using modern game development platforms is presented and demonstrated with lidar retrieved wind fields. In the current study, the possibility of using this technology to visualize data from atmospheric sensors in mixed reality is explored and demonstrated with lidar retrieved wind fields as well as

  1. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  2. CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, lung nodules and liver masses Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as cancer treatment Detect ... scan done in a hospital or an outpatient facility. CT scans are painless and, with newer machines, ...

  3. 2015 OLC Lidar DEM: Big Wood, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Big Wood 2015 study area. This study area is located in...

  4. Iowa LiDAR Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This is collection level metadata for LAS and ASCII data files from the statewide Iowa Lidar Project. The Iowa Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) Project collects...

  5. 2007 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Dorchester County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Woolpert Inc. conducted a LiDAR survey to acquire LiDAR capable of producing a DEM for orthophoto rectification and able to support 2-foot contour specifications....

  6. 2015 OLC FEMA Lidar: Snake River, ID

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Snake River FEMA study area. This study area is located...

  7. 2007 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Anderson County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The LiDAR data acquisition was executed in 5 sessions, from March 7 to March 9, 2007. The airborne GPS (ABGPS) base stations supporting the LiDAR acquisition...

  8. 2011 South Carolina DNR Lidar: York County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,500 square miles in York, Pickens, Anderson, and Oconee Counties in South Carolina. This metadata covers the LiDAR produced...

  9. 2014 PSLC Lidar: City of Redmond

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In February 2014, Quantum Spatial (QSI) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the City of...

  10. 2008 St. Johns County, FL Countywide Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne terrestrial LiDAR was collected for St. Johns County, FL. System Parameters/Flight Plan. The LiDAR system acquisition parameters were developed based on a...

  11. Elevation - LIDAR Survey - Roseau County, Minnesota

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — LIDAR Data for Roseau County Minnesota. This project consists of approximately 87 square miles of LIDAR mapping in Roseau County, Minnesota at two sites: area 1,...

  12. 2006 Volusia County Florida LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is the lidar data for Volusia County, Florida, approximately 1,432 square miles, acquired in early March of 2006. A total of 143 flight lines of Lidar...

  13. 2009 Bayfield County Lake Superior Lidar Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The LIDAR survey presents digital elevation data sets of a bald earth surface model and 2ft interval contours covering Bayfield County, Wisconsin. The LIDAR data was...

  14. 2014 OLC Lidar DEM: Colville, WA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI, a Quantum Spatial company, has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Oregon LiDAR Consortium (OLC) Colville study area. This study area is...

  15. 2014 Horry County, South Carolina Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set is comprised of lidar point cloud data. This project required lidar data to be acquired over Horry County, South Carolina. The total area of the Horry...

  16. 2010 ARRA Lidar: 4 Southeast Counties (MI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Southeast Michigan LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task- Monroe, St. Clair, Macomb, and Livingston Counties SEMCOG CONTRACT:...

  17. 2015 Oregon Department Forestry Lidar: Northwest OR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GeoTerra, Inc. was selected by Oregon Department of Forestry to provide Lidar remote sensing data including LAZ files of the classified Lidar points and surface...

  18. 2007 USGS Lidar: Canyon Fire (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Southern California Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data is to provide high accuracy LIDAR data. These datasets will be the initial acquisition to support...

  19. Mitigating Uncertainty from Vegetation Spatial Complexity with Highly Portable Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paynter, I.; Schaaf, C.; Peri, F.; Saenz, E. J.; Genest, D.; Strahler, A. H.; Li, Z.

    2015-12-01

    To fully utilize the excellent spatial coverage and temporal resolution offered by satellite resources for estimating ecological variables, fine-scale observations are required for comparison, calibration and validation. Lidar instruments have proved effective in estimating the properties of vegetation components of ecosystems, but they are often challenged by occlusion, especially in structurally complex and spatially fragmented ecosystems such as tropical forests. Increasing the range of view angles, both horizontally and vertically, by increasing the number of scans, can mitigate occlusion. However these scans must occur within the window of temporal stability for the ecosystem and vegetation property being measured. The Compact Biomass Lidar (CBL) is a TLS optimized for portability and scanning speed, developed and operated by University of Massachusetts Boston. This 905nm wavelength scanner achieves an angular resolution of 0.25 degrees at a rate of 33 seconds per scan. The ability to acquire many scans within narrow windows of temporal stability for ecological variables has facilitated the more complete investigation of ecosystem structural characteristics, and their expression as a function of view angle. The lightweight CBL has facilitated the use of alternative deployment platforms including towers, trams and masts, allowing analysis of the vertical structure of ecosystems, even in highly enclosed environments such as the sub-canopy of tropical forests where aerial vehicles cannot currently operate. We will present results from view angle analyses of lidar surveys of tropical rainforest in La Selva, Costa Rica where the CBL was deployed at heights up to 10m in Carbono long-term research plots utilizing a portable mast, and on a 25m stationary tower; and temperate forest at Harvard Forest, Massachusetts, USA, where the CBL has been deployed biannually at long-term research plots of hardwood and hemlock, as well as at heights of up to 25m utilizing a

  20. Extrapolation of contrail investigations by LIDAR to larger scale measurements. Analysis and calibration of CCD camera and satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.

  1. Generic methodology for calibrating profiling nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borraccino, Antoine; Courtney, Michael; Wagner, Rozenn

    Improving power performance assessment by measuring at different heights has been demonstrated using ground-based profiling LIDARs. More recently, nacelle-mounted lidars studies have shown promising capabilities to assess power performance. Using nacelle lidars avoids the erection of expensive me...

  2. Lidar extinction measurement in the mid infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitev, Valentin; Babichenko, S.; Borelli, R.; Fiorani, L.; Grigorov, I.; Nuvoli, M.; Palucci, A.; Pistilli, M.; Puiu, Ad.; Rebane, Ott; Santoro, S.

    2014-11-01

    We present a lidar measurement of atmospheric extinction coefficient. The measurement is performed by inversion of the backscatter lidar signal at wavelengths 3'000nm and 3'500nm. The inversion of the backscatter lidar signal was performed with constant extinction-to-backscatter ration values of 104 and exponential factor 0.1.

  3. An MPC approach to individual pitch control of wind turbines using uncertain LIDAR measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Soltani, Mohsen; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad

    2013-01-01

    wind turbine in the full load region is considered. Model predictive control (MPC) is used to solve the problem. A new approach is proposed to simplify the optimization problem of MPC. We linearize the obtained nonlinear model for different operating points which are determined by the effective wind...... speed on the rotor disc and take the wind speed as a scheduling variable. The wind speed is measurable ahead of the turbine using LIDARs, therefore the scheduling variable is known for the entire prediction horizon. We consider uncertainty in the wind propagation, which is the traveling time of wind...... from the LIDAR measurement point to the rotor. An algorithm based on wind speed estimation and measurements from the LIDAR is devised to find an estimate of the delay and compensate for it before it is used in the controller. Comparisons between the MPC with error compensation, without error...

  4. Remote Sensing of Sonoran Desert Vegetation Structure and Phenology with Ground-Based LiDAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel B. Sankey

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Long-term vegetation monitoring efforts have become increasingly important for understanding ecosystem response to global change. Many traditional methods for monitoring can be infrequent and limited in scope. Ground-based LiDAR is one remote sensing method that offers a clear advancement to monitor vegetation dynamics at high spatial and temporal resolution. We determined the effectiveness of LiDAR to detect intra-annual variability in vegetation structure at a long-term Sonoran Desert monitoring plot dominated by cacti, deciduous and evergreen shrubs. Monthly repeat LiDAR scans of perennial plant canopies over the course of one year had high precision. LiDAR measurements of canopy height and area were accurate with respect to total station survey measurements of individual plants. We found an increase in the number of LiDAR vegetation returns following the wet North American Monsoon season. This intra-annual variability in vegetation structure detected by LiDAR was attributable to a drought deciduous shrub Ambrosia deltoidea, whereas the evergreen shrub Larrea tridentata and cactus Opuntia engelmannii had low variability. Benefits of using LiDAR over traditional methods to census desert plants are more rapid, consistent, and cost-effective data acquisition in a high-resolution, 3-dimensional context. We conclude that repeat LiDAR measurements can be an effective method for documenting ecosystem response to desert climatology and drought over short time intervals and at detailed-local spatial scale.

  5. Lidar sounding of volcanic plumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorani, Luca; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Angelini, Federico; Borelli, Rodolfo; Del Franco, Mario; Murra, Daniele; Pistilli, Marco; Puiu, Adriana; Santoro, Simone

    2013-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of gas composition in volcanic plumes has high scientific and societal value. On the one hand, it gives information on the geophysical processes taking place inside volcanos; on the other hand, it provides alert on possible eruptions. For this reasons, it has been suggested to monitor volcanic plumes by lidar. In particular, one of the aims of the FP7 ERC project BRIDGE is the measurement of CO2 concentration in volcanic gases by differential absorption lidar. This is a very challenging task due to the harsh environment, the narrowness and weakness of the CO2 absorption lines and the difficulty to procure a suitable laser source. This paper, after a review on remote sensing of volcanic plumes, reports on the current progress of the lidar system.

  6. Laser scanning of a recirculation zone on the Bolund escarpment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Angelou, Nikolas; Sjöholm, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Rapid variations in the height of the recirculation zone are measured with a scanning wind lidar over a small escarpment on the Bolund Peninsula. The lidar is essentially a continuous-wave laser Doppler anemometer with the capability of rapidly changing the focus distance and the beam direction....... The instrument measures the line-of-sight velocity 390 times per second and scans ten wind profiles from the ground up to seven meters per second. We observe a sharp interface between slow and fast moving fluid after the escarpment, and the interface is moving rapidly up and down. This implies that the position...

  7. Lidar configurations for wind turbine control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mirzaei, Mahmood; Mann, Jakob

    2016-01-01

    Lidar sensors have proved to be very beneficial in the wind energy industry. They can be used for yaw correction, feed-forward pitch control and load verification. However, the current lidars are expensive. One way to reduce the price is to use lidars with few measurement points. Finding the best...... by the lidar is compared against the effective wind speed on a wind turbine rotor both theoretically and through simulations. The study provides some results to choose the best configuration of the lidar with few measurement points....

  8. Calibration of Ground-based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yordanova, Ginka; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...... uncertainties provided by measurement standard and corresponding lidar wind speed indications with associated measurement uncertainties. The lidar calibration concerns the 10 minute mean wind speed measurements. The comparison of the lidar measurements of the wind direction with that from wind vanes...

  9. Measurements of stratospheric Pinatubo aerosol extinction profiles by a Raman lidar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abo, Makoto; Nagasawa, Chikao.

    1992-01-01

    The Raman lidar has been used for remote measurements of water vapor, ozone and atmospheric temperature in the lower troposphere because the Raman cross section is three orders smaller than the Rayleigh cross section. The authors estimated the extinction coefficients of the Pinatubo volcanic aerosol in the stratosphere using a Raman lidar. If the precise aerosol extinction coefficients are derived, the backscatter coefficient of a Mie scattering lidar will be more accurately estimated. The Raman lidar has performed to measure density profiles of some species using Raman scattering. Here the authors used a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser for transmitter and received nitrogen vibrational Q-branch Raman scattering signal. Ansmann et al. (1990) derived tropospherical aerosol extinction profiles with a Raman lidar. The authors think that this method can apply to dense stratospheric aerosols such as Pinatubo volcanic aerosols. As dense aerosols are now accumulated in the stratosphere by Pinatubo volcanic eruption, the error of Ramen lidar signal regarding the fluctuation of air density can be ignored

  10. Observation of stratospheric ozone with NIES lidar system in Tsukuba, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, H.; Hayashida, S.; Sasano, Y.; Sugimoto, N.; Matsui, I.; Minato, A.

    1992-01-01

    Lidars are expected to play important roles in an international monitoring network of the stratosphere such as the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC). The National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) in Tsukuba constructed an ozone lidar system in March 1988 and started observation in August 1988. The lidar system has a 2-m telescope and injection locked XeCl and XeF excimer lasers which can measure ozone profiles (15-45 km) and temperature profiles (30-80 km). From December 1991, lidar observations have been carried out in which the second Stokes line of the stimulated Raman scattering of a KrF laser has been used. Ozone profiles obtained with the NIES lidar system are compared with the data provided by the SAGE II satellite sensor. Results showed good agreement for the individual and the zonal mean profiles. Variations of ozone with various time scales at each altitude can be studied using the data obtained with the NIES ozone lidar system. Seasonal variations are easily found at 20 km, 30 km, and 35 km, which are qualitatively understood as a result of dynamical and photochemical effects. Systematic errors of ozone profiles due to the Pinatubo stratospheric aerosols have been detected using multi-wavelength observation

  11. An Easy-to-Use Airborne LiDAR Data Filtering Method Based on Cloth Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wuming Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Separating point clouds into ground and non-ground measurements is an essential step to generate digital terrain models (DTMs from airborne LiDAR (light detection and ranging data. However, most filtering algorithms need to carefully set up a number of complicated parameters to achieve high accuracy. In this paper, we present a new filtering method which only needs a few easy-to-set integer and Boolean parameters. Within the proposed approach, a LiDAR point cloud is inverted, and then a rigid cloth is used to cover the inverted surface. By analyzing the interactions between the cloth nodes and the corresponding LiDAR points, the locations of the cloth nodes can be determined to generate an approximation of the ground surface. Finally, the ground points can be extracted from the LiDAR point cloud by comparing the original LiDAR points and the generated surface. Benchmark datasets provided by ISPRS (International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing working Group III/3 are used to validate the proposed filtering method, and the experimental results yield an average total error of 4.58%, which is comparable with most of the state-of-the-art filtering algorithms. The proposed easy-to-use filtering method may help the users without much experience to use LiDAR data and related technology in their own applications more easily.

  12. LIDAR forest inventory with single-tree, double- and single-phase procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert C. Parker; David L. Evans

    2009-01-01

    Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) data at 0.5- to 2-m postings were used with doublesample, stratified inventory procedures involving single-tree attribute relationships in mixed, natural, and planted species stands to yield sampling errors (one-half the confidence interval expressed as a percentage of the mean) ranging from ±2.1 percent to ±11.5...

  13. Semiconductor Laser Wind Lidar for Turbine Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi

    This thesis describes an experimentally oriented study of continuous wave (CW) coherent Doppler lidar system design. The main application is remote wind sensing for active wind turbine control using nacelle mounted lidar systems; and the primary focus is to devise an industrial instrument that can...... historical overview within the topic of wind lidar systems. Both the potential and the challenges of an industrialized wind lidar has been addressed here. Furthermore, the basic concept behind the heterodyne detection and a brief overview of the lidar signal processing is explained; and a simple...... investigation of the telescope truncation and lens aberrations is conducted, both numerically and experimentally. It is shown that these parameters dictate the spatial resolution of the lidar system, and have profound impact on the SNR. In this work, an all-semiconductor light source is used in the lidar design...

  14. Fluorescence lidar measurements at the archaeological site House of Augustus at Palatino, Rome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Alisi, Chiara; Barup, Kerstin; Bracciale, Maria Paola; Broggi, Alessandra; Conti, Cinzia; Hällström, Jenny; Lognoli, David; Palombi, Lorenzo; Santarelli, Maria Laura; Sprocati, Anna Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Early diagnostics and documentation fulfill an essential role for an effective planning of conservation and restoration of cultural heritage assets. In particular, remote sensing techniques that do not require the use of scaffolds or lifts, such as fluoresence lidar, can provide useful information to obtain an overall assessment of the status of the investigated surfaces and can be exploited to address analytical studies in selected areas. Here we present the results of a joint Italian-Swedish project focused on documenting and recording the status of some sections of the part closed to the public by using fluorescence hyperspectral imaging lidar. The lidar used a tripled-frequency Nd:YAG laser emitting at 355 nm as excitation source and an intensified, gated 512x512-pixel CCD as detector. The lidar had imaging capabilities thanks to a computer-controlled scanning mirror. The fluorescence characteristics of fresco wall paintings were compared to those of fresco fragments found at the same archaeological site and separately examined in the lab using FT-IR and Raman techniques for the identification of pigments. The fluorescence lidar was also used to remotely detect the growth of phototrophic biodeteriogens on the walls. The fluorescence lidar data were compared with results from biological sampling, cultivation and laboratory analysis by molecular techniques.

  15. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoungsig Cho

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1 a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2 co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP algorithm; and (3 a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm.

