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Sample records for scanning fuel

  1. Alternative Measuring Approaches in Gamma Scanning on Spent Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sihm Kvenangen, Karen

    2007-06-15

    In the future, the demand for energy is predicted to grow and more countries plan to utilize nuclear energy as their source of electric energy. This gives rise to many important issues connected to nuclear energy, such as finding methods that can verify that the spent nuclear fuel has been handled safely and used in ordinary power producing cycles as stated by the operators. Gamma ray spectroscopy is one method used for identification and verification of spent nuclear fuel. In the specific gamma ray spectroscopy method called gamma scanning the gamma radiation from the fission products Cs-137, Cs-134 and Eu-154 are measured in a spent fuel assembly. From the results, conclusions can be drawn about the fuels characteristics. This degree project examines the possibilities of using alternative measuring approaches when using the gamma scanning method. The focus is on examining how to increase the quality of the measured data. How to decrease the measuring time as compared with the present measuring strategy, has also been investigated. The main part of the study comprises computer simulations of gamma scanning measurements. The simulations have been validated with actual measurements on spent nuclear fuel at the central interim storage, Clab. The results show that concerning the quality of the measuring data the conventional strategy is preferable, but with other starting positions and with a more optimized equipment. When focusing on the time aspect, the helical measuring strategy can be an option, but this needs further investigation.

  2. Assessment of precision gamma scanning for inspecting LWR fuel rods. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.R.; Barnes, B.K.; Barnes, M.L.; Hamlin, D.K.; Medina-Ortega, E.G.

    1981-07-01

    Reconstruction of the radial two-dimensional distributions of fission products using projections obtained by nondestructive gamma scanning was evaluated. The filtered backprojection algorithm provided the best reconstruction for simulated gamma-ray sources, as well as for actual irradiated fuel material. Both a low-burnup (11.5 GWd/tU) light-water reactor fuel rod and a high-burnup (179.1 GWd/tU) fast breeder reactor fuel rod were examined using this technique.

  3. Deriving Fuel Mass by Size Class in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Using Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd Queen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Requirements for describing coniferous forests are changing in response to wildfire concerns, bio-energy needs, and climate change interests. At the same time, technology advancements are transforming how forest properties can be measured. Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS is yielding promising results for measuring tree biomass parameters that, historically, have required costly destructive sampling and resulted in small sample sizes. Here we investigate whether TLS intensity data can be used to distinguish foliage and small branches (≤0.635 cm diameter; coincident with the one-hour timelag fuel size class from larger branchwood (>0.635 cm in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii branch specimens. We also consider the use of laser density for predicting biomass by size class. Measurements are addressed across multiple ranges and scan angles. Results show TLS capable of distinguishing fine fuels from branches at a threshold of one standard deviation above mean intensity. Additionally, the relationship between return density and biomass is linear by fuel type for fine fuels (r2 = 0.898; SE 22.7% and branchwood (r2 = 0.937; SE 28.9%, as well as for total mass (r2 = 0.940; SE 25.5%. Intensity decays predictably as scan distances increase; however, the range-intensity relationship is best described by an exponential model rather than 1/d2. Scan angle appears to have no systematic effect on fine fuel discrimination, while some differences are observed in density-mass relationships with changing angles due to shadowing.

  4. Use of Terrestrial Laser Scanning to Model Fuel Characteristics in Shrub-Steppe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, K.; Glenn, N. F.

    2013-12-01

    Biological invasion, climate change, and other anthropogenic and non-anthropogenic factors are altering ecosystem function of arid shrublands in the western U.S., with notable effects including changes in community composition and increased incidence and severity of wildfires. Wildfire itself contributes to replacement of native flora communities with fire-prone invasives (prominently cheatgrass, Bromus tectorum), a positive feedback loop which threatens long-term degradation of burned areas. Efficient methods of vegetation inventory over large areas are essential to study and manage changes in ecological paradigms, and furthermore to anticipate and control wildfire. However, the application of remote sensing information from aerial or satellite platforms to shrub-steppe ecosystems is limited by spectral signal mixing and coarseness of data relative to low-stature vegetation. Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) technology provides rapid collection of high-resolution structural information at ranges up to hundreds of meters, offering an opportunity to efficiently record vegetation characteristics in large swaths. We tested the ability of TLS to quantify abundance and biomass of different vegetation stem diameter classes in shrub-steppe plots in southwestern Idaho, with classes selected to emulate timelag fuel classes commonly used in fuel inventories and fire modeling. We used data from destructively-sampled reference quadrats within scans for training and evaluation of TLS-derived estimates. We demonstrate TLS as an effective standalone tool for shrubland vegetation inventory, while future applications of these methods include collecting training data for interpretation of coarser remote sensing information, and providing accurate 3D simulations of fuel beds to spatially explicit wildfire models.

  5. Technical Development of Gamma Scanning for Irradiated Fuel Rod after Upgrade of System in Hot-cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Woo Seog; Kim, Hee Moon; Baik, Seung Je; Yoo, Byung Ok; Choo, Yong Sun

    2007-06-15

    Non-destructive test system was installed at hot-cell(M1) in IMEF(Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) more than 10 years ago for the diametric measurement and gamma scanning of fuel rod. But this system must be needed to be remodeled for the effective operations. In 2006, the system was upgraded for 3 months. The collimator bench can be movable with horizontal direction(x-direction) by motorized system for sectional gamma scanning and 3-dimensional tomography of fuel rod. So, gamma scanning for fuel rod can be detectable by x, y and rotation directions. It may be possible to obtain the radioactivities with radial and axial directions of pellet. This system is good for the series experiments with several positions. Operation of fuel bench and gamma detection program were linked each other by new program tools. It can control detection and bench moving automatically when gamma inspection of fuel rod is carried out with axial or radial positions. Some of electronic parts were added in PLC panel, and operating panel was re-designed for the remote control. To operate the fuel bench by computer, AD converter and some I/O cards were installed in computer. All of software were developed in Windows-XP system instead of DOS system. Control programs were made by visual-C language. After upgrade of system, DUPIC fuel which was irradiated in HANARO research reactor was detected by gamma scanning. The results were good and operation of gamma scanning showed reduced inspection time and easy control of data on series of detection with axial positions. With consideration of ECT(Eddy Current Test) installation, the computer program and hardware were set up as well. But ECT is not installed yet, so we have to check abnormal situation of program and hardware system. It is planned to install ECT in 2007.

  6. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hitchcock, A. P., E-mail: aph@mcmaster.ca; Lee, V.; Wu, J.; Cooper, G. [Chemistry & Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4M1 (Canada); West, M. M.; Berejnov, V. [Faculty of Health Sciences Electron Microscopy, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON L8N 3Z5 (Canada); Soboleva, T.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J. [Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation Corp., Burnaby BC V5J 5J8 (Canada)

    2016-01-28

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used to better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined.

  7. Characterizing automotive fuel cell materials by soft x-ray scanning transmission x-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, A. P.; Lee, V.; Wu, J.; West, M. M.; Cooper, G.; Berejnov, V.; Soboleva, T.; Susac, D.; Stumper, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEM-FC) based engines are being developed rapidly for near-term implementation in hydrogen fueled, mass production, personal automobiles. Research is focused on understanding and controlling various degradation processes (carbon corrosion, Pt migration, cold start), and reducing cost by reducing or eliminating Pt catalyst. We are using soft X-ray scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the S 2p, C 1s, O 1s and F 1s edges to study a variety of issues related to optimization of PEM-FC materials for automotive applications. A method to efficiently and accurately measure perfluorosulfonic acid distributions was developed and is being used to better understand how different loadings and preparation methods affect the ionomer distribution in the cathode. Progress towards an environmental cell capable of controlling the temperature and humidity of a PEM-FC sample in the STXM is described. Methods for studying the 3D chemical structure of PEM-FC are outlined.

  8. In situ observation of water in a fuel cell catalyst using scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Satoru; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Koizumi, Satoshi; Tsutsumi, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    To visualize water in the catalyst of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs), backscattered electron (BSE) imaging by means of scanning electron microscopy was employed. To confine a wet specimen of catalyst, an environmental wet cell was manufactured with a silicon nitride thin film (∼100 nm) as the beam window. By supplying humidified gas into the cell, a change in BSE brightness was detected in the catalyst attached to the silicon nitride window. As humidification proceeded, the BSE image became darker and returned brighter by switching to a dry gas. Monte Carlo simulations were performed to evaluate the energy and number of BSE obtained after passing through water with thickness d. Combining the results of the Monte Carlo simulation successfully converted the change in brightness to the change in thickness from d = 100 nm to d = 3 μm. This established method of evaluating water with a thickness resolution of the order of Δd = 100 nm can be applied to in situ observations of the catalyst in a PEFC during operation. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Modelling the vertical distribution of canopy fuel load using national forest inventory and low-density airbone laser scanning data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo González-Ferreiro

    Full Text Available The fuel complex variables canopy bulk density and canopy base height are often used to predict crown fire initiation and spread. Direct measurement of these variables is impractical, and they are usually estimated indirectly by modelling. Recent advances in predicting crown fire behaviour require accurate estimates of the complete vertical distribution of canopy fuels. The objectives of the present study were to model the vertical profile of available canopy fuel in pine stands by using data from the Spanish national forest inventory plus low-density airborne laser scanning (ALS metrics. In a first step, the vertical distribution of the canopy fuel load was modelled using the Weibull probability density function. In a second step, two different systems of models were fitted to estimate the canopy variables defining the vertical distributions; the first system related these variables to stand variables obtained in a field inventory, and the second system related the canopy variables to airborne laser scanning metrics. The models of each system were fitted simultaneously to compensate the effects of the inherent cross-model correlation between the canopy variables. Heteroscedasticity was also analyzed, but no correction in the fitting process was necessary. The estimated canopy fuel load profiles from field variables explained 84% and 86% of the variation in canopy fuel load for maritime pine and radiata pine respectively; whereas the estimated canopy fuel load profiles from ALS metrics explained 52% and 49% of the variation for the same species. The proposed models can be used to assess the effectiveness of different forest management alternatives for reducing crown fire hazard.

  10. Modelling the vertical distribution of canopy fuel load using national forest inventory and low-density airbone laser scanning data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ferreiro, Eduardo; Arellano-Pérez, Stéfano; Castedo-Dorado, Fernando; Hevia, Andrea; Vega, José Antonio; Vega-Nieva, Daniel; Álvarez-González, Juan Gabriel; Ruiz-González, Ana Daría

    2017-01-01

    The fuel complex variables canopy bulk density and canopy base height are often used to predict crown fire initiation and spread. Direct measurement of these variables is impractical, and they are usually estimated indirectly by modelling. Recent advances in predicting crown fire behaviour require accurate estimates of the complete vertical distribution of canopy fuels. The objectives of the present study were to model the vertical profile of available canopy fuel in pine stands by using data from the Spanish national forest inventory plus low-density airborne laser scanning (ALS) metrics. In a first step, the vertical distribution of the canopy fuel load was modelled using the Weibull probability density function. In a second step, two different systems of models were fitted to estimate the canopy variables defining the vertical distributions; the first system related these variables to stand variables obtained in a field inventory, and the second system related the canopy variables to airborne laser scanning metrics. The models of each system were fitted simultaneously to compensate the effects of the inherent cross-model correlation between the canopy variables. Heteroscedasticity was also analyzed, but no correction in the fitting process was necessary. The estimated canopy fuel load profiles from field variables explained 84% and 86% of the variation in canopy fuel load for maritime pine and radiata pine respectively; whereas the estimated canopy fuel load profiles from ALS metrics explained 52% and 49% of the variation for the same species. The proposed models can be used to assess the effectiveness of different forest management alternatives for reducing crown fire hazard.

  11. Non-destructive evaluation of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates by accurate ultrasonic scanning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borring, J.; Gundtoft, H.E.; Borum, K.K.; Toft, P. [Riso National Lab. (Denmark)

    1997-08-01

    In an effort to improve their ultrasonic scanning technique for accurate determination of the cladding thickness in LEU fuel plates, new equipment and modifications to the existing hardware and software have been tested and evaluated. The authors are now able to measure an aluminium thickness down to 0.25 mm instead of the previous 0.35 mm. Furthermore, they have shown how the measuring sensitivity can be improved from 0.03 mm to 0.01 mm. It has now become possible to check their standard fuel plates for DR3 against the minimum cladding thickness requirements non-destructively. Such measurements open the possibility for the acceptance of a thinner nominal cladding than normally used today.

  12. Uranium aerosols at a nuclear fuel fabrication plant: Characterization using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, E.; Pettersson, H. B. L.; Fortin, C.; Eriksson, M.

    2017-05-01

    Detailed aerosol knowledge is essential in numerous applications, including risk assessment in nuclear industry. Cascade impactor sampling of uranium aerosols in the breathing zone of nuclear operators was carried out at a nuclear fuel fabrication plant. Collected aerosols were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Imaging revealed remarkable variations in aerosol morphology at the different workshops, and a presence of very large particles (up to ≅ 100 × 50 μm2) in the operator breathing zone. Characteristic X-ray analysis showed varying uranium weight percentages of aerosols and, frequently, traces of nitrogen, fluorine and iron. The analysis method, in combination with cascade impactor sampling, can be a powerful tool for characterization of aerosols. The uranium aerosol source term for risk assessment in nuclear fuel fabrication appears to be highly complex.

  13. Carbon corrosion of proton exchange membrane fuel cell catalyst layers studied by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, Adam P.; Berejnov, Viatcheslav; Lee, Vincent; West, Marcia; Colbow, Vesna; Dutta, Monica; Wessel, Silvia

    2014-11-01

    Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM) at the C 1s, F 1s and S 2p edges has been used to investigate degradation of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEM-FC) membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) subjected to accelerated testing protocols. Quantitative chemical maps of the catalyst, carbon support and ionomer in the cathode layer are reported for beginning-of-test (BOT), and end-of-test (EOT) samples for two types of carbon support, low surface area carbon (LSAC) and medium surface area carbon (MSAC), that were exposed to accelerated stress testing with upper potentials (UPL) of 1.0, 1.2, and 1.3 V. The results are compared in order to characterize catalyst layer degradation in terms of the amounts and spatial distributions of these species. Pt agglomeration, Pt migration and corrosion of the carbon support are all visualized, and contribute to differing degrees in these samples. It is found that there is formation of a distinct Pt-in-membrane (PTIM) band for all EOT samples. The cathode thickness shrinks due to loss of the carbon support for all MSAC samples that were exposed to the different upper potentials, but only for the most aggressive testing protocol for the LSAC support. The amount of ionomer per unit volume significantly increases indicating it is being concentrated in the cathode as the carbon corrosion takes place. S 2p spectra and mapping of the cathode catalyst layer indicates there are still sulfonate groups present, even in the most damaged material.

  14. Scanning electron microscopy examination of a Fast Flux Test Facility irradiated U-10Zr fuel cross section clad with HT-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Jason M.; Porter, Douglas L.; Miller, Brandon D.; Trowbridge, Tammy L.; Carmack, William J.

    2017-10-01

    Observations from a scanning electron microscopy examination of irradiated U-10Zr fuel are presented. The sample studied had a local burnup of 5.7 atom percent and a local inner cladding temperature of 615 °C. This examination by electron microscopy has concentrated on producing data relevant to facilitating a better understanding of Zr redistribution in irradiated U-10Zr fuel and on a better understanding of the complex microstructure present in fuel cladding chemical interaction (FCCI) layers. The presented zirconium redistribution data supplements the existing literature by providing a data set at these particular local conditions. In addition to FCCI layers that are readily visible in optical microscopy, this examination has revealed lanthanide degradation of the cladding by what appears to be a grain boundary facilitated pathway. Precipitates of fission produced Pd-lanthanide compounds were observed in the fuel. Precipitated regions with elevated Mo and elevated W content were also observed in the HT-9 cladding of this sample.

  15. Structure-level fuel load assessment in the wildland-urban interface: a fusion of airborne laser scanning and spectral remote-sensing methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas S. Skowronski; Scott Haag; Jim Trimble; Kenneth L. Clark; Michael R. Gallagher; Richard G. Lathrop

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale fuel assessments are useful for developing policy aimed at mitigating wildfires in the wildland-urban interface (WUI), while finer-scale characterisation is necessary for maximising the effectiveness of fuel reduction treatments and directing suppression activities. We developed and tested an objective, consistent approach for characterising hazardous fuels...

  16. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  17. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  18. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  19. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  20. MRI Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

  1. Bone Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  2. A scanning electron microscopy study of ash, char, deposits and fuels from straw combustion and co-combustion of coal and straw

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sund Soerensen, H.

    1998-07-01

    The SEM-study of samples from straw combustion and co-combustion of straw and coal have yielded a reference selection of representative images that will be useful for future comparison. The sample material encompassed potential fuels (wheat straw and grain), bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw combustion as well as fuels (coal and wheat straw), chars, bottom ash, fly ash and deposits from straw + coal co-combustion. Additionally, a variety of laboratory ashes were studied. SEM and CCSEM analysis of the samples have given a broad view of the inorganic components of straw and of the distribution of elements between individual ash particles and deposits. The CCSEM technique does, however, not detect dispersed inorganic elements in biomass, so to get a more complete visualization of the distribution of inorganic elements additional analyses must be performed, for example progressive leaching. In contrast, the CCSEM technique is efficient in characterizing the distribution of elements in ash particles and between ash fractions and deposits. The data for bottom ashes and fly ashes have indicated that binding of potassium to silicates occurs to a significant extent. The silicates can either be in the form of alumino-silicates or quartz (in co-combustion) or be present as straw-derived amorphous silica (in straw combustion). This process is important for two reasons. One is that potasium lowers the melting point of silica in the fly ash, potentially leading to troublesome deposits by particle impaction and sticking to heat transfer surfaces. The other is that the reaction between potassium and silica in the bottom ash binds part of the potassium meaning that it is not available for reaction with chlorine or sulphur to form KCl or K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. Both phases are potentially troublesome because they can condense of surfaces to form a sticky layer onto which fly ash particles can adhere and by inducing corrosion beneath the deposit. It appears that in the studied

  3. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  4. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  5. Fuel Exhaling Fuel Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Bhat, Zahid; Thimmappa, Ravikumar; Devendrachari, Mruthyunjayachari Chattanahalli; Kottaichamy, Alagar Raja; Shafi, Shahid Pottachola; Varhade, Swapnil; Gautam, Manu; Thotiyl, Musthafa Ottakam

    2018-01-18

    State-of-the-art proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) anodically inhale H 2 fuel and cathodically expel water molecules. We show an unprecedented fuel cell concept exhibiting cathodic fuel exhalation capability of anodically inhaled fuel, driven by the neutralization energy on decoupling the direct acid-base chemistry. The fuel exhaling fuel cell delivered a peak power density of 70 mW/cm 2 at a peak current density of 160 mA/cm 2 with a cathodic H 2 output of ∼80 mL in 1 h. We illustrate that the energy benefits from the same fuel stream can at least be doubled by directing it through proposed neutralization electrochemical cell prior to PEMFC in a tandem configuration.

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  8. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ...

  11. Lumbar spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - lumbar spine; Computed axial tomography scan - lumbar spine; Computed tomography scan - lumbar spine; CT - lower ... The lumbar CT scan is good for evaluating large herniated disks, ... smaller ones. This test can be combined with a myelogram to get ...

  12. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - arm; Computed axial tomography scan - arm; Computed tomography scan - arm; CT scan - arm ... stopping.) A computer creates separate images of the arm area, called slices. These images can be stored, ...

  13. Thoracic spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - thoracic spine; Computed axial tomography scan - thoracic spine; Computed tomography scan - thoracic spine; CT scan - ... Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2013:chap 44. US Food and Drug Administration. Computed tomography (CT). Updated August ...

  14. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have false results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  15. Coronary Calcium Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Back To Health Topics / Coronary Calcium Scan Coronary Calcium Scan Also known as Calcium Scan Test A coronary calcium scan is a CT scan of your heart that detects and measures the amount of calcium in the walls of your coronary arteries. Overview ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

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    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... code: Phone no: Thank you! Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  17. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  19. Nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beauvy, M.; Berthoud, G.; Defranceschi, M.; Ducros, G.; Guerin, Y.; Limoge, Y.; Madic, Ch.; Santarini, G.; Seiler, J.M.; Sollogoub, P.; Vernaz, E.; Guillet, J.L.; Ballagny, A.; Bechade, J.L.; Bonin, B.; Brachet, J.Ch.; Delpech, M.; Dubois, S.; Ferry, C.; Freyss, M.; Gilbon, D.; Grouiller, J.P.; Iracane, D.; Lansiart, S.; Lemoine, P.; Lenain, R.; Marsault, Ph.; Michel, B.; Noirot, J.; Parrat, D.; Pelletier, M.; Perrais, Ch.; Phelip, M.; Pillon, S.; Poinssot, Ch.; Vallory, J.; Valot, C.; Pradel, Ph.; Bonin, B.; Bouquin, B.; Dozol, M.; Lecomte, M.; Vallee, A.; Bazile, F.; Parisot, J.F.; Finot, P.; Roberts, J.F

    2009-07-01

    Fuel is one of the essential components in a reactor. It is within that fuel that nuclear reactions take place, i.e. fission of heavy atoms, uranium and plutonium. Fuel is at the core of the reactor, but equally at the core of the nuclear system as a whole. Fuel design and properties influence reactor behavior, performance, and safety. Even though it only accounts for a small part of the cost per kilowatt-hour of power provided by current nuclear power plants, good utilization of fuel is a major economic issue. Major advances have yet to be achieved, to ensure longer in-reactor dwell-time, thus enabling fuel to yield more energy; and improve ruggedness. Aside from economics, and safety, such strategic issues as use of plutonium, conservation of resources, and nuclear waste management have to be addressed, and true technological challenges arise. This Monograph surveys current knowledge regarding in-reactor behavior, operating limits, and avenues for R and D. It also provides illustrations of ongoing research work, setting out a few noteworthy results recently achieved. Content: 1 - Introduction; 2 - Water reactor fuel: What are the features of water reactor fuel? 9 (What is the purpose of a nuclear fuel?, Ceramic fuel, Fuel rods, PWR fuel assemblies, BWR fuel assemblies); Fabrication of water reactor fuels (Fabrication of UO{sub 2} pellets, Fabrication of MOX (mixed uranium-plutonium oxide) pellets, Fabrication of claddings); In-reactor behavior of UO{sub 2} and MOX fuels (Irradiation conditions during nominal operation, Heat generation, and removal, The processes involved at the start of irradiation, Fission gas behavior, Microstructural changes); Water reactor fuel behavior in loss of tightness conditions (Cladding, the first containment barrier, Causes of failure, Consequences of a failure); Microscopic morphology of fuel ceramic and its evolution under irradiation; Migration and localization of fission products in UOX and MOX matrices (The ceramic under

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... concern for you. If you had an intravenous line inserted for the procedure, it will usually be ... procedure that same day that requires an intravenous line. Actual scanning time for a thyroid scan is ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid ... body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  2. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  3. Fossil Fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with fossil fuels. Some topics covered are historic facts, development of fuels, history of oil production, current and future trends of the oil industry, refining fossil fuels, and environmental problems. Material in each unit may…

  4. Fuel distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tison, R.R.; Baker, N.R.; Blazek, C.F.

    1979-07-01

    Distribution of fuel is considered from a supply point to the secondary conversion sites and ultimate end users. All distribution is intracity with the maximum distance between the supply point and end-use site generally considered to be 15 mi. The fuels discussed are: coal or coal-like solids, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 fuel oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Although the fuel state, i.e., gas, liquid, etc., can have a major impact on the distribution system, the source of these fuels (e.g., naturally-occurring or coal-derived) does not. Single-source, single-termination point and single-source, multi-termination point systems for liquid, gaseous, and solid fuel distribution are considered. Transport modes and the fuels associated with each mode are: by truck - coal, methanol, No. 2 fuel oil, and No. 6 fuel oil; and by pipeline - coal, methane, No. 2 fuel oil, No. 6 oil, high-Btu gas, medium-Btu gas, and low-Btu gas. Data provided for each distribution system include component makeup and initial costs.

  5. Experimental determination of spectral indices by scanning of fuel rod in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor; Determinacao experimental de indices espectrais por varredura gama de vareta combustivel no reator IPEN/MB-01

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanaro, Leda Cristina Cabelo Bernardes

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the spectral indexes 28{rho}{sup *} and 25{delta}{sup *}, and gamma efficiency factor in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor were determined experimentally employing a rod scanning technique. In the case of 28{rho}{sup *}, this method has the advantage of eliminating most of the correction factors derived from the calculations. Only the fission yield factor and the relative fission rate in the {sup 235}U remain in the determination of the 25{delta}{sup *}. The experiments were performed with different thicknesses of cadmium sleeves: 0.55 mm, 1.10 mm and 2.20 mm. The final experimental uncertainty achieved in the experiment, less that 1 %, and the excellent geometrical and material data characterization of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor allow to use the results as benchmark for validate calculation methods and related nuclear data libraries. The comparison between calculated values and experimental values was performed by employing the MCNP-5 code and the nuclear data libraries: ENDF/B-VI.8, ENDF/B-VII.0, JENDL-3.3 and JEFF-3.1. The results demonstrate that the difference among libraries is very small. Also, the comparison between calculated values and experimental values shows that there has been considerable progress in the recent nuclear data libraries. The best result is obtained with ENDF/B-VII.0 nuclear data library, and the highest discrepancy was obtained with JEFF-3.1 and JENDL-3.3 nuclear data libraries. (author)

  6. Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Anders; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells have been the subject of intense research and development efforts for the past decades. Even so, the technology has not had its commercial breakthrough yet. This entry gives an overview of the technological challenges and status of fuel cells and discusses the most promising applications...... of the different types of fuel cells. Finally, their role in a future energy supply with a large share of fluctuating sustainable power sources, e.g., solar or wind, is surveyed....

  7. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  8. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase...

  9. Fuel cells:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    A brief overview of the progress in fuel cell applications and basic technology development is presented, as a backdrop for discussing readiness for penetration into the marketplace as a solution to problems of depletion, safety, climate or environmental impact from currently used fossil...... and nuclear fuel-based energy technologies....

  10. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  11. Fuel cell-fuel cell hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisbrecht, Rodney A.; Williams, Mark C.

    2003-09-23

    A device for converting chemical energy to electricity is provided, the device comprising a high temperature fuel cell with the ability for partially oxidizing and completely reforming fuel, and a low temperature fuel cell juxtaposed to said high temperature fuel cell so as to utilize remaining reformed fuel from the high temperature fuel cell. Also provided is a method for producing electricity comprising directing fuel to a first fuel cell, completely oxidizing a first portion of the fuel and partially oxidizing a second portion of the fuel, directing the second fuel portion to a second fuel cell, allowing the first fuel cell to utilize the first portion of the fuel to produce electricity; and allowing the second fuel cell to utilize the second portion of the fuel to produce electricity.

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... gland evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to ... tells you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special ...

  14. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Professions Site Index A-Z Computed Tomography (CT) - Body Computed tomography (CT) of the body uses special ... the Body? What is CT Scanning of the Body? Computed tomography, more commonly known as a CT ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you on how to ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should ... such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information needed to make a ... any. Nuclear medicine is less expensive and may yield more precise information than exploratory surgery. Risks Because ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry and ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iodine, medications and anesthetics. are breastfeeding. In the days prior to your examination, blood tests may be ... are scheduled for an additional procedure that same day that requires an intravenous line. Actual scanning time ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 hours before the scan. The radiotracer given by intravenous injection is usually given up to 30 minutes prior to the test. When ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a special camera or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and ... and with the help of a computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function ...

  8. Pediatric CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for ...

  10. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  12. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and ... area of your body. top of page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an intravenous line ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for each thyroid ...

  16. Slow Scan Telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Originally developed under contract for NASA by Ball Bros. Research Corporation for acquiring visual information from lunar and planetary spacecraft, system uses standard closed circuit camera connected to a device called a scan converter, which slows the stream of images to match an audio circuit, such as a telephone line. Transmitted to its destination, the image is reconverted by another scan converter and displayed on a monitor. In addition to assist scans, technique allows transmission of x-rays, nuclear scans, ultrasonic imagery, thermograms, electrocardiograms or live views of patient. Also allows conferencing and consultation among medical centers, general practitioners, specialists and disease control centers. Commercialized by Colorado Video, Inc., major employment is in business and industry for teleconferencing, cable TV news, transmission of scientific/engineering data, security, information retrieval, insurance claim adjustment, instructional programs, and remote viewing of advertising layouts, real estate, construction sites or products.

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ... you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and imaging ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to identify disease in its earliest stages as well as a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. ... but is often performed on hospitalized patients as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or radiotracers . Depending on the type of nuclear medicine exam, the radiotracer is either injected into the body, ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... many types of cancers, heart disease, gastrointestinal, endocrine, neurological disorders and other abnormalities within the body. Because ... with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more sensitive than ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... are noninvasive and, with the exception of intravenous injections, are usually painless medical tests that help physicians ... before the scan. The radiotracer given by intravenous injection is usually given up to 30 minutes prior ...

  3. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F.; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2010-01-01

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for whic...

  4. Laser Scanning Fluorescence Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Eric W.; Zelten, J. Peter; Wiseman, Benjamin A.

    1988-06-01

    We report on the development of a laser scanning fluorescence microscope possessing several features which facilitate its application to biological and biophysical analyses in living cells. It is built around a standard inverted microscope stand, enabling the use of standard optics, micromanipulation apparatus, and conventional (including video) microscopy in conjunction with laser scanning. The beam is scanned across the specimen by a pair of galvanometer-mounted mirrors, driven by a programmable controller which can operate in three modes: full raster scan, region of interest, and random-access. A full 512x512 pixel image can be acquired in one second. In region of interest mode, several subareas of the field can be selected for more rapid or detailed analysis. For those cases where the time scale of the observed phenomenon precludes full-field imaging, or where a full-field image is unnecessary, the random access mode enables an arbitrary pattern of isolated points to be selected and rapidly sequenced through. Via a graphical user interface implemented on the system's host computer, a user will be able to take a scout image either with video or a full-field laser scan, select regions or points on the scout image with a mouse, and set up experimental parameters such as detector integration times with a window-style menu. The instrument is designed to be a flexible testbed for investigating new techniques, without compromising its utility as a tool for biological research.

  5. Scanning laser video camera/ microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. P.; Bow, R. T.

    1984-10-01

    A laser scanning system capable of scanning at standard video rate has been developed. The scanning mirrors, circuit design and system performance, as well as its applications to video cameras and ultra-violet microscopes, are discussed.

  6. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  7. Tomographic scanning imager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovland, Harald

    2009-07-06

    In tomographic scanning (TOSCA) imaging, light from a scene is focused onto a reticle mask using conical scan optics, and collected on a single element detector. Alternatively, one or several detectors replace the reticle. Tomographic processing techniques are then applied to the one-dimensional signal to reproduce a two-dimensional image. The TOSCA technique is presented in detail, including its mathematical foundations and some of its limitations. It is shown how TOSCA imaging can be used in a multispectral configuration, and compares well with more conventional alternatives both in simplicity and performance. Examples of image reconstruction using TOSCA techniques are shown.

  8. Scanning the phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Wuerzinger, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A framework to perform scans in the 19-dimensional phenomenological MSSM is developed and used to re-evaluate the ATLAS experiments' sensitivity to R-parity-conserving supersymmetry with LHC Run 2 data ($\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV), using results from 14 separate ATLAS searches. We perform a $\\tilde{t}_1$ dedicated scan, only considering models with $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<1$ TeV, while allowing both a neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$) and a sneutrino ($\\tilde{\

  9. Fuel starvation. Irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rangel, Carmen M.; Silva, R.A.; Travassos, M.A.; Paiva, T.I.; Fernandes, V.R. [LNEG, National Laboratory for Energy and Geology, Lisboa (Portugal). UPCH Fuel Cells and Hydrogen Unit

    2010-07-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods used for in-situ and ex-situ analysis of PEM fuel cells are selected in order to better categorize irreversible changes of the cell. Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) is found instrumental in the identification of fuel cell flooding conditions and membrane dehydration associated to mass transport limitations / reactant starvation and protonic conductivity decrease, respectively. Furthermore, it indicates that water electrolysis might happen at the anode. Cross sections of the membrane catalyst and gas diffusion layers examined by scanning electron microscopy indicate electrode thickness reduction as a result of reactions taking place during hydrogen starvation. Catalyst particles are found to migrate outwards and located on carbon backings. Membrane degradation in fuel cell environment is analyzed in terms of the mechanism for fluoride release which is considered an early predictor of membrane degradation. (orig.)

  10. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you: have had any tests, such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated ... page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x- ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be performed to measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood. You may be told not to eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the ... as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an examination ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or less. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  14. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  15. Cervical MRI scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer in the spine Arthritis in the spine MRI works better than CT scan in diagnosing these problems ... test. The strong magnetic fields created during an MRI can cause heart pacemakers and other implants to not work as well. It can also cause a piece ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page ... and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... to Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is also known as a thyroid uptake. ... a patient’s immediate response to therapeutic interventions. Nuclear ... medical tests that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  19. Terahertz scanning probe microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides aterahertz scanning probe microscope setup comprising (i) a terahertz radiation source configured to generate terahertz radiation; (ii) a terahertz lens configured to receive at least part of the terahertz radiation from the terahertz radiation source; (iii) a cantilever unit

  20. SPM: Scanning positron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Dickmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Munich scanning positron microscope, operated by the Universität der Bundeswehr München and the Technische Universität München, located at NEPOMUC, permits positron lifetime measurements with a lateral resolution in the µm range and within an energy range of 1 – 20 keV.

  1. Laser Beam Scanning Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    metal mirror. Multiple thermocouple wires attached to the rear of the mirror provide temperature (and hence beam power) information at various points...on the mirror. Scanning is achieved by means of a selector switch which sequentially samples the thermocouple outputs. The thermocouple output voltages are measured and recorded as a function of laser beam power.

  2. Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimble, Ralph E.

