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Sample records for scandium chlorides

  1. Scandium recovery from slags after oxidized nickel ore processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyshlyaev, Denis; Botalov, Maxim; Bunkov, Grigory; Rychkov, Vladimir; Kirillov, Evgeny; Kirillov, Sergey; Semenishchev, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    One of the possible sources of scandium production - waste (slags) from processing of oxidized nickel ores, has been considered in present research work. The hydrometallurgical method has been selected as the primary for scandium extraction. Different reagents for leaching of scandium, such as sulfuric acid, various carbonate salts and fluorides, have been tested. Sulfuric acid has been recognized as an optimal leaching reagent. Sulfuric acid concentration of 100 g L-1 allowed recovering up to 97 % of scandium.

  2. Influence of scandium concentration on power generation figure of merit of scandium aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Morito; Nagase, Toshimi [Measurement Solution Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrials Science and Technology, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Umeda, Keiichi; Honda, Atsushi [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Nagaokakyo, Kyoto 617-8555 (Japan)

    2013-01-14

    The authors have investigated the influence of scandium concentration on the power generation figure of merit (FOM) of scandium aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) films prepared by cosputtering. The power generation FOM strongly depends on the scandium concentration. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film was 67 GPa, indicating that the FOM is five times larger than that of AlN. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is higher than those of lead zirconate titanate and Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} films, which is the highest reported for any piezoelectric thin films. The high FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is due to the high d{sub 31} and the low relative permittivity.

  3. Scandium SALEN complexes bearing chloro, aryloxo, and hydroxo ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2009-03-16

    Heteroleptic amide complexes (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] (SALEN = Salen(tBu,tBu), Salcyc(tBu,tBu), or Salpren(tBu,tBu) if not stated differently) were examined as synthesis precursors according to silylamine elimination reactions. Treatment of (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] with H(2)O or phenols (HOAr(R,R); R = tBu, iPr) afforded complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-OH)](2) and (SALEN)Sc(OAr(R,R)), while chloro exchange products were formed from the respective reactions with NH(4)Cl or AlMe(2)Cl. Such complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)](2) and (SALEN)ScCl(thf) were also obtained by utilizing alternative synthesis protocols, allowing for controlled donor absence and presence. Heteroleptic amide precursors [Sc(NiPr(2))(2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) and [Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)](2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) readily undergo amine elimination reactions with H(2)SALEN derivatives to form the corresponding chloride complexes. Spectroscopic and X-ray structural data of the heteroleptic scandium complexes revealed an exclusive intramolecular tetradentate coordination mode of the SALEN ligands independent of the SALEN ligand bite angle and the nature of the "second" ligand (chloro, amido, aryloxo, hydroxo). The coordination of the SALEN ligands is rationalized on the basis of (a) the displacement d of the metal center from the [N(2)O(2)] least-squares plane, (b) the dihedral angle alpha between the phenyl rings of the salicylidene moieties, and (c) the angle beta = Ct-Ln-Ct (Ct = centroid of the phenyl rings) in the case of strongly twisted ligands.

  4. Lifetime measurements and oscillator strengths in singly ionized scandium and the solar abundance of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Belmonte, M. T.; Engström, L.; Lundberg, H.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.; Pickering, J. C.; Clear, C.; Quinet, P.; Fivet, V.; Palmeri, P.

    2017-12-01

    The lifetimes of 17 even-parity levels (3d5s, 3d4d, 3d6s and 4p2) in the region 57 743-77 837 cm-1 of singly ionized scandium (Sc II) were measured by two-step time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oscillator strengths of 57 lines from these highly excited upper levels were derived using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and a Fourier transform spectrometer. In addition, Hartree-Fock calculations where both the main relativistic and core-polarization effects were taken into account were carried out for both low- and high-excitation levels. There is a good agreement for most of the lines between our calculated branching fractions and the measurements of Lawler & Dakin in the region 9000-45 000 cm-1 for low excitation levels and with our measurements for high excitation levels in the region 23 500-63 100 cm-1. This, in turn, allowed us to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical oscillator strengths for a set of 380 E1 transitions in Sc II. These oscillator strengths include the weak lines that were used previously to derive the solar abundance of scandium. The solar abundance of scandium is now estimated to logε⊙ = 3.04 ± 0.13 using these semi-empirical oscillator strengths to shift the values determined by Scott et al. The new estimated abundance value is in agreement with the meteoritic value (logεmet = 3.05 ± 0.02) of Lodders, Palme & Gail.

  5. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Inazu, Naomi; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2017-09-27

    Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices-including acoustic ones-because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF₃ through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  6. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Fujii

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices—including acoustic ones—because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF3 through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  7. Hydrometallurgical methods of recovery of scandium from the wastes of various technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanova, T. V.; Akimova, I. D.; Smirnov, K. M.; Krylova, O. K.; Zharova, E. V.

    2017-03-01

    The recovery of scandium from the wastes of the production of uranium, titanium, iron-vanadium, and alumina is studied. The applied acid schemes of scandium transfer to a solution followed by ion-exchange recovery and extraction concentration of scandium ensure the precipitation of crude scandium oxides containing up to 5% Sc2O3. Scandium oxides of 99.96-99.99% purity are formed after additional refining of these crude oxides according to an extraction technology using a mixture 15% multiradical phosphine oxide or Cyanex-925 + 15% tributyl phosphate in kerosene.

  8. Synthesis and Reactivity of a Scandium Terminal Hydride: H2  Activation by a Scandium Terminal Imido Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianghao; Xiang, Li; Lamsfus, Carlos A; Mao, Weiqing; Lu, Erli; Maron, Laurent; Leng, Xuebing; Chen, Yaofeng

    2017-10-20

    Dihydrogen is easily activated by a scandium terminal imido complex containing the weakly coordinated THF. The reaction proceeds through a 1,2-addition mechanism, which is distinct from the σ-bond metathesis mechanism reported to date for rare-earth metal-mediated H2 activation. This reaction yields a scandium terminal hydride, which is structurally well-characterized, being the first one to date. The reactivity of this hydride is reported with unsaturated substrates, further shedding light on the existence of the terminal hydride complex. Interestingly, the H2 activation can be reversible. DFT investigations further eludciate the mechanistic aspects of the reactivity of the scandium anilido-terminal hydride complex with PhNCS but also on the reversible H2 activation process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  10. Scandium/carbon filters for soft x rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artioukov, IA; Kasyanov, YS; Kopylets, IA; Pershin, YP; Romanova, SA

    2003-01-01

    This Note deals with thin-film soft x-ray filters for operation at the wavelengths near carbon K edge (similar to4.5 nm). The filters were fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of thin layers of scandium (total thickness 0.1-0.2 mum) onto films of polypropylene (thickness 1.5 mum) and

  11. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferizoğlu Ece; Kaya Şerif; Topkaya Yavuz A.

    2016-01-01

    Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to th...

  12. BASIC RESEARCH ON THE SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM YTTRIUM, AND THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RARE EARTH ELEMENTS, * SOLVENT EXTRACTION ), (*CHELATE COMPOUNDS, RARE EARTH ELEMENTS), PURIFICATION, ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, SCANDIUM, YTTRIUM, PRASEODYMIUM, SAMARIUM, EUROPIUM, GADOLINIUM, TERBIUM, FLUORINE COMPOUNDS, KETONES

  13. Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Kono, Rei; Fujita, Aiko; Kono, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    On the assumption that rare earth elements (REEs) are nontoxic, they are being utilized as replacements of toxic heavy metals in novel technological applications. However, REEs are not entirely innocuous, and their impact on health is still uncertain. In the past decade, our laboratory has studied the urinary excretion of REEs in male Wistar rats given chlorides of europium, scandium, and yttrium solutions by one-shot intraperitoneal injection or oral dose. The present paper describes three experiments for the suitability and appropriateness of a method to use urine for biological monitoring of exposure to these REEs. The concentrations of REEs were determined in cumulative urine samples taken at 0-24 h by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, showing that the urinary excretion of REEs is <2 %. Rare earth elements form colloidal conjugates in the bloodstream, which make high REEs accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli and low urinary excretion. The high sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry analytical methods, with detection limits of <2 μg/L, makes urine a comprehensive assessment tool that reflects REE exposure. The analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be of great importance and encourage further discussion for future studies.

  14. Determination of scandium concentrate composition by WD-XRF and ICP-MS methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisova, A. S.; Shibitko, A. O.; Abramov, A. V.; Rebrin, O. I.; Bunkov, G. M.; Lisienko, D. G.

    2017-09-01

    WD-XRF spectroscopy was applied for determining composition of scandium concentrate (ScC) containing 70 % scandium fluoride. Determination of ScC composition was performed using 6 glass beads reference materials produced by fusing synthesized mixture of analyte compounds with the lithium-borate flux in the ratio of 1:10. ScC powder with the known composition was then used as a powder pellet reference material to analyze scandium concentrate from technological line by external standard method. ICP-MS method was employed to control the ScC composition. The statistical data processing and metrological parameters evaluation of the analytical technique developed were carried out.

  15. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachecka, M.; Lee, C. J.; Sturm, J. M.; Bijkerk, F.

    2017-08-01

    The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  16. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pachecka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  17. Extraction of scandium by liquid di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in fusible diluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Isatayeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently widespread distribution of extraction methods using fusible reagents can be explained by a number of advantages, such as high kinetic characteristics of the process, the ease separation of two phases, high selectivity of many extractants, relatively complete regeneration. For the extraction of scandium in technological order, neutral and cation exchange extractants can be used. Several extraction reagents melt easily at high temperatures, and such melts can be used for extraction. Efficiency of the extraction of metal by cation reagents depends on many factors. Extraction of scandium by melt mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid - higher carboxylic acid - paraffin and the effect of acidity of the aqueous phase, the concentration of scandium and the aqueous extractant in the organic phase, the volume ratio of organic and aqueous phases on the extraction of metal were studied. It was found that the extraction of scandium proceeds through the cation exchange mechanism. Scandium was extracted quantitatively (> 99.0% from acid solutions. The optimal concentration of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in the extractant was 0,250 M, quantitative extraction of scandium was observed in the range of its concentrations of 10-3-10-6 M and the volume ratio of organic phases to aqueous phases of 1:5 - 1:20.

  18. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . This test measures the level of chloride in ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base (pH) balance . Chloride and electrolyte tests may also be ordered ...