  16. Hardware in the Loop Performance Assessment of LIDAR-Based Spacecraft Pose Determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opromolla, Roberto; Fasano, Giancarmine; Rufino, Giancarlo; Grassi, Michele

    2017-09-24

    In this paper an original, easy to reproduce, semi-analytic calibration approach is developed for hardware-in-the-loop performance assessment of pose determination algorithms processing point cloud data, collected by imaging a non-cooperative target with LIDARs. The laboratory setup includes a scanning LIDAR, a monocular camera, a scaled-replica of a satellite-like target, and a set of calibration tools. The point clouds are processed by uncooperative model-based algorithms to estimate the target relative position and attitude with respect to the LIDAR. Target images, acquired by a monocular camera operated simultaneously with the LIDAR, are processed applying standard solutions to the Perspective- n -Points problem to get high-accuracy pose estimates which can be used as a benchmark to evaluate the accuracy attained by the LIDAR-based techniques. To this aim, a precise knowledge of the extrinsic relative calibration between the camera and the LIDAR is essential, and it is obtained by implementing an original calibration approach which does not need ad-hoc homologous targets (e.g., retro-reflectors) easily recognizable by the two sensors. The pose determination techniques investigated by this work are of interest to space applications involving close-proximity maneuvers between non-cooperative platforms, e.g., on-orbit servicing and active debris removal.

  17. Application of a Terrestrial LIDAR System for Elevation Mapping in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Hyoungsig; Hong, Seunghwan; Kim, Sangmin; Park, Hyokeun; Park, Ilsuk; Sohn, Hong-Gyoo

    2015-09-16

    A terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system has high productivity and accuracy for topographic mapping, but the harsh conditions of Antarctica make LIDAR operation difficult. Low temperatures cause malfunctioning of the LIDAR system, and unpredictable strong winds can deteriorate data quality by irregularly shaking co-registration targets. For stable and efficient LIDAR operation in Antarctica, this study proposes and demonstrates the following practical solutions: (1) a lagging cover with a heating pack to maintain the temperature of the terrestrial LIDAR system; (2) co-registration using square planar targets and two-step point-merging methods based on extracted feature points and the Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm; and (3) a georeferencing module consisting of an artificial target and a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receiver. The solutions were used to produce a topographic map for construction of the Jang Bogo Research Station in Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica. Co-registration and georeferencing precision reached 5 and 45 mm, respectively, and the accuracy of the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) generated from the LIDAR scanning data was ±27.7 cm.

  18. Evaluation of turbulence measurement techniques from a single Doppler lidar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Bonin

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Measurements of turbulence are essential to understand and quantify the transport and dispersal of heat, moisture, momentum, and trace gases within the planetary boundary layer (PBL. Through the years, various techniques to measure turbulence using Doppler lidar observations have been proposed. However, the accuracy of these measurements has rarely been validated against trusted in situ instrumentation. Herein, data from the eXperimental Planetary boundary layer Instrumentation Assessment (XPIA are used to verify Doppler lidar turbulence profiles through comparison with sonic anemometer measurements. For 17 days at the end of the experiment, a single scanning Doppler lidar continuously cycled through different turbulence measurement strategies: velocity–azimuth display (VAD, six-beam scans, and range–height indicators (RHIs with a vertical stare.Measurements of turbulence kinetic energy (TKE, turbulence intensity, and stress velocity from these techniques are compared with sonic anemometer measurements at six heights on a 300 m tower. The six-beam technique is found to generally measure turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity the most accurately at all heights (r2  ≈  0.78, showing little bias in its observations (slope of  ≈  0. 95. Turbulence measurements from the velocity–azimuth display method tended to be biased low near the surface, as large eddies were not captured by the scan. None of the methods evaluated were able to consistently accurately measure the shear velocity (r2 =  0.15–0.17. Each of the scanning strategies assessed had its own strengths and limitations that need to be considered when selecting the method used in future experiments.

  19. Aerosol Retrievals from Proposed Satellite Bistatic Lidar Observations: Algorithm and Information Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, M. D.; Mishchenko, M. I.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate aerosol retrievals from space remain quite challenging and typically involve solving a severely ill-posed inverse scattering problem. We suggested to address this ill-posedness by flying a bistatic lidar system. Such a system would consist of formation flying constellation of a primary satellite equipped with a conventional monostatic (backscattering) lidar and an additional platform hosting a receiver of the scattered laser light. If successfully implemented, this concept would combine the measurement capabilities of a passive multi-angle multi-spectral polarimeter with the vertical profiling capability of a lidar. Thus, bistatic lidar observations will be free of deficiencies affecting both monostatic lidar measurements (caused by the highly limited information content) and passive photopolarimetric measurements (caused by vertical integration and surface reflection).We present a preliminary aerosol retrieval algorithm for a bistatic lidar system consisting of a high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) and an additional receiver flown in formation with it at a scattering angle of 165 degrees. This algorithm was applied to synthetic data generated using Mie-theory computations. The model/retrieval parameters in our tests were the effective radius and variance of the aerosol size distribution, complex refractive index of the particles, and their number concentration. Both mono- and bimodal aerosol mixtures were considered. Our algorithm allowed for definitive evaluation of error propagation from measurements to retrievals using a Monte Carlo technique, which involves random distortion of the observations and statistical characterization of the resulting retrieval errors. Our tests demonstrated that supplementing a conventional monostatic HSRL with an additional receiver dramatically increases the information content of the measurements and allows for a sufficiently accurate characterization of tropospheric aerosols.

  20. Modeling Aboveground Biomass in Hulunber Grassland Ecosystem by Using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Discrete Lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongliang; Xin, Xiaoping; Shao, Quanqin; Brolly, Matthew; Zhu, Zhiliang; Chen, Jin

    2017-01-19

    Accurate canopy structure datasets, including canopy height and fractional cover, are required to monitor aboveground biomass as well as to provide validation data for satellite remote sensing products. In this study, the ability of an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) discrete light detection and ranging (lidar) was investigated for modeling both the canopy height and fractional cover in Hulunber grassland ecosystem. The extracted mean canopy height, maximum canopy height, and fractional cover were used to estimate the aboveground biomass. The influences of flight height on lidar estimates were also analyzed. The main findings are: (1) the lidar-derived mean canopy height is the most reasonable predictor of aboveground biomass ( R ² = 0.340, root-mean-square error (RMSE) = 81.89 g·m -2 , and relative error of 14.1%). The improvement of multiple regressions to the R ² and RMSE values is unobvious when adding fractional cover in the regression since the correlation between mean canopy height and fractional cover is high; (2) Flight height has a pronounced effect on the derived fractional cover and details of the lidar data, but the effect is insignificant on the derived canopy height when the flight height is within the range (lidar returns.

  1. LIDAR Thomson scattering diagnostic on JET (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salzmann, H.; Bundgaard, J.; Gadd, A.

    1988-01-01

    By combining the time-of-flight or LIDAR principle with a Thomson backscatter diagnostic, spatial profiles of the electron temperature and density are measured in a magnetically confined fusion plasma. This technique was realized for the first time on the JET tokamak. A ruby laser (3-J pulse energy, 300-ps pulse duration, 0.5-Hz repetition rate) together with a 700-MHz bandwidth detection and registration system yields a spatial resolution of about 12 cm. A spectrometer with six channels in the wavelength range 400--800 nm gives a dynamic range of the temperature measurements of 0.3--20 keV. The stray light problem in the backscatter geometry is overcome by spectral discrimination and gating of the photomultipliers. A ruby filter in the spectral channel containing the laser wavelength allows calibration of the vignetting along the line of sight by means of Raman scattering, enabling the measurement of density profiles. The low level of background signal due to the short integration time for a single spatial point yields low statistical errors (ΔT/sub e/ /T/sub e/ ≅6%, Δn/sub e/ /n/sub e/ ≅4% at T/sub e/ = 6 keV, n/sub e/ = 3 x 10/sup 19/ m/sup -3/ ). Goodness-of-fit tests indicate that the systematic errors are within the same limits. The system is described and examples of measurements are given

  2. An investigation of rock fall and pore water pressure using LIDAR in Highway 63 rock cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The purpose of this research work is compare LIDAR scanning measurements of rock fall with the natural changes in groundwater level to determining the effect of water pressures (levels) on rock fall. To collect the information of rock cut volume chan...

  3. A LiDAR method of canopy structure retrieval for wind modeling of heterogeneous forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudreault, Louis-Etienne; Bechmann, Andreas; Taryainen, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    and this information is required for each grid point in the three-dimensional computational domain. By using raw data from aerial LiDAR scans together with the Beer-Lambert law, we propose and test a method to calculate and grid highly variable and realistic frontal area density input. An extensive comparison...

  4. Data processing technique for multiangle lidar sounding of poorly stratified polluted atmospheres: Theory and experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cyle E. Wold; Vladimir A. Kovalev; Alexander P. Petkov; Wei Min Hao

    2012-01-01

    Scanning elastic lidar, which can operate in different slant directions, is the most appropriate remote sensing tool for investigating the optical properties of smoke-polluted atmospheres. However, the commonly used methodologies of multiangle measurements are based on the assumption of horizontal stratification of the searched atmosphere1,2. When working in real...

  5. Implications of sensor configuration and topography on vertical plant profiles derived from terrestrial LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calders, K.; Armston, J.; Newnham, G.; Herold, M.; Goodwin, N.

    2014-01-01

    The vertical distribution of plant constituents is a key parameter to describe vegetation structure and influences several processes, such as radiation interception, growth and habitat. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), also referred to as terrestrial LiDAR, has the potential to measure the canopy

  6. Lidar-based Research and Innovation at DTU Wind Energy – a Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, T

    2014-01-01

    As wind turbines during the past decade have increased in size so have the challenges met by the atmospheric boundary-layer meteorologists and the wind energy society to measure and characterize the huge-volume wind fields surpassing and driving them. At the DTU Wind Energy test site ''Østerild'' for huge wind turbines, the hub-height of a recently installed 8 MW Vestas V164 turbine soars 143 meters up above the ground, and its rotor of amazing 164 meters in diameter make the turbine tips flicker 225 meters into the sky. Following the revolution in photonics-based telecommunication at the turn of the Millennium new fibre-based wind lidar technologies emerged and DTU Wind Energy, at that time embedded within Rise National Laboratory, began in collaboration with researchers from wind lidar companies to measure remote sensed wind profiles and turbulence structures within the atmospheric boundary layer with the emerging, at that time new, all-fibre-based 1.55 μ coherent detection wind lidars. Today, ten years later, DTU Wind Energy routinely deploys ground-based vertical profilers instead of met masts for high-precision measurements of mean wind profiles and turbulence profiles. At the departments test site ''Høvsøre'' DTU Wind Energy also routinely calibrate and accredit wind lidar manufactures wind lidars. Meanwhile however, new methodologies for power curve assessment based on ground-based and nacelle based lidars have also emerged. For improving the turbines power curve assessments and for advancing their control with feed-forward wind measurements experience has also been gained with wind lidars installed on turbine nacelles and integrated into the turbines rotating spinners. A new mobile research infrastructure WindScanner.dk has also emerged at DTU Wind Energy. Wind and turbulence fields are today scanned from sets of three simultaneously in space and time synchronized scanning lidars. One set consists of three fast

  7. An All-Fiber, Modular, Compact Wind Lidar for Wind Sensing and Wake Vortex Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Sibell, Russ; Vetorino, Steve; Higgins, Richard; Tracy, Allen

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses an innovative, compact and eyesafe coherent lidar system developed for wind and wake vortex sensing applications. With an innovative all-fiber and modular transceiver architecture, the wind lidar system has reduced size, weight and power requirements, and provides enhanced performance along with operational elegance. This all-fiber architecture is developed around fiber seed laser coupled to uniquely configured fiber amplifier modules. The innovative features of this lidar system, besides its all fiber architecture, include pulsewidth agility and user programmable 3D hemispherical scanner unit. Operating at a wavelength of 1.5457 microns and with a PRF of up to 20 KHz, the lidar transmitter system is designed as a Class 1 system with dimensions of 30"(W) x 46"(L) x 60"(H). With an operational range exceeding 10 km, the wind lidar is configured to measure wind velocities of greater than 120 m/s with an accuracy of +/- 0.2 m/s and allow range resolution of less than 15 m. The dynamical configuration capability of transmitted pulsewidths from 50 ns to 400 ns allows high resolution wake vortex measurements. The scanner uses innovative liquid metal slip ring and is built using 3D printer technology with light weight nylon. As such, it provides continuous 360 degree azimuth and 180 degree elevation scan angles with an incremental motion of 0.001 degree. The lidar system is air cooled and requires 110 V for its operation. This compact and modular lidar system is anticipated to provide mobility, reliability, and ease of field deployment for wind and wake vortex measurements. Currently, this wind lidar is undergoing validation tests under various atmospheric conditions. Preliminary results of these field measurements of wind characteristics that were recently carried out in Colorado are discussed.

  8. Analysis of the SNR and sensing ability of different sensor types in a LIDAR system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Gyudong; Han, Munhyun; Seo, Hongseok; Mheen, Bongki

    2017-10-01

    LIDAR (light distance and ranging) systems use sensors to detect reflected signals. The performance of the sensors significantly affects the specification of the LIDAR system. Especially, the number and size of the sensors determine the FOV (field of view) and resolution of the system, regardless of which sensors are used. The resolution of an array-type sensor normally depends on the number of pixels in the array. In this type of sensor, there are several limitations to increase the number of pixels in an array for higher resolution, specifically complexity, cost, and size limitations. Another type of sensors uses multiple pairs of transmitter and receiver channels. Each channel detects different points with the corresponding directions indicated by the laser points of each channel. In this case, in order to increase the resolution, it is required to increase the number of channels, resulting in bigger sensor head size and deteriorated reliability due to heavy rotating head module containing all the pairs. In this paper, we present a method to overcome these limitations and improve the performance of the LIDAR system. ETRI developed a type of scanning LIDAR system called a STUD (static unitary detector) LIDAR system. It was developed to solve the problems associated with the aforementioned sensors. The STUD LIDAR system can use a variety of sensors without any limitations on the size or number of sensors, unlike other LIDAR systems. Since it provides optimal performance in terms of range and resolution, the detailed analysis was conducted in the STUD LIDAR system by applying different sensor type to have improved sensing performance.

  9. LIDAR wind speed measurements from a rotating spinner (SpinnerEx 2009)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelou, N.; Mikkelsen, Torben; Hansen, Kasper H.; Sjoeholm, M.; Harris, M.

    2010-08-15

    In the context of the increasing application of remote sensing techniques in wind energy, the feasibility of upwind observations via a spinner-mounted wind lidar was tested during the SpinnerEx 2009 experiment. The objective was to install a QinetiQ (Natural Power) ZephIR lidar in the rotating spinner of a MW-sized wind turbine, and investigate the approaching wind fields from this vantage point. Time series of wind speed measurements from the lidar with 50 Hz sampling rate were successfully obtained for approximately 60 days, during the measurement campaign lasting from April to August 2009. In this report, information is given regarding the experimental setup and the lidar's operation parameters. The geometrical model used for the reconstruction of the scanning pattern of the lidar is described. This model takes into account the lidar's pointing direction, the spinner axis's vertical tilt and the wind turbine's yaw relative to the mean wind speed direction. The data analysis processes are documented. A methodology for the calculation of the yaw misalignment of the wind turbine relative to the wind direction, as a function of various averaging times, is proposed, using the lidar's instantaneous line-of-sight radial wind speed measurements. Two different setups have been investigated in which the approaching wind field was measured at distances of 0.58 OE and 1.24 OE rotor diameters upwind, respectively. For both setups, the instantaneous yaw misalignment of the turbine has been estimated from the lidar measurements. Data from an adjacent meteorological mast as well as data logged within the wind turbine's control system were used to evaluate the results. (author)

  10. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  11. Airborne lidar-based estimates of tropical forest structure in complex terrain: opportunities and trade-offs for REDD+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitold, Veronika; Keller, Michael; Morton, Douglas C; Cook, Bruce D; Shimabukuro, Yosio E

    2015-12-01

    Carbon stocks and fluxes in tropical forests remain large sources of uncertainty in the global carbon budget. Airborne lidar remote sensing is a powerful tool for estimating aboveground biomass, provided that lidar measurements penetrate dense forest vegetation to generate accurate estimates of surface topography and canopy heights. Tropical forest areas with complex topography present a challenge for lidar remote sensing. We compared digital terrain models (DTM) derived from airborne lidar data from a mountainous region of the Atlantic Forest in Brazil to 35 ground control points measured with survey grade GNSS receivers. The terrain model generated from full-density (~20 returns m -2 ) data was highly accurate (mean signed error of 0.19 ± 0.97 m), while those derived from reduced-density datasets (8 m -2 , 4 m -2 , 2 m -2 and 1 m -2 ) were increasingly less accurate. Canopy heights calculated from reduced-density lidar data declined as data density decreased due to the inability to accurately model the terrain surface. For lidar return densities below 4 m -2 , the bias in height estimates translated into errors of 80-125 Mg ha -1 in predicted aboveground biomass. Given the growing emphasis on the use of airborne lidar for forest management, carbon monitoring, and conservation efforts, the results of this study highlight the importance of careful survey planning and consistent sampling for accurate quantification of aboveground biomass stocks and dynamics. Approaches that rely primarily on canopy height to estimate aboveground biomass are sensitive to DTM errors from variability in lidar sampling density.