    1988-01-01

    Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

  3. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  4. Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, M. D.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the theories, construction, operation, types, and advantages of fuel cells developed by the American space programs. Indicates that the cell is an ideal small-scale power source characterized by its compactness, high efficiency, reliability, and freedom from polluting fumes. (CC)

  5. Mammographic scanning equalization radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabol, J M; Soutar, I C; Plewes, D B

    1993-01-01

    It is well recognized that variations in breast thickness and parenchymal composition can produce a range of exposure which exceeds the latitude of high contrast mammographic film/screen combinations. Optimal imaging of the dense breast is desired since 30%-60% of women present with dense breasts, and they are believed to be at the highest relative risk of developing breast cancer. The application of scanning equalization radiography to mammography has been investigated through the construction and characterization of a prototype mammographic scanning equalization radiography (MSER) system, designed to image mammographic phantoms. The MSER system exposes a Min-R/MRH cassette by raster scanning a 2.0 x 1.6 cm beam of pulsed x-rays across the cassette. A scanning detector behind the cassette measures the local x-ray transmission of the breast. Feedback of the transmission information is used to modulate the duration of each x-ray pulse, to equalize the film exposure. The effective dynamic range of the MSER system is 25 times greater than that of conventional mammography. Artifact-free images of mammographic phantoms show that MSER effectively overcomes the latitude limitations of film/screen mammography, enabling high contrast imaging over a wide range of object x-ray transmission. Anthropomorphic phantom images show that MSER offers up to a sixfold increase in film contrast in the normally underexposed regions of conventional mammograms. Characterization of the entrance exposure shows that there is not a significant difference in exposure between MSER and conventional mammographic techniques, suggesting that both would pose comparable risk to the patient. Calculations show that the construction of a clinical multiple beam MSER system is feasible with minor changes to existing technology.

  6. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the object and, connected to the detector, a device for processing the detected electrons so as to form an object image, wherein a beam splitter is provided for dividing the electron beam from the electron...

  7. Scanning micro-sclerometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Warren C.; Blau, Peter J.

    1994-01-01

    A scanning micro-sclerometer measures changes in contact stiffness and correlates these changes to characteristics of a scratch. A known force is applied to a contact junction between two bodies and a technique employing an oscillating force is used to generate the contact stiffness between the two bodies. As the two bodies slide relative to each other, the contact stiffness changes. The change is measured to characterize the scratch.

  8. Scanning drop sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  9. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  10. Constituent Redistribution in U-Zr Metallic Fuel Using the Advanced Fuel Performance Code BISON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloway, Jack D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Unal, Cetin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Matthews, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-30

    Previous work done by Galloway, et. al. on EBR-II ternary (U-Pu-Zr) fuel constituent redistribution yielded accurate simulation data for the limited data sets of Zr redistribution. The data sets included EPMA scans of two different irradiated rods. First, T179, which was irradiated to 1.9 at% burnup, was analyzed. Second, DP16, which was irradiated to 11 at% burnup, was analyzed. One set of parameters that most accurately represented the zirconium profiles for both experiments was determined. Since the binary fuel (U-Zr) has previously been used as the driver fuel for sodium fast reactors (SFR) as well as being the likely driver fuel if a new SFR is constructed, this same process has been initiated on the binary fuel form. From limited binary EPMA scans as well as other fuel characterization techniques, it has been observed that zirconium redistribution also occurs in the binary fuel, albeit at a reduced rate compared to observation in the ternary fuel, as noted by Kim et. al. While the rate of redistribution has been observed to be slower, numerous metallographs of U-Zr fuel show distinct zone formations.

  11. NONDESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF FUEL PLATES FOR THE RERTR FUEL DEVELOPMENT EXPERIMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N.E. Woolstenhulme; S.C. Taylor; G.A. Moore; D.M. Sterbentz

    2012-09-01

    Nuclear fuel is the core component of reactors that is used to produce the neutron flux required for irradiation research purposes as well as commercial power generation. The development of nuclear fuels with low enrichments of uranium is a major endeavor of the RERTR program. In the development of these fuels, the RERTR program uses nondestructive examination (NDE) techniques for the purpose of determining the properties of nuclear fuel plate experiments without imparting damage or altering the fuel specimens before they are irradiated in a reactor. The vast range of properties and information about the fuel plates that can be characterized using NDE makes them highly useful for quality assurance and for analyses used in modeling the behavior of the fuel while undergoing irradiation. NDE is also particularly useful for creating a control group for post-irradiation examination comparison. The two major categories of NDE discussed in this paper are X-ray radiography and ultrasonic testing (UT) inspection/evaluation. The radiographic scans are used for the characterization of fuel meat density and homogeneity as well as the determination of fuel location within the cladding. The UT scans are able to characterize indications such as voids, delaminations, inclusions, and other abnormalities in the fuel plates which are generally referred to as debonds as well as to determine the thickness of the cladding using ultrasonic acoustic microscopy methods. Additionally, the UT techniques are now also being applied to in-canal interim examination of fuel experiments undergoing irradiation and the mapping of the fuel plate surface profile to determine fuel swelling. The methods used to carry out these NDE techniques, as well as how they operate and function, are described along with a description of which properties are characterized.

  12. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  13. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    In 2016, the Belgian, Dutch, Luxembourg and Austrian governments declared their intention to collaborate on pharmaceutical policy (BeNeLuxA Collaboration). KCE was asked to lead a task force responsible for developing a Horizon Scanning methodology for pharmaceuticals and a possible model...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...

  14. Surface micromachined scanning mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1992-01-01

    Both aluminum cantilever and torsional scanning mirrors have been fabricated and their static and dynamic properties are studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments showed resonance frequencies in the range of 163 k-Hz - 632 kHz for cantilever beams with Q values between 5 and 11....... Torsional mirrors showed resonance frequencies in the range of 410 kHz - 667 kHz with Q values of 10 - 17. All measurements performed at atmospheric pressure. Both types of mechanical structures were deflected electrostatically at large angles (± 5°) more than 1011 times without breaking and without any...

  15. Confocal scanning Mueller polarimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lompado, Arthur

    2009-08-01

    We describe the design, construction, calibration and testing of a confocal scanning Mueller polarimeter. A polarization state generator and polarization state analyzer have been inserted into the optical path of a conventional confocal scanning imager to collect the reflectance Muller matrix of samples measuring up to 6.26 mm on a side. Four sources are available for sample interrogation using diode lasers centered at 532 nm, 635 nm, 670 nm, and 785 nm. The device captures all required imagery to calculate the Mueller matrix of each image pixel in approximately 90 s. These matrices are then reduced into polarization imagery such as the diattenuation, retardance and depolarization index. Oftentimes this polarization imagery is quite different and potentially more informative than a conventional intensity image. There are a number of fields that can benefit from alternative/enhanced imagery, most notably in the biomedical, discrimination, and target recognition communities. The sensor has been designed for biomedical applications aimed at improving the technique of noninvasive detection of melanoma lesions.

  16. Scanning quantum decoherence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Jared H; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L

    2009-12-09

    The use of qubits as sensitive nanoscale magnetometers has been studied theoretically and recently demonstrated experimentally. In this paper we propose a new concept, in which a scanning two-state quantum system is used to probe a sample through the subtle effects of decoherence. Mapping both the Hamiltonian and decoherence properties of a qubit simultaneously provides a unique image of the magnetic (or electric) field properties at the nanoscale. The resulting images are sensitive to the temporal as well as spatial variation in the fields created by the sample. As examples we theoretically study two applications; one from condensed matter physics, the other biophysics. The individual components required to realize the simplest version of this device (characterization and measurement of qubits, nanoscale positioning) have already been demonstrated experimentally.

  17. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    Medical ultrasound has been a widely used imaging modality in healthcare platforms for examination, diagnostic purposes, and for real-time guidance during surgery. However, despite the recent advances, medical ultrasound remains the most operator-dependent imaging modality, as it heavily relies...... on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  18. Fuel utilization and fuel sensitivity of solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kevin

    2011-03-01

    Fuel utilization and fuel sensitivity are two important process variables widely used in operation of SOFC cells, stacks, and generators. To illustrate the technical values, the definitions of these two variables as well as practical examples are particularly given in this paper. It is explicitly shown that the oxygen-leakage has a substantial effect on the actual fuel utilization, fuel sensitivity and V-I characteristics. An underestimation of the leakage flux could potentially results in overly consuming fuel and oxidizing Ni-based anode. A fuel sensitivity model is also proposed to help extract the leakage flux information from a fuel sensitivity curve. Finally, the "bending-over" phenomenon observed in the low-current range of a V-I curve measured at constant fuel-utilization is quantitatively coupled with leakage flux.

  19. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  20. GPR scan assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD. The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  1. Fuel processors for fuel cell APU applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aicher, T.; Lenz, B.; Gschnell, F.; Groos, U.; Federici, F.; Caprile, L.; Parodi, L.

    The conversion of liquid hydrocarbons to a hydrogen rich product gas is a central process step in fuel processors for auxiliary power units (APUs) for vehicles of all kinds. The selection of the reforming process depends on the fuel and the type of the fuel cell. For vehicle power trains, liquid hydrocarbons like gasoline, kerosene, and diesel are utilized and, therefore, they will also be the fuel for the respective APU systems. The fuel cells commonly envisioned for mobile APU applications are molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC), solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), and proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC). Since high-temperature fuel cells, e.g. MCFCs or SOFCs, can be supplied with a feed gas that contains carbon monoxide (CO) their fuel processor does not require reactors for CO reduction and removal. For PEMFCs on the other hand, CO concentrations in the feed gas must not exceed 50 ppm, better 20 ppm, which requires additional reactors downstream of the reforming reactor. This paper gives an overview of the current state of the fuel processor development for APU applications and APU system developments. Furthermore, it will present the latest developments at Fraunhofer ISE regarding fuel processors for high-temperature fuel cell APU systems on board of ships and aircrafts.

  2. Fuel Property Blend Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pitz, William J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mehl, Marco [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Wagnon, Scott J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Zhang, Kuiwen [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kukkadapu, Goutham [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Westbrook, Charles K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-01-12

    The object of this project is to develop chemical models and associated correlations to predict the blending behavior of bio-derived fuels when mixed with conventional fuels like gasoline and diesel fuels.

  3. Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information about regulations, developed by EPA, in collaboration with refiners, renewable fuel producers, and many other stakeholders, that ensure that transportation fuel sold in the United States contains a minimum volume of renewable fuel.

  4. Logistic Fuel Processor Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavani, Reza

    2004-01-01

    The Air Base Technologies Division of the Air Force Research Laboratory has developed a logistic fuel processor that removes the sulfur content of the fuel and in the process converts logistic fuel...

  5. Fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enomoto, Hirofumi.

    1989-05-22

    This invention aims to maintain a long-term operation with stable cell output characteristics by uniformly supplying an electrolyte from the reserver to the matrix layer over the entire matrix layer, and further to prevent the excessive wetting of the catalyst layer by smoothly absorbing the volume change of the electrolyte, caused by the repeated stop/start-up of the fuel cell, within the reserver system. For this purpose, in this invention, an electrolyte transport layer, which connects with an electrolyte reservor formed at the electrode end, is partly formed between the electrode material and the catalyst layer; a catalyst layer, which faces the electrolyte transport layer, has through-holes, which connect to the matrix, dispersely distributed. The electrolyte-transport layer is a thin sheet of a hydrophilic fibers which are non-wovens of such fibers as carbon, silicon carbide, silicon nitride or inorganic oxides. 11 figs.

  6. Fuel processor for fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Springer, Thomas E.; Huff, James R.

    1987-01-01

    A catalytic organic fuel processing apparatus, which can be used in a fuel cell power system, contains within a housing a catalyst chamber, a variable speed fan, and a combustion chamber. Vaporized organic fuel is circulated by the fan past the combustion chamber with which it is in indirect heat exchange relationship. The heated vaporized organic fuel enters a catalyst bed where it is converted into a desired product such as hydrogen needed to power the fuel cell. During periods of high demand, air is injected upstream of the combustion chamber and organic fuel injection means to burn with some of the organic fuel on the outside of the combustion chamber, and thus be in direct heat exchange relation with the organic fuel going into the catalyst bed.

  7. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2000-01-01

    .... The focus during the subject period was directed to understanding the pyrolysis and combustion of endothermic fuels under subcritical conditions and the pyrolysis of these fuels under supercritical conditions...

  8. Fuels Combustion Research: Supercritical Fuel Pyrolysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glassman, Irvin

    2001-01-01

    .... The focus during the subject period was directed to understanding the pyrolysis and combustion of endothermic fuels under subcritical conditions and the pyrolysis of these fuels under supercritical conditions...

  9. Catalytic Fuel Conversion Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This facility enables unique catalysis research related to power and energy applications using military jet fuels and alternative fuels. It is equipped with research...

  10. GSPEL - Fuel Cell Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fuel Cell Lab (FCL)Established to investigate, integrate, testand verifyperformance and technology readiness offuel cell systems and fuel reformers for use with...

  11. Hyperchromatic laser scanning cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárnok, Attila; Mittag, Anja

    2007-02-01

    In the emerging fields of high-content and high-throughput single cell analysis for Systems Biology and Cytomics multi- and polychromatic analysis of biological specimens has become increasingly important. Combining different technologies and staining methods polychromatic analysis (i.e. using 8 or more fluorescent colors at a time) can be pushed forward to measure anything stainable in a cell, an approach termed hyperchromatic cytometry. For cytometric cell analysis microscope based Slide Based Cytometry (SBC) technologies are ideal as, unlike flow cytometry, they are non-consumptive, i.e. the analyzed sample is fixed on the slide. Based on the feature of relocation identical cells can be subsequently reanalyzed. In this manner data on the single cell level after manipulation steps can be collected. In this overview various components for hyperchromatic cytometry are demonstrated for a SBC instrument, the Laser Scanning Cytometer (Compucyte Corp., Cambridge, MA): 1) polychromatic cytometry, 2) iterative restaining (using the same fluorochrome for restaining and subsequent reanalysis), 3) differential photobleaching (differentiating fluorochromes by their different photostability), 4) photoactivation (activating fluorescent nanoparticles or photocaged dyes), and 5) photodestruction (destruction of FRET dyes). With the intelligent combination of several of these techniques hyperchromatic cytometry allows to quantify and analyze virtually all components of relevance on the identical cell. The combination of high-throughput and high-content SBC analysis with high-resolution confocal imaging allows clear verification of phenotypically distinct subpopulations of cells with structural information. The information gained per specimen is only limited by the number of available antibodies and by sterical hindrance.

  12. Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooque, Mohammad; Novacco, Lawrence J.; Allen, Jeffrey P.

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  14. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  15. Fuel dissipater for pressurized fuel cell generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basel, Richard A.; King, John E.

    2003-11-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a pressurized fuel cell generator (10) when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated during transient operation, such as a shutdown; where, two electrically resistive elements (two of 28, 53, 54, 55) at least one of which is connected in parallel, in association with contactors (26, 57, 58, 59), a multi-point settable sensor relay (23) and a circuit breaker (24), are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals (21, 22) at two or more contact points, in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel inventory in the generator.

  16. Scanning Productivity in Interlibrary Loan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Wayne A.; Runestad, Anders

    2009-01-01

    The authors report findings of a research study conducted at the Iowa State University Library. Data was gathered on the scanning of library materials by students working in the Interlibrary Loan (ILL) unit. The goals of the study were fourfold: (1) Develop measures of scanning productivity in ILL, (2) Determine if it is more productive to scan…

  17. Scan converting video tape recorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holt, N. I. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A video tape recorder is disclosed of sufficient bandwidth to record monochrome television signals or standard NTSC field sequential color at current European and American standards. The system includes scan conversion means for instantaneous playback at scanning standards different from those at which the recording is being made.

  18. Detectors for scanning video imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Robert H.; Hughes, George W.

    1993-11-01

    In scanning video imagers, a single detector sees each pixel for only 100 ns, so the bandwidth of the detector needs to be about 10 MHz. How this fact influences the choice of detectors for scanning systems is described here. Some important parametric quantities obtained from manufacturer specifications are related and it is shown how to compare detectors when specified quantities differ.

  19. Multipoint Fuel Injection Arrangements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A multipoint fuel injection system includes a plurality of fuel manifolds. Each manifold is in fluid communication with a plurality of injectors arranged circumferentially about a longitudinal axis for multipoint fuel injection. The injectors of separate respective manifolds are spaced radially apart from one another for separate radial staging of fuel flow to each respective manifold.

  20. Optimal scan strategies for future CMB satellite experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallis, Christopher G. R.; Brown, Michael L.; Battye, Richard A.; Delabrouille, Jacques

    2017-04-01

    The B-mode polarization power spectrum in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is about four orders of magnitude fainter than the CMB temperature power spectrum. Any instrumental imperfections that couple temperature fluctuations to B-mode polarization must therefore be carefully controlled and/or removed. We investigate the role that a scan strategy can have in mitigating certain common systematics by averaging systematic errors down with many crossing angles. We present approximate analytic forms for the error on the recovered B-mode power spectrum that would result from differential gain, differential pointing and differential ellipticity for the case where two detector pairs are used in a polarization experiment. We use these analytic predictions to search the parameter space of common satellite scan strategies in order to identify those features of a scan strategy that have most impact in mitigating systematic effects. As an example, we go on to identify a scan strategy suitable for the CMB satellite proposed for the European Space Agency M5 call, considering the practical considerations of fuel requirement, data rate and the relative orientation of the telescope to the earth. Having chosen a scan strategy we then go on to investigate the suitability of the scan strategy.

  1. Improved controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karin Vels; Wu, Yuehua; Jacobsen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    ) is monitored by an oxygen sensor. We present here some examples of its capabilities demonstrated by high temperature topography with simultaneously ac electrical conductance measurements during atmosphere changes, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy at various temperatures, and measurements of the surface......To locally access electrochemical active surfaces and interfaces in operando at the sub-micron scale at high temperatures in a reactive gas atmosphere is of great importance to understand the basic mechanisms in new functional materials, for instance, for energy technologies, such as solid oxide...... fuel cells and electrolyzer cells. Here, we report on advanced improvements of our original controlled atmosphere high temperature scanning probe microscope, CAHT-SPM. The new microscope can employ a broad range of the scanning probe techniques including tapping mode, scanning tunneling microscopy...

  2. Fuel transfer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Harold E.; Barbanti, Giancarlo

    1994-01-01

    A nuclear fuel bundle fuel transfer system includes a transfer pool containing water at a level above a reactor core. A fuel transfer machine therein includes a carriage disposed in the transfer pool and under the water for transporting fuel bundles. The carriage is selectively movable through the water in the transfer pool and individual fuel bundles are carried vertically in the carriage. In a preferred embodiment, a first movable bridge is disposed over an upper pool containing the reactor core, and a second movable bridge is disposed over a fuel storage pool, with the transfer pool being disposed therebetween. A fuel bundle may be moved by the first bridge from the reactor core and loaded into the carriage which transports the fuel bundle to the second bridge which picks up the fuel bundle and carries it to the fuel storage pool.

  3. Microfluidic fuel cell systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Bernard; Kjeang, Erik

    2011-06-01

    A microfluidic fuel cell is a microfabricated device that produces electrical power through electrochemical reactions involving a fuel and an oxidant. Microfluidic fuel cell systems exploit co-laminar flow on the microscale to separate the fuel and oxidant species, in contrast to conventional fuel cells employing an ion exchange membrane for this function. Since 2002 when the first microfluidic fuel cell was invented, many different fuels, oxidants, and architectures have been investigated conceptually and experimentally. In this mini-review article, recent advancements in the field of microfluidic fuel cell systems are documented, with particular emphasis on design, operation, and performance. The present microfluidic fuel cell systems are categorized by the fluidic phases of the fuel and oxidant streams, featuring gaseous/gaseous, liquid/gaseous, and liquid/liquid systems. The typical cell configurations and recent contributions in each category are analyzed. Key research challenges and opportunities are highlighted and recommendations for further work are provided.

  4. Fuel cells seminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This year`s meeting highlights the fact that fuel cells for both stationary and transportation applications have reached the dawn of commercialization. Sales of stationary fuel cells have grown steadily over the past 2 years. Phosphoric acid fuel cell buses have been demonstrated in urban areas. Proton-exchange membrane fuel cells are on the verge of revolutionizing the transportation industry. These activities and many more are discussed during this seminar, which provides a forum for people from the international fuel cell community engaged in a wide spectrum of fuel cell activities. Discussions addressing R&D of fuel cell technologies, manufacturing and marketing of fuel cells, and experiences of fuel cell users took place through oral and poster presentations. For the first time, the seminar included commercial exhibits, further evidence that commercial fuel cell technology has arrived. A total of 205 papers is included in this volume.

  5. Alternate Fuels Combustion Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    nozzle using a vernier e. take photographs of carbon accumulation Carbon deposition checks were done for all fifteen fuels with simplex nozzle and six... micrometer valve and open cooler valve - set fuel circuit to bypass mode - start fuel pump & close cooler valve until abotit 100 psi is indicated on the...cooler gauge - open micrometer valve to desired fuel flow - start main air and switch on the refrigeration unit - allow both the fuel and air systems to

  6. Materials for fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Sossina M

    2003-01-01

    Because of their potential to reduce the environmental impact and geopolitical consequences of the use of fossil fuels, fuel cells have emerged as tantalizing alternatives to combustion engines. Like a combustion engine, a fuel cell uses some sort of chemical fuel as its energy source but, like a battery, the chemical energy is directly converted to electrical energy, without an often messy and relatively inefficient combustion step. In addition to high efficiency and low emissions, fuel cell...

  7. Hybrid Fuel Cell Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Brouwer, J.; Samuelsen, GS

    2001-01-01

    Examples of hybrid fuel cell power generation cycles are the combine high-temperature fuel cells and gas turbines, reciprocating engines, or another fuel cell. These represent the hybrid power plants of the future. The conceptual systems have the potential to achieve efficiencies greater than 70 percent and be commercially ready by year 2010 or sooner. The hybrid fuel cell/turbine (FC/T) power plant will combine a high-temperature, conventional molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC)...

  8. HTGR Fuel performance basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamasundar, B.I.; Stansfield, O.M.; Jensen, D.D.

    1982-05-01

    The safety characteristics of the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) during normal and accident conditions are determined in part by HTGR fuel performance. During normal operation, less than 0.1% fuel failure occurs, primarily from defective particles. This low fuel failure fraction limits circulating activity to acceptable levels. During severe accidents, the radiological consequence is influenced by high-temperature fuel particle behavior. An empirical fuel failure model, supported by recent experimental data, is presented. The onset of significant fuel particle failure occurs at temperatures in excess of 1600/sup 0/C, and complete fuel failure occurs at 2660/sup 0/C. This indicates that the fuel is more retentive at higher temperatures than previously assumed. The more retentive nature of the fuel coupled with the high thermal capacitance of the core results in slow release of fission products from the core during severe accidents.

  9. Fuel injector system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Leonard, Gary L.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

  10. Dual Tank Fuel System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Richard William; Burkhard, James Frank; Dauer, Kenneth John

    1999-11-16

    A dual tank fuel system has primary and secondary fuel tanks, with the primary tank including a filler pipe to receive fuel and a discharge line to deliver fuel to an engine, and with a balance pipe interconnecting the primary tank and the secondary tank. The balance pipe opens close to the bottom of each tank to direct fuel from the primary tank to the secondary tank as the primary tank is filled, and to direct fuel from the secondary tank to the primary tank as fuel is discharged from the primary tank through the discharge line. A vent line has branches connected to each tank to direct fuel vapor from the tanks as the tanks are filled, and to admit air to the tanks as fuel is delivered to the engine.

  11. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... back pain. if a DEXA scan gives borderline readings. top of page How should I prepare? On the day ... radiology protection organizations continually review and update the technique ... that those parts of a patient's body not being imaged receive minimal ...

  12. 77 FR 699 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... January 5, 2012 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard... Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the...

  13. Lidar arc scan uncertainty reduction through scanning geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Barthelmie, Rebecca J.; Pryor, Sara C.; Brown, Gareth.

    2016-04-01

    Doppler lidars are frequently operated in a mode referred to as arc scans, wherein the lidar beam scans across a sector with a fixed elevation angle and the resulting measurements are used to derive an estimate of the n minute horizontal mean wind velocity (speed and direction). Previous studies have shown that the uncertainty in the measured wind speed originates from turbulent wind fluctuations and depends on the scan geometry (the arc span and the arc orientation). This paper is designed to provide guidance on optimal scan geometries for two key applications in the wind energy industry: wind turbine power performance analysis and annual energy production prediction. We present a quantitative analysis of the retrieved wind speed uncertainty derived using a theoretical model with the assumption of isotropic and frozen turbulence, and observations from three sites that are onshore with flat terrain, onshore with complex terrain and offshore, respectively. The results from both the theoretical model and observations show that the uncertainty is scaled with the turbulence intensity such that the relative standard error on the 10 min mean wind speed is about 30 % of the turbulence intensity. The uncertainty in both retrieved wind speeds and derived wind energy production estimates can be reduced by aligning lidar beams with the dominant wind direction, increasing the arc span and lowering the number of beams per arc scan. Large arc spans should be used at sites with high turbulence intensity and/or large wind direction variation.

  14. DUPIC fuel compatibility assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok; Rho, G. H.; Park, J. W. [and others

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the compatibility of DUPIC(Direct Use of Spent PWR Fuel in CANDU Reactors) fuel with the current CANDU 6 reactor, which is one of the technology being developed to utilize the spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors. The phase 1 study of this project includes the feasibility analysis on applicability of the current core design method, the feasibility analysis on operation of the DUPIC fuel core, the compatibility analysis on individual reactor system, the sensitivity analysis on the fuel composition, and the economic analysis on DUPIC fuel cycle. The results of the validation calculations have confirmed that the current core analysis system is acceptable for the feasibility study of the DUPIC fuel compatibility analysis. The results of core simulations have shown that both natural uranium and DUPIC fuel cores are almost the same from the viewpoint of the operational performance. For individual reactor system including reactively devices, the functional requirements of each system are satisfied in general. However, because of the pronounced power flattening in the DUPIC core, the radiation damage on the critical components increases, which should be investigated more in the future. The DUPIC fuel composition heterogeneity dose not to impose any serious effect on the reactor operation if the fuel composition is adjusted. The economics analysis has been performed through conceptual design studies on the DUPIC fuel fabrication, fuel handling in a plant, and spent fuel disposal, which has shown that the DUPIC fuel cycle is comparable to the once-trough fuel cycle considering uncertainties associated with unit costs of the fuel cycle components. The results of Phase 1 study have shown that it is feasible to use the DUPIC fuel in CANDU reactors without major changes in hardware. However further studies are required to confirm the safety of the reactor under accident condition.

  15. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material---ATM-105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Campbell, T.K.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to data are described for Approved Testing Material 105 (ATM-105), which is spent fuel from Bundles CZ346 and CZ348 of the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant, a boiling-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-105 consists of 88 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 2400 GJ/kgM (28 MWd/kgM) and expected fission gas release of about 1%. Characterization data include (1) descriptions of as-fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding. Additional analyses of the fuel are being conducted and will be included in planned revisions of this report.

  16. Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen; Yan, Jinyue

    2016-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion of pulverized fuels (PF), as a promising technology for CO2 capture from power plants, has gained a lot of concerns and also advanced considerable research, development and demonstration in the last past years worldwide. The use of CO2 or the mixture of CO2 and H2O vapor as th...

  17. Fuel cells and fuel cell catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Rice, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2006-11-07

    A direct organic fuel cell includes a formic acid fuel solution having between about 10% and about 95% formic acid. The formic acid is oxidized at an anode. The anode may include a Pt/Pd catalyst that promotes the direct oxidation of the formic acid via a direct reaction path that does not include formation of a CO intermediate.

  18. Obstacles to Industrial Implementation of Scanning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders Astrom; Olog Broman; John Graffman; Anders Gronlund; Armas Jappinene; Jari Luostarinen; Jan Nystrom; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Initially the group discussed what is meant by scanning systems. An operational definition was adopted to consider scanning system in the current context to be nontraditional scanning. Where, traditional scanning is defined as scanning that has been industrially operational and relatively common for several years-a mature technology. For example,...

  19. High Temperature Fuel Cladding Chemical Interactions Between TRIGA Fuels and 304 Stainless Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Emmanuel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Keiser, Jr., Dennis D. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Forsmann, Bryan [Boise State Univ., ID (United States); Janney, Dawn E. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Henley, Jody [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Woolstenhulme, Eric C. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-02-01

    High-temperature fuel-cladding chemical interactions (FCCI) between TRIGA (Training, Research, Isotopes, General Atomics) fuel elements and the 304 stainless steel (304SS) are of interest to develop an understanding of the fuel behavior during transient reactor scenarios. TRIGA fuels are composed of uranium (U) particles dispersed in a zirconium-hydride (Zr-H) matrix. In reactor, the fuel is encased in 304-stainless-steel (304SS) or Incoloy 800 clad tubes. At high temperatures, the fuel can readily interact with the cladding, resulting in FCCI. A number of FCCI can take place in this system. Interactions can be expected between the cladding and the Zr-H matrix, and/or between the cladding and the U-particles. Other interactions may be expected between the Zr-H matrix and the U-particles. Furthermore, the fuel contains erbium-oxide (Er-O) additions. Interactions can also be expected between the Er-O, the cladding, the Zr-H and the U-particles. The overall result is that very complex interactions may take place as a result of fuel and cladding exposures to high temperatures. This report discusses the characterization of the baseline fuel microstructure in the as-received state (prior to exposure to high temperature), characterization of the fuel after annealing at 950C for 24 hours and the results from diffusion couple experiments carries out at 1000C for 5 and 24 hours. Characterization was carried out via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with sample preparation via focused ion beam in situ-liftout-technique.

  20. Remotely scanned multiphoton temporal focusing by axial grism scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Hod; Shoham, Shy

    2012-07-15

    A simple technique for remote scanning of the focal plane in temporal focusing multiphoton microscopy is demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally. A new on-axis light propagation optical setup design enables this scanning, which was considered not feasible in previous studies. The focal plane is axially displaced by the movement of a remote optical device, consisting of a double prism grating, and optionally a cylindrical lens. The displacement is linear, and its slope is inversely proportional to the square of the optical system's magnification.

  1. Liquid fuel cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety...

  2. Nuclear fuel element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zocher, Roy W.

    1991-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element and a method of manufacturing the element. The fuel element is comprised of a metal primary container and a fuel pellet which is located inside it and which is often fragmented. The primary container is subjected to elevated pressure and temperature to deform the container such that the container conforms to the fuel pellet, that is, such that the container is in substantial contact with the surface of the pellet. This conformance eliminates clearances which permit rubbing together of fuel pellet fragments and rubbing of fuel pellet fragments against the container, thus reducing the amount of dust inside the fuel container and the amount of dust which may escape in the event of container breach. Also, as a result of the inventive method, fuel pellet fragments tend to adhere to one another to form a coherent non-fragmented mass; this reduces the tendency of a fragment to pierce the container in the event of impact.

  3. Logistic Fuel Processor Development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Salavani, Reza

    2004-01-01

    ... to light gases then steam reform the light gases into hydrogen rich stream. This report documents the efforts in developing a fuel processor capable of providing hydrogen to a 3kW fuel cell stack...

  4. Automotive fuel economy program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-09-01

    The Automotive Fuel Economy Program Annual Update summarizes the fuel economy performance of the vehicle fleet and the activities of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) during 2001. Included in this report is a section summariz...

  5. Bluff Body Fuel Mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Albert K. (Inventor); Hoke, James B. (Inventor); McKinney, Randal G. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    A combustor is provided. The combustor may include an axial fuel injection system, and a radial fuel injection system aft of the axial fuel injection system. The axial fuel injection system includes a mixer having a bluff body at an exit port of the mixer, and a fuel injector disposed within the mixer. A fuel and air mixer is also provided and comprises an outer housing with an exit port and a bluff body. The bluff body extends across the exit port of the outer housing. A fuel injection system is also provided. The systems comprise a mixer having a bluff body at an exit port of the mixer and a fuel injector disposed within the mixer.

  6. FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    FUEL CELL ELECTRODE MATERIALS. RAW MATERIAL SELECTION INFLUENCES POLARIZATION BUT IS NOT A SINGLE CONTROLLING FACTOR. AVAILABLE...DATA INDICATES THAT AN INTERRELATIONSHIP OF POROSITY, AVERAGE PORE VOLUME, AND PERMEABILITY CONTRIBUTES TO ELECTRODE FUEL CELL BEHAVIOR.

  7. The boundary-scan handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Kenneth P

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at electronics industry professionals, this 4th edition of the Boundary Scan Handbook describes recent changes to the IEEE1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture. This updated edition features new chapters on the possible effects of the changes on the work of the practicing test engineers and the new 1149.8.1 standard. Anyone needing to understand the basics of boundary scan and its practical industrial implementation will need this book. Provides an overview of the recent changes to the 1149.1 standard and the effect of the changes on the work of test engineers;   Explains the new IEEE 1149.8.1 subsidiary standard and applications;   Describes the latest updates on the supplementary IEEE testing standards. In particular, addresses: IEEE Std 1149.1                      Digital Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.4                      Analog Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.6                      Advanced I/O Testing IEEE Std 1149.8.1           �...

  8. Direct hydrocarbon fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Scott A.; Lai, Tammy; Liu, Jiang

    2010-05-04

    The direct electrochemical oxidation of hydrocarbons in solid oxide fuel cells, to generate greater power densities at lower temperatures without carbon deposition. The performance obtained is comparable to that of fuel cells used for hydrogen, and is achieved by using novel anode composites at low operating temperatures. Such solid oxide fuel cells, regardless of fuel source or operation, can be configured advantageously using the structural geometries of this invention.

  9. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Delucchi, Mark

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen is an especially attractive transportation fuel. It is the least polluting fuel available, and can be produced anywhere there is water and a clean source of electricity. A fuel cycle in which hydrogen is produced by solar-electrolysis of water, or by gasification of renewably grown biomass, and then used in a fuel-cell powered electric-motor vehicle (FCEV), would produce little or no local, regional, or global pollution. Hydrogen FCEVs would combine the best features of bat...

  10. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard...... silicon processing. Using a microgripper they were detached from an array and fixed to a standard pyramidal AFM probe or alternatively inserted into a tipless cantilever equipped with a narrow slit. The nanobit-enhanced probes were used for imaging of deep trenches, without visible deformation, wear...... or dislocation of the tips of the nanobit after several scans. This approach allows an unprecedented freedom in adapting the shape and size of scanning probe tips to the surface topology or to the specific application....

  11. Footwear scanning systems and methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Justin L.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2017-07-25

    Methods and apparatus for scanning articles, such as footwear, to provide information regarding the contents of the articles are described. According to one aspect, a footwear scanning system includes a platform configured to contact footwear to be scanned, an antenna array configured to transmit electromagnetic waves through the platform into the footwear and to receive electromagnetic waves from the footwear and the platform, a transceiver coupled with antennas of the antenna array and configured to apply electrical signals to at least one of the antennas to generate the transmitted electromagnetic waves and to receive electrical signals from at least another of the antennas corresponding to the electromagnetic waves received by the others of the antennas, and processing circuitry configured to process the received electrical signals from the transceiver to provide information regarding contents within the footwear.