  19. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of scandium(III) complexes of DTPA and DOTA: a step toward scandium radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pniok, Miroslav; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Jana; Kotek, Jan; Sabatie-Gogová, Andrea; Plutnar, Jan; Huclier-Markai, Sandrine; Hermann, Petr

    2014-06-23

    Diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) scandium(III) complexes were investigated in the solution and solid state. Three (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic references suitable for aqueous solutions were suggested: 0.1 M Sc(ClO4)3 in 1 M aq. HClO4 (δSc =0.0 ppm), 0.1 M ScCl3 in 1 M aq. HCl (δSc =1.75 ppm) and 0.01 M [Sc(ox)4](5-) (ox(2-) = oxalato) in 1 M aq. K2C2O4 (δSc =8.31 ppm). In solution, [Sc(dtpa)](2-) complex (δSc = 83 ppm, Δν = 770 Hz) has a rather symmetric ligand field unlike highly unsymmetrical donor atom arrangement in [Sc(dota)](-) anion (δSc = 100 ppm, Δν = 4300 Hz). The solid-state structure of K8[Sc2(ox)7]⋅13 H2O contains two [Sc(ox)3](3-) units bridged by twice "side-on" coordinated oxalate anion with Sc(3+) ion in a dodecahedral O8 arrangement. Structures of [Sc(dtpa)](2-) and [Sc(dota)](-) in [(Hguanidine)]2[Sc(dtpa)]⋅3 H2O and K[Sc(dota)][H6 dota]Cl2⋅4 H2O, respectively, are analogous to those of trivalent lanthanide complexes with the same ligands. The [Sc(dota)](-) unit exhibits twisted square-antiprismatic arrangement without an axial ligand (TSA' isomer) and [Sc(dota)](-) and (H6 dota)(2+) units are bridged by a K(+) cation. A surprisingly high value of the last DOTA dissociation constant (pKa =12.9) was determined by potentiometry and confirmed by using NMR spectroscopy. Stability constants of scandium(III) complexes (log KScL 27.43 and 30.79 for DTPA and DOTA, respectively) were determined from potentiometric and (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic data. Both complexes are fully formed even below pH 2. Complexation of DOTA with the Sc(3+) ion is much faster than with trivalent lanthanides. Proton-assisted decomplexation of the [Sc(dota)](-) complex (τ1/2 =45 h; 1 M aq. HCl, 25 °C) is much slower than that for [Ln(dota)](-) complexes. Therefore, DOTA and its derivatives seem to be very suitable ligands for scandium

  20. Effects of iron on intermetallic compound formation in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@mail.kmutt.ac.th [Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Iron reduces the modification effects of scandium in Al–Si–Mg alloys. • Morphologies of Sc-rich intermetallic phases vary with Fe and Sc contents and the cooling rates. • Sc neutralizes effects of Fe by changing Fe-rich intermetallic phases from platelets to more cubic. - Abstract: In general, iron has a strong tendency to dissolve in molten aluminum. Iron has very low solid solubility in aluminum–silicon casting alloys, so it will form intermetallic compounds that cause detrimental effects on mechanical properties. In this work, the effects of iron on intermetallic compound formations in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg alloys were studied. There were two levels of iron addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%) and two levels of scandium addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%). We found that the effects of scandium modification decreased with increasing iron addition. The morphologies of the complex intermetallic compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. It was found that scandium changes the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallic compounds from β-phase (plate-like) to α-phase, which reduces the harmful effects of β-phase.

  1. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferizoğlu Ece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to their higher extraction efficiencies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the scandium extraction efficiencies of some acidic and neutral organic reagents. For this reason, Ionquest 290 (Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpenthyl phosphonic acid, DEHPA (Di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, Cyanex 272 ((Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid which are acidic organophosphorus compounds, and Cyanex 923 (Trialkylphosphine oxide, which is a neutral organophosphorus compound, were used. The extraction capacities of these organics were studied with respect to the extractant concentration at same pH and phase ratio. As a result of the study, DEHPA was found to have higher scandium extraction efficiency with lower iron extraction at pH = 0.55 at a phase ratio of 10:1 = A:O.

  2. Correlation between stoichiometry and properties of scandium oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Juškevičius, Kęstutis; Ceizaris, Lukas; Samuilovas, Romanas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Jasulaitienė, Vitalija; Kičas, Simonas

    2018-01-01

    Scandium oxide films were deposited on fused silica substrates by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. The use of feed-back optical emission monitoring enabled high-rate reactive deposition of films with tunable stoichiometry and properties. The under-stoichiometric, stoichiometric and over-stoichiometric scandium oxide films were prepared. The compressive stress in films was between 235 and 530 MPa. We showed that phase structure, density, surface roughness and optical properties of the scandium oxide are affected by the film stoichiometry and deposition conditions. Transparent scandium oxide films were slightly hydrophobic (94 ± 3°), homogeneous with a crystallite size of 20 ± 5 nm. The lowest extinction coefficient 0.7 × 10-3, the highest refractive index 2.08 (both quantities at the wavelength of 355 nm) and the highest density 4.1 ± 0.1 g cm-3 exhibited film prepared with the stoichiometric composition. Stoichiometric scandium oxide can be used in various optical applications as high refractive index and wide bandgap material. Transitions to under- or over-stoichiometry lead to a decrease of film density, refractive index and increase of the extinction coefficient.

  3. Mossbauer investigation of scandium oxide-hematite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwes, Mark; Sorescu, Monica

    Scandium oxide-doped hematite, xSc2O3*(1-x)alpha-Fe2O3 with molar concentration x =0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 was prepared by using ball milling, taking samples at times 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours. The resulting Mossbauer spectra of the nanoparticles systems were parameterized using NORMOS-90. For each concentration, the spectra at 0 hours only consisted of 1 sextet, as the substitution of Sc2O3into Fe2O3 did not appear until after 2 hours of ball milling time (BMT). Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 2hours consisted of 2 sextets while x =0.3 and 0.5 were fit with 1 sextet and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 4 and 8 hours consisted of 3 sextets, and at BMT 12 hours consisted of 4 sextets. For concentrations x =0.3 and 0.5 at BMT 4, 8, and 12 hours the spectra were fit with 3 sextets and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. With increasing initial concentration, the appearance of the quadrupole-split doublet became more pronounced, indicating the substitution of Fe into Sc2O3 occurred. But for x =0.1, the BMT did influence the number of sextets needed, causing an increase in substitution of Sc2O3 into Fe2O3.

  4. Association between toenail scandium levels and risk of acute myocardial infarction in European men: The EURAMIC and Heavy Metals Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Aracena, J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Riemersma, R.A.; Bode, P.; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M.; Gorgojo, L.; Kark, J.D.; Garcia-Rodríguez, A.; Gomez-Gracia, E.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.; Veer, P. van 't; Wedel, H.; Kok, F.J.; Fernández-Crehuet, J.

    2002-01-01

    The association between scandium status and risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) was examined in a multicentre case control study in 10 centres from Europe and Israel. Scandium in toenails was assessed in 684 cases and 724 controls less than 70 years of age. Mean concentrations of toenail

  5. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS-towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Sebastian, E-mail: raeder@triumf.ca; Dombsky, Marik; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens; Quenzel, Thomas [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Sjoedin, Marica [GANIL (France); Teigelhoefer, Andrea [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Wendt, Klaus [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm{sup - 1} which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  6. Process and Mechanical Properties: Applicability of a Scandium modified Al-alloy for Laser Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, K.; Palm, F.; Hawkins, A.; Emmelmann, C.

    The applicability of an aluminium alloy containing scandium for laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is considered. Modified aluminium alloys with a scandium content beyond the eutectic point offer great potential to become a high prioritized aerospace material. Depending on other alloying elements like magnesium or zirconium, strongly required weight reduction, corrosion resistance and improved strength properties of metallic light weight alloys can be achieved. The development, production and testing of parts built up by a laser powder bed process will be presented with regard to the qualification of the new material concept "ScalmalloyRP®" for laser additive manufacturing.

  7. Synthesis and structural characterization of scandium SALEN complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Sirsch, Peter; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2006-02-28

    A series of heteroleptic scandium SALEN complexes, [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)]2 and (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2] is obtained via amine elimination reactions using [Sc(N(i)Pr2)2(mu-Cl)(THF)]2 and Sc[N(SiHMe2)2]3(THF) as metal precursors, respectively. H(2)SALEN ligand precursors comprising H2Salen [(1,2-ethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salpren [(2,2-dimethylpropanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salcyc [(1R,2R)-(-)-1,2-cyclohexanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] and H2Salphen [((1S,2S)-(-)-1,2-diphenylethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] are selected according to solubility and ligand backbone variation ("=N-(R)-N=" bite angle) criteria. Consideration is given to the feasibility of [Cl --> NR2] and [N(SiHMe2)2--> OSiR3] secondary ligand exchange reactions. X-ray crystal structure analyses of donor-free (Salpren)Sc(N(i)Pr2), (R,R)-(Salcyc)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2], (Salen)Sc(OSi(t)BuPh2) and (Salphen)Sc(OSiH(t)Bu2) reveal (i) a very short Sc-N bond distance of 2.000(3) A, (ii) weak beta(Si-H)(amido)-Sc agostic interactions and (iii) an exclusive intramolecularly tetradentate and intrinsically bent coordination mode of the SALEN ligands with angle(Ph,Ph) dihedral angles and Sc-[N(2)O(2)] distances in the 124.27(9)-127.7(3) degrees and 0.638(1)-0.688(1) A range, respectively.

  8. Vertical distribution of scandium in the north central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Nomura, Miho; Sasaki, Kazunori; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2007-06-01

    The concentrations of scandium (Sc) in seawater, which have remained unreported since the early 1970s, were determined together with those of yttrium (Y) and lanthanides (Ln) with samples from the north central Pacific Ocean (St. BO-3). The Sc concentration shows a so-called nutrient-like profile: it increases gradually from the surface (about 2 pmol/kg) to the ocean floor (about 20 pmol/kg). That pattern closely resembles those of Y and Ln (correlation coefficient (r) > 0.92). Some light-to-middle Ln (Pr-Tb) exhibit a closer correlation with Sc than do Y, La, or heavy Ln (Ho-Lu). In contrast, Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios (elemental abundance ratios) indicate that Sc is depleted compared to either Y or Ln in seawater more than in loess, which represents chemical compositions of crustal material. These observations offer a conflicting view of chemical reactivity related Y, Ln, and Sc: r values show that the chemical reactivity of Sc resembles those of Y and Ln, but differences of Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios in seawater and in loess suggest that the chemical reactivity of Sc differs from those of Y and Ln. More Sc data for seawater are necessary to clarify the chemical reactivity of Sc in the ocean. We also propose that comparative studies of vertical profiles of Sc and such elements as Fe, Ti, Zr, and Hf showing so-called nutrient-like profiles at the same oceanic stations would be helpful and effective for clarifying the behavior of Sc in the ocean.

