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Sample records for scanning all-fiber-optic endomicroscopy

  1. Focus scanning with feedback control for fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ang; Liang, Wenxuan; Li, Xingde

    2017-02-01

    Fiber-optic nonlinear endomicroscopy represents a strong promise to enable translation of nonlinear microscopy technologies to in vivo applications, particularly imaging of internal organs. Two-dimensional imaging beam scanning has been accomplished by using fiber-optic scanners or MEMS scanners. Yet nonlinear endomicroscopy still cannot perform rapid and reliable depth or focus scanning while maintaining a small form factor. Shape memory alloy (SMA) wire had shown promise in extending 2D endoscopic imaging to the third dimension. By Joule heating, the SMA wire would contract and move the endomicroscope optics to change beam focus. However, this method suffered from hysteresis, and was susceptible to change in ambient temperature, making it difficult to achieve accurate and reliable depth scanning. Here we present a feedback-controlled SMA actuator which addressed these challenges. The core of the feedback loop was a Hall effect sensor. By measuring the magnetic flux density from a tiny magnet attached to the SMA wire, contraction distance of the SMA wire could be tracked in real time. The distance was then fed to the PID algorithm running in a microprocessor, which computed the error between the command position and the current position of the actuator. The current running through the SMA wire was adjusted accordingly. Our feedback-controlled SMA actuator had a tube-like shape with outer diameter of 5.5 mm and length of 25 mm, and was designed to house the endomicroscope inside. Initial test showed that it allowed more than 300 microns of travel distance, with an average positioning error of less than 2 microns. 3D imaging experiments with the endomicroscope is underway, and its imaging performance will be assessed and discussed.

  2. Cycloid scanning for wide field optical coherence tomography endomicroscopy and angiography in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Kaicheng; Wang, Zhao; Ahsen, Osman O.; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Potsaid, Benjamin M.; Jayaraman, Vijaysekhar; Cable, Alex; Mashimo, Hiroshi; Li, Xingde; Fujimoto, James G.

    2018-01-01

    Devices that perform wide field-of-view (FOV) precision optical scanning are important for endoscopic assessment and diagnosis of luminal organ disease such as in gastroenterology. Optical scanning for in vivo endoscopic imaging has traditionally relied on one or more proximal mechanical actuators, limiting scan accuracy and imaging speed. There is a need for rapid and precise two-dimensional (2D) microscanning technologies to enable the translation of benchtop scanning microscopies to in vivo endoscopic imaging. We demonstrate a new cycloid scanner in a tethered capsule for ultrahigh speed, side-viewing optical coherence tomography (OCT) endomicroscopy in vivo. The cycloid capsule incorporates two scanners: a piezoelectrically actuated resonant fiber scanner to perform a precision, small FOV, fast scan and a micromotor scanner to perform a wide FOV, slow scan. Together these scanners distally scan the beam circumferentially in a 2D cycloid pattern, generating an unwrapped 1 mm × 38 mm strip FOV. Sequential strip volumes can be acquired with proximal pullback to image centimeter-long regions. Using ultrahigh speed 1.3 μm wavelength swept-source OCT at a 1.17 MHz axial scan rate, we imaged the human rectum at 3 volumes/s. Each OCT strip volume had 166 × 2322 axial scans with 8.5 μm axial and 30 μm transverse resolution. We further demonstrate OCT angiography at 0.5 volumes/s, producing volumetric images of vasculature. In addition to OCT applications, cycloid scanning promises to enable precision 2D optical scanning for other imaging modalities, including fluorescence confocal and nonlinear microscopy. PMID:29682598

  3. All fiber optics circular-state swept source polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hermann; Kao, Meng-Chun; Lai, Chih-Ming; Huang, Jyun-Cin; Kuo, Wen-Chuan

    2014-02-01

    A swept source (SS)-based circular-state (CS) polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) constructed entirely with polarization-maintaining fiber optics components is proposed with the experimental verification. By means of the proposed calibration scheme, bulk quarter-wave plates can be replaced by fiber optics polarization controllers to, therefore, realize an all-fiber optics CS SSPS-OCT. We also present a numerical dispersion compensation method, which can not only enhance the axial resolution, but also improve the signal-to-noise ratio of the images. We demonstrate that this compact and portable CS SSPS-OCT system with an accuracy comparable to bulk optics systems requires less stringent lens alignment and can possibly serve as a technology to realize PS-OCT instrument for clinical applications (e.g., endoscopy). The largest deviations in the phase retardation (PR) and fast-axis (FA) angle due to sample probe in the linear scanning and a rotation angle smaller than 65 deg were of the same order as those in stationary probe setups. The influence of fiber bending on the measured PR and FA is also investigated. The largest deviations of the PR were 3.5 deg and the measured FA change by ~12 to 21 deg. Finally, in vivo imaging of the human fingertip and nail was successfully demonstrated with a linear scanning probe.

  4. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-05-20

    We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA) signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF) and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF). The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging.

  5. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Jonghyun; Shin, Jun Geun; Park, Soongho; Rim, Sunghwan; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2016-01-01

    We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA) signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF) and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF). The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging. PMID:27213392

  6. An All-Fiber-Optic Combined System of Noncontact Photoacoustic Tomography and Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonghyun Eom

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We propose an all-fiber-based dual-modal imaging system that combines noncontact photoacoustic tomography (PAT and optical coherence tomography (OCT. The PAT remotely measures photoacoustic (PA signals with a 1550-nm laser on the surface of a sample by utilizing a fiber interferometer as an ultrasound detector. The fiber-based OCT, employing a swept-source laser centered at 1310 nm, shares the sample arm of the PAT system. The fiber-optic probe for the combined system was homemade with a lensed single-mode fiber (SMF and a large-core multimode fiber (MMF. The compact and robust common probe is capable of obtaining both the PA and the OCT signals at the same position without any physical contact. Additionally, the MMF of the probe delivers the short pulses of a Nd:YAG laser to efficiently excite the PA signals. We experimentally demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed dual-modal system with a phantom made of a fishing line and a black polyethylene terephthalate fiber in a tissue mimicking solution. The all-fiber-optic system, capable of providing complementary information about absorption and scattering, has a promising potential in minimally invasive and endoscopic imaging.

  7. All-fiber optical mode switching based on cascaded mode selective couplers for short-reach MDM networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang; Li, Juhao; Wu, Zhongying; Yu, Jinyi; Mo, Qi; Wang, Jianping; He, Yongqi; Chen, Zhangyuan; Li, Zhengbin

    2017-04-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber optical mode switching structure supporting independent switching, exchanging, adding, and dropping functionalities in which each mode can be switched individually. The mode switching structure consists of cascaded mode selective couplers (MSCs) capable of exciting and selecting specific higher order modes in few-mode fibers with high efficiency and one multiport optical switch routing the independent spatial modes to their destinations. The data carried on three different spatial modes can be switched, exchanged, added, and dropped through this all-fiber structure. For this experimental demonstration, optical on-off-keying (OOK) signals at 10-Gb/s carried on three spatial modes are successfully processed with open and clear eye diagrams. The mode switch exhibits power penalties of less than 3.1 dB after through operation, less than 2.7 dB after exchange operation, less than 2.8 dB after switching operation, and less than 1.6 dB after mode adding and dropping operations at the bit-error rate (BER) of 10-3, while all three channels carried on three spatial modes are simultaneously routed. The proposed structure, compatible with current optical switching networks based on single-mode fibers, can potentially be used to expand the switching scalability in advanced and flexible short-reach mode-division multiplexing-based networks.

  8. Confocal laser endomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Săftoiu, Adrian; Brynskov, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has been shown to predict relapse in ulcerative colitis in remission, but little is currently known about its role in Crohn's disease. The aim of this study was to identify reproducible CLE features in patients with Crohn's disease...

  9. Molecular confocal laser endomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Klausen, Pia Helene; Saftoiu, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    While flexible endoscopy is essential for macroscopic evaluation, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has recently emerged as an endoscopic method enabling visualization at a cellular level. Two systems are currently available, one based on miniprobes that can be inserted via a conventional...... during on-going endoscopy), a novel world of molecular evaluation opens up. The method of molecular CLE could potentially be used for estimating the expression of important receptors in carcinomas, subsequently resulting in immediate individualization of treatment regimens, but also for improving...

  10. Fluorescence confocal endomicroscopy in biological imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaney, Peter; Thomas, Steven; Allen, John; McLaren, Wendy; Murr, Elise; Harris, Martin

    2007-02-01

    In vivo fluorescence microscopic imaging of biological systems in human disease states and animal models is possible with high optical resolution and mega pixel point-scanning performance using optimised off-the-shelf turn-key devices. There are however various trade-offs between tissue access and instrument performance when miniaturising in vivo microscopy systems. A miniature confocal scanning technology that was developed for clinical human endoscopy has been configured into a portable device for direct hand-held interrogation of living tissue in whole animal models (Optiscan FIVE-1 system). Scanning probes of 6.3mm diameter with a distal tip diameter of 5.0mm were constructed either in a 150mm length for accessible tissue, or a 300mm probe for laparoscopic interrogation of internal tissues in larger animal models. Both devices collect fluorescence confocal images (excitation 488 nm; emission >505 or >550 nm) comprised of 1024 x 1204 sampling points/image frame, with lateral resolution 0.7um; axial resolution 7um; FOV 475 x 475um. The operator can dynamically control imaging depth from the tissue surface to approx 250um in 4um steps via an internally integrated zaxis actuator. Further miniaturisation is achieved using an imaging contact probe based on scanning the proximal end of a high-density optical fibre bundle (~30,000 fibres) of small animal organs, albeit at lower resolution (30,000 sampling points/image). In rodent models, imaging was performed using various fluorescent staining protocols including fluorescently labelled receptor ligands, labelled antibodies, FITC-dextrans, vital dyes and labelled cells administered topically or intravenously. Abdominal organs of large animals were accessed laparoscopically and contrasted using i.v. fluorescein-sodium. Articular cartilage of sheep and pigs was fluorescently stained with calcein-AM or fluorescein. Surface and sub-surface cellular and sub-cellular details could be readily visualised in vivo at high

  11. Endomicroscopy of the Pancreaticobiliary System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shajan Peter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available It is often difficult to accurately differentiate between benign and malignant pancreaticobiliary strictures, and some are interpreted as indeterminate despite ERCP, EUS, or radiological imaging techniques, thereby making it difficult for the clinician to make appropriate management decisions. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE is an innovative imaging tool integrating real-time in vivo imaging of these difficult-to-interpret strictures in the pancreaticobiliary system during endoscopy. Recent studies of endomicroscopy have shown a promising role with improved accuracy in distinguishing these lesions, thus paving the way for future research addressing improving precise interpretation, training, and long long-term impact.

  12. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ditlev Nytoft; Karstensen, John Gásdal; Riis, Lene Buhl

    2015-01-01

    included. Next, eligible studies were analysed with respect to several parameters, such as technique and clinical aim and definitions of outcomes. RESULTS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy has been used for a wide range of purposes in inflammatory bowel disease, covering assessment of inflammatory severity...... of confocal laser endomicroscopy for inflammatory bowel disease. METHODS: Available literature was searched systematically for studies applying confocal laser endomicroscopy in Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis. Relevant literature was reviewed and only studies reporting original clinical data were...... of histological features such as colonic crypts, epithelial gaps and epithelial leakiness to fluorescein. CONCLUSIONS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy remains an experimental but emerging tool for assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. It is the only method that enables in vivo functional assessment...

  13. Confocal laser endomicroscopy in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Săftoiu, Adrian; Brynskov, Jørn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Confocal laser endomicroscopy enables real-time in vivo microscopy during endoscopy and can predict relapse in patients with inflammatory bowel disease in remission. However, little is known about how endomicroscopic features change with time. The aim of this longitudinal study...... was to correlate colonic confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in ulcerative colitis with histopathology and macroscopic appearance before and after intensification of medical treatment. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with ulcerative colitis in clinical relapse and 7 control subjects referred for colonoscopy were...

  14. Confocal Endomicroscopy of Colorectal Polyps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian M. Ussui

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micron scale via endoscopes. CLE has the potential to be a disruptive technology in that it can change the current algorithms that depend on biopsy to perform surveillance of high-risk conditions. Furthermore, it allows on-table decision making that has the potential to guide therapy in real time and reduce the need for repeated procedures. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. However, the imaging of living tissue allows more than just pragmatic convenience; it also allows imaging of living tissue such as active capillary circulation, cellular death, and vascular and endothelial translocation, thus extending beyond what is capable in traditional biopsy. Immediate potential applications of CLE are to guide biopsy sampling in Barrett's esophagus and inflammatory bowel disease surveillance, evaluation of colorectal polyps, and intraductal imaging of the pancreas and bile duct. Data on these applications is rapidly emerging, and more is needed to clearly demonstrate the optimal applications of CLE. In this paper, we will focus on the role of CLE as applied to colorectal polyps detected during colonoscopy.

  15. Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) - a new imaging technique for in situ localization of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Stepp, Herbert; Sroka, Ronald; Heide, Michael; Liedl, Bernhard; Reese, Sven; Becker, Armin J; Stief, Christian G; Kölle, Sabine

    2015-05-01

    In azoospermic patients, spermatozoa are routinely obtained by testicular sperm extraction (TESE). However, success rates of this technique are moderate, because the site of excision of testicular tissue is determined arbitrarily. Therefore the aim of this study was to establish probe-based laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) a noval biomedical imaging technique, which provides the opportunity of non-invasive, real-time visualisation of tissue at histological resolution. Using pCLE we clearly visualized longitudinal and horizontal views of the tubuli seminiferi contorti and localized vital spermatozoa. Obtained images and real-time videos were subsequently compared with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) of spermatozoa and tissues, respectively. Comparative visualization of single native Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM, left) and probe-based laser endomicroscopy (pCLE, right) using Pro Flex(TM) UltraMini O after staining with acriflavine. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Assessing the utility of autofluorescence-based pulmonary optical endomicroscopy to predict the malignant potential of solitary pulmonary nodules in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Sohan; Akram, Ahsan R.; McCool, Paul; Westerfeld, Jody; Wilson, David; McLaughlin, Stephen; Dhaliwal, Kevin; Williams, Christopher K. I.

    2016-08-01

    Solitary pulmonary nodules are common, often incidental findings on chest CT scans. The investigation of pulmonary nodules is time-consuming and often leads to protracted follow-up with ongoing radiological surveillance, however, clinical calculators that assess the risk of the nodule being malignant exist to help in the stratification of patients. Furthermore recent advances in interventional pulmonology include the ability to both navigate to nodules and also to perform autofluorescence endomicroscopy. In this study we assessed the efficacy of incorporating additional information from label-free fibre-based optical endomicrosopy of the nodule on assessing risk of malignancy. Using image analysis and machine learning approaches, we find that this information does not yield any gain in predictive performance in a cohort of patients. Further advances with pulmonary endomicroscopy will require the addition of molecular tracers to improve information from this procedure.

  17. EUS-Guided Needle-Based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhutani, Manoop S; Koduru, Pramoda; Joshi, Virendra

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has emerged as an excellent tool for imaging the gastrointestinal tract, as well as surrounding structures. EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has become the standard of care for the tissue sampling of a variety of masses and lymph nodes within and around...... the gut, providing further diagnostic and staging information. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a novel endoscopic method that enables imaging at a subcellular level of resolution during endoscopy, allowing up to 1000-fold magnification of tissue and providing an optical biopsy. A new procedure...... that has been developed in the past few years is needle-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (nCLE), which involves a mini-CLE probe that can be passed through a 1 9-gauge needle during EUS-FNA. This enables the real-time visualization of tissue at a microscopic level, with the potential to further improve...

  18. Endomicroscopy for assessing mucosal healing in patients with ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Cotruta, Bogdan; Iacob, Razvan; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dumbrava, Mona; Gheorghe, Liana

    2011-12-01

    The assessment of tissue healing has emerged as an important treatment goal in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), mucosal healing may represent the ultimate therapeutic goal due to the fact that the inflammation is limited to the mucosal layer. Mucosal and histological healing may indicate a subset of UC patients in long-term clinical, endoscopic and histological remission in whom immunomodulators, biologics, and even aminosalicylates may be withdrawn. Confocal laser endomicroscopy allows the assessment of residual cellular inflammation, crypt and vessel architecture distortion during ongoing endoscopy, and therefore permits a real-time evaluation of histological healing in patients with ulcerative proctitis. Images of conventional optical microscopy and confocal laser endomicroscopy in patients with ulcerative proctitis in remission are presented.

  19. All-Fiber-Optic Ultrasonic Health Management System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Health management of composite airframe components is essential for safety and reliability of future aircrafts. It reduces the risk of catastrophic failures and...

  20. Confocal endomicroscopy: Is it time to move on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Medranda, Carlos

    2016-01-10

    Confocal laser endomicroscopy permits in-vivo microscopy evaluation during endoscopy procedures. It can be used in all the parts of the gastrointestinal tract and includes: Esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, biliary tract through and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and pancreas through needles during endoscopic ultrasound procedures. Many researches demonstrated a high correlation of results between confocal laser endomicroscopy and histopathology in the diagnosis of gastrointestinal lesions; with accuracy in about 86% to 96%. Moreover, in spite that histopathology remains the gold-standard technique for final diagnosis of any diseases; a considerable number of misdiagnosis rate could be present due to many factors such as interpretation mistakes, biopsy site inaccuracy, or number of biopsies. Theoretically; with the diagnostic accuracy rates of confocal laser endomicroscopy could help in a daily practice to improve diagnosis and treatment management of the patients. However, it is still not routinely used in the clinical practice due to many factors such as cost of the procedure, lack of codification and reimbursement in some countries, absence of standard of care indications, availability, physician image-interpretation training, medico-legal problems, and the role of the pathologist. These limitations are relative, and solutions could be found based on new researches focused to solve these barriers.

  1. Quantitative attenuation analysis for identification of early Barrett's neoplasia in volumetric laser endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swager, Anne-Fre; Faber, Dirk J.; de Bruin, Daniel M.; Weusten, Bas L.; Meijer, Sybren L.; Bergman, Jacques J.; Curvers, Wouter L.; van Leeuwen, Ton G.

    2017-08-01

    Early neoplasia in Barrett's esophagus (BE) is difficult to detect. Volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) incorporates optical coherence tomography, providing a circumferential scan of the esophageal wall layers. The attenuation coefficient (μVLE) quantifies decay of detected backscattered light versus depth, and could potentially improve BE neoplasia detection. The aim is to investigate feasibility of μVLE for identification of early BE neoplasia. In vivo and ex vivo VLE scans with histological correlation from BE patients ± neoplasia were used. Quantification by μVLE was performed manually on areas of interest (AoIs) to differentiate neoplasia from nondysplastic (ND)BE. From ex vivo VLE scans from 16 patients (13 with neoplasia), 68 AoIs were analyzed. Median μVLE values (mm-1) were 3.7 [2.1 to 4.4 interquartile range (IQR)] for NDBE and 4.0 (2.5 to 4.9 IQR) for neoplasia, not statistically different (p=0.82). Fourteen in vivo scans were used: nine from neoplastic and five from NDBE patients. Median μVLE values were 1.8 (1.5 to 2.6 IQR) for NDBE and 2.1 (1.9 to 2.6 IQR) for neoplasia, with no statistically significant difference (p=0.37). In conclusion, there was no significant difference in μVLE values in VLE scans from early neoplasia versus NDBE. Future studies with a larger sample size should explore other quantitative methods for detection of neoplasia during BE surveillance.

  2. Use of volumetric laser endomicroscopy for dysplasia detection at the gastroesophageal junction and gastric cardia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nina; Siddiqui, Uzma; Waxman, Irving; Chapman, Christopher; Koons, Ann; Valuckaite, Vesta; Xiao, Shu-Yuan; Setia, Namrata; Hart, John; Konda, Vani

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine specific volumetric laser endomicroscopy (VLE) imaging features associated with neoplasia at the gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) and gastric cardia. METHODS During esophagogastroduodenoscopy for patients with known or suspected Barrett’s esophagus, VLE was performed before biopsies were taken at endoscopists’ discretion. The gastric cardia was examined on VLE scan from the GEJ (marked by top of gastric folds) to 1 cm distal from the GEJ. The NinePoints VLE console was used to analyze scan segments for characteristics previously found to correlate with normal or abnormal mucosa. Glands were counted individually. Imaging features identified on VLE scan were correlated with biopsy results from the GEJ and cardia region. RESULTS This study included 34 cases. Features characteristic of the gastric cardia (gastric rugae, gastric pit architecture, poor penetration) were observed in all (100%) scans. Loss of classic gastric pit architecture was common and there was no difference between those with neoplasia and without (100% vs 74%, P = NS). The abnormal VLE feature of irregular surface was more often seen in patients with neoplasia than those without (100% vs 18%, P < 0.0001), as was heterogeneous scattering (86% vs 41%, P < 0.005) and presence of anomalous glands (100% vs 59%, P < 0.05). The number of anomalous glands did not differ between individual histologic subgroups (ANOVA, P = NS). CONCLUSION The transition from esophagus to gastric cardia is reliably identified on VLE. Histologically abnormal cardia mucosa produces abnormal VLE features. Optical coherence tomography algorithms can be expanded for use at the GEJ/cardia. PMID:28744344

  3. Learning semantic and visual similarity for endomicroscopy video retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Barbara; Vercauteren, Tom; Buchner, Anna M; Wallace, Michael B; Ayache, Nicholas

    2012-06-01

    Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) is a valuable computer vision technique which is increasingly being applied in the medical community for diagnosis support. However, traditional CBIR systems only deliver visual outputs, i.e., images having a similar appearance to the query, which is not directly interpretable by the physicians. Our objective is to provide a system for endomicroscopy video retrieval which delivers both visual and semantic outputs that are consistent with each other. In a previous study, we developed an adapted bag-of-visual-words method for endomicroscopy retrieval, called "Dense-Sift," that computes a visual signature for each video. In this paper, we present a novel approach to complement visual similarity learning with semantic knowledge extraction, in the field of in vivo endomicroscopy. We first leverage a semantic ground truth based on eight binary concepts, in order to transform these visual signatures into semantic signatures that reflect how much the presence of each semantic concept is expressed by the visual words describing the videos. Using cross-validation, we demonstrate that, in terms of semantic detection, our intuitive Fisher-based method transforming visual-word histograms into semantic estimations outperforms support vector machine (SVM) methods with statistical significance. In a second step, we propose to improve retrieval relevance by learning an adjusted similarity distance from a perceived similarity ground truth. As a result, our distance learning method allows to statistically improve the correlation with the perceived similarity. We also demonstrate that, in terms of perceived similarity, the recall performance of the semantic signatures is close to that of visual signatures and significantly better than those of several state-of-the-art CBIR methods. The semantic signatures are thus able to communicate high-level medical knowledge while being consistent with the low-level visual signatures and much shorter than them

  4. Dual-mode endomicroscopy for detection of epithelial dysplasia in the mouth: a descriptive pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Nico; Poh, Catherine F.; Lam, Sylvia; Lane, Pierre; Guillaud, Martial; MacAulay, Calum E.

    2017-08-01

    Dual-mode endomicroscopy is a diagnostic tool for early cancer detection. It combines the high-resolution nuclear tissue contrast of fluorescence endomicroscopy with quantified depth-dependent epithelial backscattering as obtained by diffuse optical microscopy. In an in vivo pilot imaging study of 27 oral lesions from 21 patients, we demonstrate the complementary diagnostic value of both modalities and show correlations between grade of epithelial dysplasia and relative depth-dependent shifts in light backscattering. When combined, the two modalities provide diagnostic sensitivity to both moderate and severe epithelial dysplasia in vivo.

  5. Fast optically sectioned fluorescence HiLo endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Tim N.; Lim, Daryl; Mertz, Jerome

    2012-02-01

    We describe a nonscanning, fiber bundle endomicroscope that performs optically sectioned fluorescence imaging with fast frame rates and real-time processing. Our sectioning technique is based on HiLo imaging, wherein two widefield images are acquired under uniform and structured illumination and numerically processed to reject out-of-focus background. This work is an improvement upon an earlier demonstration of widefield optical sectioning through a flexible fiber bundle. The improved device features lateral and axial resolutions of 2.6 and 17 μm, respectively, a net frame rate of 9.5 Hz obtained by real-time image processing with a graphics processing unit (GPU) and significantly reduced motion artifacts obtained by the use of a double-shutter camera. We demonstrate the performance of our system with optically sectioned images and videos of a fluorescently labeled chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) in the developing G. gallus embryo. HiLo endomicroscopy is a candidate technique for low-cost, high-speed clinical optical biopsies.

  6. Toward real-time virtual biopsy of oral lesions using confocal laser endomicroscopy interfaced with embedded computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thong, Patricia S P; Tandjung, Stephanus S; Movania, Muhammad Mobeen; Chiew, Wei-Ming; Olivo, Malini; Bhuvaneswari, Ramaswamy; Seah, Hock-Soon; Lin, Feng; Qian, Kemao; Soo, Khee-Chee

    2012-05-01

    Oral lesions are conventionally diagnosed using white light endoscopy and histopathology. This can pose a challenge because the lesions may be difficult to visualise under white light illumination. Confocal laser endomicroscopy can be used for confocal fluorescence imaging of surface and subsurface cellular and tissue structures. To move toward real-time "virtual" biopsy of oral lesions, we interfaced an embedded computing system to a confocal laser endomicroscope to achieve a prototype three-dimensional (3-D) fluorescence imaging system. A field-programmable gated array computing platform was programmed to enable synchronization of cross-sectional image grabbing and Z-depth scanning, automate the acquisition of confocal image stacks and perform volume rendering. Fluorescence imaging of the human and murine oral cavities was carried out using the fluorescent dyes fluorescein sodium and hypericin. Volume rendering of cellular and tissue structures from the oral cavity demonstrate the potential of the system for 3-D fluorescence visualization of the oral cavity in real-time. We aim toward achieving a real-time virtual biopsy technique that can complement current diagnostic techniques and aid in targeted biopsy for better clinical outcomes.

  7. Efficiency of the confocal method of laser endomicroscopy in complex diagnoses of diseases of common bile duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anaskin, S G; Korniletsky, I D; Panchenkov, D N; Chertyuk, V B; Sazonov, D V; Zabozlayev, F G; Danilevskaya, O V; Mokshina, N V

    2017-01-01

    One of the more frequent manifestations of diseases of the bile ducts are its’ strictures or stenoses that could be of either malignant or benign nature. Current methods of diagnosing this pathology include computer tomography (CT) scan, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, these methods are not always informative, which makes this a current and topical problem. A fundamentally new method that broadens the capabilities of ERCP when diagnosing diseases of the bile duct accompanied by the development of strictures or stenoses is probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE). The method is based on the principle of confocal fluorescence microscopy. The most elaborate complications arise with the presence of the pre-existing pancreatobiliary pathology: pseudotumoral chronic pancreatitis, acute cholangitis, etc. Early stage cholangiocarcinoma diagnosis can be difficult (and not always possible) even with the help of modern research methods. For the timely diagnostic it is advantageous to conduct pCLE and targeted biopsy of the zone with most manifested changes. In all instances, the first use of the pCLE method for diagnostic purposes allowed us to clarify and correctly verify the diagnosis. When concerning the diseases of the bile duct, the modern stage of pCLE development can be of critical importance when other methods are not effective. (paper)

  8. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in the Study of Colonic Mucosa in IBD Patients: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Salvatori

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is one of several novel methods that provide real-time, high-resolution imaging at a micronscale via endoscopes. CLE and related technologies are often termed “virtual biopsy” as they simulate the images seen in traditional histology. Recently, the use of CLE was reported in the study of colonic mucosa in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases and in particular in patients affected by ulcerative colitis. CLE has the potential to have an important role in management of IBD patients as it can be used to assess the grading of colitis and in detection of microscopic colitis in endoscopically silent segments. Moreover, CLE can be used in surveillance programs especially in high-risk patients. This report aims to evaluate the current data on the application of confocal endomicroscopy in clinical gastroenterology and particularly in the study of colonic mucosa in UC patients.

  9. Confocal endomicroscopy for in vivo microscopic analysis of upper gastrointestinal tract premalignant and malignant lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, Cristian; Iacob, Razvan; Becheanu, Gabriel; Dumbrav Abreve, Mona

    2008-03-01

    Confocal LASER endomicroscopy (CLE) is a new endoscopic technique which allows subsurface in vivo microscopic analysis during ongoing endoscopy, using systemically or topically administered fluorescent agents. It allows targeted biopsies to be taken, potentially improving the diagnostic rate in certain gastrointestinal diseases. Worldwide experience with CLE for upper gastrointestinal malignant and premalignant lesions is still reduced. Potential clinical applications are presented, including diagnosis of NERD, Barrett's esophagus, atrophic gatritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, gastric adenomatous or hyperplastic polyps, gastric cancer.

  10. Toward endoscopes with no distal optics: video-rate scanning microscopy through a fiber bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Bouwmans, Géraud; Monneret, Serge; Rigneault, Hervé

    2013-03-01

    We report a step toward scanning endomicroscopy without distal optics. The focusing of the beam at the distal end of a fiber bundle is achieved by imposing a parabolic phase profile across the exit face with the aid of a spatial light modulator. We achieve video-rate images by galvanometric scanning of the phase tilt at the proximal end. The approach is made possible by the bundle, designed to have very low coupling between cores.

  11. Demons registration for in vivo and deformable laser scanning confocal endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiew, Wei Ming; Lin, Feng; Seah, Hock Soon

    2017-09-01

    A critical effect found in noninvasive in vivo endomicroscopic imaging modalities is image distortions due to sporadic movement exhibited by living organisms. In three-dimensional confocal imaging, this effect results in a dataset that is tilted across deeper slices. Apart from that, the sequential flow of the imaging-processing pipeline restricts real-time adjustments due to the unavailability of information obtainable only from subsequent stages. To solve these problems, we propose an approach to render Demons-registered datasets as they are being captured, focusing on the coupling between registration and visualization. To improve the acquisition process, we also propose a real-time visual analytics tool, which complements the imaging pipeline and the Demons registration pipeline with useful visual indicators to provide real-time feedback for immediate adjustments. We highlight the problem of deformation within the visualization pipeline for object-ordered and image-ordered rendering. Visualizations of critical information including registration forces and partial renderings of the captured data are also presented in the analytics system. We demonstrate the advantages of the algorithmic design through experimental results with both synthetically deformed datasets and actual in vivo, time-lapse tissue datasets expressing natural deformations. Remarkably, this algorithm design is for embedded implementation in intelligent biomedical imaging instrumentation with customizable circuitry.

  12. Optimizing the villi visualization by tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy for comprehensive imaging of human duodenum (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Beaulieu-Ouellet, Emilie; Queneherve, Lucille H.; Grant, Catriona N.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Nishioka, Norman S.; Fasano, Alessio; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Celiac disease (CD) affects around 1% of the global population and can cause serious long-term symptoms including malnutrition, fatigue, and diarrhea, amongst others. Despite this, it is often left undiagnosed. Currently, a tissue diagnosis of CD is made by random endoscopic biopsy of the duodenum to confirm the existence of microscopic morphologic alterations in the intestinal mucosa. However, duodenal endoscopic biopsy is problematic because the morphological changes can be focal and endoscopic biopsy is plagued by sampling error. Additionally, tissue artifacts can also an issue because cuts in the transverse plane can make duodenal villi appear artifactually shortened and can bias the assessment of intraepithelial inflammation. Moreover, endoscopic biopsy is costly and poorly tolerated as the patient needs to be sedated to perform the procedure. Our lab has previously developed technology termed tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) to overcome these diagnostic limitations of endoscopy. TCE involves swallowing an optomechanically-engineered pill that generates 3D images of the GI tract as it traverses the lumen of the organ via peristalsis, assisted by gravity. In several patients we have demonstrated TCE imaging of duodenal villi, however the current TCE device design is not optimal for CD diagnosis as the villi compress when in contact with the smooth capsule's wall. In this work, we present methods for structuring the outer surface of the capsule to improve the visualization of the villi height and crypt depth. Preliminary results in humans suggest that new TCE capsule enables better visualization of villous architecture, making it possibly to comprehensively scan the entire duodenum to obtain a more accurate tissue diagnosis of CD.

  13. A compressed sensing approach for resolution improvement in fiber-bundle based endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, John P.; Lodhi, Muhammad A.; Bajwa, Waheed U.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2018-02-01

    Endomicroscopy techniques such as confocal, multi-photon, and wide-field imaging have all been demonstrated using coherent fiber-optic imaging bundles. While the narrow diameter and flexibility of fiber bundles is clinically advantageous, the number of resolvable points in an image is conventionally limited to the number of individual fibers within the bundle. We are introducing concepts from the compressed sensing (CS) field to fiber bundle based endomicroscopy, to allow images to be recovered with more resolvable points than fibers in the bundle. The distal face of the fiber bundle is treated as a low-resolution sensor with circular pixels (fibers) arranged in a hexagonal lattice. A spatial light modulator is located conjugate to the object and distal face, applying multiple high resolution masks to the intermediate image prior to propagation through the bundle. We acquire images of the proximal end of the bundle for each (known) mask pattern and then apply CS inversion algorithms to recover a single high-resolution image. We first developed a theoretical forward model describing image formation through the mask and fiber bundle. We then imaged objects through a rigid fiber bundle and demonstrate that our CS endomicroscopy architecture can recover intra-fiber details while filling inter-fiber regions with interpolation. Finally, we examine the relationship between reconstruction quality and the ratio of the number of mask elements to the number of fiber cores, finding that images could be generated with approximately 28,900 resolvable points for a 1,000 fiber region in our platform.

  14. Role of Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Detection of Residual Barrett's Esophagus after Radiofrequency Ablation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Diamantis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Endoscopic endoluminal radiofrequency ablation (RFA is a novel and promising modality for Barrett's esophagus (BE treatment. Actually the only surveillance method after the ablation treatment is random biopsies throughout the whole treated area. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is a new endoscopic imaging tool that permits high-resolution microscopic examination of the gastrointestinal tract. The technology has garnered increasing attention because of its ability to provide real-time “optical” biopsy specimens, with a very high sensitivity and specificity. This paper summarize the potential application of CLE in the surveillance of the reepithelialization of BE, after endoscopic RFA.

  15. Gastric Tissue Damage Analysis Generated by Ischemia: Bioimpedance, Confocal Endomicroscopy, and Light Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nohra E. Beltran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gastric mucosa ischemic tissular damage plays an important role in critical care patients’ outcome, because it is the first damaged tissue by compensatory mechanism during shock. The aim of the study is to relate bioimpedance changes with tissular damage level generated by ischemia by means of confocal endomicroscopy and light microscopy. Bioimpedance of the gastric mucosa and confocal images were obtained from Wistar male rats during basal and ischemia conditions. They were anesthetized, and stain was applied (fluorescein and/or acriflavine. The impedance spectroscopy catheter was inserted and then confocal endomicroscopy probe. After basal measurements and biopsy, hepatic and gastric arteries clamping induced ischemia. Finally, pyloric antrum tissue was preserved in buffered formaldehyde (10% for histology processing using light microscopy. Confocal images were equalized, binarized, and boundary defined, and infiltrations were quantified. Impedance and infiltrations increased with ischemia showing significant changes between basal and ischemia conditions (. Light microscopy analysis allows detection of general alterations in cellular and tissular integrity, confirming gastric reactance and confocal images quantification increments obtained during ischemia.

  16. Electronically tunable femtosecond all-fiber optical parametric oscillator for multi-photon microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellwig, Tim; Brinkmann, Maximilian; Fallnich, Carsten

    2018-02-01

    We present a femtosecond fiber-based optical parametric oscillator (FOPO) for multiphoton microscopy with wavelength tuning by electronic repetition rate tuning in combination with a dispersive filter in the FOPO cavity. The all-spliced, all-fiber FOPO cavity is based on polarization-maintaining fibers and a broadband output coupler, allowing to get access to the resonant signal pulses as well as the idler pulses simultaneously. The system was pumped by a gain-switched fiber-coupled laser diode emitting pulses at a central wavelength of 1030 nm and an electronically tunable repetition frequency of about 2 MHz. The pump pulses were amplified in an Ytterbium fiber amplifier system with a pulse duration after amplification of 13 ps. Tuning of the idler (1140 nm - 1300 nm) and signal wavelengths (850 nm - 940 nm) was achieved by changing the repetition frequency of the pump laser by about 4 kHz. The generated signal pulses reached a pulse energy of up to 9.2 nJ at 920 nm and were spectrally broadened to about 6 nm in the FOPO by a combination of self-phase and cross-phase modulation. We showed external compression of the idler pulses at 920 nm to about 430 fs and appleid them to two-photon excitation microscopy with green fluorescent dyes. The presented system constitutes an important step towards a fully fiber-integrated all-electronically tunable and, thereby, programmable light source and already embodies a versatile and flexible light source for applications, e.g., for smart microscopy.

  17. A Novel Low-Power-Consumption All-Fiber-Optic Anemometer with Simple System Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Wang, Fang; Duan, Zhihui; Liu, Zexu; Liu, Zigeng; Wu, Zhenlin; Gu, Yiying; Sun, Changsen; Peng, Wei

    2017-09-14

    A compact and low-power consuming fiber-optic anemometer based on single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) coated tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) is presented. TFBG as a near infrared in-fiber sensing element is able to excite a number of cladding modes and radiation modes in the fiber and effectively couple light in the core to interact with the fiber surrounding mediums. It is an ideal in-fiber device used in a fiber hot-wire anemometer (HWA) as both coupling and sensing elements to simplify the sensing head structure. The fabricated TFBG was immobilized with an SWCNT film on the fiber surface. SWCNTs, a kind of innovative nanomaterial, were utilized as light-heat conversion medium instead of traditional metallic materials, due to its excellent infrared light absorption ability and competitive thermal conductivity. When the SWCNT film strongly absorbs the light in the fiber, the sensor head can be heated and form a "hot wire". As the sensor is put into wind field, the wind will take away the heat on the sensor resulting in a temperature variation that is then accurately measured by the TFBG. Benefited from the high coupling and absorption efficiency, the heating and sensing light source was shared with only one broadband light source (BBS) without any extra pumping laser complicating the system. This not only significantly reduces power consumption, but also simplifies the whole sensing system with lower cost. In experiments, the key parameters of the sensor, such as the film thickness and the inherent angle of the TFBG, were fully investigated. It was demonstrated that, under a very low BBS input power of 9.87 mW, a 0.100 nm wavelength response can still be detected as the wind speed changed from 0 to 2 m/s. In addition, the sensitivity was found to be -0.0346 nm/(m/s) under the wind speed of 1 m/s. The proposed simple and low-power-consumption wind speed sensing system exhibits promising potential for future long-term remote monitoring and on-chip sensing in practical applications.

  18. Fluorescence lifetime measurement with confocal endomicroscopy for direct analysis of tissue biochemistry in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngjae Won

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Confocal endomicroscopy is a powerful tool for in vivo real-time imaging at cellular resolution inside a living body without tissue resection. Microscopic fluorescence lifetime measurement can provide information about localized biochemical conditions such as pH and the concentrations of oxygen and calcium. We hypothesized that combining these techniques could assist accurate cancer discrimination by providing both biochemical and morphological information. We designed a dual-mode experimental setup for confocal endomicroscopic imaging and fluorescence lifetime measurement and applied it to a mouse xenograft model of activated human pancreatic cancer generated by subcutaneous injection of AsPC-1 tumor cells. Using this method with pH-sensitive sodium fluorescein injection, we demonstrated discrimination between normal and cancerous tissues in a living mouse. With further development, this method may be useful for clinical cancer detection.

  19. Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis of Barrett´s esophagus

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    Helmut eNeumann

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Barrett´s esophagus (BE is established as a premalignant condition in the distal esophagus. Current surveillance guidelines recommend random biopsies every 1-2 cm at intervals of 3-5 years. Advanced endoscopic imaging of BE underwent several technical revolutions within the last decade including broad-field (red-flag techniques (e.g. chromoendoscopy and small-field techniques with confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE at the forefront. In this review we will focus on advanced endoscopic imaging using CLE for the diagnosis and characterization of BE and associated neoplasia. In addition, we will critically discuss the technique of CLE and provide some tricks and hints for the daily routine practice of CLE for diagnosis of BE.

  20. Confocal laser endomicroscopy for diagnosis and histomorphologic imaging of brain tumors in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Foersch

    Full Text Available Early detection and evaluation of brain tumors during surgery is crucial for accurate resection. Currently cryosections during surgery are regularly performed. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is a novel technique permitting in vivo histologic imaging with miniaturized endoscopic probes at excellent resolution. Aim of the current study was to evaluate CLE for in vivo diagnosis in different types and models of intracranial neoplasia. In vivo histomorphology of healthy brains and two different C6 glioma cell line allografts was evaluated in rats. One cell line expressed EYFP, the other cell line was used for staining with fluorescent dyes (fluorescein, acriflavine, FITC-dextran and Indocyanine green. To evaluate future application in patients, fresh surgical resection specimen of human intracranial tumors (n = 15 were examined (glioblastoma multiforme, meningioma, craniopharyngioma, acoustic neurinoma, brain metastasis, medulloblastoma, epidermoid tumor. Healthy brain tissue adjacent to the samples served as control. CLE yielded high-quality histomorphology of normal brain tissue and tumors. Different fluorescent agents revealed distinct aspects of tissue and cell structure (nuclear pattern, axonal pathways, hemorrhages. CLE discrimination of neoplastic from healthy brain tissue was easy to perform based on tissue and cellular architecture and resemblance with histopathology was excellent. Confocal laser endomicroscopy allows immediate in vivo imaging of normal and neoplastic brain tissue at high resolution. The technology might be transferred to scientific and clinical application in neurosurgery and neuropathology. It may become helpful to screen for tumor free margins and to improve the surgical resection of malignant brain tumors, and opens the door to in vivo molecular imaging of tumors and other neurologic disorders.

  1. Evaluation of computational endomicroscopy architectures for minimally-invasive optical biopsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, John P.; Lodhi, Muhammad A.; Bajwa, Waheed U.; Pierce, Mark C.

    2017-02-01

    We are investigating compressive sensing architectures for applications in endomicroscopy, where the narrow diameter probes required for tissue access can limit the achievable spatial resolution. We hypothesize that the compressive sensing framework can be used to overcome the fundamental pixel number limitation in fiber-bundle based endomicroscopy by reconstructing images with more resolvable points than fibers in the bundle. An experimental test platform was assembled to evaluate and compare two candidate architectures, based on introducing a coded amplitude mask at either a conjugate image or Fourier plane within the optical system. The benchtop platform consists of a common illumination and object path followed by separate imaging arms for each compressive architecture. The imaging arms contain a digital micromirror device (DMD) as a reprogrammable mask, with a CCD camera for image acquisition. One arm has the DMD positioned at a conjugate image plane ("IP arm"), while the other arm has the DMD positioned at a Fourier plane ("FP arm"). Lenses were selected and positioned within each arm to achieve an element-to-pixel ratio of 16 (230,400 mask elements mapped onto 14,400 camera pixels). We discuss our mathematical model for each system arm and outline the importance of accounting for system non-idealities. Reconstruction of a 1951 USAF resolution target using optimization-based compressive sensing algorithms produced images with higher spatial resolution than bicubic interpolation for both system arms when system non-idealities are included in the model. Furthermore, images generated with image plane coding appear to exhibit higher spatial resolution, but more noise, than images acquired through Fourier plane coding.