  12. RPC High Voltage Scan 2015

    CERN Document Server

    CMS Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    During the LS1 the CMS RPC system has been upgraded with 144 new chambers installed on the forth endcap stations. An annual HV (RPC efficiency vs HV) scan for the entire RPC system has been performed during the Run2 data taking period in 2015. The obtained results have been compared to the HV scans performed in 2011 and 2012. No significant differences are observed in the compared results. The optimal HV working points for the newly installed chambers have been evaluated for the first time with collision data.

  13. Pyrophosphate heart scan in cardiomyopathies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Kubicek, J.; Vizda, J.; Kafka, P.; Blaha, V.; Nesvadba, Z.; Zdansky, P. (Karlova Univ., Hradec Kralove (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1982-01-01

    Scintigraphic examination of the heart with pyrophosphate labelled sup(99m)Tc was made in 26 patients with cardiomyopathies of different etiology. From a total of 11 children with secondary affections of the myocardium in myodystrophia musculorum progressiva a positive scintigraphic finding was only obtained in two cases. 12 patients with primary non-obstructive cardiomyopathies the scan was positive in nine cases. One positive scintigraphic finding was shown in examinating three patients with obstructive cardiomyopathies (subvalvular aortic stenosis). The positive scan suggests acute progress of the pathological process in the heart.

  14. Integrated micromachined scanning display systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagelin, Paul M.; Krishnamoorthy, Uma; Conant, Robert A.; Muller, Richard S.; Lau, Kam Y.; Solgaard, Olav

    1999-07-01

    We describe a raster-scanning display system comprised of two tilt-up micromachined polysilicon mirrors that rotate about orthogonal axes. We have demonstrated a resolution of 102 X 119 pixels. The optical efficiency of our two- mirror micro-optical raster-scanning system is comparable to that of micromachined display systems developed by Texas Instruments and Silicon Light Machines. Ease of integration with on-chip light sources and lenses has the potential to reduce packaging size, complexity and cost of the display system and makes it well suited for head-mounted display applications.

  15. Neutronic fuel element fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korton, George

    2004-02-24

    This disclosure describes a method for metallurgically bonding a complete leak-tight enclosure to a matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant channels. Coolant tubes containing solid filler pins are disposed in the coolant channels. A leak-tight metal enclosure is then formed about the entire assembly of fuel matrix, coolant tubes and pins. The completely enclosed and sealed assembly is exposed to a high temperature and pressure gas environment to effect a metallurgical bond between all contacting surfaces therein. The ends of the assembly are then machined away to expose the pin ends which are chemically leached from the coolant tubes to leave the coolant tubes with internal coolant passageways. The invention described herein was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. It relates generally to fuel elements for neutronic reactors and more particularly to a method for providing a leak-tight metal enclosure for a high-performance matrix-type fuel element penetrated longitudinally by a multiplicity of coolant tubes. The planned utilization of nuclear energy in high-performance, compact-propulsion and mobile power-generation systems has necessitated the development of fuel elements capable of operating at high power densities. High power densities in turn require fuel elements having high thermal conductivities and good fuel retention capabilities at high temperatures. A metal clad fuel element containing a ceramic phase of fuel intimately mixed with and bonded to a continuous refractory metal matrix has been found to satisfy the above requirements. Metal coolant tubes penetrate the matrix to afford internal cooling to the fuel element while providing positive fuel retention and containment of fission products generated within the fuel matrix. Metal header plates are bonded to the coolant tubes at each end of the fuel element and a metal cladding or can completes the fuel-matrix enclosure

  16. Fuel loads and fuel type mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuvieco, Emilio; Riaño, David; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Morsdof, Felix; Chuvieco, Emilio

    2003-01-01

    Correct description of fuel properties is critical to improve fire danger assessment and fire behaviour modeling, since they guide both fire ignition and fire propagation. This chapter deals with properties of fuel that can be considered static in short periods of time: biomass loads, plant geometry, compactness, etc. Mapping these properties require a detail knowledge of vegetation vertical and horizontal structure. Several systems to classify the great diversity of vegetation characteristics in few fuel types are described, as well as methods for mapping them with special emphasis on those based on remote sensing images.

  17. Infrared Scanning For Electrical Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbath, Steven E.

    1983-03-01

    Given the technological age that we have now entered, the purpose of this paper is to relate how infrared scanning can be used for an electrical preventative maintenance program. An infrared scanner is able to produce an image because objects give off infrared radiation in relationship to their temperature. Most electrical problems will show up as an increase in temperature, thereby making the infrared scanner a useful preventative maintenance tool. Because of the sensitivity of most of the scanners, .1 to .2 of a degree, virtually all electrical problems can be pinpointed long before they become a costly failure. One of the early uses of infrared scanning was to check the power company's electrical distribution system. Most of this was performed via aircraft or truck mounted scanning devices which necessitated its semi-permanent mounting. With the advent of small hand held infrared imagers, along with more portability of the larger systems, infrared scanning has gained more popularity in checking electrical distribution systems. But the distribution systems are now a scaled down model, mainly the in-plant electrical systems. By in-plant, I mean any distribution of electricity; once it leaves the power company's grid. This can be in a hospital, retail outlet, warehouse or manufacturing facility.

  18. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aseyev, S.A.; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting...

  19. High Resolution Scanning Ion Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the thesis is the following. The first chapter is an introduction to scanning microscopy, where the path that led to the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is described and the main differences between electrons and ion beams are highlighted. Chapter 2 is what is normally referred to (which I

  20. Phase sensitive scanning optical microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungerman, R.L.; Hobbs, P.C.D.; Kino, G.S.

    1984-10-15

    An electronically scanned optical microscope which quantitatively measures amplitude and phase is described. The system is insenstive to mechanical vibrations. The phase infromation makes it possible to measure surface height variations with an accuracy of better than 100 A and can also be used to improve the lateral resolution.

  1. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  2. Introduction to scanning tunneling microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Julian

    2008-01-01

    The scanning tunneling and the atomic force microscope, both capable of imaging individual atoms, were crowned with the Physics Nobel Prize in 1986, and are the cornerstones of nanotechnology today. This is a thoroughly updated version of this 'bible' in the field.

  3. 78 FR 9281 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... February 7, 2013 Part V Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 26 / Thursday... Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency...

  4. 78 FR 49793 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    ... August 15, 2013 Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 158 / Thursday...-AR43 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Renewable Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental...

  5. 75 FR 42237 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards...; ] ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AQ16 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2011 Renewable Fuel Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice of proposed...

  6. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  7. Characterization of spent fuel approved testing material--ATM-104

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Jenquin, U.P.; Mendel, J.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1991-12-01

    The characterization data obtained to date are described for Approved Testing Material 104 (ATM-104), which is spent fuel from Assembly DO47 of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (Unit 1), a pressurized-water reactor. This report is one in a series being prepared by the Materials Characterization Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) on spent fuel ATMs. The ATMs are receiving extensive examinations to provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program. ATM-104 consists of 128 full-length irradiated fuel rods with rod-average burnups of about 42 MWd/kgM and expected fission gas release of about 1%. A variety of analyses were performed to investigate cladding characteristics, radionuclide inventory, and redistribution of fission products. Characterization data include (1) fabricated fuel design, irradiation history, and subsequent storage and handling history; (2) isotopic gamma scans; (3) fission gas analyses; (4) ceramography of the fuel and metallography of the cladding; (5) special fuel studies involving analytical transmission electron microscopy (AEM) and electron probe microanalyses (EPMA); (6) calculated nuclide inventories and radioactivities in the fuel and cladding; and (7) radiochemical analyses of the fuel and cladding.

  8. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2010-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy......-fuel process and focuses particularly on the combustion fundamentals, i.e. flame temperatures and heat transfer, ignition and burnout, emissions, and fly ash characteristics. Knowledge is currently available regarding both an entire oxy-fuel power plant and the combustion fundamentals. However, several...

  9. Study on Thermal Degradation Characteristics and Regression Rate Measurement of Paraffin-Based Fuel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songqi Hu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Paraffin fuel has been found to have a regression rate that is higher than conventional HTPB (hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene fuel and, thus, presents itself as an ideal energy source for a hybrid rocket engine. The energy characteristics of paraffin-based fuel and HTPB fuel have been calculated by the method of minimum free energy. The thermal degradation characteristics were measured for paraffin, pretreated paraffin, HTPB and paraffin-based fuel in different working conditions by the using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA. The regression rates of paraffin-based fuel and HTPB fuel were tested by a rectangular solid-gas hybrid engine. The research findings showed that: the specific impulse of paraffin-based fuel is almost the same as that of HTPB fuel; the decomposition temperature of pretreated paraffin is higher than that of the unprocessed paraffin, but lower than that of HTPB; with the increase of paraffin, the initial reaction exothermic peak of paraffin-based fuel is reached in advance, and the initial reaction heat release also increases; the regression rate of paraffin-based fuel is higher than the common HTPB fuel under the same conditions; with the increase of oxidizer mass flow rate, the regression rate of solid fuel increases accordingly for the same fuel formulation.

  10. Household fuels, direct combustion, public perception, fuel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-07-10

    Jul 10, 2005 ... w ere smo k e, fl y - ash and high b urning rate . A ma j or c ause o f the p ro b lems w as the ... Key words: Household fuels, direct combustion, public perception, fuel-switching, food-switching, health impacts. 1 IN TR ..... levels from wood combustion typically exceed the recommended limit by 13 - 50 times ...

  11. Three-dimensional canopy fuel loading predicted using upward and downward sensing LiDAR systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas S. Skowronski; Kenneth L. Clark; Matthew Duveneck; John. Hom

    2011-01-01

    We calibrated upward sensing profiling and downward sensing scanning LiDAR systems to estimates of canopy fuel loading developed from field plots and allometric equations, and then used the LiDAR datasets to predict canopy bulk density (CBD) and crown fuel weight (CFW) in wildfire prone stands in the New Jersey Pinelands. LiDAR-derived height profiles were also...

  12. Fuel safety research 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2000-07-01

    In April 1999, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory was newly established as a result of reorganization of the Nuclear Safety Research Center, JAERI. The laboratory was organized by combining three laboratories, the Reactivity Accident Laboratory, the Fuel Reliability Laboratory, and a part of the Sever Accident Research Laboratory. Consequently, the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is now in charge of all the fuel safety research in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are conducted in the laboratory by using the unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and hot cells in JAERI. The laboratory consists of five research groups corresponding to each research fields. They are; (a) Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). (b) Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). (c) Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). (d) Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). (e) Research group of FP release/transport behavior from irradiated fuel (VEGA group). This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 1999 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  13. Fuel related risks; Braenslerisker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Englund, Jessica; Sernhed, Kerstin; Nystroem, Olle; Graveus, Frank (Grontmij AB, (Sweden))

    2012-02-15

    The project, within which this work report was prepared, aimed to complement the Vaermeforsk publication 'Handbook of fuels' on fuel related risks and measures to reduce the risks. The fuels examined in this project where the fuels included in the first version of the handbook from 2005 plus four additional fuels that will be included in the second and next edition of the handbook. Following fuels were included: woodfuels (sawdust, wood chips, powder, briquettes), slash, recycled wood, salix, bark, hardwood, stumps, straw, reed canary grass, hemp, cereal, cereal waste, olive waste, cocoa beans, citrus waste, shea, sludge, forest industrial sludge, manure, Paper Wood Plastic, tyre, leather waste, cardboard rejects, meat and bone meal, liquid animal and vegetable wastes, tall oil pitch, peat, residues from food industry, biomal (including slaughterhouse waste) and lignin. The report includes two main chapters; a general risk chapter and a chapter of fuel specific risks. The first one deals with the general concept of risk, it highlights laws and rules relevant for risk management and it discuss general risks that are related to the different steps of fuel handling, i.e. unloading, storing, processing the fuel, transportation within the facility, combustion and handling of ashes. The information that was used to produce this chapter was gathered through a literature review, site visits, and the project group's experience from risk management. The other main chapter deals with fuel-specific risks and the measures to reduce the risks for the steps of unloading, storing, processing the fuel, internal transportation, combustion and handling of the ashes. Risks and measures were considered for all the biofuels included in the second version in the handbook of fuels. Information about the risks and risk management was gathered through interviews with people working with different kinds of fuels in electricity and heat plants in Sweden. The information from

  14. Optimizing Lidar Scanning Strategies for Wind Energy Measurements (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, J. F.; Bonin, T. A.; Klein, P.; Wharton, S.; Chilson, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    Environmental concerns and rising fossil fuel prices have prompted rapid development in the renewable energy sector. Wind energy, in particular, has become increasingly popular in the United States. However, the intermittency of available wind energy makes it difficult to integrate wind energy into the power grid. Thus, the expansion and successful implementation of wind energy requires accurate wind resource assessments and wind power forecasts. The actual power produced by a turbine is affected by the wind speeds and turbulence levels experienced across the turbine rotor disk. Because of the range of measurement heights required for wind power estimation, remote sensing devices (e.g., lidar) are ideally suited for these purposes. However, the volume averaging inherent in remote sensing technology produces turbulence estimates that are different from those estimated by a sonic anemometer mounted on a standard meteorological tower. In addition, most lidars intended for wind energy purposes utilize a standard Doppler beam-swinging or Velocity-Azimuth Display technique to estimate the three-dimensional wind vector. These scanning strategies are ideal for measuring mean wind speeds but are likely inadequate for measuring turbulence. In order to examine the impact of different lidar scanning strategies on turbulence measurements, a WindCube lidar, a scanning Halo lidar, and a scanning Galion lidar were deployed at the Southern Great Plains Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) site in Summer 2013. Existing instrumentation at the ARM site, including a 60-m meteorological tower and an additional scanning Halo lidar, were used in conjunction with the deployed lidars to evaluate several user-defined scanning strategies. For part of the experiment, all three scanning lidars were pointed at approximately the same point in space and a tri-Doppler analysis was completed to calculate the three-dimensional wind vector every 1 second. In another part of the experiment, one of

  15. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Factors which will determine the future supply and cost of aviation turbine fuels are discussed. The most significant fuel properties of volatility, fluidity, composition, and thermal stability are discussed along with the boiling ranges of gasoline, naphtha jet fuels, kerosene, and diesel oil. Tests were made to simulate the low temperature of an aircraft fuel tank to determine fuel tank temperatures for a 9100-km flight with and without fuel heating; the effect of N content in oil-shale derived fuels on the Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester breakpoint temperature was measured. Finally, compatibility of non-metallic gaskets, sealants, and coatings with increased aromatic content jet fuels was examined.

  16. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  17. Scanning of Markov Random Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Cepciansky

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Function of most electronic devices is based on the microprocessor control. A microprocessor must scan and evaluate function of many controlled equipment that can be transformed into 2 statuses - "free" or "busy". Microprocessors in a digital exchange are the typical example of that. It can be said the microprocessors are in a discrete dialogue with the controlled parts. They ascertain in regular time intervals whether the status of the controlled equipment has changed. 1 or more "busy" statuses may exist in the same time. As the changes from "free" to "busy" and from "busy" to "free" occur randomly, the state of i busy statuses lasts for a random period too. If the changes have pro-perties of Markov process, the probability which each change will be detected with and hence the scanning rate needed can be derived.

  18. ceramics by differential scanning calorimetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    YbxGd2–xZr2O7 (x = 0, 1, 2) ceramics were pressureless-sintered using ceramic powders acquired by chemical-coprecipitation and calcination methods. Heat capacities of YbxGd2–xZr2O7 were measured with a heat flux-type differential scanning calorimetry in the temperature range of 298–1200 K. At 298 K, the heat.

  19. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    OpenAIRE

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-Ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2010-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital c...

  20. Fuel line purging device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hensel, R.J.

    1988-03-22

    In a fuel injection system for an internal combustion engine having a fuel pump communicating with a fuel tank and delivering pressurized fuel through a pressure line to a fuel injector, the improvement is described comprising purging means for purging gas, including air and vapor, from the system, comprising: a housing having an inlet communicating with the pressure line, and having an outlet; pressure responsive valve means in the housing movable between an open position permitting flow from the inlet to the outlet, and a closed position blocking flow from the inlet to the outlet; a first branch passage in the housing communicating between the inlet and one side of the valve means; a second branch passage in the housing communicating between the inlet and the other side of the valve means; restriction means in the second branch passage selected to provide a fuel pressure drop thereacross but not substantially dropping gas pressure thereacross.

  1. Toward sustainable fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stephens, Ifan; Rossmeisl, Jan; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2016-01-01

    A quarter of humanity's current energy consumption is used for transportation (1). Low-temperature hydrogen fuel cells offer much promise for replacing this colossal use of fossil fuels with renewables; these fuel cells produce negligible emissions and have a mileage and filling time equal...... to a regular gasoline car. However, current fuel cells require 0.25 g of platinum (Pt) per kilowatt of power (2) as catalysts to drive the electrode reactions. If the entire global annual production of Pt were devoted to fuel cell vehicles, fewer than 10 million vehicles could be produced each year, a mere 10......% of the annual automotive vehicle production. Lowering the Pt loading in a fuel cell to a sustainable level requires the reactivity of Pt to be tuned so that it accelerates oxygen reduction more effectively (3). Two reports in this issue address this challenge (4, 5)....

  2. HTPEM Fuel Cell Impedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vang, Jakob Rabjerg

    As part of the process to create a fossil free Denmark by 2050, there is a need for the development of new energy technologies with higher efficiencies than the current technologies. Fuel cells, that can generate electricity at higher efficiencies than conventional combustion engines, can...... potentially play an important role in the energy system of the future. One of the fuel cell technologies, that receives much attention from the Danish scientific community is high temperature proton exchange membrane (HTPEM) fuel cells based on polybenzimidazole (PBI) with phosphoric acid as proton conductor....... This type of fuel cell operates at higher temperature than comparable fuel cell types and they distinguish themselves by high CO tolerance. Platinum based catalysts have their efficiency reduced by CO and the effect is more pronounced at low temperature. This Ph.D. Thesis investigates this type of fuel...

  3. Fuel cell generator with fuel electrodes that control on-cell fuel reformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruka, Roswell J [Pittsburgh, PA; Basel, Richard A [Pittsburgh, PA; Zhang, Gong [Murrysville, PA

    2011-10-25

    A fuel cell for a fuel cell generator including a housing including a gas flow path for receiving a fuel from a fuel source and directing the fuel across the fuel cell. The fuel cell includes an elongate member including opposing first and second ends and defining an interior cathode portion and an exterior anode portion. The interior cathode portion includes an electrode in contact with an oxidant flow path. The exterior anode portion includes an electrode in contact with the fuel in the gas flow path. The anode portion includes a catalyst material for effecting fuel reformation along the fuel cell between the opposing ends. A fuel reformation control layer is applied over the catalyst material for reducing a rate of fuel reformation on the fuel cell. The control layer effects a variable reformation rate along the length of the fuel cell.

  4. New Snail Mail Scanning Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Modernisation does not stop at the CERN postal service (GS/PS). “With more and more digitisation and the prevalence of e-mail throughout the site, we were hoping to provide more timely delivery of letters and make further saving in resources”, said Tueri Datta, head of GS/PS.   Instead of the standard delivery to your P.O. box, the CERN postal service will digitally scan all letters and books up to 100 pages on reception. These scans will subsequently be sent via e-mail to the corresponding recipient as PDF (Portable Data Format - you will need to install “Acrobat Reader” on your PC). Express mail will be handled with priority. Users without a valid CERN mailbox can register at mail.scan.service@cern.ch in order to have their letters read to them via the phone line (we are currently investigating whether we can use the voices of the last five DGs).   This service will start on 1st April 2012 on the Meyrin site and will gradually replace th...

  5. The Pore Structure of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Peter Brilner

    2005-01-01

    The pore structure and morphology of direct methanol fuel cell electrodes are characterized using mercury intrusion porosimetry and scanning electron microscopy. It is found that the pore size distributions of printed primer and catalyst layers are largely dictated by the powders used to make...

  6. Liquid fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigorii L. Soloveichik

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  7. Liquid fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Summary The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen–oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented. PMID:25247123

  8. Fuel safety research 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uetsuka, Hiroshi (ed.) [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2002-11-01

    The Fuel Safety Research Laboratory is in charge of research activity which covers almost research items related to fuel safety of water reactor in JAERI. Various types of experimental and analytical researches are being conducted by using some unique facilities such as the Nuclear Safety Research Reactor (NSRR), the Japan Material Testing Reactor (JMTR), the Japan Research Reactor 3 (JRR-3) and the Reactor Fuel Examination Facility (RFEF) of JAERI. The research to confirm the safety of high burn-up fuel and MOX fuel under accident conditions is the most important item among them. The laboratory consists of following five research groups corresponding to each research fields; Research group of fuel behavior under the reactivity initiated accident conditions (RIA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the loss-of-coolant accident conditions (LOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior under the normal operation conditions (JMTR/BOCA group). Research group of fuel behavior analysis (FEMAXI group). Research group of radionuclides release and transport behavior from irradiated fuel under severe accident conditions (VEGA group). The research conducted in the year 2001 produced many important data and information. They are, for example, the fuel behavior data under BWR power oscillation conditions in the NSRR, the data on failure-bearing capability of hydrided cladding under LOCA conditions and the FP release data at very high temperature in steam which simulate the reactor core condition during severe accidents. This report summarizes the outline of research activities and major outcomes of the research executed in 2001 in the Fuel Safety Research Laboratory. (author)

  9. Liquid fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii L

    2014-01-01

    The advantages of liquid fuel cells (LFCs) over conventional hydrogen-oxygen fuel cells include a higher theoretical energy density and efficiency, a more convenient handling of the streams, and enhanced safety. This review focuses on the use of different types of organic fuels as an anode material for LFCs. An overview of the current state of the art and recent trends in the development of LFC and the challenges of their practical implementation are presented.

  10. FAILED FUEL DISPOSITION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    THIELGES, J.R.

    2004-12-20

    In May 2004 alpha contamination was found on the lid of the pre-filter housing in the Sodium Removal Ion Exchange System during routine filter change. Subsequent investigation determined that the alpha contamination likely came from a fuel pin(s) contained in an Ident-69 (ID-69) type pin storage container serial number 9 (ID-69-9) that was washed in the Sodium Removal System (SRS) in January 2004. Because all evidence indicated that the wash water interacted with the fuel, this ID49 is designated as containing a failed fuel pin with gross cladding defect and was set aside in the Interim Examination and Maintenance (IEM) Cell until it could be determined how to proceed for long term dry storage of the fuel pin container. This ID49 contained fuel pins from the driver fuel assembly (DFA) 16392, which was identified as a Delayed Neutron Monitor (DNM) leaker assembly. However, this DFA was disassembled and the fuel pin that was thought to be the failed pin was encapsulated and was not located in this ID49 container. This failed fuel disposition study discusses two alternatives that could be used to address long term storage for the contents of ID-69-9. The first alternative evaluated utilizes the current method of identifying and storing DNM leaker fuel pin(s) in tubes and thus, verifying that the alpha contamination found in the SRS came from a failed pin in this pin container. This approach will require unloading selected fuel pins from the ID-69, visually examining and possibly weighing suspect fuel pins to identify the failed pin(s), inserting the failed pin(s) in storage tubes, and reloading the fuel pins into ID49 containers. Safety analysis must be performed to revise the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR) (Reference 1) for this fuel configuration. The second alternative considered is to store the failed fuel as-is in the ID-69. This was evaluated to determine if this approach would comply with storage requirements. This

  11. Nuclear fuel pin scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramblett, Richard L.; Preskitt, Charles A.

    1987-03-03

    Systems and methods for inspection of nuclear fuel pins to determine fiss loading and uniformity. The system includes infeed mechanisms which stockpile, identify and install nuclear fuel pins into an irradiator. The irradiator provides extended activation times using an approximately cylindrical arrangement of numerous fuel pins. The fuel pins can be arranged in a magazine which is rotated about a longitudinal axis of rotation. A source of activating radiation is positioned equidistant from the fuel pins along the longitudinal axis of rotation. The source of activating radiation is preferably oscillated along the axis to uniformly activate the fuel pins. A detector is provided downstream of the irradiator. The detector uses a plurality of detector elements arranged in an axial array. Each detector element inspects a segment of the fuel pin. The activated fuel pin being inspected in the detector is oscillated repeatedly over a distance equal to the spacing between adjacent detector elements, thereby multiplying the effective time available for detecting radiation emissions from the activated fuel pin.

  12. Fuel cell catalyst degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arenz, Matthias; Zana, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    Fuel cells are an important piece in our quest for a sustainable energy supply. Although there are several different types of fuel cells, the by far most popular is the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Among its many favorable properties are a short start up time and a high power density...... increasing focus. Activity of the catalyst is important, but stability is essential. In the presented perspective paper, we review recent efforts to investigate fuel cell catalysts ex-situ in electrochemical half-cell measurements. Due to the amount of different studies, this review has no intention to give...

  13. Self-sustaining fuel purging fuel injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.R.; Koblish, T.R.

    1994-01-11

    A fuel injector system for a combustor of a gas turbine engine includes first and second fuel injectors rendered operative to discharge fuel to the combustor during a high power regime of engine operation and rendered non-operative during a lower power regime of engine operation. The first and second fuel injectors include respective first and second fuel discharge passages in fuel flow communication to one another and to the combustor via associated fuel discharge lips to sustain a flame region. The first and second fuel injectors are operatively associated with respective first and second air discharge means having air discharge lips for discharging air to the combustor for sustaining the flame region therein. When the fuel injectors are rendered non-operative, different pneumatic pressures are established at the fuel discharge lips to purge fuel from the fuel injectors to the combustor. 26 figs.

  14. Advanced fuel system technology for utilizing broadened property aircraft fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reck, G. M.

    1980-01-01

    Possible changes in fuel properties are identified based on current trends and projections. The effect of those changes with respect to the aircraft fuel system are examined and some technological approaches to utilizing those fuels are described.

  15. Fuel tank integrity research : fuel tank analyses and test plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research : and Development is conducting research into fuel tank : crashworthiness. Fuel tank research is being performed to : determine strategies for increasing the fuel tank impact : resistance to ...

  16. Fuel Supply Defaults for Regional Fuels and Fuel Wizard Tool in MOVES201X

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fuel supply report documents the data and methodology used to derive the default gasoline, diesel and fuel-blend fuel properties, and their respective fuel market share in MOVES. The default market share of the individual fuels varies by calendar year, seasons, and several do...

  17. 78 FR 14190 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: EPA is issuing a final rule identifying additional fuel...

  18. Framing car fuel efficiency : linearity heuristic for fuel consumption and fuel-efficiency ratings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, T.M.; Bolderdijk, J.W.; Steg, L.

    2014-01-01

    People are sensitive to the way information on fuel efficiency is conveyed. When the fuel efficiency of cars is framed in terms of fuel per distance (FPD; e.g. l/100 km), instead of distance per units of fuel (DPF; e.g. km/l), people have a more accurate perception of potential fuel savings. People

  19. 77 FR 13009 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 80 RIN 2060-AR07 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel Pathways Under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection... January 5, 2012 to amend the Renewable Fuel Standard program regulations. Because EPA received adverse...

  20. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-08-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Scanning mirror for infrared sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R. H.; Bernstein, S. B.

    1972-01-01

    A high resolution, long life angle-encoded scanning mirror, built for application in an infrared attitude sensor, is described. The mirror uses a Moire' fringe type optical encoder and unique torsion bar suspension together with a magnetic drive to meet stringent operational and environmental requirements at a minimum weight and with minimum power consumption. Details of the specifications, design, and construction are presented with an analysis of the mirror suspension that allows accurate prediction of performance. The emphasis is on mechanical design considerations, and brief discussions are included on the encoder and magnetic drive to provide a complete view of the mirror system and its capabilities.

  2. Radiochemical analyses of several spent fuel Approved Testing Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R.J.; Blahnik, D.E.; Wildung, N.J.

    1994-09-01

    Radiochemical characterization data are described for UO{sub 2} and UO{sub 2} plus 3 wt% Gd{sub 2}O{sub 3} commercial spent nuclear fuel taken from a series of Approved Testing Materials (ATMs). These full-length nuclear fuel rods include MLA091 of ATM-103, MKP070 of ATM-104, NBD095 and NBD131 of ATM-106, and ADN0206 of ATM-108. ATMs 103, 104, and 106 were all irradiated in the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (Reactor No.1), a pressurized-water reactor that used fuel fabricated by Combustion Engineering. ATM-108 was part of the same fuel bundle designed as ATM-105 and came from boiling-water reactor fuel fabricated by General Electric and irradiated in the Cooper Nuclear Power Plant. Rod average burnups and expected fission gas releases ranged from 2,400 to 3,700 GJ/kgM. (25 to 40 Mwd/kgM) and from less than 1% to greater than 10%, respectively, depending on the specific ATM. The radiochemical analyses included uranium and plutonium isotopes in the fuel, selected fission products in the fuel, fuel burnup, cesium and iodine on the inner surfaces of the cladding, {sup 14}C in the fuel and cladding, and analyses of the gases released to the rod plenum. Supporting examinations such as fuel rod design and material descriptions, power histories, and gamma scans used for sectioning diagrams are also included. These ATMs were examined as part of the Materials Characterization Center Program conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory provide a source of well-characterized spent fuel for testing in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management Program.

  3. Solar fuel generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; West, William C.

    2017-01-17

    The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.

  4. Solar Fuel Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S. (Inventor); West, William C. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The disclosure provides conductive membranes for water splitting and solar fuel generation. The membranes comprise an embedded semiconductive/photoactive material and an oxygen or hydrogen evolution catalyst. Also provided are chassis and cassettes containing the membranes for use in fuel generation.

  5. Nanofluidic fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin Wook; Kjeang, Erik

    2013-11-01

    Fuel cells are gaining momentum as a critical component in the renewable energy mix for stationary, transportation, and portable power applications. State-of-the-art fuel cell technology benefits greatly from nanotechnology applied to nanostructured membranes, catalysts, and electrodes. However, the potential of utilizing nanofluidics for fuel cells has not yet been explored, despite the significant opportunity of harnessing rapid nanoscale reactant transport in close proximity to the reactive sites. In the present article, a nanofluidic fuel cell that utilizes fluid flow through nanoporous media is conceptualized and demonstrated for the first time. This transformative concept captures the advantages of recently developed membraneless and catalyst-free fuel cell architectures paired with the enhanced interfacial contact area enabled by nanofluidics. When compared to previously reported microfluidic fuel cells, the prototype nanofluidic fuel cell demonstrates increased surface area, reduced activation overpotential, superior kinetic characteristics, and moderately enhanced fuel cell performance in the high cell voltage regime with up to 14% higher power density. However, the expected mass transport benefits in the high current density regime were constrained by high ohmic cell resistance, which could likely be resolved through future optimization studies.

  6. Are Solar Fuels Sustainable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meuwese, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Summary The combined problems of too little fossil fuels to supply the world’s future energy needs and the possible negative environmental effects of carbon dioxide emissions which are coupled to their usage has led to the development of fuels based on s

  7. Fuel cell electronics packaging

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuang, Ken; Easler, Keith

    2007-01-01

    ... more energy independent. Despite the fact that the primary focus of the new initiative revolved around automotive technologies, the President's Hydrogen Fuel Initiative was crafted into a balanced program that benefited a wide range of technologies and applications, including micro, portable, stationary fuel cells. This massive effort was given an addition...

  8. Durable fuel electrode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    the composite. The invention also relates to the use of the composite as a fuel electrode, solid oxide fuel cell, and/or solid oxide electrolyser. The invention discloses a composite for an electrode, comprising a three-dimensional network of dispersed metal particles, stabilised zirconia particles and pores...

  9. Alternative fuel for automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Editor [Korea Energy Management Corporation, Songnam (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    Recently the developed countries are showing great interest on use of an alternative energy as a fuel for a transport. Korea decided to import 5,000 CNG bus by 2002 and operate in six megalopolis including Seoul. The possibility and problems of using a clean alternative fuel for automobile are discussed.

  10. Cogasification of solid fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, A.; Jurczyk, K.; Mullin, J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Zanardi, M. [Sao Paulo State Univ., Guaratingueta, Sao Paulo (Brazil). Energy Dept.; Peres, S. [Univ. of Pernambuco, Recife (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    High efficiency gas turbine based systems, utility deregulation and more stringent environmental regulations strongly favor the use of natural gas over coal and other solid fuels in new electricity generators. Solid fuels could continue to compete, however, if a low cost gasifier fed by low cost feedstocks can be coupled with a gas turbine system. The authors examine on-site gasification of coal with other domestic fuels in an indirectly heated gasifier as a strategy to lower the costs of solid fuel systems. The systematics of gaseous pyrolysis yields assembled with the help of thermal measurement data and molecular models suggests blending carbonaceous fuels such as coal, coke or char with oxygenated fuels such as biomass, RDF, MSW, or dried sewage sludge. Such solid fuel blending can, with the help of inexpensive catalysts, achieve an optimum balance of volatiles, heating values and residual char thus reducing the technical demands upon the gasifier. Such simplifications should lower capital and operating costs of the gasifier to the mutual benefit of both solid fuel communities.

  11. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  12. MICROBIAL FUEL CELL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    A novel microbial fuel cell construction for the generation of electrical energy. The microbial fuel cell comprises: (i) an anode electrode, (ii) a cathode chamber, said cathode chamber comprising an in let through which an influent enters the cathode chamber, an outlet through which an effluent...

  13. Bioethanol: fuel or feedstock?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rass-Hansen, Jeppe; Falsig, Hanne; Jørgensen, Betina

    2007-01-01

    Increasing amounts of bioethanol are being produced from fermentation of biomass, mainly to counteract the continuing depletion of fossil resources and the consequential escalation of oil prices. Today, bioethanol is mainly utilized as a fuel or fuel additive in motor vehicles, but it could also...

  14. Transportation fuels: Desulfurizing diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamonier, Carole

    2017-02-01

    Transportation fuels such as diesel contain organosulfur molecules that, when combusted, form sulfur oxides that are toxic and poison vehicles' catalytic convertors. Now, a method is demonstrated that can reduce the sulfur concentration of diesel fuel to very low levels at low temperatures and pressures.

  15. Isoprenoid based alternative diesel fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Taek Soon; Peralta-Yahya, Pamela; Keasling, Jay D.

    2015-08-18

    Fuel compositions are provided comprising a hydrogenation product of a monocyclic sesquiterpene (e.g., hydrogenated bisabolene) and a fuel additive. Methods of making and using the fuel compositions are also disclosed. ##STR00001##

  16. www.FuelEconomy.gov

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — FuelEconomy.gov provides comprehensive information about vehicles' fuel economy. The official U.S. government site for fuel economy information, it is operated by...

  17. Commercial aviation alternative fuels initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    This presentation looks at alternative fuels to enhance environmental stability, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, air quality benefits (e.g., SOx and PM), fuel supply stability, and fuel price stability.