  9. In situ observation of the reaction of scandium and carbon by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Arellano, Erick A., E-mail: eajuarez@unpa.edu.m [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Universidad del Papaloapan, Circuito Central 200, Parque Industrial, Tuxtepec 68301 (Mexico); Winkler, Bjorn [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lujan Center. Mail Stop H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Senyshyn, Anatoliy [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt, Petersensstr. 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kammler, Daniel R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Avalos-Borja, Miguel [CNyN, UNAM, A. Postal 2681, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Exist two ScC cubic phases with B1-structure type differing in site occupancy of C. {yields} A new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase is formed at 1473(50) K. {yields} The recrystallization of alpha-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. - Abstract: The formation of scandium carbides by reaction of the elements has been investigated by in situ neutron diffraction up to 1823 K. On heating, the recrystallization of {alpha}-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. The formation of Sc{sub 2}C and ScC (NaCl-B1 type structure) phases has been detected at 1323 and 1373 K, respectively. The formation of a new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase was observed at 1473(50) K. Once the scandium carbides are formed they are stable upon heating or cooling. No other phases were detected in the present study, in which the system was always carbon saturated. The thermal expansion coefficients of all phases have been determined, they are constant throughout the temperature interval studied.

  10. The effects of aluminum or scandium on the toughness, density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the substitution of aluminum or scandium on the density, toughness as well as the stability of the phases formed by such an addition on platinum, iridium, rhodium and palladium metals were evaluated with the density functional quantum mechanical calculation methods. All the metals had four atoms per ...

  11. Effects of erbium‑and chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High‑magnification SEM ... Key words: Erbium chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet, diode laser, restorative dental materials, scanning electron ... garnet (Nd: YAG) and carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers on indirect ...

  12. Chemical and biological evaluation of scandium(III)-polyaminopolycarboxylate complexes as potential PET agents and radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huclier-Markai, S.; Sabatie, A.; Ribet, S. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Lab. Subatech; Kubicek, V.; Hermann, P. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Paris, M. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Inst. des Materiaux; Vidaud, C. [CEA/DSV/iBEB/SBTN, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Lab. d' Etude des Proteines Cibles; Cutler, C.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Reserach Reactor Center

    2011-07-01

    Scandium isotopes ({sup 44}Sc, {sup 47}Sc) are more available and their properties are convenient for either PET imaging or radiotherapy. To use them in nuclear medicine, ligands forming complexes with a high stability are necessary. Available experimental data on stability constants for complexes of ligands such as EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, NOTA and TETA with various metal ions have been published. But scandium is the exception since scarce data is available in the literature. Values of stability constants of Sc(III) with the ligands were determined by free-ion selective radiotracer extraction, complemented by {sup 45}Sc NMR and potentiometry data. The thermodynamic stability of the Sc-complexes increases in the order TETA < NOTA < EDTA < DTPA < DOTA. The in vitro stability of the Sc(III) complexes was studied in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum to estimate their in vivo stability. The most stable complex was shown to be Sc-DOTA.

  13. Precipitation behaviour and recrystallisation resistance in aluminum alloys with additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium

    OpenAIRE

    Hallem, Håkon

    2005-01-01

    The overall objective of this work has been to develop aluminium alloys, which after hot and cold deformation are able to withstand high temperatures without recrystallising. This has been done by investigating aluminium alloys with various additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium, with a main focus on Hf and to which extent it may partly substitute or replace Zr and/or Sc as a dispersoid forming elements in these alloys. What is the effect of hafnium, alone and in combination with Zr...

  14. Pilot-scale recovery of rare earths and scandium from phosphogypsum and uranium leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashkovtsev Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ural Federal University (UrFU and VTT have performed joint research on development of industrial technologies for the extraction of REM and Scandium compounds from phosphogypsum and Uranium ISL leachate solutions. Leaching-absorption experiments at UrFU have been supported with multicomponent solution modelling by VTT. The simulations have been performed with VTT’s ChemSheet/Balas program and can be used for speciation calculations in the lixiviant solution. The experimental work combines solvent extraction with advanced ion exchange methodology in a pilot facility capable of treating 5 m3 solution per hour. Currently, the plant produces cerium carbonate, lanthanum oxide, neodymium oxide and concentrate of heavy rare earth metals. A batch of 45 t solids has been processed with the gain of 100 kg’s of REM concentrate. A mini-pilot plant with productivity above 50 liters per hour has been applied to recover scandium oxide and REE concentrates from the uranium ISL solution. As the preliminary product contains radioactivity (mainly strontium, an additional decontamination and cleaning of both concentrates by extraction has rendered a necessity. Finally a purified 99% concentrate of scandium oxide as well as 99% rare earth concentrate are received.

  15. Optimization of scandium oxide growth by high pressure sputtering on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo, P.C., E-mail: pedronska@fis.ucm.es; Pampillon, M.A.; San Andres, E.; Lucia, M.L.

    2012-12-30

    This work demonstrates the viability of scandium oxide deposition on silicon by means of high pressure sputtering. Deposition pressure and radio frequency power are varied for optimization of the properties of the thin films and the ScO{sub x}/Si interface. The physical characterization was performed by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Aluminum gate electrodes were evaporated for metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) fabrication. From the electrical characterization of the MIS devices, the density of interfacial defects is found to decrease with deposition pressure, showing a reduced plasma damage of the substrate surface for higher pressures. This is also supported by lower flatband voltage shifts in the capacitance versus voltage hysteresis curves. Sputtering at high pressures (above 100 Pa) reduces the interfacial SiO{sub x} formation, according to the infrared spectra. The growth rates decrease with deposition pressure, so a very accurate control of the layer thicknesses could be provided. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide is considered as a high permittivity dielectric. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide was deposited on Si by high pressure sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization was performed for deposition condition optimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High deposition pressures showed higher film and interface quality.

  16. Tribenzylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  17. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  18. Recovery of Scandium from Leachate of Sulfation-Roasted Bayer Red Mud by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaobo; Li, Hongxu; Jing, Qiankun; Zhang, Mingming

    2017-11-01

    The leachate obtained from sulfation-roasted Bayer red mud is suitable for extraction of scandium by liquid-liquid solvent extraction because it contains trace amounts of Fe3+ and Si4+. In this study, a completely new metallurgical process for selective recovery of scandium from Bayer red mud was proposed. The extraction performances of Sc3+, Fe3+, Al3+, Si4+, Ca2+, and Na+ from synthetic leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud were first investigated using organophosphorus extractants (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid P204 and 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester P507) and carboxylic acid extractant (Versatic acid 10). It shows that P204 has an excellent extraction ability and that it can be applied to the scandium recovery. P507 and Versatic acid 10 are much poorer in performance for selective extraction of scandium. In the leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud, approximately 97% scandium can be recovered using a P204/sulfonated kerosene (1% v/v) extraction system under the condition of an organic-to-aqueous phase ratio of 10:1 and with an extraction temperature of 15°C.

  19. Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide as a new stable n-type oxide thermoelectric material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Bhowmik, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide (Sc-doped ZnCdO) is proposed as a new n-type oxide thermoelectric material. The material is sintered in air to maintain the oxygen stoichiometry and avoid instability issues. The successful alloying of CdO with ZnO at a molar ratio of 1 : 9 significantly reduced...... is a good candidate for improving the overall conversion efficiencies in oxide thermoelectric modules. Meanwhile, Sc-doped ZnCdO is robust in air at high temperatures, whereas other n-type materials, such as Al-doped ZnO, will experience rapid degradation of their electrical conductivity and ZT....

  20. Scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes as initiators for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Clare; White, Andrew J P; Long, Nicholas J; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-03-02

    The synthesis and characterization of novel scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes is reported, where phosphasalen refers to two different bis(iminophosphorane) derivatives of the more ubiquitous salen ligands. The activity of the complexes as initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The scandium complexes are inactive for lactide polymerization but slow and controlled initiators for ε-caprolactone polymerization. The lack of activity toward lactide exhibited by these compounds is probed, and a rare example of single-monomer insertion product, unable to undergo further reactions with lactide, is identified. In contrast, the analogous yttrium phosphasalen complex is a very active initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide (kobs = 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1) at 1:500 [yttrium initiator]:[rac-lactide], 1 M overall concentration of lactide in THF at 298 K). In addition to being a very fast initiator, the yttrium complex also maintains excellent levels of polymerization control and a high degree of isoselectivity, with the probability of isotactic enchainment being Pi = 0.78 at 298 K.

  1. Thermodynamic parameters of scandium trifluoride and triiodide in the condensed state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristova, N. M.; Belov, G. V.

    2015-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of new classes of compounds, particularly scandium trihalides ScF3, ScCl3, ScBr3, and ScI3, are added to the IVTANTHERMO software package. A critical analysis and processing of the entire array of primary data available in the literature is performed. An equation approximating the temperature dependence of heat capacity in the temperature range 298.15- T m (K) is derived for each crystalline scandium trihalide. The resulting equations C {/p po}( T) for the solid state and the data for the liquid phase are used to calculate the thermodynamic functions of entropy, the reduced Gibbs free energies, and the enthalpy increments. Both the experimental data available in literature and the missing estimated thermodynamic data are used in calculations. The error of the recommended values is estimated in all cases. In the first part of this work, we describe the thermodynamic properties of ScF3 and ScI3 used as the reference data for calculating the thermodynamic functions of ScCl3 and ScBr3, for which experimental data are either very scarce or missing altogether. The resulting data are added to the database of the IVTANTHERMO software package.

  2. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetables. Foods with higher amounts of chloride include seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives. Chloride, combined ... RDA is an intake level based on scientific research evidence. Adequate Intake (AI): This level is established ...

  3. Recovery of Scandium(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Solvent Extraction with the Functionalized Ionic Liquid Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    OpenAIRE

    Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The ionic liquid betainium is(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Hbet][Tf2N] was used for the extraction of scandium from aqueous solutions. The influence of several extraction parameters on the extraction efficiency was investigated, including the initial metal concentration, phase ratio, and pH. The extraction kinetics was examined, and a comparison was made between conventional liquid−liquid extraction and homogeneous liquid−liquid extraction (HLLE). The stoichiometry of the extracted scandium...

  4. Modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Morphologies and growth of Sc and Sr-modified eutectic silicon resemble those of dendrites. •Crystal orientation of eutectic aluminum depends on growth characteristics of eutectic silicon. •We report strong evidence of the occurrence of an impurity-induced twinning mechanism. -- Abstract: The modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium was studied. The crystallographic orientation relationships between primary dendrites and the eutectic phase of unmodified and modified Al–6Si–0.3 Mg alloys were determined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The orientation of aluminum modified with scandium in the eutectic phase was different from that of the neighboring primary dendrites. This result implies that eutectic aluminum grows epitaxially from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the unmodified alloy and that eutectic aluminum grows competitively from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the modified alloy. The pole figure maps of eutectic Si in the [1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] axes of the unmodified and Sc-modified alloys were different, suggesting that the eutectic Al and Si crystals in modified alloy growth are more isotropic and cover a larger set of directions. The lattice fringes of Si of the alloys with and without Sc modification were different in the TEM results. The lattice fringes of Si in modified alloy were found to be multiple twins. However, this was not observed in the unmodified alloy. The growth characteristic of eutectic Si crystal in modified alloy suggests the occurrence of multiple twinning reactions and the formation of a high density of twins. This modification mechanism by Sc is explained by the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, which provide strong evidence of the occurrence of the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism.