  2. Computer Aided Diagnosis for Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Advanced Colorectal Adenocarcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Ştefănescu

    Full Text Available Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE is becoming a popular method for optical biopsy of digestive mucosa for both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Computer aided diagnosis of CLE images, using image processing and fractal analysis can be used to quantify the histological structures in the CLE generated images. The aim of this study is to develop an automatic diagnosis algorithm of colorectal cancer (CRC, based on fractal analysis and neural network modeling of the CLE-generated colon mucosa images.We retrospectively analyzed a series of 1035 artifact-free endomicroscopy images, obtained during CLE examinations from normal mucosa (356 images and tumor regions (679 images. The images were processed using a computer aided diagnosis (CAD medical imaging system in order to obtain an automatic diagnosis. The CAD application includes image reading and processing functions, a module for fractal analysis, grey-level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM computation module, and a feature identification module based on the Marching Squares and linear interpolation methods. A two-layer neural network was trained to automatically interpret the imaging data and diagnose the pathological samples based on the fractal dimension and the characteristic features of the biological tissues.Normal colon mucosa is characterized by regular polyhedral crypt structures whereas malignant colon mucosa is characterized by irregular and interrupted crypts, which can be diagnosed by CAD. For this purpose, seven geometric parameters were defined for each image: fractal dimension, lacunarity, contrast correlation, energy, homogeneity, and feature number. Of the seven parameters only contrast, homogeneity and feature number were significantly different between normal and cancer samples. Next, a two-layer feed forward neural network was used to train and automatically diagnose the malignant samples, based on the seven parameters tested. The neural network operations were cross

  3. Clinical impact of confocal laser endomicroscopy in the management of gastrointestinal lesions with an uncertain diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Medranda, Carlos; Vargas, Maria; Ospina, Jesenia; Puga-Tejada, Miguel; Valero, Manuel; Soria, Miguel; Bravo, Gladys; Robles-Jara, Carlos; Lukashok, Hannah Pitanga

    2017-08-16

    To evaluate the clinical impact of confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) in the diagnosis and management of patients with an uncertain diagnosis. A retrospective chart review was performed. Patients who underwent CLE between November 2013 and October 2015 and exhibited a poor correlation between endoscopic and histological findings were included. Baseline characteristics, indications, previous diagnostic studies, findings at the time of CLE, clinical management and histological results were analyzed. Interventions based on CLE findings were also analyzed. We compared the diagnostic accuracy of CLE and target biopsies of surgical specimens. A total of 144 patients were included. Of these, 51% (74/144) were female. The mean age was 51 years old. In all, 41/144 (28.4%) lesions were neoplastic (13 bile duct, 10 gastric, 8 esophageal, 6 colonic, 1 duodenal, 1 rectal, 1 ampulloma and 1 pancreatic). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and observed agreement when CLE was used to detect N-lesions were 85.37%, 87.38%, 72.92%, 93.75% and 86.81%, respectively. Cohen's Kappa was 69.20%, thus indicating good agreement. Changes in management were observed in 54% of the cases. CLE is a new diagnostic tool that has a significant clinical impact on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with uncertain diagnosis.

  4. Feasibility study of Tethered Capsule Endomicroscopy (TCE) deployment in the small intestine (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuya, David O.; Verma, Yogesh; Dong, Jing; Gora, Michalina J.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2017-02-01

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a poorly understood disease of the small intestine that causes nutrient malabsorption in children, predominantly from low and middle income countries. The clinical importance of EED is neurological and growth stunting that remains as the child grows into adulthood. Tethered capsule endomicroscopy (TCE) has the potential to improve the understanding of EED and could be used to determine the effectiveness of EED interventions. TCE in the adult esophagus and the duodenum has been demonstrated for Barrett`s esophagus and celiac disease diagnosis, respectively. While adult subjects can independently swallow these capsules, it is likely that infants will not, and, as a result, new strategies for introducing these devices in young children aged 0.5-2 years need to be investigated. Our first approach will be to introduce the TCE devices in infants under the aid of endoscopic guidance. To determine the most effective method, we have tested endoscopic approaches for introducing TCE devices into the small intestine of living swine. These methods will be compared and contrasted to discuss the most effective means for endoscopic tethered capsule introduction into the small intestine.

  5. Human colorectal mucosal microbiota correlates with its host niche physiology revealed by endomicroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ai-Hua; Li, Ming; Li, Chang-Qing; Kou, Guan-Jun; Zuo, Xiu-Li; Li, Yan-Qing

    2016-02-26

    The human gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in the maintenance of health, but how the microbiota interacts with the host at the colorectal mucosa is poorly understood. We proposed that confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) might help to untangle this relationship by providing in vivo physiological information of the mucosa. We used CLE to evaluate the in vivo physiology of human colorectal mucosa, and the mucosal microbiota was quantified using 16 s rDNA pyrosequencing. The human mucosal microbiota agglomerated to three major clusters dominated by Prevotella, Bacteroides and Lactococcus. The mucosal microbiota clusters did not significantly correlate with the disease status or biopsy sites but closely correlated with the mucosal niche physiology, which was non-invasively revealed by CLE. Inflammation tilted two subnetworks within the mucosal microbiota. Infiltration of inflammatory cells significantly correlated with multiple components in the predicted metagenome, such as the VirD2 component of the type IV secretory pathway. Our data suggest that a close correlation exists between the mucosal microbiota and the colorectal mucosal physiology, and CLE is a clinically available tool that can be used to facilitate the study of the in vivo correlation between colorectal mucosal physiology and the mucosal microbiota.

  6. Molecular confocal laser endomicroscopy: a novel technique for in vivo cellular characterization of gastrointestinal lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karstensen, John Gásdal; Klausen, Pia Helene; Saftoiu, Adrian; Vilmann, Peter

    2014-06-28

    While flexible endoscopy is essential for macroscopic evaluation, confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) has recently emerged as an endoscopic method enabling visualization at a cellular level. Two systems are currently available, one based on miniprobes that can be inserted via a conventional endoscope or via a needle guided by endoscopic ultrasound. The second system has a confocal microscope integrated into the distal part of an endoscope. By adding molecular probes like fluorescein conjugated antibodies or fluorescent peptides to this procedure (either topically or systemically administered during on-going endoscopy), a novel world of molecular evaluation opens up. The method of molecular CLE could potentially be used for estimating the expression of important receptors in carcinomas, subsequently resulting in immediate individualization of treatment regimens, but also for improving the diagnostic accuracy of endoscopic procedures by identifying otherwise invisible mucosal lesions. Furthermore, studies have shown that fluorescein labelled drugs can be used to estimate the affinity of the drug to a target organ, which probably can be correlated to the efficacy of the drug. However, several of the studies in this research field have been conducted in animal facilities or in vitro, while only a limited number of trials have actually been carried out in vivo. Therefore, safety issues still needs further evaluations. This review will present an overview of the implications and pitfalls, as well as future challenges of molecular CLE in gastrointestinal diseases.

  7. Multicolor probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy: a new world for in vivo and real-time cellular imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercauteren, Tom; Doussoux, François; Cazaux, Matthieu; Schmid, Guillaume; Linard, Nicolas; Durin, Marie-Amélie; Gharbi, Hédi; Lacombe, François

    2013-03-01

    Since its inception in the field of in vivo imaging, endomicroscopy through optical fiber bundles, or probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy (pCLE), has extensively proven the benefit of in situ and real-time examination of living tissues at the microscopic scale. By continuously increasing image quality, reducing invasiveness and improving system ergonomics, Mauna Kea Technologies has turned pCLE not only into an irreplaceable research instrument for small animal imaging, but also into an accurate clinical decision making tool with applications as diverse as gastrointestinal endoscopy, pulmonology and urology. The current implementation of pCLE relies on a single fluorescence spectral band making different sources of in vivo information challenging to distinguish. Extending the pCLE approach to multi-color endomicroscopy therefore appears as a natural plan. Coupling simultaneous multi-laser excitation with minimally invasive, microscopic resolution, thin and flexible optics, allows the fusion of complementary and valuable biological information, thus paving the way to a combination of morphological and functional imaging. This paper will detail the architecture of a new system, Cellvizio Dual Band, capable of video rate in vivo and in situ multi-spectral fluorescence imaging with a microscopic resolution. In its standard configuration, the system simultaneously operates at 488 and 660 nm, where it automatically performs the necessary spectral, photometric and geometric calibrations to provide unambiguously co-registered images in real-time. The main hardware and software features, including calibration procedures and sub-micron registration algorithms, will be presented as well as a panorama of its current applications, illustrated with recent results in the field of pre-clinical imaging.

  8. Advances toward fully automated in vivo assessment of oral epithelial dysplasia by nuclear endomicroscopy-A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liese, Jan; Winter, Karsten; Glass, Änne; Bertolini, Julia; Kämmerer, Peer Wolfgang; Frerich, Bernhard; Schiefke, Ingolf; Remmerbach, Torsten W

    2017-11-01

    Uncertainties in detection of oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) frequently result from sampling error especially in inflammatory oral lesions. Endomicroscopy allows non-invasive, "en face" imaging of upper oral epithelium, but parameters of OED are unknown. Mucosal nuclei were imaged in 34 toluidine blue-stained oral lesions with a commercial endomicroscopy. Histopathological diagnosis showed four biopsies in "dys-/neoplastic," 23 in "inflammatory," and seven in "others" disease groups. Strength of different assessment strategies of nuclear scoring, nuclear count, and automated nuclear analysis were measured by area under ROC curve (AUC) to identify histopathological "dys-/neoplastic" group. Nuclear objects from automated image analysis were visually corrected. Best-performing parameters of nuclear-to-image ratios were the count of large nuclei (AUC=0.986) and 6-nearest neighborhood relation (AUC=0.896), and best parameters of nuclear polymorphism were the count of atypical nuclei (AUC=0.996) and compactness of nuclei (AUC=0.922). Excluding low-grade OED, nuclear scoring and count reached 100% sensitivity and 98% specificity for detection of dys-/neoplastic lesions. In automated analysis, combination of parameters enhanced diagnostic strength. Sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 87% were seen for distances of 6-nearest neighbors and aspect ratios even in uncorrected objects. Correction improved measures of nuclear polymorphism only. The hue of background color was stronger than nuclear density (AUC=0.779 vs 0.687) to detect dys-/neoplastic group indicating that macroscopic aspect is biased. Nuclear-to-image ratios are applicable for automated optical in vivo diagnostics for oral potentially malignant disorders. Nuclear endomicroscopy may promote non-invasive, early detection of dys-/neoplastic lesions by reducing sampling error. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The learning curve, interobserver, and intraobserver agreement of endoscopic confocal laser endomicroscopy in the assessment of mucosal barrier defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jeff; Ip, Matthew; Yang, Michael; Wong, Brendon; Power, Theresa; Lin, Lisa; Xuan, Wei; Phan, Tri Giang; Leong, Rupert W

    2016-04-01

    Confocal laser endomicroscopy can dynamically assess intestinal mucosal barrier defects and increased intestinal permeability (IP). These are functional features that do not have corresponding appearance on histopathology. As such, previous pathology training may not be beneficial in learning these dynamic features. This study aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy, learning curve, inter- and intraobserver agreement for identifying features of increased IP in experienced and inexperienced analysts and pathologists. A total of 180 endoscopic confocal laser endomicroscopy (Pentax EC-3870FK; Pentax, Tokyo, Japan) images of the terminal ileum, subdivided into 6 sets of 30 were evaluated by 6 experienced analysts, 13 inexperienced analysts, and 2 pathologists, after a 30-minute teaching session. Cell-junction enhancement, fluorescein leak, and cell dropout were used to represent increased IP and were either present or absent in each image. For each image, the diagnostic accuracy, confidence, and quality were assessed. Diagnostic accuracy was significantly higher for experienced analysts compared with inexperienced analysts from the first set (96.7% vs 83.1%, P 0.86 for experienced observers. Features representative of increased IP can be rapidly learned with high inter- and intraobserver agreement. Confidence and image quality were significant predictors of accurate interpretation. Previous pathology training did not have an effect on learning. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy: from bench to bedside at the primary care office (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gora, Michalina J.; Simmons, Leigh H.; Tiernan, Aubrey R.; Grant, Catriona N.; Soomro, Amna R.; Walker Corkery, Elizabeth S.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Metlay, Joshua P.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    We have developed a swallowable tethered capsule OCT endomicroscopy (TCE) device that acquires microscopic images of the entire esophagus in unsedated subjects in a quick and comfortable procedure. To test its capabilities of TCE to become a population-based screening device, we conducted a clinical feasibility study in the primary care office. The swept-source OCT imaging system (1310nm central wavelength, 40kHz A-line rate, 10um axial resolution) together with the tethered capsule catheter (11x25mm capsule attached to a flexible tether) were transferred to the PCP office where unsedated patients scheduled for non-urgent PCP visits swallowed the capsule and microscopic OCT images of the entire esophagus were collected. After the whole length of the esophagus was imaged, the catheter was disinfected for reuse. Twenty subjects were enrolled in the study, including nine female and eleven male. All TCE procedures were performed by a nurse and lasted in average 5:42 ± 1:54 min. High-resolution images of the esophagus were obtained in all seventeen subjects that swallowed the capsule. Our clinical experience in this cohort, subject feedback, image quality, and technological adaptations for efficient utilization in this setting will be presented. The ease and simplicity of the procedure combined with high quality of the images demonstrate the potential for this technology to become a population-based screening device. Technology limitations and future development guided by findings from this initial experience will be discussed with the goal of effectively translating TCE to the outpatient primary care setting.

  11. Real time diagnosis of bladder cancer with probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jen-Jane; Wu, Katherine; Adams, Winifred; Hsiao, Shelly T.; Mach, Kathleen E.; Beck, Andrew H.; Jensen, Kristin C.; Liao, Joseph C.

    2011-02-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is an emerging technology for in vivo optical imaging of the urinary tract. Particularly for bladder cancer, real time optical biopsy of suspected lesions will likely lead to improved management of bladder cancer. With pCLE, micron scale resolution is achieved with sterilizable imaging probes (1.4 or 2.6 mm diameter), which are compatible with standard cystoscopes and resectoscopes. Based on our initial experience to date (n = 66 patients), we have demonstrated the safety profile of intravesical fluorescein administration and established objective diagnostic criteria to differentiate between normal, benign, and neoplastic urothelium. Confocal images of normal bladder showed organized layers of umbrella cells, intermediate cells, and lamina propria. Low grade bladder cancer is characterized by densely packed monomorphic cells with central fibrovascular cores, whereas high grade cancer consists of highly disorganized microarchitecture and pleomorphic cells with indistinct cell borders. Currently, we are conducting a diagnostic accuracy study of pCLE for bladder cancer diagnosis. Patients scheduled to undergo transurethral resection of bladder tumor are recruited. Patients undergo first white light cystocopy (WLC), followed by pCLE, and finally histologic confirmation of the resected tissues. The diagnostic accuracy is determined both in real time by the operative surgeon and offline after additional image processing. Using histology as the standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of WLC and WLC + pCLE are calculated. With additional validation, pCLE may prove to be a valuable adjunct to WLC for real time diagnosis of bladder cancer.

  12. Monitoring pancreatic carcinogenesis by the molecular imaging of cathepsin E in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Li

    Full Text Available The monitoring of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC in high-risk populations is essential. Cathepsin E (CTSE is specifically and highly expressed in PDAC and pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (PanINs, and its expression gradually increases along with disease progression. In this study, we first established an in situ 7,12-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA-induced rat model for PanINs and PDAC and then confirmed that tumorigenesis properties in this model were consistent with those of human PDAC in that CTSE expression gradually increased with tumor development using histology and immunohistochemistry. Then, using in vivo imaging of heterotopically implanted tumors generated from CTSE- overexpressing cells (PANC-1-CTSE in nude mice and in vitro imaging of PanINs and PDAC in DMBA-induced rats, the specificity of the synthesized CTSE-activatable probe was verified. Quantitative determination identified that the fluorescence signal ratio of pancreatic tumor to normal pancreas gradually increased in association with progressive pathological grades, with the exception of no significant difference between PanIN-II and PanIN-III grades. Finally, we monitored pancreatic carcinogenesis in vivo using confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE in combination with the CTSE-activatable probe. A prospective double-blind control study was performed to evaluate the accuracy of this method in diagnosing PDAC and PanINs of all grades (>82.7%. This allowed us to establish effective diagnostic criteria for CLE in PDAC and PanINs to facilitate the monitoring of PDAC in high-risk populations.

  13. A novel all-fiber optic flow cytometer technology for Point-of Care and Remote Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermut, Ozzy

    Traditional flow cytometry designs tend to be bulky systems with a complex optical-fluidic sub-system and often require trained personnel for operation. This makes them difficult to readily translate to remote site testing applications. A new compact and portable fiber-optic flow cell (FOFC) technology has been developed at INO. We designed and engineered a specialty optical fiber through which a square hole is transversally bored by laser micromachining. A capillary is fitted into that hole to flow analyte within the fiber square cross-section for detection and counting. With demonstrated performance benchmarks potentially comparable to commercial flow cytometers, our FOFC provides several advantages compared to classic free-space con-figurations, e.g., sheathless flow, low cost, reduced number of optical components, no need for alignment (occurring in the fabrication process only), ease-of-use, miniaturization, portability, and robustness. This sheathless configuration, based on a fiber optic flow module, renders this cytometer amenable to space-grade microgravity environments. We present our recent results for an all-fiber approach to achieve a miniature FOFC to translate flow cytometry from bench to a portable, point-of-care device for deployment in remote settings. Our unique fiber approach provides the capability to illuminate a large surface with a uniform intensity distri-bution, independently of the initial shape originating from the light source, and without loss of optical power. The CVs and sensitivities are measured and compared to industry benchmarks. Finally, integration of LEDs enable several advantages in cost, compactness, and wavelength availability.

  14. Flexible Spectral Imaging Color Enhancement and Probe-based Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy in Minimal Change Esophageal Reflux Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittayanon, Rapat; Aumkaew, Surasak; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Wisedopas, Naruemon; Kullavanijaya, Pinit

    2016-07-25

    Although flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) can facilitate the diagnosis of minimal change esophageal reflux disease (MERD), the complicated diagnostic criteria cause suboptimal inter-observer agreement. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) yields good diagnostic results but its inter-observer agreement has never been explored. This study compares the diagnostic value of magnifying FICE and probe-based CLE (pCLE) for MERD and evaluates the inter-observer agreement of both techniques. Thirty-six patients with suspected MERD and 18 asymptomatic controls were recruited. Magnifying FICE was used for evaluation of distal esophagus. pCLE counted the number of intrapapillary capillary loops (IPCLs) using more than five IPCLs in 500×500 micron area as a criterion for MERD diagnosis. The validity scores and interobserever agreement of both FICE and pCLE were assessed. For FICE vs. pCLE, the accuracy was 79% vs. 87%, sensitivity 94% vs. 97%, specificity 50% vs. 66%, positive predictive value 79% vs. 85%, and negative predictive value 82% vs. 92%. Interobserver agreement of FICE was fair to substantial, whereas pCLE had substantial to almost perfect agreement. Both FICE and pCLE have good operating characteristics and can facilitate the MERD diagnosis. However, among different observers, pCLE is more consistent on MERD diagnosis.

  15. Expert-led didactic versus self-directed audiovisual training of confocal laser endomicroscopy in evaluation of mucosal barrier defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Roy; Ip, Matthew; Chang, Jeff; Haifer, Craig; Leong, Rupert W

    2018-01-01

     Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) allows mucosal barrier defects along the intestinal epithelium to be visualized in vivo during endoscopy. Training in CLE interpretation can be achieved didactically or through self-directed learning. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of expert-led didactic with self-directed audiovisual teaching for training inexperienced analysts on how to recognize mucosal barrier defects on endoscope-based CLE (eCLE).  This randomized controlled study involved trainee analysts who were taught how to recognize mucosal barrier defects on eCLE either didactically or through an audiovisual clip. After being trained, they evaluated 6 sets of 30 images. Image evaluation required the trainees to determine whether specific features of barrier dysfunction were present or not. Trainees in the didactic group engaged in peer discussion and received feedback after each set while this did not happen in the self-directed group. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity of both groups were compared. Trainees in the didactic group achieved a higher overall accuracy (87.5 % vs 85.0 %, P  = 0.002) and sensitivity (84.5 % vs 80.4 %, P  = 0.002) compared to trainees in the self-directed group. Interobserver agreement was higher in the didactic group (k = 0.686, 95 % CI 0.680 - 0.691, P  barrier defects on eCLE.

  16. Effective deep learning training for single-image super-resolution in endomicroscopy exploiting video-registration-based reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravì, Daniele; Szczotka, Agnieszka Barbara; Shakir, Dzhoshkun Ismail; Pereira, Stephen P; Vercauteren, Tom

    2018-06-01

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is a recent imaging modality that allows performing in vivo optical biopsies. The design of pCLE hardware, and its reliance on an optical fibre bundle, fundamentally limits the image quality with a few tens of thousands fibres, each acting as the equivalent of a single-pixel detector, assembled into a single fibre bundle. Video registration techniques can be used to estimate high-resolution (HR) images by exploiting the temporal information contained in a sequence of low-resolution (LR) images. However, the alignment of LR frames, required for the fusion, is computationally demanding and prone to artefacts. In this work, we propose a novel synthetic data generation approach to train exemplar-based Deep Neural Networks (DNNs). HR pCLE images with enhanced quality are recovered by the models trained on pairs of estimated HR images (generated by the video registration algorithm) and realistic synthetic LR images. Performance of three different state-of-the-art DNNs techniques were analysed on a Smart Atlas database of 8806 images from 238 pCLE video sequences. The results were validated through an extensive image quality assessment that takes into account different quality scores, including a Mean Opinion Score (MOS). Results indicate that the proposed solution produces an effective improvement in the quality of the obtained reconstructed image. The proposed training strategy and associated DNNs allows us to perform convincing super-resolution of pCLE images.

  17. Detection of a fluorescent-labeled avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly by confocal laser endomicroscopy in the microvasculature of chronically inflamed intestinal mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buda A

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Buda,1,* Sonia Facchin,1,* Elisa Dassie,2 Elisabetta Casarin,3 Mark A Jepson,4 Helmut Neumann,5 Giorgia Hatem,1 Stefano Realdon,6 Renata D’Incà,1 Giacomo Carlo Sturniolo,1 Margherita Morpurgo3 1Department of Surgical, Oncological, and Gastroenterological Sciences, University of Padova, 2Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 3Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Padova, Italy; 4School of Biochemistry and Wolfson Bioimaging Facility, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK; 5Ludwig Demlig Endoscopic Center of Excellence, ESGE Endoscopy Training Center, University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen, Germany; 6Veneto Institute of Oncology IOV-IRCCS, Padova, Italy *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases are chronic gastrointestinal pathologies causing great discomfort in both children and adults. The pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases is not yet fully understood and their diagnosis and treatment are often challenging. Nanoparticle-based strategies have been tested in local drug delivery to the inflamed colon. Here, we have investigated the use of the novel avidin-nucleic acid nanoassembly (ANANAS platform as a potential diagnostic carrier in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel diseases. Fluorescent-labeled ANANAS nanoparticles were administered to mice with chemically induced chronic inflammation of the large intestine. Localization of mucosal nanoparticles was assessed in vivo by dual-band confocal laser endomicroscopy. This technique enables characterization of the mucosal microvasculature and crypt architecture at subcellular resolution. Intravascular nanoparticle distribution was observed in the inflamed mucosa but not in healthy controls, demonstrating the utility of the combination of ANANAS and confocal laser endomicroscopy for highlighting intestinal inflammatory conditions. The specific localization of

  18. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  19. Renal scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003790.htm Renal scan To use the sharing features on this ... anaphylaxis . Alternative Names Renogram; Kidney scan Images Kidney anatomy Kidney - blood and urine flow References Chernecky CC, ...

  20. CT Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... disease, lung nodules and liver masses Monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as cancer treatment Detect ... scan done in a hospital or an outpatient facility. CT scans are painless and, with newer machines, ...

  1. Confocal laser endomicroscopy and ultrasound endoscopy during the same endoscopic session for diagnosis and staging of gastric neoplastic lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheorghe, C; Iacob, R; Dumbrava, Mona; Becheanu, G; Ionescu, M

    2009-01-01

    Confocal LASER endomicroscopy (CLE) is a newly developed endoscopic technique which allows subsurface in vivo histological assessment during ongoing endoscopy and targeted biopsies. Ultrasound endoscopy (EUS) is a useful tool in staging upper GI malignant lesions. We describe for the first time the use of both techniques during the same endoscopic session, in a pilot study, in order to increase the diagnostic yield of histological assessment and provide the staging of the gastric neoplastic lesions thus decreasing the time to therapeutic decision. CLE has been performed with the Pentax EG-3870CIK confocal endomicroscope after a 5 ml intravenous 10% fluorescein injection; EUS has been performed subsequently, during the same endoscopic Propofol sedation session, using a standard radial EUS-scope. Eleven patients have been investigated, 4 females, 7 males, mean age 59.7 +/- 12.3 years. The indication of CLE/EUS exploration was the presence of a gastric polypoid lesion in 37% of cases, atypical gastric ulcer in 27% of patients, gastric lymphoma 18%, suspicion of gastric cancer recurrence after resection 9% and infiltrating type gastric cancer 9%. Histological assessment after targeted biopsy has established the diagnosis of gastric adenocarcinoma in 55% of cases, gastric lymphoma in 18% of cases, gastric adenoma, gastric GIST and gastric foveolar hyperplasia in 9% of cases respectively. CLE has allowed targeted biopsies in 81.8% of cases. In 2 patients - one case with suspected recurrent gastric cancer after surgery and one case of gastric lymphoma, CLE has indicated normal gastric mucosa. The EUS evaluation has shown TO lesion in two cases, T1 in 3 cases, T2 in 3 cases, T3 in one case. The EUS evaluation showed in one gastric lymphoma patient a lesion interesting the mucosa and submucosa with regional adenopathy and a submucosal lesion with regional adenopathy in the other gastric lymphoma case. The therapeutic decision was surgery in 73% of cases, chemotherapy and

  2. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  3. Radionuclide scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide scanning is the production of images of normal and diseased tissues and organs by means of the gamma-ray emissions from radiopharmaceutical agents having specific distributions in the body. The gamma rays are detected at the body surface by a variety of instruments that convert the invisible rays into visible patterns representing the distribution of the radionuclide in the body. The patterns, or images, obtained can be interpreted to provide or to aid diagnoses, to follow the course of disease, and to monitor the management of various illnesses. Scanning is a sensitive technique, but its specificity may be low when interpreted alone. To be used most successfully, radionuclide scanning must be interpreted in conjunction with other techniques, such as bone radiographs with bone scans, chest radiographs with lung scans, and ultrasonic studies with thyroid scans. Interpretation is also enhanced by providing pertinent clinical information because the distribution of radiopharmaceutical agents can be altered by drugs and by various procedures besides physiologic and pathologic conditions. Discussion of the patient with the radionuclide scanning specialist prior to the study and review of the results with that specialist after the study are beneficial

  4. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy for the Diagnosis of Urothelial Carcinoma in the Bladder and the Upper Urinary Tract: Protocols for Two Prospective Explorative Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liem, Esmee Iml; Freund, Jan Erik; Baard, Joyce; de Bruin, D Martijn; Laguna Pes, M Pilar; Savci-Heijink, C Dilara; van Leeuwen, Ton G; de Reijke, Theo M; de la Rosette, Jean Jmch

    2018-02-07

    Visual confirmation of a suspicious lesion in the urinary tract is a major corner stone in diagnosing urothelial carcinoma. However, during cystoscopy (for bladder tumors) and ureterorenoscopy (for tumors of the upper urinary tract) no real-time histopathologic information can be obtained. Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is an optical imaging technique that allows for in vivo high-resolution imaging and may allow real-time tumor grading of urothelial lesions. The primary objective of both studies is to develop descriptive criteria for in vivo CLE images of urothelial carcinoma (low-grade, high-grade, carcinoma in situ) and normal urothelium by comparing CLE images with corresponding histopathology. In these two prospective clinical trials, CLE imaging will be performed of suspicious lesions and normal tissue in the urinary tract during surgery, prior to resection or biopsy. In the bladder study, CLE will be performed in 60 patients using the Cystoflex UHD-R probe. In the upper urinary tract study, CLE will be performed in 25 patients during ureterorenoscopy, who will undergo radical treatment (nephroureterectomy or segmental ureter resection) thereafter. All CLE images will be analyzed frame by frame by three independent, blinded observers. Histopathology and CLE-based diagnosis of the lesions will be evaluated. Both studies comply with the IDEAL stage 2b recommendations. Presently, recruitment of patients is ongoing in both studies. Results and outcomes are expected in 2018. For development of CLE-based diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma in the bladder and the upper urinary tract, a structured conduct of research is required. This study will provide more insight in tissue-specific CLE criteria for real-time tumor grading of urothelial carcinoma. Confocal Laser Endomicroscopy: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03013894; https://clinicaltrials.gov /ct2/show/NCT03013894?term=NCT03013894&rank=1 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6wiPZ378I); and Dutch Central

  5. Detection of fluorescent organic nanoparticles by confocal laser endomicroscopy in a rat model of Barrett’s esophageal adenocarcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dassie E

    2015-10-01

    . Non-operated and operated rats in which gastroesophageal reflux was surgically induced received both types of NPs (NP-DCM and NP-DCM-ASYNYDA by intravenous route. Localization of mucosal NPs was assessed in vivo by confocal laser endomicroscopy, a technique which enables a “real time” and in situ visualization of the tissue at a cellular level. After injection of NP-DCM and NP-DCM-ASYNYDA, fluorescence was observed in rats affected by esophageal cancer, whereas no signal was observed in control non-operated rats, or in rats with simple esophagitis or Barrett’s esophagus mucosa. Fluorescence was observable in vivo 30 minutes after the administration of NPs. Interestingly, NP-DCM-ASYNYDA induced strong fluorescence intensity 24 hours after administration. These observations suggested that NPs could reach the tumor cells, likely by enhanced permeability and retention effect, and the peptide ASYNYDA gave them high specificity for esophageal cancer cells. Thus, the combination of NP platform and confocal laser endomicroscopy could play an important role for highlighting esophageal cancer conditions. This result supports the potential of this strategy as a targeted carrier for photoactive and bioactive molecules in esophageal cancer diagnosis and treatment. Keywords: confocal laser endomicroscopy, Barrett’s esophagus, diagnostics, esophageal adenocarcinoma, fluorescent nanoparticles, heptapeptide

  6. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  7. Scan Statistics

    CERN Document Server

    Glaz, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students and researchers in applied probability and statistics, as well as for scientists in biology, computer science, pharmaceutical science and medicine, this title brings together a collection of chapters illustrating the depth and diversity of theory, methods and applications in the area of scan statistics.

  8. Compact all-fiber optical Faraday components using 65-wt%-terbium-doped fiber with a record Verdet constant of -32 rad/(Tm).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L; Jiang, S; Marciante, J R

    2010-06-07

    A compact all-fiber Faraday isolator and a Faraday mirror are demonstrated. At the core of each of these components is an all-fiber Faraday rotator made of a 4-cm-long, 65-wt%-terbium-doped silicate fiber. The effective Verdet constant of the terbium-doped fiber is measured to be -32 rad/(Tm), which is 27 x larger than that of silica fiber. This effective Verdet constant is the largest value measured to date in any fiber and is 83% of the Verdet constant of commercially available crystal used in bulk optics-based isolators. Combining the all-fiber Faraday rotator with fiber polarizers results in a fully fusion spliced all-fiber isolator whose isolation is measured to be 19 dB. Combining the all-fiber Faraday rotator with a fiber Bragg grating results in an all-fiber Faraday mirror that rotates the polarization state of the reflected light by 88 +/- 4 degrees .

  9. Scanning holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  10. Bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetherington, V.J.

    1989-01-01

    Oftentimes, in managing podiatric complaints, clinical and conventional radiographic techniques are insufficient in determining a patient's problem. This is especially true in the early stages of bone infection. Bone scanning or imaging can provide additional information in the diagnosis of the disorder. However, bone scans are not specific and must be correlated with clinical, radiographic, and laboratory evaluation. In other words, bone scanning does not provide the diagnosis but is an important bit of information aiding in the process of diagnosis. The more useful radionuclides in skeletal imaging are technetium phosphate complexes and gallium citrate. These compounds are administered intravenously and are detected at specific time intervals postinjection by a rectilinear scanner with minification is used and the entire skeleton can be imaged from head to toe. Minification allows visualization of the entire skeleton in a single image. A gamma camera can concentrate on an isolated area. However, it requires multiple views to complete the whole skeletal image. Recent advances have allowed computer augmentation of the data received from radionucleotide imaging. The purpose of this chapter is to present the current radionuclides clinically useful in podiatric patients

  11. In-class didactic versus self-directed teaching of the probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) criteria for Barrett's esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzouq, Fadi; Vennalaganti, Prashanth; Pakseresht, Kavous; Kanakadandi, Vijay; Parasa, Sravanthi; Mathur, Sharad C; Alsop, Benjamin R; Hornung, Benjamin; Gupta, Neil; Sharma, Prateek

    2016-02-01

    Optimal teaching methods for disease recognition using probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) have not been developed. Our aim was to compare in-class didactic teaching vs. self-directed teaching of Barrett's neoplasia diagnosis using pCLE. This randomized controlled trial was conducted at a tertiary academic center. Study participants with no prior pCLE experience were randomized to in-class didactic (group 1) or self-directed teaching groups (group 2). For group 1, an expert conducted a classroom teaching session using standardized educational material. Participants in group 2 were provided with the same material on an audio PowerPoint. After initial training, all participants graded an initial set of 20 pCLE videos and reviewed correct responses with the expert (group 1) or on audio PowerPoint (group 2). Finally, all participants completed interpretations of a further 40 videos. Eighteen trainees (8 medical students, 10 gastroenterology trainees) participated in the study. Overall diagnostic accuracy for neoplasia prediction by pCLE was 77 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] 74.0 % - 79.2 %); of predictions made with high confidence (53 %), the accuracy was 85 % (95 %CI 81.8 % - 87.8 %). The overall accuracy and interobserver agreement was significantly higher in group 1 than in group 2 for all predictions (80.4 % vs. 73 %; P = 0.005) and for high confidence predictions (90 % vs. 80 %; P didactic teaching enables significantly better recognition of the pCLE features of Barrett's esophagus than self-directed teaching. The in-class didactic group had a shorter learning curve and were able to achieve 90 % accuracy for their high confidence predictions. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - cranial; CAT scan - brain ... head size in children Changes in thinking or behavior Fainting Headache, when you have certain other signs ...

  13. Histopathological confirmation of similar intramucosal distribution of fluorescein in both intravenous administration and local mucosal application for probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy of the normal stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Kouichi; Ohata, Ken; Ban, Shinichi; Ichihara, Shin; Takasugi, Rumi; Minato, Yohei; Tashima, Tomoaki; Matsuyama, Yasushi; Takita, Maiko; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Neumann, Helmut

    2015-12-16

    Probe-based confocal laser endomicroscopy (pCLE) is capable of acquiring in vivo magnified cross-section images of the gastric mucosa. Intravenous injection of fluorescein sodium is used for confocal imaging. However, it is still under debate if local administration of the dye to the mucosa is also effective for confocal imaging as it is not yet clear if topical application also reveals the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein. The objective of this study was to evaluate the intramucosal distribution of fluorescein sodium after topical application and to compare the distribution to the conventional intravenous injection used for confocal imaging. pCLE of the stomach uninfected with Helicobacter pylori was performed in a healthy male employing intravenous administration and local mucosal application of fluorescein. The mucosa of the lower gastric body was biopsied 1 min and 5 min after intravenous administration or local mucosal application of fluorescein, and the distribution of fluorescein in the biopsy samples was examined histologically. Green fluorescence was already observed in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells in the biopsied deep mucosa 1 min after local mucosal application of fluorescein. It was also observed in the foveolar lumen and inter-foveolar lamina propria, although it was noted at only a few sites. In the tissue biopsied 5 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, green fluorescence was more frequently noted in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells than in that 1 min after the local mucosal application of fluorescein, although obvious green fluorescence was not identified in the foveolar lumen or inter-foveolar lamina propria. The distribution of intravenously administered fluorescein in the cytoplasm of fundic glandular cells was also clearly observed similarly to that after local mucosal application of fluorescein. Green fluorescence in more cells was observed in many cells 5 min after intravenous administration compared

  14. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  15. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  16. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  18. Nuclear Heart Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home / Nuclear Heart Scan Nuclear Heart Scan Also known as Nuclear Stress Test , ... Learn More Connect With Us Contact Us Directly Policies Privacy Policy Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) Accessibility ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  20. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  1. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  2. Lung PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Chest PET scan; Lung positron emission tomography; PET - chest; PET - lung; PET - tumor imaging; ... Grainger & Allison's Diagnostic Radiology: A Textbook of Medical Imaging . 6th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  3. Scanning of bone metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robillard, J.

    1977-01-01

    The Centers against cancer of Caen, Angers, Montpellier, Strasbourg and 'the Curie Foundation' have confronted their experience in detection of bone metastases by total body scanning. From the investigation by this procedure, of 1,467 patients with cancer, it results: the confrontation between radio and scanning shows a rate of false positive and false negative identical to the literature ones; the countage scanning allows to reduce the number of false positive; scanning allows to direct bone biopsy and to improve efficiency of histological examination [fr

  4. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  5. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  7. Transverse section scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  8. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  9. Laser Scanning in Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Olsson

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of Airborne Laser Scanning (ALS to forests has been revolutionary during the last decade. This development was facilitated by combining earlier ranging lidar discoveries [1–5], with experience obtained from full-waveform ranging radar [6,7] to new airborne laser scanning systems which had components such as a GNSS receiver (Global Navigation Satellite System, IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit and a scanning mechanism. Since the first commercial ALS in 1994, new ALS-based forest inventory approaches have been reported feasible for operational activities [8–12]. ALS is currently operationally applied for stand level forest inventories, for example, in Nordic countries. In Finland alone, the adoption of ALS for forest data collection has led to an annual savings of around 20 M€/year, and the work is mainly done by companies instead of governmental organizations. In spite of the long implementation times and there being a limited tradition of making changes in the forest sector, laser scanning was commercially and operationally applied after about only one decade of research. When analyzing high-ranked journal papers from ISI Web of Science, the topic of laser scanning of forests has been the driving force for the whole laser scanning research society over the last decade. Thus, the topic “laser scanning in forests” has provided a significant industrial, societal and scientific impact. [...

  10. Bone scan in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.; Peters, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    In 1984, a survey carried out in 21 countries in Europe showed that bone scintigraphy comprised 16% of all paediatric radioisotope scans. Although the value of bone scans in paediatrics is potentially great, their quality varies greatly, and poor-quality images are giving this valuable technique a bad reputation. The handling of children requires a sensitive staff and the provision of a few simple inexpensive items of distraction. Attempting simply to scan a child between two adult patients in a busy general department is a recipe for an unhappy, uncooperative child with the probable result of poor images. The intravenous injection of isotope should be given adjacent to the gamma camera room, unless dynamic scans are required, so that the child does not associate the camera with the injection. This injection is best carried out by someone competent in paediatric venipunture; the entire procedure should be explained to the child and parent, who should remain with child throughout. It is naive to think that silence makes for a cooperative child. The sensitivity of bone-seeking radioisotope tracers and the marked improvement in gamma camera resolution has allowed the bone scanning to become an integrated technique in the assessment of children suspected of suffering from pathological bone conditions. The tracer most commonly used for routine bone scanning is 99m Tc diphosphonate (MDP); other isotopes used include 99m Tc colloid for bone marrow scans and 67 Ga citrate and 111 In white blood cells ( 111 In WBC) for investigation of inflammatory/infective lesions

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine ( ... for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will I experience during ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should ... such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for ...

  14. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to a multiplexer slip ring means for receiving output from the detectors and enabling interfeed to the image reconstruction station. (U.K.)

  15. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are presented of a tomographic scanning apparatus, its rotational assembly, and the control and circuit elements, with particular reference to the amplifier and multiplexing circuits enabling detector signal calibration. (U.K.)

  16. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification relates to a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal, and particularly to the design of the gas-pressurized ionization detection system. (U.K.)

  17. Pediatric CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  19. Heart CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... make to decrease the risk of heart disease. Risks Risks of CT scans include: Being exposed to ... urac.org). URAC's accreditation program is an independent audit to verify that A.D.A.M. follows ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... that help physicians diagnose and evaluate medical conditions. These imaging scans use radioactive materials called radiopharmaceuticals or ... or had thyroid cancer. A physician may perform these imaging tests to: determine if the gland is ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Actual scanning time for each thyroid uptake is five minutes or less. top of page What will ... diagnostic procedures have been used for more than five decades, and there are no known long-term ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... top of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top ... Scan and Uptake Sponsored by Please note RadiologyInfo.org is not a medical facility. Please contact your ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information needed to make a diagnosis or to determine appropriate treatment, if any. Nuclear medicine is less expensive and ...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gamma camera and single-photon emission-computed tomography (SPECT). The gamma camera, also called a scintillation ... high as with other imaging techniques, such as CT or MRI. However, nuclear medicine scans are more ...

  8. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... as an overactive thyroid gland, a condition called hyperthyroidism , cancer or other growths assess the nature of ... an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... painless. However, during the thyroid scan, you may feel uncomfortable when lying completely still with your head ... When the radiotracer is given intravenously, you will feel a slight pin prick when the needle is ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... community, you can search the ACR-accredited facilities database . This website does not provide cost information. The ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an intravenous line ... found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for each thyroid ...

  14. Body CT (CAT Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a CT scan can be reformatted in multiple planes, and can even generate three-dimensional images. These ... other medical conditions and whether you have a history of heart disease, asthma, diabetes, kidney disease or ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I prepare? You ... You will receive specific instructions based on the type of scan you are undergoing. top of page ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  17. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the adjustable fan beam and its collimator system, together with the facility for taking a conventional x-radiograph without moving the patient. (U.K.)

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... of scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera ...

  19. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should I prepare? You ... but is often performed on hospitalized patients as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an ...

  1. Preoperative bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charkes, N.D.; Malmud, L.S.; Caswell, T.; Goldman, L.; Hall, J.; Lauby, V.; Lightfoot, W.; Maier, W.; Rosemond, G.

    1975-01-01

    Strontium nitrate Sr-87m bone scans were made preoperatively in a group of women with suspected breast cancer, 35 of whom subsequently underwent radical mastectomy. In 3 of the 35 (9 percent), the scans were abnormal despite the absence of clinical or roentgenographic evidence of metastatic disease. All three patients had extensive axillary lymph node involvement by tumor, and went on to have additional bone metastases, from which one died. Roentgenograms failed to detect the metastases in all three. Occult bone metastases account in part for the failure of radical mastectomy to cure some patients with breast cancer. It is recommended that all candidates for radical mastectomy have a preoperative bone scan. (U.S.)

  2. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase......-shift. Experimental results inX-band, in good agreement with the theory, show that it is possible to scan the main lobe an angle ofpm30degby a variation of the frequencypm300MHz, and where the 3 dB beamwidth is less than10deg. The directivity was 14.7 dB, while the gain was 8.1 dB. The efficiency might be improved...

  3. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abele, M.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized tomographic scanning apparatus suitable for diagnosis and for improving target identification in stereotactic neurosurgery is described. It consists of a base, a source of penetrating energy, a detector which produces scanning signals and detector positioning means. A frame with top and bottom arms secures the detector and source to the top and bottom arms respectively. A drive mechanism rotates the frame about an axis along which the frame may also be moved. Finally, the detector may be moved relative to the bottom arm in a direction contrary to the rotation of the frame. (U.K.)

  4. Scanning the phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Wuerzinger, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A framework to perform scans in the 19-dimensional phenomenological MSSM is developed and used to re-evaluate the ATLAS experiments' sensitivity to R-parity-conserving supersymmetry with LHC Run 2 data ($\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV), using results from 14 separate ATLAS searches. We perform a $\\tilde{t}_1$ dedicated scan, only considering models with $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<1$ TeV, while allowing both a neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$) and a sneutrino ($\\tilde{\

  5. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  6. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape and position of the thyroid gland. The ...