  18. Fuel cells: Problems and prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Ramesh, KV; Kannan, AM

    1986-01-01

    n recent years, fuel cell technology has advanced significantly. Field trials on certain types of fuel cells have shown promise for electrical use. This article reviews the electrochemistry, problems and prospects of fuel cell systems.

  19. Fuel cell water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  20. Fuels and Combustion

    KAUST Repository

    Johansson, Bengt

    2016-08-17

    This chapter discusses the combustion processes and the link to the fuel properties that are suitable for them. It describes the basic three concepts, including spark ignition (SI) and compression ignition (CI), and homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI). The fuel used in a CI engine is vastly different from that in an SI engine. In an SI engine, the fuel should sustain high pressure and temperature without autoignition. Apart from the dominating SI and CI engines, it is also possible to operate with a type of combustion: autoignition. With HCCI, the fuel and air are fully premixed before combustion as in the SI engine, but combustion is started by the increased pressure and temperature during the compression stroke. Apart from the three combustion processes, there are also a few combined or intermediate concepts, such as Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition (SACI). Those concepts are discussed in terms of the requirements of fuel properties.

  1. Effectiveness and usability of Scanning Wizard software: a tool for enhancing switch scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koester, Heidi Horstmann; Simpson, Richard C

    2017-11-24

    Scanning Wizard software helps scanning users improve the setup of their switch and scanning system. This study evaluated Scanning Wizard's effectiveness and usability. Ten people who use switch scanning and ten practitioners used Scanning Wizard in the initial session. Usability was high, based on survey responses averaging over 4.5 out of 5, and qualitative feedback was very positive. Five switch users were able to complete the multi-week protocol, using settings on their own scanning system that were recommended from the Scanning Wizard session. Using these revised settings, text entry rates improved by an average of 71%, ranging from 29% to 172% improvement. Results suggest that Scanning Wizard is a useful tool for improving the configuration of scanning systems for people who use switch scanning to communicate. Implications for Rehabilitation Some individuals with severe physical impairments use switch scanning for spoken and written communication. Scanning Wizard software helps scanning users improve the setup of their switch and scanning system. This study demonstrated high usability of Scanning Wizard (with 10 switch userpractitioner teams) and increased text entry rate by an average of 71% (for five switch users). Results suggest that Scanning Wizard is a useful tool for improving the configuration of scanning systems for people who use switch scanning to communicate.

  2. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ashley; Perry, David; Unwin, Patrick R

    2017-04-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential-time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science.

  3. Schistosomiasis collection at NHM (SCAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emery Aidan M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Natural History Museum (NHM is developing a repository for schistosomiasis-related material, the Schistosomiasis Collection at NHM (SCAN as part of its existing Wolfson Wellcome Biomedical Laboratory (WWBL. This is timely because a major research and evaluation effort to understand control and move towards elimination of schistosomiasis in Africa has been initiated by the Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE, resulting in the collection of many important biological samples, including larval schistosomes and snails. SCAN will collaborate with a number of research groups and control teams and the repository will acquire samples relevant to both immediate and future research interest. The samples collected through ongoing research and field activities, WWBL’s existing collections, and other acquisitions will be maintained over the long term and made available to the global research community for approved research purposes. Goals include: · Consolidation of the existing NHM schistosome and snail collections and transfer of specimens into suitable long-term storage systems for DNA retrieval, · Long-term and stable storage of specimens collected as part of on going field programmes initially in Africa especially relating to the SCORE research programmes, · Provision of access to snail and schistosome collections for approved research activities.

  4. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I [Champaign, IL; Zhu, Yimin [Urbana, IL; Kahn, Zakia [Palatine, IL; Man, Malcolm [Vancouver, CA

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  5. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  6. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefore, direct methanol fuel cell is proper to use for the energy source of small electrical devices and vehicles etc.

  7. 3D Scanning technology for offshore purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Morten Thoft

    2005-01-01

    New scanning technology makes for construction of precision 3D models of production plants and offshore production facilities......New scanning technology makes for construction of precision 3D models of production plants and offshore production facilities...

  8. CDMP Scan Task Production Flow Sheets

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate Database Modernization Program contractor documentation of batches scanned. Details include the name of the operator, time/date of scans, duplicates,...

  9. Knowledge Discovery of Port Scans from Darknet

    OpenAIRE

    Lagraa, Sofiane; Francois, Jerome

    2017-01-01

    International audience; Port scanning is widely used in Internet prior for attacks in order to identify accessible and potentially vulnerable hosts. In this work, we propose an approach that allows to discover port scanning behavior patterns and group properties of port scans. This approach is based on graph modelling and graph mining. It provides to security analysts relevant information of what services are jointly targeted, and the relationship of the scanned ports. This is helpful to asse...

  10. Parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope for retinal imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vienola, Kari V.; Damodaran, Mathi; Braaf, Boy; Vermeer, Koenraad A.; de Boer, Johannes F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To visualize retinal structures using a newly developed parallel line scanning ophthalmoscope (PLSO). Methods: A PLSO was built using a digital micromirror device (DMD) instead of traditional scanning mirrors to scan lines over the field of view (FOV). The DMD consists of 912 × 1140

  11. Suspension system for gimbal supported scanning payloads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polites, Michael E.

    1995-03-01

    Gimballed scanning devices or instruments are the subject of this invention. Scanning is an important aspect of space science. To achieve a scan pattern some means must be provided which impart to the payload an oscillatory motion. Various forms of machines have been employed for controllably conferring on scanning instruments predetermined scan patterns. They include control moment gyroscopes, reaction wheels, torque motors, reaction control systems, and the like. But rotating unbalanced mass (RUM) devices are a new and efficient way to generate scans in gimballed payloads. RUM devices are superior to previous scanning apparatus, but they require power consuming and frequently complex auxiliary control systems to position and reposition the particular scan pattern relative to a target or a number of targets. Herein the control system is simplified. The most frequently employed method for achieving the various scan patterns is to gimbal the scanning device. Gimbals are suspended in such a way that they can be activated to generate the scan pattern. The suspension means described is for payloads supported in gimbals wherein the payload rotation is restricted by a flex pivot so that the payload oscillates, thereby moving in a scan pattern.

  12. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for ... what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to ...

  13. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for ... what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to ...

  14. 2009 Fuel Cell Market Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, Bill [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Gangi, Jennifer [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Curtin, Sandra [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Delmont, Elizabeth [Breakthrough Technologies Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    2010-11-01

    Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity, water, and heat. Unlike batteries, fuel cells continuously generate electricity, as long as a source of fuel is supplied. Moreover, fuel cells do not burn fuel, making the process quiet, pollution-free and two to three times more efficient than combustion. Fuel cell systems can be a truly zero-emission source of electricity, if the hydrogen is produced from non-polluting sources. Global concerns about climate change, energy security, and air pollution are driving demand for fuel cell technology. More than 630 companies and laboratories in the United States are investing $1 billion a year in fuel cells or fuel cell component technologies. This report provides an overview of trends in the fuel cell industry and markets, including product shipments, market development, and corporate performance. It also provides snapshots of select fuel cell companies, including general.

  15. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  16. QUANTITATIVE CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Krog Raarup

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM for imaging of 3D structure as well as quantitative characterization of biomolecular interactions and diffusion behaviour by means of one- and two-photon excitation. The use of CLSM for improved stereological length estimation in thick (up to 0.5 mm tissue is proposed. The techniques of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching are introduced and their applicability for quantitative imaging of biomolecular (co-localization and trafficking in live cells described. The advantage of two-photon versus one-photon excitation in relation to these techniques is discussed.

  17. Scanning strategies for imaging arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Attila

    2008-07-01

    Large-format (sub)millimeter wavelength imaging arrays are best operated in scanning observing modes rather than traditional position-switched (chopped) modes. The choice of observing mode is critical for isolating source signals from various types of noise interference, especially for ground-based instrumentation operating under a bright atmosphere. Ideal observing strategies can combat 1/f noise, resist instrumental defects, sensitively recover emission on large scales, and provide an even field coverage - all under feasible requirements of telescope movement. This work aims to guide the design of observing patterns that maximize scientific returns. It also compares some of the popular choices of observing modes for (sub)millimeter imaging, such as random, Lissajous, billiard, spiral, On-The-Fly (OTF), DREAM, chopped and stare patterns. Many of the conclusions are also applicable other imaging applications and imaging in one dimension (e.g. spectroscopic observations).

  18. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-11-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  19. UAVSAR Active Electronically Scanned Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowy, Gregory, A.; Chamberlain, Neil F.; Zawadzki, Mark S.; Brown, Kyle M.; Fisher, Charles D.; Figueroa, Harry S.; Hamilton, Gary A.; Jones, Cathleen E.; Vorperian, Vatche; Grando, Maurio B.

    2011-01-01

    The Uninhabited Airborne Vehicle Synthetic Aperture Radar (UAVSAR) is a pod-based, L-band (1.26 GHz), repeatpass, interferometric, synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) used for Earth science applications. Repeat-pass interferometric radar measurements from an airborne platform require an antenna that can be steered to maintain the same angle with respect to the flight track over a wide range of aircraft yaw angles. In order to be able to collect repeat-pass InSAR data over a wide range of wind conditions, UAVSAR employs an active electronically scanned array (AESA). During data collection, the UAVSAR flight software continuously reads the aircraft attitude state measured by the Embedded GPS/INS system (EGI) and electronically steers the beam so that it remains perpendicular to the flight track throughout the data collection

  20. Scanning ARM Cloud Radar Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widener, K; Bharadwaj, N; Johnson, K

    2012-06-18

    The scanning ARM cloud radar (SACR) is a polarimetric Doppler radar consisting of three different radar designs based on operating frequency. These are designated as follows: (1) X-band SACR (X-SACR); (2) Ka-band SACR (Ka-SACR); and (3) W-band SACR (W-SACR). There are two SACRs on a single pedestal at each site where SACRs are deployed. The selection of the operating frequencies at each deployed site is predominantly determined by atmospheric attenuation at the site. Because RF attenuation increases with atmospheric water vapor content, ARM's Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites use the X-/Ka-band frequency pair. The Southern Great Plains (SGP) and North Slope of Alaska (NSA) sites field the Ka-/W-band frequency pair. One ARM Mobile Facility (AMF1) has a Ka/W-SACR and the other (AMF2) has a X/Ka-SACR.

  1. Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy in Neuroscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Albert; Nebel, Michaela; Schuhmann, Wolfgang

    2010-07-01

    This article reviews recent work involving the application of scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) to the study of individual cultured living cells, with an emphasis on topographical and functional imaging of neuronal and secretory cells of the nervous and endocrine system. The basic principles of biological SECM and associated negative amperometric-feedback and generator/collector-mode SECM imaging are discussed, and successful use of the methodology for screening soft and fragile membranous objects is outlined. The drawbacks of the constant-height mode of probe movement and the benefits of the constant-distance mode of SECM operation are described. Finally, representative examples of constant-height and constant-distance mode SECM on a variety of live cells are highlighted to demonstrate the current status of single-cell SECM in general and of SECM in neuroscience in particular.

  2. Transmittance measurement using scanning LED

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Yao; Mohan, Rosmin Elsa; Lau, Gih-Keong; Asundi, Anand Krishna

    2017-06-01

    In order to measure the transmittance for a large field of view (FOV), a system based on scanning LED is developed. The system mainly consists of tunable LEDs, a glass diffuser and a camera. The LED panel would display different colors in the CIE color space. An algorithm of converting the light wavelength to the RGB values is adopted. The images are captured using a monochrome camera. Depending on the number of colors displayed, the transmittance map for the entire spread of visible colors can be determined. Results are compared with those measured through a spectrometer. The spectral transmittance for the two methods exhibit good similarity. The system provides a means of measuring transmittance with no moving parts and can be extended to other hyperspectral imaging applications.

  3. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Dada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL. White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  4. Scanning Probe Microscopy of Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tautz, Pamela

    2011-10-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has been used to study the unusual electronic properties of graphene. In an effort to support the graphene with minimal interaction with the substrate, we used a hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) substrate. To minimize contaminants between the CVD graphene and boron nitride, the graphene samples were cleaned with distilled water and isopropanol prior to transfer to hBN substrate. We have also examined the growth of graphene flakes by chemical vapor deposition. In particular, we examined the relationship between the orientations of the first and second layer of CVD grown graphene. We found the growth mechanism preferentially resulted in rotations of 9^o or less indicating flakes with first and second layers aligned.

  5. Molten carbonate fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, T.D.; Smith, J.L.

    1986-07-08

    A molten electrolyte fuel cell is disclosed with an array of stacked cells and cell enclosures isolating each cell except for access to gas manifolds for the supply of fuel or oxidant gas or the removal of waste gas. The cell enclosures collectively provide an enclosure for the array and effectively avoid the problems of electrolyte migration and the previous need for compression of stack components. The fuel cell further includes an inner housing about and in cooperation with the array enclosure to provide a manifold system with isolated chambers for the supply and removal of gases. An external insulated housing about the inner housing provides thermal isolation to the cell components.

  6. FUEL3-D: A Spatially Explicit Fractal Fuel Distribution Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell A. Parsons

    2006-01-01

    Efforts to quantitatively evaluate the effectiveness of fuels treatments are hampered by inconsistencies between the spatial scale at which fuel treatments are implemented and the spatial scale, and detail, with which we model fire and fuel interactions. Central to this scale inconsistency is the resolution at which variability within the fuel bed is considered. Crown...

  7. Heating subsurface formations by oxidizing fuel on a fuel carrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costello, Michael; Vinegar, Harold J.

    2012-10-02

    A method of heating a portion of a subsurface formation includes drawing fuel on a fuel carrier through an opening formed in the formation. Oxidant is supplied to the fuel at one or more locations in the opening. The fuel is combusted with the oxidant to provide heat to the formation.

  8. Desulfurization of Logistic Fuels for Fuel Cell Apus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    ppmw S). The effective utilization of logistic fuels in fuel cell applications requires removal of refractory sulfur species ( organosulfur compounds...utilization of logistic fuels in fuel cell applications requires removal of refractory sulfur species ( organosulfur compounds) to below 0.1 ppm. Low

  9. The utility of bone scans in rheumatology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, I.; Dorai-Raj, A.; Khoo, K.; Tymans, K.; Brook, A. [The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, ACT, (Australia)

    1997-09-01

    Full text: Introduction: Bone scans are the commonest diagnostic imaging services requested by Australian rheumatologists. Medicare figures suggest that an average rheumatologist orders about $50 000 (AUS) of bone scans annually. Aims: To ascertain the reasons why rheumatologists request bone scans and how it affects their patient management. Methods: A two-part prospective survey was administered before and after every bone scan ordered by four rheumatologists over a six-month period in 1996. Results: A total of 136 bone scans were requested (66.2% whole body; 33.8% regional; 6% SPECT). The primary indications for scanning were (1) to confirm a clinical diagnosis (38%); (2) to exclude a diagnosis (34%); (3) to localize site of pain (17%); and (4) to assist in management (6%). The common diseases that rheumatologists were attempting to confirm/exclude with bone scanning were inflammatory arthritis, malignancy, and fracture. However, the commonest provisional and final diagnosis was soft tissue rheumatism (18%) followed by inflammatory arthritis (15%) and osteoarthritis (11%). In 24% of patients with a provisional diagnosis of soft tissue rheumatism the diagnosis was changed by the bone scan. The scan was successful in excluding a diagnosis in 88 per cent where this was the primary indication for the test. It was successful in confirming a diagnosis in 79 per cent where this was the primary indication. In 32 per cent the bone scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 43 per cent it altered management. The bone scan result prevented further investigations in 60 per cent. Conclusions: The commonest pre-scan and post-scan diagnosis is soft tissue rheumatism. Rheumatologists predominantly request bone scanning to confirm or exclude their clinical suspicion of inflammatory arthritis, malignancy, and fracture. Bone scans were successful in achieving these objectives in at least 79 per cent of cases.

  10. Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren; Xiaoming

    2003-07-22

    A method for activating a membrane electrode assembly for a direct methanol fuel cell is disclosed. The method comprises operating the fuel cell with humidified hydrogen as the fuel followed by running the fuel cell with methanol as the fuel.

  11. Ammonia as a suitable fuel for fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong eLan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel cells are briefly reviewed.

  12. Ammonia as a Suitable Fuel for Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rong eLan; Shanwen eTao

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia, an important basic chemical, is produced at a scale of 150 million tons per year. Half of hydrogen produced in chemical industry is used for ammonia production. Ammonia containing 17.5 wt% hydrogen is an ideal carbon-free fuel for fuel cells. Compared to hydrogen, ammonia has many advantages. In this mini-review, the suitability of ammonia as fuel for fuel cells, the development of different types of fuel cells using ammonia as the fuel and the potential applications of ammonia fuel ...

  13. Spiral scanning method for atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shao-Kang

    2010-07-01

    A spiral scanning method is proposed for atomic force microscopy with thoroughgoing analysis and implementation. Comparing with the traditional line-by-line scanning method, the spiral scanning method demonstrates higher imaging speed, minor image distortion, and lower acceleration, which can damage the piezoelectric scanner. Employing the spiral scanning method to replace the line-by-line scanning method, the experiment shows that the time to complete an imaging cycle can be reduced from 800 s to 314 s without sacrificing the image resolution.

  14. LIDAR Data Acquisition and Processing for assessing critical fuel parameters: the case study of Bosco dell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guariglia, A.; Zampino, A.; Lasaponara, R.; Lanorte, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the last decades, the abandonment of rural areas has caused an increasing accumulation of fuels (the organic matter available for ignition and combustion) which is considered very critical for the whole Mediterranean Basin because fire ignition and propagation depend strongly on the availability and structure of wild land fuels. Detailed information on fuel properties (e.g. fuel load, spatial arrangement, structure, status etc.) and fuel distribution are essential for supporting (i) fuel management, (ii) fire behaviour prediction (iii) real-time fire suppression tactics and (iv) logistics decisions. Airborne full-waveform laser scanning (ALS) is a potential tool for accurately and effectively assessing critical fuel parameters (including canopy bulk density, canopy height, canopy fuel weight, and canopy base height) over forest areas. The LIDAR is an active high resolution technology capable to provide accurate three dimensional forest structure measurements. The aim of this paper is to develop the use of lidar (LIght Detection and Ranging) remote sensing for accurately and effectively assessing fuel critical parameters in a natural protected area (Bosco dell'Incoronata) located in the Apulia Region (Southern Italy). Lidar data acquisition was carried out on April 2008 for both Bosco dell'Incoronata and surrounding areas. An integrated approach was used to identify and characterize critical fuel parameters using a combination of lidar height bins and ortophotos. Estimates of fuel properties were compared with in-situ data collected at the same time (more or less) as the LIDAR data acquisition. Specific goals of our analysis include: (1) developing lidar derived products and the methodology to use them for assessing critical fuel parameters, and (2) producing spatially explicit digital fuel maps. The obtained results pointed out that LIDAR-based fuel properties and prediction models can be fruitfully used for mapping critical fuel parameters (including canopy

  15. Organic fuel cells and fuel cell conducting sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; Ha, Su; Adams, Brian

    2007-10-16

    A passive direct organic fuel cell includes an organic fuel solution and is operative to produce at least 15 mW/cm.sup.2 when operating at room temperature. In additional aspects of the invention, fuel cells can include a gas remover configured to promote circulation of an organic fuel solution when gas passes through the solution, a modified carbon cloth, one or more sealants, and a replaceable fuel cartridge.

  16. Fuel weight and removal costs in fuel-break construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    James L. Murphy

    1966-01-01

    Three major fuel types were sampled during fuel-break construction on the west side of the Sierra Nevada, California. Fuel weight per acre ranged from 12.2. to 420.6 tons per acre on average. Fuel-break construction removed 27.9 to 40.5 percent of teh total fuel; costs ranged from $141.29 to $148.38 per acre and $1.16 to $4.43 per ton.

  17. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  18. Nuclear Fuel Reprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael F. Simpson; Jack D. Law

    2010-02-01

    This is an a submission for the Encyclopedia of Sustainable Technology on the subject of Reprocessing Spent Nuclear Fuel. No formal abstract was required for the article. The full article will be attached.

  19. Fuels and Lubricants Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Modern naval aircraft and turbine-powered craft require reliable and high-quality fuels and lubricants to satisfy the demands imposed upon them for top performance...

  20. Fuel cell cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimer, J.G. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Archer, D.

    1995-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) sponsors the research and development of engineered systems which utilize domestic fuel supplies while achieving high standards of efficiency, economy, and environmental performance. Fuel cell systems are among the promising electric power generation systems that METC is currently developing. Buildings account for 36 percent of U.S. primary energy consumption. Cogeneration systems for commercial buildings represent an early market opportunity for fuel cells. Seventeen percent of all commercial buildings are office buildings, and large office buildings are projected to be one of the biggest, fastest-growing sectors in the commercial building cogeneration market. The main objective of this study is to explore the early market opportunity for fuel cells in large office buildings and determine the conditions in which they can compete with alternative systems. Some preliminary results and conclusions are presented, although the study is still in progress.

  1. Fueling the AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combes, F.

    Active Galactic Nuclei are fueled from material (gas or stars) that are in general far away from the gravitational influence of the central black hole, the engine thought to be responsible for their activity. The required material has a lot of angular momentum that, a priori, is quite difficult to evacuate. The various dynamical mechanisms that may play a role in this game are reviewed, including m = 2 perturbations (bars and spirals), m = 1 perturbations (spirals, warps, lopsidedness), and tidal interactions between galaxies and mergers. In the latest stages of the merger, a binary black hole could be formed, and its influence on the dynamics and fueling is discussed. Starbursts are often associated with AGN, and the nature of their particular connection, and their role in the nuclear fueling is described. Evolution of the fueling efficiency with redshift is addressed.

  2. Advanced Fuels Campaign 2012 Accomplishments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Not Listed

    2012-11-01

    The Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) under the Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program is responsible for developing fuels technologies to support the various fuel cycle options defined in the DOE Nuclear Energy Research and Development Roadmap, Report to Congress, April 2010. The fiscal year 2012 (FY 2012) accomplishments are highlighted below. Kemal Pasamehmetoglu is the National Technical Director for AFC.

  3. Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NETL

    2004-11-01

    Provides an overview of fuel cell technology and research projects. Discusses the basic workings of fuel cells and their system components, main fuel cell types, their characteristics, and their development status, as well as a discussion of potential fuel cell applications.

  4. Solar fuels generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Nathan S.; Spurgeon, Joshua M.

    2016-10-25

    The solar fuels generator includes an ionically conductive separator between a gaseous first phase and a second phase. A photoanode uses one or more components of the first phase to generate cations during operation of the solar fuels generator. A cation conduit is positioned provides a pathway along which the cations travel from the photoanode to the separator. The separator conducts the cations. A second solid cation conduit conducts the cations from the separator to a photocathode.

  5. Fuel Stability Foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-08-01

    The third method is to add liquid chemical stabilizing additives to fuel which is likely to form insoluble products from chemical degradation during...storage. 1 The treatment choice depends on the storage stability of the fuel and several highly accelerated test methods have been developed to...include carbamate, amide, urea, biuret , isocyanurate and allophanate which may interact with the polar species responsible for deposit formation. PU foams

  6. Composite fuel cell membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plowman, Keith R.; Rehg, Timothy J.; Davis, Larry W.; Carl, William P.; Cisar, Alan J.; Eastland, Charles S.

    1997-01-01

    A bilayer or trilayer composite ion exchange membrane suitable for use in a fuel cell. The composite membrane has a high equivalent weight thick layer in order to provide sufficient strength and low equivalent weight surface layers for improved electrical performance in a fuel cell. In use, the composite membrane is provided with electrode surface layers. The composite membrane can be composed of a sulfonic fluoropolymer in both core and surface layers.

  7. Fuels Combustion Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-07-30

    of the first high temperature mechanisms for the oxidation of aroma - tic fuels has been proposed after extensive flow reactor studies with benzene...kinetic mechanism involving 13 chemi- cal species and 32 elementary reactions was postulated to describe the detoailed kinetics 151. This mechanism...the fact that aircraft fuels always contain aroma - tics, Irrespective of degree, It was evident that such understanding was necessary to provide

  8. Compliant fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgeois, Richard Scott [Albany, NY; Gudlavalleti, Sauri [Albany, NY

    2009-12-15

    A fuel cell assembly comprising at least one metallic component, at least one ceramic component and a structure disposed between the metallic component and the ceramic component. The structure is configured to have a lower stiffness compared to at least one of the metallic component and the ceramic component, to accommodate a difference in strain between the metallic component and the ceramic component of the fuel cell assembly.

  9. Performance scan thermal climate. Assessment of the energy performance level; Performance scan thermisch klimaat. Beoordeling energieprestatieniveau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouleaux, W. [DHV Bouw en Industrie, Amersfoort (Netherlands)

    2004-11-01

    By means of the performance scan the indoor climate and the energetic performance level of a building can be assessed. The most important outcome of the scan is increase of the productivity. [Dutch] Met de performance scan kan het binnenklimaat en het energetisch prestatieniveau van een gebouw worden beoordeeld. De belangrijkste uitkomst van de scan is verhoging van de productiviteit.

  10. Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC

    OpenAIRE

    Amornpitoksuk, P.

    2003-01-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cell, DMFC is a kind of fuel cell using methanol as a fuel for electric producing. Methanol is low cost chemical substance and it is less harmful than that of hydrogen fuel. From these reasons it can be commercial product. The electrocatalytic reaction of methanol fuel uses Pt-Ru metals as the most efficient catalyst. In addition, the property of membrane and system designation are also effect to the fuel cell efficient. Because of low power of methanol fuel cell therefor...

  11. Motor Fuel Excise Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2015-09-01

    A new report from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) explores the role of alternative fuels and energy efficient vehicles in motor fuel taxes. Throughout the United States, it is common practice for federal, state, and local governments to tax motor fuels on a per gallon basis to fund construction and maintenance of our transportation infrastructure. In recent years, however, expenses have outpaced revenues creating substantial funding shortfalls that have required supplemental funding sources. While rising infrastructure costs and the decreasing purchasing power of the gas tax are significant factors contributing to the shortfall, the increased use of alternative fuels and more stringent fuel economy standards are also exacerbating revenue shortfalls. The current dynamic places vehicle efficiency and petroleum use reduction polices at direct odds with policies promoting robust transportation infrastructure. Understanding the energy, transportation, and environmental tradeoffs of motor fuel tax policies can be complicated, but recent experiences at the state level are helping policymakers align their energy and environmental priorities with highway funding requirements.

  12. Nalco Fuel Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, S.

    1995-12-31

    The Nalco Fuel Tech with its seat at Naperville (near Chicago), Illinois, is an engineering company working in the field of technology and equipment for environmental protection. A major portion of NALCO products constitute chemical materials and additives used in environmental protection technologies (waste-water treatment plants, water treatment, fuel modifiers, etc.). Basing in part on the experience, laboratories and RD potential of the mother company, the Nalco Fuel Tech Company developed and implemented in the power industry a series of technologies aimed at the reduction of environment-polluting products of fuel combustion. The engineering solution of Nalco Fuel Tech belong to a new generation of environmental protection techniques developed in the USA. They consist in actions focused on the sources of pollutants, i.e., in upgrading the combustion chambers of power engineering plants, e.g., boilers or communal and/or industrial waste combustion units. The Nalco Fuel Tech development and research group cooperates with leading US investigation and research institutes.

  13. Fuel cell sesquicentennial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, E. M.

    1979-01-01

    The development of fuel cell technology is summarized, and the potential for utility-type fuel cell installations is assessed on the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the construction of the first fuel cell by Sir William Grove. The only functional fuel-cell systems developed to date, the hydrogen-oxygen cells used by NASA, are indicated, and hydrazine and alcohol (methanol) cells are considered. Areas requiring development before the implementation of fuel cells as general purpose utility-type electric generators include catalysts for naturally occurring hydrocarbons or processes for low-cost methanol or hydrazine production, efficient means of scrubbing and enriching air, self-regulating systems, and 15- to 20-fold power density increases. It is argued that although ideas for eliminating certain of the above-mentioned problems have been proposed, fuel-cell systems can never be expected to equal the efficiency, reliability and low cost of conventional power plants, and thus developmental support should be discontinued.

  14. Fuel Class Higher Alcohols

    KAUST Repository

    Sarathy, Mani

    2016-08-17

    This chapter focuses on the production and combustion of alcohol fuels with four or more carbon atoms, which we classify as higher alcohols. It assesses the feasibility of utilizing various C4-C8 alcohols as fuels for internal combustion engines. Utilizing higher-molecular-weight alcohols as fuels requires careful analysis of their fuel properties. ASTM standards provide fuel property requirements for spark-ignition (SI) and compression-ignition (CI) engines such as the stability, lubricity, viscosity, and cold filter plugging point (CFPP) properties of blends of higher alcohols. Important combustion properties that are studied include laminar and turbulent flame speeds, flame blowout/extinction limits, ignition delay under various mixing conditions, and gas-phase and particulate emissions. The chapter focuses on the combustion of higher alcohols in reciprocating SI and CI engines and discusses higher alcohol performance in SI and CI engines. Finally, the chapter identifies the sources, production pathways, and technologies currently being pursued for production of some fuels, including n-butanol, iso-butanol, and n-octanol.

  15. Injector having multiple fuel pegs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mark Allan; Felling, David Kenton

    2013-04-30

    A fuel injector is provided, including a fuel injector body, a plurality of fuel vanes, and a plurality of fuel pegs. The injector body includes a manifold and an inlet. The manifold is configured for receiving fuel, and the inlet is configured for receiving air. The fuel vanes are located within the injector body and are positioned in a direction that is generally parallel with a longitudinal axis of the injector body to orient the air flowing from the inlet. The plurality of fuel pegs are fluidly connected to the manifold and are arranged within the plurality of fuel vanes. The plurality of fuel pegs are each spaced at a distance that is about equal between each of the plurality of fuel pegs.

  16. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capossela, Harry J.; Dwyer, Joseph R.; Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect.

  17. EPRI fuel cladding integrity program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, R. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    The objectives of the EPRI fuel program is to supplement the fuel vendor research to assure that utility economic and operational interests are met. To accomplish such objectives, EPRI has conducted research and development efforts to (1) reduce fuel failure rates and mitigate the impact of fuel failures on plant operation, (2) provide technology to extend burnup and reduce fuel cycle cost. The scope of R&D includes fuel and cladding. In this paper, only R&D related to cladding integrity will be covered. Specific areas aimed at improving fuel cladding integrity include: (1) Fuel Reliability Data Base; (2) Operational Guidance for Defective Fuel; (3) Impact of Water Chemistry on Cladding Integrity; (4) Cladding Corrosion Data and Model; (5) Cladding Mechanical Properties; and (6) Transient Fuel Cladding Response.

  18. Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax

    OpenAIRE

    Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

    2012-01-01

    We develop a two-region partial equilibrium model of the global market for liquid fuels to analyze different fuel policies based on multiple criteria, including greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, expenditure of fuel imports, and the impact on fuel consumers and producers. We find that while ethanol policies may lower gasoline price in the home region, they increase the price of other oil products. A carbon tax increases prices of all fuels. For current sources of ethanol, reduction in GHG emissi...

  19. Outlook for alternative transportation fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gushee, D.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This presentation provides a brief review of regulatory issues and Federal programs regarding alternative fuel use in automobiles. A number of U.S. DOE initiatives and studies aimed at increasing alternative fuels are outlined, and tax incentives in effect at the state and Federal levels are discussed. Data on alternative fuel consumption and alternative fuel vehicle use are also presented. Despite mandates, tax incentives, and programs, it is concluded alternative fuels will have minimal market penetration. 7 refs., 5 tabs.

  20. Deep desulfurization of hydrocarbon fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chunshan [State College, PA; Ma, Xiaoliang [State College, PA; Sprague, Michael J [Calgary, CA; Subramani, Velu [State College, PA

    2012-04-17

    The invention relates to processes for reducing the sulfur content in hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline, diesel fuel and jet fuel. The invention provides a method and materials for producing ultra low sulfur content transportation fuels for motor vehicles as well as for applications such as fuel cells. The materials and method of the invention may be used at ambient or elevated temperatures and at ambient or elevated pressures without the need for hydrogen.

  1. Scanning electron microscopy of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter described methods for Scanning Electron Microscopical imaging of bone and bone cells. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging is by far the most useful in the bone field, followed by secondary electrons (SE) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analytical modes. This chapter considers preparing and imaging samples of unembedded bone having 3D detail in a 3D surface, topography-free, polished or micromilled, resin-embedded block surfaces, and resin casts of space in bone matrix. The chapter considers methods for fixation, drying, looking at undersides of bone cells, and coating. Maceration with alkaline bacterial pronase, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium or potassium hydroxide to remove cells and unmineralised matrix is described in detail. Attention is given especially to methods for 3D BSE SEM imaging of bone samples and recommendations for the types of resin embedding of bone for BSE imaging are given. Correlated confocal and SEM imaging of PMMA-embedded bone requires the use of glycerol to coverslip. Cathodoluminescence (CL) mode SEM imaging is an alternative for visualising fluorescent mineralising front labels such as calcein and tetracyclines. Making spatial casts from PMMA or other resin embedded samples is an important use of this material. Correlation with other imaging means, including microradiography and microtomography is important. Shipping wet bone samples between labs is best done in glycerol. Environmental SEM (ESEM, controlled vacuum mode) is valuable in eliminating -"charging" problems which are common with complex, cancellous bone samples.

  2. Advanced oxidation scanning probe lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yu K.; Garcia, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Force microscopy enables a variety of approaches to manipulate and/or modify surfaces. Few of those methods have evolved into advanced probe-based lithographies. Oxidation scanning probe lithography (o-SPL) is the only lithography that enables the direct and resist-less nanoscale patterning of a large variety of materials, from metals to semiconductors; from self-assembled monolayers to biomolecules. Oxidation SPL has also been applied to develop sophisticated electronic and nanomechanical devices such as quantum dots, quantum point contacts, nanowire transistors or mechanical resonators. Here, we review the principles, instrumentation aspects and some device applications of o-SPL. Our focus is to provide a balanced view of the method that introduces the key steps in its evolution, provides some detailed explanations on its fundamentals and presents current trends and applications. To illustrate the capabilities and potential of o-SPL as an alternative lithography we have favored the most recent and updated contributions in nanopatterning and device fabrication.