  5. Grain refinement mechanism in an Al-Si-Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2012-11-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium can be used to refine aluminum grains in an Al-Si-Mg aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of Sc is lower than that of conventional Al-Ti grain refiners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 3}Sc particles can act as heterogeneous nuclei of aluminum phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher alloying elements cause more intermetallic compound phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Those phases cannot effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei compared with Al{sub 3}Sc particles. - Abstract: Grain refinement of the primary aluminum ({alpha}-Al) phase in a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy using scandium (Sc) was studied to identify the grain refinement mechanism. Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were extensively used in this study. We found that Sc refined grains of primary aluminum. However, the grain refinement efficiency of Sc was considerably lower than that of titanium (Ti) in the Al-Si-Mg foundry alloy. It was evident that the precipitated Sc-containing phases acted as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the primary aluminum phase. The Sc-containing heterogeneous sites are irregular in shape with sizes between 3 and 5 {mu}m. At least three groups of nuclei based on their chemical composition were found, i.e., (i) Al and Sc, (ii) Al, Si, Mg, and Sc, and (iii) Al, Si, Mg, Sc, and Fe. Crystal orientation mapping showed primary aluminum dendrites with one orientation in each grain near Al{sub 3}Sc particles. The grain refinement mechanism of Sc for aluminum relies on heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}Sc particles, with less responsibly for grain growth restriction. Many intermetallic phases with Al, Si, Fe, Mg and Sc as their major components were found, and these phases could not effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei.

  6. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...

  7. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry for Isotopes of Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, and Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, K; Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Local systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, and iron (21 {le} Z {le} 26, 20 {le} N {le} 32).

  8. A composite cathode based on scandium doped titanate with enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards direct carbon dioxide electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Xie, Kui; Wu, Lan; Qin, Qingqing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Ting; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-10-21

    A composite cathode based on redox-stable La0.2Sr0.8TiO(3+δ) (LSTO) can perform direct carbon dioxide electrolysis; however, the insufficient electro-catalytic activity limits the electrode performances and current efficiencies. In this work, catalytically active scandium is doped into LSTO to enhance the electro-catalytic activity for CO2 electrolysis. The structures, electronic conductivities and ionic conductivities of La0.2Sr0.8Ti(1-x)Sc(x)O (LSTS(x)O) (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) are systematically studied and further correlated with electrode performances. The ionic conductivities of single-phase LSTS(x)O (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) remarkably improve versus the scandium doping contents though the electrical conductivities gradually change in an adverse trend. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate promising electrode polarisation of LSTS(x)O electrodes and increasing scandium doping contents accordingly improve electrode performances. The Faradic efficiencies of carbon dioxide electrolysis are enhanced by 20% with LSTS0.15O in contrast to bare LSTO electrodes in a solid oxide electrolyser at 800 °C.

  9. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  10. Adsorption of hydrogen in Scandium/Titanium decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananghaya, Michael, E-mail: mikemananghaya@gmail.com [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines); DOST-ASTHRDP, PCIEERD, Gen. Santos Ave., Bicutan, Taguig City 1631 (Philippines); Belo, Lawrence Phoa; Beltran, Arnel [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines)

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen doped Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) that is decorated with Scandium and Titanium as potential hydrogen storage medium using the pseudo potential density functional method was investigated. Highly localized states near the Fermi level, which are derived from the nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation and improve the material stability. A detailed Comparison of the Hydrogen adsorption capability with promising system-weight efficiency of Sc over Ti was elucidated when functionalized with 4ND-CN{sub x}NT. Finally, the (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT composite material has a thermodynamically favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy for ideal reversible adsorption and desorption of hydrogen at room temperature such that it can hold at least 5.8 wt% hydrogen molecules at the LDA and GGA level. - Highlights: • Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) decorated with Sc and Ti. • Nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings. • H{sub 2} and (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT has a favorable adsorption. • 5.8 wt% adsorption at the LDA and GGA level.

  11. Selective recovery of vanadium and scandium by ion exchange with D201 and solvent extraction using P507 from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Tang, Sen; Zeng, Majian; Bai, Pengyuan; Chen, Lunjian

    2017-05-01

    D201 resin and P507 extractant diluted with sulfonated kerosene were used to respectively separate vanadium and scandium, and impurity ions from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud. More than 99% of vanadium was selectively adsorbed from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution under the conditions of pH value of 1.8, volume ratio of leaching solution to resin of 10, and flow rate of 3.33 mL/min. Maximum extraction and separation of scandium was observed from the acid leaching solution at an aqueous pH value of 0.2. More than 99% of scandium can be selectively extracted using 15% P507, 5% TBP at the aqueous solution/organic phase (A/O) ratio of 10:1 for 6 min. The loaded organic phase was washed with 0.3 mol/L sulfuric acid, wherein most impurities were removed. After the process of desorption or stripping, precipitation, and roasting, high-purity V2O5 and Sc2O3 were obtained. Finally, a conceptual flow sheet was established to separate and recover vanadium and scandium from red mud hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Xiang Wu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S-8-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4+·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes with two moxifloxacinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water molecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxifloxacinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107 (3 and 0.118 (3 Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water molecule and chloride anions participate in O—H...O, O—H...Cl and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonding; weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure.

  13. Strontium-89 Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may harm the fetus.notify any health care professional (especially other doctors) giving you treatment that you will be taking strontium-89 chloride.do not have any vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your doctor.

  14. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bishi, Laila; Mustafa,

    2011-01-01

    Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to...

  15. Random-field Potts model for the polar domains of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A

    1997-06-01

    A random filed Potts model is used to establish the spatial relationship between the nanoscale distribution of charges chemical defects and nanoscale polar domains for the perovskite-based relaxor materials lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and lead scandium tantalate (PST). The random fields are not set stochastically but are determined initially by the distribution of B-site cations (Mg, Nb) or (Sc, Ta) generated by Monte Carlo NNNI-model simulations for the chemical defects. An appropriate random field Potts model is derived and algorithms developed for a 2D lattice. It is shown that the local fields are strongly correlated with the chemical domain walls and that polar domains as a function of decreasing temperature is simulated for the two cases of PMN and PST. The dynamics of the polar clusters is also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bishi L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to control the electrolyte imbalance. The disease was difficult to control for a year after diagnosis. Late presentation is associated with severe chronic electrolyte disturbances and high-dose replacement therapy.Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, high stool chloride

  17. Development of methods for the selective separation of scandium, zirconium and tin for radiopharmaceutical applications; Entwicklung von Methoden zur selektiven Trennung von Scandium, Zirkonium und Zinn fuer radiopharmazeutische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks-Fandrei, Carina

    2014-07-01

    The subject of the present work is the development of fast and highly selective methods for the separation and purification of scandium, zirconium and tin radionuclides from potential target materials for use in nuclear medicine. A number of selected resins (TrisKem International) were first characterized with respect to their extraction behaviour towards a large number of cations. Characterization studies were performed in batch experiments by determination of weight distribution ratios D{sub w} and further the influence of interferences on the uptake of these elements was evaluated. Weight distribution ratios were determined in different acids and acid concentrations with main focus on scandium, tin or zirconium. The interference of macro amounts of Calcium and Ti on the Sc extraction was evaluated as well as the interference of macro amounts of Y on the Zr extraction. Best suited uptake conditions were found for Scandium on DGA were determined to be 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for Ti-Targets and 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} for Calcium-Targets. Otherwise it is also possible to extract Sc with TRU Resin. High uptakes were obtained at 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for simulated Ti- and Calcium-targets. Separation methods were developed using elution studies; employed conditions were chosen according to parameters evaluated in the batch-experiment. The developed methods allowed separating Sc very rapidly in high purity very rapidly from Ti- or Calcium-targets. For Zr a separation method based on UTEVA Resin has been developed. Following results of batch experiments simulated Y-target solution were loaded onto a UTEVA resin column from 6 M HNO{sub 3}; the elution of Zr could be performed in 0.01 M oxalic acid. Decontamination factors in the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} could be obtained applying the developed method; the method thus allowed separating Zr in a high purity. Initial testing of a method for the separation of Sn from Cd targets based on the use of TBP Resin showed that the TBP resin seems

  18. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  19. Measurement of atmospheric vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, S S

    1979-02-01

    Methods for atmospheric vinyl chloride measurement have been reviewed. The lowest detection limits and most specific measurement are achieved by scrubbing atmospheric samples with activated charcoal, desorbing the vinyl chloride, and assaying it by gas chromatography (GC). NIOSH currently recommends collecting samples using tubes packed with 150 mg of coconut shell charcoal, desorbing with carbon disulfide, and analyzing by GC equipped with flame-ionization detection (FID); the method is capable of detecting less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride and has an apparent recovery of abo the ppb level with no loss of accuracy or precision. Some field methods, such as infrared analysis and conductivity measurement, are capable of detecting 1 ppm or lower but are subject to interferences by other contaminants; th-y could be useful for evaluating sources of vinyl chloride leaks and for continuous monitoring. Permeation tubes are superior to gravimetric or volumetric methods for generating atmospheres of known vinyl chloride concentration.

  20. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section. (a...

  1. The impact of an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser with radial-firing tips on endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, U; Barylyak, A; Goharkhay, K; Beer, F; Wernisch, J; Georgopoulos, A; Sperr, W; Moritz, A

    2009-01-01

    Radial-firing tips should allow a more homogeneous laser irradiation of root canal walls. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation in conjunction with those newly designed tips. The investigation comprised bacteriology, morphological evaluations and temperature measurements. Root canals were inoculated with two test strains and laser irradiated with power settings of 0.6 W and 0.9 W and a repetition rate of 20 Hz. Subsequently, the samples were subjected to microbiological evaluation. The morphological changes of the canal walls were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. To reveal possible thermal side effects, we carried out temperature measurements. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a decisive disinfectant effect. Scanning electron microscopy showed the homogeneous removal of smear layer from the root canal walls. The temperature rise at the root surface during the irradiation was moderate, yielding 1.3 degrees C for the 0.6 W setting and 1.6 degrees C for the 0.9 W setting. The investigations indicated that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, in conjunction with radial-firing tips, is a suitable tool for the elimination of bacteria in root canals and for the removal of smear layer.