  12. Strategies for lidar characterization of particulates from point and area sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Michael D.; Moore, Kori D.; Martin, Randal S.; Hatfield, Jerry

    2010-10-01

    Use of ground based remote sensing technologies such as scanning lidar systems (light detection and ranging) has gained traction in characterizing ambient aerosols due to some key advantages such as wide area of regard (10 km2), fast response time, high spatial resolution (University, in conjunction with the USDA-ARS, has developed a three-wavelength scanning lidar system called Aglite that has been successfully deployed to characterize particle motion, concentration, and size distribution at both point and diffuse area sources in agricultural and industrial settings. A suite of massbased and size distribution point sensors are used to locally calibrate the lidar. Generating meaningful particle size distribution, mass concentration, and emission rate results based on lidar data is dependent on strategic onsite deployment of these point sensors with successful local meteorological measurements. Deployment strategies learned from field use of this entire measurement system over five years include the characterization of local meteorology and its predictability prior to deployment, the placement of point sensors to prevent contamination and overloading, the positioning of the lidar and beam plane to avoid hard target interferences, and the usefulness of photographic and written observational data.

  13. Automatic River Network Extraction from LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maderal, E. N.; Valcarcel, N.; Delgado, J.; Sevilla, C.; Ojeda, J. C.

    2016-06-01

    National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES) has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI) within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network) and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network), and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files), and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS), which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri) and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  14. AUTOMATIC RIVER NETWORK EXTRACTION FROM LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Maderal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available National Geographic Institute of Spain (IGN-ES has launched a new production system for automatic river network extraction for the Geospatial Reference Information (GRI within hydrography theme. The goal is to get an accurate and updated river network, automatically extracted as possible. For this, IGN-ES has full LiDAR coverage for the whole Spanish territory with a density of 0.5 points per square meter. To implement this work, it has been validated the technical feasibility, developed a methodology to automate each production phase: hydrological terrain models generation with 2 meter grid size and river network extraction combining hydrographic criteria (topographic network and hydrological criteria (flow accumulation river network, and finally the production was launched. The key points of this work has been managing a big data environment, more than 160,000 Lidar data files, the infrastructure to store (up to 40 Tb between results and intermediate files, and process; using local virtualization and the Amazon Web Service (AWS, which allowed to obtain this automatic production within 6 months, it also has been important the software stability (TerraScan-TerraSolid, GlobalMapper-Blue Marble , FME-Safe, ArcGIS-Esri and finally, the human resources managing. The results of this production has been an accurate automatic river network extraction for the whole country with a significant improvement for the altimetric component of the 3D linear vector. This article presents the technical feasibility, the production methodology, the automatic river network extraction production and its advantages over traditional vector extraction systems.

  15. Small-scale Scheimpflug lidar for aerosol extinction coefficient and vertical atmospheric transmittance detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Guodong; Qin, Laian; Hou, Zaihong; Jing, Xu; He, Feng; Tan, Fengfu; Zhang, Silong

    2018-03-19

    In this paper, a new prototypical Scheimpflug lidar capable of detecting the aerosol extinction coefficient and vertical atmospheric transmittance at 1 km above the ground is described. The lidar system operates at 532 nm and can be used to detect aerosol extinction coefficients throughout an entire day. Then, the vertical atmospheric transmittance can be determined from the extinction coefficients with the equation of numerical integration in this area. CCD flat fielding of the image data is used to mitigate the effects of pixel sensitivity variation. An efficient method of two-dimensional wavelet transform according to a local threshold value has been proposed to reduce the Gaussian white noise in the lidar signal. Furthermore, a new iteration method of backscattering ratio based on genetic algorithm is presented to calculate the aerosol extinction coefficient and vertical atmospheric transmittance. Some simulations are performed to reduce the different levels of noise in the simulated signal in order to test the precision of the de-noising method and inversion algorithm. The simulation result shows that the root-mean-square errors of extinction coefficients are all less than 0.02 km -1 , and that the relative errors of the atmospheric transmittance between the model and inversion data are below 0.56% for all cases. The feasibility of the instrument and the inversion algorithm have also been verified by an optical experiment. The average relative errors of aerosol extinction coefficients between the Scheimpflug lidar and the conventional backscattering elastic lidar are 3.54% and 2.79% in the full overlap heights of two time points, respectively. This work opens up new possibilities of using a small-scale Scheimpflug lidar system for the remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols.

  16. Improved Model for Depth Bias Correction in Airborne LiDAR Bathymetry Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianhu Zhao

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Airborne LiDAR bathymetry (ALB is efficient and cost effective in obtaining shallow water topography, but often produces a low-accuracy sounding solution due to the effects of ALB measurements and ocean hydrological parameters. In bathymetry estimates, peak shifting of the green bottom return caused by pulse stretching induces depth bias, which is the largest error source in ALB depth measurements. The traditional depth bias model is often applied to reduce the depth bias, but it is insufficient when used with various ALB system parameters and ocean environments. Therefore, an accurate model that considers all of the influencing factors must be established. In this study, an improved depth bias model is developed through stepwise regression in consideration of the water depth, laser beam scanning angle, sensor height, and suspended sediment concentration. The proposed improved model and a traditional one are used in an experiment. The results show that the systematic deviation of depth bias corrected by the traditional and improved models is reduced significantly. Standard deviations of 0.086 and 0.055 m are obtained with the traditional and improved models, respectively. The accuracy of the ALB-derived depth corrected by the improved model is better than that corrected by the traditional model.

  17. Lidar-based reconstruction of wind fields and application for wind turbine control

    OpenAIRE

    Kapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis horizontal, upwind scanning lidar systems of the focused continuous-wave type are regarded for wind turbines. The theory of wind field reconstruction is extended to a five parameter model describing the inflow in non-uniform conditions more accurately. Sensor requirements are derived. A new approach to spherically scan the inflow area is studied experimentally. Expected inaccuracies of the averaged wind direction signal in a wind farm environment are quantified and spatial inho...

  18. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  19. On-field mounting position estimation of a lidar sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Owes; Bergelt, René; Hardt, Wolfram

    2017-10-01

    In order to retrieve a highly accurate view of their environment, autonomous cars are often equipped with LiDAR sensors. These sensors deliver a three dimensional point cloud in their own co-ordinate frame, where the origin is the sensor itself. However, the common co-ordinate system required by HAD (Highly Autonomous Driving) software systems has its origin at the center of the vehicle's rear axle. Thus, a transformation of the acquired point clouds to car co-ordinates is necessary, and thereby the determination of the exact mounting position of the LiDAR system in car coordinates is required. Unfortunately, directly measuring this position is a time-consuming and error-prone task. Therefore, different approaches have been suggested for its estimation which mostly require an exhaustive test-setup and are again time-consuming to prepare. When preparing a high number of LiDAR mounted test vehicles for data acquisition, most approaches fall short due to time or money constraints. In this paper we propose an approach for mounting position estimation which features an easy execution and setup, thus making it feasible for on-field calibration.

  20. Validation of double-pulse 1572 nm integrated path differential absorption lidar measurement of carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Liu, Jiqiao; Bi, Decang; Ma, Xiuhua; Hou, Xia; Zhu, Xiaolei; Chen, Weibiao

    2018-04-01

    A ground-based double-pulse 1572 nm integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar was developed for carbon dioxide (CO2) column concentrations measurement. The lidar measured the CO2 concentrations continuously by receiving the scattered echo signal from a building about 1300 m away. The other two instruments of TDLAS and in-situ CO2 analyzer measured the CO2 concentrations on the same time. A CO2 concentration measurement of 430 ppm with 1.637 ppm standard error was achieved.

  1. i-LOVE: ISS-JEM lidar for observation of vegetation environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Kazuhiro; Sawada, Haruo; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Mizutani, Kohei; Ishii, Shoken; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Shimoda, Haruhisa; Honda, Yoshiaki; Kajiwara, Koji; Takao, Gen; Hirata, Yasumasa; Saigusa, Nobuko; Hayashi, Masatomo; Oguma, Hiroyuki; Saito, Hideki; Awaya, Yoshio; Endo, Takahiro; Imai, Tadashi; Murooka, Jumpei; Kobatashi, Takashi; Suzuki, Keiko; Sato, Ryota

    2012-11-01

    It is very important to watch the spatial distribution of vegetation biomass and changes in biomass over time, representing invaluable information to improve present assessments and future projections of the terrestrial carbon cycle. A space lidar is well known as a powerful remote sensing technology for measuring the canopy height accurately. This paper describes the ISS(International Space Station)-JEM(Japanese Experimental Module)-EF(Exposed Facility) borne vegetation lidar using a two dimensional array detector in order to reduce the root mean square error (RMSE) of tree height due to sloped surface.

  2. Quantifying soil carbon loss and uncertainty from a peatland wildfire using multi-temporal LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Ashwan D.; Hawbaker, Todd J.; Wurster, F.; Zhu, Zhiliang; Ward, S.; Newcomb, Doug; Murray, R.

    2015-01-01

    Peatlands are a major reservoir of global soil carbon, yet account for just 3% of global land cover. Human impacts like draining can hinder the ability of peatlands to sequester carbon and expose their soils to fire under dry conditions. Estimating soil carbon loss from peat fires can be challenging due to uncertainty about pre-fire surface elevations. This study uses multi-temporal LiDAR to obtain pre- and post-fire elevations and estimate soil carbon loss caused by the 2011 Lateral West fire in the Great Dismal Swamp National Wildlife Refuge, VA, USA. We also determine how LiDAR elevation error affects uncertainty in our carbon loss estimate by randomly perturbing the LiDAR point elevations and recalculating elevation change and carbon loss, iterating this process 1000 times. We calculated a total loss using LiDAR of 1.10 Tg C across the 25 km2 burned area. The fire burned an average of 47 cm deep, equivalent to 44 kg C/m2, a value larger than the 1997 Indonesian peat fires (29 kg C/m2). Carbon loss via the First-Order Fire Effects Model (FOFEM) was estimated to be 0.06 Tg C. Propagating the LiDAR elevation error to the carbon loss estimates, we calculated a standard deviation of 0.00009 Tg C, equivalent to 0.008% of total carbon loss. We conclude that LiDAR elevation error is not a significant contributor to uncertainty in soil carbon loss under severe fire conditions with substantial peat consumption. However, uncertainties may be more substantial when soil elevation loss is of a similar or smaller magnitude than the reported LiDAR error.

  3. Analysis of elevation changes detected from multi-temporal LiDAR surveys in forested landslide terrain in western Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, W.J.; Coe, J.A.; Kaya, B.S.; Ma, Liwang

    2010-01-01

    We examined elevation changes detected from two successive sets of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data in the northern Coast Range of Oregon. The first set of LiDAR data was acquired during leafon conditions and the second set during leaf-off conditions. We were able to successfully identify and map active landslides using a differential digital elevation model (DEM) created from the two LiDAR data sets, but this required the use of thresholds (0.50 and 0.75 m) to remove noise from the differential elevation data, visual pattern recognition of landslideinduced elevation changes, and supplemental QuickBird satellite imagery. After mapping, we field-verified 88 percent of the landslides that we had mapped with high confidence, but we could not detect active landslides with elevation changes of less than 0.50 m. Volumetric calculations showed that a total of about 18,100 m3 of material was missing from landslide areas, probably as a result of systematic negative elevation errors in the differential DEM and as a result of removal of material by erosion and transport. We also examined the accuracies of 285 leaf-off LiDAR elevations at four landslide sites using Global Positioning System and total station surveys. A comparison of LiDAR and survey data indicated an overall root mean square error of 0.50 m, a maximum error of 2.21 m, and a systematic error of 0.09 m. LiDAR ground-point densities were lowest in areas with young conifer forests and deciduous vegetation, which resulted in extensive interpolations of elevations in the leaf-on, bare-earth DEM. For optimal use of multi-temporal LiDAR data in forested areas, we recommend that all data sets be flown during leaf-off seasons.

  4. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Tulalip Partnership

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2012, WSI (Watershed Sciences, Inc.) was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC)to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data on a...

  5. 2014 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Willapa Valley (Delivery 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In January, 2014 WSI, a Quantum Spatial (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  6. 2013 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Saddle Mountain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In October 2013, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Company (QSI), was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data...

  7. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  8. 2015 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) LiDAR: WA DNR Lands (P1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — In June 2014, WSI, a Quantum Spatial Inc. (QSI) company, was contracted by the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) to collect Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)...

  9. 2012 MEGIS Topographic Lidar: Statewide Lidar Project Area 1 (Aroostook), Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data is a remotely sensed high resolution elevation data collected by an airborne platform. The LiDAR sensor uses a combination of laser range finding, GPS...

  10. 2009 Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium (PSLC) Topographic LiDAR: Lewis County, Washington

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WSI) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the Lewis County survey area for the Puget Sound LiDAR Consortium. This data...

  11. 2012 MEGIS Topographic Lidar: Statewide Lidar Project Areas 2 and 3 (Mid-Coastal Cleanup), Maine

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LiDAR data is a remotely sensed high resolution elevation data collected by an airborne platform. The LiDAR sensor uses a combination of laser range finding, GPS...

  12. Airborne differential absorption lidar system for water vapor investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browell, E. V.; Carter, A. F.; Wilkerson, T. D.

    1981-01-01

    Range-resolved water vapor measurements using the differential-absorption lidar (DIAL) technique is described in detail. The system uses two independently tunable optically pumped lasers operating in the near infrared with laser pulses of less than 100 microseconds separation, to minimize concentration errors caused by atmospheric scattering. Water vapor concentration profiles are calculated for each measurement by a minicomputer, in real time. The work is needed in the study of atmospheric motion and thermodynamics as well as in forestry and agriculture problems.

  13. Filtering Airborne LIDAR Data by AN Improved Morphological Method Based on Multi-Gradient Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.

    2013-05-01

    The technology of airborne Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) is capable of acquiring dense and accurate 3D geospatial data. Although many related efforts have been made by a lot of researchers in the last few years, LIDAR data filtering is still a challenging task, especially for area with high relief or hybrid geographic features. In order to address the bare-ground extraction from LIDAR point clouds of complex landscapes, a novel morphological filtering algorithm is proposed based on multi-gradient analysis in terms of the characteristic of LIDAR data distribution in this paper. Firstly, point clouds are organized by an index mesh. Then, the multigradient of each point is calculated using the morphological method. And, objects are removed gradually by choosing some points to carry on an improved opening operation constrained by multi-gradient iteratively. 15 sample data provided by ISPRS Working Group III/3 are employed to test the filtering algorithm proposed. These sample data include those environments that may lead to filtering difficulty. Experimental results show that filtering algorithm proposed by this paper is of high adaptability to various scenes including urban and rural areas. Omission error, commission error and total error can be simultaneously controlled in a relatively small interval. This algorithm can efficiently remove object points while preserves ground points to a great degree.

  14. In-Field High-Throughput Phenotyping of Cotton Plant Height Using LiDAR

    OpenAIRE

    Shangpeng Sun; Changying Li; Andrew H. Paterson

    2017-01-01

    A LiDAR-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) system was developed for cotton plant phenotyping in the field. The HTP system consists of a 2D LiDAR and an RTK-GPS mounted on a high clearance tractor. The LiDAR scanned three rows of cotton plots simultaneously from the top and the RTK-GPS was used to provide the spatial coordinates of the point cloud during data collection. Configuration parameters of the system were optimized to ensure the best data quality. A height profile for each plot w...

  15. Medication Errors - A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay BC; Nikhitha MK; Patel Sunil B

    2015-01-01

    In this present review article, regarding medication errors its definition, medication error problem, types of medication errors, common causes of medication errors, monitoring medication errors, consequences of medication errors, prevention of medication error and managing medication errors have been explained neatly and legibly with proper tables which is easy to understand.