  8. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  9. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  10. Scanning electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)

    1970-05-15

    The JSM-11 scanning electron microscope at CRNL has been used extensively for topographical studies of oxidized metals, fracture surfaces, entomological and biological specimens. A non-dispersive X-ray attachment permits the microanalysis of the surface features. Techniques for the production of electron channeling patterns have been developed. (author)

  11. Scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnig, G.; Rohrer, H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on vacuum tunneling, a novel type of microscope, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was developed. It has an unprecedented resolution in real space on an atomic scale. The authors review the important technical features, illustrate the power of the STM for surface topographies and discuss its potential in other areas of science and technology. (Auth.)

  12. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body ...

  14. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to the means of adjusting the apparent gain of the signal processing means for receiving output signals from the detectors, to compensate for drift in the gain characteristics, including means for passing a reference signal. (U.K.)

  15. Stabilized radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawzi, M.B.

    1979-01-01

    A stable composition useful in preparation of technetium-99m-based radiographic scanning agents has been developed. The composition contains a stabilizing amount of gentisate stabilizer selected from gentisic acid and its soluble pharmaceutically-acceptable salts and esthers. (E.G.)

  16. Scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1980-01-01

    The principle underlying the design of the scanning electron microscope (SEM), the design and functioning of SEM are described. Its applications in the areas of microcircuitry and materials science are outlined. The development of SEM in India is reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  17. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tofe, A.J.

    1976-01-01

    A stable radiographic scanning agent on a sup(99m)Tc basis has been developed. The substance contains a pertechnetate reduction agent, tin(II)-chloride, chromium(II)-chloride, or iron(II)-sulphate, as well as an organospecific carrier and ascorbic acid or a pharmacologically admissible salt or ester of ascorbic acid. (VJ) [de

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you: have had any tests, such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated ... page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x- ...

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a thyroid scan is 30 minutes or less. Thyroid Uptake You will be given radioactive iodine (I-123 or I-131) in liquid or capsule form to swallow. The thyroid uptake will begin several hours to 24 hours later. Often, two separate uptake ...

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the last two months. are taking medications or ingesting other substances that contain iodine , including kelp, seaweed, cough syrups, multivitamins or heart medications. have any ...

  1. Scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainsbridge, B.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1959, Richard Feynman observed that manoeuvring atoms was something that could be done in principle but has not been done, 'because we are too big'. In 1982, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented and is now a central tool for the construction of nanoscale devices in what was known as molecular engineering, and now, nanotechnology. The principles of the microscope are outlined and references are made to other scanning devices which have evolved from the original invention. The method of employment of the STM as a machine tool is described and references are made to current speculations on applications of the instrument in nanotechnology. A short bibliography on this topic is included. 27 refs., 7 figs

  2. Scanning probe microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mainsbridge, B [Murdoch Univ., WA (Australia). School of Mathematical and Physical Sciences

    1994-12-31

    In late 1959, Richard Feynman observed that manoeuvring atoms was something that could be done in principle but has not been done, `because we are too big`. In 1982, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented and is now a central tool for the construction of nanoscale devices in what was known as molecular engineering, and now, nanotechnology. The principles of the microscope are outlined and references are made to other scanning devices which have evolved from the original invention. The method of employment of the STM as a machine tool is described and references are made to current speculations on applications of the instrument in nanotechnology. A short bibliography on this topic is included. 27 refs., 7 figs.

  3. 67Ga lung scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate 67 Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the 67 Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of 67 Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of 67 Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography

  4. Horizon Scanning for Pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lepage-Nefkens, Isabelle; Douw, Karla; Mantjes, GertJan

    for a joint horizon scanning system (HSS).  We propose to create a central “horizon scanning unit” to perform the joint HS activities (a newly established unit, an existing HS unit, or a third party commissioned and financed by the collaborating countries). The unit will be responsible for the identification...... and filtration of new and emerging pharmaceutical products. It will maintain and update the HS database, organise company pipeline meetings, and disseminate the HSS’s outputs.  The HS unit works closely together with the designated national HS experts in each collaborating country. The national HS experts...... will collect country-specific information, liaise between the central HS unit and country-specific clinical and other experts, coordinate the national prioritization process (to select products for early assessment), and communicate the output of the HSS to national decision makers.  The outputs of the joint...

  5. Multichannel scanning spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    A spectrophotometer designed in the Crimea astrophysical observatory is described. The spectrophotometer is intended for the installation at the telescope to measure energy distribution in the star spectra in the 3100-8550 A range. The device is made according to the scheme with a fixed diffraction lattice. The choice of the optical kinematic scheme is explained. The main design elements are shown. Some singularities of the scanning drive kinematics are considered. The device performance is given

  6. Scanning drop sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  7. Scanning drop sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  8. IMEF gamma scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs.

  9. IMEF gamma scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum.

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs

  10. Scanning unit for collectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaige, Yves.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a measurement scanning assembly for collectron type detectors. It is used in measuring the neutron flux in nuclear reactors. As the number of these detectors in a reactor can be very great, they are not usually all connected permanently to the measuring facility but rather in turn by means of a scanning device which carries out, as it were, multiplexing between all the collectrons and the input of a single measuring system. The object of the invention is a scanning assembly which is of relative simplicity through an original organisation. Specifically, according to this organisation, the collectrons outputs are grouped together in bunches, each of these bunches being processed by a multiplexing sub-assembly belonging to a first stage, the different outputs of these multiplexing subassemblies of this first stage being grouped together yet again in bunches processed by multiplexors forming a new stage and so forth. Further, this structure is specially adapted for use with collectrons by utilising a current amplifier at each multiplexing level so that from one end to the other of the multiplexing system, the commutations are carried out on currents and not on voltages [fr

  11. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  12. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...... on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...

  13. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  14. Spinal CT scan, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    1982-01-01

    Methods of CT of the cervical and thoracic spines were explained, and normal CT pictures of them were described. Spinal CT was evaluated in comparison with other methods in various spinal diseases. Plain CT revealed stenosis due to spondylosis or ossification of posterior longitudinal ligament and hernia of intervertebral disc. CT took an important role in the diagnosis of spinal cord tumors with calcification and destruction of the bone. CT scan in combination with other methods was also useful for the diagnosis of spinal injuries, congenital anomalies and infections. (Ueda, J.)

  15. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  16. Scanning apparatus and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunnett, C.J.

    1980-01-01

    A novel method is described for processing the analogue signals from the photomultiplier tubes in a tomographic X-ray scanner. The system produces a series of pulses whose instantaneous frequency depends on the detected intensity of the X-radiation. A timer unit is used to determine the segment scan intervals and also to deduce the average radiation intensity detected during this interval. The overall system is claimed to possess the advantageous properties of low time delay, wide bandwidth and relative low cost. (U.K.)

  17. NEW SCANNING DEVICE FOR SCANNING TUNNELING MICROSCOPE APPLICATIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SAWATZKY, GA; Koops, Karl Richard

    A small, single piezo XYZ translator has been developed. The device has been used as a scanner for a scanning tunneling microscope and has been tested successfully in air and in UHV. Its simple design results in a rigid and compact scanning unit which permits high scanning rates.

  18. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  19. Scanning device for a spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The invention belongs to scanning devices and is intended for spectrum scanning in spectral devices. The purpose of the invention is broadening of spectral scanning range. The device construction ensures the spectrum scanning range determined from revolution fractions to several revolutions of the monochromator drum head, any number of the drum head revolutions determined by integral number with addition of the drum revolution fractions with high degree of accuracy being possible

  20. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  1. CT scans in encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masami; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Iida, Noriyuki; Hisanaga, Manabu; Kinugawa, Kazuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Generally, CT scans reveal a decrease in the volume of the ventricular system, sylvian fissures and cortical sulci in the acute stage of encephalitis, and softening of the cerebral lobes with dilatation of the lateral ventricles and subarachnoidian dilated spaces in the chronic stage. We encountered three cases of encephalitis: mumps (case 1), herpes simplex (case 2), and syphilis (case 3). In case 1, brain edema was seen in the acute stage and brain atrophy in the chronic stage. In case 2, necrosis of the temporal pole, which is pathognomonic in herpes simplex encephalitis, was recognized. And in case 3, multiple lesions whose CT appearance was enhanced by contrast materials were found scattered over the whole brain. These lesions were diagnosed as inflammatory granuloma by histological examination. (author)

  2. Scanning device for scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, R.

    1975-01-01

    A device is described for the scintigraphic scanning according to a horizontal plane, comprising: (a) A support provided with two guides horizontally and longitudinally located, one of which is located in the upper part of the support, while the second guide is located in the lower part of the support; (b) A carriage, movable with respect to the support along the two guides, provided in its upper part, projecting above the support, with rolling means suitable to support and to cause to slide along its axis a support rod for the first detector, horizontally and transversely located, said carriage being further provided in its lower part with a recess with possible rolling means suitable to support and to cause to slide along its axis a second support rod for the second detector, said second rod being located parallel to the first rod and below it; (c) One or two support rods for the detectors, the first of said rods being supported above the support in a sliding way along its axis, by the rolling means located in the upper part of the carriage, and the second rod if present is supported slidingly along its axis by the possible rolling means contained in the suitable recess which is provided in the lower part of the carriage, and (d) A vertical shaft supported by said carriage on which is mounted a toothed wheel for each rod, each toothed wheel engaging a positive drive belt or the like, which is connected to each said rod so that rotation of the shaft determines the simultaneous displacement of the two rods along their axes; and single motor means for driving said shaft during a scanning operation. (U.S.)

  3. Scanning the periphery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, George S; Schoemaker, Paul J H

    2005-11-01

    Companies often face new rivals, technologies, regulations, and other environmental changes that seem to come out of left field. How can they see these changes sooner and capitalize on them? Such changes often begin as weak signals on what the authors call the periphery, or the blurry zone at the edge of an organization's vision. As with human peripheral vision, these signals are difficult to see and interpret but can be vital to success or survival. Unfortunately, most companies lack a systematic method for determining where on the periphery they should be looking, how to interpret the weak signals they see, and how to allocate limited scanning resources. This article provides such a method-a question-based framework for helping companies scan the periphery more efficiently and effectively. The framework divides questions into three categories: learning from the past (What have been our past blind spots? What instructive analogies do other industries offer? Who in the industry is skilled at picking up weak signals and acting on them?); evaluating the present (What important signals are we rationalizing away? What are our mavericks, outliers, complainers, and defectors telling us? What are our peripheral customers and competitors really thinking?); and envisioning the future (What future surprises could really hurt or help us? What emerging technologies could change the game? Is there an unthinkable scenario that might disrupt our business?). Answering these questions is a good first step toward anticipating problems or opportunities that may appear on the business horizon. The article concludes with a self-test that companies can use to assess their need and capability for peripheral vision.

  4. GPR scan assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD. The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  5. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  6. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  7. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  8. Radionuclide brain scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Dayem, H

    1993-12-31

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ``allied advances`` with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  9. Hyperchromatic laser scanning cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tárnok, Attila; Mittag, Anja

    2007-02-01

    In the emerging fields of high-content and high-throughput single cell analysis for Systems Biology and Cytomics multi- and polychromatic analysis of biological specimens has become increasingly important. Combining different technologies and staining methods polychromatic analysis (i.e. using 8 or more fluorescent colors at a time) can be pushed forward to measure anything stainable in a cell, an approach termed hyperchromatic cytometry. For cytometric cell analysis microscope based Slide Based Cytometry (SBC) technologies are ideal as, unlike flow cytometry, they are non-consumptive, i.e. the analyzed sample is fixed on the slide. Based on the feature of relocation identical cells can be subsequently reanalyzed. In this manner data on the single cell level after manipulation steps can be collected. In this overview various components for hyperchromatic cytometry are demonstrated for a SBC instrument, the Laser Scanning Cytometer (Compucyte Corp., Cambridge, MA): 1) polychromatic cytometry, 2) iterative restaining (using the same fluorochrome for restaining and subsequent reanalysis), 3) differential photobleaching (differentiating fluorochromes by their different photostability), 4) photoactivation (activating fluorescent nanoparticles or photocaged dyes), and 5) photodestruction (destruction of FRET dyes). With the intelligent combination of several of these techniques hyperchromatic cytometry allows to quantify and analyze virtually all components of relevance on the identical cell. The combination of high-throughput and high-content SBC analysis with high-resolution confocal imaging allows clear verification of phenotypically distinct subpopulations of cells with structural information. The information gained per specimen is only limited by the number of available antibodies and by sterical hindrance.

  10. Gallium scans in myasthenia gravis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swick, H.M.; Preston, D.F.; McQuillen, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether 67 Ga scans could be used for the detection of thymomas and to investigate the activity of the thymus gland in patients with myasthenia gravis. Scans of the anterior mediastinum proved to be a reliable way to detect thymomas. The scans were positive in eight patients including three with myasthenia gravis and histologically proved thymomas, three others with severe myasthenia gravis and thymic tumors, and two with histologically proved thymomas not associated with myasthenia. Activity on 67 Ga scans was not directly related to the increased activity of the thymus gland that is presumed to be associated with myasthenia gravis

  11. Gallium scans in myasthenia gravis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swick, H.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington); Preston, D.F.; McQuillen, M.P.

    1976-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine whether /sup 67/Ga scans could be used for the detection of thymomas and to investigate the activity of the thymus gland in patients with myasthenia gravis. Scans of the anterior mediastinum proved to be a reliable way to detect thymomas. The scans were positive in eight patients including three with myasthenia gravis and histologically proved thymomas, three others with severe myasthenia gravis and thymic tumors, and two with histologically proved thymomas not associated with myasthenia. Activity on /sup 67/Ga scans was not directly related to the increased activity of the thymus gland that is presumed to be associated with myasthenia gravis. (HLW)

  12. Large Scale Scanning Probe Microscope "Making Shear Force Scanning visible."

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; van der Veen, Jan T.; van der Veen, J.T.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Wessel, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a demonstration of a scanning probe microscope with shear-force tuning fork feedback. The tuning fork is several centimeters long, and the rigid fiber is replaced by a toothpick. By scaling this demonstration to visible dimensions the accessibility of shear-force scanning and tuning fork

  13. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  14. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  15. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin; Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J.; Ling, D. C.; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung

    2014-01-01

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10 −7 T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La 2/3 Ca 1/3 MnO 3 thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K

  16. An interchangeable scanning Hall probe/scanning SQUID microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chiu-Chun; Lin, Hui-Ting; Wu, Sing-Lin [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chen, Tse-Jun; Wang, M. J. [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Ling, D. C. [Department of Physics, Tamkang University, Tamsui Dist., New Taipei City 25137, Taiwan (China); Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Sciences of Matters, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-15

    We have constructed a scanning probe microscope for magnetic imaging, which can function as a scanning Hall probe microscope (SHPM) and as a scanning SQUID microscope (SSM). The scanning scheme, applicable to SHPM and SSM, consists of a mechanical positioning (sub) micron-XY stage and a flexible direct contact to the sample without a feedback control system for the Z-axis. With the interchangeable capability of operating two distinct scanning modes, our microscope can incorporate the advantageous functionalities of the SHPM and SSM with large scan range up to millimeter, high spatial resolution (⩽4 μm), and high field sensitivity in a wide range of temperature (4.2 K-300 K) and magnetic field (10{sup −7} T-1 T). To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, we present magnetic images scanned with SHPM and SSM, including a RbFeB magnet and a nickel grid pattern at room temperature, surface magnetic domain structures of a La{sub 2/3}Ca{sub 1/3}MnO{sub 3} thin film at 77 K, and superconducting vortices in a striped niobium film at 4.2 K.

  17. Rapid-scan EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sandra S; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J; Eaton, Gareth R

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Are environmental scanning units effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbart, C

    1982-06-01

    Many authorities have urged companies to set up environmental scanning to assist corporate planning. Some advocates have recommended a unit at corporate level. This would give breadth of view and penetration into the future. It would arm decision makers with accurate forecasts. The information would be broad in scope and future directed. It could provide also assumptions for long-range planning. The Fahey and King study produced a model of corporate scanning types. The data showed that environmental information was built into the plan. Though the political environment was important, scanning was inadequate. The best location for scanning was not at corporate level and most firms used irregular methods. The Thomas study concluded that effective environmental scanning was permanent and multi level and that 'best practice' was continuous scanning. In 1978 the sample organizations were revisited. Five of the twelve have not changed their practice. The factors which encouraged a continuous model were the attitudes of academics and business media, demonstrated success of the units, the right kind of personnel. Contrary influences were changes in top management, decentralization moves, resource cuts, defining the environment and its significance, the availability of scanning competent personnel, surprise itself, and the availability of alternatives e.g. external forecasts.

  19. Re-scan confocal microscopy: scanning twice for better resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Giulia M R; Breedijk, Ronald M P; Brandt, Rick A J; Zeelenberg, Christiaan H C; de Jong, Babette E; Timmermans, Wendy; Azar, Leila Nahidi; Hoebe, Ron A; Stallinga, Sjoerd; Manders, Erik M M

    2013-01-01

    We present a new super-resolution technique, Re-scan Confocal Microscopy (RCM), based on standard confocal microscopy extended with an optical (re-scanning) unit that projects the image directly on a CCD-camera. This new microscope has improved lateral resolution and strongly improved sensitivity while maintaining the sectioning capability of a standard confocal microscope. This simple technology is typically useful for biological applications where the combination high-resolution and high-sensitivity is required.

  20. Scanning by use of TV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drevermann, H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of TV read out for scanning and measuring holographic pictures seems to give less problems than the use of optical projection as is usual for conventional bubble chamber photos. Whereas the measuring of conventional bubble chamber pictures seems to give no problems, it is not clear whether scanning by use of TV is possible. Therefore scanning pictures from experiment NA16 (taken in LEBC) with TV only was tried using the TV system of ERASME, where the CRT system is used as a camera. It should be mentioned that this system, being a flying spot device, cannot be adapted for holography. (author)

  1. Tomography system having axial scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    An improved method and apparatus has been invented for the transaxial tomographic scanning of a patient to determine mass distribution internal to the patient. A scanning system is provided having a rotatably mounted X-ray radiation source/detector assembly which orbits and scans the patient in plane of orbit. The source provides a plurality of beams of radiation in the orbital plane. Beams pass through the patient to an array of detectors which are spaced in the plane of orbit and respectively aligned with one of the beams. Radiation intensity data is collected at predetermined orientations of each beam-detector pair as the assembly orbits about the patient

  2. Rapid line scan MR angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frahm, J.; Merboldt, K.D.; Hanicke, W.; Bruhn, H.

    1987-01-01

    Direct MR angiography may be performed using line scan imaging techniques combined with presaturation of stationary spins. Thus, a single line scan echo yields a projection of vessels due to the signal from reflowing unsaturated spins. Reconstruction of an angiographic image is performed line by line at slightly incremented positions. In particular, line scan angiography is direct and fast without a sensitivity to artifacts even for high flow rates. Image resolution and field of view may be chosen without restrictions, and zoom images using enhanced gradients may be recorded without aliasing artifacts. The method is robust with respect to eddy currents and pulsatile flow. Line scan MR angiograms of phantoms, animals, and human volunteers have been recorded using 90 0 radio frequency pulses and gradient-recalled echoes

  3. Security scanning at 35 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Coward, Peter R.; Kent, P. J.; Price, Sean; Sinclair, Gordon N.; Wasley, Matthew R. M.

    2001-08-01

    It has been known for some time that millimeter waves can pas through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at Ka band can be an advantage. The penetration through clothing is increased and the cost of the equipment when compared to operation at W band. In this paper a Ka band mechanically scanned imager designed for security scanning is discussed. This imager is based on the folded conical scan technology previously reported. It is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene and printed circuit board. The trade off between image spatial resolution and the number of receivers will be described and solutions, which minimize this number discussed.

  4. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy - image interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maca, F.

    1998-01-01

    The basic ideas of image interpretation in Scanning Tunneling Microscopy are presented using simple quantum-mechanical models and supplied with examples of successful application. The importance is stressed of a correct interpretation of this brilliant experimental surface technique

  5. Transverse section radionuclide scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhl, D.E.; Edwards, R.Q.

    1976-01-01

    This invention provides a transverse section radionuclide scanning system for high-sensitivity quantification of brain radioactivity in cross-section picture format in order to permit accurate assessment of regional brain function localized in three dimensions. High sensitivity crucially depends on overcoming the heretofore known raster type scanning, which requires back and forth detector movement involving dead-time or partial enclosure of the scan field. Accordingly, this invention provides a detector array having no back and forth movement by interlaced detectors that enclose the scan field and rotate as an integral unit around one axis of rotation in a slip ring that continuously transmits the detector data by means of laser emitting diodes, with the advantages that increased amounts of data can be continuously collected, processed and displayed with increased sensitivity according to a suitable computer program. 5 claims, 11 figures

  6. Dynamic Flaps Electronic Scan Antenna

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    A dynamic FLAPS(TM) electronic scan antenna was the focus of this research. The novelty S of this SBIR resides in the use of plasma as the main component of this dynamic X-Band phased S array antenna...

  7. Scan analysis in myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P J [Landesunfallkrankenhaus, Feldkirch (Austria). Inst. fuer Strahlenmedizin

    1976-08-01

    Myocardial scans with sup(99m)Tc-labelled phosphates are reported to be useful in the diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction. A retrospective survey of 205 patients referred for sup(99m)Tc-phophate bone scanning and with no evidence of recent heart disease revealed an occurrence of 10% of false positive images, that is to say, uptake of phosphate in non-infarcted mayocardium. These striking findings stress the need for critical assessment of the usefulness of this diagnostic technique.

  8. Hepatobiliary scan in neonatal Jaundice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahar, Nurun; Hasan, Mizanul; Karim, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Jaundice is more or less common in newborn babies. Through physiological jaundice is most common cause of neonatal jaundice, possibility of obstructive jaundice especially biliary atresia should be kept in mind. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia followed by surgical treatment can save baby's life. Otherwise death is inevitable due to liver failure. Hepatobiliary scan is the imaging study of choice in neonatal jaundice especially when there is persistent conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia. Total 27 newborn babies of suspected biliary atresia, aged 14 days to 4 months were referred to Institute of Nuclear Medicine for Hepatobiliary scan. All of them had high serum bilirubin ranged from 6.0 mg/dl with an average of 9.35 ng/dl serum bilirubin level. Ultrasonography of hepatobiliary system was performed in 14 cases showing normal sized liver in 4 cases and hepatomegaly in 10 cases. Hepatobiliary scan was done with 99m Tc-Mebrofenin (Br IDA) after preparing the baby with phenobarbitone for 3-5 days. 20 (67%) cases were scan positive suggesting biliary atresia (BA) and 7(27%) cases were scan negative. In BA there will be increased hepatic uptake of the radionuclide without any significant excretion even in 24 hours delayed images. Presence of radiotracer in the bowel exclude the diagnosis of BA. Early diagnosis of biliary atresia is very important because in this condition surgery should be performed early (within 60 days of life). Studies suggest that hepatobiliary scan after hepatic stimulation with phenobarbitone for a period of 3-5 days is highly accurate for differentiating biliary atresia from other causes of neonatal jaundice. It is very important to perform hepatobiliary scan in a case of neonatal jaundice to exclude biliary atresia for the sake of baby's life.(author)

  9. Obstacles to Industrial Implementation of Scanning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders Astrom; Olog Broman; John Graffman; Anders Gronlund; Armas Jappinene; Jari Luostarinen; Jan Nystrom; Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1998-01-01

    Initially the group discussed what is meant by scanning systems. An operational definition was adopted to consider scanning system in the current context to be nontraditional scanning. Where, traditional scanning is defined as scanning that has been industrially operational and relatively common for several years-a mature technology. For example,...

  10. Interesting bone scans - unusual findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, M.; Wadhwa, S.S.; Mansberg, R.; Fernandes, V.B.

    1997-01-01

    A 59-year-old female with carcinoma of the colon and known liver metastatic disease was referred for bone scan to evaluate for bone metastases. Although no bone metastases were found, there was abnormal uptake noted in the liver corresponding to a metastatic calcified lesion. The only other findings were of degenerative disease in the cervical spine, right shoulder and small joints of the hands. A 69-year-old male with carcinoma of the prostate and right side low back pain was referred for bone scan. No focal abnormalities to suggest metastatic disease were identified; findings within the cervical spine, lumber spine and knees were presumed secondary to degenerative disease. Intermittent pain persisted and the patient was referred for a repeat bone scan six months later. Previous scan findings of degenerative disease and no metastatic disease were confirmed; however, closer inspection revealed an enlarged right kidney with significant retention of tracer in the pelvicalyceal system suggesting possible obstruction. A Retrograde pyelogram was performed, and no obvious obstruction demonstrated. As bone scan findings were very suggestive of obstruction, a DTPA scan with lasix was performed showing a dilated right collecting system with no functional obstruction. Given the degree of dilation, it is possible that the patient experiences intermittent PUJ obstruction causing his symptoms. A 33-year-old male with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and viral arthritis was referred for a bone scan. A three phase revealed increased uptake in the region of the knee and leR proximal tibia. Delayed whole body images revealed multiple focal areas of osteoblastic activity in the leR tibia. Abnormal uptake was also seen in the upper third of the leR femur. The remainder of the skeletal survey was normal. X-ray correlation of the leR tibia and femoral findings was undertaken. Combinating unilateral changes on bone scan and X-ray although very suggestive of sclerotic polyostotic

  11. The boundary-scan handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, Kenneth P

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at electronics industry professionals, this 4th edition of the Boundary Scan Handbook describes recent changes to the IEEE1149.1 Standard Test Access Port and Boundary-Scan Architecture. This updated edition features new chapters on the possible effects of the changes on the work of the practicing test engineers and the new 1149.8.1 standard. Anyone needing to understand the basics of boundary scan and its practical industrial implementation will need this book. Provides an overview of the recent changes to the 1149.1 standard and the effect of the changes on the work of test engineers;   Explains the new IEEE 1149.8.1 subsidiary standard and applications;   Describes the latest updates on the supplementary IEEE testing standards. In particular, addresses: IEEE Std 1149.1                      Digital Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.4                      Analog Boundary-Scan IEEE Std 1149.6                      Advanced I/O Testing IEEE Std 1149.8.1           �...

  12. CAMAC gamma ray scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, C.E.; Pratt, J.C.; Shunk, E.R.

    1981-01-01

    A flexible gamma-ray scanning system, based on a LeCroy 3500 multichannel analyzer and CAMAC modules, is described. The system is designed for making simultaneous passive and active scans of objects of interest to nuclear safeguards. The scanner is a stepping-motor-driven carriage; the detectors, a bismuth-germanate scintillator and a high-purity germanium detector. A total of sixteen peaks in the two detector-produced spectra can be integrated simultaneously, and any scan can be viewed during data acquisition. For active scanning, the 2615-keV gamma-ray line from a 232 U source and the 4439-keV gamma-ray line from 9 Be(α,n) 12 C were selected. The system can be easily reconfigured to accommodate up to seven detectors because it is based on CAMAC modules and FORTRAN. The system is designed for field use and is easily transported. Examples of passive and active scans are presented

  13. Security scanning at 94GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Rupert N.; Appleby, Roger; Beale, John E.; Coward, Peter R.; Price, Sean

    2006-05-01

    It is well known that millimetre waves can pass through clothing. In short range applications such as in the scanning of people for security purposes, operating at W band can be an advantage. The size of the equipment is decreased when compared to operation at Ka band and the equipments have similar performance. In this paper a W band mechanically scanned imager designed for imaging weapons and contraband hidden under clothing is discussed. This imager is based on a modified folded conical scan technology previously reported. In this design an additional optical element is added to give a Cassegrain configuration in image space. This increases the effective focal length and enables improved sampling of the image and provides more space for the receivers. This imager is constructed from low cost materials such as polystyrene, polythene and printed circuit board materials. The trade off between image spatial resolution and thermal sensitivity is discussed.

  14. Scanning Terahertz Heterodyne Imaging Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Peter; Dengler, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging systems are now at an early stage of development. In a basic scanning terahertz heterodyne imaging system, (see Figure 1) two far-infrared lasers generate beams denoted the local-oscillator (LO) and signal that differ in frequency by an amount, denoted the intermediate frequency (IF), chosen to suit the application. The LO beam is sent directly to a mixer as one of two inputs. The signal beam is focused to a spot on or in the specimen. After transmission through or reflection from the specimen, the beams are focused to a spot on a terahertz mixer, which extracts the IF outputs. The specimen is mounted on a translation stage, by means of which the focal spot is scanned across the specimen to build up an image.

  15. Scanning vector Hall probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, V.; Gregusova, D.; Fedor, J.; Kudela, R.; Bending, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    We have developed a scanning vector Hall probe microscope for mapping magnetic field vector over magnetic samples. The microscope is based on a micromachined Hall sensor and the cryostat with scanning system. The vector Hall sensor active area is ∼5x5 μm 2 . It is realized by patterning three Hall probes on the tilted faces of GaAs pyramids. Data from these 'tilted' Hall probes are used to reconstruct the full magnetic field vector. The scanning area of the microscope is 5x5 mm 2 , space resolution 2.5 μm, field resolution ∼1 μT Hz -1/2 at temperatures 10-300 K

  16. Footwear scanning systems and methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Justin L.; McMakin, Douglas L.; Sheen, David M.; Tedeschi, Jonathan R.

    2017-07-25

    Methods and apparatus for scanning articles, such as footwear, to provide information regarding the contents of the articles are described. According to one aspect, a footwear scanning system includes a platform configured to contact footwear to be scanned, an antenna array configured to transmit electromagnetic waves through the platform into the footwear and to receive electromagnetic waves from the footwear and the platform, a transceiver coupled with antennas of the antenna array and configured to apply electrical signals to at least one of the antennas to generate the transmitted electromagnetic waves and to receive electrical signals from at least another of the antennas corresponding to the electromagnetic waves received by the others of the antennas, and processing circuitry configured to process the received electrical signals from the transceiver to provide information regarding contents within the footwear.

  17. Double-polarizating scanning radiometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, D.N.; Nazyrski, T.G.

    1986-01-01

    The double-polarizating single-channel scanning radiometer comprises the following serial connected parts: a scanning double-polarizating aerial, a block for polarization separation, a radiometer receiver, an analog-to-digit converter and an information flow forming block. The low frequency input of the radiometer receiver is connected with a control block, which is also connected with a first bus of a microprocessor, the second bus of which is connected with the A-D converter. The control input of the scanning double-polarizating aerial is connected with the first microprocessor bus. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are linked by an electronic switch with the output of the forming block, the input of which is connected to the first input of the control block. The control inputs of the block for polarization separation are connected with the second and the third input of the information flow forming block. 2 cls

  18. Scanning probe microscopy competency development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawley, M.E.; Reagor, D.W.; Jia, Quan Xi [and others

    1998-12-31

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project collaborators developed an ultra-high vacuum scanning tunneling microscope (UHV-STM) capability, integrated it with existing scanning probe microscopes, and developed new, advanced air-based scanning force techniques (SPMs). Programmatic, basic, and industrially related laboratory research requires the existence of SPMs, as well as expertise capable of providing local nano-scale information. The UHV-STM capability, equipped with load-lock system and several surface science techniques, will allow introduction, examination, and reaction of surfaces prepared under well-controlled vacuum conditions, including the examination of morphology and local bonding associated with the initial stages of film growth under controlled growth conditions. The resulting capabilities will enable the authors to respond to a variety of problems requiring local characterization of conducting and nonconducting surfaces in liquids, air, and UHV.

  19. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  20. Linking world scan and image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmer, H.; Alcamo, J.; Bollen, J.; Gielen, A.; Gerlach, R.; Den Ouden, A.; Zuidema, G.

    1995-01-01

    In march 1994 the Central Planning Bureau (CPB) in the Hague, the National Institute of Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) in Bilthoven and the Institute of Environmental Studies (IES) in Amsterdam started the first phase of a joint research program aimed at creating integrated scenarios of the global economy, GHG emissions, and climate impacts. The goal of the first phase of this project was to design and test a linked version of the economic model WORLD SCAN of the former, and the climate model IMAGE 2 of the latter institute. This first phase has resulted in the planned test runs with an operational version of the linked models by May 1995. The experiences in the first year were encouraging, both in the scientific and the organizational sense. In a sense, a link was made between scientific disciplines: a coupling of disciplines concerning with global economic development and the global physical climate system is difficult and novel. The goal of the project was to integrate long-term economic developments and effects of climate change. Both the WORLD SCAN model and IMAGE 2 provide a consistent analysis of the global system, but from different perspectives. IMAGE 2 simulates climate change and its effects in a global context but treats the economic system as exogenous. WORLD SCAN covers the world economic system in a consistent manner but does not take into account the global environment. The links are constructed in the area of agriculture and energy. The basic idea is that WORLD SCAN determines demand and supply on economic principles, while IMAGE 2 provides information on changes of land area and average quality of productive land, and other damage costs based on its three sub-systems. The demand for energy is fed into IMAGE 2's Energy Industry subsystem (EIS), which in turn determines emissions of greenhouse gases. Furthermore, some additional output from WORLD SCAN on activity levels, prices and capital structure can be used to determine

  1. Advanced HEDL gamma scan system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, F.C.; Olson, R.N.

    1983-01-01

    The design of an advanced state-of-the-art gamma scan system built for the purpose of measuring the point-by-point gamma activity of irradiated fuel rods is described. The emphasis of the system design was to achieve the highest rate of throughput with the minimum per rod cost while maintaining system accuracy and reliability. Preliminary tests demonstrate that all system requirements were met or exceeded. The system provides improved throughput, precision, automation, flexibility, and data processing capability over previous gamma scan systems

  2. Electronically-Scanned Pressure Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coe, C. F.; Parra, G. T.; Kauffman, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    Sensors not pneumatically switched. Electronic pressure-transducer scanning system constructed in modular form. Pressure transducer modules and analog to digital converter module small enough to fit within cavities of average-sized wind-tunnel models. All switching done electronically. Temperature controlled environment maintained within sensor modules so accuracy maintained while ambient temperature varies.

  3. High Resolution Scanning Ion Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castaldo, V.

    2011-01-01

    The structure of the thesis is the following. The first chapter is an introduction to scanning microscopy, where the path that led to the Focused Ion Beam (FIB) is described and the main differences between electrons and ion beams are highlighted. Chapter 2 is what is normally referred to (which I

  4. Bone Densitometry (Bone Density Scan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... made of metal. Objects such as keys or wallets that would be in the area being scanned should be removed. You will ... and are often available in drugstores and on mobile health vans in the community. The pDEXA device is much smaller than ...

  5. Nanobits: customizable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajendra; Shaik, Hassan Uddin; Sardan Sukas, Özlem

    2009-01-01

    We present here a proof-of-principle study of scanning probe tips defined by planar nanolithography and integrated with AFM probes using nanomanipulation. The so-called 'nanobits' are 2-4 mu m long and 120-150 nm thin flakes of Si3N4 or SiO2, fabricated by electron beam lithography and standard s...

  6. Scanning tunneling microscope nanoetching method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Zhong; Reifenberger, Ronald G.; Andres, Ronald P.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for forming uniform nanometer sized depressions on the surface of a conducting substrate. A tunneling tip is used to apply tunneling current density sufficient to vaporize a localized area of the substrate surface. The resulting depressions or craters in the substrate surface can be formed in information encoding patterns readable with a scanning tunneling microscope.

  7. Introduction to scanning tunneling microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C Julian

    2008-01-01

    The scanning tunneling and the atomic force microscope, both capable of imaging individual atoms, were crowned with the Physics Nobel Prize in 1986, and are the cornerstones of nanotechnology today. This is a thoroughly updated version of this 'bible' in the field.

  8. CT scan of Parkinson's disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konishi, T; Noguchi, S; Nishitani, H [National Sanatorium of Utano, Kyoto (Japan); Kitano, H; Ikegami, Y

    1981-04-01

    In forty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease, we examined the ventricular size and the degree of cortical atrophy which were measured by the photos of CT scan and compared them with their clinical symptoms and side effects of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The ventricular size was expressed as the ventricular ratio which is the percentage of superimposed lateral ventricular area to the white and gray matter area at the slice number 2B of CT scan photos. The degree of the cortical atrophy was expressed as the sulcal numbers which were clearly visualized at the slice number 3B or 4A of CT scan photos. We used the CT scan photos of age-matched other patients which did not show definit central nervous system abnormalities. Our findings were as follows: (1) The ventricular enlargement was observed in the parkinsonian patients who showed dementia and/or Yahr's classification grades IV or V. (2) There was no correlation between the duration of this disease and the L--dopa treatments with the ventricular size and sulcal numbers. (3) The side effects of drugs such as visual hallucination were tended to be observed in the patients who showed the ventricular enlargement. (4) There was no definite correlation between the degree of cortical atrophy with clinical symptoms and side effects of various drugs. These findings suggested that the ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease was an important sign of dementia and the tendency of appearance of side effects of various drugs.

  9. Bone scan indications in oncology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, A.F.G. da; Marquiotti, M.

    1986-01-01

    The scintigraphic method is described and a critical analysis of its value in the research of bone metastases is presented. The method validity, the positivity of bone scan for metastases at the first examination and the preferencial distribution metastases in skeleton are related.Bone pain and the results of bone scintigram are correlated. (M.A.C.) [pt

  10. CT scan of Parkinson's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konishi, Tetsuro; Noguchi, Sadako; Nishitani, Hiroshi; Kitano, Haruo; Ikegami, Yoshinori.

    1981-01-01

    In forty-eight patients with Parkinson's disease, we examined the ventricular size and the degree of cortical atrophy which were measured by the photos of CT scan and compared them with their clinical symptoms and side effects of anti-parkinsonian drugs. The ventricular size was expressed as the ventricular ratio which is the percentage of superimposed lateral ventricular area to the white and gray matter area at the slice number 2B of CT scan photos. The degree of the cortical atrophy was expressed as the sulcal numbers which were clearly visualized at the slice number 3B or 4A of CT scan photos. We used the CT scan photos of age-matched other patients which did not show definit central nervous system abnormalities. Our findings were as follows: (1) The ventricular enlargement was observed in the parkinsonian patients who showed dementia and/or Yahr's classification grades IV or V. (2) There was no correlation between the duration of this disease and the L--dopa treatments with the ventricular size and sulcal numbers. (3) The side effects of drugs such as visual hallucination were tended to be observed in the patients who showed the ventricular enlargement. (4) There was no definite correlation between the degree of cortical atrophy with clinical symptoms and side effects of various drugs. These findings suggested that the ventricular enlargement in Parkinson's disease was an important sign of dementia and the tendency of appearance of side effects of various drugs. (author)

  11. Pulmonary ventilation/perfusion scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to stop eating (fast), be on a special diet, or take any medicines before the test. A chest x-ray is usually done before or after a ventilation and perfusion scan. You wear a hospital gown or comfortable clothing that does not have ...

  12. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  13. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2012-09-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  14. /sup 67/Ga lung scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niden, A.H.; Mishkin, F.S.; Khurana, M.M.L.; Pick, R.

    1977-03-21

    Twenty-three patients with clinical signs of pulmonary embolic disease and lung infiltrates were studied to determine the value of gallium citrate /sup 67/Ga lung scan in differentiating embolic from inflammatory lung disease. In 11 patients without angiographically proved embolism, only seven had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. In seven of these 11 patients, the /sup 67/Ga concentration indicated inflammatory disease. In the 12 patients with angiographically proved embolic disease, six had corresponding ventilation-perfusion defects compatible with inflammatory disease. None had an accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the area of pulmonary infiltrate. Thus, ventilation-perfusion lung scans are of limited value when lung infiltrates are present. In contrast, the accumulation of /sup 67/Ga in the lung indicates an inflammatory process. Gallium imaging can help select those patients with lung infiltrates who need angiography.

  15. Automation of BESSY scanning tables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanton, J.; Kesteman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A micro processor M6800 is used for the automation of scanning and premeasuring BESSY tables. The tasks achieved by the micro processor are: 1. control of spooling of the four asynchronous film winding devices and switching on and off the 4 projections lamps, 2. pre-processing of the data coming from a bi-polar coordinates measuring device, 3. bi-directional interchange of informations between the operator, the BESSY table and the DEC PDP 11/34 mini computer controling the scanning operations, 4. control of the magnification on the table by swapping the projection lenses of appropriate focal lengths and the associated light boxes (under development). In connection with point 4, study is being made for the use of BESSY tables for accurate measurements (+/-5 microns), by encoding the displacements of the projections lenses. (orig.)

  16. Seismic scanning tunneling macroscope - Theory

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Hanafy, Sherif M.; Huang, Yunsong

    2012-01-01

    We propose a seismic scanning tunneling macroscope (SSTM) that can detect the presence of sub-wavelength scatterers in the near-field of either the source or the receivers. Analytic formulas for the time reverse mirror (TRM) profile associated with a single scatterer model show that the spatial resolution limit to be, unlike the Abbe limit of λ/2, independent of wavelength and linearly proportional to the source-scatterer separation as long as the point scatterer is in the near-field region; if the sub-wavelength scatterer is a spherical impedance discontinuity then the resolution will also be limited by the radius of the sphere. Therefore, superresolution imaging can be achieved as the scatterer approaches the source. This is analogous to an optical scanning tunneling microscope that has sub-wavelength resolution. Scaled to seismic frequencies, it is theoretically possible to extract 100 Hz information from 20 Hz data by imaging of near-field seismic energy.

  17. Fast-scan NMR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwaoka, Hideto; Matsuura, Hiroyuki; Sugiyama, Tadashi; Hirata, Takaaki

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the Fast Recovery (FR) method for fast-scan Nuclear Magnetic Resonance imaging. The FR method uses a sequence of four radio frequency pulses - alternating selective 90 deg nutation pulses and nonselective 180 deg pulses. One free induction decay (FID) signal and one echo signal are detected and averaged to compute a 2-D image. In the modified FR method, extra 180 deg pulses are applied between 90 deg pulses to cause refocusing and the resultant spin echo signals are averaged to improve the signal to noise ratio. For the FR and modified FR sequences, the macroscopic magnetization is restored to equilibrium quickly and exactly; scan time can consequently be less than that for conventional pulse sequences, such as used in the saturation recovery method, without any penalty in signal to noise ratio. This paper derives expressions for the signal to noise ratio, scan time ratio and contrast noise ratio, compares the FR and modified FR methods with the saturation recovery method and presents experimental results for human body images. In theory and practice, the signal to noise ratio for the FR method is larger than that for the modified FR method. For a given signal to noise ratio the scan time is between one half and one fourth that for the saturation recovery method. The optimum repetition period, T r , is 0.07 ∼ 0.25 s for the FR method, and 0.1 ∼ 0.5 s for the modified FR method. Contrast noise ratio is low for high speed imaging, T r = 0.07 ∼ 0.25 s, but, high contrast noise ratio image is obtained for T r > 0.5 s. (author)

  18. First PET scans in Estonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, Sergei

    2003-01-01

    First PET scans in Estonia were performed on 25th November 2002 in North Estonia Regional Hospital, Tallinn. Six patients with melanoma underwent scanning with FDG. This event was a result of thorough extensive preparations first started in 2000 during the European Association of Nuclear Medicine congress in Paris. During the congress first contacts were made with providers of mobile PET units. At the same time negotiations were begun with potential FDG suppliers. For the introduction of PET in Estonia mobile truckmounted scanning technology was chosen due to low level of initial investments. Of particular importance was also availability of maintenance personnel from the device providers. A significant prerequisite was potential availability of FDG from the neighbourhood - Finland and Sweden. The latter avoided the necessity for investments into local cyclotrons and local FDG production. For the first scanning experience the dedicated truckmounted PET-camera Accel, Siemens was brought by the International Hospital Group (IHG, Amersfoort, Netherlands). The device arrived by ferry from Stockholm to Tallinn harbour at 10 o'clock in the morning and left by ferry for Helsinki at 23 o'clock. The team-on-truck consisted of one technician for device operation, two drivers and two company representatives. North Estonia Regional Hospital provided three additional technicians for patient preparation and FDG injection, one nuclear medicine doctor and one specialist of biomedical engineering and medical physics. The FDG was provided by MAP Medical Technologies, Schering, Helsinki, Finland. The shipments were made by air. This was possible due to small distance between Tallinn and Helsinki of approximately 80 km due to the regular flight connections between the two cities. The FDG was shipped in two lots with a time interval of 4 hours. The patient selection was based on clinical and histopathology data. In all six patients the exam was justified for detailied staging and

  19. A new ultrasensitive scanning calorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikov, V V; Brandts, J M; Lin, L N; Brandts, J F

    1997-08-01

    A new ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimeter is described, having a number of novel features arising from integration between hardware and software. It is capable of high performance in either a scanning or isothermal mode of operation. Upscanning is carried out adiabatically while downscanning is nonadiabatic. By using software-controlled signals sent continuously to appropriate hardware devices, it is possible to improve adiabaticity and constancy of scan rate through use of empirical prerun information stored in memory rather than by using feedback systems which respond in real time and generate thermal noise. Also, instrument response time is software-selectable, maximizing performance for both slow- and fast-transient systems. While these and other sophisticated functionalities have been introduced into the instrument to improve performance and data analysis, they are virtually invisible and add no additional complexities into operation of the instrument. Noise and baseline repeatability are an order of magnitude better than published raw data from other instruments so that high-quality results can be obtained on protein solutions, for example, using as little as 50 microg of protein in the sample cell.