  3. Microbial fuel cell based on Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Lixia [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Zhou, Shungui; Zhuang, Li; Zhang, Jintao; Lu, Na; Deng, Lifang [Guangdong Institute of Eco-Environmental and Soil Sciences, Guangzhou 510650 (China); Li, Weishan [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Key Laboratory of Electrochemical Technology on Energy Storage and Power Generation in Guangdong Universities, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2008-10-15

    In this paper we reported a novel microbial fuel cell (MFC) based on Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) strain L17 biofilm, which can utilize directly starch and glucose to generate electricity. The electrochemical activity of K. pneumoniae and the performance of the MFC were evaluated by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and polarization curve measurement. The results indicated that an established K. pneumoniae biofilm cells were responsible for the direct electron transfer from fuels to electrode during electricity production. The SEM observation proved the ability of K. pneumoniae to colonize on the electrode surface. This MFC generated power from the direct electrocatalysis by the K. pneumoniae strain L17 biofilm. (author)

  4. Fuel Cell Testing - Degradation of Fuel Cells and its Impact on Fuel Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pfrang, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Fuel cells are expected to play a major role in the future energy supply, especially polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells could become an integral part in future cars. Reduction of degradation of fuel cell performance while keeping fuel cell cost under control is the key for an introduction into mass markets.

  5. Apparatus and method for grounding compressed fuel fueling operator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joseph Perry; Farese, David John; Xu, Jianguo

    2002-06-11

    A safety system for grounding an operator at a fueling station prior to removing a fuel fill nozzle from a fuel tank upon completion of a fuel filling operation is provided which includes a fuel tank port in communication with the fuel tank for receiving and retaining the nozzle during the fuel filling operation and a grounding device adjacent to the fuel tank port which includes a grounding switch having a contact member that receives physical contact by the operator and where physical contact of the contact member activates the grounding switch. A releasable interlock is included that provides a lock position wherein the nozzle is locked into the port upon insertion of the nozzle into the port and a release position wherein the nozzle is releasable from the port upon completion of the fuel filling operation and after physical contact of the contact member is accomplished.

  6. Hydrogen: Fueling the Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leisch, Jennifer

    2007-02-27

    As our dependence on foreign oil increases and concerns about global climate change rise, the need to develop sustainable energy technologies is becoming increasingly significant. Worldwide energy consumption is expected to double by the year 2050, as will carbon emissions along with it. This increase in emissions is a product of an ever-increasing demand for energy, and a corresponding rise in the combustion of carbon containing fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. Undisputable scientific evidence indicates significant changes in the global climate have occurred in recent years. Impacts of climate change and the resulting atmospheric warming are extensive, and know no political or geographic boundaries. These far-reaching effects will be manifested as environmental, economic, socioeconomic, and geopolitical issues. Offsetting the projected increase in fossil energy use with renewable energy production will require large increases in renewable energy systems, as well as the ability to store and transport clean domestic fuels. Storage and transport of electricity generated from intermittent resources such as wind and solar is central to the widespread use of renewable energy technologies. Hydrogen created from water electrolysis is an option for energy storage and transport, and represents a pollution-free source of fuel when generated using renewable electricity. The conversion of chemical to electrical energy using fuel cells provides a high efficiency, carbon-free power source. Hydrogen serves to blur the line between stationary and mobile power applications, as it can be used as both a transportation fuel and for stationary electricity generation, with the possibility of a distributed generation energy infrastructure. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies will be presented as possible pollution-free solutions to present and future energy concerns. Recent hydrogen-related research at SLAC in hydrogen production, fuel cell catalysis, and hydrogen

  7. Hydrogen-enriched fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roser, R. [NRG Technologies, Inc., Reno, NV (United States)

    1998-08-01

    NRG Technologies, Inc. is attempting to develop hardware and infrastructure that will allow mixtures of hydrogen and conventional fuels to become viable alternatives to conventional fuels alone. This commercialization can be successful if the authors are able to achieve exhaust emission levels of less than 0.03 g/kw-hr NOx and CO; and 0.15 g/kw-hr NMHC at full engine power without the use of exhaust catalysts. The major barriers to achieving these goals are that the lean burn regimes required to meet exhaust emissions goals reduce engine output substantially and tend to exhibit higher-than-normal total hydrocarbon emissions. Also, hydrogen addition to conventional fuels increases fuel cost, and reduces both vehicle range and engine output power. Maintaining low emissions during transient driving cycles has not been demonstrated. A three year test plan has been developed to perform the investigations into the issues described above. During this initial year of funding research has progressed in the following areas: (a) a cost effective single-cylinder research platform was constructed; (b) exhaust gas speciation was performed to characterize the nature of hydrocarbon emissions from hydrogen-enriched natural gas fuels; (c) three H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} fuel compositions were analyzed using spark timing and equivalence ratio sweeping procedures and finally; (d) a full size pick-up truck platform was converted to run on HCNG fuels. The testing performed in year one of the three year plan represents a baseline from which to assess options for overcoming the stated barriers to success.

  8. Laser line scan performance prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Kevin L.; Schofield, Oscar; Kerfoot, John; Giddings, Tom; Shirron, Joe; Twardowski, Mike

    2007-09-01

    The effectiveness of sensors that use optical measurements for the laser detection and identification of subsurface mines is directly related to water clarity. The primary objective of the work presented here was to use the optical data collected by UUV (Slocum Glider) surveys of an operational areas to estimate the performance of an electro-optical identification (EOID) Laser Line Scan (LLS) system during RIMPAC 06, an international naval exercise off the coast of Hawaii. Measurements of optical backscattering and beam attenuation were made with a Wet Labs, Inc. Scattering Absorption Meter (SAM), mounted on a Rutgers University/Webb Research Slocum glider. The optical data universally indicated extremely clear water in the operational area, except very close to shore. The beam-c values from the SAM sensor were integrated to three attenuation lengths to provide an estimate of how well the LLS would perform in detecting and identifying mines in the operational areas. Additionally, the processed in situ optical data served as near-real-time input to the Electro-Optic Detection Simulator, ver. 3 (EODES-3; Metron, Inc.) model for EOID performance prediction. Both methods of predicting LLS performance suggested a high probability of detection and probability of identification. These predictions were validated by the actual performance of the LLS as the EOID system yielded imagery from which reliable mine identification could be made. Future plans include repeating this work in more optically challenging water types to demonstrate the utility of pre-mission UUV surveys of operational areas as a tactical decision aid for planning EOID missions.

  9. Coated U(Mo) Fuel: As-Fabricated Microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emmanuel Perez; Dennis D. Keiser, Jr.; Ann Leenaers; Sven Van den Berghe; Tom Wiencek

    2014-04-01

    As part of the development of low-enriched uranium fuels, fuel plates have recently been tested in the BR-2 reactor as part of the SELENIUM experiment. These fuel plates contained fuel particles with either Si or ZrN thin film coating (up to 1 µm thickness) around the U-7Mo fuel particles. In order to best understand irradiation performance, it is important to determine the starting microstructure that can be observed in as-fabricated fuel plates. To this end, detailed microstructural characterization was performed on ZrN and Si-coated U-7Mo powder in samples taken from AA6061-clad fuel plates fabricated at 500°C. Of interest was the condition of the thin film coatings after fabrication at a relatively high temperature. Both scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were employed. The ZrN thin film coating was observed to consist of columns comprised of very fine ZrN grains. Relatively large amounts of porosity could be found in some areas of the thin film, along with an enrichment of oxygen around each of the the ZrN columns. In the case of the pure Si thin film coating sample, a (U,Mo,Al,Si) interaction layer was observed around the U-7Mo particles. Apparently, the Si reacted with the U-7Mo and Al matrix during fuel plate fabrication at 500°C to form this layer. The microstructure of the formed layer is very similar to those that form in U-7Mo versus Al-Si alloy diffusion couples annealed at higher temperatures and as-fabricated U-7Mo dispersion fuel plates with Al-Si alloy matrix fabricated at 500°C.

  10. Development of PEM fuel cell technology at international fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wheeler, D.J.

    1996-04-01

    The PEM technology has not developed to the level of phosphoric acid fuel cells. Several factors have held the technology development back such as high membrane cost, sensitivity of PEM fuel cells to low level of carbon monoxide impurities, the requirement to maintain full humidification of the cell, and the need to pressurize the fuel cell in order to achieve the performance targets. International Fuel Cells has identified a hydrogen fueled PEM fuel cell concept that leverages recent research advances to overcome major economic and technical obstacles.

  11. Human Digital Modeling & Hand Scanning Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory incorporates specialized scanning equipment, computer workstations and software applications for the acquisition and analysis of digitized models of...

  12. Dry Process Fuel Performance Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Myung Seung; Song, K. C.; Moon, J. S. and others

    2005-04-15

    The objective of the project is to establish the performance evaluation system of DUPIC fuel during the Phase II R and D. In order to fulfil this objectives, irradiation test of DUPIC fuel was carried out in HANARO using the non-instrumented and SPND-instrumented rig. Also, the analysis on the in-reactor behavior analysis of DUPIC fuel, out-pile test using simulated DUPIC fuel as well as performance and integrity assessment in a commercial reactor were performed during this Phase. The R and D results of the Phase II are summarized as follows : - Performance evaluation of DUPIC fuel via irradiation test in HANARO - Post irradiation examination of irradiated fuel and performance analysis - Development of DUPIC fuel performance code (modified ELESTRES) considering material properties of DUPIC fuel - Irradiation behavior and integrity assessment under the design power envelope of DUPIC fuel - Foundamental technology development of thermal/mechanical performance evaluation using ANSYS (FEM package)

  13. Pulverized fuel-oxygen burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Curtis; Patterson, Brad; Perdue, Jayson

    2017-09-05

    A burner assembly combines oxygen and fuel to produce a flame. The burner assembly includes an oxygen supply tube adapted to receive a stream of oxygen and a solid fuel conduit arranged to extend through the oxygen tube to convey a stream of fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel into a flame chamber. Oxygen flowing through the oxygen supply tube passes generally tangentially through a first set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and off-tangentially from a second set of oxygen-injection holes formed in the solid fuel conduit and then mixes with fluidized, pulverized, solid fuel passing through the solid fuel conduit to create an oxygen-fuel mixture in a downstream portion of the solid fuel conduit. This mixture is discharged into a flame chamber and ignited in the flame chamber to produce a flame.

  14. Fuel Pumping System And Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Scott F.; Wang, Lifeng

    2005-12-13

    A fuel pumping system that includes a pump drive is provided. A first pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a first flow of pressurized fuel. A second pumping element is operatively connected to the pump drive and is operable to generate a second flow of pressurized fuel. A first solenoid is operatively connected to the first pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the first flow of pressurized fuel. A second solenoid is operatively connected to the second pumping element and is operable to vary at least one of a fuel pressure and a fuel flow rate of the second flow of pressurized fuel.

  15. Influence of scanning strategies on the accuracy of digital intraoral scanning systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, A; Mehl, A

    2013-01-01

    The digital intraoral impression is a central part in today's CAD/CAM dentistry. With its possibilities, new treatment options for the patient is provided and the prosthetic workflow is accelerated. Nowadays, the major issue with intraoral scanning systems is to gain more accuracy especially for larger scan areas and to simplify clinical handling for the dentist. The aim of this study was to investigate different scanning strategies regardingtheir accuracy with full arch scans in an in-vitro study design. A reference master model was used for the digital impressions with the Lava COS, the Cerec Bluecam and a powderfree intraoral scanning system, Cadent iTero. The trueness and precision of each scanning protocol was measured. Lava COS provides the a trueness of 45.8 microm with the scanning protocol recommended from the manufacturer. A different scanning protocol shows significantly lower accuracy (trueness +/- 90.2 microm). Cerec Bluecam also benefits from an optimal scanning protocol with a trueness of +/- 23.3 microm compared to +/- 52.5 microm with a standard protocol. The powderfree impression system Cadent iTero shows also a high accurate full-arch scan with a trueness of +/- 35.0 microm and a precision of +/- 30.9 microm. With the current intraoral scanning systems, full arch dental impressions are possible with a high accuracy, if adequate scan strategies are used. The powderfree scanning system provides the same level of accuracy compared to scanning systems with surface pretreatment.

  16. Nuclear Fuel Cycle; (USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cason, D.L.; Hicks, S.C. (eds.)

    1991-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC) announces on a monthly basis the current worldwide information available from the open literature on all aspects of the fuel cycle except in-reactor properties and performance of fuels. More information related to radioactive waste and to the transport and storage of spent fuel is included in the current awareness publication, Radioactive Waste Management. This publication contains the abstracts of DOE reports, journal articles, conference papers, patents, theses, and monographs added to the Energy Science and Technology Database (EDB) during the past month. Also included are other US information obtained through acquisition programs or interagency agreements and international information obtained through the International Energy Agency's Technology Data Exchange, the International Atomic Energy Agency's International Nuclear Information System, or government-to-government agreements. The digests in NFC on nuclear fuel back to 1948 are available for online searching and retrieval in EDB and Nuclear Science Abstracts (NSA) database. Current information, added daily to EDB, is available to DOE and its contractors through the DOE Integrated Technical Information System. Customized profiles can be developed to provide current information to meet each user's needs.

  17. Fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Early, Jack; Kaufman, Arthur; Stawsky, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell system is comprised of a fuel cell module including sub-stacks of series-connected fuel cells, the sub-stacks being held together in a stacked arrangement with cold plates of a cooling means located between the sub-stacks to function as electrical terminals. The anode and cathode terminals of the sub-stacks are connected in parallel by means of the coolant manifolds which electrically connect selected cold plates. The system may comprise a plurality of the fuel cell modules connected in series. The sub-stacks are designed to provide a voltage output equivalent to the desired voltage demand of a low voltage, high current DC load such as an electrolytic cell to be driven by the fuel cell system. This arrangement in conjunction with switching means can be used to drive a DC electrical load with a total voltage output selected to match that of the load being driven. This arrangement eliminates the need for expensive voltage regulation equipment.

  18. Biomass fuels update. TVAs biomass fuels program

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    Equipment was installed and tests were conducted on the ethanol from hardwood project. Location of hardwoods, to improve forest management, and to reduce the cost of harvesting woody biomass was assessed. Substantial underutilized cropland exists in the Valley, and a questionnaire survey was administered to supplement available cropland data. The potential liquid fuel yields and production management practices for alternative starch, sugar, and vegetable oil crops were determined to obtain benchmark data and to evaluate alcohol production from alternative agricultural feedstocks. Workshops were conducted to provide information on production of alcohol.

  19. Aircraft Research and Technology for Future Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The potential characteristics of future aviation turbine fuels and the property effects of these fuels on propulsion system components are examined. The topics that are discussed include jet fuel supply and demand trends, the effects of refining variables on fuel properties, shekle oil processing, the characteristics of broadened property fuels, the effects of fuel property variations on combustor and fuel system performance, and combuster and fuel system technology for broadened property fuels.

  20. Molten carbonate fuel cell research at ORNL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braunstein, J.; Bronstein, H. R.; Cantor, S.; Heatherly, D.; Vallet, C. E.

    1977-05-01

    The activities at ORNL during the period July 1976 to February 1977 on the molten carbonate fuel cell program, funded by the ERDA Division of Conservation Research and Technology, are summarized. This period marks the initiation of molten carbonate fuel cell research at ORNL, making use of the extensive background of expertise and facilities in molten salt research. The activities described include a literature survey on molten carbonates, design, acquisition and installation of apparatus for experimental studies of molten carbonates, initial experiments on materials compatibility with molten carbonates, electrolysis experiments for the determination of transference numbers, and theoretical studies of transport behavior and the coupling of mass flows in molten carbonate mixtures. Significant accomplishments were the theoretical prediction of a possibly appreciable change in the alkali ion ratio at molten carbonate fuel cell electrodes, operated at high current densities, as a result of mobility differences of the alkali ions; design, construction and assembly of an electrolysis cell, and initiation of measurements of composition profiles in mixed alkali carbonate electrolytes; initiation of differential scanning calorimetry of pure alkali carbonates for quantitative measurement of transition enthalpies, eventually leading to new, more reliable values of the enthalpies and free energies of formation of the pure and mixed carbonates.

  1. Low Temperature Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Michael Dominic

    A scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was designed and built to operate at liquid helium temperature and was used to measure highly localized electron tunneling spectroscopy. Several instruments were built, all capable of operating in many different environments: air, vacuum, liquid helium and in a transfer gas. An adaptation of one particular design was made into an atomic force microscope capable of operating at low temperatures. Using a low temperature STM, three adsorbed molecular species (liquid crystals, sorbic acid, and carbon monoxide), deposited on a graphite substrate, have been imaged at 4.2K. The inelastic tunneling spectra of these adsorbates show strong peaks in dI/dV vs V curves at energies that correspond to known vibrational modes. The increase in conductance at the onset of inelastic tunneling was measured to be as high as 100 times. The spatial variation of the spectra was measured and was seen to change dramatically on the scale of angstroms, suggesting that individual molecular bonds could be measured. A theoretical model is presented to explain the contrast seen in the STM images of adsorbed molecules, thereby explaining why adsorbed molecules appear to be more conductive than the background. The microscope proved very useful for measuring the energy gap of high temperature superconductors. These materials often have submicron grain sizes. For LaSrCuO, YBaCuO, and BiCaSrCuO, the conductance curves showed a large energy gap suggesting a strongly coupled superconductor. The conductance curves also indicated that intergrain tunneling may occur and that the background conductance varied linearly with the applied voltage. The crystalline structure of rm Bi_2 Sr_2 CaCu_2 O_ {8 + delta} was imaged by an STM operating in air and in ultra-high vacuum. From the STM images the bulk crystal structure model for this material was refined. Finally, the STM was used to make holes reproducibly on a graphite surface with diameters less than 40A. Because the

  2. Biodiesel Fuel Technology for Military Application

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frame, Edwin

    1997-01-01

    This program addressed the effects of biodiesel (methyl soyate) and blends of biodiesel with petrofuels on fuel system component and material compatibility, fuel storage stability, and fuel lubricity...

  3. Application of laser ablation inductivly coupled plasma mass spectrometry for characterization of U-7Mo/Al-55i dispersion fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Mook; Park, Jai Il; Youn, Young Sang; Ha, Yeong Keong; Kim, Jong Yun [Nuclear Chemistry Research Division, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    This technical note demonstrates the feasibility of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the characterization of U–7Mo/Al–5Si dispersion fuel. Our measurements show 5.0% Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) for the reproducibility of measured {sup 98}Mo/{sup 238}U ratios in fuel particles from spot analysis, and 3.4% RSD for {sup 98}Mo/{sup 238}U ratios in a NIST-SRM 612 glass standard. Line scanning allows for the distinction of U–7Mo fuel particles from the Al–5Si matrix. Each mass spectrum peak indicates the presence of U–7Mo fuel particles, and the time width of each peak corresponds to the size of that fuel particle. The size of the fuel particles is estimated from the time width of the mass spectrum peak for {sup 98}Mo by considering the scan rate used during the line scan. This preliminary application clearly demonstrates that laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry can directly identify isotope ratios and sizes of the fuel particles in U–Mo/Al dispersion fuel. Once optimized further, this instrument will be a powerful tool for investigating irradiated dispersion fuels in terms of fission product distributions in fuel matrices, and the changes in fuel particle size or shape after irradiation.

  4. Application of Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry for Characterization of U-7Mo/Al-5Si Dispersion Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeongmook Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This technical note demonstrates the feasibility of using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the characterization of U–7Mo/Al–5Si dispersion fuel. Our measurements show 5.0% Relative Standard Deviation (RSD for the reproducibility of measured 98Mo/238U ratios in fuel particles from spot analysis, and 3.4% RSD for 98Mo/238U ratios in a NIST-SRM 612 glass standard. Line scanning allows for the distinction of U–7Mo fuel particles from the Al–5Si matrix. Each mass spectrum peak indicates the presence of U–7Mo fuel particles, and the time width of each peak corresponds to the size of that fuel particle. The size of the fuel particles is estimated from the time width of the mass spectrum peak for 98Mo by considering the scan rate used during the line scan. This preliminary application clearly demonstrates that laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry can directly identify isotope ratios and sizes of the fuel particles in U–Mo/Al dispersion fuel. Once optimized further, this instrument will be a powerful tool for investigating irradiated dispersion fuels in terms of fission product distributions in fuel matrices, and the changes in fuel particle size or shape after irradiation.

  5. Fuel cells in transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, G. [Technische Univ., Berlin (Germany); Hoehlein, B. [Research Center Juelich (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    A promising new power source for electric drive systems is the fuel cell technology with hydrogen as energy input. The worldwide fuel cell development concentrates on basic research efforts aiming at improving this new technology and at developing applications that might reach market maturity in the very near future. Due to the progress achieved, the interest is now steadily turning to the development of overall systems such as demonstration plants for different purposes: electricity generation, drive systems for road vehicles, ships and railroads. This paper does not present results concerning the market potential of fuel cells in transportation but rather addresses some questions and reflections that are subject to further research of both engineers and economists. Some joint effort of this research will be conducted under the umbrella of the IEA Implementing Agreement 026 - Annex X, but there is a lot more to be done in this challenging but also promising fields. (EG) 18 refs.

  6. Fuel cell membrane humidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    1999-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell assembly has an anode side and a cathode side separated by the membrane and generating electrical current by electrochemical reactions between a fuel gas and an oxidant. The anode side comprises a hydrophobic gas diffusion backing contacting one side of the membrane and having hydrophilic areas therein for providing liquid water directly to the one side of the membrane through the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing. In a preferred embodiment, the hydrophilic areas of the gas diffusion backing are formed by sewing a hydrophilic thread through the backing. Liquid water is distributed over the gas diffusion backing in distribution channels that are separate from the fuel distribution channels.

  7. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  8. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  9. Scan image compression-encryption hardware system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourbakis, Nikolaos G.; Brause, R.; Alexopoulos, C.

    1995-04-01

    This paper deals with the hardware design of an image compression/encryption scheme called SCAN. The scheme is based on the principles and ideas reflected by the specification of the SCAN language. SCAN is a fractal based context-free language which accesses sequentially the data of a 2D array, by describing and generating a wide range (near (nxn)) of space filling curves (or SCAN patterns) from a short set of simple ones. The SCAN method uses the algorithmic description of each 2D image as SCAN patterns combinations for the compression and encryption of the image data. Note that each SCAN letter or word accesses the image data with a different order (or sequence), thus the application of a variety of SCAN words associated with the compression scheme will produce various compressed versions of the same image. The compressed versions are compared in memory size and the best of them with the smallest size in bits could be used for the image compression/encryption. Note that the encryption of the image data is a result of the great number of possible space filling curves which could be generated by SCAN. Since the software implementation of the SCAN compression/encryption scheme requires some time, the hardware design and implementation of the SCAN scheme is necessary in order to reduce the image compression/encryption time to the real-time one. The development of such an image compression encryption system will have a significant impact on the transmission and storage of images. It will be applicable in multimedia and transmission of images through communication lines.

  10. Emergency fuels utilization guidebook. Alternative Fuels Utilization Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-01

    The basic concept of an emergency fuel is to safely and effectively use blends of specification fuels and hydrocarbon liquids which are free in the sense that they have been commandeered or volunteered from lower priority uses to provide critical transportation services for short-duration emergencies on the order of weeks, or perhaps months. A wide variety of liquid hydrocarbons not normally used as fuels for internal combustion engines have been categorized generically, including limited information on physical characteristics and chemical composition which might prove useful and instructive to fleet operators. Fuels covered are: gasoline and diesel fuel; alcohols; solvents; jet fuels; kerosene; heating oils; residual fuels; crude oils; vegetable oils; gaseous fuels.

  11. Onboard fuel processor for PEM fuel cell vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Brian J.; Zhao, Jian L.; Ruffo, Michael; Khan, Rafey; Dattatraya, Druva; Dushman, Nathan [Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc, 20 Acorn Park, Cambridge, MA 02140 (United States); Beziat, Jean-Christophe; Boudjemaa, Fabien [Renault, Service 64240 - FR TCR GRA 0 75, Technocentre Renault - 1 avenue du Golf, 78288 Guyancourt (France)

    2007-07-15

    To lower vehicle greenhouse gas emissions, many automotive companies are exploring fuel cell technologies, which combine hydrogen and oxygen to produce electricity and water. While hydrogen storage and infrastructure remain issues, Renault and Nuvera Fuel Cells are developing an onboard fuel processor, which can convert a variety of fuels into hydrogen to power these fuel cell vehicles. The fuel processor is now small enough and powerful enough for use on a vehicle. The catalysts and heat exchangers occupy 80 l and can be packaged with balance of plant controls components in a 150-l volume designed to fit under the vehicle. Recent systems can operate on gasoline, ethanol, and methanol with fuel inputs up to 200 kWth and hydrogen efficiencies above 77%. The startup time is now less than 4 min to lower the CO in the hydrogen stream to the target value for the fuel cell. (author)

  12. Addressing fuel recycling in solid oxide fuel cell systems fed by alternative fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2017-01-01

    An innovative study on anode recirculation in solid oxide fuel cell systems with alternative fuels is carried out and investigated. Alternative fuels under study are ammonia, pure hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, DME and biogas from biomass gasification. It is shown that the amount of anode off-fuel...... recirculation depends strongly on type of the fuel used in the system. Anode recycling combined with fuel cell utilization factors have an important impact on plant efficiency, which will be analysed here. The current study may provide an in-depth understanding of reasons for using anode off-fuel recycling...... and its effect on plant efficiency. For example, it is founded that anode recirculation is not needed when the plant is fed by ammonia. Further, it is founded that when the system is fed by pure hydrogen then anode recirculation should be about 20% of the off-fuel if fuel cell utilization factor is 80...

  13. Fuels from renewable resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, L.; Schnell, C.; Gieseler, G.

    Consideration is given to fuel substitution based on regenerative plants. Methanol can be produced from regenerative plants by gasification followed by the catalytic hydration of carbon oxides. Ethanol can be used as a replacement fuel in gasoline and diesel engines and its high-knock rating allows it to be mixed with lead-free gasoline. Due to the depletion of oil and gas reserves, fermentation alcohol is being considered. The raw materials for the fermentation process can potentially include: (1) sugar (such as yeasts, beet or cane sugar); (2) starch (from potatoes or grain) and (3) cellulose which can be hydrolized into glucose for fermentation.

  14. Fuel or irradiation subassembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, O.S.; Hutter, E.

    1975-12-23

    A subassembly for use in a nuclear reactor is described which incorporates a loose bundle of fuel or irradiation pins enclosed within an inner tube which in turn is enclosed within an outer coolant tube and includes a locking comb consisting of a head extending through one side of the inner sleeve and a plurality of teeth which extend through the other side of the inner sleeve while engaging annular undercut portions in the bottom portion of the fuel or irradiation pins to prevent movement of the pins.

  15. Proceedings: pellet fuels conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1995-12-31

    The conference brought together professionals from the process- engineered-fuels (PEF), utility, paper, plastics, and boiler industries. Although the last two decades have produced technical breakthroughs, efforts to advance PEF must now focus on increasing commercial breakthroughs. Successful commercialization will depend on increasing supplier, consumer, and regulator confidence and support by demonstrating the performance and value of PEF products. Speakers provided updates on how PEF technology is evolving with respect to technical, economic, and regulatory challenges. Actions critical toward full commercialization of PEF were then considered. Discussion groups addressed materials sourcing, fuel processing and transportation, combustion, and ash handling.

  16. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  17. 40 CFR 79.56 - Fuel and fuel additive grouping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fuel and fuel additive grouping system... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGISTRATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Testing Requirements for Registration § 79.56 Fuel and fuel additive grouping system. (a) Manufacturers of fuels and fuel additives are allowed to...

  18. Security scanning of Web sites at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    As of early 2010, the CERN Computer Security Team will start regular scanning of all Web sites and Web applications at CERN, visible on the Internet, or on the General Purpose Network (office network). The goal of this scanning is to improve the quality of CERN Web sites. All deficits found will be reported by e-mail to the relevant Web site owners, and must be fixed in a timely manner. Web site owners may also request one-off scans of their Web site or Web application, by sending an e-mail to Computer.Security@cern.ch. These Web scans are designed to limit the impact on the scanned Web sites. Nevertheless, in very rare cases scans may cause undesired side-effects, e.g. generate a large number of log entries, or cause particularly badly designed or less robust Web applications to crash. If a Web site is affected by these security scans, it will also be susceptible to any more aggressive scan that can be performed any time by a malicious attacker. Such Web applications should be fixed, and also additionally...

  19. Multibeam scanning electron microscope : Experimental results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohammadi-Gheidari, A.; Hagen, C.W.; Kruit, P.

    2010-01-01

    The authors present the first results obtained with their multibeam scanning electron microscope. For the first time, they were able to image 196 (array of 14×14) focused beams of a multielectron beam source on a specimen using single beam scanning electron microscope (SEM) optics. The system

  20. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  1. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feeling Too Tall or Too Short Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  2. Live ultrasound volume reconstruction using scout scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Amelie; Lasso, Andras; Ungi, Tamas; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-02-21

    Ultrasound-guided interventions often necessitate scanning of deep-seated anatomical structures that may be hard to visualize. Visualization can be improved using reconstructed 3D ultrasound volumes. High-resolution 3D reconstruction of a large area during clinical interventions is challenging if the region of interest is unknown. We propose a two-stage scanning method allowing the user to perform quick low-resolution scouting followed by high-resolution live volume reconstruction. Scout scanning is accomplished by stacking 2D tracked ultrasound images into a low-resolution volume. Then, within a region of interest defined in the scout scan, live volume reconstruction can be performed by continuous scanning until sufficient image density is achieved. We implemented the workflow as a module of the open-source 3D Slicer application, within the SlicerIGT extension and building on the PLUS toolkit. Scout scanning is performed in a few seconds using 3 mm spacing to allow region of interest definition. Live reconstruction parameters are set to provide good image quality (0.5 mm spacing, hole filling enabled) and feedback is given during live scanning by regularly updated display of the reconstructed volume. Use of scout scanning may allow the physician to identify anatomical structures. Subsequent live volume reconstruction in a region of interest may assist in procedures such as targeting needle interventions or estimating brain shift during surgery.

  3. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... I Help a Kid Who's Bullied? Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  4. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A Real Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía ...

  5. Optimal stimulation settings for CMAP scan registrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. Maathuis (Ellen); R.D. Henderson (Robert); J. Drenthen (Judith); N.M. Hutchinson (Nicole); J.R. Daube (Jasper); J.H. Blok (Joleen); G.H. Visser (Gerhard Henk)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The CMAP (Compound Muscle Action Potential) scan is a non-invasive electrodiagnostic tool, which provides a quick and visual assessment of motor unit potentials as electrophysiological components that together constitute the CMAP. The CMAP scan records the electrical activity

  6. Towards high-speed scanning tunneling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabak, Femke Chantal

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis, two routes towards high-speed scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are described. The first possibility for high-speed scanning that is discussed is the use of MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems) devices as high-speed add-ons in STM microscopes. The functionality of these devices

  7. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... You Go to School? Breast Cancer Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  8. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters in epidemiologic data. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of secondary clusters as implemented in SatScan is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set...

  9. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This article shows that the usually applied elimination of secondary clusters as implemented in SatScan is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of a set of confocal elliptic...

  10. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... With Stepparents Be a Green Kid Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means ...

  11. Ultrasonic scanning for pallet part grading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed F. Kabir; Daniel L. Schmoldt; Mark E. Schafer; Philip A. Araman

    2000-01-01

    Sorting and grading of wooden pallet parts are key factors for pallet manufacturing quality and pallet durability. The feasibility of ultrasonic scanning for defect detection in pallet manufacturing is examined in this report. Scanning was conducted by two pressure-contact rolling transducers in a pitch-catch arrangement. Pallet part deckboards were fed through the...

  12. Gender, environmental scanning and performance of micro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current business environment for micro enterprises in South Africa is very competitive, turbulent and constantly changing. Micro entrepreneurs need to gain knowledge of the business environment through environmental scanning. The study examined the frequency of environmental scanning practices by micro ...

  13. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to School? Breast Cancer Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that ...

  14. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Is an Intellectual Disability? Movie: Endocrine System Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth > For Kids > Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print A A A en español Obtención de una tomografía ...

  15. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance (RS EPR) is a continuous-wave (CW) method that combines narrowband excitation and broadband detection. Sinusoidal magnetic field scans that span the entire EPR spectrum cause electron spin excitations twice during the scan period. Periodic transient RS signals are digitized and time-averaged. Deconvolution of absorption spectrum from the measured full-cycle signal is an ill-posed problem that does not have a stable solution because the magnetic field passes the same EPR line twice per sinusoidal scan during up- and down-field passages. As a result, RS signals consist of two contributions that need to be separated and postprocessed individually. Deconvolution of either of the contributions is a well-posed problem that has a stable solution. The current version of the RS EPR algorithm solves the separation problem by cutting the full-scan signal into two half-period pieces. This imposes a constraint on the experiment; the EPR signal must completely decay by the end of each half-scan in order to not be truncated. The constraint limits the maximum scan frequency and, therefore, the RS signal-to-noise gain. Faster scans permit the use of higher excitation powers without saturating the spin system, translating into a higher EPR sensitivity. A stable, full-scan algorithm is described in this paper that does not require truncation of the periodic response. This algorithm utilizes the additive property of linear systems: the response to a sum of two inputs is equal the sum of responses to each of the inputs separately. Based on this property, the mathematical model for CW RS EPR can be replaced by that of a sum of two independent full-cycle pulsed field-modulated experiments. In each of these experiments, the excitation power equals to zero during either up- or down-field scan. The full-cycle algorithm permits approaching the upper theoretical scan frequency limit; the transient spin system response must decay within the scan

  16. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  17. Significance of leukocyte scanning in infected endoprostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Pasurka, B.; Boerner, W.

    1989-03-01

    31 patients with suspected septic loosening of an endoprosthesis (hip endoprosthesis n=30; knee endoprosthesis n=1) were examined with leukocyte scans (10 MBq /sup 111/In-oxine: n=22; 300 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO: n=9). The results were compared with results of the bacterial growth (n=22), the histology (n=12) and of the bone scans (/sup 99m/Tc-MDP: n=20) which were performed within 4 days. The sensitivity of the bone scan was 100%, the specificity 30% and the diagnostic accuracy regarding a septic loosening of the arthroplasty was 55%. For the leukocyte scans a comparable sensitivity of 100%, but a higher specificity (86%) and accuracy (91%) could be calculated. A false positive leukocyte scan could be observed in a periprosthetic granuloma, an ossifying periarthritis and in a patient with negative bacterial growth with the histological proof of an inflammation.