  16. Lidar investigations of atmospheric aerosols over Sofia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreischuh, T.; Deleva, A.; Peshev, Z.; Grigorov, I.; Kolarov, G.; Stoyanov, D.

    2016-01-01

    An overview is given of the laser remote sensing of atmospheric aerosols and related processes over the Sofia area performed in the Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, during the last three years. Results from lidar investigations of the optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols obtained in the frame of the European Aerosol Research Lidar Network, as well as from the lidar mapping of near-surface aerosol fields for remote monitoring of atmospheric pollutants are presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. Lidar data used in the COFIN project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing Jørgensen, Hans; Nielsen, Morten

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the Lidar data used in the COFIN project. The Lidar data have been obtained from several ground level dispersion experiments over flat and complex terrain. The method for treating the data and the conditons under which the data wereobtained are described in detail. Finally we...... describe the Tools to extract and visualize the Lidar data. Data, report, and visualisation tools are available on the Risø FTP server....

  18. VEHICLE LOCALIZATION BY LIDAR POINT CORRELATION IMPROVED BY CHANGE DETECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Schlichting

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available LiDAR sensors are proven sensors for accurate vehicle localization. Instead of detecting and matching features in the LiDAR data, we want to use the entire information provided by the scanners. As dynamic objects, like cars, pedestrians or even construction sites could lead to wrong localization results, we use a change detection algorithm to detect these objects in the reference data. If an object occurs in a certain number of measurements at the same position, we mark it and every containing point as static. In the next step, we merge the data of the single measurement epochs to one reference dataset, whereby we only use static points. Further, we also use a classification algorithm to detect trees. For the online localization of the vehicle, we use simulated data of a vertical aligned automotive LiDAR sensor. As we only want to use static objects in this case as well, we use a random forest classifier to detect dynamic scan points online. Since the automotive data is derived from the LiDAR Mobile Mapping System, we are able to use the labelled objects from the reference data generation step to create the training data and further to detect dynamic objects online. The localization then can be done by a point to image correlation method using only static objects. We achieved a localization standard deviation of about 5 cm (position and 0.06° (heading, and were able to successfully localize the vehicle in about 93 % of the cases along a trajectory of 13 km in Hannover, Germany.

  19. Vehicle Localization by LIDAR Point Correlation Improved by Change Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlichting, A.; Brenner, C.

    2016-06-01

    LiDAR sensors are proven sensors for accurate vehicle localization. Instead of detecting and matching features in the LiDAR data, we want to use the entire information provided by the scanners. As dynamic objects, like cars, pedestrians or even construction sites could lead to wrong localization results, we use a change detection algorithm to detect these objects in the reference data. If an object occurs in a certain number of measurements at the same position, we mark it and every containing point as static. In the next step, we merge the data of the single measurement epochs to one reference dataset, whereby we only use static points. Further, we also use a classification algorithm to detect trees. For the online localization of the vehicle, we use simulated data of a vertical aligned automotive LiDAR sensor. As we only want to use static objects in this case as well, we use a random forest classifier to detect dynamic scan points online. Since the automotive data is derived from the LiDAR Mobile Mapping System, we are able to use the labelled objects from the reference data generation step to create the training data and further to detect dynamic objects online. The localization then can be done by a point to image correlation method using only static objects. We achieved a localization standard deviation of about 5 cm (position) and 0.06° (heading), and were able to successfully localize the vehicle in about 93 % of the cases along a trajectory of 13 km in Hannover, Germany.

  20. GRIP LIDAR ATMOSPHERIC SENSING EXPERIMENT (LASE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GRIP Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) dataset was collected by NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system, which is an airborne...

  1. NAMMA LIDAR ATMOSPHERIC SENSING EXPERIMENT (LASE) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) system using the DIAL (Differential Absorption Lidar) system was operated during the NASA African Monsoon...

  2. SAR and LIDAR fusion: experiments and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Matthew C.; Zaugg, Evan C.; Bradley, Joshua P.; Bowden, Ryan D.

    2013-05-01

    In recent years ARTEMIS, Inc. has developed a series of compact, versatile Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) systems which have been operated on a variety of small manned and unmanned aircraft. The multi-frequency-band SlimSAR has demonstrated a variety of capabilities including maritime and littoral target detection, ground moving target indication, polarimetry, interferometry, change detection, and foliage penetration. ARTEMIS also continues to build upon the radar's capabilities through fusion with other sensors, such as electro-optical and infrared camera gimbals and light detection and ranging (LIDAR) devices. In this paper we focus on experiments and applications employing SAR and LIDAR fusion. LIDAR is similar to radar in that it transmits a signal which, after being reflected or scattered by a target area, is recorded by the sensor. The differences are that a LIDAR uses a laser as a transmitter and optical sensors as a receiver, and the wavelengths used exhibit a very different scattering phenomenology than the microwaves used in radar, making SAR and LIDAR good complementary technologies. LIDAR is used in many applications including agriculture, archeology, geo-science, and surveying. Some typical data products include digital elevation maps of a target area and features and shapes extracted from the data. A set of experiments conducted to demonstrate the fusion of SAR and LIDAR data include a LIDAR DEM used in accurately processing the SAR data of a high relief area (mountainous, urban). Also, feature extraction is used in improving geolocation accuracy of the SAR and LIDAR data.

  3. Differential Absorption Lidar to Measure Subhourly Variation of Tropospheric Ozone Profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Shi; Burris, John F.; Newchurch, Michael J.; Johnson, Steve; Long, Stephania

    2011-01-01

    A tropospheric ozone Differential Absorption Lidar system, developed jointly by The University of Alabama in Huntsville and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, is making regular observations of ozone vertical distributions between 1 and 8 km with two receivers under both daytime and nighttime conditions using lasers at 285 and 291 nm. This paper describes the lidar system and analysis technique with some measurement examples. An iterative aerosol correction procedure reduces the retrieval error arising from differential aerosol backscatter in the lower troposphere. Lidar observations with coincident ozonesonde flights demonstrate that the retrieval accuracy ranges from better than 10% below 4 km to better than 20% below 8 km with 750-m vertical resolution and 10-min 17 temporal integration.

  4. Three-dimension imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degnan, John J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    This invention is directed to a 3-dimensional imaging lidar, which utilizes modest power kHz rate lasers, array detectors, photon-counting multi-channel timing receivers, and dual wedge optical scanners with transmitter point-ahead correction to provide contiguous high spatial resolution mapping of surface features including ground, water, man-made objects, vegetation and submerged surfaces from an aircraft or a spacecraft.

  5. Improving salt marsh digital elevation model accuracy with full-waveform lidar and nonparametric predictive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Jeffrey N.; Parrish, Christopher E.; Ward, Larry G.; Burdick, David M.

    2018-03-01

    Salt marsh vegetation tends to increase vertical uncertainty in light detection and ranging (lidar) derived elevation data, often causing the data to become ineffective for analysis of topographic features governing tidal inundation or vegetation zonation. Previous attempts at improving lidar data collected in salt marsh environments range from simply computing and subtracting the global elevation bias to more complex methods such as computing vegetation-specific, constant correction factors. The vegetation specific corrections can be used along with an existing habitat map to apply separate corrections to different areas within a study site. It is hypothesized here that correcting salt marsh lidar data by applying location-specific, point-by-point corrections, which are computed from lidar waveform-derived features, tidal-datum based elevation, distance from shoreline and other lidar digital elevation model based variables, using nonparametric regression will produce better results. The methods were developed and tested using full-waveform lidar and ground truth for three marshes in Cape Cod, Massachusetts, U.S.A. Five different model algorithms for nonparametric regression were evaluated, with TreeNet's stochastic gradient boosting algorithm consistently producing better regression and classification results. Additionally, models were constructed to predict the vegetative zone (high marsh and low marsh). The predictive modeling methods used in this study estimated ground elevation with a mean bias of 0.00 m and a standard deviation of 0.07 m (0.07 m root mean square error). These methods appear very promising for correction of salt marsh lidar data and, importantly, do not require an existing habitat map, biomass measurements, or image based remote sensing data such as multi/hyperspectral imagery.

  6. Parallel Landscape Driven Data Reduction & Spatial Interpolation Algorithm for Big LiDAR Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahil Sharma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR topographic data provide highly accurate digital terrain information, which is used widely in applications like creating flood insurance rate maps, forest and tree studies, coastal change mapping, soil and landscape classification, 3D urban modeling, river bank management, agricultural crop studies, etc. In this paper, we focus mainly on the use of LiDAR data in terrain modeling/Digital Elevation Model (DEM generation. Technological advancements in building LiDAR sensors have enabled highly accurate and highly dense LiDAR point clouds, which have made possible high resolution modeling of terrain surfaces. However, high density data result in massive data volumes, which pose computing issues. Computational time required for dissemination, processing and storage of these data is directly proportional to the volume of the data. We describe a novel technique based on the slope map of the terrain, which addresses the challenging problem in the area of spatial data analysis, of reducing this dense LiDAR data without sacrificing its accuracy. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ever landscape-driven data reduction algorithm. We also perform an empirical study, which shows that there is no significant loss in accuracy for the DEM generated from a 52% reduced LiDAR dataset generated by our algorithm, compared to the DEM generated from an original, complete LiDAR dataset. For the accuracy of our statistical analysis, we perform Root Mean Square Error (RMSE comparing all of the grid points of the original DEM to the DEM generated by reduced data, instead of comparing a few random control points. Besides, our multi-core data reduction algorithm is highly scalable. We also describe a modified parallel Inverse Distance Weighted (IDW spatial interpolation method and show that the DEMs it generates are time-efficient and have better accuracy than the one’s generated by the traditional IDW method.

  7. Drawing for Traffic Marking Using Bidirectional Gradient-Based Detection with MMS LIDAR Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, G.; Takeda, H.; Nakamura, K.

    2016-06-01

    Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014). The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  8. DRAWING FOR TRAFFIC MARKING USING BIDIRECTIONAL GRADIENT-BASED DETECTION WITH MMS LIDAR INTENSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Takahashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the development of autonomous cars is accelerating on the integration of highly advanced artificial intelligence, which increases demand for a digital map with high accuracy. In particular, traffic markings are required to be precisely digitized since automatic driving utilizes them for position detection. To draw traffic markings, we benefit from Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS equipped with high-density Laser imaging Detection and Ranging (LiDAR scanners, which produces large amount of data efficiently with XYZ coordination along with reflectance intensity. Digitizing this data, on the other hand, conventionally has been dependent on human operation, which thus suffers from human errors, subjectivity errors, and low reproductivity. We have tackled this problem by means of automatic extraction of traffic marking, which partially accomplished to draw several traffic markings (G. Takahashi et al., 2014. The key idea of the method was extracting lines using the Hough transform strategically focused on changes in local reflection intensity along scan lines. However, it failed to extract traffic markings properly in a densely marked area, especially when local changing points are close each other. In this paper, we propose a bidirectional gradient-based detection method where local changing points are labelled with plus or minus group. Given that each label corresponds to the boundary between traffic markings and background, we can identify traffic markings explicitly, meaning traffic lines are differentiated correctly by the proposed method. As such, our automated method, a highly accurate and non-human-operator-dependent method using bidirectional gradient-based algorithm, can successfully extract traffic lines composed of complex shapes such as a cross walk, resulting in minimizing cost and obtaining highly accurate results.

  9. Korea-China Joint R and D on Doppler Lidar Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyung Ki; Kim, D. H.; Kwon, S. O.; Yang, K. H.; Song, I. K.

    2009-03-01

    Doppler lidar technology is to monitor atmospheric wind velocity by measuring the light scattering signals between a laser and aerosol particles or molecules existing in the atmosphere. When the particles (or molecules) in the atmosphere are moving by wind force, the frequency of backscattering light is shifted by doppler effect, so that the wind velocity profile can be obtained by measurement of the shifted frequencies. When the laser radiation is scanned in four different direction, three dimensional wind profiles are obtained. The Anhui Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics under the China Academy of Sciences has developed and operated the doppler lidar system for long time. In this project we want to developed a new technologies adopted to the chinese doppler system and to test the updated In the process of collaboration between China and Korea research teams, we want to learn the state-of-art technology involved in the doppler lidar system

  10. Assessment of changes in formations of non-forest woody vegetation in southern Denmark based on airborne LiDAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelidis, Ioannis; Levin, Gregor; Díaz-Varela, Ramón Alberto; Malinowski, Radek

    2017-09-01

    LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) is a remote sensing technology that uses light in the form of pulses to measure the range between a sensor and the Earth's surface. Recent increase in availability of airborne LiDAR scanning (ALS) data providing national coverage with high point densities has opened a wide range of possibilities for monitoring landscape elements and their changes at broad geographical extent. We assessed the dynamics of the spatial extent of non-forest woody vegetation (NFW) in a study area of approx. 2500 km 2 in southern Jutland, Denmark, based on two acquisitions of ALS data for 2006 and 2014 in combination with other spatial data. Our results show a net-increase (4.8%) in the total area of NFW. Furthermore, this net change comprises of both areas with a decrease and areas with an increase of NFW. An accuracy assessment based on visual interpretation of aerial photos indicates high accuracy (>95%) in the delineation of NFW without changes during the study period. For NFW that changed between 2006 and 2014, accuracies were lower (90 and 82% in removed and new features, respectively), which is probably due to lower point densities of the 2006 ALS data (0.5 pts./m 2 ) compared to the 2014 data (4-5 pts./m 2 ). We conclude that ALS data, if combined with other spatial data, in principle are highly suitable for detailed assessment of changes in landscape features, such as formations of NFW at broad geographical extent. However, in change assessment based on multi-temporal ALS data with different point densities errors occur, particularly when examining small or narrow NFW objects.

  11. Error Budgeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinyard, Natalia Sergeevna [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Perry, Theodore Sonne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-04

    We calculate opacity from k (hn)=-ln[T(hv)]/pL, where T(hv) is the transmission for photon energy hv, p is sample density, and L is path length through the sample. The density and path length are measured together by Rutherford backscatter. Δk = $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial T$ ΔT + $\\partial k$\\ $\\partial (pL)$. We can re-write this in terms of fractional error as Δk/k = Δ1n(T)/T + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission itself is calculated from T=(U-E)/(V-E)=B/B0, where B is transmitted backlighter (BL) signal and B0 is unattenuated backlighter signal. Then ΔT/T=Δln(T)=ΔB/B+ΔB0/B0, and consequently Δk/k = 1/T (ΔB/B + ΔB$_0$/B$_0$ + Δ(pL)/(pL). Transmission is measured in the range of 0.2

  12. Research on the space-borne coherent wind lidar technique and the prototype experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Long; Tao, Yuliang; An, Chao; Yang, Jukui; Du, Guojun; Zheng, Yongchao

    2016-10-01

    Space-borne coherent wind lidar technique is considered as one of the most promising and appropriate remote Sensing methods for successfully measuring the whole global vector wind profile between the lower atmosphere and the middle atmosphere. Compared with other traditional methods, the space-borne coherent wind lidar has some advantages, such as, the all-day operation; many lidar systems can be integrated into the same satellite because of the light-weight and the small size, eye-safe wavelength, and being insensitive to the background light. Therefore, this coherent lidar could be widely applied into the earth climate research, disaster monitoring, numerical weather forecast, environment protection. In this paper, the 2μm space-borne coherent wind lidar system for measuring the vector wind profile is proposed. And the technical parameters about the sub-system of the coherent wind lidar are simulated and the all sub-system schemes are proposed. For sake of validating the technical parameters of the space-borne coherent wind lidar system and the optical off-axis telescope, the weak laser signal detection technique, etc. The proto-type coherent wind lidar is produced and the experiments for checking the performance of this proto-type coherent wind lidar are finished with the hard-target and the soft target, and the horizontal wind and the vertical wind profile are measured and calibrated, respectively. For this proto-type coherent wind lidar, the wavelength is 1.54μm, the pulse energy 80μJ, the pulse width 300ns, the diameter of the off-axis telescope 120mm, the single wedge for cone scanning with the 40°angle, and the two dualbalanced InGaAs detector modules are used. The experiment results are well consisted with the simulation process, and these results show that the wind profile between the vertical altitude 4km can be measured, the accuracy of the wind velocity and the wind direction are better than 1m/s and +/-10°, respectively.