  20. New Snail Mail Scanning Service

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    Modernisation does not stop at the CERN postal service (GS/PS). “With more and more digitisation and the prevalence of e-mail throughout the site, we were hoping to provide more timely delivery of letters and make further saving in resources”, said Tueri Datta, head of GS/PS.   Instead of the standard delivery to your P.O. box, the CERN postal service will digitally scan all letters and books up to 100 pages on reception. These scans will subsequently be sent via e-mail to the corresponding recipient as PDF (Portable Data Format - you will need to install “Acrobat Reader” on your PC). Express mail will be handled with priority. Users without a valid CERN mailbox can register at mail.scan.service@cern.ch in order to have their letters read to them via the phone line (we are currently investigating whether we can use the voices of the last five DGs).   This service will start on 1st April 2012 on the Meyrin site and will gradually replace th...

  1. Multiple myeloma: radiology or bone scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, R.C.F.; Owen, J.P.; Proctor, S.J.; Hamilton, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A comparative study of radionuclide bone scanning and skeletal radiology in patients with multiple myeloma revealed four principal findings: (i) There were no cases of negative bone scans with positive skeletal radiographs. (ii) Lytic bone lesions were seriously underestimated by bone scans. (iii) Bone scans tended to pick up lesions in ribs missed on the skeletal surveys. (iv) Patients with bone pain were more likely to have positive bone scans and skeletal radiographs than asymptomatic patients. (author)

  2. Vertical Scan-Conversion for Filling Purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Hersch, R. D.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional scan-conversion algorithms were developed independently of filling algorithms. They cause many problems, when used for filling purposes. However, today's raster printers and plotters require extended use of filling, especially for the generation of typographic characters and graphic line art. A new scan-conversion algorithm, called vertical scan-conversion has been specifically designed to meet the requirements of parity scan line fill algorithms. Vertical scan-conversion ensures...

  3. Preoperative nuclear scans in patients with melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Au, F.C.; Maier, W.P.; Malmud, L.S.; Goldman, L.I.; Clark, W.H. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    One hundred forty-one liver scans, 137 brain scans, and 112 bone scans were performed in 192 patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma. One liver scan was interpreted as abnormal; liver biopsy of that patient showed no metastasis. There were 11 suggestive liver scans; three of the patients with suggestive liver scans had negative liver biopsies. The remaining eight patients were followed from 4 to 6 years and none of those patients developed clinical evidence of hepatic metastases. All of the brain scans were normal. Five patients had suggestive bone scans and none of those patients had manifested symptoms of osseous metastases with a follow-up of 2 to 4.5 years. This study demonstrates that the use of preoperative liver, brain and bone scan in the evaluation of patients with clinical Stage 1 melanoma is virtually unproductive

  4. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal

    2011-08-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the \\'Needleman-Wunsch\\' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. ABS: Sequence alignment by scanning

    KAUST Repository

    Bonny, Mohamed Talal; Salama, Khaled N.

    2011-01-01

    Sequence alignment is an essential tool in almost any computational biology research. It processes large database sequences and considered to be high consumers of computation time. Heuristic algorithms are used to get approximate but fast results. We introduce fast alignment algorithm, called Alignment By Scanning (ABS), to provide an approximate alignment of two DNA sequences. We compare our algorithm with the well-known alignment algorithms, the FASTA (which is heuristic) and the 'Needleman-Wunsch' (which is optimal). The proposed algorithm achieves up to 76% enhancement in alignment score when it is compared with the FASTA Algorithm. The evaluations are conducted using different lengths of DNA sequences. © 2011 IEEE.

  6. NGA/Insulin receptor scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurtaran, A.; Virgolini, I.

    1994-01-01

    Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) is one of the first receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals which specifically recognizes the hepatic binding protein (HBP) located on the surface of the hepatocytes. The exclusive interactin of NGA with HBP provided the basis for a kinetic model for the evaluation hepatocellular function. During the last years we have used NGA in more than 300 patients with various liver diseases including liver cirrhosis (Stages Child A to Child C), viral hepatitis, and carcinomas. In these studies, the calculated HBP densities, after i.v.-injection of Tc-99m-NGA, significantly correlated with the clinical course of the diseases. Furthermore, similar to conventional Tc-colloid, NGA provided excellent demonstration of 'cold spots' for hepatic masses. In a further approach we used another hepatocyte receptor-seeking radioligand, I-123-Tyr-A14- insulin, and found, that its in vitro-binding to hepatocellular carcinomas is greatly enhanced over normal hepatic tissue. On this basis, we developed a double-tracer method using NGA and insulin in a single study. Thus, areas of 'cold spots' identifying hepatic masses on NGA scans, take up I-123-Tyr-A14-insulin immediately after i.v.-injection. This was true for hepatocellular hepatomas, but not for adenocarcinomas. In conclusion, NGA/insulin receptor scanning could be a novel and save method for the demonstration of hepatocellular hepatomas. (author)

  7. Multifunctional scanning ion conductance microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, Ashley; Unwin, Patrick R.

    2017-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is a nanopipette-based technique that has traditionally been used to image topography or to deliver species to an interface, particularly in a biological setting. This article highlights the recent blossoming of SICM into a technique with a much greater diversity of applications and capability that can be used either standalone, with advanced control (potential–time) functions, or in tandem with other methods. SICM can be used to elucidate functional information about interfaces, such as surface charge density or electrochemical activity (ion fluxes). Using a multi-barrel probe format, SICM-related techniques can be employed to deposit nanoscale three-dimensional structures and further functionality is realized when SICM is combined with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), with simultaneous measurements from a single probe opening up considerable prospects for multifunctional imaging. SICM studies are greatly enhanced by finite-element method modelling for quantitative treatment of issues such as resolution, surface charge and (tip) geometry effects. SICM is particularly applicable to the study of living systems, notably single cells, although applications extend to materials characterization and to new methods of printing and nanofabrication. A more thorough understanding of the electrochemical principles and properties of SICM provides a foundation for significant applications of SICM in electrochemistry and interfacial science. PMID:28484332

  8. NGA/Insulin receptor scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurtaran, A; Virgolini, I [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Abt. fuer Nuklearmedizin; Angelberger, P [Ludwig Boltzmann-Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin, Vienna (Austria)

    1994-10-01

    Tc-99m-galactosyl-neoglycoalbumin (NGA) is one of the first receptor-based radiopharmaceuticals which specifically recognizes the hepatic binding protein (HBP) located on the surface of the hepatocytes. The exclusive interactin of NGA with HBP provided the basis for a kinetic model for the evaluation hepatocellular function. During the last years we have used NGA in more than 300 patients with various liver diseases including liver cirrhosis (Stages Child A to Child C), viral hepatitis, and carcinomas. In these studies, the calculated HBP densities, after i.v.-injection of Tc-99m-NGA, significantly correlated with the clinical course of the diseases. Furthermore, similar to conventional Tc-colloid, NGA provided excellent demonstration of `cold spots` for hepatic masses. In a further approach we used another hepatocyte receptor-seeking radioligand, I-123-Tyr-A14- insulin, and found, that its in vitro-binding to hepatocellular carcinomas is greatly enhanced over normal hepatic tissue. On this basis, we developed a double-tracer method using NGA and insulin in a single study. Thus, areas of `cold spots` identifying hepatic masses on NGA scans, take up I-123-Tyr-A14-insulin immediately after i.v.-injection. This was true for hepatocellular hepatomas, but not for adenocarcinomas. In conclusion, NGA/insulin receptor scanning could be a novel and save method for the demonstration of hepatocellular hepatomas. (author).

  9. Isotope scanning for tumor localization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1961-09-15

    At the request of the Government of the United Arab Republic, the Agency provided the services of an expert for the establishment in the UAR of a tumor localization program using photoscanning techniques and appropriate radioactive tracers. Photoscanning is a recently developed technique whereby the differences in isotope concentrations are enhanced on the record, and this facilitates the interpretation of the record. A variety of brain tumors were located, using a suitable radioactive tracer (Hg-203 - labelled Neohydrin) obtained from the USA. In some other investigations, processes in the kidney were scanned. Further, radioactive gold was used to demonstrate the normal and pathological spleen and liver and these tests showed various types of space occupying lesions resulting from malignancy and the parasitic infections endemic to the area. While the localization of brain tumors by scanning techniques is extremely useful, it does not always establish the precise extent of the tumor which should be known at the time of surgery. Dr. Bender, therefore, thought it advisable to instruct personnel in the use of what is known as an in-vivo needle scintillation probe - a technique for the investigation of the isotope concentration in a particular tissue during operation. The necessary instrument was obtained for this purpose and demonstrations were given; one patient was examined in this way at the time of surgery at the University of Alexandria Hospital.

  10. Differential scanning calorimetry of bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, C A; Mackey, B M; Parsons, S E

    1986-04-01

    Thermograms obtained by differential scanning calorimetry of a range of bacteria of different heat resistances were compared. Equations were derived to calculate the rate at which the numbers of viable organisms in a calorimeter decline as the temperature is raised at a constant rate. Vegetative bacteria scanned at 10 degrees C min-1 showed multi-peaked thermograms with four major peaks (denoted m, n, p and q) occurring in the regions 68-73, 77-84, 89-99 and 105-110 degrees C respectively. Exceptions were that peak m (the largest peak) occurred at 79-82 degrees C in Bacillus stearothermophilus and an additional peak, r, was detected in Escherichia coli at 119 degrees C. At temperatures below the main peak m there were major differences in thermograms between species. There was a direct relationship between the onset of thermal denaturation and the thermoresistance of different organisms. Heat-sensitive organisms displayed thermogram features which were absent in the more heat-resistant types. When samples were cooled to 5 degrees C and re-heated, a small endothermic peak, pr, was observed at the same temperature as p. Peaks p and pr were identified as the melting endotherms of DNA. In all vegetative organisms examined, maximum death rates, computed from published D and z values, occurred at temperatures above the onset of thermal denaturation, i.e. cell death and irreversible denaturation of cell components occurred within the same temperature range.

  11. Mouse manipulation through single-switch scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackstien-Adler, Susie; Shein, Fraser; Quintal, Janet; Birch, Shae; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar

    2004-01-01

    Given the current extensive reliance on the graphical user interface, independent access to computer software requires that users be able to manipulate a pointing device of some type (e.g., mouse, trackball) or be able to emulate a mouse by some other means (e.g., scanning). The purpose of the present study was to identify one or more optimal single-switch scanning mouse emulation strategies. Four alternative scanning strategies (continuous Cartesian, discrete Cartesian, rotational, and hybrid quadrant/continuous Cartesian) were selected for testing based on current market availability as well as on theoretical considerations of their potential speed and accuracy. Each strategy was evaluated using a repeated measures study design by means of a test program that permitted mouse emulation via any one of four scanning strategies in a motivating environment; response speed and accuracy could be automatically recorded and considered in view of the motor, cognitive, and perceptual demands of each scanning strategy. Ten individuals whose disabilities required them to operate a computer via single-switch scanning participated in the study. Results indicated that Cartesian scanning was the preferred and most effective scanning strategy. There were no significant differences between results from the Continuous Cartesian and Discrete Cartesian scanning strategies. Rotational scanning was quite slow with respect to the other strategies, although it was equally accurate. Hybrid Quadrant scanning improved access time but at the cost of fewer correct selections. These results demonstrated the importance of testing and comparing alternate single-switch scanning strategies.

  12. Radionuclide scan findings in delayed splenic rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flickinger, F.W.; Jackson, G.L.

    1978-01-01

    An initial liver/spleen scan performed on a patient with blunt abdominal trauma was negative 3 days following the accident. A follow-up scan 7 days later showed definite evidence of splenic rupture, proved surgically. The authors conclude that, in such cases, spleen scans may be negative initially because of delayed splenic ruptures

  13. SCANNING AND TRACKING MONITORING APPARATUS AND METHOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed is a scanning monitoring apparatus for medical imaging, the scanning monitoring apparatus comprising a controller unit and a display, wherein the controller unit during a scanning session is configured to obtain tracking data (102) of a subject in a medical scanner, obtain scanner data ...

  14. Scanning laser polarimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dada, Tanuj; Sharma, Reetika; Angmo, Dewang; Sinha, Gautam; Bhartiya, Shibal; Mishra, Sanjay K; Panda, Anita; Sihota, Ramanjit

    2014-11-01

    Glaucoma is an acquired progressive optic neuropathy which is characterized by changes in the optic nerve head and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL). White-on-white perimetry is the gold standard for the diagnosis of glaucoma. However, it can detect defects in the visual field only after the loss of as many as 40% of the ganglion cells. Hence, the measurement of RNFL thickness has come up. Optical coherence tomography and scanning laser polarimetry (SLP) are the techniques that utilize the evaluation of RNFL for the evaluation of glaucoma. SLP provides RNFL thickness measurements based upon the birefringence of the retinal ganglion cell axons. We have reviewed the published literature on the use of SLP in glaucoma. This review elucidates the technological principles, recent developments and the role of SLP in the diagnosis and monitoring of glaucomatous optic neuropathy, in the light of scientific evidence so far.

  15. QUANTITATIVE CONFOCAL LASER SCANNING MICROSCOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merete Krog Raarup

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent advances in confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM for imaging of 3D structure as well as quantitative characterization of biomolecular interactions and diffusion behaviour by means of one- and two-photon excitation. The use of CLSM for improved stereological length estimation in thick (up to 0.5 mm tissue is proposed. The techniques of FRET (Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer, FLIM (Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy, FCS (Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy and FRAP (Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching are introduced and their applicability for quantitative imaging of biomolecular (co-localization and trafficking in live cells described. The advantage of two-photon versus one-photon excitation in relation to these techniques is discussed.

  16. Radiopharmaceutical agents for skeletal scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jansen, S.E.; Van Aswegen, A.; Loetter, M.G.; Minnaar, P.C.; Otto, A.C.; Goedhals, L.; Dedekind, P.S.

    1987-01-01

    The quality of bone scan images obtained with a locally produced and with an imported radiopharmaceutical bone agent, methylene diphosphonate (MDP), was compared visually. Standard skeletal imaging was carried out on 10 patients using both agents, with a period of 2 to 7 days between studies with alternate agents. Equal amounts of activity were administered for both agents. All images were acquired on Polaroid film for subsequent evaluation. The acquisition time for standard amount of counts per study was recorded. Three physicians with applicable experience evaluated image quality (on a 4 point scale) and detectability of metastasis (on a 3 point scale). There was no statistically significant difference (p 0,05) between the two agents by paired t-test of Hotelling's T 2 analysis. It is concluded that the imaging properties of the locally produced and the imported MDP are similar

  17. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanemaru, Takaaki; Hirata, Kazuho; Takasu, Shin-ichi; Isobe, Shin-ichiro; Mizuki, Keiji; Mataka, Shuntaro; Nakamura, Kei-ichiro

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM) and an electron microscope (EM). In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (JEOL JXA8600 M) was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM). In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  18. CT scan of pituitary adenomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakoda, K.; Mukada, K.; Yonezawa, M.; Matsumura, S.; Yoshimoto, H.; Mori, S.; Uozumi, T.

    1981-01-01

    CT scan is an extremely useful, almost harmless means of diagnosing pituitary adenomas. Growth hormone (GH)-secreting adenomas tend to have higher absorption coefficent in plain CT than the nonfunctioning and prolactin (PRL)-secreting adenomas. The absorption coefficent on contrast-enhanced CT does not identify the specific type of adenoma. Ring-like enhancement was observed in five nonfunctioning and four PRL-secreting adenomas with suprasellar extension, while cystic components were observed in four nonfunctioning and four PRL-secreting adenomas. In three of ten cases of PRL-secreting microadenomas, the site corresponding to the adenoma was not enhanced, whereas the normal pituitary was. A correlation exists between the size of PRL-secreting adenoma and the serum PRL level, but not between the size of GH-secreting adenomas and the serum GH level. (orig.)

  19. The utility of bone scans in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, I.; Dorai-Raj, A.; Khoo, K.; Tymans, K.; Brook, A.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Introduction: Bone scans are the commonest diagnostic imaging services requested by Australian rheumatologists. Medicare figures suggest that an average rheumatologist orders about $50 000 (AUS) of bone scans annually. Aims: To ascertain the reasons why rheumatologists request bone scans and how it affects their patient management. Methods: A two-part prospective survey was administered before and after every bone scan ordered by four rheumatologists over a six-month period in 1996. Results: A total of 136 bone scans were requested (66.2% whole body; 33.8% regional; 6% SPECT). The primary indications for scanning were (1) to confirm a clinical diagnosis (38%); (2) to exclude a diagnosis (34%); (3) to localize site of pain (17%); and (4) to assist in management (6%). The common diseases that rheumatologists were attempting to confirm/exclude with bone scanning were inflammatory arthritis, malignancy, and fracture. However, the commonest provisional and final diagnosis was soft tissue rheumatism (18%) followed by inflammatory arthritis (15%) and osteoarthritis (11%). In 24% of patients with a provisional diagnosis of soft tissue rheumatism the diagnosis was changed by the bone scan. The scan was successful in excluding a diagnosis in 88 per cent where this was the primary indication for the test. It was successful in confirming a diagnosis in 79 per cent where this was the primary indication. In 32 per cent the bone scan altered the clinical diagnosis and in 43 per cent it altered management. The bone scan result prevented further investigations in 60 per cent. Conclusions: The commonest pre-scan and post-scan diagnosis is soft tissue rheumatism. Rheumatologists predominantly request bone scanning to confirm or exclude their clinical suspicion of inflammatory arthritis, malignancy, and fracture. Bone scans were successful in achieving these objectives in at least 79 per cent of cases

  20. Handbook of optical and laser scanning

    CERN Document Server

    Marshall, Gerald F

    2011-01-01

    From its initial publication titled Laser Beam Scanning in 1985 to Handbook of Optical and Laser Scanning, now in its second edition, this reference has kept professionals and students at the forefront of optical scanning technology. Carefully and meticulously updated in each iteration, the book continues to be the most comprehensive scanning resource on the market. It examines the breadth and depth of subtopics in the field from a variety of perspectives. The Second Edition covers: Technologies such as piezoelectric devices Applications of laser scanning such as Ladar (laser radar) Underwater

  1. Bone scanning in severe external otitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, W.J.; Shary, J.H. III; Nichols, L.T.; Lucente, F.E.

    1986-01-01

    Technetium99 Methylene Diphosphate bone scanning has been considered an early valuable tool to diagnose necrotizing progressive malignant external otitis. However, to our knowledge, no formal studies have actually compared bone scans of otherwise young, healthy patients with severe external otitis to scans of patients with clinical presentation of malignant external otitis. Twelve patients with only severe external otitis were studied with Technetium99 Diphosphate and were compared to known cases of malignant otitis. All scans were evaluated by two neuroradiologists with no prior knowledge of the clinical status of the patients. Nine of the 12 patients had positive bone scans with many scans resembling those reported with malignant external otitis. Interestingly, there was no consistent correlation between the severity of clinical presentation and the amount of Technetium uptake. These findings suggest that a positive bone scan alone should not be interpreted as indicative of malignant external otitis

  2. Scanning Tunneling Optical Resonance Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Sheila; Wilt, Dave; Raffaelle, Ryne; Gennett, Tom; Tin, Padetha; Lau, Janice; Castro, Stephanie; Jenkins, Philip; Scheiman, Dave

    2003-01-01

    Scanning tunneling optical resonance microscopy (STORM) is a method, now undergoing development, for measuring optoelectronic properties of materials and devices on the nanoscale by means of a combination of (1) traditional scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) with (2) tunable laser spectroscopy. In STORM, an STM tip probing a semiconductor is illuminated with modulated light at a wavelength in the visible-to-near-infrared range and the resulting photoenhancement of the tunneling current is measured as a function of the illuminating wavelength. The photoenhancement of tunneling current occurs when the laser photon energy is sufficient to excite charge carriers into the conduction band of the semiconductor. Figure 1 schematically depicts a proposed STORM apparatus. The light for illuminating the semiconductor specimen at the STM would be generated by a ring laser that would be tunable across the wavelength range of interest. The laser beam would be chopped by an achromatic liquid-crystal modulator. A polarization-maintaining optical fiber would couple the light to the tip/sample junction of a commercial STM. An STM can be operated in one of two modes: constant height or constant current. A STORM apparatus would be operated in the constant-current mode, in which the height of the tip relative to the specimen would be varied in order to keep the tunneling current constant. In this mode, a feedback control circuit adjusts the voltage applied to a piezoelectric actuator in the STM that adjusts the height of the STM tip to keep the tunneling current constant. The exponential relationship between the tunneling current and tip-to-sample distance makes it relatively easy to implement this mode of operation. The choice of method by which the photoenhanced portion of the tunneling current would be measured depends on choice of the frequency at which the input illumination would be modulated (chopped). If the frequency of modulation were low enough (typically tunneling current

  3. Vacuum scanning capillary photoemission microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseyev, S A; Cherkun, A P; Mironov, B N; Petrunin, V V; Chekalin, S V

    2017-08-01

    We demonstrate the use of a conical capillary in a scanning probe microscopy for surface analysis. The probe can measure photoemission from a substrate by transmitting photoelectrons along the capillary as a function of probe position. The technique is demonstrated on a model substrate consisting of a gold reflecting layer on a compact disc which has been illuminated by an unfocused laser beam with a wavelength 400nm, from a femtosecond laser with a beam size of 4mm. A quartz capillary with a 2-µm aperture has been used in the experiments. The period of gold microstructure, shown to be 1.6µ, was measured by the conical probe operating in shear force mode. In shear force regime, the dielectric capillary has been used as a "classical" SPM tip, which provided images reflecting the surface topology. In a photoelectron regime photoelectrons passed through hollow tip and entered a detector. The spatial distribution of the recorded photoelectrons consisted of periodic mountain-valley strips, resembling the surface profile of the sample. Submicron spatial resolution has been achieved. This approach paves the way to study pulsed photodesorption of large organic molecular ions with high spatial and element resolution using the combination of a hollow-tip scanner with time-of-flight technique. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Monochromated scanning transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechberger, W.; Kothleitner, G.; Hofer, F.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) has developed into an established technique for chemical and structural analysis of thin specimens in the (scanning) transmission electron microscope (S)TEM. The energy resolution in EELS is largely limited by the stability of the high voltage supply, by the resolution of the spectrometer and by the energy spread of the source. To overcome this limitation a Wien filter monochromator was recently introduced with commercially available STEMs, offering the advantage to better resolve EELS fine structures, which contain valuable bonding information. The method of atomic resolution Z-contrast imaging within an STEM, utilizing a high-angle annular dark-field (HAADF) detector can perfectly complement the excellent energy resolution, since EELS spectra can be collected simultaneously. In combination with a monochromator microscope not only high spatial resolution images can be recorded but also high energy resolution EELS spectra are attainable. In this work we investigated the STEM performance of a 200 kV monochromated Tecnai F20 with a high resolution Gatan Imaging Filter (HR-GIF). (author)

  5. Clinical role of skeletal scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ell, P J

    1975-12-01

    Malignant disease very often spreads to the skeleton. This is particularly true for carcinomas of the breast, the lungs, the prostate, and the thyroid. Knowledge of the state of the skeleton in these disorders is therefore desirable since patient management will largely depend on the early detection of bony deposits. Primary bone disease often spreads to soft tissue (lungs), and the early detection of this may alter significantly the therapeutic approach to the primary lesion. Traditionally, x-ray skeletal surveys and serum enzyme measurements provide indices which can be used in the staging of these disorders. Complementary techniques such as mammography, xeroradiography, thermography, and radionuclide imaging have been used to provide further relevant information. A number of benign bone diseases need early assessment in order to institute the best form of treatment. It is of importance to assess the circulation in localized areas of bone and to predict the appearance of avascular necrosis, to understand the healing mechanisms involved in fractures, and to predict the outcome of bone grafting. In this paper the clinical role of bone scanning is reviewed, particular attention being given to the recent advances brought about by the introduction of the /sup 99m/Tc compounds. It is important that the non-specialist should be aware of the great improvement in the results obtained and in the help they can give him in deciding on the best management of each patient as an individual.

  6. Scanning electron microscopy of bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyde, Alan

    2012-01-01

    This chapter described methods for Scanning Electron Microscopical imaging of bone and bone cells. Backscattered electron (BSE) imaging is by far the most useful in the bone field, followed by secondary electrons (SE) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analytical modes. This chapter considers preparing and imaging samples of unembedded bone having 3D detail in a 3D surface, topography-free, polished or micromilled, resin-embedded block surfaces, and resin casts of space in bone matrix. The chapter considers methods for fixation, drying, looking at undersides of bone cells, and coating. Maceration with alkaline bacterial pronase, hypochlorite, hydrogen peroxide, and sodium or potassium hydroxide to remove cells and unmineralised matrix is described in detail. Attention is given especially to methods for 3D BSE SEM imaging of bone samples and recommendations for the types of resin embedding of bone for BSE imaging are given. Correlated confocal and SEM imaging of PMMA-embedded bone requires the use of glycerol to coverslip. Cathodoluminescence (CL) mode SEM imaging is an alternative for visualising fluorescent mineralising front labels such as calcein and tetracyclines. Making spatial casts from PMMA or other resin embedded samples is an important use of this material. Correlation with other imaging means, including microradiography and microtomography is important. Shipping wet bone samples between labs is best done in glycerol. Environmental SEM (ESEM, controlled vacuum mode) is valuable in eliminating -"charging" problems which are common with complex, cancellous bone samples.

  7. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Y K; Ahn, S B [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1969-09-15

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  8. Observation of Liver Color Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Y. K.; Ahn, S. B.

    1969-01-01

    In the past few years, scintigraphy has become increasingly important in clinical practice, and the use of a color-printing technique has permitted a more accurate interpretation of the scan image. Our liver color scintigrams consist of 51 hepatomas, 35 liver cirrhosis, 22 liver abscesses, 10 hepatitis and other 13 cases of the liver diseases which were clinically and pathologically diagnosed at Severance Hospital, Yonsei Univ. since Feb. 1969 through Sept. 1969. These scintigrams have been analyzed in terms of various pathologic morphology, such as size, shape, margin of the liver, distribution of radioactivity, and shape of the space occupying lesions. The results are as follows: 1) Enlargement of the liver was the most common finding in the diseased livers. The Rt. lobe enlargement was particularly prominent in the liver abscess. 2) Irregular distribution of radioactivity in the liver (so called mottling) was present in 78% of hepatoma, while it was seen only in 31% of liver abscesses. 3) Liver cirrhosis tends to show perihilar accumulation of the isotope (57%). 4) The deformity of the lower most angle of the Rt. lobe, and the Lt. lateral margin of the Lt. lobe was also impressive throughout the cases (74-95% of all diseased livers). 5) The frequency of visualization of the spleen was influenced by the size of space occupying lesions and the amount of functioning liver. 6) Differentiation between the liver abscess and hepatoma seems to be possible on scintigram, when shape an margin of defect and patterns of distribution of radioactivity in the remaining liver are clearly demonstrated.

  9. Data acquisition and control for gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, B.K.; Murray, A.S.; Quintana, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    A new computer-based data acquisition and control unit has been installed in the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) system for scanning irradiated reactor fuel pins. The scanning mechanism is controlled by a commercial multichannel analyzer via a CAMAC link with an intelligent crate controller. The scanning and control unit consists of three linked LSI-11 computers. The multitasking capability of the commercial operation system allows control decisions to be based upon currently acquiring data

  10. The use of radionuclides in brain scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boasquevisque, E.M.

    1979-01-01

    Brain scanning is easy to perform, safe and well tolerated by the patient. It has a high sensitivity, and accuracy (85-90%) in detecting focal lesions with a minimal size of 1.5-2cm, located superior to the brain stem; however, it lacks specificity. It does not compete with other procedures such as CT scan and angiography bit they rather complement one another. The brain scan is useful as a screening exam. (Author) [pt

  11. Towards vortex imaging with scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Dan T.

    1994-02-01

    A low temperature, Besocke beetle type scanning tunneling microscope, with a scan range of 10 by 10 microns was built. The scanning tunneling microscope was calibrates for various temperatures and tested on several samples. Gold monolayers evaporated at 400 deg C were resolved and their dynamic behavior observed. Atomic resolution images of graphite were obtained. The scanning tunneling microscope was designed for future applications of vortex imaging in superconductors. The special design considerations for this application are discussed and the physics underlying it reviewed. (author)

  12. Scanning Tunneling Microscope For Use In Vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Phillip B.

    1993-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope with subangstrom resolution developed to study surface structures. Although instrument used in air, designed especially for use in vacuum. Scanning head is assembly of small, mostly rigid components made of low-outgassing materials. Includes coarse-positioning mechanical-translation stage, on which specimen mounted by use of standard mounting stub. Tunneling tip mounted on piezoelectric fine-positioning tube. Application of suitable voltages to electrodes on piezoelectric tube controls scan of tunneling tip across surface of specimen. Electronic subsystem generates scanning voltages and collects data.

  13. Human Digital Modeling & Hand Scanning Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — This laboratory incorporates specialized scanning equipment, computer workstations and software applications for the acquisition and analysis of digitized models of...

  14. Status of automated nuclear scanning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, R.; Roberts, J.H.; Preston, C.C.; McNeece, J.P.; Ruddy, F.H.

    1983-07-01

    Present day minicomputers and microprocessors enable a range of automation, from partial to total, of tasks once thought beyond approach. The status of three computer controlled systems for quantitative track measurements is reviewed. Two systems, the Hanford optical track scanner (HOTS) and an automated scanning electron microscope (ASEM) are used for scanning solid state track recorders (SSTR). The third systems, the emulsion scanning processor (ESP), is an interactive system used to measure the length of proton tracks in nuclear research emulsions (NRE). Current limitations of these systems for quantitative track scanning are presented. Experimental uncertainties attained with these computer controlled systems are described using results obtained from reactor neutron dosimetry

  15. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español Obtención de una tomografía computada (video) CAT stands ...

  16. A Student-Built Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekkens, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Many introductory and nanotechnology textbooks discuss the operation of various microscopes including atomic force (AFM), scanning tunneling (STM), and scanning electron microscopes (SEM). In a nanotechnology laboratory class, students frequently utilize microscopes to obtain data without a thought about the detailed operation of the tool itself.…

  17. Automation of scanning technique by gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aamira, Yahya

    2011-01-01

    The gamma scan technique is a nuclear test allowing the analysis of the internal mechanical properties of distillation columns used in petrochemical industries. Such technique is performed manually. So we propose in this work to automate the gamma scan procedure test by using a PLC. In addition, supervision and data acquisition interfaces are proposed.

  18. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters in epidemiologic data. This paper shows that the usually applied elimination of secondary clusters as implemented in SatScan is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of set...

  19. Spatial scan statistics using elliptic windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse Engbo; Andersen, Jens Strodl; Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    2006-01-01

    The spatial scan statistic is widely used to search for clusters. This article shows that the usually applied elimination of secondary clusters as implemented in SatScan is sensitive to smooth changes in the shape of the clusters. We present an algorithm for generation of a set of confocal elliptic...

  20. Security scanning of Web sites at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2010-01-01

    As of early 2010, the CERN Computer Security Team will start regular scanning of all Web sites and Web applications at CERN, visible on the Internet, or on the General Purpose Network (office network). The goal of this scanning is to improve the quality of CERN Web sites. All deficits found will be reported by e-mail to the relevant Web site owners, and must be fixed in a timely manner. Web site owners may also request one-off scans of their Web site or Web application, by sending an e-mail to Computer.Security@cern.ch. These Web scans are designed to limit the impact on the scanned Web sites. Nevertheless, in very rare cases scans may cause undesired side-effects, e.g. generate a large number of log entries, or cause particularly badly designed or less robust Web applications to crash. If a Web site is affected by these security scans, it will also be susceptible to any more aggressive scan that can be performed any time by a malicious attacker. Such Web applications should be fixed, and also additionally...

  1. A Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels

    1995-01-01

    The Scanning Microwave Radar and Radiometer (SMRR) is a line scanner featuring a combined radar and radiometer system operating around 35 and 94 GHz. The layout of the SMRR is shown. The 2 offset antenna parabolas scan in synchronism, the receiver antenna has the highest gain in order to ensure...

  2. From Cooperative Scans to Predictive Buffer Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Switakowski; P.A. Boncz (Peter); M. Zukowski (Marcin)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractIn analytical applications, database systems often need to sustain workloads with multiple concurrent scans hitting the same table. The Cooperative Scans (CScans) framework, which introduces an Active Buer Manager (ABM) component into the database architecture, has been the most

  3. Scanning Capacitance Microscopy | Materials Science | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy. Top Right: Image of p-type and n-type material, obtained 'fingers' of light-colored n-type material on a yellow and blue background representing p-type material material, obtained using scanning capacitance microscopy, in a sample semiconductor device; the image shows

  4. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / For Kids / Getting a CAT Scan (Video) Print en español ...

  5. Time-resolved scanning tunnelling microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Houselt, Arie; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy has revolutionized our ability to image, study, and manipulate solid surfaces on the size scale of atoms. One important limitation of the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is, however, its poor time resolution. Recording a standard image with a STM typically takes

  6. Full cycle rapid scan EPR deconvolution algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseytlin, Mark

    2017-08-01

    Rapid scan electron paramagnetic resonance (RS EPR) is a continuous-wave (CW) method that combines narrowband excitation and broadband detection. Sinusoidal magnetic field scans that span the entire EPR spectrum cause electron spin excitations twice during the scan period. Periodic transient RS signals are digitized and time-averaged. Deconvolution of absorption spectrum from the measured full-cycle signal is an ill-posed problem that does not have a stable solution because the magnetic field passes the same EPR line twice per sinusoidal scan during up- and down-field passages. As a result, RS signals consist of two contributions that need to be separated and postprocessed individually. Deconvolution of either of the contributions is a well-posed problem that has a stable solution. The current version of the RS EPR algorithm solves the separation problem by cutting the full-scan signal into two half-period pieces. This imposes a constraint on the experiment; the EPR signal must completely decay by the end of each half-scan in order to not be truncated. The constraint limits the maximum scan frequency and, therefore, the RS signal-to-noise gain. Faster scans permit the use of higher excitation powers without saturating the spin system, translating into a higher EPR sensitivity. A stable, full-scan algorithm is described in this paper that does not require truncation of the periodic response. This algorithm utilizes the additive property of linear systems: the response to a sum of two inputs is equal the sum of responses to each of the inputs separately. Based on this property, the mathematical model for CW RS EPR can be replaced by that of a sum of two independent full-cycle pulsed field-modulated experiments. In each of these experiments, the excitation power equals to zero during either up- or down-field scan. The full-cycle algorithm permits approaching the upper theoretical scan frequency limit; the transient spin system response must decay within the scan

  7. Scanning tunneling microscope assembly, reactor, and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Feng; Salmeron, Miquel; Somorjai, Gabor A

    2014-11-18

    An embodiment of a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) reactor includes a pressure vessel, an STM assembly, and three spring coupling objects. The pressure vessel includes a sealable port, an interior, and an exterior. An embodiment of an STM system includes a vacuum chamber, an STM reactor, and three springs. The three springs couple the STM reactor to the vacuum chamber and are operable to suspend the scanning tunneling microscope reactor within the interior of the vacuum chamber during operation of the STM reactor. An embodiment of an STM assembly includes a coarse displacement arrangement, a piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement, and a receiver. The piezoelectric fine displacement scanning tube is coupled to the coarse displacement arrangement. The receiver is coupled to the piezoelectric scanning tube and is operable to receive a tip holder, and the tip holder is operable to receive a tip.

  8. Diagnosis of Stomach Carcinoma by Radioisotope Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerniak, P.; Meytes, E.; Sinkover, A.; Bank, H. [Tel-Hashomer Government Hospital, University of Tel Aviv School of Medicine (Israel)

    1969-05-15

    Scanning of the stomach after administration of {sup 131}I and {sup 99m}Tc is presented. Experiments on 20 dogs were performed and 105 patients were examined. The studies with {sup 131}I are only mentioned briefly as they have been summarized in a previous publication and we have concentrated on our experience with {sup 99m}Tc and on stomach carcinoma. The turnover of the nuclide in blood, urine, gastric juice and gastric mucosa was tested: in-vivo and post-operative scannings were performed. The scans are classified in four groups. Carcinoma of the stomach results in space-occupying lesions or foggy scans. A correlation of 85 - 90% between scan results and clinical findings is noted. A special group of 10 volunteers was examined to establish the possibility of a screening examination for the detection of stomach cancer using the technique presented. (author)

  9. Significance of leukocyte scanning in infected endoprostheses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, W.; Pasurka, B.; Boerner, W.

    1989-03-01

    31 patients with suspected septic loosening of an endoprosthesis (hip endoprosthesis n=30; knee endoprosthesis n=1) were examined with leukocyte scans (10 MBq /sup 111/In-oxine: n=22; 300 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-HMPAO: n=9). The results were compared with results of the bacterial growth (n=22), the histology (n=12) and of the bone scans (/sup 99m/Tc-MDP: n=20) which were performed within 4 days. The sensitivity of the bone scan was 100%, the specificity 30% and the diagnostic accuracy regarding a septic loosening of the arthroplasty was 55%. For the leukocyte scans a comparable sensitivity of 100%, but a higher specificity (86%) and accuracy (91%) could be calculated. A false positive leukocyte scan could be observed in a periprosthetic granuloma, an ossifying periarthritis and in a patient with negative bacterial growth with the histological proof of an inflammation.

  10. MR guided spatial normalization of SPECT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crouch, B.; Barnden, L.R.; Kwiatek, R.

    2010-01-01

    Full text: In SPECT population studies where magnetic resonance (MR) scans are also available, the higher resolution of the MR scans allows for an improved spatial normalization of the SPECT scans. In this approach, the SPECT images are first coregistered to their corresponding MR images by a linear (affine) transformation which is calculated using SPM's mutual information maximization algorithm. Non-linear spatial normalization maps are then computed either directly from the MR scans using SPM's built in spatial normalization algorithm, or, from segmented TI MR images using DARTEL, an advanced diffeomorphism based spatial normalization algorithm. We compare these MR based methods to standard SPECT based spatial normalization for a population of 27 fibromyalgia patients and 25 healthy controls with spin echo T 1 scans. We identify significant perfusion deficits in prefrontal white matter in FM patients, with the DARTEL based spatial normalization procedure yielding stronger statistics than the standard SPECT based spatial normalization. (author)

  11. RubiShort: Reducing scan time in 82Rb heart scans to minimize movements artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jeppe; Vraa, Kaspar J.; Harms, Hans

    .013x, R2=0.98; %Reversible: y=1.008x, R2=0.95; TPD: y=1.000x, R2=0.99). Conclusion:, Scan time of myocardial perfusion scans using 82Rb can be reduced from 7 min. to 5 min. without loss of quantitative accuracy. Since patient motion is frequent in the last minutes of the scans, scan time reduction...

  12. Gallium-67 citrate scan in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Wanyu

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Whole-body gallium scan was performed to evaluate the usefulness of gallium scan for detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with extrapulmonary TB were included in this study. Four patients were found to have two lesions. Totally, 41 lesions were identified, including 19 TB arthritis, 8 spinal TB, 5 TB meningitis, 3 TB lymphadenopathy, 2 TB pericarditis, 1 TB peritonitis, 1 intestinal TB, 1 skin TB and 1 renal TB. Results: Of the 41 extrapulmonary TB lesions, gallium scan detected 32 lesions with a sensitivity of 78%. All the patients with TB meningitis showed negative gallium scan. When the five cases of TB meningitis were excluded, the detection sensitivity of gallium scan increased to 88.9% (32/36). Conclusion: Our data revealed that gallium scan is a convenient and useful method for evaluating extrapulmonary TB lesions other than TB-meningitis. We suggest that gallium scan be included in the clinical routine for patients with suspected extrapulmonary TB. (orig.) [de

  13. Precursor and Neutral Loss Scans in an RF Scanning Linear Quadrupole Ion Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Dalton T.; Szalwinski, Lucas J.; Schrader, Robert L.; Pirro, Valentina; Hilger, Ryan; Cooks, R. Graham

    2018-03-01

    Methodology for performing precursor and neutral loss scans in an RF scanning linear quadrupole ion trap is described and compared to the unconventional ac frequency scan technique. In the RF scanning variant, precursor ions are mass selectively excited by a fixed frequency resonance excitation signal at low Mathieu q while the RF amplitude is ramped linearly to pass ions through the point of excitation such that the excited ion's m/z varies linearly with time. Ironically, a nonlinear ac frequency scan is still required for ejection of the product ions since their frequencies vary nonlinearly with the linearly varying RF amplitude. In the case of the precursor scan, the ejection frequency must be scanned so that it is fixed on a product ion m/z throughout the RF scan, whereas in the neutral loss scan, it must be scanned to maintain a constant mass offset from the excited precursor ions. Both simultaneous and sequential permutation scans are possible; only the former are demonstrated here. The scans described are performed on a variety of samples using different ionization sources: protonated amphetamine ions generated by nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI), explosives ionized by low-temperature plasma (LTP), and chemical warfare agent simulants sampled from a surface and analyzed with swab touch spray (TS). We lastly conclude that the ac frequency scan variant of these MS/MS scans is preferred due to electronic simplicity. In an accompanying manuscript, we thus describe the implementation of orthogonal double resonance precursor and neutral loss scans on the Mini 12 using constant RF voltage. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  14. Bone scanning in patients with breast carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Nishi, T.; Hirose, T.; Schichijo, Y.; Ibukuro, K.

    1985-01-01

    Skeletal imaging using radionuclides has proved to be a sensitive method for the detection of early bony metastases from breast carcinoma. Recent studies have found a relatively low rate of abnormal scans in patients with stage I and II breast cancers, and therefore it is open to question whether bone scanning should be part of the preoperative evaluation of any patient prior to breast surgery. We reviewed our experience with bone scans in 329 patients out of 406 histologically proven breast cancer patients to determine if any or all patients should have this procedure done routinely prior to breast surgery. (orig.) [de

  15. Diagnostic value of the coronary CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke

    1982-01-01

    Using high-resolution computed tomography, coronary scanning has been made to investigate the radiographical details of the middle and inner ear organs. Twenty patients with chronic otitis media, secondary cholesteatoma, sensorineural hearing loss, facial spasm, and suspected meningitis, were evaluated. In 26 of 40 ears in this series, the coronary scans sharply outlined almost all of the bony structures, and showed also the eardrum as a clearly defined soft tissue, but no abnormal radiographical findings were recognized. In the remaining ears with chronic otitis media, the scans were valuable in demonstration of mucosal thickening, granulation tissue, and destruction of the auditory ossicles. (author)

  16. Bone scan in diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marandian, M.H.; Mortazavi, H.; Behvad, A.; Haghigat, H.; Lessani, M.; Youssefian, B.