  2. Effect of scandium addition on the microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of the spray formed hypereutectic aluminum–silicon alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghukiran, Nadimpalli; Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: nvrk@iitm.ac.in

    2015-08-12

    Hypereutectic Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys (x=13, 16, 19 and 22 wt%) were produced by spray forming. The microstructures of all the alloys exhibited very fine silicon phase with average size of about 5–10 µm irrespective of the silicon content of the alloy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of a nano-scale scandium rich phase, identified as AlSi{sub 2}Sc{sub 2} (V-phase) uniformly distributed in the alloy. The presence of V-phase resulted in higher matrix hardness (1.34 GPa) in contrast to 1.04 GPa observed in the case of binary Al–Si alloys by nanoindentation. Isothermal heat treatment at 375 °C revealed insignificant coarsening of silicon phase in both binary and ternary alloys. The Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys exhibited higher flow stress and tensile strength in contrast to their binary alloy counterparts which was attributed to the bi-modal size distribution of the strengthening phases in the form of nano-scale V-phase and sub-micron to 10 µm size silicon particles. The pin-on-disk wear tests exhibited appreciable improvement in the wear performance of the relatively low-silicon content ternary alloys over their binary counterparts while the high-silicon content binary and ternary alloys exhibited no much difference in the wear performance.

  3. Scandium and Titanium Containing Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Hydrogen Storage: a Thermodynamic and First Principle Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananghaya, Michael; Yu, Dennis; Santos, Gil Nonato; Rodulfo, Emmanuel

    2016-06-15

    The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the highly localized states derived from the defects of nitrogen doped carbon nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CNxNT) contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation. Comparison of the H2 adsorption capability of Sc over Ti-decorated 4ND-CNxNT shows that Ti cannot be used for reversible H2 storage due to its inherent high adsorption energy. The Sc/4ND-CNxNT possesses favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy at the local-density approximation (LDA) and GGA level. Molecular dynamics (MD) study confirmed that the interaction between molecular hydrogen and 4ND-CNxNT decorated with scandium is indeed favorable. Simulations indicate that the total amount of adsorption is directly related to the operating temperature and pressure. The number of absorbed hydrogen molecules almost logarithmically increases as the pressure increases at a given temperature. The total excess adsorption of hydrogen on the (Sc/4ND)10-CNxNT arrays at 300 K is within the range set by the department of energy (DOE) with a value of at least 5.85 wt%.

  4. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  5. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  6. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  7. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  8. Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldaas, S S; Langård, S L; Andersen, A

    1984-01-01

    The results of a follow up study of the incidence of cancer and the mortality in a cohort of 454 male workers producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride are presented. The study population was restricted to employees with more than one year's work experience in the study plant between 1950 and 1969 and the cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1979. Twenty three new cases of cancer were observed compared with 20.2 expected; one case of liver angiosarcoma was found. Five cases of lung cancer were found (2.8 expected) and four cases of malignant melanoma of the skin were observed (0.8 expected). The possibility of a causal relationship between exposure to vinyl chloride and the development of malignant melanomas is discussed. PMID:6691932

  9. Effects of scandium addition on iron-bearing phases and tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Yu-Chih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Ting [Department of Vehicle Engineering, Army Academy R.O.C., Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Bor, Hui-Yun; Horng, Jain-Long; Tsai, Mu-Lin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Long, E-mail: shenglon@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-21

    Iron is the most deleterious impurity in aluminum alloys and can easily combine with aluminum to form an acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase that reduces ductility during the solidification of the molten metal. Adding scandium (Sc) to Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can transform the acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase into a comparatively harmless nodular Sc–Fe phase (Al{sub 12}Si{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}(Mg,Sc){sub 5}). This Sc–Fe phase has a lower hardness and elastic modulus than the β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase; it is thus less likely to initiate cracks in the Al matrix. Moreover, the nodular Sc–Fe phase can improve the fluidity of Al during solidification, reducing interdendritic shrinkage. Tensile testing measurements showed that the elongation of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys with 0.04 and 0.12 wt% Sc can be respectively increased by 115% and 110% compared to Al–7Si–0.6Mg without Sc. The corresponding quality indices are increased by 17% and 19%, respectively, suggesting that the tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can be enhanced by adding scandium.

  10. Separation of (44)Ti from proton irradiated scandium by using solid-phase extraction chromatography and design of (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Meyer, C A L; Engle, J W; Naranjo, C M; Unc, G A; Mastren, T; Brugh, M; Birnbaum, E R; John, K D; Nortier, F M; Fassbender, M E

    2016-12-16

    Scandium-44g (half-life 3.97h [1]) shows promise for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of longer biological processes than that of the current gold standard, (18)F, due to its favorable decay parameters. One source of (44g)Sc is the long-lived parent nuclide (44)Ti (half-life 60.0 a). A (44)Ti/(44g)Sc generator would have the ability to provide radionuclidically pure (44g)Sc on a daily basis. The production of (44)Ti via the (45)Sc(p,2n) reaction requires high proton beam currents and long irradiation times. Recovery and purification of no-carrier added (nca) (44)Ti from scandium metal targets involves complex separation chemistry. In this study, separation systems based on solid phase extraction chromatography were investigated, including branched diglycolamide (BDGA) resin and hydroxamate based ZR resin. Results indicate that ZR resin in HCl media represents an effective (44)Ti/(44g)Sc separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q; Shi, C.; Schutter, G. de; K. Audenaert; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  12. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  13. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general

  14. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  15. [Headspace GC/MS analysis of residual vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride in polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki

    2005-02-01

    A headspace GC/MS analysis method for the simultaneous determination of residual vinyl chloride (VC) and vinylidene chloride (VDC) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) products was developed. A test sample was swelled overnight with N,N-dimethylacetamide in a sealed vial. The vial was incubated for 1 hour at 90 degrees C, then the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS using a PLOT capillary column. The recoveries from spiked PVC and PVDC samples were 90.0-112.3% for VC and 85.2-108.3% for VDC. The determination limits were 0.01 microg/g for VC and 0.06/microg/g for VDC, respectively. By this method, VC was detected in two PVC water supply pipes at the levels of 0.61 and 0.01 microg/g. On the other hand, VC and VDC were not detected in any of the food container-packages or toys tested.

  16. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones. BHUPINDER KAUR and HARISH KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148 106, India e-mail: choprahk67@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2012; revised 30 January ...

  17. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de

  18. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simultaneously cement hydration reaction and chloride ion penetration process. First, using a cement hydration model, degree of hydration and phase volume fractions of hardening concrete are determined. Second, the dependences of chloride diffusivity and chloride binding capacity on age of concrete are clarified. Third, chloride profiles in hardening concrete are calculated. The proposed numerical procedure is verified by using chloride submerged penetration test results of concrete with different mixing proportions.

  19. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  20. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  1. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  2. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  4. Gd-Sc-based mixed-metal nitride cluster fullerenes: mutual influence of the cage and cluster size and the role of scandium in the electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitova, Anna L; Popov, Alexey A; Dunsch, Lothar

    2013-03-18

    The influence of the cage as well as of the cluster size has been studied in Gd-Sc nitride cluster fullerenes, which have been synthesized and isolated for these studies. A series of carbon cages ranging from C78 to C88 have been synthesized, isolated, and characterized in detail using absorption and vibrational spectroscopy as well as electrochemistry and density functional theory calculations. Gd-Sc mixed-metal cluster fullerenes in carbon cages different from C80 were described for the first time. A review of their structures, properties, and stability is given. The synthesis was performed with melamine as an effective solid source of nitrogen, providing high fullerene yield and suppressing empty fullerene formation. Substitution of gadolinium by scandium imposes a noticeable influence on the electronic structure of nitride cluster fullerenes as revealed by electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational methods.

  5. Copper scandium zirconium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew David; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2013-01-01

    components. The [Sc(III)Zr(IV)(PO(4))(3)](2-) framework is composed of corner-sharing Sc/ZrO(6) octahedra and PO(4) tetrahedra. The Sc and Zr atoms are disordered on one atomic site on a crystallographic threefold axis. The P atom of the phosphate group lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. Nonframework...

  6. 4-(Methylsulfonylpiperazin-1-ium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C5H13N2O2S+·Cl−, the complete cation is generated by crystallographic mirror symmetry, with both N atoms, the S atom and one C atom lying on the reflecting plane. The chloride ion also lies on the mirror plane. The piperazinium ring adopts a chair conformation and the N—S bond adopts an equatorial orientation. In the crystal structure, the component ions are linked into a three-dimensional framework by intermolecular N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of reduced scandium halide containing one- and two-dimensional metal bonded arrays. [Sc--ScCl3; Cs3Sc2Cl9; CsScCl3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppelmeier, K.R.

    1978-08-01

    The stabilization effect of metal-metal bond formation on reduced scandium compounds was studied. The binary compounds Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 12/, Sc/sub 5/Cl/sub 8/, Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 10/ and ScCl were prepared by high temperature techniques and were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The respective metal arrays in these compounds can be viewed as fragments of scandium metal ranging from discrete six atom metal cluster species (Sc(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/)), through intermediate single and double infinite chain configurations ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 4/Cl/sub 6/)) and ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 8/)) to double metal close-packed sheets (ScCl). The halogen atoms effectively isolate the clusters, chains and sheets by bonding face, edge or exo positions on the metal arrays. The common occurrence of isolated scandium (III) ions emphasizes that a minimum number of bonding electrons is required to stabilize what are formally anionic metal arrays. The distribution of the reduction electrons in these anisotropic materials was studied by magnetic susceptibility, EPR and uv-X photoelectron spectroscopy. The ternary compounds studied were Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2/Cl/sub 9/ and CsScCl/sub 3/. The anion-bridged metal chain of the hexagonal perovskite structure was found to stabilize scandium (II). CsScCl/sub 3/ was found to be grossly nonstoichiometric on the transition metal site and the effects of the mixed valence character were studied between the single valence extremes Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2 + x/Cl/sub 9/; 0< x < 1.0.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation...

  10. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Jie Fan; Xiao-Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simult...