  13. ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGIES FOR THE ESTIMATION OF LOCAL POINT DENSITY INDEX: MOVING TOWARDS ADAPTIVE LIDAR DATA PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Lari

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Over the past few years, LiDAR systems have been established as a leading technology for the acquisition of high density point clouds over physical surfaces. These point clouds will be processed for the extraction of geo-spatial information. Local point density is one of the most important properties of the point cloud that highly affects the performance of data processing techniques and the quality of extracted information from these data. Therefore, it is necessary to define a standard methodology for the estimation of local point density indices to be considered for the precise processing of LiDAR data. Current definitions of local point density indices, which only consider the 2D neighbourhood of individual points, are not appropriate for 3D LiDAR data and cannot be applied for laser scans from different platforms. In order to resolve the drawbacks of these methods, this paper proposes several approaches for the estimation of the local point density index which take the 3D relationship among the points and the physical properties of the surfaces they belong to into account. In the simplest approach, an approximate value of the local point density for each point is defined while considering the 3D relationship among the points. In the other approaches, the local point density is estimated by considering the 3D neighbourhood of the point in question and the physical properties of the surface which encloses this point. The physical properties of the surfaces enclosing the LiDAR points are assessed through eigen-value analysis of the 3D neighbourhood of individual points and adaptive cylinder methods. This paper will discuss these approaches and highlight their impact on various LiDAR data processing activities (i.e., neighbourhood definition, region growing, segmentation, boundary detection, and classification. Experimental results from airborne and terrestrial LiDAR data verify the efficacy of considering local point density variation for

  14. Modeling Forest Biomass and Growth: Coupling Long-Term Inventory and Lidar Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Chad; Finley, Andrew O.; Cook, Bruce D.; Weiskittel, Andrew; Woodall, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Combining spatially-explicit long-term forest inventory and remotely sensed information from Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) datasets through statistical models can be a powerful tool for predicting and mapping above-ground biomass (AGB) at a range of geographic scales. We present and examine a novel modeling approach to improve prediction of AGB and estimate AGB growth using LiDAR data. The proposed model accommodates temporal misalignment between field measurements and remotely sensed data-a problem pervasive in such settings-by including multiple time-indexed measurements at plot locations to estimate AGB growth. We pursue a Bayesian modeling framework that allows for appropriately complex parameter associations and uncertainty propagation through to prediction. Specifically, we identify a space-varying coefficients model to predict and map AGB and its associated growth simultaneously. The proposed model is assessed using LiDAR data acquired from NASA Goddard's LiDAR, Hyper-spectral & Thermal imager and field inventory data from the Penobscot Experimental Forest in Bradley, Maine. The proposed model outperformed the time-invariant counterpart models in predictive performance as indicated by a substantial reduction in root mean squared error. The proposed model adequately accounts for temporal misalignment through the estimation of forest AGB growth and accommodates residual spatial dependence. Results from this analysis suggest that future AGB models informed using remotely sensed data, such as LiDAR, may be improved by adapting traditional modeling frameworks to account for temporal misalignment and spatial dependence using random effects.

  15. Specular and diffuse object extraction from a LiDAR derived Digital Surface Model (DSM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraf, N M; Hamid, J R A; Kamaruddin, M H

    2014-01-01

    This paper intents to investigate the indifferent behaviour quantitatively of target objects of interest due to specular and diffuse reflectivity based on generated LiDAR DSM of the study site in Ampang, Kuala Lumpur. The LiDAR data to be used was initially checked for its reliability and accuracy. The point cloud LiDAR data was converted to raster to allow grid analysis of the next process of generating the DSM and DTM. Filtering and masking were made removing the features of interest (i.e. building and tree) and other unwanted above surface features. A normalised DSM and object segmentation approach were conducted on the trees and buildings separately. Error assessment and findings attained were highlighted and documented. The result of LiDAR verification certified that the data is reliable and useable. The RMSE obtained is within the tolerance value of horizontal and vertical accuracy (x, y, z) i.e. 0.159 m, 0.211 m 0.091 m respectively. Building extraction inclusive of roof top based on slope and contour analysis undertaken indicate the capability of the approach while single tree extraction through aspect analysis appears to preserve the accuracy of the extraction accordingly. The paper has evaluated the suitable methods of extracting non-ground features and the effective segmentation of the LiDAR data

  16. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  17. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  18. LIDAR pulse coding for high resolution range imaging at improved refresh rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gunzung; Park, Yongwan

    2016-10-17

    In this study, a light detection and ranging system (LIDAR) was designed that codes pixel location information in its laser pulses using the direct- sequence optical code division multiple access (DS-OCDMA) method in conjunction with a scanning-based microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror. This LIDAR can constantly measure the distance without idle listening time for the return of reflected waves because its laser pulses include pixel location information encoded by applying the DS-OCDMA. Therefore, this emits in each bearing direction without waiting for the reflected wave to return. The MEMS mirror is used to deflect and steer the coded laser pulses in the desired bearing direction. The receiver digitizes the received reflected pulses using a low-temperature-grown (LTG) indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) based photoconductive antenna (PCA) and the time-to-digital converter (TDC) and demodulates them using the DS-OCDMA. When all of the reflected waves corresponding to the pixels forming a range image are received, the proposed LIDAR generates a point cloud based on the time-of-flight (ToF) of each reflected wave. The results of simulations performed on the proposed LIDAR are compared with simulations of existing LIDARs.

  19. Using LiDAR to as a Potential Method for Detection Plastics in Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, G.; Neal, A.; Mielke, R.; Bookhagen, B.

    2010-12-01

    We conducted a series of experiments using Light Detection and Range (LiDAR) technology as an innovative way to detect the presence of plastics in water. The purpose of this study was to determine if LiDAR technology is a feasible, non-intrusive alternative to dredging in the ocean to determine the amount of plastics in the ocean. We used a tripod mounted RIEGL LMS-Z420i terrestrial LiDAR 3-D scanner and the associated operating software RiSCAN Pro. The terrestrial LiDAR is an optical remote sensing technology that measures the reflection of near infared light to find the range of a distant target that is most commonly used to create high precision digital elevation models of terrestrial surfaces. In theory, water should absorb the near infared light, while the plastics should reflect the light. The experiments consisted of different scale models of plastic pellets in water, ranging from a small plastic dish to a large tank to test the range of the LiDAR in different salt and fresh water mediums.

  20. Characterizing Urban Volumetry Using LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T.; Rodrigues, A. M.; Tenedório, J. A.

    2013-05-01

    Urban indicators are efficient tools designed to simplify, quantify and communicate relevant information for land planners. Since urban data has a strong spatial representation, one can use geographical data as the basis for constructing information regarding urban environments. One important source of information about the land status is imagery collected through remote sensing. Afterwards, using digital image processing techniques, thematic detail can be extracted from those images and used to build urban indicators. Most common metrics are based on area (2D) measurements. These include indicators like impervious area per capita or surface occupied by green areas, having usually as primary source a spectral image obtained through a satellite or airborne camera. More recently, laser scanning data has become available for large-scale applications. Such sensors acquire altimetric information and are used to produce Digital Surface Models (DSM). In this context, LiDAR data available for the city is explored along with demographic information, and a framework to produce volumetric (3D) urban indexes is proposed, and measures like Built Volume per capita, Volumetric Density and Volumetric Homogeneity are computed.

  1. Calibration of Raman lidar water vapor profiles by means of AERONET photometer observations and GDAS meteorological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Guangyao; Althausen, Dietrich; Hofer, Julian; Engelmann, Ronny; Seifert, Patric; Bühl, Johannes; Mamouri, Rodanthi-Elisavet; Wu, Songhua; Ansmann, Albert

    2018-05-01

    We present a practical method to continuously calibrate Raman lidar observations of water vapor mixing ratio profiles. The water vapor profile measured with the multiwavelength polarization Raman lidar class="text">PollyXT is calibrated by means of co-located AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) sun photometer observations and Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) temperature and pressure profiles. This method is applied to lidar observations conducted during the Cyprus Cloud Aerosol and Rain Experiment (CyCARE) in Limassol, Cyprus. We use the GDAS temperature and pressure profiles to retrieve the water vapor density. In the next step, the precipitable water vapor from the lidar observations is used for the calibration of the lidar measurements with the sun photometer measurements. The retrieved calibrated water vapor mixing ratio from the lidar measurements has a relative uncertainty of 11 % in which the error is mainly caused by the error of the sun photometer measurements. During CyCARE, nine measurement cases with cloud-free and stable meteorological conditions are selected to calculate the precipitable water vapor from the lidar and the sun photometer observations. The ratio of these two precipitable water vapor values yields the water vapor calibration constant. The calibration constant for the class="text">PollyXT Raman lidar is 6.56 g kg-1 ± 0.72 g kg-1 (with a statistical uncertainty of 0.08 g kg-1 and an instrumental uncertainty of 0.72 g kg-1). To check the quality of the water vapor calibration, the water vapor mixing ratio profiles from the simultaneous nighttime observations with Raman lidar and Vaisala radiosonde sounding are compared. The correlation of the water vapor mixing ratios from these two instruments is determined by using all of the 19 simultaneous nighttime measurements during CyCARE. Excellent agreement with the slope of 1.01 and the R2 of 0.99 is found. One example is presented to demonstrate the full potential of a well-calibrated Raman

  2. Landslide stability analysis on basis of LIDAR data extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hui; Fernandez-Steeger, Tomas M.; Dong, Mei; Azzam, Rafig

    2010-05-01

    Currently, existing contradictory between remediation and acquisition from natural resource induces a series of divergences. With regard to open pit mining, legal regulation requires human to fill back the open pit area with water or recreate new landscape by other materials; on the other hand, human can not help excavating the mining area due to the shortage of power resource. However, to engineering geologists, one coincident problem which takes place not only in filling but also in mining operation should be paid more attention to, i.e. the slope stability analysis within these areas. There are a number of construction activities during remediation or mining process which can directly or indirectly cause slope failure. Lives can be endangered since local failure either while or after remediation; for mining process, slope failure in a bench, which carries a main haul road or is adjacent to human activity area, would be significant catastrophe to the whole mining program. The stability of an individual bench or slope is controlled by several factors, which are geological condition, morphology, climate, excavation techniques and transportation approach. The task which takes the longest time is to collect the morphological data. Consequently, it is one of the most dangerous tasks due to the time consuming in mining field. LIDAR scanning for morphological data collecting can help to skip this obstacle since advantages of LIDAR techniques as follows: • Dynamic range available on the market: from 3 m to beyond 1 km, • Ruggedly designed for demanding field applications, • Compact, easily hand-carried and deployed by a single operator. In 2009, scanning campaigns for 2 open pit quarry have been carried out. The aim for these LIDAR detections is to construct a detailed 3D quarry model and analyze the bench stability to support the filling planning. The 3D quarry surface was built up by using PolyWorks 10.1 on basis of LIDAR data. LIDAR data refining takes an

  3. Development of lidar techniques for environmental studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Mats

    1996-09-01

    The lidar group in Lund has performed many DIAL measurements with a mobile lidar system that was first described in 1987. The lidar system is based on a Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser. During the last few years the lidar group has focused on fluorescence imaging and mercury measurements in the troposphere. In 1994 we performed two campaigns: one fluorescence imaging measurement campaign outside Avignon, France and one unique lidar campaign at a mercury mine in Almaden, Spain. Both campaigns are described in this thesis. This thesis also describes how the mobile lidar system was updated with the graphical programming language LabVIEW to obtain a user friendly lidar system. The software controls the lidar system and analyses measured data. The measurement results are shown as maps of species concentration. All electronics and the major parts of the program are described. A new graphical technique to estimate wind speed from plumes is also discussed. First measurements have been performed with the new system. 31 refs, 19 figs, 1 tab

  4. 2013 NRCS-USGS Lidar: Lauderdale (MS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME:NRCS LAUDERDALE MS 0.7M NPS LIDAR. LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task. USGS Contract No. G10PC00057. Task Order No. G12PD000125 Woolpert...

  5. Infrastructure Investment Protection with LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The primary goal of this research effort was to explore the wide variety of uses of LiDAR technology and to evaluate their : applicability to NCDOT practices. NCDOT can use this information about LiDAR in determining how and when the : technology can...

  6. The ITER Thomson scattering core LIDAR diagnostic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naylor, G.A.; Scannell, R.; Beurskens, M.; Walsh, M.J.; Pastor, I.; Donné, A.J.H.; Snijders, B.; Biel, W.; Meszaros, B.; Giudicotti, L.; Pasqualotto, R.; Marot, L.

    2012-01-01

    The central electron temperature and density of the ITER plasma may be determined by Thomson scattering. A LIDAR topology is proposed in order to minimize the port access required of the ITER vacuum vessel. By using a LIDAR technique, a profile of the electron temperature and density can be

  7. Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME:(NRCS) Saginaw Bay, MI LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01254 Woolpert Order...

  8. 2012 USGS Lidar: Elwha River (WA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: Elwha River, WA LiDAR LiDAR Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G11PD01088 Woolpert Order No....

  9. Calibration of Ground -based Lidar instrument

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Yordanova, Ginka

    This report presents the result of the lidar calibration performed for the given Ground-based Lidar at DTU’s test site for large wind turbines at Høvsøre, Denmark. Calibration is here understood as the establishment of a relation between the reference wind speed measurements with measurement...

  10. 2006 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Aiken County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The LiDAR data acquisition was executed in five sessions, on March 15, 16 & 17, 2006, using a Leica ALS50 LiDAR System. Specific details about the ALS50 system...

  11. 2014 USGS/NRCS Lidar: Central MS

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: USGS-NRCS Laurel MS 0.7m NPS LIDAR Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task USGS Contract No. G10PC00057 Task Order No. G13PD01086 Woolpert...

  12. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li...

  13. Airborne Lidar Simulator for the Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Abshire, James B.; Cavanaugh, John; Valett, Susan; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, the National Research Council (NRC) completed its first decadal survey for Earth science at the request of NASA, NOAA, and USGS. The Lidar Surface Topography (LIST) mission is one of fifteen missions recommended by NRC, whose primary objectives are to map global topography and vegetation structure at 5 m spatial resolution, and to acquire global surface height mapping within a few years. NASA Goddard conducted an initial mission concept study for the LIST mission in 2007, and developed the initial measurement requirements for the mission.

  14. Adjustment of Measurements with Multiplicative Errors: Error Analysis, Estimates of the Variance of Unit Weight, and Effect on Volume Estimation from LiDAR-Type Digital Elevation Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Shi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern observation technology has verified that measurement errors can be proportional to the true values of measurements such as GPS, VLBI baselines and LiDAR. Observational models of this type are called multiplicative error models. This paper is to extend the work of Xu and Shimada published in 2000 on multiplicative error models to analytical error analysis of quantities of practical interest and estimates of the variance of unit weight. We analytically derive the variance-covariance matrices of the three least squares (LS adjustments, the adjusted measurements and the corrections of measurements in multiplicative error models. For quality evaluation, we construct five estimators for the variance of unit weight in association of the three LS adjustment methods. Although LiDAR measurements are contaminated with multiplicative random errors, LiDAR-based digital elevation models (DEM have been constructed as if they were of additive random errors. We will simulate a model landslide, which is assumed to be surveyed with LiDAR, and investigate the effect of LiDAR-type multiplicative error measurements on DEM construction and its effect on the estimate of landslide mass volume from the constructed DEM.

  15. Range Information Characterization of the Hokuyo UST-20LX LIDAR Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew A. Cooper

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the data measurements that the Hokuyo UST-20LX Laser Rangefinder produces, which compiles into an overall characterization of the LiDAR sensor relative to indoor environments. The range measurements, beam divergence, angular resolution, error effect due to some common painted and wooden surfaces, and the error due to target surface orientation are analyzed. It was shown that using a statistical average of sensor measurements provides a more accurate range measurement. It was also shown that the major source of errors for the Hokuyo UST-20LX sensor was caused by something that will be referred to as “mixed pixels”. Additional error sources are target surface material, and the range relative to the sensor. The purpose of this paper was twofold: (1 to describe a series of tests that can be performed to characterize various aspects of a LIDAR system from a user perspective, and (2 present a detailed characterization of the commonly-used Hokuyo UST-20LX LIDAR sensor.