    1979-01-01

    Bone scan with Technetium 99m is harmless method of evaluation of skeletal lesions. It is safe in pediatrics age group and it can be used in early diagnosis of infectious osteoarthritis. Bone scan differentiate osteomyelitis from cellulitis, and also it may help in diagnosis of subclinical involvement of rheumatoid arthritis, benign and malignant bone tumors, stress fractures and periostitis. We report results of bone scan in 30 pediatrics patients as follow: osteomyelitis 9 cases, cellulitis 4 cases, infectious arthritis 7 cases, tuberculous osteoarthritis 2 cases, rheumatoid arthritis 2 cases, and other different diseases 9 cases [fr

  17. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liodaki, Eirini; Eirini, Liodaki; Liodakis, Emmanouil; Emmanouil, Liodakis; Papadopoulos, Othonas; Othonas, Papadopoulos; Machens, Hans-Günther; Hans-Günther, Machens; Papadopulos, Nikolaos A; Nikolaos, Papadopulos A

    2012-02-01

    In this report we highlight the use of PET scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge.

  18. Gamma scanning of the irradiated HANARO fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Kwon Pyo; Lee, K. S.; Park, D. G.; Baik, S. Y.; Song, W. S.; Kim, T. Y.; Seo, C. K.

    1997-02-01

    To conform the burnup state of the fuels, we have transported the irradiated HANARO fuels from the reactor to IMEF (Irradiated Material Examination Facility), and executed gamma scanning for the fuels. By measuring the gamma-rays from the irradiated fuels we could see the features of the relative burnup distributions in the fuel bundles. All of 17 fuel bundles were taken in and out between HANARO and IMEF from March till August in 1996, and we carried out the related regulations. Longitudinal gamma scanning and angular gamma scanning are done for each fuel bundle without dismantlement of the bundles. (author). 5 tabs., 25 figs

  19. Confocal scanning microscope for nuclear photoemulsion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batusov, Yu.A.; Kovalev, Yu.S.; Soroko, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    The application of the confocal scanning microscope to the objects in the nuclear photoemulsion is described. An array of 27 microtomograms of single silver grain is shown. The cross sections of the same particle track of diameter 1 μm, detected by means of the confocal scanning microscope with open and annular apertures, are presented. It was shown that the confocal scanning microscope opens indeed new opportunities for the nuclear photoemulsion technique to get previously inaccessible information for physics of the short-living particles

  20. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xu; Guo, Tengfei; Hou, Yubin; Zhang, Jing; Meng, Wenjie; Lu, Qingyou

    2017-01-01

    A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans) coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan). They are fixed at one end (called common end). A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY -scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  1. A High Rigidity and Precision Scanning Tunneling Microscope with Decoupled XY and Z Scans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Chen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new scan-head structure for the scanning tunneling microscope (STM is proposed, featuring high scan precision and rigidity. The core structure consists of a piezoelectric tube scanner of quadrant type (for XY scans coaxially housed in a piezoelectric tube with single inner and outer electrodes (for Z scan. They are fixed at one end (called common end. A hollow tantalum shaft is coaxially housed in the XY-scan tube and they are mutually fixed at both ends. When the XY scanner scans, its free end will bring the shaft to scan and the tip which is coaxially inserted in the shaft at the common end will scan a smaller area if the tip protrudes short enough from the common end. The decoupled XY and Z scans are desired for less image distortion and the mechanically reduced scan range has the superiority of reducing the impact of the background electronic noise on the scanner and enhancing the tip positioning precision. High quality atomic resolution images are also shown.

  2. Bone scan and joint scan of hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpentier, N.; Verbeke, S.; Perdrisot, R.; Grilo, R.M.; Quenesson, E.; Bonnet, C.; Vergne, P.; Treves, R.; Bertin, P.; Boutros-Toni, F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the ability of joint scan and bone scan of hands and feet, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, to localize the altered joints. The sensitivity, the specificity, the positive predictive value (PPV) and the negative predictive value (NPV) of joint scan were determined in comparison with clinical joint assessment. Fifteen patients (780 joints) were clinically examined (pain and synovitis); during the same day, a bone scan and a joint scan were realized by oxidronate 99m Tc intravenous injection. Patients were scanned 5 minutes (tissual time, T t ) and 3 hours 1/4 (bone time, T 0 ) after the administration. The uptake of the bi-phosphonate was evaluated with a qualitative method using a grey scale. The uptake of 99m Tc oxidronate was quantitated using an extra-articular region of interest. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the scan at Tt were 46%, 96%, 85% et 78%. The same parameters were 75%, 66%, 53% and 84% for the scan realized at T 0 . The joint scan has showed 22% of false positive. These false positives could be a consequence of an earlier detection of joint alterations by scan. The joint scan should forecast the evolution of joints in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. (author)

  3. The utility of repeat sestamibi scans in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after an initial negative scan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamurthy, Vikram D; Sound, Sara; Okoh, Alexis K; Yazici, Pinar; Yigitbas, Hakan; Neumann, Donald; Doshi, Krupa; Berber, Eren

    2017-06-01

    We analyzed the utility of repeated sestambi scans in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and its effects on operative referral. We carried out a retrospective review of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism who underwent repeated sestambi scans exclusively within our health system between 1996-2015. Patient demographic, presentation, laboratory, imaging, operative, and pathologic data were reviewed. Univariate analysis with JMP Pro v12 was used to identify factors associated with conversion from an initial negative to a subsequent positive scan. After exclusion criteria (including reoperations), we identified 49 patients in whom 59% (n = 29) of subsequent scans remained negative and 41% (n = 20) converted to positive. Factors associated with an initial negative to a subsequent positive scan included classic presentation and second scans with iodine subtraction (P = .04). Nonsurgeons were less likely to order an iodine-subtraction scan (P < .05). Fewer patients with negative imaging were referred to surgery (33% vs 100%, P = .005), and median time to operation after the first negative scan was 25 months (range 1.4-119). Surgeon-performed ultrasonography had greater sensitivity and positive predictive value than repeated sestamibi scans. Negative sestambi scans decreased and delayed operative referral. Consequently, we identified several process improvement initiatives, including education regarding superior institutional imaging. Combining all findings, we created an algorithm for evaluating patients with primary hyperparathyroidism after initially negative sestamibi scans, which incorporates surgeon-performed ultrasonography. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transverse scan-field imaging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, F.T.

    1978-01-01

    A description is given of an array of opposed pairs of radiation detectors which could be used in tomography or scintiscanning. The opposed detectors scan in opposite tangential directions in a pre-programmed fashion. The associated control system receives the detector outputs into a buffer store and also provides an address for each element of information detected. The addresses are such that information from one buffer store is read into the RAM of a central processing unit in the opposite direction to that from the store associated with the opposite detector, thus effectively reversing the scan direction of one detector of each pair. Also described are the detectors themselves with focussed collimators, the scan drive mechanism, and the method of calculating radioactive emission intensity at discrete points throughout the scan-field. (author)

  5. Diagnostic value of axial CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiuchi, Sousuke

    1983-01-01

    Axial CT scan was used to investigate the radiological details of the temporal bone of 33 patients with chronic otitis media, secondary cholesteatoma, sensorineural hearing loss, Meniere disease, vertigo, facial spasm, and neoplasma. The axial scans showed anatomic details of the temporal bone, and at the same time clearly demonstrated the extent of the soft-tissue masses in the middle ears, as well as the destructions of the ossicles. Bone changes of the anterior walls of the epitympanum and external auditory meatus were more clearly demonstrated than by coronary CT scan. However, the axial scan had the disadvantages in demonstrating the stapes, crista transversa, and the mastoid portion of the facial canal. (author)

  6. Technical errors in planar bone scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Sleiman Y; Collier, B David; Elgazzar, Abdelhamid H; Khalil, Magdy M

    2004-09-01

    Optimal technique for planar bone scanning improves image quality, which in turn improves diagnostic efficacy. Because planar bone scanning is one of the most frequently performed nuclear medicine examinations, maintaining high standards for this examination is a daily concern for most nuclear medicine departments. Although some problems such as patient motion are frequently encountered, the degraded images produced by many other deviations from optimal technique are rarely seen in clinical practice and therefore may be difficult to recognize. The objectives of this article are to list optimal techniques for 3-phase and whole-body bone scanning, to describe and illustrate a selection of deviations from these optimal techniques for planar bone scanning, and to explain how to minimize or avoid such technical errors.

  7. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & ... stands for "computerized axial tomography." Translated, that means a scanner takes computer pictures of what's going on inside your body. The scan itself ...

  8. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, I.-H.; Lee, T.-H.; Yin, G.-C.; Wei, D.-H.; Juang, J.-M.; Dann, T.-E.; Klauser, R.; Chuang, T. J.; Chen, C. T.; Tsang, K.-L.

    2001-07-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed.

  9. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, I.-H.; Lee, T.-H.; Yin, G.-C.; Wei, D.-H.; Juang, J.-M.; Dann, T.-E.; Klauser, R.; Chuang, T.J.; Chen, C.T.; Tsang, K.-L.

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed

  10. Minimising medically unwarranted computed tomography scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    As computed tomography (CT) is such a superb diagnostic tool and individual CT risks are small, whenever a CT scan is clinically warranted, the CT benefit/risk balance is by far in the patient’s favour. However, if a CT scan is not clinically warranted, this balance shifts dramatically. It is likely that at least 25% of CT scans fall into this latter category, in that they could either be replaced with alternative imaging modalities or could be avoided entirely. Use of clinical decision rules for CT usage represents a powerful approach for slowing down the increase in CT usage, because they have the potential to overcome some of the major factors that result in some CT scans being undertaken when they may not be clinically helpful.

  11. Laser scanning of experimental solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plunkett, B. C.; Lasswell, P. G.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a laser scanning instrument which makes it possible to display and measure the spatial response of a solar cell. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of generated micrographs in the isolation of flaws and features of the cell. The laser scanner system uses a 4 mW, CW helium-neon laser, operating a wavelength of 0.633 micrometers. The beam is deflected by two mirror galvanometers arranged to scan in orthogonal directions. After being focused on the solar cell by the beam focusing lens, the moving light spot raster scans the specimen. The current output of the photovoltaic device under test, as a function of the scan dot position, can be displayed in several modes. The laser scanner has proved to be a very useful diagnostic tool in optimizing the process design of transparent metal film photovoltaic devices on Zn3P2, a relatively new photovoltaic material.

  12. Electron Beam Scanning in Industrial Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongen, Yves; Herer, Arnold

    1996-05-01

    Scanned electron beams are used within many industries for applications such as sterilization of medical disposables, crosslinking of wire and cables insulating jackets, polymerization and degradation of resins and biomaterials, modification of semiconductors, coloration of gemstones and glasses, removal of oxides from coal plant flue gasses, and the curing of advanced composites and other molded forms. X-rays generated from scanned electron beams make yet other applications, such as food irradiation, viable. Typical accelerators for these applications range in beam energy from 0.5MeV to 10 MeV, with beam powers between 5 to 500kW and scanning widths between 20 and 300 cm. Since precise control of dose delivery is required in many of these applications, the integration of beam characteristics, product conveyance, and beam scanning mechanisms must be well understood and optimized. Fundamental issues and some case examples are presented.

  13. Multicolor Scanning Laser Imaging in Diabetic Retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mohammad S Z; Carrim, Zia Iqbal

    2017-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a common cause of blindness in individuals younger than 60 years. Screening for retinopathy is undertaken using conventional color fundus photography and relies on the identification of hemorrhages, vascular abnormalities, exudates, and cotton-wool spots. These can sometimes be difficult to identify. Multicolor scanning laser imaging, a new imaging modality, may have a role in improving screening outcomes, as well as facilitating treatment decisions. Observational case series comprising two patients with known diabetes who were referred for further examination after color fundus photography revealed abnormal findings. Multicolor scanning laser imaging was undertaken. Features of retinal disease from each modality were compared. Multicolor scanning laser imaging provides superior visualization of retinal anatomy and pathology, thereby facilitating risk stratification and treatment decisions. Multicolor scanning laser imaging is a novel imaging technique offering the potential for improving the reliability of screening for diabetic retinopathy. Validation studies are warranted.

  14. Performance of the SRRC scanning photoelectron microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Hong, I H; Yin, G C; Wei, D H; Juang, J M; Dann, T E; Klauser, R; Chuang, T J; Chen, C T; Tsang, K L

    2001-01-01

    A scanning photoelectron microscope has been constructed at SRRC. This SPEM system consists primarily of a Fresnel zone plate (ZP) with an order-selection aperture, a flexure scanning stage, a hemispherical electron analyzer, and sample/ZP insertion system. The flexure stage is used to scan the sample. A hemispherical analyzer with Omni V lens and a 16-channel multichannel detector (MCD) is used to collect photoelectrons. A set of 16 photoelectron images at different kinetic energies can be simultaneously acquired in one single scan. The data acquisition system is designed to collect up to 32 images concurrently, including 16 MCD signals, total electron yield and transmitted photon flux. The design and some initial test results of this SPEM station are presented and discussed.

  15. Scanning probe lithography for nanoimprinting mould fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Gang; Xie Guoyong; Zhang Yongyi; Zhang Guoming; Zhang Yingying; Carlberg, Patrick; Zhu Tao; Liu Zhongfan

    2006-01-01

    We propose a rational fabrication method for nanoimprinting moulds by scanning probe lithography. By wet chemical etching, different kinds of moulds are realized on Si(110) and Si(100) surfaces according to the Si crystalline orientation. The structures have line widths of about 200 nm with a high aspect ratio. By reactive ion etching, moulds with patterns free from the limitation of Si crystalline orientation are also obtained. With closed-loop scan control of a scanning probe microscope, the length of patterned lines is more than 100 μm by integrating several steps of patterning. The fabrication process is optimized in order to produce a mould pattern with a line width about 10 nm. The structures on the mould are further duplicated into PMMA resists through the nanoimprinting process. The method of combining scanning probe lithography with wet chemical etching or reactive ion etching (RIE) provides a resistless route for the fabrication of nanoimprinting moulds

  16. Study of 67Ga scan in sarcoidosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Lijun; Qu Wanyin; Liu Xiuqin

    1997-01-01

    Gallium scan and serum angiotensin-converting enzyme assay (SACE) were compared in patients with sarcoidosis. The examination of 67 Ga scan, SACE determination, pulmonary function test, chest CT and chest X-ray in 24 cases with sarcoidosis were studied. The results revealed that 4 of 24 cases had obviously high uptake of 67 Ga exceeding hepatic activity (3+) in clinical active stage, 3 patients had resembling the Greek letter lambda, symmetrically located in bilateral hilar lymph nodes, and among them two had an uptake of 67 Ga in the bilateral lacrimal and parotid gland simulating 'Panda Face'. 8 of 20 cases with inactive sarcoidosis had an abnormal 67 Ga scan (1+). In those patients with normal SACE level but increased uptake of 67 Ga, active stage of disease was demonstrated and steroid therapy was indicated. Gallium scan is a valuable method for the staging of its activity and evaluation of the therapeutic effect in the follow-up patients with sarcoidosis

  17. Magnetic scanning of LWR fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiarman, S.; Moodenbaugh, A.

    1980-01-01

    Nondestructive assay (NDA) techniques are available both for fresh and spent fuel, but generally are too time consuming and do not uniquely identify an assembly. A new method is reported to obtain a signature from a magnetic scan of each assembly. This scan is an NDA technique that detects magnetic inclusions. It is potentially fast (5 min/assembly), and may provide a unique signature from the magnetic properties of each fuel assembly

  18. Admittance Scanning for Whole Column Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamos, Brian N; Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Ohira, Shin-Ichi

    2017-07-05

    Whole column detection (WCD) is as old as chromatography itself. WCD requires an ability to interrogate column contents from the outside. Other than the obvious case of optical detection through a transparent column, admittance (often termed contactless conductance) measurements can also sense changes in the column contents (especially ionic content) from the outside without galvanic contact with the solution. We propose here electromechanically scanned admittance imaging and apply this to open tubular (OT) chromatography. The detector scans across the column; the length resolution depends on the scanning velocity and the data acquisition frequency, ultimately limited by the physical step resolution (40 μm in the present setup). Precision equal to this step resolution was observed for locating an interface between two immiscible liquids inside a 21 μm capillary. Mechanically, the maximum scanning speed was 100 mm/s, but at 1 kHz sampling rate and a time constant of 25 ms, the highest practical scan speed (no peak distortion) was 28 mm/s. At scanning speeds of 0, 4, and 28 mm/s, the S/N for 180 pL (zone length of 1.9 mm in a 11 μm i.d. column) of 500 μM KCl injected into water was 6450, 3850, and 1500, respectively. To facilitate constant and reproducible contact with the column regardless of minor variations in outer diameter, a double quadrupole electrode system was developed. Columns of significant length (>1 m) can be readily scanned. We demonstrate its applicability with both OT and commercial packed columns and explore uniformity of retention along a column, increasing S/N by stopped-flow repeat scans, etc. as unique applications.

  19. An image scanning device using radiating energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob, Daniel.

    1976-01-01

    Said invention relates to an image scanning device using radiating energy. More particularly, it relates to a device for generating a scanning beam of rectangular cross section from a γ or X-ray source. Said invention can be applied to radiographic units of the 'microdose' type used by airline staffs and others for the fast efficient inspection of luggage and parcels in view of detecting hidden things [fr

  20. Thalassemia paravertebral tumors and bone marrow scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huglo, D.; Rose, C.; Deveaux, M.; Bauters, F.; Marchandise, X.

    1995-01-01

    Two first cousins with thalassemia and with a paravertebral mass had had an indium 111 chloride bone marrow scan. Result of scan influenced therapy: medical treatment in one case where an extramedullary erythropoiesis was confirmed, surgical treatment in the other case. The use of dual-isotope SPECT (indium 111 chloride, HDP -99 Tc) constitutes a contribution to the establishment of diagnosis of extramedullary erythropoiesis, giving to bone marrow scintigraphy a merited importance, avoiding the biopsy. (authors). 15 refs., 5 figs

  1. Linking IMAGE 2 and WORLD SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelauff, G.; Geurts, B.; Gielen, A.; Den Ouden, A.; Alcamo, J.; Gerlagh, R.

    1995-01-01

    The links between the climate model IMAGE 2 and the economic model WORLD SCAN, which are set up to obtain an integrated scenario instrument for comprehensive and consistent climate-economy scenarios, are presented and discussed. The links are made with respect to energy (in WORLD SCAN) and agriculture (in IMAGE 2), thus providing a consistent linkage with feedbacks running both ways. 2 figs., 1 tab

  2. Computer graphic display of cardiac CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, R.; Carlsson, E.

    1982-01-01

    In order to improve spatial conception and quantitative assessment of the cardiac structures based on cardiac computed tomography, methods for computer graphic display were developed. Excised hearts and living dogs with myocardial infarctions were subjected to CT scanning. The data on the scanner tapes were processed to provide isodensity plots, linear section plots, time-weighted integrated isodensity plots as well as topographical density displays and three-dimensional spatial reconstructions of single and multi-layer scans. (orig.)

  3. Radionuclide bone scanning of medullary chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, T.M.; Chew, F.S.; Manaster, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    Technetium-99m methylene diphosphonate bone scans of 18 medullary chondrosarcomas of bone were correlated with pathologic macrosections of the resected tumors. There was increased scan intake by all 18 tumors, and the uptake in 15 scans corresponded accurately to the anatomic extent of the tumors. Only three scans displayed increased uptake beyond the true tumor margins; thus, the ''extended pattern of uptake'' beyond the true tumor extent is much less common in medullary chondrosarcomas than in many other primary bone tumors. Therefore, increased uptake beyond the apparent radiographic margin of the tumor suggests possible occult tumor spread. Pathologically, there was intense reactive new bone formation and hyperemia around the periphery of all 18 tumors, and there were foci of enchondral ossification, hyperemia, or calcification within the tumor itself in nearly every tumor. Three scans displayed less uptake in the center of the tumors than around their peripheries. One of these tumors was necrotic in the center, but the other two were pathologically no different from tumors that displayed homogenous uptake on the scan

  4. Radionuclide bone scanning of medullary chondrosarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudson, T.M.; Chew, F.S.; Manaster, B.J.

    1982-01-01

    /sup 99m/Tc methylene diphosphonate bone scans of 18 medullary chondrosarcomas of bone were correlated with pathologic macrosections of the resected tumors. There was increased scan uptake by all 18 tumors, and the uptake in 15 scans corresponded accurately to the anatomic extent of the tumors. Only three scans displayed increased uptake beyond the true tumor margins; thus, the extended pattern of uptake beyond the true tumor extent is much less common in medullary chondrosarcomas than in many other primary bone tumors. Therefore, increased uptake beyond the apparent radiographic margin of the tumor suggests possible occult tumor spread. Pathologically, there was intense reactive new bone formation and hyperemia around the periphery of all 18 tumors, and there were foci of enchondral ossification, hyperemia, or calcification within the tumor itself in nearly every tumor. Three scans displayed less uptake in the center of the tumors than around their peripheries. One of these tumors was necrotic in the center, but the other two were pathologically no different from tumors that displayed homogeneous uptake on the scan

  5. Role of bone scan in rheumatic disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yun Young

    2003-01-01

    Rheumatic diseases can be categorized by pathology into several specific types of musculoskeletal problems, including synovitis (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis), enthesopathy (e.g. ankylosing spondylitis) and cartilage degeneration (e.g. osteoarthritis). Skeletal radiographs have contributed to the diagnosis of these articular diseases, and some disease entities need typical radiographic changes as a factor of the diagnostic criteria. However, they sometimes show normal radiographic findings in the early stage of disease, when there is demineralization of less than 30-50%. Bone scans have also been used in arthritis, but not widely because the findings are nonspecific and it is thought that bone scans do not add significant information to routine radiography. Bone scans do however play a different role than simple radiography, and it is a complementary imaging method in the course of management of arthritis. The image quality of bone scans can be improved by obtaining regional views and images under al pin-hole collimator, and through a variety of scintigraphic techniques including the three phase bone scan and bone SPECT. Therefore, bone scans could improve the diagnostic value, and answer multiple clinical questions, based on the pathophysiology of various forms of arthritis

  6. Precision controlled atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy using spiral scan pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Xiahan; Lupini, Andrew R.; Ding, Jilai; Kalinin, Sergei V.; Jesse, Stephen; Unocic, Raymond R.

    2017-03-01

    Atomic-resolution imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) can enable direct correlation between atomic structure and materials functionality. The fast and precise control of the STEM probe is, however, challenging because the true beam location deviates from the assigned location depending on the properties of the deflectors. To reduce these deviations, i.e. image distortions, we use spiral scanning paths, allowing precise control of a sub-Å sized electron probe within an aberration-corrected STEM. Although spiral scanning avoids the sudden changes in the beam location (fly-back distortion) present in conventional raster scans, it is not distortion-free. “Archimedean” spirals, with a constant angular frequency within each scan, are used to determine the characteristic response at different frequencies. We then show that such characteristic functions can be used to correct image distortions present in more complicated constant linear velocity spirals, where the frequency varies within each scan. Through the combined application of constant linear velocity scanning and beam path corrections, spiral scan images are shown to exhibit less scan distortion than conventional raster scan images. The methodology presented here will be useful for in situ STEM imaging at higher temporal resolution and for imaging beam sensitive materials.

  7. Detection of Arthritis by Joint Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maxfield, W. S. [Dept, of Radiology, Louisiana State University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA (United States); Weiss, T. E.; Tutton, R. H.; Hidalgo, J. U. [Ochsner Clinic and Ochsner Foundation Hospital, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    1969-05-15

    Detection and identification of early arthritis is frequently difficult with routine methods. Several tracers, {sup 131}I human serum albumin (25 {mu}Ci/10 lb), {sup 99m}Tc human serum albumin (1-3 mCi), {sup 131}I iodipamide (40 {mu}Ci/10 lb), and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate (10 mCi), have been employed for joint scanning to detect synovitis produced by arthritis in joints of the extremities. When administered intravenously, the 25% increase in localization of these tracers in the synovial membrane, if there is active synovitis, can be demonstrated by scintillation scanning. This ability to detect synovitis at an early stage enables the joint scan to show areas of active synovitis not demonstrated on roentgenograms. The scan may objectively confirm or disprove questionable physical findings. From this standpoint the technique has been useful in determining whether joint pain is functional or due to arthritis as a negative localization tends to rule out active synovitis as the cause of the pain. The scan demonstration of a positive localization of the tracer in several joints when only one area is symptomatic is evidence that joint pain is due to systemic disease. The short half-life tracera permit serial studies to follow the course of an arthritis process. Use of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate and an Anger camera have made joint scanning a practical technique for clinical use. A review of the accuracy of joint scanning in 130 cases as compared to roentgenograms is presented. (author)

  8. Special raster scanning for reduction of charging effects in scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Oho, Eisaku

    2014-01-01

    A special raster scanning (SRS) method for reduction of charging effects is developed for the field of SEM. Both a conventional fast scan (horizontal direction) and an unusual scan (vertical direction) are adopted for acquiring raw data consisting of many sub-images. These data are converted to a proper SEM image using digital image processing techniques. About sharpness of the image and reduction of charging effects, the SRS is compared with the conventional fast scan (with frame-averaging) and the conventional slow scan. Experimental results show the effectiveness of SRS images. By a successful combination of the proposed scanning method and low accelerating voltage (LV)-SEMs, it is expected that higher-quality SEM images can be more easily acquired by the considerable reduction of charging effects, while maintaining the resolution. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Scan path entropy and Arrow plots: Capturing scanning behavior of multiple observers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignace T C Hooge

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Designers of visual communication material want their material to attract and retain attention. In marketing research, heat maps, dwell time, and time to AOI first hit are often used as evaluation parameters. Here we present two additional measures 1 scan path entropy to quantify gaze guidance and 2 the arrow plot to visualize the average scan path. Both are based on string representations of scan paths. The latter also incorporates transition matrices and time required for 50% of the observers to first hit AOIs (T50. The new measures were tested in an eye tracking study (48 observers, 39 advertisements. Scan path entropy is a sensible measure for gaze guidance and the new visualization method reveals aspects of the average scan path and gives a better indication in what order global scanning takes place.

  10. Bone scans in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: local experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiong, S.

    2004-01-01

    Introduction: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) tops the list of malignancy in Malaysia and ranks first in male malignancy in the state of Sarawak. The majority of the NPC patients presented in the advanced stages and often with distal metastasis usually to the bones. In our local hospital is the new practice of bone scan using Tc99 started last year. Over a period of 9 months from July 2003 to March 2004, 41 NPC patients had the bone scans and our experience in these are reviewed and presented. Method: The NPC patients are selected consecutively including both new and treated patients. The scanner used is Siemen E.cam plus and Technecium (Tc99) the radio-active isotope used. The scan images are read and reported by qualified and trained Radiologists. The bone scans are requested from the ENT Specialist of the ENT department of the Hospital. The bone scan reports are checked by the ENT Specialists and the decisions made as to clinical correlation and further definitive imaging studies. Results: 41 NPC patients were included in the studies, 29 newly diagnosed and bone-canned before treatment started and 12 treated of which 3 being diagnosed having recurrent NPC. Of the 29 newly diagnosed patients, one was found true positive bone scan having increased radio-tracer uptake and confirmed Xray imagings. 3 of the treated patients had true positive bone scan with increased radio-tracer uptake and confirmed Xray imagings. Hence a total of 4 out of the 41 patients (9.8%) had bone metastasis on positive bone scans. Of the 29 newly diagnosed patients, 14 were found false positive bone scan having increased radio-tracer uptake but no confirmed X ray imagings. 4 of the treated patients had false positive bone scan with increased radio-tracer uptake but no confirmed X ray imagings. Hence a total of 18 out of the 41 patients (44%) had no bone metastasis on positive bone scans. There were 6 patients with symptoms referable to the bones' distal to the head and 2 had true positive bone

  11. Postprocessing Algorithm for Driving Conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope at Fast Scan Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hao; Li, Xianqi; Chen, Yunmei; Park, Jewook; Li, An-Ping; Zhang, X-G

    2017-01-01

    We present an image postprocessing framework for Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) to reduce the strong spurious oscillations and scan line noise at fast scan rates and preserve the features, allowing an order of magnitude increase in the scan rate without upgrading the hardware. The proposed method consists of two steps for large scale images and four steps for atomic scale images. For large scale images, we first apply for each line an image registration method to align the forward and backward scans of the same line. In the second step we apply a "rubber band" model which is solved by a novel Constrained Adaptive and Iterative Filtering Algorithm (CIAFA). The numerical results on measurement from copper(111) surface indicate the processed images are comparable in accuracy to data obtained with a slow scan rate, but are free of the scan drift error commonly seen in slow scan data. For atomic scale images, an additional first step to remove line-by-line strong background fluctuations and a fourth step of replacing the postprocessed image by its ranking map as the final atomic resolution image are required. The resulting image restores the lattice image that is nearly undetectable in the original fast scan data.

  12. Postprocessing Algorithm for Driving Conventional Scanning Tunneling Microscope at Fast Scan Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an image postprocessing framework for Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM to reduce the strong spurious oscillations and scan line noise at fast scan rates and preserve the features, allowing an order of magnitude increase in the scan rate without upgrading the hardware. The proposed method consists of two steps for large scale images and four steps for atomic scale images. For large scale images, we first apply for each line an image registration method to align the forward and backward scans of the same line. In the second step we apply a “rubber band” model which is solved by a novel Constrained Adaptive and Iterative Filtering Algorithm (CIAFA. The numerical results on measurement from copper(111 surface indicate the processed images are comparable in accuracy to data obtained with a slow scan rate, but are free of the scan drift error commonly seen in slow scan data. For atomic scale images, an additional first step to remove line-by-line strong background fluctuations and a fourth step of replacing the postprocessed image by its ranking map as the final atomic resolution image are required. The resulting image restores the lattice image that is nearly undetectable in the original fast scan data.

  13. Bone scan and red blood cell scan in a patient with epidermal naevus syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, W.; Wolf, F.; Stosiek, N.; Peters, K.P.

    1990-01-01

    A bone scan and red blood cell scan in the rare epidermal naevus syndrome, associated with multiple haemangiomes of the bone and hypophosphataemic osteomalacia in a 20-year-old man are reported. The typical pattern of osteomalacia on the bone scan was associated with lesions of increased bone metabolism in the peripheral bones. The haemangiomas did not pool labelled red blood cells. Thus, the bone scan seems to be suited for diagnosing the complete extent of haemangiomas in bone, but they could not be specifically proven by red blood cell pooling. (orig.)

  14. Scanning-time evaluation of Digimarc Barcode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerlach, Rebecca; Pinard, Dan; Weaver, Matt; Alattar, Adnan

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a speed comparison between the use of Digimarc® Barcodes and the Universal Product Code (UPC) for customer checkout at point of sale (POS). The recently introduced Digimarc Barcode promises to increase the speed of scanning packaged goods at POS. When this increase is exploited by workforce optimization systems, the retail industry could potentially save billions of dollars. The Digimarc Barcode is based on Digimarc's watermarking technology, and it is imperceptible, very robust, and does not require any special ink, material, or printing processes. Using an image-based scanner, a checker can quickly scan consumer packaged goods (CPG) embedded with the Digimarc Barcode without the need to reorient the packages with respect to the scanner. Faster scanning of packages saves money and enhances customer satisfaction. It reduces the length of the queues at checkout, reduces the cost of cashier labor, and makes self-checkout more convenient. This paper quantifies the increase in POS scanning rates resulting from the use of the Digimarc Barcode versus the traditional UPC. It explains the testing methodology, describes the experimental setup, and analyzes the obtained results. It concludes that the Digimarc Barcode increases number of items per minute (IPM) scanned at least 50% over traditional UPC.

  15. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Abelquist, E.W.

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor's performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors' performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments

  16. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-01-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  17. PET scanning in plastic and reconstructive surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eirini, L.; Emmanouil, L.; Othonas, P.; Hans-Guenther, M.; Nikolaos, P.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this report we highlight the use of position emission tomography (PET) scan in plastic and reconstructive surgery. PET scanning is a very important tool in plastic surgery oncology (melanoma, soft-tissue sarcomas and bone sarcomas, head and neck cancer, peripheral nerve sheath tumors of the extremities and breast cancer after breast esthetic surgery), as diagnosis, staging, treatment planning and follow-up of cancer patients is based on imaging. PET scanning seems also to be useful as a flap monitoring system as well as an infection's imaging tool, for example in the management of diabetic foot ulcer. PET also contributes to the understanding of pathophysiology of keloids which remain a therapeutic challenge. (author)

  18. Scanning probe microscopy experiments in microgravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drobek, Tanja; Reiter, Michael; Heckl, Wolfgang M.

    2004-01-01

    The scanning probe microscopy setups are small, lightweight and do not require vacuum or high voltage supply. In addition, samples can be investigated directly without further preparation. Therefore, these techniques are well-suited for applications in space, in particular, for operation on the International Space Station (ISS) or for high resolution microscopy on planetary missions. A feasibility study for a scanning tunneling microscopy setup was carried out on a parabolic flight campaign in November 2001 in order to test the technical setup for microgravity applications. With a pocket-size design microscope, a graphite surface was imaged under ambient conditions. Atomic resolution was achieved although the quality of the images was inferior in comparison to laboratory conditions. Improvements for future scanning probe microscopy experiments in microgravity are suggested

  19. The new scanning nuclear microprobe in Uppsala

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunde, T.; Nystroem, J.; Lindh, U.

    1991-01-01

    During 1989/90 a scanning microprobe, developed for 2-4 MeV protons and submicron resolution, is being installed at the EN-tandem accelerator at the The Svedberg Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden. The probe-forming units (object diaphragm, aperture diaphragm and triplet of spark-eroded quadrupoles), the scanning unit of current-controlled ferrite cores and a current digitizer are of Oxford design. The other parts are commercial products or are constructed by ourselves. The latter includes the equipment for optical alignment by interference, a feedback-controlled magnetic beam steerer and stabiliser, a fast beam deflector, specially designed mechanical vibration reducers and dedicated AT expansion cards for scanning control and data acquisition. (orig.)

  20. Scanning laser microscope for imaging nanostructured superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takekazu; Arai, Kohei; Akita, Yukio; Miyanari, Mitsunori; Minami, Yusuke; Yotsuya, Tsutomu; Kato, Masaru; Satoh, Kazuo; Uno, Mayumi; Shimakage, Hisashi; Miki, Shigehito; Wang, Zhen

    2010-10-01

    The nanofabrication of superconductors yields various interesting features in superconducting properties. A variety of different imaging techniques have been developed for probing the local superconducting profiles. A scanning pulsed laser microscope has been developed by the combination of the XYZ piezo-driven stages and an optical fiber with an aspheric focusing lens. The scanning laser microscope is used to understand the position-dependent properties of a superconducting MgB 2 stripline of length 100 μm and width of 3 μm under constant bias current. Our results show that the superconducting stripline can clearly be seen in the contour image of the scanning laser microscope on the signal voltage. It is suggested from the observed image that the inhomogeneity is relevant in specifying the operating conditions such as detection efficiency of the sensor.

  1. Cooling system for baby EBM scanning device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd Halim Baijan; Muhammad Zahidee Taat; Abu Bakar Ghazali; Mohd Rizal Md Chulan; Rokiah Mohd Sabri; Leo Kwee Wah; Mohd Rizal Ibrahim; Lojius Lombigit; Azaman Ahmad

    2009-01-01

    Heat exchange of the scanning window of baby EBM is a critical factor for maintaining the integrity of the window material structure. As the titanium foil which was used as the scanning window, the maximum temperature accepted for the foil should be 200 degree C. This paper will discuss a simple method of Bernoulli principle to obtain the correct air blower capacity in order to reduce the heat of the scanning window of Baby EBM. It was found that the required air pressure and air speed of the blower are 2613.6 Pascal and 237.6 m3/h respectively for the electron accelerator of 0.14 MeV energy and 10 mA beam current. (Author)

  2. Optical vortex scanning inside the Gaussian beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masajada, J; Leniec, M; Augustyniak, I

    2011-01-01

    We discussed a new scanning method for optical vortex-based scanning microscopy. The optical vortex is introduced into the incident Gaussian beam by a vortex lens. Then the beam with the optical vortex is focused by an objective and illuminates the sample. By changing the position of the vortex lens we can shift the optical vortex position at the sample plane. By adjusting system parameters we can get 30 times smaller shift at the sample plane compared to the vortex lens shift. Moreover, if the range of vortex shifts is smaller than 3% of the beam radius in the sample plane the amplitude and phase distribution around the phase dislocation remains practically unchanged. Thus we can scan the sample topography precisely with an optical vortex

  3. Value of gallbladder B-scan ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabrisky, J; Lindstrom, R R; Herman, M W; Castagna, J; Sarti, D

    1975-05-01

    The gallbladder B-scans of 20 patients who had subsequent surgery were separated into three categories based upon certain sonographic criteria. Our data, in this limited series, revealed gallbladder pathology in each patient who had any one or combination of the following scan characteristics: (1) internal echos, (2) irregular wall, or (3) absence of recognizable gallbladder sonolucency. The category which demonstrated a normal sonographic gallbladder, namely a smooth wall and no internal echos, contained a number of false negatives which proved to have either small stone cholelithiasis or extraphepatic ductal obstruction. Within the described limitations, the B-scan can be a valuable test in confirming the significance of a radiographically nonvisualized gallbladder or in detecting a biliary tract lesion in a patient with a disease entity that precludes radiographic visualization by conventional techniques.

  4. Polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou Chien; Lyu, C.-W.; Peng, L.-C.

    2001-01-01

    A polarized differential-phase laser scanning microscope, which combines a polarized optical heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a differential amplifier to scan the topographic image of a surface, is proposed. In the experiment the differential amplifier, which acts as a PM-AM converter, in the experiment, converting phase modulation (PM) into amplitude modulation (AM). Then a novel, to our knowledge, phase demodulator was proposed and implemented for the differential-phase laser scanning microscope. An optical grating (1800 lp/mm) was imaged. The lateral and the depth resolutions of the imaging system were 0.5 μm and 1 nm, respectively. The detection accuracy, which was limited by the reflectivity variation of the test surface, is discussed

  5. Molecular excited states from the SCAN functional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozer, David J.; Peach, Michael J. G.

    2018-06-01

    The performance of the strongly constrained and appropriately normed (SCAN) meta-generalised gradient approximation exchange-correlation functional is investigated for the calculation of time-dependent density-functional theory molecular excitation energies of local, charge-transfer and Rydberg character, together with the excited ? potential energy curve in H2. The SCAN results frequently resemble those obtained using a global hybrid functional, with either a standard or increased fraction of exact orbital exchange. For local excitations, SCAN can exhibit significant triplet instability problems, resulting in imaginary triplet excitation energies for a number of cases. The Tamm-Dancoff approximation offers a simple approach to improve the situation, but the excitation energies are still significantly underestimated. Understanding the origin of these (near)-triplet instabilities may provide useful insight into future functional development.

  6. Human performance in radiological survey scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, W.S. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Abelquist, E.W. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education, TN (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The probability of detecting residual contamination in the field using portable radiological survey instruments depends not only on the sensitivity of the instrumentation used in scanning, but also on the surveyor`s performance. This report provides a basis for taking human performance into account in determining the minimum level of activity detectable by scanning. A theoretical framework was developed (based on signal detection theory) which allows influences on surveyors to be anticipated and understood, and supports a quantitative assessment of performance. The performance of surveyors under controlled yet realistic field conditions was examined to gain insight into the task and to develop means of quantifying performance. Then, their performance was assessed under laboratory conditions to quantify more precisely their ability to make the required discriminations. The information was used to characterize surveyors` performance in the scanning task and to provide a basis for predicting levels of radioactivity that are likely to be detectable under various conditions by surveyors using portable survey instruments.

  7. MutScan: fast detection and visualization of target mutations by scanning FASTQ data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shifu; Huang, Tanxiao; Wen, Tiexiang; Li, Hong; Xu, Mingyan; Gu, Jia

    2018-01-22

    Some types of clinical genetic tests, such as cancer testing using circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), require sensitive detection of known target mutations. However, conventional next-generation sequencing (NGS) data analysis pipelines typically involve different steps of filtering, which may cause miss-detection of key mutations with low frequencies. Variant validation is also indicated for key mutations detected by bioinformatics pipelines. Typically, this process can be executed using alignment visualization tools such as IGV or GenomeBrowse. However, these tools are too heavy and therefore unsuitable for validating mutations in ultra-deep sequencing data. We developed MutScan to address problems of sensitive detection and efficient validation for target mutations. MutScan involves highly optimized string-searching algorithms, which can scan input FASTQ files to grab all reads that support target mutations. The collected supporting reads for each target mutation will be piled up and visualized using web technologies such as HTML and JavaScript. Algorithms such as rolling hash and bloom filter are applied to accelerate scanning and make MutScan applicable to detect or visualize target mutations in a very fast way. MutScan is a tool for the detection and visualization of target mutations by only scanning FASTQ raw data directly. Compared to conventional pipelines, this offers a very high performance, executing about 20 times faster, and offering maximal sensitivity since it can grab mutations with even one single supporting read. MutScan visualizes detected mutations by generating interactive pile-ups using web technologies. These can serve to validate target mutations, thus avoiding false positives. Furthermore, MutScan can visualize all mutation records in a VCF file to HTML pages for cloud-friendly VCF validation. MutScan is an open source tool available at GitHub: https://github.com/OpenGene/MutScan.

  8. Incidental apical disease at CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoud, T.C.; Satoh, K.; Shepard, J.O.; Moore, E.H.; Kosiuk, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Apical caps are commonly noted on standard radiographs. This paper determines how often abnormalities in the extreme apex of the lung could be identified on CT scans obtained for other reasons. A total of 158 consecutive CT scans were reviewed prospectively. Excluded were patients with obvious upper lobe pleural or parenchymal disease. Apical abnormalities were identified in 74 (46.8%) of the 158 cases. The prevalence increased with age (19% in the 8-39-year age group and 82% in patients older than 80 years). Opacities were unilateral in 44.5% and bilateral in 55.5%. The most common abnormality was linear opacities (95%)

  9. Indigenous development of scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambastha, K.P.; Chaudhari, Y.V.; Pal, Suvadip; Tikaria, Amit; Pious, Lizy; Dubey, B.P.; Chadda, V.K.

    2009-01-01

    Scanning electron microscope (SEM) is a precision instrument and plays very important role in scientific studies. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre has taken up the job of development of SEM indigenously. Standard and commercially available components like computer, high voltage power supply, detectors etc. shall be procured from market. Focusing and scanning coils, vacuum chamber, specimen stage, control hardware and software etc. shall be developed at BARC with the help of Indian industry. Procurement, design and fabrication of various parts of SEM are in progress. (author)

  10. Scanning laser ophthalmoscope design with adaptive optics

    OpenAIRE

    Laut, SP; Jones, SM; Olivier, SS; Werner, JS

    2005-01-01

    A design for a high-resolution scanning instrument is presented for in vivo imaging of the human eye at the cellular scale. This system combines adaptive optics technology with a scanning laser ophthalmoscope (SLO) to image structures with high lateral (∼2 μm) resolution. In this system, the ocular wavefront aberrations that reduce the resolution of conventional SLOs are detected by a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor, and compensated with two deformable mirrors in a closed-loop for dynamic cor...