  18. Speckle suppression in scanning laser display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurlov, Victor; Lapchuk, Anatoly; Yun, Sangkyeong; Song, Jonghyeong; Yang, Haengseok

    2008-01-10

    The theory of speckle noise in a scanning beam is presented. The general formulas for the calculation of speckle contrast, which apply to any scanning display, are obtained. It is shown that the main requirement for successful speckle suppression in a scanning display is a narrow autocorrelation peak and low sidelobe level in the autocorrelation function of the complex amplitude distribution across a scanning light beam. The simple formulas for speckle contrast for a beam with a narrow autocorrelation function peak were obtained. It was shown that application of a diffractive optical element (DOE) with a Barker code phase shape could use only natural display scanning motion for speckle suppression. DOE with a Barker code phase shape has a small size and may be deposited on the light modulator inside the depth of the focus of the reflected beam area, and therefore, it does not need an additional image plane and complicated relay optics.

  19. High density fuels using dispersion and monolithic fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Daniel S.; Silva, Antonio T.; Abe, Alfredo Y.; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia, E-mail: dsgomes@ipen.br, E-mail: teixeira@ipen.br, E-mail: alfredo@ctmsp.mar.mil.br, E-mail: rafael.orm@gmail.com, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@ctmsp.mar.mil.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Universidade de São Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Naval e Oceânica

    2017-07-01

    Fuel plates used in high-performance research reactors need to be converted to low-enrichment uranium fuel; the fuel option based on a monolithic formulation requires alloys to contain 6 - 10 wt% Mo. In this case, the fuel plates are composed of the metallic alloy U-10Mo surrounded by a thin zirconium layer encapsulated in aluminum cladding. This study reviewed the physical properties of monolithic forms. The constraints produced during the manufacturing process were analyzed and compared to those of dispersed fuel. The bonding process used for dispersion fuels differs from the techniques applied to foil bonding used for pure alloys. The quality of monolithic plates depends on the fabrication method, which usually involves hot isostatic pressing and the thermal annealing effect of residual stress, which degrades the uranium cubic phase. The preservation of the metastable phase has considerable influence on fuel performance. The physical properties of the foil fuel under irradiation are superior to those of aluminum-dispersed fuels. The fuel meat, using zirconium as the diffusion barrier, prevents the interaction layer from becoming excessively thick. The problem with dispersed fuel is breakaway swelling with a medium fission rate. It has been observed that the fuel dispersed in aluminum was minimized in monolithic forms. The pure alloys exhibited a suitable response from a rate at least twice as much as the fission rate of dispersions. The foils can support fissile material concentration combined with a reduced swelling rate. (author)

  20. Fuel and fuel blending components from biomass derived pyrolysis oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, Michael J.; Brandvold, Timothy A.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2012-12-11

    A process for the conversion of biomass derived pyrolysis oil to liquid fuel components is presented. The process includes the production of diesel, aviation, and naphtha boiling point range fuels or fuel blending components by two-stage deoxygenation of the pyrolysis oil and separation of the products.

  1. Fuel Cell Electrodes for Hydrogen-Air Fuel Cell Assemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes the design and evaluation of a hydrogen-air fuel cell module for use in a portable hydrid fuel cell -battery system. The fuel ... cell module consists of a stack of 20 single assemblies. Each assembly contains 2 electrically independent cells with a common electrolyte compartment

  2. Characterization Of Cladding Hull Wastes From Used Nuclear Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang K.H.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Used cladding hulls from pressurized water reactor (PWR are characterized to provide useful information for the treatment and disposal of cladding hull wastes. The radioactivity and the mass of gamma emitting nuclides increases with an increase in the fuel burn-up and their removal ratios are found to be more than 99 wt.% except Co-60 and Cs-137. In the result of measuring the concentrations of U and Pu included in the cladding hull wastes, most of the residues are remained on the surface and the removal ratio of U and Pu are revealed to be over 99.98 wt.% for the fuel burn-up of 35,000 MWd/tU. An electron probe micro-analyzer (EPMA line scanning shows that radioactive fission products are penetrated into the Zr oxide layer, which is proportional to the fuel burn-up. The oxidative decladding process exhibits more efficient removal ratio of radionuclides.

  3. Mass transfer in fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. D., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Developments in the following areas are reported: surface area and pore size distribution in electrolyte matrices, electron microscopy of electrolyte matrices, surface tension of KOH solutions, water transport in fuel cells, and effectiveness factors for fuel cell components.

  4. Alternative Fuels in Cement Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Boberg

    The substitution of alternative for fossil fuels in cement production has increased significantly in the last decade. Of these new alternative fuels, solid state fuels presently account for the largest part, and in particular, meat and bone meal, plastics and tyre derived fuels (TDF) accounted...... for the most significant alternative fuel energy contributors in the German cement industry. Solid alternative fuels are typically high in volatile content and they may differ significantly in physical and chemical properties compared to traditional solid fossil fuels. From the process point of view......, considering a modern kiln system for cement production, the use of alternative fuels mainly influences 1) kiln process stability (may accelerate build up of blockages preventing gas and/or solids flow), 2) cement clinker quality, 3) emissions, and 4) decreased production capacity. Kiln process stability...

  5. Ambient pressure fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mahlon S.

    2000-01-01

    An ambient pressure fuel cell system is provided with a fuel cell stack formed from a plurality of fuel cells having membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) that are hydrated with liquid water and bipolar plates with anode and cathode sides for distributing hydrogen fuel gas and water to a first side of each one of the MEAs and air with reactant oxygen gas to a second side of each one of the MEAs. A pump supplies liquid water to the fuel cells. A recirculating system may be used to return unused hydrogen fuel gas to the stack. A near-ambient pressure blower blows air through the fuel cell stack in excess of reaction stoichiometric amounts to react with the hydrogen fuel gas.

  6. Fuel tank crashworthiness : loading scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    The Federal Railroad Administrations Office of Research and Development is conducting research into fuel tank crashworthiness. The breaching of fuel tanks during passenger : rail collisions and derailments increases the potential of serious injury...

  7. FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassett, C.H.

    1961-11-21

    A fuel element is designed which is particularly adapted for reactors of high power density used to generate steam for the production of electricity. The fuel element consists of inner and outer concentric tubes forming an annular chamber within which is contained fissionable fuel pellet segments, wedge members interposed between the fuel segments, and a spring which, acting with wedge members, urges said fuel pellets radially into contact against the inner surface of the outer tube. The wedge members may be a fertile material convertible into fissionable fuel material by absorbing neutrons emitted from the fissionable fuel pellet segments. The costly grinding of cylindrical fuel pellets to close tolerances for snug engagement is reduced because the need to finish the exact size is eliminated. (AEC)

  8. Fuel Cell Technical Team Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    The Fuel Cell Technical Team promotes the development of a fuel cell power system for an automotive powertrain that meets the U.S. DRIVE Partnership (United States Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy sustainability) goals.

  9. Universal electrode interface for electrocatalytic oxidation of liquid fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hualing; Qiu, Zhipeng; Wan, Qijin; Wang, Zhijie; Liu, Yi; Yang, Nianjun

    2014-10-22

    Electrocatalytic oxidations of liquid fuels from alcohols, carboxylic acids, and aldehydes were realized on a universal electrode interface. Such an interface was fabricated using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as the catalyst support and palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs) as the electrocatalysts. The Pd NPs/CNTs nanocomposite was synthesized using the ethylene glycol reduction method. It was characterized using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, voltammetry, and impedance. On the Pd NPs/CNTs nanocomposite coated electrode, the oxidations of those liquid fuels occur similarly in two steps: the oxidations of freshly chemisorbed species in the forward (positive-potential) scan and then, in the reverse scan (negative-potential), the oxidations of the incompletely oxidized carbonaceous species formed during the forward scan. The oxidation charges were adopted to study their oxidation mechanisms and oxidation efficiencies. The oxidation efficiency follows the order of aldehyde (formaldehyde) > carboxylic acid (formic acid) > alcohols (ethanol > methanol > glycol > propanol). Such a Pd NPs/CNTs nanocomposite coated electrode is thus promising to be applied as the anode for the facilitation of direct fuel cells.

  10. Fuel Load (FL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan C. Lutes; Robert E. Keane

    2006-01-01

    The Fuel Load method (FL) is used to sample dead and down woody debris, determine depth of the duff/ litter profile, estimate the proportion of litter in the profile, and estimate total vegetative cover and dead vegetative cover. Down woody debris (DWD) is sampled using the planar intercept technique based on the methodology developed by Brown (1974). Pieces of dead...

  11. Fuel Tank Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    material resistance to the saprophytic microorganisms is necessary. Some coatings formerly used in fuel tanks, such as the MIL-S-4383 Buna-N, were... microorganisms at bay. It can not be assumed however, that the problem will not arise again. QUALIFICATION REQUIREMENTS Existing military specifications for

  12. JACKETED REACTOR FUEL ELEMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, K.F.; Van Thyne, R.J.

    1958-12-01

    A fuel element is described for fast reactors comprised of a core of uranium metal containing material and a jacket around the core, the jacket consisting of from 2.5 to 15 percent of titanium, from 1 to 5 percent of niobium, and from 80 to 96.5 percent of vanadium.

  13. Alternate fuels for engines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundaram, P.S.N.

    1981-06-01

    Field trials with SVC 5, single-cylinder, high-speed diesel engines have been conducted by Cooper Engineering Ltd, substituting alcohol, gobar gas and LPG, one by one, for diesel oil. The experiments have shown that the engines can be successfully operated with one of the three alternate fuels after making minor modifications in their design.

  14. Fields of Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russ, Rosemary S.; Wangen, Steve; Nye, D. Leith; Shapiro, R. Benjamin; Strinz, Will; Ferris, Michael

    2015-01-01

    To help teachers engage students in discussions about sustainability, the authors designed Fields of Fuel, a multiplayer, web-based simulation game that allows players to explore the environmental and economic trade-offs of a realistic sustainable system. Computer-based simulations of real-world phenomena engage students and have been shown to…

  15. Fuels Combustion Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-09

    AUTHORITY 3. DISTRIBUTION/AVAI LABILITY OF REPORT 12b. DE CLASSIF ICATI ON/DOWN GRA DING SCHEDULE u1sawa4Ih nubll V910"%!e 4. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION RE...observations of burning free droplets of boron/JP-10 slurry fuels were made in a high-temperature oxidiz - ing environment under conditions of low Reynolds

  16. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell comprising a metallic support material, an active anode layer consisting of a good hydrocarbon cracking catalyst, an electrolyte layer, an active cathode layer, and a transition layer consisting of preferably a mixture of LSM and a ferrite to the cathode current collector...

  17. FUEL CELL BIBLIOGRAPHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    References in this bibliography on fuel cells are arranged alphabetically by the authors. References for which no author is cited are arranged alphabetically by title under the general heading, Anon. The numerous references cover the time period of 1895 to 1961.

  18. Residential fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuel, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report details progress made in improving the performance of No. 2 heating oil in residential applications. Previous research in this area is documented in papers published in the Brookhaven Oil Heat Technology Conference Proceedings in 1993, 1994 and 1996. By way of review we have investigated a number of variables in the search for improved fuel system performance. These include the effect of various additives designed to address stability, dispersion, biotics, corrosion and reaction with metals. We have also investigated delivery methods, filtration, piping arrangements and the influence of storage tank size and location. As a result of this work Santa Fuel Inc. in conjunction with Mobile Oil Corporation have identified an additive package which shows strong evidence of dramatically reducing the occurrence of fuel system failures in residential oil burners. In a broad market roll-out of the additized product we have experienced a 29% reduction in fuel related service calls when comparing the 5 months ending January 1997 to the same period ending January 1996.

  19. A Novel Scan Architecture for Low Power Scan-Based Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahshid Mojtabavi Naeini

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Test power has been turned to a bottleneck for test considerations as the excessive power dissipation has serious negative effects on chip reliability. In scan-based designs, rippling transitions caused by test patterns shifting along the scan chain not only elevate power consumption but also introduce spurious switching activities in the combinational logic. In this paper, we propose a novel area-efficient gating scan architecture that offers an integrated solution for reducing total average power in both scan cells and combinational part during shift mode. In the proposed gating scan structure, conventional master/slave scan flip-flop has been modified into a new gating scan cell augmented with state preserving and gating logic that enables average power reduction in combinational logic during shift mode. The new gating scan cells also mitigate the number of transitions during shift and capture cycles. Thus, it contributes to average power reduction inside the scan cell during scan shifting with low impact on peak power during capture cycle. Simulation results have shown that the proposed gating scan cell saves 28.17% total average power compared to conventional scan cell that has no gating logic and up to 44.79% compared to one of the most common existing gating architectures.

  20. Fuel Handbook[Wood and other renewable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stroemberg, Birgitta [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (SE)] (ed.)

    2006-03-15

    This handbook on renewable fuels is intended for power and heat producers in Sweden. This fuel handbook provides, from a plant owner's perspective, a method to evaluate different fuels on the market. The fuel handbook concerns renewable fuels (but does not include household waste) that are available on the Swedish market today or fuels that have potential to be available within the next ten years. The handbook covers 26 different fuels. Analysis data, special properties, operating experiences and literature references are outlined for each fuel. [Special properties, operating experiences and literature references are not included in this English version] The handbook also contains: A proposed methodology for introduction of new fuels. A recommendation of analyses and tests to perform in order to reduce the risk of problems is presented. [The recommendation of analyses and tests is not included in the English version] A summary of relevant laws and taxes for energy production, with references to relevant documentation. [Only laws and taxes regarding EU are included] Theory and background to evaluate a fuel with respect to combustion, ash and corrosion properties and methods that can be used for such evaluations. Summary of standards, databases and handbooks on biomass fuels and other solid fuels, and links to web sites where further information about the fuels can be found. The appendices includes: A methodology for trial firing of fuels. Calculations procedures for, amongst others, heating value, flue gas composition, key number and free fall velocity [Free fall velocity is not included in the English version]. In addition, conversion routines between different units for a number of different applications are provided. Fuel analyses are presented in the appendix. (The report is a translation of parts of the report VARMEFORSK--911 published in 2005)

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jack T.

    Solid oxide fuel cells offer the potential for high efficiency, low cost electric power plants for many applications. The fuel cell generator Itself is an all solid state reactor operating at about 1000°C, which produces direct current electricity from the conversion of the energy in gaseous fuel by an electrochemical reaction with the oxygen in air. System studies have shown 50-60 percent efficiency can be obtained in multi-megawatt all electric power plants in which the high quality exhaust heat is used to produce electricity In a bottoming cycle. Alternatively the exhaust heat can be used in Industrial and commercial co-generation systems for space cooling or raising high pressure steam. Space based and military applications for electric power plants have been proposed with high power per unit weight and volume designs which use hydrogen fuel and pure oxygen. Truly significant accomplishments have been made in the 1980's in the technological development of the special materials and processes for producing them for the various cell designs and in the conception of device designs. These advancements were due to the fundamental work of the several decades earlier. In 1986 through 1988 experimental test units in the several hundred to several thousand watt sizes have been designed, fabricated, shipped, and tested for thousands of hours by user organizations in the United States and Japan. The extent of the commercial market for Solid Oxide fuel cells for various applications, vis-a-vis alternate electrical generation options, will depend on what system capital cost can be achieved.

  2. Winters fuels report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  3. ARPA advanced fuel cell development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubois, L.H.

    1995-08-01

    Fuel cell technology is currently being developed at the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) for several Department of Defense applications where its inherent advantages such as environmental compatibility, high efficiency, and low noise and vibration are overwhelmingly important. These applications range from man-portable power systems of only a few watts output (e.g., for microclimate cooling and as direct battery replacements) to multimegawatt fixed base systems. The ultimate goal of the ARPA program is to develop an efficient, low-temperature fuel cell power system that operates directly on a military logistics fuel (e.g., DF-2 or JP-8). The absence of a fuel reformer will reduce the size, weight, cost, and complexity of such a unit as well as increase its reliability. In order to reach this goal, ARPA is taking a two-fold, intermediate time-frame approach to: (1) develop a viable, low-temperature proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell that operates directly on a simple hydrocarbon fuel (e.g., methanol or trimethoxymethane) and (2) demonstrate a thermally integrated fuel processor/fuel cell power system operating on a military logistics fuel. This latter program involves solid oxide (SOFC), molten carbonate (MCFC), and phosphoric acid (PAFC) fuel cell technologies and concentrates on the development of efficient fuel processors, impurity scrubbers, and systems integration. A complementary program to develop high performance, light weight H{sub 2}/air PEM and SOFC fuel cell stacks is also underway. Several recent successes of these programs will be highlighted.

  4. Fuel cell report to congress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2003-02-28

    This report describes the status of fuel cells for Congressional committees. It focuses on the technical and economic barriers to the use of fuel cells in transportation, portable power, stationary, and distributed power generation applications, and describes the need for public-private cooperative programs to demonstrate the use of fuel cells in commercial-scale applications by 2012. (Department of Energy, February 2003).

  5. ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR DIESEL ENGINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Caban

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development and genesis of the use of alternative fuels in internal combustion ignition engines. Based on the analysis of the literature, this article shows various alternative fuels used in Poland and all over the world. Furthermore, this article describes the research directions for alternative fuels use in road transport powered by diesel engines.

  6. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  7. Nuclear fuel elements design, fabrication and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Frost, Brian R T

    1982-01-01

    Nuclear Fuel Elements: Design, Fabrication and Performance is concerned with the design, fabrication, and performance of nuclear fuel elements, with emphasis on fast reactor fuel elements. Topics range from fuel types and the irradiation behavior of fuels to cladding and duct materials, fuel element design and modeling, fuel element performance testing and qualification, and the performance of water reactor fuels. Fast reactor fuel elements, research and test reactor fuel elements, and unconventional fuel elements are also covered. This volume consists of 12 chapters and begins with an overvie

  8. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  9. LMFBR fuel assembly design for HCDA fuel dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacko, Robert E.; Tilbrook, Roger W.

    1984-01-01

    A fuel assembly for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor having an upper axial blanket region disposed in a plurality of zones within the fuel assembly. The characterization of a zone is dependent on the height of the axial blanket region with respect to the active fuel region. The net effect of having a plurality of zones is to establish a dispersal flow path for the molten materials resulting during a core meltdown accident. Upward flowing molten material can escape from the core region and/or fuel assembly without solidifying on the surface of fuel rods due to the heat sink represented by blanket region pellets.

  10. Microbial fuel cell treatment of fuel process wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Tsouris, Constantino

    2013-12-03

    The present invention is directed to a method for cleansing fuel processing effluent containing carbonaceous compounds and inorganic salts, the method comprising contacting the fuel processing effluent with an anode of a microbial fuel ell, the anode containing microbes thereon which oxidatively degrade one or more of the carbonaceous compounds while producing electrical energy from the oxidative degradation, and directing the produced electrical energy to drive an electrosorption mechanism that operates to reduce the concentration of one or more inorganic salts in the fuel processing effluent, wherein the anode is in electrical communication with a cathode of the microbial fuel cell. The invention is also directed to an apparatus for practicing the method.

  11. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fifth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Energy and Environmental Solutions

    2000-10-31

    Progress continues in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in November 1998. Uppermost, polymer electrolyte fuel cells, molten carbonate fuel cells, and solid oxide fuel cells have been demonstrated at commercial size in power plants. The previously demonstrated phosphoric acid fuel cells have entered the marketplace with more than 220 power plants delivered. Highlighting this commercial entry, the phosphoric acid power plant fleet has demonstrated 95+% availability and several units have passed 40,000 hours of operation. One unit has operated over 49,000 hours. Early expectations of very low emissions and relatively high efficiencies have been met in power plants with each type of fuel cell. Fuel flexibility has been demonstrated using natural gas, propane, landfill gas, anaerobic digester gas, military logistic fuels, and coal gas, greatly expanding market opportunities. Transportation markets worldwide have shown remarkable interest in fuel cells; nearly every major vehicle manufacturer in the U.S., Europe, and the Far East is supporting development. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultrahigh efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 8 describe the six major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. Alkaline and intermediate solid state fuel cells were added to this edition of the Handbook. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed

  12. Development of DUPIC fuel cycle technology - Assessment of Wolsong NPP fuel handling system for DUPIC fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Na, Bok Gyun; Nam, Gung Ihn [Korea Power Engineering Company, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-04-01

    The DUPIC fuel loading and discharge path of Wolsong NPP is studied assuming that DUPIC fuel is used at Wolsong NPP. Spent DUPIC fuel discharge path is irrelevant, since it uses the same spent fuel discharge path. Number of factors such as safety, economics of design change, radiation exposure to operators, easy of operation and maintenance, etc, are considered in the evaluation of path. A more detailed analysis of cost estimation of the selected path is also carried out. The study shows that DUPIC fuel loading path following through Spent Fuel Storage Bay and Spent Fuel Discharge Port in reverse direction will minimize the design change and additional equipment and radiation exposure to operators. The estimated total cost of using DUPIC fuel in Wolsong NPP based on price index of year 2000 is around 4.5 billion won. 4 refs., 30 figs., 13 tabs. (Author)

  13. Optimal stimulation settings for CMAP scan registrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maathuis Ellen M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The CMAP (Compound Muscle Action Potential scan is a non-invasive electrodiagnostic tool, which provides a quick and visual assessment of motor unit potentials as electrophysiological components that together constitute the CMAP. The CMAP scan records the electrical activity of the muscle (CMAP in response to transcutaneous stimulation of the motor nerve with gradual changes in stimulus intensity. Large MUs, including those that result from collateral reinnervation, appear in the CMAP scan as so-called steps, i.e., clearly visible jumps in CMAP amplitude. The CMAP scan also provides information on nerve excitability. This study aims to evaluate the influence of the stimulation protocol used on the CMAP scan and its quantification. Methods The stimulus frequency (1, 2 and 3 Hz, duration (0.05, 0.1 and 0.3 ms, or number (300, 500 and 1000 stimuli in CMAP scans of 23 subjects was systematically varied while the other two parameters were kept constant. Pain was measured by means of a visual analogue scale (VAS. Non-parametric paired tests were used to assess significant differences in excitability and step variables and VAS scores between the different stimulus parameter settings. Results We found no effect of stimulus frequency on CMAP scan variables or VAS scores. Stimulus duration affected excitability variables significantly, with higher stimulus intensity values for shorter stimulus durations. Step variables showed a clear trend towards increasing values with decreasing stimulus number. Conclusions A protocol delivering 500 stimuli at a frequency of 2 Hz with a 0.1 ms pulse duration optimized CMAP scan quantification with a minimum of subject discomfort, artefact and duration of the recording. CMAP scan variables were influenced by stimulus duration and number; hence, these need to be standardized in future studies.

  14. Clinical applications of Genome Polymorphism Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber James L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Applications of Genome Polymorphism Scans range from the relatively simple such as gender determination and confirmation of biological relationships, to the relatively complex such as determination of autozygosity and propagation of genetic information throughout pedigrees. Unlike nearly all other clinical DNA tests, the Scan is a universal test – it covers all people and all genes. In balance, I argue that the Genome Polymorphism Scan is the most powerful, affordable clinical DNA test available today. Reviewers: This article was reviewed by Scott Weiss (nominated by Neil Smalheiser, Roberta Pagon (nominated by Jerzy Jurka and Val Sheffield (nominated by Neil Smalheiser.

  15. Fuel Cell Handbook, Fourth Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, D.B; Hirschenhofer, J.H.; Klett, M.G.; Engleman, R.R.

    1998-11-01

    Robust progress has been made in fuel cell technology since the previous edition of the Fuel Cell Handbook was published in January 1994. This Handbook provides a foundation in fuel cells for persons wanting a better understanding of the technology, its benefits, and the systems issues that influence its application. Trends in technology are discussed, including next-generation concepts that promise ultra high efficiency and low cost, while providing exceptionally clean power plant systems. Section 1 summarizes fuel cell progress since the last edition and includes existing power plant nameplate data. Section 2 addresses the thermodynamics of fuel cells to provide an understanding of fuel cell operation at two levels (basic and advanced). Sections 3 through 6 describe the four major fuel cell types and their performance based on cell operating conditions. The section on polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells has been added to reflect their emergence as a significant fuel cell technology. Phosphoric acid, molten carbonate, and solid oxide fuel cell technology description sections have been updated from the previous edition. New information indicates that manufacturers have stayed with proven cell designs, focusing instead on advancing the system surrounding the fuel cell to lower life cycle costs. Section 7, Fuel Cell Systems, has been significantly revised to characterize near-term and next-generation fuel cell power plant systems at a conceptual level of detail. Section 8 provides examples of practical fuel cell system calculations. A list of fuel cell URLs is included in the Appendix. A new index assists the reader in locating specific information quickly.

  16. Sipping fuel and saving lives: increasing fuel economy withoutsacrificing safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Deborah; Greene, David L.; Ross, Marc H.; Wenzel, Tom P.

    2007-06-11

    The public, automakers, and policymakers have long worried about trade-offs between increased fuel economy in motor vehicles and reduced safety. The conclusion of a broad group of experts on safety and fuel economy in the auto sector is that no trade-off is required. There are a wide variety of technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle fuel economy that have no effect on vehicle safety. Conversely, there are many technologies and approaches available to advance vehicle safety that are not detrimental to vehicle fuel economy. Congress is considering new policies to increase the fuel economy of new automobiles in order to reduce oil dependence and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The findings reported here offer reassurance on an important dimension of that work: It is possible to significantly increase the fuel economy of motor vehicles without compromising their safety. Automobiles on the road today demonstrate that higher fuel economy and greater safety can co-exist. Some of the safest vehicles have higher fuel economy, while some of the least safe vehicles driven today--heavy, large trucks and SUVs--have the lowest fuel economy. At an October 3, 2006 workshop, leading researchers from national laboratories, academia, auto manufacturers, insurance research industry, consumer and environmental groups, material supply industries, and the federal government agreed that vehicles could be designed to simultaneously improve safety and fuel economy. The real question is not whether we can realize this goal, but the best path to get there. The experts' studies reveal important new conclusions about fuel economy and safety, including: (1) Vehicle fuel economy can be increased without affecting safety, and vice versa; (2) Reducing the weight and height of the heaviest SUVs and pickup trucks will simultaneously increase both their fuel economy and overall safety; and (3) Advanced materials can decouple size from mass, creating important new possibilities

  17. Checklist for transition to new highway fuel(s).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Risch, C.; Santini, D.J. (Energy Systems)

    2011-12-15

    Transportation is vital to the U.S. economy and society. As such, U.S. Presidents have repeatedly stated that the nation needs to reduce dependence on petroleum, especially for the highway transportation sector. Throughout history, highway transportation fuel transitions have been completed successfully both in United States and abroad. Other attempts have failed, as described in Appendix A: Historical Highway Fuel Transitions. Planning for a transition is critical because the changes can affect our nation's ability to compete in the world market. A transition will take many years to complete. While it is tempting to make quick decisions about the new fuel(s) of choice, it is preferable and necessary to analyze all the pertinent criteria to ensure that correct decisions are made. Doing so will reduce the number of changes in highway fuel(s). Obviously, changes may become necessary because of occurrences such as significant technology breakthroughs or major world events. With any and all of the possible transitions to new fuel(s), the total replacement of gasoline and diesel fuels is not expected. These conventional fuels are envisioned to coexist with the new fuel(s) for decades, while the revised fuel and vehicle infrastructures are implemented. The transition process must analyze the needs of the primary 'players,' which consist of the customers, the government, the fuel industry, and the automotive industry. To maximize the probability of future successes, the prime considerations of these groups must be addressed. Section 2 presents a succinct outline of the Checklist. Section 3 provides a brief discussion about the groupings on the Checklist.

  18. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan. They are fixed at one end (called common end. A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY-scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  19. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Guo, Tengfei; Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Jing; Meng, Wenjie; Lu, Qingyou

    2017-01-01

    A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans) coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan). They are fixed at one end (called common end). A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY-scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  20. 77 FR 462 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: Identification of Additional Qualifying Renewable Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-05

    ... renewable gasoline blendstock (new fuel types) Produced from crop residue, slash, pre-commercial thinnings, tree residue, annual cover crops, and cellulosic components of separated yard waste, separated food... the lifecycle GHG emissions for RIN-generating co-products including diesel replacement fuel, jet fuel...

  1. Motor fuel prices in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Erdogdu, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    The world’s most expensive motor fuel (gasoline, diesel and LPG) is sold most likely in the Republic of Turkey. This paper investigates the key issues related to the motor fuel prices in Turkey. First of all, the paper analyses the main reason behind high prices, namely motor fuel taxes in Turkey. Then, it estimates the elasticity of motor fuel demand in Turkey using an econometric analysis. The findings indicate that motor fuel demand in Turkey is quite inelastic and, therefore, not responsi...

  2. Spent-fuel-storage alternatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Spent Fuel Storage Alternatives meeting was a technical forum in which 37 experts from 12 states discussed storage alternatives that are available or are under development. The subject matter was divided into the following five areas: techniques for increasing fuel storage density; dry storage of spent fuel; fuel characterization and conditioning; fuel storage operating experience; and storage and transport economics. Nineteen of the 21 papers which were presented at this meeting are included in this Proceedings. These have been abstracted and indexed. (ATT)

  3. Assessment of Alternative Aircraft Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to provide representatives from industry, government, and academia concerned with the availability and quality of future aviation turbine fuels with recent technical results and a status review of DOD and NASA sponsored fuels research projects. The symposium has included presentations on the potential crude sources, refining methods, and characteristics of future fuels; the effects of changing fuel characteristics on the performance and durability of jet aircraft components and systems; and the prospects for evolving suitable technology to produce and use future fuels.

  4. Accident tolerant composite nuclear fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szpunar Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigated accident tolerant nuclear fuels are fuels with enhanced thermal conductivity, which can withstand the loss of coolant for a longer time by allowing faster dissipation of heat, thus lowering the centerline temperature and preventing the melting of the fuel. Traditional nuclear fuels have a very low thermal conductivity and can be significantly enhanced if transformed into a composite with a very high thermal conductivity components. In this study, we analyze the thermal properties of various composites of mixed oxides and thoria fuels to improve thermal conductivity for the next generation safer nuclear reactors.

  5. LPG fuel; Le GPL carburant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagnas, F.X. [Comite Francais Butane Propane, 31 - Ramonville Saint Agne (France); Jeuland, N. [Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP), 92 - Rueil-Malmaison (France); Fouquet, J.P. [Renault, 92 - Boulogne Billancourt (France); Lauraire, S. [Conseil General de l' Essonne, 91 (France); Coroller, P. [Agence de l' Environnement et de la Maitrise de l' Energie (ADEME), 75 - Paris (France)

    2005-10-01

    LPG fuel has become frequently used through a distribution network with 2 000 service stations over the French territory. LPG fuel ranks number 3 world-wide given that it can be used on individual vehicles, professional fleets, or public transport. What is the environmental benefit of LPG fuel? What is the technology used for these engines? What is the current regulation? Government commitment and dedication on support to promote LPG fuel? Car makers projects? Actions to favour the use of LPG fuel? This article gathers 5 presentations about this topic given at the gas conference.

  6. Metallic fuel design development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Woan; Kang, H. Y.; Lee, B. O. and others

    1999-04-01

    This report describes the R and D results of the ''Metallic Fuel Design Development'' project that performed as a part of 'Nuclear Research and Development Program' during the '97 - '98 project years. The objectives of this project are to perform the analysis of thermo-mechanical and irradiation behaviors, and preliminary conceptual design for the fuel system of the KALIMER liquid metal reactor. The following are the major results that obtained through the project. The preliminary design requirements and design criteria which are necessary in conceptual design stage, are set up. In the field of fuel pin design, the pin behavior analysis, failure probability prediction, and sensitivity analysis are performed under the operation conditions of steady-state and transient accidents. In the area of assembly duct analysis; 1) KAFACON-2D program is developed to calculate an array configuration of inner shape of assembly duct, 2) Stress-strain analysis are performed for the components of assembly such as, handling socket, mounting rail and wire wrap, 3) The BDI program is developed to analyze mechanical interaction between pin bundle and duct, 4) a vibration analysis is performed to understand flow-induced vibration of assembly duct, 5) The NUBOW-2D, which is bowing and deformation analysis code for assembly duct, is modified to be operated in KALIMER circumstance, and integrity evaluation of KALIMER core assembly is carried out using the modified NUBOW-2D and the CRAMP code in U.K., and 6) The KALIMER assembly duct is manufactured to be used in flow test. In the area of non-fuel assembly, such as control, reflector, shielding, GEM and USS, the states-of-the-arts and the major considerations in designing are evaluated, and the design concepts are derived. The preliminary design description and their design drawing of KALIMER fuel system are prepared based upon the above mentioned evaluation and analysis. The achievement of conceptual

  7. Sensor system for fuel transport vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Dennis Duncan; McIntyre, Timothy J.; West, David L.

    2016-03-22

    An exemplary sensor system for a fuel transport vehicle can comprise a fuel marker sensor positioned between a fuel storage chamber of the vehicle and an access valve for the fuel storage chamber of the vehicle. The fuel marker sensor can be configured to measure one or more characteristics of one or more fuel markers present in the fuel adjacent the sensor, such as when the marked fuel is unloaded at a retail station. The one or more characteristics can comprise concentration and/or identity of the one or more fuel markers in the fuel. Based on the measured characteristics of the one or more fuel markers, the sensor system can identify the fuel and/or can determine whether the fuel has been adulterated after the marked fuel was last measured, such as when the marked fuel was loaded into the vehicle.

  8. Effect of the Fuels Glycine, Urea and Citric Acid on Synthesis of the Ceramic Pigment ZnCr2O4 by Solution Combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda, Edgar Andrés Chavarriaga; Carvajal, Juan Fernando Montoya; Baena,Oscar Jaime Restrepo

    2015-01-01

    AbstractIn this study, ceramic nanopigment ZnCr2O4was prepared by solution combustion using glycine, urea and citric acid as fuels. The objective is to study the influence of fuel on the morphology and the diffuse reflectance spectrum. The nanoparticles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), the phase was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), the thermal behavior was studied by thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) and differential scanning microscopy (DSC), t...

  9. Nondestrucive analysis of fuel pins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, I.E.; Allard, N.P.; Suter, C.R.

    1972-11-03

    Disclosure is made of a method and a correspondingly adapted facility for the nondestructive analysis of the concentation of fuel and poison in a nuclear reactor fuel pin. The concentrations of fuel and poison in successive sections along the entire length of the fuel pin are determined by measuring the reactivity of a thermal reactor as each successive small section of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux of the reactor core and comparing the measured reactivity with the reactivities measured for standard fuel pins having various known concentrations. Only a small section of the length of the fuel pin is exposed to the neutron flux at any one time while the remainder of the fuel pin is shielded from the neutron flux. In order to expose only a small section at any one time, a boron-10-lined dry traverse tube is passed through the test region within the core of a low-power thermal nuclear reactor which has a very high fuel sensitivity. A narrow window in the boron-10 lining is positioned at the core center line. The fuel pins are then systematically traversed through the tube past the narrow window such that successive small sections along the length of the fuel pin are exposed to the neutron flux which passes through the narrow window.