  16. Scanning holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  17. GEOMETRIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT OF LIDAR DATA BASED ON SWATH OVERLAP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sampath

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides guidelines on quantifying the relative horizontal and vertical errors observed between conjugate features in the overlapping regions of lidar data. The quantification of these errors is important because their presence quantifies the geometric quality of the data. A data set can be said to have good geometric quality if measurements of identical features, regardless of their position or orientation, yield identical results. Good geometric quality indicates that the data are produced using sensor models that are working as they are mathematically designed, and data acquisition processes are not introducing any unforeseen distortion in the data. High geometric quality also leads to high geolocation accuracy of the data when the data acquisition process includes coupling the sensor with geopositioning systems. Current specifications (e.g. Heidemann 2014 do not provide adequate means to quantitatively measure these errors, even though they are required to be reported. Current accuracy measurement and reporting practices followed in the industry and as recommended by data specification documents also potentially underestimate the inter-swath errors, including the presence of systematic errors in lidar data. Hence they pose a risk to the user in terms of data acceptance (i.e. a higher potential for Type II error indicating risk of accepting potentially unsuitable data. For example, if the overlap area is too small or if the sampled locations are close to the center of overlap, or if the errors are sampled in flat regions when there are residual pitch errors in the data, the resultant Root Mean Square Differences (RMSD can still be small. To avoid this, the following are suggested to be used as criteria for defining the inter-swath quality of data: a Median Discrepancy Angle b Mean and RMSD of Horizontal Errors using DQM measured on sloping surfaces c RMSD for sampled locations from flat areas (defined as areas with less than 5

  18. Mobile Laser Scanning along Dieppe coastal cliffs: reliability of the acquired point clouds applied to rockfall assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michoud, Clément; Carrea, Dario; Augereau, Emmanuel; Cancouët, Romain; Costa, Stéphane; Davidson, Robert; Delacourt, Chirstophe; Derron, Marc-Henri; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Letortu, Pauline; Maquaire, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Dieppe coastal cliffs, in Normandy, France, are mainly formed by sub-horizontal deposits of chalk and flintstone. Largely destabilized by an intense weathering and the Channel sea erosion, small and large rockfalls are regularly observed and contribute to retrogressive cliff processes. During autumn 2012, cliff and intertidal topographies have been acquired with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) and a Mobile Laser Scanner (MLS), coupled with seafloor bathymetries realized with a multibeam echosounder (MBES). MLS is a recent development of laser scanning based on the same theoretical principles of aerial LiDAR, but using smaller, cheaper and portable devices. The MLS system, which is composed by an accurate dynamic positioning and orientation (INS) devices and a long range LiDAR, is mounted on a marine vessel; it is then possible to quickly acquire in motion georeferenced LiDAR point clouds with a resolution of about 15 cm. For example, it takes about 1 h to scan of shoreline of 2 km long. MLS is becoming a promising technique supporting erosion and rockfall assessments along the shores of lakes, fjords or seas. In this study, the MLS system used to acquire cliffs and intertidal areas of the Cap d'Ailly was composed by the INS Applanix POS-MV 320 V4 and the LiDAR Optech Ilirs LR. On the same day, three MLS scans with large overlaps (J1, J21 and J3) have been performed at ranges from 600 m at 4 knots (low tide) up to 200 m at 2.2 knots (up tide) with a calm sea at 2.5 Beaufort (small wavelets). Mean scan resolutions go from 26 cm for far scan (J1) to about 8.1 cm for close scan (J3). Moreover, one TLS point cloud on this test site has been acquired with a mean resolution of about 2.3 cm, using a Riegl LMS Z390i. In order to quantify the reliability of the methodology, comparisons between scans have been realized with the software Polyworks™, calculating shortest distances between points of one cloud and the interpolated surface of the reference point cloud. A Mat

  19. Calibration Methods for a Space Borne Backscatter Lidar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunz, G.J.

    1996-01-01

    Lidar returns from cloud decks and from the Earth's surface are useful for calibrating single scatter lidar signals from space. To this end analytical methods (forward and backward) are presented for inverting lidar waveforms in terms of the path integrated lidar retum and the transmission losses

  20. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  1. Detecting Multi-layered Forest Stands Using High Density Airborne LiDAR Data. GI_Forum|GI_Forum 2015 – Geospatial Minds for Society|

    OpenAIRE

    Schultz, Alfred; Mund, Jan-Peter; Körner, Michael; Wilke, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Since two decades, the use of terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and Airborne Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) has become very prominent in analysing 3D forest structures (AKAY et al. 2009). The potential of full waveform analysis of high density Airborne LiDAR data (ALS) for the detection and structural analysis of multi-layered forest stands is not yet well investigated (JASKIERNIAK et al. 2011), although ALS data provide exact information on tree heights of multi-layered forest stands usi...

  2. Assessing the Temperature Dependence of Narrow-Band Raman Water Vapor Lidar Measurements: A Practical Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteman, David N.; Venable, Demetrius D.; Walker, Monique; Cardirola, Martin; Sakai, Tetsu; Veselovskii, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Narrow-band detection of the Raman water vapor spectrum using the lidar technique introduces a concern over the temperature dependence of the Raman spectrum. Various groups have addressed this issue either by trying to minimize the temperature dependence to the point where it can be ignored or by correcting for whatever degree of temperature dependence exists. The traditional technique for performing either of these entails accurately measuring both the laser output wavelength and the water vapor spectral passband with combined uncertainty of approximately 0.01 nm. However, uncertainty in interference filter center wavelengths and laser output wavelengths can be this large or larger. These combined uncertainties translate into uncertainties in the magnitude of the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement of 3% or more. We present here an alternate approach for accurately determining the temperature dependence of the Raman lidar water vapor measurement. This alternate approach entails acquiring sequential atmospheric profiles using the lidar while scanning the channel passband across portions of the Raman water vapor Q-branch. This scanning is accomplished either by tilt-tuning an interference filter or by scanning the output of a spectrometer. Through this process a peak in the transmitted intensity can be discerned in a manner that defines the spectral location of the channel passband with respect to the laser output wavelength to much higher accuracy than that achieved with standard laboratory techniques. Given the peak of the water vapor signal intensity curve, determined using the techniques described here, and an approximate knowledge of atmospheric temperature, the temperature dependence of a given Raman lidar profile can be determined with accuracy of 0.5% or better. A Mathematica notebook that demonstrates the calculations used here is available from the lead author.

  3. ASSESSING TEMPORAL BEHAVIOR IN LIDAR POINT CLOUDS OF URBAN ENVIRONMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schachtschneider

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Self-driving cars and robots that run autonomously over long periods of time need high-precision and up-to-date models of the changing environment. The main challenge for creating long term maps of dynamic environments is to identify changes and adapt the map continuously. Changes can occur abruptly, gradually, or even periodically. In this work, we investigate how dense mapping data of several epochs can be used to identify the temporal behavior of the environment. This approach anticipates possible future scenarios where a large fleet of vehicles is equipped with sensors which continuously capture the environment. This data is then being sent to a cloud based infrastructure, which aligns all datasets geometrically and subsequently runs scene analysis on it, among these being the analysis for temporal changes of the environment. Our experiments are based on a LiDAR mobile mapping dataset which consists of 150 scan strips (a total of about 1 billion points, which were obtained in multiple epochs. Parts of the scene are covered by up to 28 scan strips. The time difference between the first and last epoch is about one year. In order to process the data, the scan strips are aligned using an overall bundle adjustment, which estimates the surface (about one billion surface element unknowns as well as 270,000 unknowns for the adjustment of the exterior orientation parameters. After this, the surface misalignment is usually below one centimeter. In the next step, we perform a segmentation of the point clouds using a region growing algorithm. The segmented objects and the aligned data are then used to compute an occupancy grid which is filled by tracing each individual LiDAR ray from the scan head to every point of a segment. As a result, we can assess the behavior of each segment in the scene and remove voxels from temporal objects from the global occupancy grid.

  4. Assessing Temporal Behavior in LIDAR Point Clouds of Urban Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachtschneider, J.; Schlichting, A.; Brenner, C.

    2017-05-01

    Self-driving cars and robots that run autonomously over long periods of time need high-precision and up-to-date models of the changing environment. The main challenge for creating long term maps of dynamic environments is to identify changes and adapt the map continuously. Changes can occur abruptly, gradually, or even periodically. In this work, we investigate how dense mapping data of several epochs can be used to identify the temporal behavior of the environment. This approach anticipates possible future scenarios where a large fleet of vehicles is equipped with sensors which continuously capture the environment. This data is then being sent to a cloud based infrastructure, which aligns all datasets geometrically and subsequently runs scene analysis on it, among these being the analysis for temporal changes of the environment. Our experiments are based on a LiDAR mobile mapping dataset which consists of 150 scan strips (a total of about 1 billion points), which were obtained in multiple epochs. Parts of the scene are covered by up to 28 scan strips. The time difference between the first and last epoch is about one year. In order to process the data, the scan strips are aligned using an overall bundle adjustment, which estimates the surface (about one billion surface element unknowns) as well as 270,000 unknowns for the adjustment of the exterior orientation parameters. After this, the surface misalignment is usually below one centimeter. In the next step, we perform a segmentation of the point clouds using a region growing algorithm. The segmented objects and the aligned data are then used to compute an occupancy grid which is filled by tracing each individual LiDAR ray from the scan head to every point of a segment. As a result, we can assess the behavior of each segment in the scene and remove voxels from temporal objects from the global occupancy grid.

  5. Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m−1 to 1.6e-4 m−1 and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m−1sr−1 and 1.7e-06 m−1sr−1 in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr and summer (33 ± 10 sr. The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind.

  6. The design, development, and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 3: Groundbased lidar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, O.; Aurilio, G.; Bucknam, R. D.; Hurd, A. G.; Robertie, N. F.

    1991-06-01

    This is Volume 3 of a three volume final report on the design, development and test of balloonborne and groundbased lidar systems. Volume 1 describes the design and fabrication of a balloonborne CO2 coherent payload to measure the 10.6 micrometers backscatter from atmospheric aerosols as a function of altitude. Volume 2 describes the August 1987 flight test of Atmospheric Balloonborne Lidar Experiment, ABLE 2. In this volume we describe groundbased lidar development and measurements. A design was developed for installation of the ABLE lidar in the GL rooftop dome. A transportable shed was designed to house the ABLE lidar at the various remote measurement sites. Refurbishment and modification of the ABLE lidar were completed to permit groundbased lidar measurements of clouds and aerosols. Lidar field measurements were made at Ascension Island during SABLE 89. Lidar field measurements were made at Terciera, Azores during GABLE 90. These tasks have been successfully completed, and recommendations for further lidar measurements and data analysis have been made.

  7. Measurement and Study of Lidar Ratio by Using a Raman Lidar in Central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Gong, Wei; Mao, Feiyue; Pan, Zengxin; Liu, Boming

    2016-05-18

    We comprehensively evaluated particle lidar ratios (i.e., particle extinction to backscatter ratio) at 532 nm over Wuhan in Central China by using a Raman lidar from July 2013 to May 2015. We utilized the Raman lidar data to obtain homogeneous aerosol lidar ratios near the surface through the Raman method during no-rain nights. The lidar ratios were approximately 57 ± 7 sr, 50 ± 5 sr, and 22 ± 4 sr under the three cases with obviously different pollution levels. The haze layer below 1.8 km has a large particle extinction coefficient (from 5.4e-4 m(-1) to 1.6e-4 m(-1)) and particle backscatter coefficient (between 1.1e-05 m(-1)sr(-1) and 1.7e-06 m(-1)sr(-1)) in the heavily polluted case. Furthermore, the particle lidar ratios varied according to season, especially between winter (57 ± 13 sr) and summer (33 ± 10 sr). The seasonal variation in lidar ratios at Wuhan suggests that the East Asian monsoon significantly affects the primary aerosol types and aerosol optical properties in this region. The relationships between particle lidar ratios and wind indicate that large lidar ratio values correspond well with weak winds and strong northerly winds, whereas significantly low lidar ratio values are associated with prevailing southwesterly and southerly wind.

  8. [Estimating individual tree aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest using airborne LiDAR technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Tan, Chang; Lei, Pi-Feng

    2014-11-01

    Taking Wugang forest farm in Xuefeng Mountain as the research object, using the airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data under leaf-on condition and field data of concomitant plots, this paper assessed the ability of using LiDAR technology to estimate aboveground biomass of the mid-subtropical forest. A semi-automated individual tree LiDAR cloud point segmentation was obtained by using condition random fields and optimization methods. Spatial structure, waveform characteristics and topography were calculated as LiDAR metrics from the segmented objects. Then statistical models between aboveground biomass from field data and these LiDAR metrics were built. The individual tree recognition rates were 93%, 86% and 60% for coniferous, broadleaf and mixed forests, respectively. The adjusted coefficients of determination (R(2)adj) and the root mean squared errors (RMSE) for the three types of forest were 0.83, 0.81 and 0.74, and 28.22, 29.79 and 32.31 t · hm(-2), respectively. The estimation capability of model based on canopy geometric volume, tree percentile height, slope and waveform characteristics was much better than that of traditional regression model based on tree height. Therefore, LiDAR metrics from individual tree could facilitate better performance in biomass estimation.

  9. Study of the Integration of LIDAR and Photogrammetric Datasets by in Situ Camera Calibration and Integrated Sensor Orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitishita, E.; Costa, F.; Martins, M.

    2017-05-01

    Photogrammetric and Lidar datasets should be in the same mapping or geodetic frame to be used simultaneously in an engineering project. Nowadays direct sensor orientation is a common procedure used in simultaneous photogrammetric and Lidar surveys. Although the direct sensor orientation technologies provide a high degree of automation process due to the GNSS/INS technologies, the accuracies of the results obtained from the photogrammetric and Lidar surveys are dependent on the quality of a group of parameters that models accurately the user conditions of the system at the moment the job is performed. This paper shows the study that was performed to verify the importance of the in situ camera calibration and Integrated Sensor Orientation without control points to increase the accuracies of the photogrammetric and LIDAR datasets integration. The horizontal and vertical accuracies of photogrammetric and Lidar datasets integration by photogrammetric procedure improved significantly when the Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO) approach was performed using Interior Orientation Parameter (IOP) values estimated from the in situ camera calibration. The horizontal and vertical accuracies, estimated by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the 3D discrepancies from the Lidar check points, increased around of 37% and 198% respectively.

  10. STUDY OF THE INTEGRATION OF LIDAR AND PHOTOGRAMMETRIC DATASETS BY IN SITU CAMERA CALIBRATION AND INTEGRATED SENSOR ORIENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mitishita

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Photogrammetric and Lidar datasets should be in the same mapping or geodetic frame to be used simultaneously in an engineering project. Nowadays direct sensor orientation is a common procedure used in simultaneous photogrammetric and Lidar surveys. Although the direct sensor orientation technologies provide a high degree of automation process due to the GNSS/INS technologies, the accuracies of the results obtained from the photogrammetric and Lidar surveys are dependent on the quality of a group of parameters that models accurately the user conditions of the system at the moment the job is performed. This paper shows the study that was performed to verify the importance of the in situ camera calibration and Integrated Sensor Orientation without control points to increase the accuracies of the photogrammetric and LIDAR datasets integration. The horizontal and vertical accuracies of photogrammetric and Lidar datasets integration by photogrammetric procedure improved significantly when the Integrated Sensor Orientation (ISO approach was performed using Interior Orientation Parameter (IOP values estimated from the in situ camera calibration. The horizontal and vertical accuracies, estimated by the Root Mean Square Error (RMSE of the 3D discrepancies from the Lidar check points, increased around of 37% and 198% respectively.

  11. Registration of Laser Scanning Point Clouds: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Chen, Song; Xu, Hao; Wu, Yang; Li, Manchun

    2018-01-01

    The integration of multi-platform, multi-angle, and multi-temporal LiDAR data has become important for geospatial data applications. This paper presents a comprehensive review of LiDAR data registration in the fields of photogrammetry and remote sensing. At present, a coarse-to-fine registration strategy is commonly used for LiDAR point clouds registration. The coarse registration method is first used to achieve a good initial position, based on which registration is then refined utilizing the fine registration method. According to the coarse-to-fine framework, this paper reviews current registration methods and their methodologies, and identifies important differences between them. The lack of standard data and unified evaluation systems is identified as a factor limiting objective comparison of different methods. The paper also describes the most commonly-used point cloud registration error analysis methods. Finally, avenues for future work on LiDAR data registration in terms of applications, data, and technology are discussed. In particular, there is a need to address registration of multi-angle and multi-scale data from various newly available types of LiDAR hardware, which will play an important role in diverse applications such as forest resource surveys, urban energy use, cultural heritage protection, and unmanned vehicles.