  11. Developments in Scanning Hall Probe Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouinard, Taras; Chu, Ricky; David, Nigel; Broun, David

    2009-05-01

    Low temperature scanning Hall probe microscopy is a sensitive means of imaging magnetic structures with high spatial resolution and magnetic flux sensitivity approaching that of a Superconducting Quantum Interference Device. We have developed a scanning Hall probe microscope with novel features, including highly reliable coarse positioning, in situ optimization of sensor-sample alignment and capacitive transducers for linear, long range positioning measurement. This has been motivated by the need to reposition accurately above fabricated nanostructures such as small superconducting rings. Details of the design and performance will be presented as well as recent progress towards time-resolved measurements with sub nanosecond resolution.

  12. Bone scan features in spontaneous knee pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vattimo, A; Merlo, F; Bertelli, P; Burroni, L

    1992-01-01

    In 21 patients with "spontaneous" knee pain, 99mTc-MDP bone scan was found to be more sensitive than clinical and radiographic examination in detecting alterations of the joint components. These alterations were shown by increased radionuclide uptake in the compartments where pain was present, which was most commonly the medial femorotibial compartment, although the femoropatellar compartment was also frequently affected. The authors conclude that bone scan should be the first imaging study performed on the knee in order to establish if further tests are necessary.

  13. What expects orthopedic surgeon from bone scan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutter, B.; Cazenave, A.

    2003-01-01

    The isotope bone scan continues to be one of the 'lost widely performed nuclear medicine investigations. Beyond the common clinical indication like detection of skeletal metastases, bone scan use is increasing in benign orthopedic conditions, and after orthopedic surgery, despite development of new investigations modalities (US, MRI). Three (or two) phase bone scintigraphy, Single Photon Emission Computer Tomography have increased its value and provided new clinical roles. This review emphasizes through some practical clinical examples how to increase diagnostic value of the method and to offer an adapted response to the orthopedic surgeon's attempts. (author)

  14. Radiochemicals used to scan the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Techniques for heart scanning using 201 Tl and /sup 99m/Tc pyrophosphate are discussed. Thallium-201, produced artificially in a cyclotron, concentrates in normal heart muscle but not in abnormal tissue. Technetium-99m is deposited in mitochondria of heart cells that are irreversibly damaged. The combined use of 201 Tl and /sup 99m/Tc makes it possible to identify regions of recent heart damage as well as older heart damage. Advantages of using 129 Cs for heart scanning are also discussed

  15. Gallium-67 citrate scan in extrapulmonary tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Wanyu [Taichung Veterans General Hospital (Taiwan). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine; Hsieh Jihfang [Chi-Mei Foundation Hospital, Tainan (Taiwan)

    1999-07-01

    Aim: Whole-body gallium scan was performed to evaluate the usefulness of gallium scan for detecting extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) lesions. Methods: Thirty-seven patients with extrapulmonary TB were included in this study. Four patients were found to have two lesions. Totally, 41 lesions were identified, including 19 TB arthritis, 8 spinal TB, 5 TB meningitis, 3 TB lymphadenopathy, 2 TB pericarditis, 1 TB peritonitis, 1 intestinal TB, 1 skin TB and 1 renal TB. Results: Of the 41 extrapulmonary TB lesions, gallium scan detected 32 lesions with a sensitivity of 78%. All the patients with TB meningitis showed negative gallium scan. When the five cases of TB meningitis were excluded, the detection sensitivity of gallium scan increased to 88.9% (32/36). Conclusion: Our data revealed that gallium scan is a convenient and useful method for evaluating extrapulmonary TB lesions other than TB-meningitis. We suggest that gallium scan be included in the clinical routine for patients with suspected extrapulmonary TB. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Es wurden Ganzkoerper-Gallium-Szintigramme angefertigt, um den Nutzen der Gallium-Szintigraphie zur Erfassung von extrapulmonalen Tuberkuloseherden (TB) zu erfassen. Methoden: 37 Patienten mit extrapulmonaler TB wurden eingeschlossen. 4 Patienten hatten 2 Laesionen. Insgesamt wurden 41 Laesionen identifiziert, hierunter 19 TB-Arthritis, 8 spinale TB, 5 TB-Meningitis, 3 TB-Lymphadenopathie, 2 TB-Perikarditis, 1 TB-Peritonitis, 1 intestinale TB, 1 Haut-TB und eine Nieren-TB. Ergebnisse: Von den 41 extrapulmonalen TB-Herden erfasste die Gallium-Szintigraphie 32 Herde mit einer Sensitivitaet von 78%. Alle Patienten mit TB-Meningitis zeigten einen negativen Gallium-Scan. Wenn die 5 Faelle mit TB-Meningitis ausgeschlossen wurden, stieg die Sensitivititaet der Gallium-Szintigraphie auf 88,9% (32/36). Schlussfolgerung: Die Daten zeigen, dass die Gallium-Szintigraphie eine einfache und nuetzliche Methode zur Erfassung extrapulmonaler TB-Herde ist

  16. Thyroiditis: Radioisotope Scan Findings and Clinical Significance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Chae; Han, Duck Sup; Park, Jung Suck; Kim, Se Jong; Park, Byung Lan; Kim, Byoung Geun [Kwangju Christian Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1991-07-15

    We analyzed Radioisotope scan findings of 46 patients of thyroiditis which were proven pathologically at K.C.H. The results were as follows 1) 45 patients were female, one was male and average age of patients was 37 years old. 2) The lesion site was predominant in both lobe (67%) Hashimoto's thyroiditis showed enlarged thyroid (85%) with cold nodule (20%), diffuse decreased activity (10%), while subacute thyroiditis was presented absent activity (53%), poor visualization (20%) or cold nodule (7%). 4) Radioisotope scan was valuable in evaluating function of thyroid gland and detection of lesion but there was a limit of pathological nature.

  17. Bone scanning in Shin Splint evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumont, M.; Lamoureux, F.; Lamoureux, J.; Danais, S.; Lacoste, P.; Duranceau, J.

    1983-01-01

    Jogging is increasingly popular; in U.S.A., in 1979 more than 25 millions people were considered joggers. Lesions of the locomotive system of the lower limbs are very frequent in athletes and the Shin Splint syndrome, for one, is very frequent. However this precise clinical entity, usually X-Ray negative, is ill-known. A bone scan study in a series of 30 athletes suffering from Shin Splints is presented. The bone scans being positive and typical were highly useful in confirming the clinical diagnosis. Moreover, follow-up studies were done in a number of these patients and results correlated well with the clinical evolution [fr

  18. Dexter: Data Extractor for scanned graphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demleitner, Markus

    2011-12-01

    The NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS) now holds 1.3 million scanned pages, containing numerous plots and figures for which the original data sets are lost or inaccessible. The availability of scans of the figures can significantly ease the regeneration of the data sets. For this purpose, the ADS has developed Dexter, a Java applet that supports the user in this process. Dexter's basic functionality is to let the user manually digitize a plot by marking points and defining the coordinate transformation from the logical to the physical coordinate system. Advanced features include automatic identification of axes, tracing lines and finding points matching a template.

  19. Role of bone scanning in osteomalacia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; McKillop, J.H.; Bessent, R.G.; Boyle, I.T.; Turner, J.G.; Greig, W.R.

    1978-01-01

    The presence of eight ''metabolic features'' was assessed on the bone scintigrams of ten patients with osteomalacia. In all of these bone images, sufficient features were present to strongly suggest a metabolic disorder. These scintiphotos were included in a controlled blind study using 30 normal bone scans and 20 scans of metastatic disease. Nine of the ten metabolic bone images were correctly identified by two independent observers. Skeletal uptake of radiotracer, expressed as bone-to-soft-tissue ratio, was significantly higher in the osteomalacic patients than in a group of 80 controls

  20. Scan posture definition and hip girth measurement: the impact on clothing design and body scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Simeon; Parker, Christopher J

    2017-08-01

    Ergonomic measurement is central to product design and development; especially for body worn products and clothing. However, there is a large variation in measurement definitions, complicated by new body scanning technology that captures measurements in a posture different to traditional manual methods. Investigations of hip measurement definitions in current clothing measurement practices supports analysis of the effect of scan posture and hip measurement definition on the circumferences of the hip. Here, the hip girth is a key clothing measurement that is not defined in current body scanning measurement standards. Sixty-four participants were scanned in the standard scan posture of a [TC] 2 body scanner, and also in a natural posture similar to that of traditional manual measurement collection. Results indicate that scan posture affects hip girth circumferences, and that some current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. Recommendations are made concerning how the hip is defined in measurement practice and within body scanning for clothing product development. Practitioner Summary: The hip girth is an important measurement in garment design, yet its measurement protocol is not currently defined. We demonstrate that body posture during body scanning affects hip circumferences, and that current clothing measurement practices may not define the largest lower body circumference. This paper also provides future measurement practice recommendations.

  1. The Scanning Theremin Microscope: A Model Scanning Probe Instrument for Hands-On Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quardokus, Rebecca C.; Wasio, Natalie A.; Kandel, S. Alex

    2014-01-01

    A model scanning probe microscope, designed using similar principles of operation to research instruments, is described. Proximity sensing is done using a capacitance probe, and a mechanical linkage is used to scan this probe across surfaces. The signal is transduced as an audio tone using a heterodyne detection circuit analogous to that used in…

  2. DepositScan, a Scanning Program to Measure Spray Deposition Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    DepositScan, a scanning program was developed to quickly measure spray deposit distributions on water sensitive papers or Kromekote cards which are widely used for determinations of pesticide spray deposition quality on target areas. The program is installed in a portable computer and works with a ...

  3. Scanning reference electrode techniques in localized corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, H.S.; Vyas, B.

    1979-04-01

    The principles, advantages, and implementations of scanning reference electrode techniques are reviewed. Data related to pitting, intergranular corrosion, welds and stress corrosion cracking are presented. The technique locates the position of localized corrosion and can be used to monitor the development of corrosion and changes in the corrosion rate under a wide range of conditions

  4. Exabyte helical scan devices at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constanta-Fanourakis, P.; Kaczar, K.; Oleynik, G.; Petravick, D.; Votava, M.; White, V.; Hockney, G.; Bracker, S.; de Miranda, J.M.

    1989-05-01

    Exabyte 8mm helical scan storage devices are in use at Fermilab in a number of applications. These devices have the functionality of magnetic tape, but use media which is much more economical and much more dense than conventional 9 track tape. 6 refs., 3 figs

  5. High resolution RGB color line scan camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Theodore E.; Huettig, Fred

    1998-04-01

    A color line scan camera family which is available with either 6000, 8000 or 10000 pixels/color channel, utilizes off-the-shelf lenses, interfaces with currently available frame grabbers, includes on-board pixel by pixel offset correction, and is configurable and controllable via RS232 serial port for computer controlled or stand alone operation is described in this paper. This line scan camera is based on an available 8000 element monochrome line scan camera designed by AOA for OEM use. The new color version includes improvements such as better packaging and additional user features which make the camera easier to use. The heart of the camera is a tri-linear CCD sensor with on-chip color balancing for maximum accuracy and pinned photodiodes for low lag response. Each color channel is digitized to 12 bits and all three channels are multiplexed together so that the resulting camera output video is either a 12 or 8 bit data stream at a rate of up to 24Megpixels/sec. Conversion from 12 to 8 bit, or user-defined gamma, is accomplished by on board user-defined video look up tables. The camera has two user-selectable operating modes; lows speed, high sensitivity mode or high speed, reduced sensitivity mode. The intended uses of the camera include industrial inspection, digital archiving, document scanning, and graphic arts applications.

  6. Electrochemical gating in scanning electrochemical microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ahonen, P.; Ruiz, V.; Kontturi, K.; Liljeroth, P.; Quinn, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate that scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) can be used to determine the conductivity of nanoparticle assemblies as a function of assembly potential. In contrast to conventional electron transport measurements, this method is unique in that electrical connection to the film is not

  7. Role of bone scanning in neonatal rickets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saul, P.D.; Lloyd, D.J.; Smith, F.W.

    1983-03-01

    Preterm infants are at increased risk from rickets. Radionuclide bone scanning is a useful aid in suspected cases. It offers advantages over conventional radiology in terms of sensitivity, radiation dose and extent of examination. Unsuspected fractures of clinical or medicolegal significance may be detected. Two cases are described in which the technique confirmed the diagnosis and assisted management.

  8. Fast rendering of scanned room geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Room acoustics are rendered in Virtual Realities based on models of the real world. These are typically rather coarse representations of the true geometry resulting in room impulse responses with a lack of natural detail. This problem can be overcome by using data scanned by sensors, such as e...

  9. Algorithms for coding scanned halftone pictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Forchhammer, Morten

    1988-01-01

    A method for coding scanned documents containing halftone pictures, e.g. newspapers and magazines, for transmission purposes is proposed. The halftone screen is estimated and the grey value of each dot is found, thus giving a compact description. At the receiver the picture is rescreened. A novel...

  10. Plague and the gallium scan: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahly, T.L.; Shoop, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    Inflammation in the right axillary lymph nodes and the meninges was detected by 67 Ga-citrate scans in an 11-year-old boy with Yersinia pestis infection. This case provides another example of 67 Ga localizing to areas of infection, indicating potential utility in future cases of bubonic plague

  11. Study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva, A.J.; Pancarobo, M.; Denisenko, N.; Aguilar, M.; Rejon, V.; Pena, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    A theoretical study of Scanning Tunneling Microscope control electronics is made. The knowledge of its behaviour allows us to determine accurately the region where the unstable operation could effect the measurements, and also to set the optimal working parameters. Each feedback circuitry compound is discussed as well as their mutual interaction. Different working conditions analysis and results are presented. (Author) 12 refs

  12. Investigation into scanning tunnelling luminescence microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manson-Smith, S.K.

    2001-01-01

    This work reports on the development of a scanning tunnelling luminescence (STL) microscope and its application to the study of Ill-nitride semiconductor materials used in the production of light emitting devices. STL microscopy is a technique which uses the high resolution topographic imaging capabilities of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to generate high resolution luminescence images. The STM tunnelling current acts as a highly localised source of electrons (or holes) which generates luminescence in certain materials. Light generated at the STM tunnelling junction is collected concurrently with the height variation of the tunnelling probe as it is scanned across a sample surface, producing simultaneous topographic and luminescence images. Due to the very localised excitation source, high resolution luminescence images can be obtained. Spectroscopic resolution can be obtained by using filters. Additionally, the variation of luminescence intensity with tunnel current and with bias voltage can provide information on recombination processes and material properties. The design and construction of a scanning tunnelling luminescence microscope is described in detail. Operating under ambient conditions, the microscope has several novel features, including a new type of miniature inertial slider-based approach motor, large solid-angle light collection optical arrangement and a tip-height regulation system which requires the minimum of operator input. (author)

  13. Eye scanning activity influenced by temperament traits

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukavský, Jiří

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2005), s. 121 ISSN 0301-0066. [European Conference on Visual Perception 2005. 22.08.2005-26.08.2005] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70250504 Keywords : Eye movements * scanning * temperament * TCI-R * Rorschach test Subject RIV: AN - Psychology

  14. High-pressure differential scanning microcalorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senin, A A; Dzhavadov, L N; Potekhin, S A

    2016-03-01

    A differential scanning microcalorimeter for studying thermotropic conformational transitions of biopolymers at high pressure has been designed. The calorimeter allows taking measurements of partial heat capacity of biopolymer solutions vs. temperature at pressures up to 3000 atm. The principles of operation of the device, methods of its calibration, as well as possible applications are discussed.

  15. Multiplatform Mobile Laser Scanning: Usability and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuwei Chen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile laser scanning is an emerging technology capable of capturing three-dimensional data from surrounding objects. With state-of-the-art sensors, the achieved point clouds capture object details with good accuracy and precision. Many of the applications involve civil engineering in urban areas, as well as traffic and other urban planning, all of which serve to make 3D city modeling probably the fastest growing market segment in this field. This article outlines multiplatform mobile laser scanning solutions such as vehicle- and trolley-operated urban area data acquisition, and boat-mounted equipment for fluvial environments. Moreover, we introduce a novel backpack version of mobile laser scanning equipment for surveying applications in the field of natural sciences where the requirements include precision and mobility in variable terrain conditions. In addition to presenting a technical description of the systems, we discuss the performance of the solutions in the light of various applications in the fields of urban mapping and modeling, fluvial geomorphology, snow-cover characterization, precision agriculture, and in monitoring the effects of climate change on permafrost landforms. The data performance of the mobile laser scanning approach is described by the results of an evaluation of the ROAMER on a permanent MLS test field. Furthermore, an in situ accuracy assessment using a field of spherical 3D targets for the newly-introduced Akhka backpack system is conducted and reported on.

  16. Laser scanning camera inspects hazardous area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryatt, A.; Miprode, C.

    1985-01-01

    Main operational characteristics of a new laser scanning camera are presented. The camera is intended primarily for low level high resolution viewing inside nuclear reactors. It uses a He-Ne laser beam raster; by detecting the reflected light by means of a phomultiplier, the subject under observation can be reconstructed in an electronic video store and reviewed on a conventional monitor screen

  17. Efficient scanning of thick lead vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, V.M.; Bhatnagar, P.K.; Meenakshisundaram, V.

    1978-01-01

    Lead containers fabricated for transport of radioactive materials need to be evaluated for their shielding integrity. The common method of locating a strong gamma source inside the vessel and scanning the external surface by conventional detectors suffers from high radiation dose and low sensitivity. A new method has been proposed and tried. It is found to be more efficient. In the new method, 60 Co source is loaded at the centre of the lead vessel and the outer surface is scanned by NaI(Tl) detector. The transmitted virgin flux is scanned under the 60 Co channel in a single channel analyser. An area of 25 cm 2 is scanned for 10 to 20 seconds each time. The source strength required is considerably reduced by a factor of 10 or more as compared to the common method and external dose rates do not exceed 50 mR/h (130 nC. kg -1 h -1 ) on the vessel surface. The advantages are improved sensitivity, no interference from scattered radiation and assurance in repeatability of measurements. (M.G.B.)

  18. Atypical Saccadic Scanning in Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Valerie; Piper, Jenna; Fletcher-Watson, Sue

    2009-01-01

    Saccadic scanning was examined for typically developing (TD) adults and those with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) during inspection of the "Repin" picture (Yarbus, A. (1967). "Eye movements and vision". New York: Plenum) under two different viewing instructions: (A) material instructions ("Estimate the material circumstances of the family"); and…

  19. Interval scanning photomicrography of microbial cell populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casida, L. E., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A single reproducible area of the preparation in a fixed focal plane is photographically scanned at intervals during incubation. The procedure can be used for evaluating the aerobic or anaerobic growth of many microbial cells simultaneously within a population. In addition, the microscope is not restricted to the viewing of any one microculture preparation, since the slide cultures are incubated separately from the microscope.

  20. Remote Identification of Port Scan Toolchains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghiëtte, Vincent; Blenn, N.; Doerr, C.; Badra, Mohamad; Pau, Giovanni; Vassiliou, Vasos

    2016-01-01

    Port scans are typically at the begin of a chain of events that will lead to the attack and exploitation of a host over a network. Since building an effective defense relies on information what kind of threat an organization is facing, threat intelligence outlining an actor’s modus operandi is a

  1. Scanning For Hotspots In Lamp Filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Charles E.; Van Sant, Tim; Leidecker, Henning

    1993-01-01

    Scanning photometer designed for use in investigation of failures of incandescent lamp filaments. Maps brightness as function of position along each filament to identify bright (hot) spots, occurring at notches and signifying incipient breaks or rewelds. Also used to measure nonuniformity in outputs of such linear devices as light-emitting diodes, and to measure diffraction patterns of lenses.

  2. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Getting a CAT Scan (Video) KidsHealth / ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  3. Differential scanning microcalorimetry of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permyakov, Sergei E

    2012-01-01

    Ultrasensitive differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an indispensable thermophysical technique enabling to get direct information on enthalpies accompanying heating/cooling of dilute biopolymer solutions. The thermal dependence of protein heat capacity extracted from DSC data is a valuable source of information on intrinsic disorder level of a protein. Application details and limitations of DSC technique in exploration of protein intrinsic disorder are described.

  4. Environmental Scanning: Assessing Local Business Training Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Craig A.; Huntington, Robin B.

    Environmental scanning (ES) is a formal process of assessing trends and forecasting events which can influence an institution so that the potential challenges and opportunities can be effectively anticipated during strategic planning activities. The goal of ES is the implementation of proactive, anticipatory policies that will be robust under a…

  5. Out-of-Print Digital Scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellerman, L. Suzanne

    2002-01-01

    Describes the in-house operational procedures developed at the Penn State University libraries to produce facsimiles of hard-to-locate, out-of-print titles using digital scanning technologies. Highlights include identification and selection, costs, copyright issues, interlibrary loan, materials preparation, and future trends. (Author/LRW)

  6. Internet access to scanned paper documents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Worring, M.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Witten, I.; Akscyn, R.; Shipman, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    In this contribution we identify the different structures to encounterin a hyperdocument. Methods are described for deriving those structures from scanned paper originals. The content and structure of the document is then made available in a form suited for an Internet browser. It provides

  7. Three phase bone scan in sports injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chauhan, M.S.; Chowhan, M.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Sports injuries are common in individual who participate in sports and exercise related activities. In majority of sports related injuries such as stress fracture, periosteitits, acute stress reaction of bone, the radiological investigations are usually normal in early stages. These injuries can lead to serious complications if not detected early and managed properly. This study was jointly carried out in premier medical institutes. All patients were referred from premier sports institute of the country and also by orthopedic surgeons. All patients were subjected for relevant radiological investigations and 3 phase bone scan. Total number of cases included in this study was 70 (N=70) among which bone scan was positive for stress fracture in 45 patients and shin splint was detected in 15 patients and avulsion injury seen in 3 patients. However, only one patient showed features of avulsion injury in X ray and in 1 patient X-ray was inconclusive. Conclusion:-The study shows that 3 phase bone scan is the most sensitive and relatively an inexpensive study. Bone scan has the ability for early detection of sports injuries and provide physiological information and evaluate multiple sites in single examination.SPECT study will help in the diagnostic specificity. (author)

  8. Gamma scanning equipment for nuclear safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grandi, G.; Stanchi, L.

    1975-01-01

    Many reasons justify the use of gamma techniques in the field of nuclear safeguards. The paper describes electronic equipment for gamma-scanning of non-irradiated fuel elements. The control of the operation is completely digital and driven by a minicomputer and gives more accurate results in respect of an analog chain which has been successfully used in fuel element manufacturing plants

  9. Getting a CAT Scan (For Kids)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The scan itself is painless. All you'll need to do is hold still for a few minutes at a time so the pictures come out clear. ... the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  10. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S [Physics Department, Auckland University, 38 Princes Street, Auckland (New Zealand); Hunerbein, S von [Acoustics Department, Newton Building, University of Salford, Greater Manchester M5 4WT (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed.

  11. A scanning bi-static SODAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behrens, P; Bradley, S; Hunerbein, S von

    2008-01-01

    Field results are given from a bi-static SODAR which uses a single central vertical transmission and three distributed microphone array receivers. Fourier transform delay methods are applied to data sampled from each microphone to retrospectively scan in angle and follow the transmitted pulse. Advantages of sampling a narrow atmospheric column, rather than distributed volumes are discussed

  12. Impact of the 20-week scan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fleurke-Rozema, Hanneke

    2017-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a number of studies on the efficacy of the 20-week scan in detecting severe congenital anomalies. Data from two of the eight regional centers for prenatal screening was used, located in the Academic Medical Center in Amsterdam and the Academic Medical Center in

  13. Metrological large range scanning probe microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Gaoliang; Pohlenz, Frank; Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Xu Min; Hasche, Klaus; Wilkening, Guenter

    2004-01-01

    We describe a metrological large range scanning probe microscope (LR-SPM) with an Abbe error free design and direct interferometric position measurement capability, aimed at versatile traceable topographic measurements that require nanometer accuracy. A dual-stage positioning system was designed to achieve both a large measurement range and a high measurement speed. This dual-stage system consists of a commercially available stage, referred to as nanomeasuring machine (NMM), with a motion range of 25 mmx25 mmx5 mm along x, y, and z axes, and a compact z-axis piezoelectric positioning stage (compact z stage) with an extension range of 2 μm. The metrological LR-SPM described here senses the surface using a stationary fixed scanning force microscope (SFM) head working in contact mode. During operation, lateral scanning of the sample is performed solely by the NMM. Whereas the z motion, controlled by the SFM signal, is carried out by a combination of the NMM and the compact z stage. In this case the compact z stage, with its high mechanical resonance frequency (greater than 20 kHz), is responsible for the rapid motion while the NMM simultaneously makes slower movements over a larger motion range. To reduce the Abbe offset to a minimum the SFM tip is located at the intersection of three interferometer measurement beams orientated in x, y, and z directions. To improve real time performance two high-end digital signal processing (DSP) systems are used for NMM positioning and SFM servocontrol. Comprehensive DSP firmware and Windows XP-based software are implemented, providing a flexible and user-friendly interface. The instrument is able to perform large area imaging or profile scanning directly without stitching small scanned images. Several measurements on different samples such as flatness standards, nanostep height standards, roughness standards as well as sharp nanoedge samples and 1D gratings demonstrate the outstanding metrological capabilities of the instrument

  14. Implementation of dual energy CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.; Hall, E.; Doost-Hoseini, A.; Alvarez, R.; Macovski, A.; Cassel, D.

    1984-01-01

    A prereconstruction method for dual energy (PREDECT) analysis of CT scans is described. In theory, this method can (a) eliminate beam hardening and produce an accuracy comparable with monoenergetic scans and (b) provide the effective atomic number and electron density of any voxel scanned. The implementation proves these statements and eliminates some of the objectionable noise. A phantom was constructed with a cylindrical sleeve-like compartment containing known amounts of high atomic number material simulating a removable skull. Conventional scans, with and without this beam hardener, were done of a water bath containing tubes of high electron and high atomic number material. Dual energy scans were then done for PREDECT. To increase the effective separation of the low and high energy beams by using more appropriate tube filtration, a beam filter changer was fabricated containing erbium, tungsten, aluminum, and steel. Erbium, tungsten, and steel were used at high energy and aluminum, steel, and erbium at low energy for data acquisition. The reconstructions were compared visually and numerically for noise levels with the original steel only filtration. A decrease was found in noise down to approximately one-half the prior level when erbium/aluminum or tungsten/aluminum replaced the steel/steel filter. Erbium and tungsten were equally effective. Steel/erbium and steel/aluminum also significantly reduced image noise. The noise in the photoelectric (P) and Compton (C) images is negatively correlated. At any pixel, if the noise is positive in the P image, it is most probably negative in the C. Using this fact, the noise was reduced by postreconstruction processing

  15. A Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev, Benjamin

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity, high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented DC-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (2 um), or 6 nT / Hz1 / 2 per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly one-hundred points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT / Hz1 / 2 each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner would measure these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly two orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10- 6 Phi0 / Hz1 / 2) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are for the first time carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns and done so using samples that may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge transport images at temperatures from room to \\x9D4K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  16. Scanning Ion Conductance Microscopy of Live Keratinocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegde, V; Mason, A; Saliev, T; Smith, F J D; McLean, W H I; Campbell, P A

    2012-01-01

    Scanning ion conductance microscopy (SICM) is perhaps the least well known technique from the scanning probe microscopy (SPM) family of instruments. As with its more familiar counterpart, atomic force microscopy (AFM), the technique provides high-resolution topographic imaging, with the caveat that target structures must be immersed in a conducting solution so that a controllable ion current may be utilised as the basis for feedback. In operation, this non-contact characteristic of SICM makes it ideal for the study of delicate structures, such as live cells. Moreover, the intrinsic architecture of the instrument, incorporating as it does, a scanned micropipette, lends itself to combination approaches with complementary techniques such as patch-clamp electrophysiology: SICM therefore boasts the capability for both structural and functional imaging. For the present observations, an ICnano S system (Ionscope Ltd., Melbourn, UK) operating in 'hopping mode' was used, with the objective of assessing the instrument's utility for imaging live keratinocytes under physiological buffers. In scans employing cultured HaCaT cells (spontaneously immortalised, human keratinocytes), we compared the qualitative differences of live cells imaged with SICM and AFM, and also with their respective counterparts after chemical fixation in 4% paraformaldehyde. Characteristic surface microvilli were particularly prominent in live cell imaging by SICM. Moreover, time lapse SICM imaging on live cells revealed that changes in the pattern of microvilli could be tracked over time. By comparison, AFM imaging on live cells, even at very low contact forces (< nN), could not routinely image microvilli: rather, an apparently convolved image of the underlying cytoskeleton was instead prevalent. We note that the present incarnation of the commercial instrument falls some way behind the market leading SPMs in terms of technical prowess and scanning speed, however, the intrinsic non-obtrusive nature of

  17. Bone scanning as a routine examination of patients with mammary carcinoma; a critical consideration. [Preoperative scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heslinga, J M; Pauwels, E K.J.; Zwaveling, A [Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Academisch Ziekenhuis

    1982-06-05

    The usefulness of bone scanning as a routine examination was evaluated in 136 female patients with mammary carcinoma of whom 81 were staged as Columbia A and 55 as Columbia B/C. The preoperative bone scanning was positive in only 4 patients (2.9%). Consequently, bone scanning is no longer performed in the authors clinic for the preoperative detection of skeletal metastases. Bone scanning as a routine examination at 6-month intervals does not appear to be useful for the first 4 years of the follow-up, either. Most of the patients with a positive bone scan displayed other signs of skeletal metastases at the same time, such as ostealgia and a raised serum alkaline phosphatase level. Further increase of the frequency of bone scanning during the follow-up period would increase the costs considerably, almost prohibitively, even apart from the question whether such a measure might indeed significantly influence the patient's prognosis. The authors conclude that bone scanning should only be performed on the basis of the anamnesis, physical and laboratory findings, both prior to operation and during the follow-up period.

  18. CT scanning in pediatric head trauma: correlation of clinical features with CT scan diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkoncel, Mary Ann P.; Posadas, Ma. Belen A.

    1997-01-01

    A retrospective review was conducted on 205 cases of pediatric head trauma for which cranial computed tomography scans were done at the Makati Medical Center, to determine which clinical features might positively predict an abnormality on CT scan. The clinical findings of loss of consciousness, GCS < 12, vomiting headache, seizures, and focal abnormalities on Neurologic Examination were significantly associated with abnormal findings on CT scan. However, a significant discrepancy does exist as to how accurately clinical findings do in fact predict normal and abnormal CT scan findings. Such a discrepancy allows us to conclude that a more liberal use of CT Scanning in cases of pediatric head trauma must be stressed to insure proper diagnosis. This study shows that when a patient presents with the aforementioned positive signs and symptoms, or with a focal neurologic deficit, or in combination, a 60-100 % positive prediction of abnormal CT Scan can be made. However, prediction of normal CT Scan is only 0-40%. (Author)

  19. Ballistic and snake photon imaging for locating optical endomicroscopy fibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, M. G.; Choudhary, T. R.; Craven, T. H.; Mills, B.; Bradley, M.; Henderson, R. K.; Dhaliwal, K.; Thomson, R. R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate determination of the location of the distal-end of a fibre-optic device deep in tissue through the imaging of ballistic and snake photons using a time resolved single-photon detector array. The fibre was imaged with centimetre resolution, within clinically relevant settings and models. This technique can overcome the limitations imposed by tissue scattering in optically determining the in vivo location of fibre-optic medical instruments. PMID:28966848

  20. Scanning tunneling microscopy III theory of STM and related scanning probe methods

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1996-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy III provides a unique introduction to the theoretical foundations of scanning tunneling microscopy and related scanning probe methods. The different theoretical concepts developed in the past are outlined, and the implications of the theoretical results for the interpretation of experimental data are discussed in detail. Therefore, this book serves as a most useful guide for experimentalists as well as for theoreticians working in the filed of local probe methods. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  1. Scanning tunnel microscope with large vision field compatible with a scanning electron microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volodin, A.P.; Stepanyan, G.A.; Khajkin, M.S.; Ehdel'man, V.S.

    1989-01-01

    A scanning tunnel microscope (STM) with the 20μm vision field and 1nm resolution, designed to be compatible with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), is described. The sample scanning area is chosen within the 3x10mm limits with a 0.1-1μm step. The STM needle is moved automatically toward the sample surface from the maximum distance of 10mm until the tunneling current appears. Bimorphous elements of the KP-1 piezocorrector are used in the STM design. The device is installed on a table of SEM object holders

  2. Substernal thyroid carcinoma detected by 67Ga scan in a patient with normal 131I scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, e.E.; Maruyama, Y.; Deland, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    A patient with a superior mediastinal mass on an admission chest radiograph was initially evaluated by an 131 I thyroid scan which failed to demonstrate a substernal thyroid. However, the tomographic 67 Ga scan clearly showed an abnormal uptake in the area corresponding to the mass lesion on radiographic examination. Subsequent resection and biopsy of the substernal mass revealed a poorly differentiated follicular carcinoma with foci of anaplastic carcinoma. The differential diagnosis of the anterior mediastinal mass and the usefullness of the tomographic gallium scan are briefly discussed

  3. Internal scanning method as unique imaging method of optical vortex scanning microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiołek-Masajada, Agnieszka; Masajada, Jan; Szatkowski, Mateusz

    2018-06-01

    The internal scanning method is specific for the optical vortex microscope. It allows to move the vortex point inside the focused vortex beam with nanometer resolution while the whole beam stays in place. Thus the sample illuminated by the focused vortex beam can be scanned just by the vortex point. We show that this method enables high resolution imaging. The paper presents the preliminary experimental results obtained with the first basic image recovery procedure. A prospect of developing more powerful tools for topography recovery with the optical vortex scanning microscope is discussed shortly.

  4. Codification of scan path parameters and development of perimeter scan strategies for 3D bowl-shaped laser forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, A.; Naeini, H. Moslemi; Roohi, Amir H.; Gollo, M. Hoseinpour; Shahabad, Sh. Imani

    2018-01-01

    In the 3D laser forming process, developing an appropriate laser scan pattern for producing specimens with high quality and uniformity is critical. This study presents certain principles for developing scan paths. Seven scan path parameters are considered, including: (1) combined linear or curved path; (2) type of combined linear path; (3) order of scan sequences; (4) the position of the start point in each scan; (5) continuous or discontinuous scan path; (6) direction of scan path; and (7) angular arrangement of combined linear scan paths. Regarding these path parameters, ten combined linear scan patterns are presented. Numerical simulations show continuous hexagonal, scan pattern, scanning from outer to inner path, is the optimized. In addition, it is observed the position of the start point and the angular arrangement of scan paths is the most effective path parameters. Also, further experimentations show four sequences due to creat symmetric condition enhance the height of the bowl-shaped products and uniformity. Finally, the optimized hexagonal pattern was compared with the similar circular one. In the hexagonal scan path, distortion value and standard deviation rather to edge height of formed specimen is very low, and the edge height despite of decreasing length of scan path increases significantly compared to the circular scan path. As a result, four-sequence hexagonal scan pattern is proposed as the optimized perimeter scan path to produce bowl-shaped product.

  5. Overview of the low energy accelerator scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leo Kwee Wah; Lojius Lombigit; Muhamad Zahidee Taat; Abu Bakar Ghazali; Mohd Rizal Ibrahim; Mohd Rizal Chulan Md Chulan; Azaman Ahmad; Abdul Halim Baijan; Rokiah Mohd Sabri

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the specification of the low energy accelerator (Baby-EBM; Electron Beam Machine) scanning system. It comprises a discussion of coil inductance measurement, power supply design and the test results. The scanning horn system was completely assembled and tested; it was found that the system is able to scan the beam across the scanning window with a required beam profile. (Author)

  6. Ultrafast CT scanning of an oak log for internal defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis G. Wagner; Fred W. Taylor; Douglas S. Ladd; Charles W. McMillin; Fredrick L. Roder

    1989-01-01

    Detecting internal defects in sawlogs and veneer logs with computerized tomographic (CT) scanning is possible, but has been impractical due to the long scanning time required. This research investigated a new scanner able to acquire 34 cross-sectional log scans per second. This scanning rate translates to a linear log feed rate of 85 feet (25.91 m) per minute at one...

  7. Comparison of dimensional accuracy of digital dental models produced from scanned impressions and scanned stone casts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeihi, Haitham

    Introduction: Digital models of dental arches play a more and more important role in dentistry. A digital dental model can be generated by directly scanning intraoral structures, by scanning a conventional impression of oral structures or by scanning a stone cast poured from the conventional impression. An accurate digital scan model is a fundamental part for the fabrication of dental restorations. Aims: 1. To compare the dimensional accuracy of digital dental models produced by scanning of impressions versus scanning of stone casts. 2. To compare the dimensional accuracy of digital dental models produced by scanning of impressions made of three different materials (polyvinyl siloxane, polyether or vinyl polyether silicone). Methods and Materials: This laboratory study included taking addition silicone, polyether and vinyl polyether silicone impressions from an epoxy reference model that was created from an original typodont. Teeth number 28 and 30 on the typodont with a missing tooth number 29 were prepared for a metal-ceramic three-unit fixed dental prosthesis with tooth #29 being a pontic. After tooth preparation, an epoxy resin reference model was fabricated by duplicating the typodont quadrant that included the tooth preparations. From this reference model 12 polyvinyl siloxane impressions, 12 polyether impressions and 12 vinyl polyether silicone impressions were made. All 36 impressions were scanned before pouring them with dental stone. The 36 dental stone casts were, in turn, scanned to produce digital models. A reference digital model was made by scanning the reference model. Six groups of digital models were produced. Three groups were made by scanning of the impressions obtained with the three different materials, the other three groups involved the scanning of the dental casts that resulted from pouring the impressions made with the three different materials. Groups of digital models were compared using Root Mean Squares (RMS) in terms of their

  8. Method and apparatus for scanning a transverse field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoddart, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    A transverse radionuclide scan-field imaging apparatus is described for use in scanning with particular reference to the brain. It comprises a plurality of highly focussed collimators surrounding and being focussed inwardly with respect to the scan-field and means for imparting movement to the collimators. Adjacent collimators can be stepped in radially opposite directions after each tangential scan, so that the focal point of each collimator scans at least one half of the scan-field. Each collimator is associated with a scintillator crystal and photodetector whose output is used to calculate the radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  9. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy of Potassium on Graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormode, Daniel; Leroy, Brian; Yankowitz, Matthew

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the effect of charged impurities on the electronic properties of large single crystal CVD grown graphene using scanning tunneling microscopy. Mono- and multilayer crystals were prepared by transferring graphene from copper onto exfoliated boron nitride flakes on 300 nm SiO2 substrates. The boron nitride provides an ultra flat surface for the graphene. Potassium atoms are controllably deposited on the graphene at low temperature by heating a nearby getter source. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy and transport measurements were performed in ultra high vacuum at 4.5 K. Transport measurements demonstrate the shifting of the Dirac point as the samples are doped, while STM measurements demonstrate the size, arrangement and local electronic influence of the potassium atoms.

  10. Lung scan alterations in congenital heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, R; Sanchez, J; Munoz, A; Lanaro, A E; Pico, A M

    1975-04-01

    This report analyzes the patterns in 54 lung scannings of 34 patients with altered pulmonary blood flow due to congenital heart disease. The technique and the results are presented. According to the images obtained, the patients are classified in three groups: Group I--normal distribution with more concentration of particles over the right lung and the bases. Group II--normal scannings found in left to right shunts unless there is pulmonary venous hypertension in which case the apex-base relationship was inverted. Group III--patients with right to left shunts of different types presenting various patterns according to severity, associated anomalies and palliative surgery. The hemodynamics created by cardiac defects and surgical procedures explain these alterations. This method is recommended in view of its advantages and accurate results.

  11. CT-scanning in otolaryngology, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusakari, Jun; Endo, Satomi; Hara, Akira

    1982-01-01

    Combined computerized tomography-sialography was performed in 28 patients with parotid tumors. Sialography was performed in the usual fashion. After confirming the presence of the contrast material within the parotid gland by X-ray, 4 to 5 scannings were done at the width of 10 mm below Repid's base line. With this procedure, the parotid gland was clearly demonstrated and the location of the tumor was shown as a shadow defect. Although the nature of the tumor, especially whether it was malignant or benign was difficult to predict, the CT-findings regarding the size and location of the tumor were completely coincident with the operative findings in all the cases. Accurate appraisal of the relation between the tumor and the facial nerve was possible in all but two cases. The preoperative information obtained from CT-scanning is extremely useful in the case of parotid tumor surgery. (author)

  12. Solving LR Conflicts Through Context Aware Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon, C. Rodriguez; Forte, L. Garcia

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents a new algorithm to compute the exact list of tokens expected by any LR syntax analyzer at any point of the scanning process. The lexer can, at any time, compute the exact list of valid tokens to return only tokens in this set. In the case than more than one matching token is in the valid set, the lexer can resort to a nested LR parser to disambiguate. Allowing nested LR parsing requires some slight modifications when building the LR parsing tables. We also show how LR parsers can parse conflictive and inherently ambiguous languages using a combination of nested parsing and context aware scanning. These expanded lexical analyzers can be generated from high level specifications.

  13. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscope Use in Electrocatalysis Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutsen, Turid

    2010-01-01

    The relationship between the electrocatalytic properties of an electrode and its ability to transfer electrons between the electrode and a metallic tip in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is investigated. The alkaline oxygen evolution reaction (OER) was used as a test reaction with four different metallic glasses, Ni78Si8B14, Ni70Mo20Si5B5, Ni58Co20Si10B12, and Ni25Co50Si15B10, as electrodes. The electrocatalytic properties of the electrodes were determined. The electrode surfaces were then investigated with an STM. A clear relationship between the catalytic activity of an electrode toward the OER and its tunneling characteristics was found. The use of a scanning tunneling spectroscope (STS) in electrocatalytic testing may increase the efficiency of the optimization of electrochemical processes.

  14. Atomic physics with the scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleber, M.; Bracher, C.; Riza, M.

    1999-01-01

    Backscattering of atomic beams above a given surface yields information similar to the one obtained from scanning the same surface with a scanning tunneling microscope (STM): In both cases the experimentally accessible quantity is the local density of states (LDOS) n(r,E) of the surface. For the case of backscattering, the LDOS at the turning point of the atom is an important ingredient of the potential between atom and surface. In experiments performed with an STM, the LDOS at the apex of an atomically sharp tip can be determined directly. Probing surfaces locally by an STM allows for the study of basic phenomena in atomic physics, with tunneling of electrons in three dimensions being a central issue

  15. Scanning Tunneling Spectroscope Use in Electrocatalysis Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turid Knutsen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the electrocatalytic properties of an electrode and its ability to transfer electrons between the electrode and a metallic tip in a scanning tunneling microscope (STM is investigated. The alkaline oxygen evolution reaction (OER was used as a test reaction with four different metallic glasses, Ni78Si8B14, Ni70Mo20Si5B5, Ni58Co20Si10B12, and Ni25Co50Si15B10, as electrodes. The electrocatalytic properties of the electrodes were determined. The electrode surfaces were then investigated with an STM. A clear relationship between the catalytic activity of an electrode toward the OER and its tunneling characteristics was found. The use of a scanning tunneling spectroscope (STS in electrocatalytic testing may increase the efficiency of the optimization of electrochemical processes.

  16. Ocular volume measured by CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hahn, F.J.; Wei-Kom Chu

    1984-01-01

    Newer CT scans have greatly enhanced oculometric research and made it possible to measure ocular dimensions. With these measurements, ocular volume can be more accurately estimated to understand its relationship with age and sex. One hundred CT orbit scans with presumed normal eyes were used for the data base. The mean values and normal variations of ocular volumes at various ages in both sexes are presented. Rapid growth of the eyeball was noted during the first 24 months of age. It reached its peak between the ages of 18 and 30 years of age, after which there was a reduction. Results may be of help in recognizing eye abnormalities such as microophthalmus and macrophthalmia. (orig.)