  11. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  12. Scandium functionalized carbon aerogel: Synthesis of nanoparticles and structure of a new ScOCl and properties of NaAlH{sub 4} as a function of pore size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadian, Payam; Nielsen, Thomas K. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge 02142, MA (United States); Jepsen, Lars H. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Polanski, Marek [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Plocinski, Tomasz [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 144 Woloska Str., 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Kunce, Izabela [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bystrzycki, Jerzy [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    A new method for scandium-functionalization of carbon aerogels forming nanoparticles of a new scandiumoxochloride, ScOCl is presented. Sodium aluminiumhydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, is successfully melt infiltrated into the nano porous scaffolds with pore sizes of D{sub max}=7, 10, 13, 21, 26 and 39 nm, containing scandium based nano particles (<2.9 wt%) confirmed by elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. A systematic study of hydrogen storage properties of the nano composite materials is presented. An aqueous solution of ScCl{sub 3} was initially infiltrated and formed nanoconfined [Sc(OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, which transforms to nanoparticles of a new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl at 192 °C and to Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 420 °C. ScOCl crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell a=3.4409(8), b=3.9613(6) and c=8.178(2) Å, space group Pmmn, and is built from layers of [ScO{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}] octahedra forming neutral ScOCl layers. Temperature programmed desorption mass spectroscopy shows slightly improved kinetics for release of hydrogen with decreasing pore size. Continuous cycling of hydrogen release and uptake measured by the Sieverts' method reveal a larger preserved hydrogen storage capacity for scandium-functionalized aerogel with the larger pores (39 nm). - Highlights: • New synthesis approach for nanoporous Sc-functionalization carbon aerogel (Sc-CA). • The new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl, structure is obtained. • NaAlH{sub 4} nanoconfined in Sc-CA with pores ranging between 7 nm

  13. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-02-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  14. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs ...

  15. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  17. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used as th...

  18. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  19. Uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride by PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehling, P.E.; Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Bantjes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC) by poly(vinyl chloride) has been investigated to provide a more quantitative basis for the preparation of blood-compatible surfaces based on TDMAC-heparin coatings. Sorption isotherms of TDMAC from toluene-cyclohexane and toluene-methanol

  20. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  1. The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser in endodontic treatment: the results of an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Ulrich; Goharkhay, Kawe; Klimscha, Johannes; Zagler, Manuela; Wernisch, Johann; Georgopoulos, Apostolos; Sperr, Wolfgang; Moritz, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser has become accepted in the field of cavity preparation. The development of miniaturized and flexible fiber tips has allowed this device to be used in endodontics. The authors conducted an in vitro study to assess the effects of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on root canals. The authors inoculated root canals with two bacteria, laser irradiated them at two power settings and subjected them to a quantitative microbiological evaluation. They used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess morphological changes in endodontically processed and laser-irradiated root canal walls. They measured temperature increases on the root surface to determine possible thermal side effects. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a disinfecting effect in the root dentin samples that was dependent on the output power but not specific for the bacterial species investigated. SEM showed the removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls and the exposure of dentinal tubules. The temperature rise during irradiation was moderate when standardized power settings were used. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser can be used to eliminate bacteria in root canals. It also effectively removes smear layer and debris from the canal wall. Practitioners can use the Er,Cr:YSGG laser to prepare root canals for endodontic therapy.

  2. Aluminum-Scandium Alloys: Material Characterization, Friction Stir Welding, and Compatibility With Hydrogen Peroxide (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Proj. No. 04-14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Chen, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum describes the development of several high-strength aluminum (Al) alloys that are compatible with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) propellant for NASA Hypersonic-X (Hyper-X) vehicles fuel tanks and structures. The yield strengths for some of these Al-magnesium-based alloys are more than 3 times stronger than the conventional 5254-H112 Al alloy, while maintaining excellent H2O2 compatibility similar to class 1 5254 alloy. The alloy development strategy is to add scandium, zirconium, and other transitional metals with unique electrochemical properties, which will not act as catalysts, to decompose the highly concentrated 90 percent H2O2. Test coupons are machined from sheet metals for H2O2 long-term exposure testing and mechanical properties testing. In addition, the ability to weld the new alloys using friction stir welding has also been explored. The new high-strength alloys could represent an enabling material technology for Hyper-X vehicles, where flight weight reduction is a critical requirement.

  3. High-fluence and high-density treatment of perioral rhytides using a new, fractionated 2,790-nm ablative erbium-doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocon, David H; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel 2,790-nm erbium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser system for the treatment of facial photodamage and perioral wrinkles using a single-treatment, high-fluence, high-density protocol. Eleven female participants with Fitzpatrick skin types II to III and facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face fractional ablative treatment with a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. Follow-up visits were completed at 1, 2, and 6 weeks 3 and 6 months. Quartile improvement scale (0-4) and Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores (1-9) were used for the assessments. Based on blinded photographic assessments, the mean difference in Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores for full face wrinkles was 1.5 ± 1.2 (a reduction from 6.6 to 5.1; paired t-test, p = .003). There was also a statistically significant mean reduction of 1.7 ± 1.3 in perioral wrinkle scores (from 6.7 to 5.0; p = .002). No serious adverse events were reported. A novel, fractionated, ablative 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser can safely and effectively treat photodamage and perioral wrinkles in a single treatment using a high-fluence, high-density protocol. Cutera provided the equipment used in this study and funding to Dr. Goldberg. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  4. Impact of layer and substrate properties on the surface acoustic wave velocity in scandium doped aluminum nitride based SAW devices on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M., E-mail: manuel.gillinger@tuwien.ac.at; Knobloch, T.; Schneider, M.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shaposhnikov, K.; Kaltenbacher, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Mechatronics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-06

    This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices consisting of reactively sputter deposited scandium doped aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) thin films as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates for wireless sensor or for RF-MEMS applications. To investigate the influence of piezoelectric film thickness on the device properties, samples with thickness ranging from 500 nm up to 3000 nm are fabricated. S{sub 21} measurements and simulations demonstrate that the phase velocity is predominantly influenced by the mass density of the electrode material rather than by the thickness of the piezoelectric film. Additionally, the wave propagation direction is varied by rotating the interdigital transducer structures with respect to the crystal orientation of the substrate. The phase velocity is about 2.5% higher for a-direction compared to m-direction of the sapphire substrate, which is in excellent agreement with the difference in the anisotropic Young's modulus of the substrate corresponding to these directions.

  5. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  6. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  7. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of.... Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission...

  8. Bicarbonate secretion and chloride absorption by rabbit cortical collecting ducts. Role of chloride/bicarbonate exchange.

    OpenAIRE

    Star, R A; Burg, M. B.; Knepper, M A

    1985-01-01

    Cortical collecting ducts (CCD) from rabbits treated with deoxycorticosterone (DOC) actively secrete bicarbonate at high rates. To investigate the mechanism of bicarbonate secretion, we measured bicarbonate and chloride transport in CCD from rabbits treated with DOC for 9-24 d. Removal of chloride (replaced with gluconate) from both perfusate and bath inhibited bicarbonate secretion without changing transepithelial voltage. Removal of chloride only from the bath increased bicarbonate secretio...

  9. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  10. Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

  11. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  12. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  13. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gai-Fei; Feng, Nai-Qian; Song, Qi-Ming

    2014-04-30

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel's salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO₂(-) in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel's salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  14. High temperature alloy chloridation at 850 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, S.; Bekaddour, A. [Laboratoire de Recherches sur la Reactivite des Solides, UMR 5613 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon (France); Ched' Homme, S. [DTM/SRPU/LPPU, CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Amilain-Basset, K.; Buisson, L. [Interface Caracterisation des Materiaux, Universite de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon (France)

    2007-05-15

    The resistance of eight alloys against chloridation was tested at 850 C in Ar/Cl{sub 2} (2.5% Cl{sub 2}) for 15 min. Pre-oxidation treatments were performed for 1 h and 8 h at 850 C in order to produce a thin, adherent and protective oxide scale able to improve the chloridation behaviour of the tested materials. The chloridised sample morphologies were compared to the morphologies observed on the non pre-oxidised samples. The alloys containing a large amount of iron did not exhibit any chloridation resistance, even after pre-oxidation, and were severely damaged. The nickel based alloys gave interesting results but were also attacked by chloride, probably by the ''active oxidation'' mechanism. The duration of the pre-oxidation treatment plays an important role, since the 8 h pre-oxidation appears more beneficial than the 1 h pre-oxidation, to delay the chloridation, probably because of the best quality of the oxide layer grown during 8 h. For the nickel based materials, the effects of chloride appear less severe than for the iron-based alloys, but are not stopped. The ''active oxidation'' mechanism is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of the tested materials. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    selective electrode has been developed to analyze free chloride in the pore water extracted from cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this ... Chloride analysis in fresh or hardened concrete and its raw materials is of great .... ular mass of chloride (35.45 g mol–1), Us = chloride ISE reading of each sample, Uå ...

  16. Structure and temperature effects on Nd3+ spectra in polycrystalline mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupei, A.; Lupei, V.; Hau, S.; Gheorghe, C.; Voicu, F.

    2015-09-01

    New spectroscopic data obtained from high resolution low temperature absorption and emission spectra of Nd3+ in mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12 - (x = 0-2) translucent ceramics revealed transition dependent composition effects: modification of the shapes (Lorentz at x = 0 and 2, quasi-Gauss at x = 1, x-dependent asymmetric for other x values, with obvious multicenter structure for low x), widths and shifts of the lines. Nd3+ electronic structure dependence on structural changes with composition is analyzed in terms of nephelauxetic effect and maximum splitting of manifolds: Sc3+ co-doping reduces the nephelauxetic effect, and the increase of 4F3/2 splitting from 85 cm-1 (x = 0) to 98 cm-1 (x = 2) denotes the lowering of local symmetry. The multicenter structure and inhomogeneous broadening of Nd3+ lines is attributed to crystal field distributions determined by the random occupancy of the octahedral sites by Sc3+ and Al3+. For low x (0.2) the resolved two satellites S1, S2 that accompany Nd:YAG lines are correlated to anisotropic crystal field perturbations produced by the n.n. Sc3+ by analogy to those determined by Y3+-antisites (excess of Y3+ ions that enter in octahedral sites of the melt-grown YAG crystals). The temperature evolution of the Nd3+ spectral characteristics (line intensity, shift, broadening) in the 10-300 K range is analyzed in terms of thermal population of the Stark levels, of the effect on electron-phonon interaction and on lattice expansion. The relevance of the spectroscopic properties on the laser emission characteristics in these systems is discussed.

  17. Dissolved scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum in the surface waters of the North Atlantic: Potential use as an indicator of scavenging intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, C. P.; Shelley, R. U.; Landing, W. M.; Bruland, K. W.