  12. 4D Near Real-Time Environmental Monitoring Using Highly Temporal LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höfle, Bernhard; Canli, Ekrem; Schmitz, Evelyn; Crommelinck, Sophie; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Glade, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The last decade has witnessed extensive applications of 3D environmental monitoring with the LiDAR technology, also referred to as laser scanning. Although several automatic methods were developed to extract environmental parameters from LiDAR point clouds, only little research has focused on highly multitemporal near real-time LiDAR (4D-LiDAR) for environmental monitoring. Large potential of applying 4D-LiDAR is given for landscape objects with high and varying rates of change (e.g. plant growth) and also for phenomena with sudden unpredictable changes (e.g. geomorphological processes). In this presentation we will report on the most recent findings of the research projects 4DEMON (http://uni-heidelberg.de/4demon) and NoeSLIDE (https://geomorph.univie.ac.at/forschung/projekte/aktuell/noeslide/). The method development in both projects is based on two real-world use cases: i) Surface parameter derivation of agricultural crops (e.g. crop height) and ii) change detection of landslides. Both projects exploit the "full history" contained in the LiDAR point cloud time series. One crucial initial step of 4D-LiDAR analysis is the co-registration over time, 3D-georeferencing and time-dependent quality assessment of the LiDAR point cloud time series. Due to the high amount of datasets (e.g. one full LiDAR scan per day), the procedure needs to be performed fully automatically. Furthermore, the online near real-time 4D monitoring system requires to set triggers that can detect removal or moving of tie reflectors (used for co-registration) or the scanner itself. This guarantees long-term data acquisition with high quality. We will present results from a georeferencing experiment for 4D-LiDAR monitoring, which performs benchmarking of co-registration, 3D-georeferencing and also fully automatic detection of events (e.g. removal/moving of reflectors or scanner). Secondly, we will show our empirical findings of an ongoing permanent LiDAR observation of a landslide (Gresten

  13. A Survey of LIDAR Technology and Its Use in Spacecraft Relative Navigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, John A.; Cryan, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides a survey of modern LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) sensors from a perspective of how they can be used for spacecraft relative navigation. In addition to LIDAR technology commonly used in space applications today (e.g. scanning, flash), this paper reviews emerging LIDAR technologies gaining traction in other non-aerospace fields. The discussion will include an overview of sensor operating principles and specific pros/cons for each type of LIDAR. This paper provides a comprehensive review of LIDAR technology as applied specifically to spacecraft relative navigation. HE problem of orbital rendezvous and docking has been a consistent challenge for complex space missions since before the Gemini 8 spacecraft performed the first successful on-orbit docking of two spacecraft in 1966. Over the years, a great deal of effort has been devoted to advancing technology associated with all aspects of the rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking (RPOD) flight phase. After years of perfecting the art of crewed rendezvous with the Gemini, Apollo, and Space Shuttle programs, NASA began investigating the problem of autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR&D) to support a host of different mission applications. Some of these applications include autonomous resupply of the International Space Station (ISS), robotic servicing/refueling of existing orbital assets, and on-orbit assembly.1 The push towards a robust AR&D capability has led to an intensified interest in a number of different sensors capable of providing insight into the relative state of two spacecraft. The present work focuses on exploring the state-of-the-art in one of these sensors - LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) sensors. It should be noted that the military community frequently uses the acronym LADAR (LAser Detection And Ranging) to refer to what this paper calls LIDARs. A LIDAR is an active remote sensing device that is typically used in space applications to obtain the range to one or more

  14. Geotechnical applications of LiDAR pertaining to geomechanical evaluation and hazard identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lato, Matthew J.

    Natural hazards related to ground movement that directly affect the safety of motorists and highway infrastructure include, but are not limited to, rockfalls, rockslides, debris flows, and landslides. This thesis specifically deals with the evaluation of rockfall hazards through the evaluation of LiDAR data. Light Detection And Ranging (LiDAR) is an imaging technology that can be used to delineate and evaluate geomechanically-controlled hazards. LiDAR has been adopted to conduct hazard evaluations pertaining to rockfall, rock-avalanches, debris flows, and landslides. Characteristics of LiDAR surveying, such as rapid data acquisition rates, mobile data collection, and high data densities, pose problems to traditional CAD or GIS-based mapping methods. New analyses methods, including tools specifically oriented to geomechanical analyses, are needed. The research completed in this thesis supports development of new methods, including improved survey techniques, innovative software workflows, and processing algorithms to aid in the detection and evaluation of geomechanically controlled rockfall hazards. The scientific research conducted between the years of 2006-2010, as presented in this thesis, are divided into five chapters, each of which has been published by or is under review by an international journal. The five research foci are: (i) geomechanical feature extraction and analysis using LiDAR data in active mining environments; (ii) engineered monitoring of rockfall hazards along transportation corridors: using mobile terrestrial LiDAR; (iii) optimization of LiDAR scanning and processing for automated structural evaluation of discontinuities in rockmasses; (iv) location orientation bias when using static LiDAR data for geomechanical analysis; and (v) evaluating roadside rockmasses for rockfall hazards from LiDAR data: optimizing data collection and processing protocols. The research conducted pertaining to this thesis has direct and significant implications with

  15. Errors, error detection, error correction and hippocampal-region damage: data and theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, Donald G; Johnson, Laura W

    2013-11-01

    This review and perspective article outlines 15 observational constraints on theories of errors, error detection, and error correction, and their relation to hippocampal-region (HR) damage. The core observations come from 10 studies with H.M., an amnesic with cerebellar and HR damage but virtually no neocortical damage. Three studies examined the detection of errors planted in visual scenes (e.g., a bird flying in a fish bowl in a school classroom) and sentences (e.g., I helped themselves to the birthday cake). In all three experiments, H.M. detected reliably fewer errors than carefully matched memory-normal controls. Other studies examined the detection and correction of self-produced errors, with controls for comprehension of the instructions, impaired visual acuity, temporal factors, motoric slowing, forgetting, excessive memory load, lack of motivation, and deficits in visual scanning or attention. In these studies, H.M. corrected reliably fewer errors than memory-normal and cerebellar controls, and his uncorrected errors in speech, object naming, and reading aloud exhibited two consistent features: omission and anomaly. For example, in sentence production tasks, H.M. omitted one or more words in uncorrected encoding errors that rendered his sentences anomalous (incoherent, incomplete, or ungrammatical) reliably more often than controls. Besides explaining these core findings, the theoretical principles discussed here explain H.M.'s retrograde amnesia for once familiar episodic and semantic information; his anterograde amnesia for novel information; his deficits in visual cognition, sentence comprehension, sentence production, sentence reading, and object naming; and effects of aging on his ability to read isolated low frequency words aloud. These theoretical principles also explain a wide range of other data on error detection and correction and generate new predictions for future test. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. IEA Wind Task 32: Wind lidar identifying and mitigating barriers to the adoption of wind lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clifton, Andrew; Clive, Peter; Gottschall, Julia

    2018-01-01

    IEA Wind Task 32 exists to identify and mitigate barriers to the adoption of lidar for wind energy applications. It leverages ongoing international research and development activities in academia and industry to investigate site assessment, power performance testing, controls and loads, and complex...... flows. Since its initiation in 2011, Task 32 has been responsible for several recommended practices and expert reports that have contributed to the adoption of ground-based, nacelle-based, and floating lidar by the wind industry. Future challenges include the development of lidar uncertainty models......, best practices for data management, and developing community-based tools for data analysis, planning of lidar measurements and lidar configuration. This paper describes the barriers that Task 32 identified to the deployment of wind lidar in each of these application areas, and the steps that have been...

  17. MERLIN: a Franco-German LIDAR space mission for atmospheric methane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, P.; Ehret, G.; Pierangelo, C.; Marshall, J.; Bacour, C.; Chevallier, F.; Gibert, F.; Armante, R.; Crevoisier, C. D.; Edouart, D.; Esteve, F.; Julien, E.; Kiemle, C.; Alpers, M.; Millet, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission (MERLIN), currently in phase C, is a joint cooperation between France and Germany on the development, launch and operation of a space LIDAR dedicated to the retrieval of total weighted methane (CH4) atmospheric columns. Atmospheric methane is the second most potent anthropogenic greenhouse gas, contributing 20% to climate radiative forcing but also plying an important role in atmospheric chemistry as a precursor of tropospheric ozone and low-stratosphere water vapour. Its short lifetime ( 9 years) and the nature and variety of its anthropogenic sources also offer interesting mitigation options in regards to the 2° objective of the Paris agreement. For the first time, measurements of atmospheric composition will be performed from space thanks to an IPDA (Integrated Path Differential Absorption) LIDAR (Light Detecting And Ranging), with a precision (target ±27 ppb for a 50km aggregation along the trace) and accuracy (target recall the MERLIN objectives and mission characteristics. We also propose an end-to-end error analysis, from the causes of random and systematic errors of the instrument, of the platform and of the data treatment, to the error on methane emissions. To do so, we propose an OSSE analysis (observing system simulation experiment) to estimate the uncertainty reduction on methane emissions brought by MERLIN XCH4. The originality of our inversion system is to transfer both random and systematic errors from the observation space to the flux space, thus providing more realistic error reductions than usually provided in OSSE only using the random part of errors. Uncertainty reductions are presented using two different atmospheric transport models, TM3 and LMDZ, and compared with error reduction achieved with the GOSAT passive mission.

  18. Topographic lidar survey of the Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana, February 6, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Kristy K.; Plant, Nathaniel G.; Bonisteel-Cormier, Jamie M.

    2014-01-01

    This Data Series Report contains lidar elevation data collected February 6, 2012, for Chandeleur Islands, Louisiana. Point cloud data in lidar data exchange format (LAS) and bare earth digital elevation models (DEMs) in ERDAS Imagine raster format (IMG) are available as downloadable files. The point cloud data—data points described in three dimensions—were processed to extract bare earth data; therefore, the point cloud data are organized into the following classes: 1– and 17–unclassified, 2–ground, 9–water, and 10–breakline proximity. Digital Aerial Solutions, LLC, (DAS) was contracted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to collect and process these data. The lidar data were acquired at a horizontal spacing (or nominal pulse spacing) of 0.5 meters (m) or less. The USGS conducted two ground surveys in small areas on the Chandeleur Islands on February 5, 2012. DAS calculated a root mean square error (RMSEz) of 0.034 m by comparing the USGS ground survey point data to triangulated irregular network (TIN) models built from the lidar elevation data. This lidar survey was conducted to document the topography and topographic change of the Chandeleur Islands. The survey supports detailed studies of Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama barrier islands that resolve annual and episodic changes in beaches, berms and dunes associated with processes driven by storms, sea-level rise, and even human restoration activities. These lidar data are available to Federal, State and local governments, emergency-response officials, resource managers, and the general public.

  19. Approach to simultaneously denoise and invert backscatter and extinction from photon-limited atmospheric lidar observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marais, Willem J; Holz, Robert E; Hu, Yu Hen; Kuehn, Ralph E; Eloranta, Edwin E; Willett, Rebecca M

    2016-10-10

    Atmospheric lidar observations provide a unique capability to directly observe the vertical column of cloud and aerosol scattering properties. Detector and solar-background noise, however, hinder the ability of lidar systems to provide reliable backscatter and extinction cross-section estimates. Standard methods for solving this inverse problem are most effective with high signal-to-noise ratio observations that are only available at low resolution in uniform scenes. This paper describes a novel method for solving the inverse problem with high-resolution, lower signal-to-noise ratio observations that are effective in non-uniform scenes. The novelty is twofold. First, the inferences of the backscatter and extinction are applied to images, whereas current lidar algorithms only use the information content of single profiles. Hence, the latent spatial and temporal information in noisy images are utilized to infer the cross-sections. Second, the noise associated with photon-counting lidar observations can be modeled using a Poisson distribution, and state-of-the-art tools for solving Poisson inverse problems are adapted to the atmospheric lidar problem. It is demonstrated through photon-counting high spectral resolution lidar (HSRL) simulations that the proposed algorithm yields inverted backscatter and extinction cross-sections (per unit volume) with smaller mean squared error values at higher spatial and temporal resolutions, compared to the standard approach. Two case studies of real experimental data are also provided where the proposed algorithm is applied on HSRL observations and the inverted backscatter and extinction cross-sections are compared against the standard approach.

  20. Properties of horizontally oriented ice crystals observed by polarization lidar over summit, Greenland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neely Ryan R.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A source of error in microphysical retrievals and model simulations is the assumption that clouds are composed of only randomly oriented ice crystals. This assumption is frequently not true, as evidenced by optical phenomena such as parhelia. Here, observations from the Cloud, Aerosol and Polarization Backscatter Lidar at Summit, Greenland are utilized along with other sensors and beam imaging to examine the properties of horizontally oriented ice crystals and the environment conditions in which they occur.

  1. Modeling coherent errors in quantum error correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Dutton, Zachary

    2018-01-01

    Analysis of quantum error correcting codes is typically done using a stochastic, Pauli channel error model for describing the noise on physical qubits. However, it was recently found that coherent errors (systematic rotations) on physical data qubits result in both physical and logical error rates that differ significantly from those predicted by a Pauli model. Here we examine the accuracy of the Pauli approximation for noise containing coherent errors (characterized by a rotation angle ɛ) under the repetition code. We derive an analytic expression for the logical error channel as a function of arbitrary code distance d and concatenation level n, in the small error limit. We find that coherent physical errors result in logical errors that are partially coherent and therefore non-Pauli. However, the coherent part of the logical error is negligible at fewer than {ε }-({dn-1)} error correction cycles when the decoder is optimized for independent Pauli errors, thus providing a regime of validity for the Pauli approximation. Above this number of correction cycles, the persistent coherent logical error will cause logical failure more quickly than the Pauli model would predict, and this may need to be combated with coherent suppression methods at the physical level or larger codes.

  2. Clear-air lidar dark band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolamo, Paolo Di; Scoccione, Andrea; Cacciani, Marco; Summa, Donato; Schween, Jan H.

    2018-04-01

    This paper illustrates measurements carried out by the Raman lidar BASIL in the frame of HOPE, revealing the presence of a clear-air dark band phenomenon (i.e. the appearance of a minimum in lidar backscatter echoes) in the upper portion of the convective boundary layer. The phenomenon is clearly distinguishable in the lidar backscatter echoes at 1064 nm. This phenomenon is attributed to the presence of lignite aerosol particles advected from the surrounding open pit mines in the vicinity of the measuring site.

  3. What Good is Raman Water Vapor Lidar?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, David

    2011-01-01

    Raman lidar has been used to quantify water vapor in the atmosphere for various scientific studies including mesoscale meteorology and satellite validation. Now the international networks of NDACC and GRUAN have interest in using Raman water vapor lidar for detecting trends in atmospheric water vapor concentrations. What are the data needs for addressing these very different measurement challenges. We will review briefly the scientific needs for water vapor accuracy for each of these three applications and attempt to translate that into performance specifications for Raman lidar in an effort to address the question in the title of "What good is Raman water vapor Iidar."

  4. Multiangle lidar observations of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalitkumar Prakash, Pawar; Choukiker, Yogesh Kumar; Raghunath, K.

    2018-04-01

    Atmospheric Lidars are used extensively to get aerosol parameters like backscatter coefficient, backscatter ratio etc. National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki (13°N, 79°E), India has a powerful lidar which has alt-azimuth capability. Inversion method is applied to data from observations of lidar system at different azimuth and elevation angles. Data Analysis is described and Observations in 2D and 3D format are discussed. Presence of Cloud and the variation of backscatter parameters are seen in an interesting manner.

  5. Multiangle lidar observations of the Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalitkumar Prakash Pawar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Lidars are used extensively to get aerosol parameters like backscatter coefficient, backscatter ratio etc. National Atmospheric Research Laboratory, Gadanki (13°N, 79°E, India has a powerful lidar which has alt-azimuth capability. Inversion method is applied to data from observations of lidar system at different azimuth and elevation angles. Data Analysis is described and Observations in 2D and 3D format are discussed. Presence of Cloud and the variation of backscatter parameters are seen in an interesting manner.