  17. Automatic scanning of NTA film neutron dosimeters

    CERN Document Server

    Müller, R

    1999-01-01

    At the European Laboratory for Particle Physics CERN, personal neutron monitoring for over 4000 collaborators is performed with Kodak NTA film, one of the few suitable dosemeters in the stray radiation environment of a high energy accelerator. After development, films are scanned with a projection microscope. To overcome this lengthy and strenuous procedure an automated analysis system for the dosemeters has been developed. General purpose image recognition software, tailored to the specific needs with a macro language, analyses the digitised microscope image. This paper reports on the successful automatic scanning of NTA films irradiated with neutrons from a /sup 238/Pu-Be source (E approximately=4 MeV), as well as on the extension of the method to neutrons of higher energies. The question of detection limits is discussed in the light of an application of the method in routine personal neutron monitoring. (9 refs).

  18. Ward nurses' knowledge of computed tomography scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majeed, M A; Nayeemuddin, M; Christie, M

    Patients benefit from and are reassured by advance information on procedures that they are to undergo. Ward nurses should have adequate knowledge of radiological investigations to ensure proper patient preparation and good interdepartmental communication to avoid delays and cancellations. This study was conducted to assess the ward nurses' knowledge of the process of computed tomography (CT) scanning. One hundred and twenty qualified nurses were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding CT scanning. The findings revealed a suboptimal level of awareness about the process. This is probably due to lack of formal teaching for nurses on the wards in regards the different radiological procedures and patient preparation. There is a strong case for better educational talks on rapidly changing radiological techniques for ward staff to ensure high-quality patient care.

  19. Microprocessor-controlled scanning densitometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shurtliff, R.W.

    1980-04-01

    An Automated Scanning Densitometer System has been developed by uniting a microprocessor with a low energy x-ray densitometer system. The microprocessor controls the detector movement, provides self-calibration, compensates raw readings to provide time-linear output, controls both data storage and the host computer interface, and provides measurement output in engineering units for immediate reading. The densitometer, when used in a scanning mode, is a precision reference instrument that provides chordal average density measurements over the cross section of a pipe under steady-state flow conditions. Results have shown an improvement over the original densitometer in reliability and repeatability of the system, an a factor-of-five improvement in accuracy

  20. CS-Studio Scan System Parallelization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasemir, Kay [ORNL; Pearson, Matthew R [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    For several years, the Control System Studio (CS-Studio) Scan System has successfully automated the operation of beam lines at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) and Spallation Neutron Source (SNS). As it is applied to additional beam lines, we need to support simultaneous adjustments of temperatures or motor positions. While this can be implemented via virtual motors or similar logic inside the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) Input/Output Controllers (IOCs), doing so requires a priori knowledge of experimenters requirements. By adding support for the parallel control of multiple process variables (PVs) to the Scan System, we can better support ad hoc automation of experiments that benefit from such simultaneous PV adjustments.

  1. Emergency perfusion lung scan of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueno, Kyoichi; Kabuto, Hiroko; Rikimaru, Shigeho

    1984-01-01

    Pulmonary embolism (PE) has been reported to be quite rare in Japan, and there have been few clinical studies on the nuclear diagnosis of PE with the exception of several case reports. However, we have experienced 12 acute PE, and 2 chronic PE in 5 years 2 months. In 33 emergency cases who were highly suspected to have PE, we could diagnose 12 cases of PE, and 19 cases of non-PE. However, the remaining 2 cases were equivocal because of underlying chronic lung disease. Using Kr-81m ventilation lung scan, V/Q mismatch was found in all of 10 cases. Usefulness of emergency perfusion lung scan in Japan should be stressed. (author)

  2. Quantitative bone scanning after asymptomatic Charnley arthroplasty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullaji, A.B. (University Department of Orthopedic and Accident Surgery, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Lierpool (United Kingdom)); Tood, R.C. (Department of Orthopedics, Black Notley Hospital, Braintree (United Kingdom)); Robinson, S. (Department of MedicaL Physics, Colchester General Hospital, Colchester (United Kingdom)); Critchley, M. (Department of Nuclear Medicine, Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom))

    1994-06-01

    To establish the normal pattern of postoperative tracer uptake we performed 73 [sup 99m]technetium methylene disphosphonate scans following primary Charnley hip replacements for arthrosis in 68 patients without clinical, hematological and radiographic complications. The patients were divided into 7 subgroups according to the period, 6-24 months, between surgery and scan. There were 10-12 patients in each subgroup. A high-resolution gamma camera with a large filed of view was used. Ratios of uptake in each of 10 peri-prosthetic zones to normal bone were calculated. Femoral uptake was found to decrease in linear fashion from 6 to 12 months after surgery. Thereafter the uptake remained unaltered at levels nearly twice the normal ones in the greater trochanter and nearly 1.5 times in the lesser trochanter, returning to almost normal levels in other zones. Acetabular uptake remained elevated throughout. (au) (20 refs.).

  3. The Scanning TMR Microscope for Biosensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal N. Vyas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR scanning microscopeset-up capable of quantitatively imaging the magnetic stray field patterns of micron-sizedelements in 3D. By incorporating an Anderson loop measurement circuit for impedancematching, we are able to detect magnetoresistance changes of as little as 0.006%/Oe. By 3Drastering a mounted TMR sensor over our magnetic barcodes, we are able to characterisethe complex domain structures by displaying the real component, the amplitude and thephase of the sensor’s impedance. The modular design, incorporating a TMR sensor withan optical microscope, renders this set-up a versatile platform for studying and imagingimmobilised magnetic carriers and barcodes currently employed in biosensor platforms,magnetotactic bacteria and other complex magnetic domain structures of micron-sizedentities. The quantitative nature of the instrument and its ability to produce vector maps ofmagnetic stray fields has the potential to provide significant advantages over other commonlyused scanning magnetometry techniques.

  4. Copying of holograms by spot scanning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okui, Makoto; Wakunami, Koki; Oi, Ryutaro; Ichihashi, Yasuyuki; Jackin, Boaz Jessie; Yamamoto, Kenji

    2018-05-20

    To replicate holograms, contact copying has conventionally been used. In this approach, a photosensitive material is fixed together with a master hologram and illuminated with a coherent beam. This method is simple and enables high-quality copies; however, it requires a large optical setup for large-area holograms. In this paper, we present a new method of replicating holograms that uses a relatively compact optical system even for the replication of large holograms. A small laser spot that irradiates only part of the hologram is used to reproduce the hologram by scanning the spot over the whole area of the hologram. We report on the results of experiments carried out to confirm the copy quality, along with a guide to design scanning conditions. The results show the potential effectiveness of the large-area hologram replication technology using a relatively compact apparatus.

  5. Quantitative bone scanning after asymptomatic Charnley arthroplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullaji, A.B.; Tood, R.C.; Robinson, S.; Critchley, M.

    1994-01-01

    To establish the normal pattern of postoperative tracer uptake we performed 73 99m technetium methylene disphosphonate scans following primary Charnley hip replacements for arthrosis in 68 patients without clinical, hematological and radiographic complications. The patients were divided into 7 subgroups according to the period, 6-24 months, between surgery and scan. There were 10-12 patients in each subgroup. A high-resolution gamma camera with a large filed of view was used. Ratios of uptake in each of 10 peri-prosthetic zones to normal bone were calculated. Femoral uptake was found to decrease in linear fashion from 6 to 12 months after surgery. Thereafter the uptake remained unaltered at levels nearly twice the normal ones in the greater trochanter and nearly 1.5 times in the lesser trochanter, returning to almost normal levels in other zones. Acetabular uptake remained elevated throughout. (au) (20 refs.)

  6. Development of Scanning Ultrafast Electron Microscope Capability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Kimberlee Chiyoko [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Talin, Albert Alec [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Chandler, David W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Michael, Joseph R. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Modern semiconductor devices rely on the transport of minority charge carriers. Direct examination of minority carrier lifetimes in real devices with nanometer-scale features requires a measurement method with simultaneously high spatial and temporal resolutions. Achieving nanometer spatial resolutions at sub-nanosecond temporal resolution is possible with pump-probe methods that utilize electrons as probes. Recently, a stroboscopic scanning electron microscope was developed at Caltech, and used to study carrier transport across a Si p-n junction [ 1 , 2 , 3 ] . In this report, we detail our development of a prototype scanning ultrafast electron microscope system at Sandia National Laboratories based on the original Caltech design. This effort represents Sandia's first exploration into ultrafast electron microscopy.

  7. SCANNING SPEED INFLUENCE ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The most commonly used aerospace titanium alloy, Ti6Al4V, was deposited on Ti6Al4V plate of dimension 72 x 72 x5mm. The laser power of 3 kW, powder flow rate of 1.44 g/min and gas flow rate of 4 l/min were used throughout the deposition process. The transverse/ scanning speed was varied between 0.005 to 0.095 ...

  8. Cryogenic Multichannel Pressure Sensor With Electronic Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopson, Purnell, Jr.; Chapman, John J.; Kruse, Nancy M. H.

    1994-01-01

    Array of pressure sensors operates reliably and repeatably over wide temperature range, extending from normal boiling point of water down to boiling point of nitrogen. Sensors accurate and repeat to within 0.1 percent. Operate for 12 months without need for recalibration. Array scanned electronically, sensor readings multiplexed and sent to desktop computer for processing and storage. Used to measure distributions of pressure in research on boundary layers at high Reynolds numbers, achieved by low temperatures.

  9. Scanning thermal microscopy of thermoelectric nanostructures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaniš, Jan; Zelinka, Jiří; Zeipl, Radek; Jelínek, Miroslav; Kocourek, Tomáš; Remsa, Jan; Navrátil, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2016), s. 1734-1739 ISSN 0361-5235 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-05864S; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33056S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : thermoelectric layer * scanning thermal microscopy * pulsed laser deposition * laser deposition * secondary ion mass spectrometry Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism; CA - Inorganic Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 1.579, year: 2016

  10. RADIOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF AIRBORNE LASER SCANNING DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Pilarska Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is widely used passive remote sensing technique. The radiometric calibration of ALS data is presented in this article. This process is a necessary element in data processing since it eliminates the influence of the external factors on the obtained values of radiometric features such as range and incidence angle. The datasets were captured with three different laser scanners; since each of these operates at a different wavelength (532, 106 4 and 1550 nm) th...

  11. Scanning electron microscopy of superficial white onychomycosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Boabaid, Roberta Oliveira; Timm, Vitor; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; de Castro, Luis Antonio Suita

    2015-01-01

    Superficial white onychomycosis is characterized by opaque, friable, whitish superficial spots on the nail plate. We examined an affected halux nail of a 20-year-old male patient with scanning electron microscopy. The mycological examination isolated Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Abundant hyphae with the formation of arthrospores were found on the nail's surface, forming small fungal colonies. These findings showed the great capacity for dissemination of this form of onychomycosis. PMID:26560225

  12. Theoretical approach to the scanning tunneling microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, C.

    1990-01-01

    Within a one-electron approach, based on a Green's-function formalism, a nonperturbative expression for the tunneling current is obtained and used to discuss which spectroscopic information may be deduced from a scanning-tunneling-microscope experiment. It is shown up to which limits the voltage dependence of the tunneling current reproduces the local density of states at the surface, and how the reflection coefficients of the electronic waves at the surface may modify it

  13. Vibrating wire for beam profile scanning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Arutunian

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A method that measures the transverse profile (emittance of the bunch by detecting radiation arising at the scattering of the bunch on scanning wire is widely used. In this work information about bunch scattering is obtained by measuring the oscillation frequency of the tightened scanning wire. In such a way, the system of radiation (or secondary particles extraction and measurement can be removed. The entire unit consists of a compact fork with tightened wire and a scanning system. Normal oscillation frequency of a wire depends on wire tension, its geometric parameters, and, in a second approximation, its elastic characteristics. Normal oscillations are generated by interaction of an alternating current through the wire with magnetic field of a permanent magnet. In this case, it is suggested that the magnetic field of the accelerator (field of dipole magnets or quadrupole magnets be used for excitation of oscillations. The dependence of oscillation frequency on beam scattering is determined by several factors, including changes of wire tension caused by transverse force of the beam and influence of beam self-field. Preliminary calculations show that the influence of wire heating will dominate. We have studied strain gauges on the basis of vibrating wire from various materials (tungsten, beryl bronze, and niobium zirconium alloys. A scheme of normal oscillation generation by alternating current in autogeneration circuit with automatic frequency adjustment was selected. A special method of wire fixation and elimination of transverse degrees of freedom allows us to achieve relative stability better than 10^{-5} during several days at a relative resolution of 10^{-6}. Experimental results and estimates of wire heating of existing scanners show that the wire heats up to a few hundred grades, which is enough for measurements. The usage of wire of micrometer thickness diminishes the problem of wire thermalization speed during the scanning of the bunch.

  14. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukushima, M.; Sawada, T.; Kuriyama, Y.; Kinugawa, H.; Yamaguchi, T. (National Cardivascular Center, Osaka (Japan))

    1981-10-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemiparesis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis.

  15. Sample preparation method for scanning force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Jankov, I R; Szente, R N; Carreno, M N P; Swart, J W; Landers, R

    2001-01-01

    We present a method of sample preparation for studies of ion implantation on metal surfaces. The method, employing a mechanical mask, is specially adapted for samples analysed by Scanning Force Microscopy. It was successfully tested on polycrystalline copper substrates implanted with phosphorus ions at an acceleration voltage of 39 keV. The changes of the electrical properties of the surface were measured by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy and the surface composition was analysed by Auger Electron Spectroscopy.

  16. Scanning electron microscopy of primary bone tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pool, R.R.; Kerner, B.

    1975-01-01

    Critical-point-drying of tumor tissue fixed in a glutaraldehyde-paraformaldehyde solution and viewed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provides a 3-dimensional view of tumor cells and their matrices. This report describes the SEM appearance of three primary bone tumors: a canine osteosarcoma of the distal radius, a feline chondrosarcoma of the proximal tibia and a canine fibrosarcoma of the proximal humerus. The ultrastructural morphology is compared with the histologic appearance of each tumor

  17. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of semicrystalline polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, C

    2009-11-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is an effective analytical tool to characterize the physical properties of a polymer. DSC enables determination of melting, crystallization, and mesomorphic transition temperatures, and the corresponding enthalpy and entropy changes, and characterization of glass transition and other effects that show either changes in heat capacity or a latent heat. Calorimetry takes a special place among other methods. In addition to its simplicity and universality, the energy characteristics (heat capacity C(P) and its integral over temperature T--enthalpy H), measured via calorimetry, have a clear physical meaning even though sometimes interpretation may be difficult. With introduction of differential scanning calorimeters (DSC) in the early 1960s calorimetry became a standard tool in polymer science. The advantage of DSC compared with other calorimetric techniques lies in the broad dynamic range regarding heating and cooling rates, including isothermal and temperature-modulated operation. Today 12 orders of magnitude in scanning rate can be covered by combining different types of DSCs. Rates as low as 1 microK s(-1) are possible and at the other extreme heating and cooling at 1 MK s(-1) and higher is possible. The broad dynamic range is especially of interest for semicrystalline polymers because they are commonly far from equilibrium and phase transitions are strongly time (rate) dependent. Nevertheless, there are still several unsolved problems regarding calorimetry of polymers. I try to address a few of these, for example determination of baseline heat capacity, which is related to the problem of crystallinity determination by DSC, or the occurrence of multiple melting peaks. Possible solutions by using advanced calorimetric techniques, for example fast scanning and high frequency AC (temperature-modulated) calorimetry are discussed.

  18. On multiple crack identification by ultrasonic scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brigante, M.; Sumbatyan, M. A.

    2018-04-01

    The present work develops an approach which reduces operator equations arising in the engineering problems to the problem of minimizing the discrepancy functional. For this minimization, an algorithm of random global search is proposed, which is allied to some genetic algorithms. The efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the solving problem of simultaneous identification of several linear cracks forming an array in an elastic medium by using the circular Ultrasonic scanning.

  19. Gluconate heart scan in angina pectoris patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duska, F.; Novak, J.; Kvasnicka, J.; Vizda, J.; Kubicek, J.; Kafka, P.; Palicka, V.; Hlava, A.

    1985-01-01

    Scintigraphic examination using 99m Tc-gluconate was carried out of the condition of the myocardium in 6 patients with a clinical diagnosis of angina pectoris of diverse severity. In all six cases the scan was negative. The results confirmed the previous experimental findings. 99m Tc-gluconate is thereby not suitable for the scintigraphic diagnosis of angina pectoris. (author) 13 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig

  20. Spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohashi, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    Spin-Polarized Scanning Electron Microscopy (Spin SEM) is one way for observing magnetic domain structures taking advantage of the spin polarization of the secondary electrons emitted from a ferromagnetic sample. This principle brings us several excellent capabilities such as high-spatial resolution better than 10 nm, and analysis of magnetization direction in three dimensions. In this paper, the principle and the structure of the spin SEM is briefly introduced, and some examples of the spin SEM measurements are shown. (author)

  1. Serial CT scannings in herpes simplex encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, Masashi; Sawada, Tohru; Kuriyama, Yoshihiro; Kinugawa, Hidekazu; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    1981-01-01

    Two patients with serologically confirmed herpes simplex encephalitis were studied by serial CT scannings. Case 1, a 60-year-old woman, was admitted to National Cardiovascular Center because of headache, fever, and attacks of Jacksonian seizure. Case 2, a 54-year-old man, was admitted because of fever, consciousness disturbance and right hemipare sis. Pleocytosis (mainly lymphocytes) and elevation of protein content in cerebrospinal fluid were observed in both cases. Both patients presented ''das apallische Syndrom'' one month after admission. The diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis was confirmed by typical clinical courses and by greater than fourfold rises in serum antibody titer for herpes simplex virus as well as that in cerebrospinal fluid in case 1. Characteristic CT findings observed in these two cases were summarized as follows: Within a week after the onset, no obvious abnormalities could be detected on CT scans (Case 1). Two weeks after the onset, a large low-density area appeared in the left temporal lobe and in the contralateral insular cortex with midline shift toward the right side (Case 2). One month later, an ill-defined linear and ring-like high-density area (Case 1), or a well-defined high-density area (Case 2), that was enhanced after contrast administration, was observed in the large low-density area in the temporal lobe. These findings were considered as characteristic for hemorrhagic encephalitis. These high-density areas disappeared two months later, however, widespread and intensified low-density areas still remained. In both cases, the basal ganglia and thalamus were completely spared on CT scans. From these observations, it can be concluded that serial CT scannings are quite useful for diagnosis of herpes simplex encephalitis. (author)

  2. Tomographic scanning apparatus with ionization detector means

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification describes a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal. Particular reference is made to the gas-pressurized ionization detector chamber, consisting of an array of side-by-side elongate ionization detection cells, the principal axis of each of the said cells being oriented along a radius extending towards the radiation source, and connection means for applying potentials across the cells for taking their output signals. (U.K.)

  3. High-speed scanning: an improved algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachimuthu, A.; Hoang, Khoi

    1995-10-01

    In using machine vision for assessing an object's surface quality, many images are required to be processed in order to separate the good areas from the defective ones. Examples can be found in the leather hide grading process; in the inspection of garments/canvas on the production line; in the nesting of irregular shapes into a given surface... . The most common method of subtracting the total area from the sum of defective areas does not give an acceptable indication of how much of the `good' area can be used, particularly if the findings are to be used for the nesting of irregular shapes. This paper presents an image scanning technique which enables the estimation of useable areas within an inspected surface in terms of the user's definition, not the supplier's claims. That is, how much useable area the user can use, not the total good area as the supplier estimated. An important application of the developed technique is in the leather industry where the tanner (the supplier) and the footwear manufacturer (the user) are constantly locked in argument due to disputed quality standards of finished leather hide, which disrupts production schedules and wasted costs in re-grading, re- sorting... . The developed basic algorithm for area scanning of a digital image will be presented. The implementation of an improved scanning algorithm will be discussed in detail. The improved features include Boolean OR operations and many other innovative functions which aim at optimizing the scanning process in terms of computing time and the accurate estimation of useable areas.

  4. Bone scan in mastocytosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sy, W.M.; Bonventre, M.V.; Camera, A.

    1976-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with well-documented systemic mastocytosis showed generalized symmetric increased activity on bone imaging. These scan findings are grossly indistinguishable from those of patients with renal osteodystrophy or secondary hyperparathyroidism. The images of the hands, however, failed to show the changes observed in secondary hyperparathyroidism. The mechanism for this intense activity is thought to be due to aberrant new-bone formation

  5. Scanning tunneling microscopic images and scanning tunneling spectra for coupled rectangular quantum corrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuoka, Shigenori; Tamura, Akira

    2011-01-01

    Assuming that an electron confined by double δ-function barriers lies in a quasi-stationary state, we derived eigenstates and eigenenergies of the electron. Such an electron has a complex eigenenergy, and the imaginary part naturally leads to the lifetime of the electron associated with tunneling through barriers. We applied this point of view to the electron confined in a rectangular quantum corral (QC) on a noble metal surface, and obtained scanning tunneling microscopic images and a scanning tunneling spectrum consistent with experimental ones. We investigated the electron states confined in coupled QCs and obtained the coupled states constructed with bonding and anti-bonding states. Using those energy levels and wavefunctions we specified scanning tunneling microscope (STM) images and scanning tunneling spectra (STS) for the doubly and triply coupled QCs. In addition we pointed out the feature of resonant electron states associated with the same QCs at both ends of the triply coupled QCs.

  6. A scanning tunneling microscope with a scanning range from hundreds of micrometers down to nanometer resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Fatih; Zaum, Christopher; Morgenstern, Karina

    2012-10-01

    A beetle type stage and a flexure scanning stage are combined to form a two stages scanning tunneling microscope (STM). It operates at room temperature in ultrahigh vacuum and is capable of scanning areas up to 300 μm × 450 μm down to resolution on the nanometer scale. This multi-scale STM has been designed and constructed in order to investigate prestructured metallic or semiconducting micro- and nano-structures in real space from atomic-sized structures up to the large-scale environment. The principle of the instrument is demonstrated on two different systems. Gallium nitride based micropillars demonstrate scan areas up to hundreds of micrometers; a Au(111) surface demonstrates nanometer resolution.

  7. Anthropometric data collection of Portuguese children using 3D body scanning: considerations about the scanning booth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos, R.; Carvalho, M. A.; Lopes, H. P.; Xu, B.

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents some considerations regarding the scanning booth used in an anthropometric study done with a 3D body scanning technology. The data collected is part of a Ph.D. study conducted in Textile Engineering at University of Minho in Portugal, which aims to develop clothing for overweight and obese Portuguese children aged 2-11 years, of both genders. The challenges faced during data collection are described, and modifications of the scanning booth are proposed. It is possible to conclude that the importance of the scanning booth is key to an efficient anthropometric data collection, including the growth of this technology in the garment industry, Universities Research Institutes involved with anthropometric studies.

  8. Demystifying autofluorescence with excitation scanning hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Joshua; Harris, Bradley; Martin, Will; Lall, Malvika; Lopez, Carmen; Rider, Paul; Boudreaux, Carole; Rich, Thomas; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2018-02-01

    Autofluorescence has historically been considered a nuisance in medical imaging. Many endogenous fluorophores, specifically, collagen, elastin, NADH, and FAD, are found throughout the human body. Diagnostically, these signals can be prohibitive since they can outcompete signals introduced for diagnostic purposes. Recent advances in hyperspectral imaging have allowed the acquisition of significantly more data in a shorter time period by scanning the excitation spectra of fluorophores. The reduced acquisition time and increased signal-to-noise ratio allow for separation of significantly more fluorophores than previously possible. Here, we propose to utilize excitation-scanning of autofluorescence to examine tissues and diagnose pathologies. Spectra of autofluorescent molecules were obtained using a custom inverted microscope (TE-2000, Nikon Instruments) with a Xe arc lamp and thin film tunable filter array (VersaChrome, Semrock, Inc.) Scans utilized excitation wavelengths from 360 nm to 550 nm in 5 nm increments. The resultant spectra were used to examine hyperspectral image stacks from various collaborative studies, including an atherosclerotic rat model and a colon cancer study. Hyperspectral images were analyzed with ENVI and custom Matlab scripts including linear spectral unmixing (LSU) and principal component analysis (PCA). Initial results suggest the ability to separate the signals of endogenous fluorophores and measure the relative concentrations of fluorophores among healthy and diseased states of similar tissues. These results suggest pathology-specific changes to endogenous fluorophores can be detected using excitationscanning hyperspectral imaging. Future work will expand the library of pure molecules and will examine more defined disease states.

  9. New directions in scanning-tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrell, T.L.; Warmack, R.J.; Reddick, R.C.

    1989-01-01

    The tunneling of electrons in scanning-tunneling microscopy (STM) has permitted imaging of the electronic distribution about individual atoms on surfaces. The need for use of conducting surfaces in STM limits its applicability, and new forms of scanning microscopy have emerged as a result of interest in poorly conducting samples. Atomic force microscopy has demonstrated that the force between a surface and a probe tip can be used to image selected materials. Now being developed are magnetic probe STM's and photon tunneling microscopes in which the probe is a sharpened optical fiber. Also of great interest presently is the measurement of differential conductance of surfaces using electron STM's. This method supplies spectral information and contrast enhancement in images. At present there remains much theoretical work to be carried out in order to better characterize related data on inelastic electron tunneling, and valuable insight may be gained from data being gathered on the local work function of materials. As matters stand today, the key problems lie in determining tip and contamination effects, preparation of samples, and understanding conductivity mechanisms in very thin materials on conducting substrates. Resolution of these problems and introduction of new forms of scanning microscopy may permit novel and important applications in biology as well as surface science

  10. Bone mineral density scans in veterans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Bass

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Bass1,2, Etienne Pracht1,3, Philip Foulis4,51VISN 8 Patient Safety Center of Inquiry, Tampa, FL; 2School of Aging Studies, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USA; 4James A Haley VA Hospital, Tampa, FL, USA; 5Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, College of Medicine, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL, USAGoals: Recent findings suggest the prevalence of osteoporosis among men is under-recognized. The patient population of the Veterans Health Administration (VA is predominantly male and many elderly veterans may be at risk of osteoporosis. Given the lack of data on male osteoporosis, we provide initial insight into diagnostic procedures for patients at one VA medical center. Procedures: A review and descriptive analysis of patients undergoing radiological evaluation for osteoporosis at one VA medical center.Results: We identified 4,919 patients who had bone mineral density scans from 2001–2004. VA patients receiving bone mineral density scans were commonly white, male, over age 70 and taking medications with potential bone-loss side effects.Conclusions: While further research is needed, preliminary evidence suggests that the VA screens the most vulnerable age groups in both genders. Heightened awareness among primary care providers of elderly male patients at risk of osteoporosis can lead to early intervention and improved management of this age-related condition.Keywords: bone mineral density scans, osteoporosis, veterans

  11. Synthetic holography based on scanning microcavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Di Donato

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic optical holography (SOH is an imaging technique, introduced in scanning microscopy to record amplitude and phase of a scattered field from a sample. In this paper, it is described a novel implementation of SOH through a lens-free low-coherence system, based on a scanning optical microcavity. This technique combines the low-coherence properties of the source with the mutual interference of scattered waves and the resonant behavior of a micro-cavity, in order to realize a high sensitive imaging system. Micro-cavity is compact and realized by approaching a cleaved optical fiber to the sample. The scanning system works in an open-loop configuration without the need for a reference wave, usually required in interferometric systems. Measurements were performed over calibration samples and a lateral resolution of about 1 μm is achieved by means of an optical fiber with a Numerical Aperture (NA equal to 0.1 and a Mode Field Diameter (MDF of 5.6 μm.

  12. Field Applications of Gamma Column Scanning Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aquino, Denis D.; Mallilin, Janice P.; Nuñez, Ivy Angelica A.; Bulos, Adelina DM.

    2015-01-01

    The Isotope Techniques Section (ITS) under the Nuclear Service Division (NSD) of the Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) conducts services, research and development on radioisotope and sealed source application in the industry. This aims to benefit the manufacturing industries such as petroleum, petrochemical, chemical, energy, waste, column treatment plant, etc. through on line inspection and troubleshooting of a process vessel, column or pipe that could optimize the process operation and increase production efficiency. One of the most common sealed source techniques for industrial applications is the gamma column scanning technology. Gamma column scanning technology is an established technique for inspection, analysis and diagnosis of industrial columns for process optimization, solving operational malfunctions and management of resources. It is a convenient non-intrusive, cost effective and cost-efficient technique to examine inner details of an industrial process vessel such as a distillation column while it is in operation. The Philippine Nuclear Research Institute (PNRI) recognize the importance and benefits of this technology and has implemented activities to make gamma column scanning locally available to benefit the Philippine industries. Continuous effort for capacity building is being pursued thru the implementation of in-house and on-the-job training abroad and upgrading of equipment. (author)

  13. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Aksel

    / 1000 felter= 0.370 (95% CI: 0.160-0.729), (p= 0.020)). Der var ingen statistisk forskel mellem optisk scanning (fejl/ 1000 felter= 0.046 (95% CI: 0.001-0.258)) og manuel dobbelt indtastning (p=1.000). Konklusioner: Optisk scanning er et godt alternativ til manuel dobbelt indtastning for spørgeskema med......Formål og baggrund: Patient rapporterede outcomes i form af spørgeskemaer bruges i øgende grad i sundhedssektoren både i klinisk praksis og forskning. Ofte bruges spørgeskemaer i papirformat. Manuel dobbelt indtastning er defineret som guld standard for overføring af data til et elektronisk format......, men processen er tidkrævende. Optisk scanning af spørgeskemaer med automatisk registrering af svar kan være et alternativ, men videre validering af metoden er nødvendig. Design: 200 patienter blev tilfældigt udvalgt fra en kohorte på 5777 patienter der tidligere havde svaret på to forskellige...

  14. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Jeong Soo; Park, Yong Ha; Kyo, Chung Soo; Bahk, Yong Whee [Catholic University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1990-07-15

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with {sup 99m}Tc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary

  15. Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scan in Pulmonary Emphysema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Jeong Soo; Park, Yong Ha; Chung Soo Kyo; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1990-01-01

    Perfusion and ventilation imagings of the lung are well established procedure for diagnosing pulmonary embolism, differentiation it from chronic obstructive lung disease, and making an early detection of chronic obstructive lung disease. To evaluate the usefulness of radioaerosol inhalation imaging (RII) in chronic obstructive lung disease, especially pulmonary emphysema, we analyzed RIIs of five normal adult non-smokers, five asymptomatic smokers (age 25-42 years with the mean 36), and 21 patients with pulmonary emphysema (age 59-78 years with the mean 67). Scintigrams were obtained with radioaerosol produced by a BARC nebuliser with 15 mCi of 99m Tc-phytate. Scanning was performed in the anterior, posterior, and lateral projections after five to 10-minute inhalation of the radioaerosol on sitting position. The scans were analyzed and correlated with the results of pulmonary function studies and chest radiographs. Also lung perfusion scan with 99m Tc-MAA was performed in 12 patients. In five patients, we performed follow-up scans for the evaluation of the effects of a bronchodilator. Based on the X-ray findings and clinical symptoms, pulmonary emphysema was classified into four types: centrilobular (3 patients), panlobular (4 patients), intermediate (10 patients), and combined (4 patients). RII findings were patternized according to the type, extent, and intensity of the aerosol deposition in the central bronchial and bronchopulmonary system and lung parenchyma. 10 controls, normal five non-smokers and three asymptomatic smokers revealed homogeneous parenchymal deposition in the entire lung fields without central bronchial deposition. The remaining two of asymptomatic smokers revealed mild central airway deposition. The great majority of the patients showed either central (9/21) or combined type (10/21) of bronchopulmonary deposition and the remaining two patients peripheral bronchopulmonary deposition. Parenchymal aerosol deposition in pulmonary emphysema was

  16. Atomic resolution ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope with scan rate breaking the resonant frequency of a quartz tuning fork resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanfeng; Lu, Qingyou

    2011-05-01

    We present an ultra-fast scanning tunneling microscope with atomic resolution at 26 kHz scan rate which surpasses the resonant frequency of the quartz tuning fork resonator used as the fast scan actuator. The main improvements employed in achieving this new record are (1) fully low voltage design (2) independent scan control and data acquisition, where the tuning fork (carrying a tip) is blindly driven to scan by a function generator with the scan voltage and tunneling current (I(T)) being measured as image data (this is unlike the traditional point-by-point move and measure method where data acquisition and scan control are switched many times).

  17. Seamless stitching of tile scan microscope images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legesse, F B; Chernavskaia, O; Heuke, S; Bocklitz, T; Meyer, T; Popp, J; Heintzmann, R

    2015-06-01

    For diagnostic purposes, optical imaging techniques need to obtain high-resolution images of extended biological specimens in reasonable time. The field of view of an objective lens, however, is often smaller than the sample size. To image the whole sample, laser scanning microscopes acquire tile scans that are stitched into larger mosaics. The appearance of such image mosaics is affected by visible edge artefacts that arise from various optical aberrations which manifest in grey level jumps across tile boundaries. In this contribution, a technique for stitching tiles into a seamless mosaic is presented. The stitching algorithm operates by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at corners to a common value. The corrected image mosaics appear to be free from stitching artefacts and are, therefore, suited for further image analysis procedures. The contribution presents a novel method to seamlessly stitch tiles captured by a laser scanning microscope into a large mosaic. The motivation for the work is the failure of currently existing methods for stitching nonlinear, multimodal images captured by our microscopic setups. Our method eliminates the visible edge artefacts that appear between neighbouring tiles by taking into account the overall illumination differences among tiles in such mosaics. The algorithm first corrects the nonuniform brightness that exists within each of the tiles. It then compensates for grey level differences across tile boundaries by equilibrating neighbouring edges and forcing the brightness at the corners to a common value. After these artefacts have been removed further image analysis procedures can be applied on the microscopic images. Even though the solution presented here is tailored for the aforementioned specific case, it could be easily adapted to other contexts where image tiles are assembled into mosaics such as in astronomical or satellite photos. © 2015 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2015 Royal

  18. Aligned ion implementation using scanning probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Persaud, A

    2006-12-12

    A new technique for precision ion implantation has been developed. A scanning probe has been equipped with a small aperture and incorporated into an ion beamline, so that ions can be implanted through the aperture into a sample. By using a scanning probe the target can be imaged in a non-destructive way prior to implantation and the probe together with the aperture can be placed at the desired location with nanometer precision. In this work first results of a scanning probe integrated into an ion beamline are presented. A placement resolution of about 120 nm is reported. The final placement accuracy is determined by the size of the aperture hole and by the straggle of the implanted ion inside the target material. The limits of this technology are expected to be set by the latter, which is of the order of 10 nm for low energy ions. This research has been carried out in the context of a larger program concerned with the development of quantum computer test structures. For that the placement accuracy needs to be increased and a detector for single ion detection has to be integrated into the setup. Both issues are discussed in this thesis. To achieve single ion detection highly charged ions are used for the implantation, as in addition to their kinetic energy they also deposit their potential energy in the target material, therefore making detection easier. A special ion source for producing these highly charged ions was used and their creation and interactions with solids of are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  19. Aligned ion implantation using scanning probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persaud, A.

    2006-01-01

    A new technique for precision ion implantation has been developed. A scanning probe has been equipped with a small aperture and incorporated into an ion beamline, so that ions can be implanted through the aperture into a sample. By using a scanning probe the target can be imaged in a non-destructive way prior to implantation and the probe together with the aperture can be placed at the desired location with nanometer precision. In this work first results of a scanning probe integrated into an ion beamline are presented. A placement resolution of about 120 nm is reported. The final placement accuracy is determined by the size of the aperture hole and by the straggle of the implanted ion inside the target material. The limits of this technology are expected to be set by the latter, which is of the order of 10 nm for low energy ions. This research has been carried out in the context of a larger program concerned with the development of quantum computer test structures. For that the placement accuracy needs to be increased and a detector for single ion detection has to be integrated into the setup. Both issues are discussed in this thesis. To achieve single ion detection highly charged ions are used for the implantation, as in addition to their kinetic energy they also deposit their potential energy in the target material, therefore making detection easier. A special ion source for producing these highly charged ions was used and their creation and interactions with solids of are discussed in detail. (orig.)

  20. CT scan of bacterial and aseptic meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Saiwai, Shigeo; Tamaoka, Koichi

    1983-01-01

    CT scans of the patients with aseptic and bacterial meningitis were reviewed and compared to previous reports. In aseptic meningitis, no abnormal CT findings were observed. In bacterial meningitis, CT findings were ventricular dilatation, subdural fluid collection, parenchymal low density, intracerebral hematoma and meningeal enhancement after contrast injection. Three patients among 48 suffered from status epileptics during the course of the illness. All of 3 patients developed parenchymal inhomogeneous low density and progressive ventricular dilatation which did not improve after ventricular peritoneal shunt surgery. We believe that these changes are most likely due to hypoxic hypoxemia during epileptic seizure and meningitis itself seems to play a little role. (author)

  1. Scanning electron microscopy of semiconductor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bresse, J.F.; Dupuy, M.

    1978-01-01

    The use of scanning electron microscopy in semiconductors opens up a large field of use. The operating modes lending themselves to the study of semiconductors are the induced current, cathodoluminescence and the use of the potential contrast which can also be applied very effectively to the study of the devices (planar in particular). However, a thorough knowledge of the mechanisms of the penetration of electrons, generation and recombination of generated carriers in a semiconductor is necessary in order to attain a better understanding of the operating modes peculiar to semiconductors [fr

  2. ScanLab - Restauro e ricostruzione digitale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ScanLab ScanLab

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Inside the new reality of Scanlab, in the city of Palermo, specialized in innovative sectors like 3D printing and rapid prototyping, ScanArt is born, a macro project entirely dedicated to the study and safeguard of cultural heritage. Using new technologies of tridimensional remarking and augmented reality applications, the group is able to offer tecnological services aimed at improving the common instruments bound to the to the world of arts and at the fruition and divulgation of it.

  3. Computed tomography scans of metastatic hepatic tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takemoto, Kazumasa; Fukuda, Haruyuki; Nemoto, Yutaka [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1984-01-01

    Computed tomography scans of 114 metastatic hepatic tumors were reviewed. Central low density was found in 82 cases (71.9%) and seems to be characteristic to metastatic hepatic tumors. Dynamic CT was performed on 34 cases, and 21 (61.8%) of these had ring enhancement at the arterial phase. Most of metastatic hepatic tumors could be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma. However, metastatic hepatic tumors from renal cell carcinoma, renal rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant melanoma and leiomyosarcoma could not be differentiated from hepatocellular carcinoma, even with use of dynamic study.

  4. Deploying scanning lidars at coastal sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Simon, Elliot

    that the most desirable sites are away from sand dunes and with some significant elevation above the sea surface, such as at the top of a cliff. Coastal planning restrictions in Denmark are quite restrictive and it was important to allow sufficient time to obtain permission from the relevant authorities....... At the same time, with our particular application, the authorities and land owners were quite favourably inclined to give permission to temporary installations in support of wind energy research. The report concludes with the final positions and a pictorial description of the three RUNE scanning lidars....

  5. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy study of DNA conductivity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kratochvílová, Irena; Král, Karel; Bunček, M.; Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Todorciuc, Tatiana; Weiter, M.; Navrátil, J.; Schneider, Bohdan; Pavluch, J.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 3 (2008), s. 422-426 ISSN 1895-1082 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN401770651; GA MŠk OC 137; GA AV ČR KAN400720701; GA AV ČR KAN200100801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100520; CEZ:AV0Z40500505; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : molecular electronics * DNA * scanning tunneling microscopy * conductivity * charge carrier transport Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.448, year: 2008

  6. Frequency scanning interferometry for CLIC component fiducialisation

    CERN Document Server

    Kamugasa, Solomon William; Mainaud Durand, Helene; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    We present a strategy for the fiducialisation of CLIC’s Main Beam Quadrupole (MBQ) magnets using Frequency Scanning Interferometry (FSI). We have developed complementary device for a commercial FSI system to enable coordinate determination via multilateration. Using spherical high index glass retroreflectors with a wide acceptance angle, we optimise the geometry of measurement stations with respect to fiducials -- thus improving the precision of coordinates. We demonstrate through simulations that the 10 μm uncertainty required in the vertical and lateral axes for the fiducialisation of the MBQ can be attained using FSI multilateration.

  7. Distillation columns inspection through gamma scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, Marco

    1999-09-01

    The application of nuclear energy is very wide and it allows the saving of economic resources since the investigation of a certain process is carried out without stop the plant. The gamma scanning of oil c racking c olumns are practical examples, they allow to determine the hydraulic operation of the inspected columns. A source of Co-60 22mCi and a detector with a crystal of INa(TI) are used. This paper shows the results got from a profile carried out in a column distillation

  8. Scanning Microscopes Using X Rays and Microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu

    2003-01-01

    Scanning microscopes that would be based on microchannel filters and advanced electronic image sensors and that utilize x-ray illumination have been proposed. Because the finest resolution attainable in a microscope is determined by the wavelength of the illumination, the xray illumination in the proposed microscopes would make it possible, in principle, to achieve resolutions of the order of nanometers about a thousand times as fine as the resolution of a visible-light microscope. Heretofore, it has been necessary to use scanning electron microscopes to obtain such fine resolution. In comparison with scanning electron microscopes, the proposed microscopes would likely be smaller, less massive, and less expensive. Moreover, unlike in scanning electron microscopes, it would not be necessary to place specimens under vacuum. The proposed microscopes are closely related to the ones described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles; namely, Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20218), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 22, No. 8 (August 1998), page 43; and Reflective Variants of Miniature Microscope Without Lenses (NPO-20610), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 26, No. 9 (September 2002) page 6a. In all of these microscopes, the basic principle of design and operation is the same: The focusing optics of a conventional visible-light microscope are replaced by a combination of a microchannel filter and a charge-coupled-device (CCD) image detector. A microchannel plate containing parallel, microscopic-cross-section holes much longer than they are wide is placed between a specimen and an image sensor, which is typically the CCD. The microchannel plate must be made of a material that absorbs the illuminating radiation reflected or scattered from the specimen. The microchannels must be positioned and dimensioned so that each one is registered with a pixel on the image sensor. Because most of the radiation incident on the microchannel walls becomes absorbed, the radiation that reaches the

  9. Isotope bone scanning in operable mammary cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maylin, C [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 94 - Creteil (France); Vilcoq, J R; Schlienger, P; Calle, R [Institut du Radium, 75 - Paris (France)

    1977-01-01

    In the pre-treatment work-up in breast carcinoma cases, the bone scan findings could be of major interest. If the presence of occult metastases is discovered management may be modified accordingly. In a group involving 78 cases of breast carcinoma, classified as primary, operable, in three cases only scintigraphy revealed bone metastases before they produced clinical and radiological signs. In two of them there was agreement, in one disagreement over the findings. Moreover, in 5 cases a bone metastasis was revealed and immediately confirmed on a complete bone assessment.

  10. Untersuchungen zur Genauigkeit digitaler intraoraler Scans

    OpenAIRE

    Benedickt, Christopher Roland

    2017-01-01

    Ziel der hier vorliegenden In-vitro-Studie war es, zu untersuchen, ob es bei digitalen int-raoralen Scans zu Verzerrungen, Streckungen, Stauchungen, Verdrillungen oder Biegun-gen, kommt. Als Prüfmodell diente ein vollbezahntes Oberkiefermodell aus einer Chrom-Kobalt-Molybdän-Legierung. Auf diesem waren die Zähne 11, 15, 24 und 26 zur Auf-nahme eines Veneers, einer Vollkrone, eines Inlays präpariert, und auf inzisalen bezie-hungsweise okklusalen Mulden der Zähne 13, 23, 17 und 27 waren Metallk...