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has begun to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of scandium (Sc) in the open ocean, but so far no surface distribution data have been reported of dissolved Sc, and no basin-scale surface distributions have been reported of yttrium (Y) or lanthanum (La). This work presents basin-wide surface Sc, Y, and La data in a section across the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (2011 GEOTRACES GA03) and investigates the potential utility of these distributions. This work uses dissolved and aerosol concentration data for La and Sc to estimate their surface ocean residence times in both the center of the oligotrophic gyre and near the African coastline. This work additionally shows that the surface distribution of Sc in the North Atlantic correlates with the shape of the gyre as inferred by isotherm depth, with lower Sc concentrations at the gyre boundaries. This pattern suggests that Sc could be drawn down by the elevated particle flux at the gyre boundaries. In this case, Sc removal could be used as an indicator of scavenging intensity. In order to account for variable input of Sc to the surface ocean, we propose normalizing the Sc distribution to that of Y or La, which are much less particle reactive and are input via dust to the surface North Atlantic in constant ratios with Sc. Such normalization improves the correlation with isotherm depth. We propose that the variations in dissolved Y/Sc and La/Sc ratios may be due to preferential Sc scavenging and could therefore indicate scavenging intensity.

  18. On new ternary equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminum compounds ScTAl with T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzieowski, Mathis; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Benndorf, Christopher [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Haverkamp, Sandra [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    The new equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminides ScTAl for T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au were obtained by arc-melting of the elements followed by subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The samples were studied by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of three compounds were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: ScCrAl, MgZn{sub 2} type, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a = 525.77(3), c = 858.68(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0188, wR{sub 2} = 0.0485, 204 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables, ScPtAl, TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 642.83(4), b = 428.96(2), c = 754.54(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0326, wR{sub 2} = 0.0458, 448 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables and ScAuAl, HfRhSn type, P anti 62c, a = 722.88(4), c = 724.15(4) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0316, wR{sub 2} = 0.0653, 512 F{sup 2} values, 18 variables. Phase pure samples of all compounds were furthermore investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements, and Pauli-paramagnetism but no superconductivity was observed down to 2.1 K for all of them. The local structural features and disordering phenomena have been characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc magic angle spinning (MAS) and static NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  19. Treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis with a 2790-nm erbium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kui Young; Oh, In Young; Moon, Nam Ju; Seo, Seong Jun

    2013-04-01

    Although many Asian atopic patients have orbital darkening symptom and the demand to treat this condition is increasing, little has been reported in the literature on the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 2790-nm erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser therapy for reducing infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients. Ten Korean patients over 21 year with mild atopic dermatitis and infraorbital dark circles were enrolled in this study. Patients who need active atopic dermatitis treatments are excluded because of the possibility of aggravation after laser treatment. They were treated for dark circles using a 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser. The treatment parameters were 1.8-2.2 J/cm² fluence, 6-mm spot size, and 0.3-ms pulse width with 10% overlap over the infraorbital areas once with a 4-week interval between treatments. Efficacy was assessed with a quartile grading score ranging from 0 to 5 by a blinded investigator, and the patients also documented their degree of satisfaction with the same grading score. All possible side effects were evaluated. The clinical assessment showed 74.5% (2.7) and 72.5% (2.5) improvements, and the patient satisfaction scale scores improved an average of 74% (2.4) and 71.5% (2.3) at 2 months and 4 months after treatment, respectively. There were no severe side effects or aggravation of atopic dermatitis. Our study suggests that 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser therapy can be effectively and safely used in the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients.

  20. The influence of cation ordering, oxygen vacancy distribution and proton siting on observed properties in ceramic electrolytes: the case of scandium substituted barium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, Nico; Henry, Paul F; Knee, Christopher S; Bjørheim, Tor Svendsen; Rahman, Seikh M H; Suard, Emma; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Eriksson, Sten G

    2017-07-04

    The origin of the 2-order of magnitude difference in the proton conductivity of the hydrated forms of hexagonal and cubic oxygen deficient BaScxTi1-xO3-δ (x = 0.2 and x = 0.7) was probed using a combination of neutron diffraction and density functional theory techniques to support published X-ray diffraction, conductivity, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Cation ordering is found in the 6H structure type (space group P63/mmc) adopted by BaSc0.2Ti0.8O3-δ with scandium preferentially substituting in the vertex sharing octahedra (2a crystallographic site) and avoiding the face-sharing octahedra (4f site). This is coupled with oxygen vacancy ordering in the central plane of the face-sharing octahedra (O1 site). In BaSc0.7Ti0.3O3-δ a simple cubic perovskite (space group Pm3[combining macron]m) best represents the average structure from Rietveld analysis with no evidence of either cation ordering or oxygen vacancy ordering. Significant diffuse scattering is observed, indicative of local order. Hydration in both cases leads to complete filling of the available oxygen vacancies and permits definition of the proton sites. We suggest that the more localised nature of the proton sites in the 6H structure is responsible for the significantly lower proton conduction observed in the literature. Within the 6H structure type final model, proton diffusion requires a 3-step process via higher energy proton sites that are unoccupied at room temperature and is also likely to be anisotropic whereas the highly disordered cubic perovskite proton position allows 3-dimensional diffusion by well-described modes. Finally, we propose how this knowledge can be used to further materials design for ceramic electrolytes for proton conducting fuel cells.

  1. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  2. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  3. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  4. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K.; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding. PMID:23641004

  5. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  6. An automatic molecular dispenser of chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Amendola, Valeria; Bergamaschi, Greta; Dollenz, Riccardo; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lo Vecchio, Carmelo

    2013-03-11

    The combined activity of the 1.1.1-cryptand and of a dicopper(II) bistren cryptate complex including chloride makes the Cl(-) ion be continuously and slowly delivered to the solution, without any external intervention. The 1.1.1-cryptand slowly releases OH(-) ions, according to a defined kinetics, and each OH(-) ion displaces a Cl(-) ion from the cryptate. Chloride displacement induces a sharp colour change from bright yellow to aquamarine and can be conveniently monitored spectrophotometrically, even in diluted solutions. The 1.1.1-cryptand is the motor of a molecular dispenser (the dicopper(II) cryptate) delivering chloride ion automatically, from the inside of the solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni......J/mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.......An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...

  8. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammitzbóll, Andreas L; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J

    2013-04-28

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 kJ∕mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.

  9. Reaction between coal and ferric chloride (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkanyan, R.O.; Khripunov, S.V.; Baranov, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    Investigates absorption of ferric chloride (III) with free and filled (hexahydrate) coordination spheres, and antimony chloride (V) by various rank coal (brown coal to anthracite). Determines magnitude of specific absorption due to dynamic pore formation. Confirms polyassociative structure of coal with donor-acceptor characteristics and its similarity with polyassociative frame matrix in clathrate forming compounds. Gives specifications of coal used and provides data on specific absorption, diffractograms and paramagnetic characteristics of coal and adduct, and others. States that coal exhibits properties of intermolecular donor-acceptor complex with charge transfer and with comparatively unstable bonds which determine their paramagnetism and high specific absorption. 9 refs.

  10. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  11. Effects of erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet and diode lasers on the surfaces of restorative dental materials: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, M; Barutcigil, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of laser irradiation, which is commonly performed in periodontal surgery, on the surfaces of restorative materials. Five different restorative dental materials were used in this study, as follows: (1) Resin composite, (2) poly acid-modified resin composite (compomer), (3) conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), (4) resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and (5) amalgam. Four cylindrical samples (8 mm diameter, 2 mm height) were prepared for each restorative material. In addition, four freshly extracted, sound human incisors teeth were selected. Two different laser systems commonly used in periodontal surgery were examined in this study: A 810 nm diode laser at a setting of 1 W with continuous-phase laser irradiation for 10 s, and an erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser at settings of 2.5 W, 3.25 W, and 4 W with 25 Hz laser irradiation for 10 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to evaluate the morphology and surface deformation of the restorative materials and tooth surfaces. According to the SEM images, the Er, Cr: YSGG laser causes irradiation markings that appear as demineralized surfaces on tooth samples. The Er, Cr: YSGG laser also caused deep defects on composite, compomer, and RMGIC surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High-magnification SEM images of GIC samples showed the melting and combustion effects of the Er, Cr: YSGG laser, which increased as the laser power was increased. In amalgam samples, neither laser left significant harmful effects at the lowest power setting. The diode laser did cause irradiation markings, but they were insignificant compared with those left by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser on the surfaces of the different materials and teeth. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation could cause distortions of the surfaces

  12. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  13. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  14. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  15. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline...

  16. Detection of chloride ion concentration using chronopotentiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions using chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with respect to another identical Ag/AgCl electrode in the bulk electrolyte.

  17. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we have reported a modified method for preparation and transformation of competent cells. This modified method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride and competent bacteria solution, rotation speed in centrifugation and centrifugation time.

  18. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  19. Electrical conduction mechanism of polyvinyl chloride (PVC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The electrical conduction mechanism in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)– polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend film has been studied at various temperatures in the range 313 K to 353 K. The results are presented in the form of I–V characteristics. Analysis has been made in the light of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, ...

  20. Influence of nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty six weaner wistar rats were used to study the effect of protein nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride prophylaxis. Two groups of rats A and B (n = 18 per group) were maintained on 21% and 14.5% crude protein diet respectively for the twenty eight days. Thereafter, group A was sub-divided into groups A1, ...

  1. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy...

  2. Sodium chloride damage to porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    This research studied sodium chloride (NaCl) damage to porous building materials with the aim of: i) gaining a better understanding of the damage process and ii) developing an effective crystallization test. It has been definitely proven that NaCl modifies the hygric dilation of a material

  3. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  4. 1-Allyl-2,3-cyclopentenopyridinium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Partl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H14N+·Cl−, was obtained by reaction of 2,3-cyclopentenopyridine and allyl chloride. A network of weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds is observed in the crystal structure.