  6. New Generation Lidar Technology and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinhirne, James D.

    1999-01-01

    Lidar has been a tool for atmospheric research for several decades. Until recently routine operational use of lidar was not known. Problems have involved a lack of appropriate technology rather than a lack of applications. Within the last few years, lidar based on a new generation of solid state lasers and detectors have changed the situation. Operational applications for cloud and aerosol research applications are now well established. In these research applications, the direct height profiling capability of lidar is typically an adjunct to other types of sensing, both passive and active. Compact eye safe lidar with the sensitivity for ground based monitoring of all significant cloud and aerosol structure and the reliability to operate full time for several years is now in routine use. The approach is known as micro pulse lidar (MPL). For MPL the laser pulse repetition rate is in the kilohertz range and the pulse energies are in the micro-Joule range. The low pulse energy permits the systems to be eye safe and reliable with solid state lasers. A number of MPL systems have been deployed since 1992 at atmospheric research sites at a variety of global locations. Accurate monitoring of cloud and aerosol vertical distribution is a critical measurement for atmospheric radiation. An airborne application of lidar cloud and aerosol profiling is retrievals of parameters from combined lidar and passive sensing involving visible, infrared and microwave frequencies. A lidar based on a large pulse, solid state diode pumped ND:YAG laser has been deployed on the NASA ER-2 high altitude research aircraft along with multi-spectral visible/IR and microwave imaging radiometers since 1993. The system has shown high reliability in an extensive series of experimental projects for cloud remote sensing. The retrieval of cirrus radiation parameters is an effective application for combined lidar and passive sensing. An approved NASA mission will soon begin long term lidar observation of

  7. Wind measurement via direct detection lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, I.; Sela, N.; Narkiss, N.; Shamai, G.; Tsadka, S.

    2013-10-01

    Wind sensing Lidar is considered a promising technology for high quality wind measurements required for various applications such as hub height wind resource assessment, power curve measurements and advanced, real time, forward looking turbine control. Until recently, the only available Lidar technology was based on coherent Doppler shift detection, whose market acceptance has been slow primarily due to its exuberant price. Direct detection Lidar technology provides an alternative to remote sensing of wind by incorporating high precision measurement, a robust design and an affordable price tag.

  8. Detectors for LIDAR type Thomson scattering diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, K.

    1991-04-01

    A report on the capability of the microchannel plate photomultiplier type (ITT F4128) presently used at the JET LIDAR Thomson Scattering System is given. Detailed investigation on time response, low noise amplification, shutter ratio, gating behaviour, linear mode of operation and saturation pulse recovery carried out during the design phase for LIDAR are presented. New investigation with respect to dc- and gated operation showed no measurable changes in sensitivity of this MCP photomultiplier. Comparing this type of detector with other MCP photomultipliers and with streak cameras some detection schemes for future LIDAR type diagnostic are proposed. (orig.)

  9. Detecting wind turbine wakes with nacelle lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Held, D. P.; Larvol, A.; Mann, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    variance is used as a detection parameter for wakes. A one month long measurement campaign, where a continuous-wave lidar on a turbine has been exposed to multiple wake situations, is used to test the detection capabilities. The results show that it is possible to identify situation where a downstream...... turbine is in wake by comparing the peak widths. The used lidar is inexpensive and brings instalments on every turbine within economical reach. Thus, the information gathered by the lidars can be used for improved control at wind farm level....

  10. LIDAR for atmosphere research over Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sivakumar, V

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available d’aéronomie, CNRS, Paris, France 1Email: SVenkataraman@csir.co.za – www.csir.co.za K-6665 [www.kashangroup.com] Lidar for atmospheric studies: The CSIR’s laser research into monitoring various pollutants in the lower atmosphere via... to lidar applications for atmosphere studies including pollutant monitoring. The following salient features emanated from the survey: • Around 80% of the lidars are in the northern hemisphere • Of the 20% in the southern hemisphere region...

  11. Towards 4d Virtual City Reconstruction from LIDAR Point Cloud Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Józsa, O.; Börcs, A.; Benedek, C.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we propose a joint approach on virtual city reconstruction and dynamic scene analysis based on point cloud sequences of a single car-mounted Rotating Multi-Beam (RMB) Lidar sensor. The aim of the addressed work is to create 4D spatio-temporal models of large dynamic urban scenes containing various moving and static objects. Standalone RMB Lidar devices have been frequently applied in robot navigation tasks and proved to be efficient in moving object detection and recognition. However, they have not been widely exploited yet for geometric approximation of ground surfaces and building facades due to the sparseness and inhomogeneous density of the individual point cloud scans. In our approach we propose an automatic registration method of the consecutive scans without any additional sensor information such as IMU, and introduce a process for simultaneously extracting reconstructed surfaces, motion information and objects from the registered dense point cloud completed with point time stamp information.

  12. Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen

    2014-01-01

    dimensional turbulent wind field in real-time, scanned by a lidar system with an optimized trajectory

  13. High Spectral Resolution Lidar and MPLNET Micro Pulse Lidar Aerosol Optical Property Retrieval Intercomparison During the 2012 7-SEAS Field Campaign at Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolli, Simone; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Campbell, James R.; Eloranta, Edwin; Holben, Brent N.; Chew, Boon Ning; Salinas, Santo V.

    2014-01-01

    From August 2012 to February 2013 a High Resolution Spectral Lidar (HSRL; 532 nm) was deployed at that National University of Singapore near a NASA Micro Pulse Lidar NETwork (MPLNET; 527 nm) site. A primary objective of the MPLNET lidar project is the production and dissemination of reliable Level 1 measurements and Level 2 retrieval products. This paper characterizes and quantifies error in Level 2 aerosol optical property retrievals conducted through inversion techniques that derive backscattering and extinction coefficients from MPLNET elastic single-wavelength datasets. MPLNET Level 2 retrievals for aerosol optical depth and extinction/backscatter coefficient profiles are compared with corresponding HSRL datasets, for which the instrument collects direct measurements of each using a unique optical configuration that segregates aerosol and cloud backscattered signal from molecular signal. The intercomparison is performed, and error matrices reported, for lower (0-5km) and the upper (>5km) troposphere, respectively, to distinguish uncertainties observed within and above the MPLNET instrument optical overlap regime.

  14. Impact of pitch angle fluctuations on airborne lidar forward sensing along the flight direction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeevich Gurvich, Alexander; Alexeevich Kulikov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Airborne lidar forward sensing along the flight direction can serve for notification of clear air turbulence (CAT) and help to prevent injuries or fatal air accidents. The validation of this concept was presented in the framework of the DELICAT (DEmonstration of LIdar-based CAT detection) project. However, the strong variations in signal level, which were observed during the DELICAT measurements but not explained, sometimes indicated the need of a better understanding the observational errors due to geometrical factors. In this paper, we discuss possible error sources pertinent to this technique, related to fluctuations of the flight parameters, which may lead to strong signal variations caused by the random deviations of the sensing beam from the forward flight trajectory. We analyze the variations in backscattered lidar signal caused by fluctuations of the most important forward-sensing flight parameter, the pitch angle. The fluctuation values considered in the paper correspond to the error limits of the compensational gyro platform used in civil aviation. The part of the pitch angle fluctuations not compensated for by the beam-steering device in the presence of aerosol concentration variations can lead to noticeable signal variations that can be mistakenly attributed to wind shear, turbulence, or fast evolution of the aerosol layer. We formulate the criteria that allow the recognition of signal variations caused by pitch angle fluctuations. Influence of these fluctuations is shown to be stronger for aerosol variations on smaller vertical scales. An example of DELICAT observations indicating a noticeable pitch angle fluctuation impact is presented.

  15. CLASSIFICATION OF WATER SURFACES USING AIRBORNE TOPOGRAPHIC LIDAR DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Smeeckaert

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Accurate Digital Terrain Models (DTM are inevitable inputs for mapping areas subject to natural hazards. Topographic airborne laser scanning has become an established technique to characterize the Earth surface: lidar provides 3D point clouds allowing a fine reconstruction of the topography. For flood hazard modeling, the key step before terrain modeling is the discrimination of land and water surfaces within the delivered point clouds. Therefore, instantaneous shoreline, river borders, inland waters can be extracted as a basis for more reliable DTM generation. This paper presents an automatic, efficient, and versatile workflow for land/water classification of airborne topographic lidar data. For that purpose, a classification framework based on Support Vector Machines (SVM is designed. First, a restricted set of features, based only 3D lidar point coordinates and flightline information, is defined. Then, the SVM learning step is performed on small but well-targeted areas thanks to an automatic region growing strategy. Finally, label probabilities given by the SVM are merged during a probabilistic relaxation step in order to remove pixel-wise misclassification. Results show that survey of millions of points are labelled with high accuracy (>95% in most cases for coastal areas, and >89% for rivers and that small natural and anthropic features of interest are still well classified though we work at low point densities (0.5–4 pts/m2. Our approach is valid for coasts and rivers, and provides a strong basis for further discrimination of land-cover classes and coastal habitats.

  16. Wind turbine wake visualization and characteristics analysis by Doppler lidar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Songhua; Liu, Bingyi; Liu, Jintao; Zhai, Xiaochun; Feng, Changzhong; Wang, Guining; Zhang, Hongwei; Yin, Jiaping; Wang, Xitao; Li, Rongzhong; Gallacher, Daniel

    2016-05-16

    Wind power generation is growing fast as one of the most promising renewable energy sources that can serve as an alternative to fossil fuel-generated electricity. When the wind turbine generator (WTG) extracts power from the wind, the wake evolves and leads to a considerable reduction in the efficiency of the actual power generation. Furthermore, the wake effect can lead to the increase of turbulence induced fatigue loads that reduce the life time of WTGs. In this work, a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (PCDL) has been developed and deployed to visualize wind turbine wakes and to characterize the geometry and dynamics of wakes. As compared with the commercial off-the-shelf coherent lidars, the PCDL in this work has higher updating rate of 4 Hz and variable physical spatial resolution from 15 to 60 m, which improves its capability to observation the instantaneous turbulent wind field. The wind speed estimation method from the arc scan technique was evaluated in comparison with wind mast measurements. Field experiments were performed to study the turbulent wind field in the vicinity of operating WTGs in the onshore and offshore wind parks from 2013 to 2015. Techniques based on a single and a dual Doppler lidar were employed for elucidating main features of turbine wakes, including wind velocity deficit, wake dimension, velocity profile, 2D wind vector with resolution of 10 m, turbulence dissipation rate and turbulence intensity under different conditions of surface roughness. The paper shows that the PCDL is a practical tool for wind energy research and will provide a significant basis for wind farm site selection, design and optimization.

  17. Fast Edge Detection and Segmentation of Terrestrial Laser Scans Through Normal Variation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, E.; Olsen, M. J.

    2017-09-01

    Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) utilizes light detection and ranging (lidar) to effectively and efficiently acquire point cloud data for a wide variety of applications. Segmentation is a common procedure of post-processing to group the point cloud into a number of clusters to simplify the data for the sequential modelling and analysis needed for most applications. This paper presents a novel method to rapidly segment TLS data based on edge detection and region growing. First, by computing the projected incidence angles and performing the normal variation analysis, the silhouette edges and intersection edges are separated from the smooth surfaces. Then a modified region growing algorithm groups the points lying on the same smooth surface. The proposed method efficiently exploits the gridded scan pattern utilized during acquisition of TLS data from most sensors and takes advantage of parallel programming to process approximately 1 million points per second. Moreover, the proposed segmentation does not require estimation of the normal at each point, which limits the errors in normal estimation propagating to segmentation. Both an indoor and outdoor scene are used for an experiment to demonstrate and discuss the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed segmentation method.

  18. Mixed layer depths via Doppler lidar during low-level jet events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Brian; Demoz, Belay; Bonin, Timothy; Delgado, Ruben

    2018-04-01

    A low-level jet (LLJ) is a prominent wind speed peak in the lower troposphere. Nocturnal LLJs have been shown to transport and mix atmospheric constituents from the residual layer down to the surface, breaching quiescent nocturnal conditions due to high wind shear. A new fuzzy logic algorithm combining turbulence and aerosol information from Doppler lidar scans can resolve the strength and depth of this mixing below the jet. Conclusions will be drawn about LLJ relations to turbulence and mixing.

  19. Use of LiDAR to Assist in Delineating Waters of the United States, Including Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    components: a mounting platform, a laser and scanning mirror, an inertial measurement unit (IMU), a global positioning system (GPS) antenna and...including but not limited to TIFF, ASC , IMG, and KML files or compressed as a KMZ file. These files are quickly imported and viewed using GIS such as...sediment transport processes and hydraulics. Sedimentology 56:2024–2043. Hogg, A., and J. Holland. 2008. An evaluation of DEMs derived from LiDAR

  20. Frequency Stepped Pulse Train Modulated Wind Sensing Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Sig; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    of frequency shifts corresponding to a specific distance. The spatial resolution depends on the repetition rate of the pulses in the pulse train. Directional wind measurements are shown and compared to a CW lidar measurement. The carrier to noise ratio of the FSPT lidar compared to a CW lidar is discussed......In this paper a wind sensing lidar utilizing a Frequency Stepped Pulse Train (FSPT) is demonstrated. One of the advantages in the FSTP lidar is that it enables direct measurement of wind speed as a function of distance from the lidar. Theoretically the FSPT lidar continuously produces measurements...... as is the case with a CW lidar, but at the same time with a spatial resolution, and without the range ambiguity originating from e.g. clouds. The FSPT lidar utilizes a frequency sweeping source for generation of the FSPT. The source generates a pulse train where each pulse has an optical carrier frequency...

  1. 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lidar - Midway Atoll

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted with Hawaii-based Aerial Surveying, Inc. to collect lidar-derived elevation data over the low-lying areas within the...

  2. 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lidar - Laysan Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted with Hawaii-based Aerial Surveying, Inc. to collect lidar-derived elevation data over the low-lying areas within the...

  3. 2012 OLC Lidar: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  4. 2012 OLC Lidar DEM: West Metro, Oregon

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — WSI has collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Oregon West Metro Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI)....

  5. 2013 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Greenville County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Group provided high accuracy, calibrated multiple return LiDAR for roughly 1,510 square miles covering both Greenville and Spartanburg counties, South...

  6. 2006 NOAA Bathymetric Lidar: Puerto Rico (Southwest)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set (Project Number OPR-I305-KRL-06) depicts depth values (mean 5 meter gridded) collected using LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) from the shoreline...

  7. USGS Atchafalaya 2 LiDAR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) dataset is a survey of the Atchafalaya Basin project area. The entire survey area for Atchafalaya encompasses approximately...

  8. 2004 Harrison County, Mississippi Lidar Mapping

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This metadata record describes the topographic mapping of Harrison County, Mississippi in March of 2004. Products generated include lidar point clouds in .LAS format...

  9. 2015 Cook & Tift County (GA) Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — TASK NAME: NOAA OCM Tift and Cook Counties GA Lidar Data Acquisition and Processing Production Task NOAA Contract No. EA133C-11-CQ-0010 Woolpert Order No. 75271...

  10. 2010 ARRA Lidar: Golden Gate (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Golden Gate LiDAR Project is a cooperative project sponsored by the US Geological Survey (USGS) and San Francisco State University (SFSU) that has resulted in...

  11. 2012 USGS Lidar: Brooks Camp (AK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) had a requirement for high resolution Lidar needed for mapping the Brooks Camp region of Katmai National Park in Alaska....

  12. 2005 Oahu/Maui Lidar Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LIDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an airborne collection platform. Using a combination of laser rangefinding, GPS positioning...

  13. 2004 USGS Lidar: San Francisco Bay (CA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Lidar (Light detection and ranging) discrete-return point cloud data are available in the American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (ASPRS) LAS format....

  14. 2010 ARRA Lidar: Eleven County Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Terrapoint and LMSI collected LiDAR for over 2,572 square miles in Northumberland, Lancaster, Middlesex, King and Queen, Matthews, Gloucester, James City,...

  15. 2012 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Edgefield County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towill Inc. collected LiDAR for over 3,300 square miles in Calhoun, Aiken, Barnwell, Edgefield, McCormick, and Abbeville counties in South Carolina. This metadata...

  16. 2007 Sumpter Powder River Mine Lidar

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. (WS) collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data for the USDA Forest Service on September 17, 2007. The project covers an 8-mile...

  17. 2009 - 2011 OLC Lidar DEM: Deschutes (OR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Watershed Sciences, Inc. collected Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data of the Deschutes Study Area for the Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries...

  18. 2008 USGS New Jersey Lidar: Somerset County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data support the general geospatial needs of the USGS and other federal agencies. LiDAR data is remotely sensed high-resolution elevation data collected by an...

  19. 2016 USGS Lidar: Maine QL2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Product: This lidar data set includes classified LAS files, breaklines, digital elevation models (DEMs), intensity imagery, and contours. Geographic Extent: Four...

  20. 2013 South Carolina DNR Lidar: Beaufort County

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — LMSI provided high accuracy, calibrated multiple return LiDAR for roughly 785 square miles covering Beaufort County, South Carolina. The nominal point spacing for...