  11. Implantation annealing by scanning electron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaussaud, C.; Biasse, B.; Cartier, A.M.; Bontemps, A.

    1983-11-01

    Samples of ion implanted silicon (BF 2 , 30keV, 10 15 ions x cm -2 ) have been annealed with a multiple scan electron beam, at temperatures ranging from 1000 to 1200 0 C. The curves of sheet resistance versus time show a minimum. Nuclear reaction measurements of the amount of boron remaining after annealing show that the increase in sheet resistance is due to a loss of boron. The increase in junction depths, measured by spreading resistance on bevels is between a few hundred A and 1000 A [fr

  12. CT scanning in patients with amputated legs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huebener, K.H.; Ahlemann, L.M.

    1981-01-01

    CT scanning after above-knee amputation and below-knee amputation helps to determine the calcium salt content of the examined bones, and to differentiate changes in the surrounding soft parts. By comaring the sides, it is quite easy to detect osteoporotic changes shortly after amputation which would otherwise remain undetected by X-ray film examination. It is equally easy to verify muscular changes, whereas characteristic changes in density allow to determine the share of vacant fat in muscular atrophy. Initial examinations proved the usefulness of CT diagnosis for early detection of dystrophic osseous and muscular changes and also show the possibilities of early therapy control of dystrophy treatment. (orig.) [de

  13. AlaScan: A Graphical User Interface for Alanine Scanning Free-Energy Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadoss, Vijayaraj; Dehez, François; Chipot, Christophe

    2016-06-27

    Computation of the free-energy changes that underlie molecular recognition and association has gained significant importance due to its considerable potential in drug discovery. The massive increase of computational power in recent years substantiates the application of more accurate theoretical methods for the calculation of binding free energies. The impact of such advances is the application of parent approaches, like computational alanine scanning, to investigate in silico the effect of amino-acid replacement in protein-ligand and protein-protein complexes, or probe the thermostability of individual proteins. Because human effort represents a significant cost that precludes the routine use of this form of free-energy calculations, minimizing manual intervention constitutes a stringent prerequisite for any such systematic computation. With this objective in mind, we propose a new plug-in, referred to as AlaScan, developed within the popular visualization program VMD to automate the major steps in alanine-scanning calculations, employing free-energy perturbation as implemented in the widely used molecular dynamics code NAMD. The AlaScan plug-in can be utilized upstream, to prepare input files for selected alanine mutations. It can also be utilized downstream to perform the analysis of different alanine-scanning calculations and to report the free-energy estimates in a user-friendly graphical user interface, allowing favorable mutations to be identified at a glance. The plug-in also assists the end-user in assessing the reliability of the calculation through rapid visual inspection.

  14. Maritime Laser Scanning as the Source for Spatial Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szulwic Jakub

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid development of scanning technology, especially mobile scanning, gives the possibility to collect spatial data coming from maritime measurement platforms and autonomous manned or unmanned vehicles. Presented solution is derived from the mobile scanning. However we should keep in mind that the specificity of laser scanning at sea and processing collected data should be in the form acceptable in Geographical Information Systems, especially typical for the maritime needs. At the same time we should be aware that data coming from maritime mobile scanning constitutes a new approach to the describing of maritime environment and brings a new perspective that is completely different than air and terrestrial scanning.

  15. Scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of tissue scaffold properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yuan; Chen, Qian; Ayres, Virginia M; Baczewski, Andrew D; Udpa, Lalita; Kumar, Shiva

    2007-01-01

    Scanning probe recognition microscopy is a new scanning probe microscopy technique which enables selective scanning along individual nanofibers within a tissue scaffold. Statistically significant data for multiple properties can be collected by repetitively fine-scanning an identical region of interest. The results of a scanning probe recognition microscopy investigation of the surface roughness and elasticity of a series of tissue scaffolds are presented. Deconvolution and statistical methods were developed and used for data accuracy along curved nanofiber surfaces. Nanofiber features were also independently analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, with results that supported the scanning probe recognition microscopy-based analysis. PMID:18203431

  16. Atmospheric scanning electron microscope for correlative microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Ian E G; Dennison, Clare L; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo; Sato, Chikara; Yarwood, Andrew; O'Toole, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The JEOL ClairScope is the first truly correlative scanning electron and optical microscope. An inverted scanning electron microscope (SEM) column allows electron images of wet samples to be obtained in ambient conditions in a biological culture dish, via a silicon nitride film window in the base. A standard inverted optical microscope positioned above the dish holder can be used to take reflected light and epifluorescence images of the same sample, under atmospheric conditions that permit biochemical modifications. For SEM, the open dish allows successive staining operations to be performed without moving the holder. The standard optical color camera used for fluorescence imaging can be exchanged for a high-sensitivity monochrome camera to detect low-intensity fluorescence signals, and also cathodoluminescence emission from nanophosphor particles. If these particles are applied to the sample at a suitable density, they can greatly assist the task of perfecting the correlation between the optical and electron images. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Scanning tunneling spectroscopy on superconducting proximity nanostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapelier, C; Vinet, M; Lefloch, F

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the local density of states (LDOS) of a normal metal (N) in good electrical contact with a superconductor (S) as a function of the distance x to the NS interface. The sample consists of a pattern of alternate L = 1 mm wide strips of Au and Nb made by UV lithography. We used a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope and a lock-in detection technique to record simultaneously dI/dV(V,x) curves and the topographic profile z(x) at 1.5 K. We scanned along lines perpendicular to the strips. All the spectra show a dip near the Fermi energy, which spectral extension decreases from the superconducting gap Δ at the NS interface to zero at distances x >> ξ N where ξ N ≅ √hD N /2Δ ≅ 53nm is the coherence length in the normal metal. Our measurements are correctly described in the framework of the quasi-classical Green's function formalism. We numerically solved the 1D Usadel equation and extracted a decoherence time in gold of 4 ps. We also investigated the LDOS of small ridges of Au deposited on the top of the Nb lines. In this case, L ≤ ξ N and the spatial variations of the spectra depend on the exact shape of the Au ridge. However, our results are consistent with a predicted minigap related to the Thouless energy. (4. mesoscopic superconductivity)

  18. Mobile Laser Scanning for Indoor Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Thomson

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The process of capturing and modelling buildings has gained increased focus in recent years with the rise of Building Information Modelling (BIM. At the heart of BIM is a process change for the construction and facilities management industries whereby a BIM aids more collaborative working through better information exchange, and as a part of the process Geomatic/Land Surveyors are not immune from the changes. Terrestrial laser scanning has been proscribed as the preferred method for rapidly capturing buildings for BIM geometry. This is a process change from a traditional measured building survey just with a total station and is aided by the increasing acceptance of point cloud data being integrated with parametric building models in BIM tools such as Autodesk Revit or Bentley Architecture. Pilot projects carried out previously by the authors to investigate the geometry capture and modelling of BIM confirmed the view of others that the process of data capture with static laser scan setups is slow and very involved requiring at least two people for efficiency. Indoor Mobile Mapping Systems (IMMS present a possible solution to these issues especially in time saved. Therefore this paper investigates their application as a capture device for BIM geometry creation over traditional static methods through a fit-for-purpose test.

  19. Reflective afocal broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubra, Alfredo; Sulai, Yusufu

    2011-01-01

    A broadband adaptive optics scanning ophthalmoscope (BAOSO) consisting of four afocal telescopes, formed by pairs of off-axis spherical mirrors in a non-planar arrangement, is presented. The non-planar folding of the telescopes is used to simultaneously reduce pupil and image plane astigmatism. The former improves the adaptive optics performance by reducing the root-mean-square (RMS) of the wavefront and the beam wandering due to optical scanning. The latter provides diffraction limited performance over a 3 diopter (D) vergence range. This vergence range allows for the use of any broadband light source(s) in the 450-850 nm wavelength range to simultaneously image any combination of retinal layers. Imaging modalities that could benefit from such a large vergence range are optical coherence tomography (OCT), multi- and hyper-spectral imaging, single- and multi-photon fluorescence. The benefits of the non-planar telescopes in the BAOSO are illustrated by resolving the human foveal photoreceptor mosaic in reflectance using two different superluminescent diodes with 680 and 796 nm peak wavelengths, reaching the eye with a vergence of 0.76 D relative to each other. PMID:21698035

  20. Cathodoluminescence in the scanning transmission electron microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kociak, M., E-mail: mathieu.kociak@u-psud.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Université Paris-SudParis-Sud, CNRS-UMR 8502, Orsay 91405 (France); Zagonel, L.F. [“Gleb Wataghin” Institute of Physics University of Campinas - UNICAMP, 13083-859 Campinas, São Paulo (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    Cathodoluminescence (CL) is a powerful tool for the investigation of optical properties of materials. In recent years, its combination with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) has demonstrated great success in unveiling new physics in the field of plasmonics and quantum emitters. Most of these results were not imaginable even twenty years ago, due to conceptual and technical limitations. The purpose of this review is to present the recent advances that broke these limitations, and the new possibilities offered by the modern STEM-CL technique. We first introduce the different STEM-CL operating modes and the technical specificities in STEM-CL instrumentation. Two main classes of optical excitations, namely the coherent one (typically plasmons) and the incoherent one (typically light emission from quantum emitters) are investigated with STEM-CL. For these two main classes, we describe both the physics of light production under electron beam irradiation and the physical basis for interpreting STEM-CL experiments. We then compare STEM-CL with its better known sister techniques: scanning electron microscope CL, photoluminescence, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. We finish by comprehensively reviewing recent STEM-CL applications. - Highlights: • Reviews the field of STEM-CL. • Introduces the technical requirements and challenges for STEM-CL. • Introduces the different types of excitations probed by STEM-CL. • Gives comprehensive overview of the last fifteenth years in the field.

  1. Near-horizon brane-scan revived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duff, M.J.

    2009-01-01

    In 1987 two versions of the brane-scan of D-dimensional super p-branes were put forward. The first pinpointed those (p,D) slots consistent with kappa-symmetric Green-Schwarz type actions; the second generalized the membrane at the end of the universe idea to all those superconformal groups describing p-branes on the boundary of AdS p+2 xS D-p-2 . Although the second version predicted D3- and M5-branes in addition to those of the first, it came unstuck because the 1/2 BPS solitonic branes failed to exhibit the required symmetry enhancement in the near-horizon limit, except in the non-dilatonic cases (p=2,D=11), (p=3,D=10) and (p=5,D=11). Just recently, however, it has been argued that the fundamental D=10 heterotic string does indeed display a near-horizon enhancement to OSp(8|2) as predicted by the brane-scan, provided α' corrections are taken into account. If this logic could be extended to the other strings and branes, it would resolve this 21-year-old paradox and provide a wealth of new AdS/CFT dualities, which we tabulate

  2. Multi-parameters scanning in HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil

    2014-08-05

    Building credible anisotropy models is crucial in imaging. One way to estimate anisotropy parameters is to relate them analytically to traveltime, which is challenging in inhomogeneous media. Using perturbation theory, we develop traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with horizontal symmetry axis (HTI) as explicit functions of the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ in inhomogeneous background media. Specifically, our expansion assumes an inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium, which may be obtained from well information and stacking velocity analysis in HTI media. This formulation has advantages on two fronts: on one hand, it alleviates the computational complexity associated with solving the HTI eikonal equation, and on the other hand, it provides a mechanism to scan for the best fitting parameters η and ϕ without the need for repetitive modeling of traveltimes, because the traveltime coefficients of the expansion are independent of the perturbed parameters η and ϕ. The accuracy of our expansion is further enhanced by the use of shanks transform. We show the effectiveness of our scheme with tests on a 3D model and we propose an approach for multi-parameters scanning in TI media.

  3. Is scanning in probed order recall articulatory?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Simon; Lelièvre, Anna

    2009-09-01

    We consider how theories of serial recall might apply to other short-term memory tasks involving recall of order. In particular, we consider the possibility that when participants are cued to recall an item at an arbitrary position in a sequence, they covertly serially recall the list up to the cued position. One question is whether such "scanning" is articulatory in nature. Two experiments are presented in which the syllabic length of words preceding and following target positions were manipulated, to test the prediction of an articulatory-based mechanism that time to recall an item at a particular position will depend on the number of preceding long words. Although latency was dependent on target position, no word length effects on latency were observed. Additionally, the effects of word length on accuracy replicate recent demonstrations in serial recall that recall accuracy is dependent on the word length of all list items, not just that of target items, in line with distinctiveness assumptions. It is concluded that if scanning does occur, it is not carried out by covert or overt articulation.

  4. Intraoral scanning systems - a current overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, M; Mehl, A; Mörmann, W H; Reich, S

    2015-01-01

    There is no doubt today about the possibilities and potential of digital impression-taking with the aid of intraoral optical impression systems, and the past few years have seen a considerable increase in the range of optical intraoral scanners available on the market. On the strength of numerous innovations and a wider range of indications in orthodontics and implantology, intraoral scanning systems appear to be a highly promising development for the future. Digital impression-taking with intraoral scanners has already shown itself in some respects to be clearly superior to conventional impression- taking. Particularly worthy of mention is the versatile integration of digital impressions into diagnostic and treatment concepts to provide a customizable healthcare solution for the patient. It remains exciting to look forward to future developments that will allow us to observe digital impression-taking--as with other digital applications already established in everyday life--becoming firmly established in the routine of dentistry and dental technology. This article presents an overview of the benefits and limitations of digital impression-taking using intraoral scanning systems, and includes a summary of all the relevant intraoral scanners available on the market at present.

  5. [Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Yohei; Murata, Miho

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DaT) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and [18F]fluoro-L-DOPA ([18F]DOPA) positron emission tomography (PET) facilitate the investigation of dopaminergic hypofunction in neurodegenerative diseases. DaT SPECT and [18F]DOPA PET have been adopted as survey tools in clinical trials. In a large study on Parkinson's disease, 4-15% of subjects clinically diagnosed with early-stage Parkinson's disease had normal dopaminergic functional imaging scans. These are called Scans without Evidence of Dopamine Deficit (SWEDDs), and are considered to represent a state different from Parkinson's disease. Neurological diseases that exhibit parkinsonism and have normal dopaminergic cells in the nigrostriatal system (e.g., essential tremor, psychogenic parkinsonism, DOPA-responsive dystonia, vascular parkinsonism, drug-induced parkinsonism, manganism, brain tumor, myoclonus-dystonia (DYT11), and fragile X syndrome) might be diagnosed with SWEDDs. True bradykinesia with fatigue or decrement may be useful for distinguishing between Parkinson's disease and SWEDDs. However, because SWEDDs encompass many diseases, their properties may not be uniform. In this review, we discuss DaT SPECT, the concept of SWEDDs, and differential diagnosis.

  6. Contrast bolus technique with rapid CT scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, H.; Kuehne, D.; Rohr, W.; Heller, M.

    1981-01-01

    Twenty-three patients complying with the clinical criteria for brain death were studied by contrast-enhanced CT. In all but one, the great intracranial vessels escaped visualization; accordingly, angiography demonstrated cerebral circulatory arrest. In the remaining case, faint enhancement of the circle of Willis corresponded to angiographic demonstration of the proximal segments of cerebral arteris. Neither in normal brain nor in dead brain did slow CT scanning disclose any postcontrast increase in parenchymal attenuation. An improved technique is proposed to demonstrate the transit of the contrast bolus by rapid CT with image splitting. If cerebral blood flow is preserved, the grey and white matter will enhance significantly following administration of contrast medium. Vice versa, the absence of enhancement confirms brain death, even in instances in which the great cerebral vessels are obscured by hemorrhage or other extensive lesions. Two additional cases of brain death were evaluated by rapid CT scanning. As to brain death, the technique obviates the need for angiography or radionuclide angiography, usually applied in prospective organ donors, because its informative content is superior to that of either method. The CT technique described affords a reliable and safe diagnosis of brain death, and can be interpreted easily. (orig.)

  7. Multi-parameters scanning in HTI media

    KAUST Repository

    Masmoudi, Nabil; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2014-01-01

    Building credible anisotropy models is crucial in imaging. One way to estimate anisotropy parameters is to relate them analytically to traveltime, which is challenging in inhomogeneous media. Using perturbation theory, we develop traveltime approximations for transversely isotropic media with horizontal symmetry axis (HTI) as explicit functions of the anellipticity parameter η and the symmetry axis azimuth ϕ in inhomogeneous background media. Specifically, our expansion assumes an inhomogeneous elliptically anisotropic background medium, which may be obtained from well information and stacking velocity analysis in HTI media. This formulation has advantages on two fronts: on one hand, it alleviates the computational complexity associated with solving the HTI eikonal equation, and on the other hand, it provides a mechanism to scan for the best fitting parameters η and ϕ without the need for repetitive modeling of traveltimes, because the traveltime coefficients of the expansion are independent of the perturbed parameters η and ϕ. The accuracy of our expansion is further enhanced by the use of shanks transform. We show the effectiveness of our scheme with tests on a 3D model and we propose an approach for multi-parameters scanning in TI media.

  8. The role of thyroid scanning in hyperthyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogelman, I.; Cooke, S.G.; Maisey, M.N.

    1986-01-01

    Radionuclide thyroid imaging was performed in 872 consecutive patients with hyperthyroidism. Of these, 84% were found to have diffuse toxic hyperplasia (Graves' disease), while 12% had autonomously functioning nodules (Plummer's disease), 3% had Graves' disease developing in a multinodular gland, and in the remaining 1%, either a clear diagnosis could not be established or the hyperthyroidism was due to thyroiditis or the Jod-Basedow phenomenon. It was found that a thyroid scan seldom provides additional diagnostic information in patients with Graves' disease when a diffuse goitre is present. However, if patients are to be treated with radioiodine ( 131 I), thyroid imaging with tracer quantitation can replace a 24-h 131 I uptake measurement, this having the advantages that the patients are required to attend only once, and that the gland size can be measured. In addition, visual confirmation of tracer uptake by the thyroid is obtained and patients with thyroiditis will not receive inappropriate therapy. When single or multiple thyroid nodules are palpated, a thyroid scan is crucial in establishing an accurate diagnosis, as it is not otherwise possible to differentiate between Plummer's disease and Graves' disease developing in a multinodular gland. Indeed, in 20 of our 63 patients (32%) with single autonomously functioning nodules, the initial clinical assessment had been incorrect. (orig.)

  9. A New Technique for Scanning the Pancreas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ephraiem, K. H. [Rotterdamsch Radio-Therapeutisch Instituut, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    1969-05-15

    The difficulties in visualizing the pancreas are partly caused by the high uptake of seleno-methionine in the liver. A simple technique has been developed to prevent data registration during the time the detector is moving above the liver. The technique is based on the fact that both {sup 75}Se and {sup 99m}Tc emit gamma rays of 140-keV energy. The pulses, normally going from the single-channel analyser to the registrating units, are deviated through a ratemeter to an API contactless optical meter relay (model API-compack I) and then passed on to the registrating units. The patient is given the normal dose of Se-methionine and everything is prepared for normal pancreas scanning with only one exception: The window of the single-channel analyser is tuned in on the 140-keV photopeak. The patient is given 2 mCi of {sup 99m}Tc colloid intravenously and the controls on the meter relay are adjusted in such a way that no pulse from the single-channel analyser passes to the registrating units unless the activity is beneath the activity level in the liver. Then the scanning machine is started. The author developed this inexpensive technique to help smaller clinical isotope laboratories which cannot afford the combination of a gamma camera with a special-purpose computer. (author)

  10. Mobile Laser Scanning for Indoor Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, C.; Apostolopoulos, G.; Backes, D.; Boehm, J.

    2013-10-01

    The process of capturing and modelling buildings has gained increased focus in recent years with the rise of Building Information Modelling (BIM). At the heart of BIM is a process change for the construction and facilities management industries whereby a BIM aids more collaborative working through better information exchange, and as a part of the process Geomatic/Land Surveyors are not immune from the changes. Terrestrial laser scanning has been proscribed as the preferred method for rapidly capturing buildings for BIM geometry. This is a process change from a traditional measured building survey just with a total station and is aided by the increasing acceptance of point cloud data being integrated with parametric building models in BIM tools such as Autodesk Revit or Bentley Architecture. Pilot projects carried out previously by the authors to investigate the geometry capture and modelling of BIM confirmed the view of others that the process of data capture with static laser scan setups is slow and very involved requiring at least two people for efficiency. Indoor Mobile Mapping Systems (IMMS) present a possible solution to these issues especially in time saved. Therefore this paper investigates their application as a capture device for BIM geometry creation over traditional static methods through a fit-for-purpose test.

  11. Efficiency of a concentric matrix track detector surface scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bek-Uzarov, Dj.; Nikezic, D.; Kostic, D.; Krstic, D.; Cuknic, O.

    1995-01-01

    Heavy particle ionizing radiation track counting on the surface of a solid state round surface detector is made using the microscope and scanning step by step by a round field of vision. The whole solid state detector surface could not be fully or completely covered by round fields of visions. Therefore detector surface could be divided on the two parts, the larger surface, being under fields of vision, really scanned and no scanned missed or omitted surface. The ratio between omitted and scanned surfaces is so called track scanning efficiency. The knowledge of really counted, or scanned surface is a important value for evaluating the real surface track density an exposed solid state track detector. In the paper a matrix of a concentric field of vision made around the first microscope field of vision placed in center of the round disc of the scanned track detector is proposed. In a such scanning matrix the real scanned surface could be easy calculated and by the microscope scanning made as well. By this way scanned surface is very precisely obtained as well. Precise knowledge of scanned and omitted surface allows to obtain more precise scanning efficiency factor as well as real surface track density, the main parameter in solid state track detection measurements. (author)

  12. CT SCAN EVALUATION OF PULMONARY NODULE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ravi Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lung carcinomas are quite commonly diagnosed. Thanks to the ever increasing smokers’ population. Majority of the city dwellers are at a higher risk of having this disease when compared to the village counterparts. The stigma through which the person and the family have to undergo before confirming the diagnosis is enormous. So the radiographic methods of diagnosing the malignancies have to improve. Before confirming the diagnosis, the radiologists, the treating physicians should be somewhat confident about the diagnosis so as to prepare the patients and their relatives for the most probable diagnosis before the confirmatory report. The confirmatory procedures include the PET scan and the Histopathology. Both are time consuming procedures and in an economy like ours, finding a PET scanning centre is rather difficult. So the most probable diagnosis has to be thought of using minimal resource. This study puts in a sincere effort to understand and evaluate the pulmonary nodule when identified by a CT scan. This paper is intended to help the practicing radiologists and also make life easy for a practicing physician to identify correctly the lesions and also help the patients to prevent further progression of the disease. METHODS The study was a cross-sectional study. The sample size of the study consisted of thirty patients. CT scan was done in thirty patients who were identified to have lung nodules either by other mode of radiological studies or first time identified in a CT scan itself. The study was conducted in Fathima Institute of Medical Sciences, Kadapa. The study was conducted from 2014 to 2015. RESULT Non-solid nodules were more in number when compared to the solid nodules. All the non-solid nodules were confirmed to be adenomas. Eighty percent of the nodules which were more than 8 mm in size were confirmed to be malignant. One hundred percent of the spiculated border on CT was confirmed to be malignant. In the present study

  13. A Study for Reappearance According to the Scan Type, the CT Scanning by a Moving Phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jae Hyock; Jeong, Do Hyeong; Choi, Gye Suk; Jang, Yo Jong; Kim, Jae Weon; Lee, Hui Seok

    2007-01-01

    CT scan shows that significant tumor movement occurs in lesions located in the proximity of the heart, diaphragm, and lung hilus. There are differences concerning three kinds of type to get images following the Scan type called Axial, Helical, Cine (4D-CT) mode, when the scanning by CT. To know how each protocol describe accurately, this paper is going to give you reappearance using the moving phantom. To reconstruct the movement of superior-inferior and anterior-posterior, the manufactured moving phantom and the motor following breathing were used. To distinguish movement from captured images by CT scanning, a localizer adhered to the marker on the motor. The moving phantom fixed the movement of superior-inferior upon 1.3 cm /1 min. The motor following breathing fixed the movement of anterior-posterior upon 0.2 cm /1 min. After fixing each movement, CT scanning was taken by following the CT protocols. The movement of A localizer and volume-reappearance analyzed by RTP machine. Total volume of a marker was 88.2 cm 3 considering movement of superior-inferior. Total volume was 184.3 cm 3 . Total volume according to each CT scan protocol were 135 cm 3 by axial mode, 164.9 cm 3 by helical mode, 181.7 cm 3 by cine (4D-CT) mode. The most closely describable protocol about moving reappearance was cine mode, the marker attached localizer as well. CT scan should reappear concerning a exact organ-description and target, when the moving organ is being scanned by three kinds of CT protocols. The cine (4D-CT) mode has the advantage of the most highly reconstructible ability of the three protocols in reappearance of the marker using a moving phantom. The marker on the phantom has always regular motion but breathing patients don't move like a phantom. Breathing education and devices setting patients were needed so that images reconstruct breathing as exactly as possible. Users should also consider that an amount of radiation to patients is being bombed.

  14. The along track scanning radiometer for ERS-1 - Scan geometry and data simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, A. J. Fred; Cechet, Robert P.; Barton, Ian J.; Llewellyn-Jones, David T.

    1990-01-01

    The first European remote-sensing satellite (ERS-1), due to be launched in 1990, will carry the along track scanning radiometer (ATSR), which has been specifically designed to give accurate satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST). Details of the novel scanning technique used by the ATSR are given, and data from the NOAA-9 AVHRR instrument are used to simulate raw ATSR imagery. Because of the high precision of the onboard blackbodies, the active cooling of the detectors, 12-b digitization, and dual-angle capability, the ATSR promises to achieve higher-accuracy satellite-derived SSTs than are currently available.

  15. Analyzing Protein Denaturation using Fast Differential Scanning Calorimetry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Splinter, R.; Van Herwaarden, A.W.; Iervolino, E.; Vanden Poel, G.; Istrate, D.; Sarro, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the possibility to measure protein denaturation with Fast Differential Scanning Calorimetry (FDSC). Cancer can be diagnosed by measuring protein denaturation in blood plasma using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). FDSC can reduce diagnosis time from hours to minutes,

  16. Visual Scanning Training For Older Drivers: A Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-04-01

    This literature review focuses on older drivers' visual scanning ability and on evaluations of training in visual scanning skills for older adults, updating a previous review of studies published from 1997 to 2008 describing age-related functional ch...

  17. Experience and use of ultrasound scan for fetal evaluation among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experience and use of ultrasound scan for fetal evaluation among obstetricians in an African population. ... Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... scan held in May 2014 at the University of Benin Teaching Hospital were recruited for the study.

  18. Occult Candida thyroid abscess diagnosed by gallium-67 scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, M.C.; Blattner, S.

    1990-01-01

    A clinically silent fungal thyroid abscess was identified by Ga-67 citrate scanning and successfully drained surgically in a young leukemic patient. Whole-body radionuclide scanning remains a valuable method to help diagnose persistent fever in the immunocompromised host

  19. P-Scan provides accuracy and repeatability in ultrasonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keys, R.L.

    1987-01-01

    The P-Scan (Projection image scanning technique) is an automated ultrasonic inspection technique, developed to overcome the problems with accuracy and repeatability experienced with manual ultrasonic systems. The equipment and its applications are described. (author)

  20. Side-Scan-Sonar Points for Hudson River, NY

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Side Scan Point Files. These points correspond to individual pings which produced hte side-scan-sonar backscatter imagery. Sonar data were collected November 6 to...

  1. New approach towards imaging -DNA using scanning tunneling

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA; scanning tunneling microscopy; Langmuir Blodget technique; silanization. ... Scanning tunneling spectroscopy (STS) at different stages depict a broad distribution of defect states in the bandgap region of -Si(111) which ... Current Issue

  2. Evaluation of processing methods for static radioisotope scan images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakberg, J.A.

    1976-12-01

    Radioisotope scanning in the field of nuclear medicine provides a method for the mapping of a radioactive drug in the human body to produce maps (images) which prove useful in detecting abnormalities in vital organs. At best, radioisotope scanning methods produce images with poor counting statistics. One solution to improving the body scan images is using dedicated small computers with appropriate software to process the scan data. Eleven methods for processing image data are compared

  3. Three phase bone scan , Ga-67 and Tc-99m nanocoll scan in detection of osteomyelitis caused by war injuries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banek, T.; Reljica-Kostic, Z.; Kurnik, G.

    1994-01-01

    Thirty three injured soldiers were surgically treated because of pierce wounds of extremities. Treatment was either osteosynthesis or external fixation. Two to four weeks post treatment clinical signs of osteomyelitis appeared. X-ray was negative in all patients. Three-phase bone scan was performed in order to establish diagnosis. Bone scan was positive in all patients. For 11 patients only bone scan was sufficient for decision of further treatment. In 22 patients Ga-67 or Tc-99m- nanocoll or both examinations were performed on surgeon's request. In 2 patients out of 5 with additional Ga-67 scan, Ga-67 scan showed more lesions than it was seen on bone scan. In 3 patients out of 5 with additional Tc-99m-nanocoll scan, Tc-99m-nanocoll scan showed more lesions than it was seen on bone scan. In 12 patients with positive bone scan and negative or unclear Ga-67, Tc-99m-nanocoll scan was performed. In 5 out of 12 patients Tc-99m- nanocoll scan established diagnosis in others confirmed finding on bone and Ga-67 scan. Our results showed that in one third of our causes bone scan was sufficient for diagnosing of osteomyelitis caused by war injuries. In selected cases where bone scan was not sufficient for diagnosis and decision for treatment Tc-99m-nanocoll was more sensitive than Ga-67. In our experience three-phase bone scan is more sensitive than Ga-67. In our opinion three-phase bone scan is the method of choice for diagnosing osteomyelitis in war situation with a lot of casualties. (author)

  4. Intercomparison of two dynamic treatment techniques, ring scan and spot scan, for head and neck tumors with the Piotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, M.; Blattmann, H.; Pedroni, E.

    1988-01-01

    An evaluation of the ring scan and the spot scan was made for the pion irradiation of head and neck tumors with the Piotron. For the geometry of the Piotron, with its 60 radially converging beams, two scanning techniques have been developed, ring scan and spot scan. They have different characteristics concerning achievable dose distributions and sensitivity to tissue inhomogenities. The optimized 3-dimensional dose distributions for the treatment with ring scan and spot scan techniques were calculated for two examples of the target volume. The comparison of the dose distributions has shown that the ring scan is better in sparing normal tissues than the spot scan for a simple shape target volume but not for an irregular shape target volume with the present status of the technique. The irradiation time needed for the ring scan is longer, for the present examples three times, than for the spot scan. From the practical view point the spot scan is preferable to the ring scan for the treatment of head and neck tumors with the Piotron

  5. 4D computed tomography scans for conformal thoracic treatment planning: is a single scan sufficient to capture thoracic tumor motion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yolanda D.; Wootton, Landon; Nyflot, Matthew; Apisarnthanarax, Smith; Rengan, Ramesh; Bloch, Charles; Sandison, George; St. James, Sara

    2018-01-01

    Four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) scans are routinely used in radiation therapy to determine the internal treatment volume for targets that are moving (e.g. lung tumors). The use of these studies has allowed clinicians to create target volumes based upon the motion of the tumor during the imaging study. The purpose of this work is to determine if a target volume based on a single 4DCT scan at simulation is sufficient to capture thoracic motion. Phantom studies were performed to determine expected differences between volumes contoured on 4DCT scans and those on the evaluation CT scans (slow scans). Evaluation CT scans acquired during treatment of 11 patients were compared to the 4DCT scans used for treatment planning. The images were assessed to determine if the target remained within the target volume determined during the first 4DCT scan. A total of 55 slow scans were compared to the 11 planning 4DCT scans. Small differences were observed in phantom between the 4DCT volumes and the slow scan volumes, with a maximum of 2.9%, that can be attributed to minor differences in contouring and the ability of the 4DCT scan to adequately capture motion at the apex and base of the motion trajectory. Larger differences were observed in the patients studied, up to a maximum volume difference of 33.4%. These results demonstrate that a single 4DCT scan is not adequate to capture all thoracic motion throughout treatment.

  6. RisøScan - a new dosimetry software

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helt-Hansen, J.; Miller, A.

    2004-01-01

    RisoScan is a software package that is used for analysis of images of visibly coloured dosimeter films. The image is created by scanning the dosimeter film on a flatbed scanner. RisoScan is based on LabView(R), and it is useful for analysis of dose distributions and depth dose curves. Measurement...

  7. A proton microbeam deflection system to scan target surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heck, D.

    1978-12-01

    A system to deflect the proton beam within the Karlsruhe microbeam setup is described. The deflection is achieved whithin a transverse electrical field generated between parallel electrodes. Their tension is controlled by a pattern generator, thus enabling areal and line scans with a variable number of scan points at variable scan speed. The application is demonstrated at two different examples. (orig.) [de

  8. Characterization of pitches by differential scanning calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrburger, P.; Martin, C.; Lahaye, J.; Saint-Romain, J.L.; Couderc, P.

    1988-12-01

    Pitch materials have generally a very complex composition with molecular mass ranging from a few hundred to several thousands units. In order to characterize these materials their properties related to the glassy transformation, in particular to enthalpy relaxation, have been investigated. Solvent soluble fractions have been characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). As with polymeric materials, enthalpy relaxation can provide information about pitches and the interactions occurring between the different types of molecules present in the pitch: mean molecular size, structural factor, molecular-size distribution. The determination of glass transition properties provides a useful means for the characterization of pitch and of their solvent extracts. It also permits insight into the complex reactions which occur when pitch materials are heat-treated. 7 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Fast-scan, beam-profile monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waugh, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    A minimodular, data-acquisition system can be used to rapidly interrogate a 45-point matrix of beam-current sampling targets over the 3- x 12-in. rectangular, output beam cross section of a 50-A, neutral-beam ion source. This system, operating at a throughput rate of 12 μs per channel, can make several complete scans during the 10- to 25-ms-duration beam pulse. Data obtained are available in both analog and digital form. The analog signal is used to create an immediately interpretable CRT display of the beam-current density profile that shows how well the source is aimed. The digital data are held in buffer memory until transfer to a minicomputer for software processing and plotting

  10. Emission sources in scanning electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkusch, W.

    1990-01-01

    Since the beginning of the commercial scanning electron microscopy, there are two kinds of emission sources generally used for generation of the electron beam. The first group covers the cathodes heated directly and indirectly (tungsten hair-needle cathodes and lanthanum hexaboride single crystals, LaB 6 cathode). The other group is the field emission cathodes. The advantages of the thermal sources are their low vacuum requirement and their high beam current which is necessary for the application of microanalysis units. Disadvantages are the short life and the low resolution. Advantages of the field emission cathode unambiguously are the possibilities of the very high resolution, especially in the case of low acceleration voltages. Disadvantages are the necessary ultra-high vacuum and the low beam current. An alternative source is the thermally induced ZrO/W field emission cathode which works stably as compared to the cold field emission and does not need periodic flashing for emitter tip cleaning. (orig.) [de

  11. Scanning Near-Field Optical Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan Vobornik

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available An average human eye can see details down to 0,07 mm in size. The ability to see smaller details of the matter is correlated with the development of the science and the comprehension of the nature. Today’s science needs eyes for the nano-world. Examples are easily found in biology and medical sciences. There is a great need to determine shape, size, chemical composition, molecular structure and dynamic properties of nano-structures. To do this, microscopes with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution are required. Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM is a new step in the evolution of microscopy. The conventional, lens-based microscopes have their resolution limited by diffraction. SNOM is not subject to this limitation and can offer up to 70 times better resolution.

  12. Scanning near-field optical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vobornik, Dusan; Vobornik, Slavenka

    2008-02-01

    An average human eye can see details down to 0,07 mm in size. The ability to see smaller details of the matter is correlated with the development of the science and the comprehension of the nature. Today's science needs eyes for the nano-world. Examples are easily found in biology and medical sciences. There is a great need to determine shape, size, chemical composition, molecular structure and dynamic properties of nano-structures. To do this, microscopes with high spatial, spectral and temporal resolution are required. Scanning Near-field Optical Microscopy (SNOM) is a new step in the evolution of microscopy. The conventional, lens-based microscopes have their resolution limited by diffraction. SNOM is not subject to this limitation and can offer up to 70 times better resolution.

  13. X-ray Compton line scan tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupsch, Andreas; Lange, Axel; Jaenisch, Gerd-Ruediger [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany). Fachgruppe 8.5 - Mikro-ZfP; Hentschel, Manfred P. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany); Kardjilov, Nikolay; Markoetter, Henning; Hilger, Andre; Manke, Ingo [Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) (Germany); Toetzke, Christian [Potsdam Univ. (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    The potentials of incoherent X-ray scattering (Compton) computed tomography (CT) are investigated. The imaging of materials of very different atomic number or density at once is generally a perpetual challenge for X-ray tomography or radiography. In a basic laboratory set-up for simultaneous perpendicular Compton scattering and direct beam attenuation tomography are conducted by single channel photon counting line scans. This results in asymmetric distortions of the projection profiles of the scattering CT data set. In a first approach, corrections of Compton scattering data by taking advantage of rotational symmetry yield tomograms without major geometric artefacts. A cylindrical sample composed of PE, PA, PVC, glass and wood demonstrates similar Compton contrast for all the substances, while the conventional absorption tomogram only reveals the two high order materials. Comparison to neutron tomography reveals astonishing similarities except for the glass component (without hydrogen). Therefore, Compton CT offers the potential to replace neutron tomography, which requires much more efforts.

  14. Scanning ion irradiation of polyimide films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luecken, Stefan; Koval, Yuri; Mueller, Paul [Department of Physics and Interdisciplinary Center for Molecular Materials (ICMM), Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Recently we found, that the surface of nearly any polymer can be converted into conductive material by low energy ion irradiation. The graphitized layer consists of nanometer sized graphene and graphite flakes. In order to enhance the conductivity and to increase the size of the flakes we applied a novel method of scanning irradiation. We investigated the influence of various irradiation parameters on the conductivity of the graphitized layer. We show, that the conductance vs. temperature can be described in terms of weak Anderson localization. At approximately 70 K, a crossover occurs from 2-dimensional to 3-dimensional behavior. This can be explained by a decrease of the Thouless length with increasing temperature. The crossover temperature can be used to estimate the thickness of the graphitized layer.

  15. Fuel assembly identification by magnetic scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badurek, G.

    1986-09-01

    In order to identify individual fuel assemblies by a magnetic fingerprint, investigations were made on iron inclusions in fuel elements and a method was developed to measure these by magnetically scanning the element. The fuel assembly is drawn with constant speed through a homogeneous magnetic field to magnetize iron inclusions. Resulting inhomogeneous magnetic dipole fields induce a voltage difference in pick up coils which is proportional to the mass of the inclusion. Using lock-in technique 3 mg pieces of steel wire on the surface of the fuel element were detected while the lower limit for the center of an assembly for ferromagnetic spheres was 50 mg. In single rods ferromagnetic samples of 1 mg were detected regardless of geometric form or location. With minor modifications of the measuring procedure the sensitivity limit can be improved to about 10 mg at the center of an assembly. In the KWU-fuel at Zwentendorf no iron inclusions were found

  16. Optical-CT scanning of polymer gels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldham, M [Radiation Oncology Physics, Duke University Medical Center, Duke University, NC (United States)

    2004-01-01

    The application of optical-CT scanning to achieve accurate high-resolution 3D dosimetry is a subject of current interest. The purpose of this paper is to provide a brief overview of past research and achievements in optical-CT polymer gel dosimetry, and to review current issues and challenges. The origins of optical-CT imaging of light-scattering polymer gels are reviewed. Techniques to characterize and optimize optical-CT performance are presented. Particular attention is given to studies of artifacts in optical-CT imaging, an important area that has not been well studied to date. The technique of optical-CT simulation by Monte-Carlo modeling is introduced as a tool to explore such artifacts. New simulation studies are presented and compared with experimental data.

  17. Scanning the conceptual horizons of citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Ruth

    2016-05-01

    This article scans recent developments within citizenship studies and relates them to the field of dementia, specifically the 'dementia friendly communities' agenda. The dementia friendly communities agenda is selected for several reasons, most notably because, it is an area of practice in the field of dementia where citizenship is perhaps most clearly enacted. The aim of the article is to help with the advancement of social citizenship as a key concept for dementia studies, by using two of the latest ideas within citizenship studies; namely, understandings of citizenship as (a) occurring in ordinary places and (b) potentially enacted within the domestic sphere to explore dementia friendly communities. It is argued that the interplay between these two developments pave the way for deeper consideration and realisation of social citizenship in the context of people with dementia. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Scanning photoemission spectromicroscopy applications in surface chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amati, M. [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. di interesse nazionale, SS14-Km163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Dalmiglio, M. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Health and Consumer Protection, Nanobiosciences Unit, Via Enrico Fermi 2749, 21029 Ispra, VA (Italy); Abyaneh, M. Kazemian [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. di interesse nazionale, SS14-Km163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy); Gregoratti, L., E-mail: luca.gregoratti@elettra.trieste.it [Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste S.C.p.A. di interesse nazionale, SS14-Km163.5 in Area Science Park, 34149 Trieste (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    Highlights: •An overview of the spectromicroscopy capability of the SPEM is provided. •Reactivity towards oxidation and adsorbate mass transport of MWCNTs is described. •Oxidation of Pt-Rh nanoparticles is site dependent. -- Abstract: Scanning photoelectron microscopy (SPEM) combines X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with spatial resolution and is a powerful technique to image and probe micro and nanostructures. An overview of some recent achievements of the SPEM hosted at the Elettra synchrotron light laboratory will be presented in this report. The examples will spread through the oxidation as well as mass transport of multiwall carbon nanotubes clean and functionalized with metallic coatings, the electronic and chemical characterization of semiconductor sensor prototypes and the oxidation of PtRh nanoparticles produced by pulsed-laser deposition (PLD) with atomic oxygen.

  19. Scanning and georeferencing historical USGS quadrangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishburn, Kristin A.; Davis, Larry R.; Allord, Gregory J.

    2017-06-23

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Program is scanning published USGS 1:250,000-scale and larger topographic maps printed between 1884, the inception of the topographic mapping program, and 2006. The goal of this project, which began publishing the Historical Topographic Map Collection in 2011, is to provide access to a digital repository of USGS topographic maps that is available to the public at no cost. For more than 125 years, USGS topographic maps have accurately portrayed the complex geography of the Nation. The USGS is the Nation’s largest producer of traditional topographic maps, and, prior to 2006, USGS topographic maps were created using traditional cartographic methods and printed using a lithographic process. The next generation of topographic maps, US Topo, is being released by the USGS in digital form, and newer technologies make it possible to also deliver historical maps in the same electronic format that is more publicly accessible.

  20. Compressed-sensing wavenumber-scanning interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yulei; Zhou, Yanzhou; He, Zhaoshui; Ye, Shuangli; Dong, Bo; Xie, Shengli

    2018-01-01

    The Fourier transform (FT), the nonlinear least-squares algorithm (NLSA), and eigenvalue decomposition algorithm (EDA) are used to evaluate the phase field in depth-resolved wavenumber-scanning interferometry (DRWSI). However, because the wavenumber series of the laser's output is usually accompanied by nonlinearity and mode-hop, FT, NLSA, and EDA, which are only suitable for equidistant interference data, often lead to non-negligible phase errors. In this work, a compressed-sensing method for DRWSI (CS-DRWSI) is proposed to resolve this problem. By using the randomly spaced inverse Fourier matrix and solving the underdetermined equation in the wavenumber domain, CS-DRWSI determines the nonuniform sampling and spectral leakage of the interference spectrum. Furthermore, it can evaluate interference data without prior knowledge of the object. The experimental results show that CS-DRWSI improves the depth resolution and suppresses sidelobes. It can replace the FT as a standard algorithm for DRWSI.