  10. SCAN secure processor and its biometric capabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannavara, Raghudeep; Mertoguno, Sukarno; Bourbakis, Nikolaos

    2011-04-01

    This paper presents the design of the SCAN secure processor and its extended instruction set to enable secure biometric authentication. The SCAN secure processor is a modified SparcV8 processor architecture with a new instruction set to handle voice, iris, and fingerprint-based biometric authentication. The algorithms for processing biometric data are based on the local global graph methodology. The biometric modules are synthesized in reconfigurable logic and the results of the field-programmable gate array (FPGA) synthesis are presented. We propose to implement the above-mentioned modules in an off-chip FPGA co-processor. Further, the SCAN-secure processor will offer a SCAN-based encryption and decryption of 32 bit instructions and data.

  11. Can Scans Predict Some Autism Cases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_167668.html Can Scans Predict Some Autism Cases? When the disorder is caused by a ... News) -- People with a particular genetic cause of autism show structural abnormalities in the brain that are ...

  12. Intelligent Classification and Visualization of Network Scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, L; Muelder, C; Ma, K; Bartoletti, A

    2007-03-01

    Network scans are a common first step in a network intrusion attempt. In order to gain information about a potential network intrusion, it is beneficial to analyze these network scans. Statistical methods such as wavelet scalogram analysis have been used along with visualization techniques in previous methods. However, applying these statistical methods to reduce the data causes a substantial amount of data loss. This paper presents a study of using associative memory learning techniques to directly compare network scans in order to create a classification which can be used by itself or in conjunction with existing visualization techniques to better characterize the sources of these scans. This produces an integrated system of visual and intelligent analysis which is applicable to real world data.

  13. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kids for Teens Search Kids Home How the Body Works Puberty & Growing Up Staying Healthy Recipes & Cooking ... computer pictures of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll ...

  14. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, I H; Yin, G C; Wei, D H; Juang, J M; Dann, T E; Klauser, R; Chuang, T J; Chen, C T; Tsang, K L

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed.

  15. A Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fan; Taylor, Stephen F; Turner, Richard W; Lev, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity, high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented DC-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides a 100x improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity over previous atomic scanning probe magnetometers. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnet...

  16. EO Scanned Micro-LADAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this phase II SBIR we will design, build, test, and deliver new scanning based micro-ladar sensors with unprecedented small size, weight, and power (SWaP),...

  17. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... computer pictures of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to do is hold ... All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  18. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Weight for Me? What Is an Intellectual Disability? Movie: Endocrine System Getting a ... Translated, that means a scanner takes computer pictures of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself is painless. All you'll ...

  19. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For ...

  20. EO Scanned Micro-LADAR Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR program we will develop, design and build new scanning based micro-ladar sensors with unprecedented small size, weight, and power (SWaP), thereby...

  1. Slow-Scan TV Bibliography, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado Video, Inc., Boulder.

    This 175-item bibliography on slow-scan television lists journal articles, monographs, research reports, and conference proceedings under the following headings: (1) Instructional Applications; (2) Medical Applications; and (3) General Applications. (MES)

  2. Analysing magnetism using scanning SQUID microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reith, P; Renshaw Wang, X; Hilgenkamp, H

    2017-12-01

    Scanning superconducting quantum interference device microscopy (SSM) is a scanning probe technique that images local magnetic flux, which allows for mapping of magnetic fields with high field and spatial accuracy. Many studies involving SSM have been published in the last few decades, using SSM to make qualitative statements about magnetism. However, quantitative analysis using SSM has received less attention. In this work, we discuss several aspects of interpreting SSM images and methods to improve quantitative analysis. First, we analyse the spatial resolution and how it depends on several factors. Second, we discuss the analysis of SSM scans and the information obtained from the SSM data. Using simulations, we show how signals evolve as a function of changing scan height, SQUID loop size, magnetization strength, and orientation. We also investigated 2-dimensional autocorrelation analysis to extract information about the size, shape, and symmetry of magnetic features. Finally, we provide an outlook on possible future applications and improvements.

  3. Multicolor Scanning Laser Imaging in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad S Z; Carrim, Zia Iqbal

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common cause of blindness in individuals younger than 60 years. Screening for retinopathy is undertaken using conventional color fundus photography and relies on the identification of hemorrhages, vascular abnormalities, exudates, and cotton-wool spots. These can sometimes be difficult to identify. Multicolor scanning laser imaging, a new imaging modality, may have a role in improving screening outcomes, as well as facilitating treatment decisions. Observational case series comprising two patients with known diabetes who were referred for further examination after color fundus photography revealed abnormal findings. Multicolor scanning laser imaging was undertaken. Features of retinal disease from each modality were compared. Multicolor scanning laser imaging provides superior visualization of retinal anatomy and pathology, thereby facilitating risk stratification and treatment decisions. Multicolor scanning laser imaging is a novel imaging technique offering the potential for improving the reliability of screening for diabetic retinopathy. Validation studies are warranted.

  4. Fuel services; Servicios de combustible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marta, H.; Alvarez, P.; Jimenez, J.

    2006-07-01

    Refuelling outages comprise a number of maintenance tasks scheduled long in advance to assure a reliable operation throughout the next cycle and, in the long run, a safer and more efficient plant. Most of these tasks are routine service of mechanical and electrical system and likewise fuel an be considered a critical component as to handling, inspection, cleaning and repair. ENUSA-ENWESA AIE has been working in this area since 1995 growing from fuel repair to a more integrated service that includes new and spent fuel handling, inserts, failed fuel rod detection systems, ultrasonic fuel cleaning,fuel repair and a comprehensive array of inspection and tests related to the reliability of the mechanical components in the fuel assembly, all this, performed in compliance with quality, safety, health physics and any other nuclear standard. (Author)

  5. Artificial photosynthesis for solar fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styring, Stenbjörn

    2012-01-01

    This contribution was presented as the closing lecture at the Faraday Discussion 155 on artificial photosynthesis, held in Edinburgh Scotland, September 5-7 2011. The world needs new, environmentally friendly and renewable fuels to exchange for fossil fuels. The fuel must be made from cheap and "endless" resources that are available everywhere. The new research area of solar fuels aims to meet this demand. This paper discusses why we need a solar fuel and why electricity is not enough; it proposes solar energy as the major renewable energy source to feed from. The scientific field concerning artificial photosynthesis expands rapidly and most of the different scientific visions for solar fuels are briefly overviewed. Research strategies and the development of artificial photosynthesis research to produce solar fuels are overviewed. Some conceptual aspects of research for artificial photosynthesis are discussed in closer detail.

  6. Microwave-Assisted Combustion Synthesis of ZnO:Eu Nanoparticles: Effect of Fuel Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasouli, Sousan; Arabi, Amir-Masoud; Naeimi, Alireza; Hashemi, Seyed-Masoud

    2018-01-01

    Nanoparticles of Europium oxide doped with Zinc oxide were synthesized via microwave-assisted combustion method. Citric acid as a simultaneous fuel and chelating agent and glycine as a fuel and mixture of these fuels were sleeted. X-Ray diffraction patterns (XRD) indicated the formation of ZnO structure with a few amount of Eu 2 O 3 phase. Fourier transformation infra red (FTIR) spectra reveal the increase of ZnO 4 bonds with glycine content of fuels mixture. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed the conversion of nanosphere to spongy-like structure with respect to change of fuel mixtures from citric to glycine. From transmission electron microscopy (TEM) nanoparticles of a mean size 30 nm are observed Green fluorescence emission of different samples was due to activation of self activated center of ZnO structure through transition of electron from Eu 3+ to V zn sites.

  7. Advanced thermally stable jet fuels. Technical progress report, April 1995--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schobert, H.H.; Eser, S.; Boehman, A.; Song, C. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Research continued on thermally stable jet fuel from coal liquids and petroleum distillates. The oxidative and thermal stabilities of ten fuels have been studied by differential scanning calorimetry and in microautoclave reactors. The compositions of the stressed fuels (as well as the unreacted fuels) were characterized by gas chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. In addition, simulated distillation curves were determined by thermogravimetric analysis. The product distributions and reaction mechanisms for the thermal decomposition of n-alkanes in near-critical and supercritical regions were studied. The emphasis of the work in this reporting period has been placed on reaction mechanisms and product distributions. Work is continuing on obtaining additional {sup 13}C-labeled jet fuel components for future thermal stressing studies. Compounds of current interest include 6-{sup 13}C-dodecane and 1-cyclohexyl-1-{sup 13}C-hexane. Further analysis of the formation of solids from the thermal stressing of decane and decalin has been performed.

  8. Compatibility study between U-UO{sub 2} cermet fuel and T91 cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Sudhir, E-mail: sudhir@barc.gov.in [Radiometallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Kaity, Santu; Khan, K.B. [Radiometallurgy Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Sengupta, Pranesh; Dey, G.K. [Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2016-12-01

    Cermet is a new fuel concept for the fast reactor system and is ideally designed to combine beneficial properties of both ceramic and metal. In order to understand fuel clad chemical compatibility, diffusion couples were prepared with U-UO{sub 2} cermet fuel and T91 cladding material. These diffusion couples were annealed at 923–1073 K for 1000 h and 1223 K for 50 h, subsequently their microstructures were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS) and electron probe microanalyser (EPMA). It was observed that the interaction between the fuel and constituents of T91 clad was limited to a very small region up to the temperature 993 K and discrete U{sub 6}(Fe,Cr) and U(Fe,Cr){sub 2} intermetallic phases developed. Eutectic microstructure was observed in the reaction zone at 1223 K. The activation energy for reaction at the fuel clad interface was determined.

  9. Scanning Electron Microscopy in modern dentistry research

    OpenAIRE

    Paradella, Thaís Cachuté; Unesp-FOSJC; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Unesp-FOSJC

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to review the usage of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) in dentistry research nowadays, through a careful and updated literature review. By using the key-words Scanning Electron Microscopy and one of the following areas of research in dentistry (Endodontics, Periodontics and Implant), in international database (PubMed), in the year of 2012 (from January to September), a total of 112 articles were found. This data was tabled and the articles were classified ac...

  10. [Preoperative CT Scan in middle ear cholesteatoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethom, Anissa; Akkari, Khemaies; Dridi, Inès; Tmimi, S; Mardassi, Ali; Benzarti, Sonia; Miled, Imed; Chebbi, Mohamed Kamel

    2011-03-01

    To compare preoperative CT scan finding and per-operative lesions in patients operated for middle ear cholesteatoma, A retrospective study including 60 patients with cholesteatoma otitis diagnosed and treated within a period of 5 years, from 2001 to 2005, at ENT department of Military Hospital of Tunis. All patients had computed tomography of the middle and inner ear. High resolution CT scan imaging was performed using millimetric incidences (3 to 5 millimetres). All patients had surgical removal of their cholesteatoma using down wall technic. We evaluated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan comparing otitic damages and CT finding, in order to examine the real contribution of computed tomography in cholesteatoma otitis. CT scan analysis of middle ear bone structures shows satisfaction (with 83% of sensibility). The rate of sensibility decrease (63%) for the tympanic raff. Predictive value of CT scan for the diagnosis of cholesteatoma was low. However, we have noticed an excellent sensibility in the analysis of ossicular damages (90%). Comparative frontal incidence seems to be less sensible for the detection of facial nerve lesions (42%). But when evident on CT scan findings, lesions of facial nerve were usually observed preoperatively (spécificity 78%). Predictive value of computed tomography for the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistulae (FL) was low. In fact, CT scan imaging have showed FL only for four patients among eight. Best results can be obtained if using inframillimetric incidences with performed high resolution computed tomography. Preoperative computed tomography is necessary for the diagnosis and the evaluation of chronic middle ear cholesteatoma in order to show extending lesion and to detect complications. This CT analysis and surgical correlation have showed that sensibility, specificity and predictive value of CT-scan depend on the anatomic structure implicated in cholesteatoma damages.

  11. Differential-concentration scanning ion conductance microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Perry, David; Page, Ashley; Chen, Baoping; Frenguelli, Bruno G.; Unwin, Patrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based scanning probe microscopy technique that utilizes the ionic current flowing between an electrode inserted inside a nanopipette probe containing electrolyte solution and a second electrode placed in a bulk electrolyte bath, to provide information on a substrate of interest. For most applications to date, the composition and concentration of the electrolyte inside and outside the nanopipette is identical, but it is shown herein t...

  12. Fuel Vaporization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effects of fuel-air preparation characteristics on combustor performance and emissions at temperature and pressure ranges representative of actual gas turbine combustors is discussed. The effect of flameholding devices on the vaporization process and NOx formation is discussed. Flameholder blockage and geometry are some of the elements that affect the recirculation zone characteristics and subsequently alter combustion stability, emissions and performance. A water cooled combustor is used as the test rig. Preheated air and Jet A fuel are mixed at the entrance of the apparatus. A vaporization probe is used to determine percentage of vaporization and a gas sample probe to determine concentration of emissions in the exhaust gases. The experimental design is presented and experimental expected results are discussed.

  13. Fuel formula for lighters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwayama, I.; Iwayama, A.

    1982-04-10

    A fuel formula that includes a homogenous mixture of benzine, aromatic ether oils, perfume and other perfuming agents, as well as the lowest possible aliphatic alcohol as a component solvent, surfactant, and possibly, a soluble pigment that colors the formula an appropriate color. This formula is used as an aromatic fuel for cigarette lights. The ether oils can be musk, amber, camomille, lavender, mint, anise, rose, camphor, and other aromatic oils; the perfuming agents are: geraniol, linalool, menthol, camphor, benzyl or phenetyl alcohols, phenylacetaldehyde, vanillin, coumarin, and so forth; the pigments are: beta-carotene, sudan dyes, etc.; the low aliphatic alcohols are EtOH, iso-PrOH. Example: 70 parts benzine, 10 parts EtOH, 15 parts oxide mezithylene and 5 parts borneol form a clear liquid that has a camphor aroma when it is lit.

  14. Operando fuel cell spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Ian Michael

    The active state of a catalyst only exists during catalysis (1) provided the motivation for developing operando spectroscopic techniques. A polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was designed to interface with commercially available instruments for acquisition of infrared spectra of the catalytic surface of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) during normal operation. This technique has provided insight of the complex processes occurring at the electrode surface. Nafion, the solid electrolyte used in most modern-day polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), serves many purposes in fuel cell operation. However, there is little known of the interface between Nafion and the electrode surface. Previous studies of complex Stark tuning curves of carbon monoxide on the surface of a platinum electrode were attributed the co-adsorption of bisulfite ions originating from the 0.5M H2SO4 electrolyte used in the study(2). Similar tuning curves obtained on a fuel cell MEA despite the absence of supplemental electrolytes suggest the adsorption of Nafion onto platinum (3). The correlation of spectra obtained using attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy (ATR) and polarization modulated IR reflection-absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS) to a theoretical spectrum generated using density functional theory (DFT) lead to development of a model of Nafion and platinum interaction which identified participation of the SO3- and CF3 groups in Nafion adsorption. The use of ethanol as a fuel stream in proton exchange membrane fuel cells provides a promising alternative to methanol. Relative to methanol, ethanol has a greater energy density, lower toxicity and can be made from the fermentation of biomass(4). Operando IR spectroscopy was used to study the oxidation pathway of ethanol and Stark tuning behavior of carbon monoxide on Pt, Ru, and PtRu electrodes. Potential dependent products such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid and carbon monoxide are identified as well as previously

  15. Galvanometer scanning technology for laser additive manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Li, Jin; Lucas, Mark

    2017-02-01

    A galvanometer laser beam scanning system is an essential element in many laser additive manufacturing (LAM) technologies including Stereolithography (SLA), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Selective Laser Melting (SLM). Understanding the laser beam scanning techniques and recent innovations in this field will greatly benefit the 3D laser printing system integration and technology advance. One of the challenges to achieve high quality 3D printed parts is due to the non-uniform laser power density delivered on the materials caused by the acceleration and deceleration movements of the galvanometer at ends of the hatching and outlining patterns. One way to solve this problem is to modulate the laser power as the function of the scanning speed during the acceleration or deceleration periods. Another strategy is to maintain the constant scanning speed while accurately coordinating the laser on and off operation throughout the job. In this paper, we demonstrate the high speed, high accuracy and low drift digital scanning technology that incorporates both techniques to achieve uniform laser density with minimal additional process development. With the constant scanning speed method, the scanner not only delivers high quality and uniform results, but also a throughput increase of 23% on a typical LAM job, compared to that of the conventional control method that requires galvanometer acceleration and deceleration movements.

  16. Role of bone scan in rheumatic disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Yun Young [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    Rheumatic diseases can be categorized by pathology into several specific types of musculoskeletal problems, including synovitis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), enthesopathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis) and cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis). Skeletal radiographs have contributed to the diagnosis of these articular diseases, and some disease entities need typical radiographic changes as a factor of the diagnostic criteria. However, they sometimes show normal radiographic findings in the early stage of disease, when there is demineralization of less than 30-50%. Bone scans have also been used in arthritis, but not widely because the findings are nonspecific and it is thought that bone scans do not add significant information to routine radiography. Bone scans do however play a different role than simple radiography, and it is a complementary imaging method in the course of management of arthritis. The image quality of bone scans can be improved by obtaining regional views and images under al pin-hole collimator, and through a variety of scintigraphic techniques including the three phase bone scan and bone SPECT. Therefore, bone scans could improve the diagnostic value, and answer multiple clinical questions, based on the pathophysiology of various forms of arthritis.

  17. Food before Biodiesel Fuel?

    OpenAIRE

    HAO, NA; Colson, Gregory; Karali, Berna; Wetzstein, Michael E.

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel has recently drawn attention because of its potential to make an important contribution to national energy security and the environment. However, the rapid growth of biodiesel has raised concerns about biodiesel’s impact on the price level and volatility of agricultural commodities. To address these concerns this research investigates the short- and long-run relationships between agricultural commodity and fuel markets, and finds interdependencies between the two. The causal linkage...

  18. Alternative Fuels: Research Progress

    OpenAIRE

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2013-01-01

    Chapter 1: Pollutant Emissions and Combustion Characteristics of Biofuels and Biofuel/Diesel Blends in Laminar and Turbulent Gas Jet Flames. R. N. Parthasarathy, S. R. Gollahalli Chapter 2: Sustainable Routes for The Production of Oxygenated High-Energy Density Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass. Juan A. Melero, Jose Iglesias, Gabriel Morales, Marta Paniagua Chapter 3: Optical Investigations of Alternative-Fuel Combustion in an HSDI Diesel Engine. T. Huelser, M. Jakob, G. Gr...

  19. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  20. Industrial Fuel Flexibility Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2006-09-01

    On September 28, 2006, in Washington, DC, ITP and Booz Allen Hamilton conducted a fuel flexibility workshop with attendance from various stakeholder groups. Workshop participants included representatives from the petrochemical, refining, food and beverage, steel and metals, pulp and paper, cement and glass manufacturing industries; as well as representatives from industrial boiler manufacturers, technology providers, energy and waste service providers, the federal government and national laboratories, and developers and financiers.

  1. Gaseous fuel reactor research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thom, K.; Schneider, R. T.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews studies dealing with the concept of a gaseous fuel reactor and describes the structure and plans of the current NASA research program of experiments on uranium hexafluoride systems and uranium plasma systems. Results of research into the basic properties of uranium plasmas and fissioning gases are reported. The nuclear pumped laser is described, and the main results of experiments with these devices are summarized.

  2. Fuel cell oxygen electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, H.R.; Bevolo, A.J.; Danielson, G.C.; Weber, M.F.

    An oxygen electrode for a fuel cell utilizing an acid electrolyte has a substrate of an alkali metal tungsten bronze of the formula: A/sub x/WO/sub 3/ where A is an alkali metal and x is at least 0.2, which is covered with a thin layer of platinum tungsten bronze of the formula: Pt/sub y/WO/sub 3/ where y is at least 0.8.

  3. Semi-volatile and particulate emissions from the combustion of alternative diesel fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, S; Graham, J; Striebich, R

    2001-01-01

    Motor vehicle emissions are a major anthropogenic source of air pollution and contribute to the deterioration of urban air quality. In this paper, we report results of a laboratory investigation of particle formation from four different alternative diesel fuels, namely, compressed natural gas (CNG), dimethyl ether (DME), biodiesel, and diesel, under fuel-rich conditions in the temperature range of 800-1200 degrees C at pressures of approximately 24 atm. A single pulse shock tube was used to simulate compression ignition (CI) combustion conditions. Gaseous fuels (CNG and DME) were exposed premixed in air while liquid fuels (diesel and biodiesel) were injected using a high-pressure liquid injector. The results of surface analysis using a scanning electron microscope showed that the particles formed from combustion of all four of the above-mentioned fuels had a mean diameter less than 0.1 microm. From results of gravimetric analysis and fuel injection size it was found that under the test conditions described above the relative particulate yields from CNG, DME, biodiesel, and diesel were 0.30%. 0.026%, 0.52%, and 0.51%, respectively. Chemical analysis of particles showed that DME combustion particles had the highest soluble organic fraction (SOF) at 71%, followed by biodiesel (66%), CNG (38%) and diesel (20%). This illustrates that in case of both gaseous and liquid fuels, oxygenated fuels have a higher SOF than non-oxygenated fuels.

  4. Fuels from microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-06-01

    Many species of aquatic plants can provide a source of renewable energy. Some species of microalgae, in particular, produce lipids -- oils that can be extracted and converted to a diesel fuel substitute or to gasoline. Since 1979 the Aquatic Species Program element of the Biofuels Program, has supported fundamental and applied research to develop the technology for using this renewable energy resource. This document, produced by the Solar Technical Information Program, provides an overview of the DOE/SERI Aquatic Species Program element. Chapter 1 is an introduction to the program and to the microalgae. Chapter 2 is an overview of the general principles involved in making fuels from microalgae. It also outlines the technical challenges to producing economic, high-energy transportation fuels. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the Algal Production and Economic Model (APEM). This model was developed by researchers within the program to identify aspects of the process critical to performance with the greatest potential to reduce costs. The analysis using this model has helped direct research sponsored by the program. Finally, Chapter 4 provides an overview of the Aquatic Species Program and describes current research. 28 refs., 17 figs.

  5. An intelligent scanning algorithm for lost fuel rod recovery in the MYRRHA lower plenum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Cock, Wouter; Dierckx, Marc [Belgian Nuclear Research Center, SCK-CEN, Mol, (Belgium); Vervecken, Tom [IBW, KU Leuven, campus Geel, (Belgium)

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents a system for visualizing the interior structure of a vessel filled with a liquid metal. Due to the opaque and conductive nature of the medium, regular visualization systems based on cameras, electromagnetic or laser based techniques can't be used. The operation, strengths and weaknesses of an existing set-up are investigated by creating a scenario to find and extract a rectangular object inside the vessel in the shortest possible time. The main focus of this paper is not on designing a new system but to investigate the bottlenecks that are faced and need to be kept in mind in future designs. (authors)

  6. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-11-25

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into the fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  7. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  8. Radiation exposure from musculoskeletal computerized tomographic scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debdut; Bible, Jesse E; Bohan, Michael; Simpson, Andrew K; Whang, Peter G; Grauer, Jonathan N

    2009-08-01

    Computerized tomographic scans are routinely obtained to evaluate a number of musculoskeletal conditions. However, since computerized tomographic scans expose patients to the greatest amounts of radiation of all imaging modalities, the physician must be cognizant of the effective doses of radiation that are administered. This investigation was performed to quantify the effective doses of computerized tomographic scans that are performed for various musculoskeletal applications. The digital imaging archive of a single institution was retrospectively reviewed to identify helical computerized tomographic scans that were completed to visualize the extremities or spine. Imaging parameters were recorded for each examination, and dosimetry calculator software was used to calculate the effective dose values according to a modified protocol derived from publication SR250 of the National Radiological Protection Board of the United Kingdom. Computerized tomographic scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were also collected, and the effective doses were compared with those reported by prior groups in order to validate the results of the current study. The mean effective doses for computerized tomographic scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis (5.27, 4.95, and 4.85 mSv, respectively) were consistent with those of previous investigations. The highest mean effective doses were recorded for studies evaluating the spine (4.36, 17.99, and 19.15 mSv for the cervical, thoracic, and lumbar spines, respectively). In the upper extremity, the effective dose of a computerized tomographic scan of the shoulder (2.06 mSv) was higher than those of the elbow (0.14 mSv) and wrist (0.03 mSv). Similarly, the effective dose of a hip scan (3.09 mSv) was significantly higher than those observed with knee (0.16 mSv) and ankle (0.07 mSv) scans. Computerized tomographic scans of the axial and appendicular skeleton are associated with substantially elevated radiation exposures, but the effective dose

  9. Alternate fuels; Combustibles alternos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero Paredes R, Hernando; Ambriz G, Juan Jose [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana. Iztapalapa (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    In the definition and description of alternate fuels we must center ourselves in those technological alternatives that allow to obtain compounds that differ from the traditional ones, in their forms to be obtained. In this article it is tried to give an overview of alternate fuels to the conventional derivatives of petroleum and that allow to have a clear idea on the tendencies of modern investigation and the technological developments that can be implemented in the short term. It is not pretended to include all the tendencies and developments of the present world, but those that can hit in a relatively short term, in accordance with agreed with the average life of conventional fuels. Nevertheless, most of the conversion principles are applicable to the spectrum of carbonaceous or cellulosic materials which are in nature, are cultivated or wastes of organic origin. Thus one will approach them in a successive way, the physical, chemical and biological conversions that can take place in a production process of an alternate fuel or the same direct use of the fuel such as burning the sweepings derived from the forests. [Spanish] En la definicion y descripcion de combustibles alternos nos debemos centrar en aquellas alternativas tecnologicas que permitan obtener compuestos que difieren de los tradicionales, al menos en sus formas de ser obtenidos. En este articulo se pretende dar un panorama de los combustibles alternos a los convencionales derivados del petroleo y que permita tener una idea clara sobre las tendencias de la investigacion moderna y los desarrollos tecnologicos que puedan ser implementados en el corto plazo. No se pretende abarcar todas las tendencias y desarrollos del mundo actual, sino aquellas que pueden impactar en un plazo relativamente corto, acordes con la vida media de los combustibles convencionales. Sin embargo, la mayor parte de los principios de conversion son aplicables al espectro de materiales carbonaceos o celulosicos los cuales se

  10. Aircraft Fuel Cell Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, Robert

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, fuel cells have been explored for use in aircraft. While the weight and size of fuel cells allows only the smallest of aircraft to use fuel cells for their primary engines, fuel cells have showed promise for use as auxiliary power units (APUs), which power aircraft accessories and serve as an electrical backup in case of an engine failure. Fuel cell MUS are both more efficient and emit fewer pollutants. However, sea-level fuel cells need modifications to be properly used in aircraft applications. At high altitudes, the ambient air has a much lower pressure than at sea level, which makes it much more difficult to get air into the fuel cell to react and produce electricity. Compressors can be used to pressurize the air, but this leads to added weight, volume, and power usage, all of which are undesirable things. Another problem is that fuel cells require hydrogen to create electricity, and ever since the Hindenburg burst into flames, aircraft carrying large quantities of hydrogen have not been in high demand. However, jet fuel is a hydrocarbon, so it is possible to reform it into hydrogen. Since jet fuel is already used to power conventional APUs, it is very convenient to use this to generate the hydrogen for fuel-cell-based APUs. Fuel cells also tend to get large and heavy when used for applications that require a large amount of power. Reducing the size and weight becomes especially beneficial when it comes to fuel cells for aircraft. My goal this summer is to work on several aspects of Aircraft Fuel Cell Power System project. My first goal is to perform checks on a newly built injector rig designed to test different catalysts to determine the best setup for reforming Jet-A fuel into hydrogen. These checks include testing various thermocouples, transmitters, and transducers, as well making sure that the rig was actually built to the design specifications. These checks will help to ensure that the rig will operate properly and give correct results

  11. Nuclear fuel management in JMTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naka, Michihiro; Miyazawa, Masataka; Sato, Hiroshi; Nakayama, Fusao; Ito, Haruhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment

    1999-08-01

    The Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) is the largest scale materials (author)ted the fission gas release compared with the steady state opkW/l in Japan. JMTR as a multi-purpose reactor has been contributing to research and development on nuclear field with a wide variety of irradiation for performing engineering tests and safety research on fuel and component for light water reactor as well as fast breeder reactor, high temperature gas-cooled reactor etc., for research and development on blanket material for fusion reactor, for fundamental research, and for radio-isotope (RI) production. The driver nuclear fuel used in JMTR is aluminum based MTR type fuel. According to the Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors (RERTR) Program, the JMTR fuel elements had been converted from 93% high enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to 45% medium enriched uranium (MEU) fuel in 1986, and then to 20% low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel in 1994. The cumulative operation cycles until March 1999 reached to 127 cycles since the first criticality in 1968. JMTR has used 1,628 HEU, 688 MEU and 308 LEU fuel elements for these operation cycles. After these spent fuel elements were cooled in the JMTR water canal more than one year after discharged from the JMTR core, they had been transported to reprocessing plants in Europe, and then to plants in USA in order to extract the uranium remaining in the spent fuel. The JMTR spent fuel transportation for reprocessing had been continued until the end of 1988. However, USA had ceased spent fuel reprocessing in 1989, while USDOE committed to prepare an environmental review of the impacts of accepting spent fuels from foreign research reactors. After that, USDOE decided to implement a new acceptance policy in 1996, the spent fuel transportation from JMTR to Savannah River Site was commenced in 1997. It was the first transportation not only in Japan but in Asia also. Until resuming the transportation, the spent fuel elements stored in JMTR

  12. Fuel property effects on Navy aircraft fuel systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, C. A.

    1984-01-01

    Problems of ensuring compatibility of Navy aircraft with fuels that may be different than the fuels for which the equipment was designed and qualified are discussed. To avoid expensive requalification of all the engines and airframe fuel systems, methodologies to qualify future fuels by using bench-scale and component testing are being sought. Fuel blends with increasing JP5-type aromatic concentration were seen to produce less volume swell than an equivalent aromatic concentration in the reference fuel. Futhermore, blends with naphthenes, decalin, tetralin, and naphthalenes do not deviate significantly from the correlation line of aromatic blends, Similar results are found with tensile strenth and elongation. Other elastomers, sealants, and adhesives are also being tested.

  13. Special raster scanning for reduction of charging effects in scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Oho, Eisaku

    2014-01-01

    A special raster scanning (SRS) method for reduction of charging effects is developed for the field of SEM. Both a conventional fast scan (horizontal direction) and an unusual scan (vertical direction) are adopted for acquiring raw data consisting of many sub-images. These data are converted to a proper SEM image using digital image processing techniques. About sharpness of the image and reduction of charging effects, the SRS is compared with the conventional fast scan (with frame-averaging) and the conventional slow scan. Experimental results show the effectiveness of SRS images. By a successful combination of the proposed scanning method and low accelerating voltage (LV)-SEMs, it is expected that higher-quality SEM images can be more easily acquired by the considerable reduction of charging effects, while maintaining the resolution. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Scan path entropy and Arrow plots: Capturing scanning behavior of multiple observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignace T C Hooge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Designers of visual communication material want their material to attract and retain attention. In marketing research, heat maps, dwell time, and time to AOI first hit are often used as evaluation parameters. Here we present two additional measures 1 scan path entropy to quantify gaze guidance and 2 the arrow plot to visualize the average scan path. Both are based on string representations of scan paths. The latter also incorporates transition matrices and time required for 50% of the observers to first hit AOIs (T50. The new measures were tested in an eye tracking study (48 observers, 39 advertisements. Scan path entropy is a sensible measure for gaze guidance and the new visualization method reveals aspects of the average scan path and gives a better indication in what order global scanning takes place.

  15. Clinical evaluation of chest x-rays, gallium-67 scans and CT scans in sarcoidosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, S.; Maeda, T. (Kochi Medical School (Japan)); Itoh, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Machida, K.

    1981-10-01

    A comparative study of the accuracy of chest X-rays, Gallium-67 scans and CT scans for mediastinal lymphadenopathy of pulmonary sarcoidosis was performed. The ability of each examination to detect the lymphadenopathy of following 5 lymph node groups was evaluated, such as paratracheal, aorto-pulmonic window, subcarinal and both hilar lymph nodes. The results on 5 patients indicated that in the detection of right paratracheal and subcarinal lymphadenopathy, Gallium scans and CT scans were more sensitive than chest x-rays. Chest x-rays and Gallium scans were superior than CT in detecting bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy. In the involvement of aorto-pulmonic window nodes, Gallium scans and chest x-rays were more informative than CT. Combination of these three examination is effective in the detection of the above described lymphadenopathy.

  16. Fuel Starvation: irreversible degradation mechanisms in PEM Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, C. M.; Travassos, Maria Antónia; Fernandes, Vitor R.; SILVA, R. A.; Paiva, T. I.

    2010-01-01

    PEM fuel cell operates under very aggressive conditions in both anode and cathode. Failure modes and mechanism in PEM fuel cells include those related to thermal, chemical or mechanical issues that may constrain stability, power and lifetime. In this work, the case of fuel starvation is examined. The anode potential may rise to levels compatible with the oxidization of water. If water is not available, oxidation of the carbon support will accelerate catalyst sintering. Diagnostics methods use...

  17. Fuels Performance: Navigating the Intersection of Fuels and Combustion (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-12-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), the only national laboratory dedicated 100% to renewable energy and energy efficiency, recognize that engine and infrastructure compatibility can make or break the impact of even the most promising fuel. NREL and its industry partners navigate the intersection of fuel chemistry, ignition kinetics, combustion, and emissions, with innovative approaches to engines and fuels that meet drivers' expectations, while minimizing petroleum use and GHGs.

  18. 1986 fuel cell seminar: Program and abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-10-01

    Ninety nine brief papers are arranged under the following session headings: gas industry's 40 kw program, solid oxide fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell technology, molten carbonate fuel cell technology, phosphoric acid fuel cell systems, power plants technology, fuel cell power plant designs, unconventional fuels, fuel cell application and economic assessments, and plans for commerical development. The papers are processed separately for the data base. (DLC)

  19. Biological fuel cells and their applications

    OpenAIRE

    Shukla, AK; Suresh, P.; Berchmans, S; Rajendran, A.

    2004-01-01

    One type of genuine fuel cell that does hold promise in the long-term is the biological fuel cell. Unlike conventional fuel cells, which employ hydrogen, ethanol and methanol as fuel, biological fuel cells use organic products produced by metabolic processes or use organic electron donors utilized in the growth processes as fuels for current generation. A distinctive feature of biological fuel cells is that the electrode reactions are controlled by biocatalysts, i.e. the biological redox-reac...

  20. Fuel economy of hybrid fuel-cell vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.; Wang, X.; Rousseau, A.

    The potential improvement in fuel economy of a mid-size fuel-cell vehicle by combining it with an energy storage system has been assessed. An energy management strategy is developed and used to operate the direct hydrogen, pressurized fuel-cell system in a load-following mode and the energy storage system in a charge-sustaining mode. The strategy places highest priority on maintaining the energy storage system in a state where it can supply unanticipated boost power when the fuel-cell system alone cannot meet the power demand. It is found that downsizing a fuel-cell system decreases its efficiency on a drive cycle which is compensated by partial regenerative capture of braking energy. On a highway cycle with limited braking energy the increase in fuel economy with hybridization is small but on the stop-and-go urban cycle the fuel economy can improve by 27%. On the combined highway and urban drive cycles the fuel economy of the fuel-cell vehicle is estimated to increase by up to 15% by hybridizing it with an energy storage system.

  1. Fuel cell and method of purging a fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cameron, D. S.

    1985-08-27

    A fuel cell may be purged with inert gas and/or preheated and/or maintained at an elevated temperature by combusting the hydrogen fuel with air and passing the combustion product gases either through the cell or through a heat exchanger for imparting heat either to the electrolyte or to the fuel gases. Preferably the combustor includes a catalyst. The hydrogen can either be taken directly from the fuel supply or the ''waste'' hydrogen periodically bled from the cell can be used. If the product gases are to be passed into the cell, the stoichiometry of the combustion should be controlled so that hydrogen is absent.

  2. Trioxane: A Fuel For Direct-Oxidation Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Prakash, Surya G.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Vamos, Eugene; Surampudi, Subbarao

    1995-01-01

    Trioxane identified as high-energy, nontoxic, solid substitute for formaldehyde as water-soluble fuel for use in direct-oxidation fuel cells. Found to undergo facile electrochemical oxidation to water and carbon dioxide at platinum and platinum-alloy electrodes in liquid-feed-type fuel cells that contain acid electrolytes or solid proton-exchange membrane electrolytes. Exhibits less crossover than do such conventional fuels as methanol and formaldehyde. Being solid at ambient temperature, trioxane offers significant advantages in handling and transportation. Synthesized from natural gas with relative ease.

  3. Dimethoxymethane: A Fuel For Direct-Oxidation Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olah, George A.; Prakash, Surya G.; Narayanan, Sekharipuram R.; Vamos, Eugene; Halpert, Gerald

    1995-01-01

    Dimethoxymethane (DMM) identified as one of several high-energy fuels for direct-oxidation fuel cells. Found to undergo facile electro-oxidation to carbon dioxide and water, with methanol as possible intermediate product. Fuel electro-oxidized at sustained high rates without poisoning electrodes. Performance superior to that of methanol at same temperature. Synthesized from natural gas (methane) and is thus viable alternative to methanol in direct-oxidation fuel cells. Better performance expected at higher temperature and by use of Pt/Sn catalyst. Alternatively, low boiling temperature of DMM also makes it candidate for gas-feed operation.

  4. Fuel quality issues in stationary fuel cell systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadias, D.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division)

    2012-02-07

    Fuel cell systems are being deployed in stationary applications for the generation of electricity, heat, and hydrogen. These systems use a variety of fuel cell types, ranging from the low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) to the high temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). Depending on the application and location, these systems are being designed to operate on reformate or syngas produced from various fuels that include natural gas, biogas, coal gas, etc. All of these fuels contain species that can potentially damage the fuel cell anode or other unit operations and processes that precede the fuel cell stack. These detrimental effects include loss in performance or durability, and attenuating these effects requires additional components to reduce the impurity concentrations to tolerable levels, if not eliminate the impurity entirely. These impurity management components increase the complexity of the fuel cell system, and they add to the system's capital and operating costs (such as regeneration, replacement and disposal of spent material and maintenance). This project reviewed the public domain information available on the impurities encountered in stationary fuel cell systems, and the effects of the impurities on the fuel cells. A database has been set up that classifies the impurities, especially in renewable fuels, such as landfill gas and anaerobic digester gas. It documents the known deleterious effects on fuel cells, and the maximum allowable concentrations of select impurities suggested by manufacturers and researchers. The literature review helped to identify the impurity removal strategies that are available, and their effectiveness, capacity, and cost. A generic model of a stationary fuel-cell based power plant operating on digester and landfill gas has been developed; it includes a gas processing unit, followed by a fuel cell system. The model includes the key impurity removal steps to enable predictions of impurity breakthrough

  5. Fuel economy and range estimates for fuel cell powered automobiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinbugler, M.; Ogden, J. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    While a number of automotive fuel cell applications have been demonstrated, including a golf cart, buses, and a van, these systems and others that have been proposed have utilized differing configurations ranging from direct hydrogen fuel cell-only power plants to fuel cell/battery hybrids operating on reformed methanol. To date there is no clear consensus on which configuration, from among the possible combinations of fuel cell, peaking device, and fuel type, is the most likely to be successfully commercialized. System simplicity favors direct hydrogen fuel cell vehicles, but infrastructure is lacking. Infrastructure favors a system using a liquid fuel with a fuel processor, but system integration and performance issues remain. A number of studies have analyzed particular configurations on either a system or vehicle scale. The objective of this work is to estimate, within a consistent framework, fuel economies and ranges for a variety of configurations using flexible models with the goal of identifying the most promising configurations and the most important areas for further research and development.

  6. Use of alternative fuels in solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-05-15

    A future sustainable energy system will certainly be based on a variety of environmentally benign energy production technologies. Fuel cells can be a key element in this scenario. One of the fuel cells types the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) has a number of advantages that places them in a favorable position: high efficiency, parallel production of electricity and high value heat, prevention of NOx emission, flexibility regarding usable fuels, and certain tolerance towards impurities. It is thus a natural option, to combine such a highly efficient energy conversion tool with a sustainable fuel supply. In the present contribution, the use of alternative compared to conventional fuels in SOFCs was evaluated. Regarding carbon containing, biomass derived fuels, SOFCs showed excellent power output and stability behavior during long-term testing under technologically relevant conditions. Moreover, ammonia can be used directly as fuel. The chemical and structural properties of the SOFC anode makes it even possible, to combine a chemical conversion of the fuel, for example methane into synthesis gas via steam reforming and decomposition of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen, with the electrochemical production of electricity in one step. (au)

  7. Updated NGNP Fuel Acquisition Strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Petti; Tim Abram; Richard Hobbins; Jim Kendall

    2010-12-01

    A Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) fuel acquisition strategy was first established in 2007. In that report, a detailed technical assessment of potential fuel vendors for the first core of NGNP was conducted by an independent group of international experts based on input from the three major reactor vendor teams. Part of the assessment included an evaluation of the credibility of each option, along with a cost and schedule to implement each strategy compared with the schedule and throughput needs of the NGNP project. While credible options were identified based on the conditions in place at the time, many changes in the assumptions underlying the strategy and in externalities that have occurred in the interim requiring that the options be re-evaluated. This document presents an update to that strategy based on current capabilities for fuel fabrication as well as fuel performance and qualification testing worldwide. In light of the recent Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) project closure, the Advanced Gas Reactor (AGR) fuel development and qualification program needs to support both pebble and prismatic options under the NGNP project. A number of assumptions were established that formed a context for the evaluation. Of these, the most important are: • Based on logistics associated with the on-going engineering design activities, vendor teams would start preliminary design in October 2012 and complete in May 2014. A decision on reactor type will be made following preliminary design, with the decision process assumed to be completed in January 2015. Thus, no fuel decision (pebble or prismatic) will be made in the near term. • Activities necessary for both pebble and prismatic fuel qualification will be conducted in parallel until a fuel form selection is made. As such, process development, fuel fabrication, irradiation, and testing for pebble and prismatic options should not negatively influence each other during the period prior to a decision on reactor type

  8. Postprocessing Algorithm for Driving Conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope at Fast Scan Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an image postprocessing framework for Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM to reduce the strong spurious oscillations and scan line noise at fast scan rates and preserve the features, allowing an order of magnitude increase in the scan rate without upgrading the hardware. The proposed method consists of two steps for large scale images and four steps for atomic scale images. For large scale images, we first apply for each line an image registration method to align the forward and backward scans of the same line. In the second step we apply a “rubber band” model which is solved by a novel Constrained Adaptive and Iterative Filtering Algorithm (CIAFA. The numerical results on measurement from copper(111 surface indicate the processed images are comparable in accuracy to data obtained with a slow scan rate, but are free of the scan drift error commonly seen in slow scan data. For atomic scale images, an additional first step to remove line-by-line strong background fluctuations and a fourth step of replacing the postprocessed image by its ranking map as the final atomic resolution image are required. The resulting image restores the lattice image that is nearly undetectable in the original fast scan data.

  9. Comparison of the VISX WaveScan and OPD-Scan Ⅲ with the subjective refraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ran Zhu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the refractive errors measured by the VISX WaveScan, OPD-Scan Ⅲ and the subjective refraction.METHODS: Seventy-six patients(152 eyeswere recruited from January 2013 to December 2013. All patients were measured with subjective refraction by the phoropter(NIDEK, RT-5 100, objective refraction by the WaveScan(AMO Company, USA, OPD-Scan Ⅲ(Nidek Technologies, Japan. The sphere, cylinder, axis of the three methods were compared and analyzed.RESULTS: The sphere measured by WaveScan was lower than that by subjective refraction, the difference was 0.13±0.30D(t=3.753, Pt=3.664, PP>0.05. The value of the difference between WaveScan and subjective refraction was 5.87°±6.19° for the axis and the difference between OPD-Scan Ⅲ and subjective refraction was 3.82°±3.95°. There was statistic significance(t=2.817, P=0.006. CONCLUSION: For sphere and cylinder,WaveScan generated some deviation relative to subjective refraction. The Nidek OPD-Scan Ⅲ gives more accurate measures of objective refraction when compared with subjective refraction.

  10. Anticipating, measuring, and minimizing MEMS mirror scan error to improve laser scanning microscopy's speed and accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannini, John P; York, Andrew G; Shroff, Hari

    2017-01-01

    We describe a method to speed up microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirror scanning by > 20x, while also improving scan accuracy. We use Landweber deconvolution to determine an input voltage which would produce a desired output, based on the measured MEMS impulse response. Since the MEMS is weakly nonlinear, the observed behavior deviates from expectations, and we iteratively improve our input to minimize this deviation. This allows customizable MEMS angle vs. time with <1% deviation from the desired scan pattern. We demonstrate our technique by optimizing a point scanning microscope's raster patterns to image mammal submandibular gland and pollen at ~10 frames/s.

  11. About infrared scanning of photovoltaic solar plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, T.; Panouillot, P.-E.; Siikanen, S.; Athanasakou, E.; Baltas, P.; Nikopoulous, B.

    2015-05-01

    The paper is discussing about infrared scanning of PV solar plants. It is important that the performance of each solar panel and cell is verified. One new possibility compared to traditional ground-based scanning (handheld camera) is the utilization of UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle). In this paper results from a PV solar Plant in Western Greece are introduced. The nominal power of the solar plants were 0, 9 MW and 2 MW and they were scanned both by a ground-controlled drone and by handheld equipment. It is essential to know all the factors effecting to results and also the time of scanning is important. The results done from the drone and from ground-based scanning are compared; also results from various altitudes and time of day are discussed. The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle/RPAS (Remote Piloted Aircraft Systems) will give an excellent opportunity to monitor various targets which are impossible or difficult to access from the ground. Compared to fixed-wing and helicopter-based platforms it will give advantages but also this technology has limitations. One limitation is the weight of the equipment and the short operational range and short flight time. Also valid procedures must be created for different solutions in the future. The most important thing, as in all infrared thermography applications, is the proper interpretation of results.

  12. Scanning-time evaluation of Digimarc Barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Rebecca; Pinard, Dan; Weaver, Matt; Alattar, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a speed comparison between the use of Digimarc® Barcodes and the Universal Product Code (UPC) for customer checkout at point of sale (POS). The recently introduced Digimarc Barcode promises to increase the speed of scanning packaged goods at POS. When this increase is exploited by workforce optimization systems, the retail industry could potentially save billions of dollars. The Digimarc Barcode is based on Digimarc's watermarking technology, and it is imperceptible, very robust, and does not require any special ink, material, or printing processes. Using an image-based scanner, a checker can quickly scan consumer packaged goods (CPG) embedded with the Digimarc Barcode without the need to reorient the packages with respect to the scanner. Faster scanning of packages saves money and enhances customer satisfaction. It reduces the length of the queues at checkout, reduces the cost of cashier labor, and makes self-checkout more convenient. This paper quantifies the increase in POS scanning rates resulting from the use of the Digimarc Barcode versus the traditional UPC. It explains the testing methodology, describes the experimental setup, and analyzes the obtained results. It concludes that the Digimarc Barcode increases number of items per minute (IPM) scanned at least 50% over traditional UPC.

  13. Towards Multi Fuel SOFC Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard; Bang-Møller, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Complete Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) plants fed by several different fuels are suggested and analyzed. The plants sizes are about 10 kW which is suitable for single family house with needs for both electricity and heat. Alternative fuels such as, methanol, DME (Di-Methyl Ether) and ethanol...... are also considered and the results will be compared with the base plant fed by Natural Gas (NG). A single plant design will be suggested that can be fed with methanol, DME and ethanol whenever these fuels are available. It will be shown that the plant fed by ethanol will have slightly higher electrical...... efficiency compared with other fuels. A methanator will be suggested to be included into the plants design in order to produce methane from the fuel before entering the anode side of the SOFC stacks. Increasing methane content will decrease the needed compressor effect and thereby increase the plant power....

  14. Fuel alcohol opportunities for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenglass, Bert

    1980-08-01

    Prepared at the request of US Senator Birch Bayh, Chairman of the National Alcohol Fuels Commission, this study may be best utilized as a guidebook and resource manual to foster the development of a statewide fuel alcohol plan. It examines sectors in Indiana which will impact or be impacted upon by the fuel alcohol industry. The study describes fuel alcohol technologies that could be pertinent to Indiana and also looks closely at how such a fuel alcohol industry may affect the economic and policy development of the State. Finally, the study presents options for Indiana, taking into account the national context of the developing fuel alcohol industry which, unlike many others, will be highly decentralized and more under the control of the lifeblood of our society - the agricultural community.

  15. Hybrid Fuel Cell Technology Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None available

    2001-05-31

    For the purpose of this STI product and unless otherwise stated, hybrid fuel cell systems are power generation systems in which a high temperature fuel cell is combined with another power generating technology. The resulting system exhibits a synergism in which the combination performs with an efficiency far greater than can be provided by either system alone. Hybrid fuel cell designs under development include fuel cell with gas turbine, fuel cell with reciprocating (piston) engine, and designs that combine different fuel cell technologies. Hybrid systems have been extensively analyzed and studied over the past five years by the Department of Energy (DOE), industry, and others. These efforts have revealed that this combination is capable of providing remarkably high efficiencies. This attribute, combined with an inherent low level of pollutant emission, suggests that hybrid systems are likely to serve as the next generation of advanced power generation systems.

  16. Unitized regenerative fuel cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Kenneth A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A Unitized Regenerative Fuel Cell system uses heat pipes to convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the reactant storage tanks. The storage tanks act as heat sinks/sources and as passive radiators of the waste heat from the fuel cell stack. During charge up, i.e., the electrolytic process, gases are conveyed to the reactant storage tanks by way of tubes that include dryers. Reactant gases moving through the dryers give up energy to the cold tanks, causing water vapor in with the gases to condense and freeze on the internal surfaces of the dryer. During operation in its fuel cell mode, the heat pipes convey waste heat from the fuel cell stack to the respective reactant storage tanks, thereby heating them such that the reactant gases, as they pass though the respective dryers on their way to the fuel cell stacks retrieve the water previously removed.

  17. 77 FR 59458 - Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-27

    ... Part II Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR Part 80 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel Additives: 2013 Biomass-Based Diesel Renewable Fuel Volume; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 77, No. 188... 40 CFR Part 80 [EPA-HQ-OAR-2010-0133; FRL-9678-7] RIN 2060-AR55 Regulation of Fuels and Fuel...

  18. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was

  19. Swelling-resistant nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenlis, Athanasios [Hayward, CA; Satcher, Jr., Joe; Kucheyev, Sergei O [Oakland, CA

    2011-12-27

    A nuclear fuel according to one embodiment includes an assembly of nuclear fuel particles; and continuous open channels defined between at least some of the nuclear fuel particles, wherein the channels are characterized as allowing fission gasses produced in an interior of the assembly to escape from the interior of the assembly to an exterior thereof without causing significant swelling of the assembly. Additional embodiments, including methods, are also presented.

  20. Modelling Accident Tolerant Fuel Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, Jason Dean [Idaho National Laboratory; Gamble, Kyle Allan Lawrence [Idaho National Laboratory

    2016-05-01

    The catastrophic events that occurred at the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant in 2011 have led to widespread interest in research of alternative fuels and claddings that are proposed to be accident tolerant. The United States Department of Energy (DOE) through its Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling and Simulation (NEAMS) program has funded an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) High Impact Problem (HIP). The ATF HIP is a three-year project to perform research on two accident tolerant concepts. The final outcome of the ATF HIP will be an in-depth report to the DOE Advanced Fuels Campaign (AFC) giving a recommendation on whether either of the two concepts should be included in their lead test assembly scheduled for placement into a commercial reactor in 2022. The two ATF concepts under investigation in the HIP are uranium silicide fuel and iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloy cladding. Utilizing the expertise of three national laboratory participants (Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory), a comprehensive multiscale approach to modeling is being used that includes atomistic modeling, molecular dynamics, rate theory, phase-field, and fuel performance simulations. Model development and fuel performance analysis are critical since a full suite of experimental studies will not be complete before AFC must prioritize concepts for focused development. In this paper, we present simulations of the two proposed accident tolerance fuel systems: U3Si2 fuel with Zircaloy-4 cladding, and UO2 fuel with FeCrAl cladding. Sensitivity analyses are completed using Sandia National Laboratories’ Dakota software to determine which input parameters (e.g., fuel specific heat) have the greatest influence on the output metrics of interest (e.g., fuel centerline temperature). We also outline the multiscale modelling approach being employed. Considerable additional work is required prior to preparing the recommendation report for the Advanced

  1. Direct Fuel Injector Temporal Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    camera. 15. SUBJECT TERMS fuel injector, photo detector, JP-8, injector drive 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU...engine control unit ( ECU ) under different engine conditions for optimized engine performance and emission. Ideally, ton and toff are the times when...the fuel injection starts and stops. In reality, there is a delay time from the ECU sending command signal to the actual fuel injection called a

  2. Zeolites Remove Sulfur From Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1991-01-01

    Zeolites remove substantial amounts of sulfur compounds from diesel fuel under relatively mild conditions - atmospheric pressure below 300 degrees C. Extracts up to 60 percent of sulfur content of high-sulfur fuel. Applicable to petroleum refineries, natural-gas processors, electric powerplants, and chemical-processing plants. Method simpler and uses considerably lower pressure than current industrial method, hydro-desulfurization. Yields cleaner emissions from combustion of petroleum fuels, and protects catalysts from poisoning by sulfur.

  3. Electricity as Transportation ``Fuel''

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamor, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The personal automobile is a surprisingly efficient device, but its place in a sustainable transportation future hinges on its ability use a sustainable fuel. While electricity is widely expected to be such a ``fuel,'' the viability of electric vehicles rests on the validity of three assumptions. First, that the emissions from generation will be significantly lower than those from competing chemical fuels whether `renewable' or fossil. Second, that advances in battery technology will deliver adequate range and durability at an affordable cost. Third, that most customers will accept any functional limitations intrinsic to electrochemical energy storage. While the first two are subjects of active research and vigorous policy debate, the third is treated virtually as a given. Popular statements to the effect that ``because 70% of all daily travel is accomplished in less than 100 miles, mass deployment of 100 mile EVs will electrify 70% of all travel'' are based on collections of one-day travel reports such as the National Household Travel Survey, and so effectively ignore the complexities of individual needs. We have analyzed the day-to-day variations of individual vehicle usage in multiple regions and draw very different conclusions. Most significant is that limited EV range results in a level of inconvenience that is likely to be unacceptable to the vast majority of vehicle owners, and for those who would accept that inconvenience, battery costs must be absurdly low to achieve any economic payback. In contrast, the plug-in hybrid (PHEV) does not suffer range limitations and delivers economic payback for most users at realistic battery costs. More importantly, these findings appear to be universal in developed nations, with labor market population density being a powerful predictor of personal vehicle usage. This ``scalable city'' hypothesis may prove to a powerful predictor of the evolution of transportation in the large cities of the developing world.

  4. Fuels for Thought!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clifford Louime

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available When it comes to the marketing of the bioenergy brand, one of the catchiest slogans out these days is “25 by ‘25”. Adopted and supported by industries, academia and government agencies alike, this organization simply aims to supply 25 percent of our energy from renewable resources by the year 2025. By focusing its future efforts on wind, solar and biomass resources, the “25 by 25” initiative is expected to create new jobs, develop novel technologies, help mitigate the effects of global warming and reduce our dependence on fossil fuels. [...

  5. Supercritical Fuel Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    the equation of state and the fuel properties in a manner not possible with other methods. Stimulated scattering can be performed at any wavelength...the basis of this method. This laser has been integrated with current and temperature control and has been tested for modulation up to 500 MHz...V.   Volterra ,   “Identification  of  a  new  spectral  component  in  Brillouin  scattering  of  liquids,”  Phys

  6. Fuel Flexible, Low Emission Catalytic Combustor for Opportunity Fuel Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eteman, Shahrokh

    2013-06-30

    Limited fuel resources, increasing energy demand and stringent emission regulations are drivers to evaluate process off-gases or process waste streams as fuels for power generation. Often these process waste streams have low energy content and/or highly reactive components. Operability of low energy content fuels in gas turbines leads to issues such as unstable and incomplete combustion. On the other hand, fuels containing higher-order hydrocarbons lead to flashback and auto-ignition issues. Due to above reasons, these fuels cannot be used directly without modifications or efficiency penalties in gas turbine engines. To enable the use of these wide variety of fuels in gas turbine engines a rich catalytic lean burn (RCL®) combustion system was developed and tested in a subscale high pressure (10 atm.) rig. The RCL® injector provided stability and extended turndown to low Btu fuels due to catalytic pre-reaction. Previous work has shown promise with fuels such as blast furnace gas (BFG) with LHV of 85 Btu/ft3 successfully combusted. This program extends on this work by further modifying the combustor to achieve greater catalytic stability enhancement. Fuels containing low energy content such as weak natural gas with a Lower Heating Value (LHV) of 6.5 MJ/m3 (180 Btu/ft3 to natural gas fuels containing higher hydrocarbon (e.g ethane) with LHV of 37.6 MJ/m3 (1010 Btu/ft3) were demonstrated with improved combustion stability; an extended turndown (defined as the difference between catalytic and non-catalytic lean blow out) of greater than 250oF was achieved with CO and NOx emissions lower than 5 ppm corrected to 15% O2. In addition, for highly reactive fuels the catalytic region preferentially pre-reacted the higher order hydrocarbons with no events of flashback or auto-ignition allowing a stable and safe operation with low NOx and CO emissions.

  7. Conductivity map from scanning tunneling potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Xianqi; Chen, Yunmei; Durand, Corentin; Li, An-Ping; Zhang, X-G

    2016-08-01

    We present a novel method for extracting two-dimensional (2D) conductivity profiles from large electrochemical potential datasets acquired by scanning tunneling potentiometry of a 2D conductor. The method consists of a data preprocessing procedure to reduce/eliminate noise and a numerical conductivity reconstruction. The preprocessing procedure employs an inverse consistent image registration method to align the forward and backward scans of the same line for each image line followed by a total variation (TV) based image restoration method to obtain a (nearly) noise-free potential from the aligned scans. The preprocessed potential is then used for numerical conductivity reconstruction, based on a TV model solved by accelerated alternating direction method of multiplier. The method is demonstrated on a measurement of the grain boundary of a monolayer graphene, yielding a nearly 10:1 ratio for the grain boundary resistivity over bulk resistivity.

  8. Conductivity map from scanning tunneling potentiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Xianqi; Chen, Yunmei; Durand, Corentin; Li, An-Ping; Zhang, X.-G.

    2016-08-01

    We present a novel method for extracting two-dimensional (2D) conductivity profiles from large electrochemical potential datasets acquired by scanning tunneling potentiometry of a 2D conductor. The method consists of a data preprocessing procedure to reduce/eliminate noise and a numerical conductivity reconstruction. The preprocessing procedure employs an inverse consistent image registration method to align the forward and backward scans of the same line for each image line followed by a total variation (TV) based image restoration method to obtain a (nearly) noise-free potential from the aligned scans. The preprocessed potential is then used for numerical conductivity reconstruction, based on a TV model solved by accelerated alternating direction method of multiplier. The method is demonstrated on a measurement of the grain boundary of a monolayer graphene, yielding a nearly 10:1 ratio for the grain boundary resistivity over bulk resistivity.

  9. Investigation into scanning tunnelling luminescence microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Manson-Smith, S K

    2001-01-01

    This work reports on the development of a scanning tunnelling luminescence (STL) microscope and its application to the study of Ill-nitride semiconductor materials used in the production of light emitting devices. STL microscopy is a technique which uses the high resolution topographic imaging capabilities of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to generate high resolution luminescence images. The STM tunnelling current acts as a highly localised source of electrons (or holes) which generates luminescence in certain materials. Light generated at the STM tunnelling junction is collected concurrently with the height variation of the tunnelling probe as it is scanned across a sample surface, producing simultaneous topographic and luminescence images. Due to the very localised excitation source, high resolution luminescence images can be obtained. Spectroscopic resolution can be obtained by using filters. Additionally, the variation of luminescence intensity with tunnel current and with bias voltage can provi...

  10. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abelquist, E.W. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor`s performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors` performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments.

  11. MutScan: fast detection and visualization of target mutations by scanning FASTQ data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shifu; Huang, Tanxiao; Wen, Tiexiang; Li, Hong; Xu, Mingyan; Gu, Jia

    2018-01-22

    Some types of clinical genetic tests, such as cancer testing using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), require sensitive detection of known target mutations. However, conventional next-generation sequencing (NGS) data analysis pipelines typically involve different steps of filtering, which may cause miss-detection of key mutations with low frequencies. Variant validation is also indicated for key mutations detected by bioinformatics pipelines. Typically, this process can be executed using alignment visualization tools such as IGV or GenomeBrowse. However, these tools are too heavy and therefore unsuitable for validating mutations in ultra-deep sequencing data. We developed MutScan to address problems of sensitive detection and efficient validation for target mutations. MutScan involves highly optimized string-searching algorithms, which can scan input FASTQ files to grab all reads that support target mutations. The collected supporting reads for each target mutation will be piled up and visualized using web technologies such as HTML and JavaScript. Algorithms such as rolling hash and bloom filter are applied to accelerate scanning and make MutScan applicable to detect or visualize target mutations in a very fast way. MutScan is a tool for the detection and visualization of target mutations by only scanning FASTQ raw data directly. Compared to conventional pipelines, this offers a very high performance, executing about 20 times faster, and offering maximal sensitivity since it can grab mutations with even one single supporting read. MutScan visualizes detected mutations by generating interactive pile-ups using web technologies. These can serve to validate target mutations, thus avoiding false positives. Furthermore, MutScan can visualize all mutation records in a VCF file to HTML pages for cloud-friendly VCF validation. MutScan is an open source tool available at GitHub: https://github.com/OpenGene/MutScan.

  12. Tree Height Growth Measurement with Single-Scan Airborne, Static Terrestrial and Mobile Laser Scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Lin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the feasibility of applying single-scan airborne, static terrestrial and mobile laser scanning for improving the accuracy of tree height growth measurement. Specifically, compared to the traditional works on forest growth inventory with airborne laser scanning, two issues are regarded: “Can the new technique characterize the height growth for each individual tree?” and “Can this technique refine the minimum growth-discernable temporal interval further?” To solve these two puzzles, the sampling principles of the three laser scanning modes were first examined, and their error sources against the task of tree-top capturing were also analyzed. Next, the three-year growths of 58 Nordic maple trees (Crimson King for test were intermittently surveyed with one type of laser scanning each time and then analyzed by statistics. The evaluations show that the height growth of each individual tree still cannot be reliably characterized even by single-scan terrestrial laser scanning, and statistical analysis is necessary in this scenario. After Gaussian regression, it is found that the minimum temporal interval with distinguishable tree height growths can be refined into one month based on terrestrial laser scanning, far better than the two years deduced in the previous works based on airborne laser scanning. The associated mean growth was detected to be about 0.12 m. Moreover, the parameter of tree height generally under-estimated by airborne and even mobile laser scanning can be relatively revised by means of introducing static terrestrial laser scanning data. Overall, the effectiveness of the proposed technique is primarily validated.

  13. Defense applications of fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthelemy, R. R.

    Applications and developmental efforts by the service branches of the U.S. toward implementation of fuel cells for military purposes are reviewed. The fuel cells are being produced as a petroleum fuel substitute and are foreseen to offer quieter, more efficient power at less expense, with lower logistic problems, and to possess cogeneration potential. Applications are indicated for mobile, remote, facility, and emergency/auxiliary power systems. The systems range from one kilowatt to several MW, and can be interfaced with weapon systems. Research in phosphoric acid fuel cells is noted, as are applications in space, undersea, and in aircraft.

  14. Fuel analyzer; Analisador de combustiveis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzolino, Roberval [RS Motors, Indaiatuba, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The current technology 'COMBUSTIMETRO' aims to examine the fuel through performance of the engine, as the role of the fuel is to produce energy for the combustion engine in the form of which is directly proportional to the quality and type of fuel. The 'COMBUSTIMETRO' has an engine that always keeps the same entry of air, fuel and fixed point of ignition. His operation is monitored by sensors (Sonda Lambda, RPM and Gases Analyzer) connected to a processor that performs calculations and records the information, generate reports and graphs. (author)

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickols, R.C.

    1984-10-17

    In a stacked array of molten carbonate fuel cells, a fuel cell separator is positioned between adjacent fuel cells to provide isolation as well as a conductive path therebetween. The center portion of the fuel cell separator includes a generally rectangular, flat, electrical conductor. Around the periphery of the flat portion of the separator are positioned a plurality of elongated resilient flanges which form a gas-tight seal around the edges of the fuel cell. With one elongated flange resiliently engaging a respective edge of the center portion of the separator, the sealing flanges, which are preferably comprised of a noncorrosive material such as an alloy of yttrium, iron, aluminum or chromium, form a tight-fitting wet seal for confining the corrosive elements of the fuel cell therein. This arrangement permits a good conductive material which may be highly subject to corrosion and dissolution to be used in combination with a corrosion-resistant material in the fuel cell separator of a molten carbonate fuel cell for improved fuel cell conductivity and a gas-tight wet seal.

  16. Commercializing fuel cells: managing risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Peter B.

    Commercialization of fuel cells, like any other product, entails both financial and technical risks. Most of the fuel cell literature has focussed upon technical risks, however, the most significant risks during commercialization may well be associated with the financial funding requirements of this process. Successful commercialization requires an integrated management of these risks. Like any developing technology, fuel cells face the typical 'Catch-22' of commercialization: "to enter the market, the production costs must come down, however, to lower these costs, the cumulative production must be greatly increased, i.e. significant market penetration must occur". Unless explicit steps are taken to address this dilemma, fuel cell commercialization will remain slow and require large subsidies for market entry. To successfully address this commercialization dilemma, it is necessary to follow a market-driven commercialization strategy that identifies high-value entry markets while minimizing the financial and technical risks of market entry. The financial and technical risks of fuel cell commercialization are minimized, both for vendors and end-users, with the initial market entry of small-scale systems into high-value stationary applications. Small-scale systems, in the order of 1-40 kW, benefit from economies of production — as opposed to economies to scale — to attain rapid cost reductions from production learning and continuous technological innovation. These capital costs reductions will accelerate their commercialization through market pull as the fuel cell systems become progressively more viable, starting with various high-value stationary and, eventually, for high-volume mobile applications. To facilitate market penetration via market pull, fuel cell systems must meet market-derived economic and technical specifications and be compatible with existing market and fuels infrastructures. Compatibility with the fuels infrastructure is facilitated by a

  17. Used Fuel Testing Transportation Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, Steven B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Best, Ralph E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Maheras, Steven J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jensen, Philip J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); England, Jeffery L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); LeDuc, Dan [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-25

    This report identifies shipping packages/casks that might be used by the Used Nuclear Fuel Disposition Campaign Program (UFDC) to ship fuel rods and pieces of fuel rods taken from high-burnup used nuclear fuel (UNF) assemblies to and between research facilities for purposes of evaluation and testing. Also identified are the actions that would need to be taken, if any, to obtain U.S. Nuclear Regulatory (NRC) or other regulatory authority approval to use each of the packages and/or shipping casks for this purpose.

  18. Hydrogen Generation Via Fuel Reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, John F.

    2003-07-01

    Reforming is the conversion of a hydrocarbon based fuel to a gas mixture that contains hydrogen. The H2 that is produced by reforming can then be used to produce electricity via fuel cells. The realization of H2-based power generation, via reforming, is facilitated by the existence of the liquid fuel and natural gas distribution infrastructures. Coupling these same infrastructures with more portable reforming technology facilitates the realization of fuel cell powered vehicles. The reformer is the first component in a fuel processor. Contaminants in the H2-enriched product stream, such as carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), can significantly degrade the performance of current polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC's). Removal of such contaminants requires extensive processing of the H2-rich product stream prior to utilization by the fuel cell to generate electricity. The remaining components of the fuel processor remove the contaminants in the H2 product stream. For transportation applications the entire fuel processing system must be as small and lightweight as possible to achieve desirable performance requirements. Current efforts at Argonne National Laboratory are focused on catalyst development and reactor engineering of the autothermal processing train for transportation applications.

  19. Seismic behaviour of fuel assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Heuy Gap; Jhung, Myung Jo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-01

    A general approach for the dynamic time-history analysis of the reactor core is presented in this paper as a part of the fuel assembly qualification program. Several detailed core models are set up to reflect the placement of the fuel assemblies within the core shroud. Peak horizontal responses are obtained for each model for the motions induced from earthquake. The dynamic responses such as fuel assembly shear force, bending moment and displacement, and spacer grid impact loads are carefully investigated. Also, the sensitivity responses are obtained for the earthquake motions and the fuel assembly non-linear response characteristics are discussed. (Author) 9 refs., 24 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.