  5. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  6. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  7. Comparative Effects of Chloride Channel Inhibitors on LRRC8/VRAC-Mediated Chloride Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friard, Jonas; Tauc, Michel; Cougnon, Marc; Compan, Vincent; Duranton, Christophe; Rubera, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Chloride channels play an essential role in a variety of physiological functions and in human diseases. Historically, the field of chloride channels has long been neglected owing to the lack of powerful selective pharmacological agents that are needed to overcome the technical challenge of characterizing the molecular identities of these channels. Recently, members of the LRRC8 family have been shown to be essential for generating the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) current, a chloride conductance that governs the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process. The inhibitory effects of six commonly used chloride channel inhibitors on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride transport were tested in wild-type HEK-293 cells expressing LRRC8 proteins and devoid of other types of chloride channels (CFTR and ANO1/2). We explored the effectiveness of the inhibitors using the patch-clamp whole-cell approach and fluorescence-based quantification of cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. Both DCPIB and NFA inhibited VRAC current in a whole-cell configuration, with IC50 values of 5 ± 1 μM and 55 ± 2 μM, respectively. Surprisingly, GlyH-101 and PPQ-102, two CFTR inhibitors, also inhibited VRAC conductance at concentrations in the range of their current use, with IC50 values of 10 ± 1 μM and 20 ± 1 μM, respectively. T16Ainh-A01, a so-called specific inhibitor of calcium-activated Cl- conductance, blocked the chloride current triggered by hypo-osmotic challenge, with an IC50 of 6 ± 1 μM. Moreover, RVD following hypotonic challenge was dramatically reduced by these inhibitors. CFTRinh-172 was the only inhibitor that had almost no effect on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance. All inhibitors tested except CFTRinh-172 inhibited VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance and cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. These results shed light on the apparent lack of chloride channel inhibitors specificity and raise the question of how these inhibitors

  8. Comparative Effects of Chloride Channel Inhibitors on LRRC8/VRAC-Mediated Chloride Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Friard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride channels play an essential role in a variety of physiological functions and in human diseases. Historically, the field of chloride channels has long been neglected owing to the lack of powerful selective pharmacological agents that are needed to overcome the technical challenge of characterizing the molecular identities of these channels. Recently, members of the LRRC8 family have been shown to be essential for generating the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC current, a chloride conductance that governs the regulatory volume decrease (RVD process. The inhibitory effects of six commonly used chloride channel inhibitors on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride transport were tested in wild-type HEK-293 cells expressing LRRC8 proteins and devoid of other types of chloride channels (CFTR and ANO1/2. We explored the effectiveness of the inhibitors using the patch-clamp whole-cell approach and fluorescence-based quantification of cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. Both DCPIB and NFA inhibited VRAC current in a whole-cell configuration, with IC50 values of 5 ± 1 μM and 55 ± 2 μM, respectively. Surprisingly, GlyH-101 and PPQ-102, two CFTR inhibitors, also inhibited VRAC conductance at concentrations in the range of their current use, with IC50 values of 10 ± 1 μM and 20 ± 1 μM, respectively. T16Ainh-A01, a so-called specific inhibitor of calcium-activated Cl- conductance, blocked the chloride current triggered by hypo-osmotic challenge, with an IC50 of 6 ± 1 μM. Moreover, RVD following hypotonic challenge was dramatically reduced by these inhibitors. CFTRinh-172 was the only inhibitor that had almost no effect on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance. All inhibitors tested except CFTRinh-172 inhibited VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance and cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. These results shed light on the apparent lack of chloride channel inhibitors specificity and raise the question of how these

  9. Pathology of angiosarcoma of the liver among vinyl chloride-polyvinyl chloride workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L B; Popper, H

    1975-01-31

    We described the histologic features of 13 hepatic angiosarcomas which developed in workers engaged in the polymerization of vinyl chloride to polyvinyl chloride. Although the histologic features varied considerably in different portions of the angiosarcoma in the same liver and in the angiosarcomas of the liver from different patients, many features were similar such as sinusoidal, papillary, and cavernous growth patterns coincident with the precursor lesions of proliferation and atypia of sinusoidal lining cells.

  10. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    OpenAIRE

    van Gils, C.; M.-C. Eckhardt; Nielsen, P E; Nybo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl?/HCO3 ? exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90?mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves whe...

  11. Effect of Cyclic Carbonation on Chloride Ingression in GGBS Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Jonathon; McPolin, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Carbonation and chloride ingress are the two main causes of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. An investigation to monitor the ingress of chlorides and the effect of carbonation on chloride ingression during an accelerated 12 month cyclic wetting and drying exposure regime that simulates conditions in which multiple mode transport mechanisms are active was conducted on ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) concrete. The penetration of chloride and carbon dioxide was evaluated ...

  12. Concrete with Improved Chloride Binding and Chloride Resistivity by Blended Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Kopecskó

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Durability and service life of concrete structures can be endangered by chloride ions. Two phenomena help to keep control of chloride effects. On one hand cements are able to bind chloride ions by their aluminate clinker phases or by the clinker substituting materials. On the other hand resistivity of concrete against chloride penetration can be improved by careful selection of concrete constituents and production. Detailed results of two series of extensive experimental studies are presented herein. Chloride ion binding capacity of tested cements in decreasing sequence was the following: (1 CEM III/B 32,5 N-S; (2 CEM III/A 32,5 N; (3 CEM II/B 32,5 R; (4 CEM II/B-M (V-L 32,5 R; (5 CEM I 42,5 N. Test results indicated that the increasing substitution of clinkers by GGBS improves the chloride resistivity in concrete made with the same water to cement ratio. The application of air entraining agent increases considerably the values of Dnssm. Based on the migration coefficients (Dnssm the following sequence of efficiency was found (from the best: CEM III/B 32,5 N > CEM V/A (S-V 32,5 N > CEM III/A 32,5 N > CEM II/B-S 42,5 R > CEM II/A-S 42,5 N > CEM I 42,5 N.

  13. 21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers. 177.1980... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1980 Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  14. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Corrosion of rebar in concrete is commonly associated with, and to a large degree influenced by, the free chloride concentration in the pore water. The amount of chloride in concrete is important because chloride can promote corrosion of steel reinforcement when moisture and oxygen are present. A potentiometric ...

  15. Accelerated testing for chloride threshold of reinforcing steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Put, M. van; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing for the chloride threshold (also called critical chloride content) for corrosion initiation of steel in concrete has been found difficult and, at best, time consuming. Nevertheless, the chloride threshold is an important parameter in service life design of new structures and for evaluation

  16. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  17. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid must comply with the following special requirements: (a) The tank car must comply with...

  18. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Umar Khan; Shamsad Ahmad; Husain Jubran Al-Gahtani

    2017-01-01

    .... However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride binding by the cement, multidirectional ingress of chloride, and variation of [subscript] D c [/subscript...

  19. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Umar Khan; Shamsad Ahmad; Husain Jubran Al-Gahtani

    2017-01-01

    Initiation of corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete (RC) structures subjected to chloride exposures mainly depends on coefficient of chloride diffusion, Dc, of concrete. Therefore, Dc is one of the key parameters needed for prediction of initiation of reinforcement corrosion. Fick’s second law of diffusion has been used for long time to derive the models for chloride diffusion in concrete. However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride bind...

  20. Conformational changes in gastric mucoproteins induced by caesium chloride and guanidinium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snary, David; Allen, Adrian; Pain, Roger H.

    1974-01-01

    1. Caesium chloride and guanidinium chloride were shown to cause conformational changes in the high-molecular-weight mucoprotein A of water-soluble gastric mucus with no change in molecular weight. 2. Increasing concentrations of CsCl decrease the viscosity of the mucoprotein bringing about a transition which is essentially complete in 0.1m-CsCl. The shear-dependence of viscosity of the mucoprotein is abolished by low concentrations of CsCl. The normally highly expanded molecule becomes contracted in CsCl to a molecule having the same symmetry but a smaller volume and decreased solvation, in keeping with an increased sedimentation coefficient (18.7S→33S). 3. This contracted form does not revert to the native conformation on removal of the CsCl. 4. A mechanism is discussed in terms of the effect of the Cs+ and Cl−ions on water structure and the water–mucoprotein interaction. 5. Guanidinium chloride causes the CsCl-treated material to expand, in keeping with a decrease in s025,w (33S→26S). This is analogous to the known unfolding effect of guanidinium chloride on proteins and suggests that guanidinium chloride solubilizes groups involved in stabilizing the contracted structure. Removal of the guanidinium chloride results in a limited aggregation of four mucoprotein molecules. 6. These results show that caution must be exercised before interpreting the physical properties of mucoproteins which have been treated with CsCl and/or guanidinium chloride. PMID:4463954

  1. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... mixtures are tested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures. Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP water absorption in fresh concrete and without extra water, the internal curing water held by SAP may...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient...

  2. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  3. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new pyridinium and benzimidazolium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Rogoza, J; Mirska, I

    2001-04-01

    A novel class of pyridinium and benzimidazolium chloride has been obtained in high yield. The antimicrobial activities of three homologous series of pyridinium and benzimidazolium chlorides against cocci, rods, fungi and bacillus have been measured. The antimicrobial activities of N,N'-bis[3-(1-alkoxymethyl)pyridinium chloride]methylenediamines, 1-undecyloxymethyl-3-(1-benzimidazolmethylamino)pyridinium, 1-undecyloxymethyl- and 1-dodecyloxymethyl-3-[1(benzotriazol-1-yl)methylamino]pyridinium chlorides exhibited strong activity and wide antibacterial spectra similar to the activity of benzalkonium chloride.

  4. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  5. Pharmacological actions of pure muscarine chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, P. J.

    1957-01-01

    The action of chromatographically pure crystalline muscarine chloride, prepared from Amanita muscaria, has been compared with acetylcholine chloride (ACh) on a number of different organs from a variety of species. Muscarine caused spasm in vivo and in vitro of muscles of the gut, uterus, urinary bladder, and bronchus. It also caused contraction of the horse ureter and carotid artery chain in vitro and slowed the isolated auricles of the guinea-pig and rabbit, and the frog heart. Muscarine caused a drop in blood pressure, although in vitro it produced either constriction or dilatation of the blood vessels of the rabbit ear. All these actions resembled those of acetylcholine, though muscarine was usually more potent. Muscarine effects were readily prevented by atropine sulphate. It had a slight action on the frog rectus abdominis muscle, causing a contracture at high concentrations. Muscarine was destroyed neither by pepsin nor by boiling at any pH. It was inactive by mouth in a monkey in a quantity many times that which would cause poisoning by ingestion of Amanita muscaria in the human being. Muscarine neither inhibited nor was hydrolysed by either true- or pseudo-cholinesterase. Muscarine chloride did not cause paralysis of the neuromuscular junctions of the rat diaphragm or of the cat gastrocnemius. PMID:13413151

  6. Influence of c-axis orientation and scandium concentration on infrared active modes of magnetron sputtered Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrhofer, P. M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Eisenmenger-Sittner, C. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Euchner, H. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-16

    Doping of wurtzite aluminium nitride (AlN) with scandium (Sc) significantly enhances the piezoelectric properties of AlN. Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films with different Sc concentrations (x = 0 to 0.15) were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Infrared (IR) absorbance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the Sc concentration dependent shift of the IR active modes E{sub 1}(TO) and A{sub 1}(TO). These results are compared to ab initio simulations, being in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. In addition, IR spectroscopy is established as an economical and fast method to distinguish between thin films with a high degree of c-axis orientation and those exhibiting mixed orientations.

  7. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  8. Stability study of carboplatin infusion solutions in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yang-Ping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Trinh, Van A; Tran, Huyentran; Smith, Judith A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-containing compound with efficacy against various malignancies. The physico-chemical stability of carboplatin in dextrose 5% water (D5W) has been thoroughly studied; however, there is a paucity of stability data in clinically relevant 0.9% sodium chloride infusion solutions. The manufacturer's limited stability data in sodium chloride solutions hampers the flexibility of carboplatin usage in oncology patients. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the physical and chemical stability of carboplatin-sodium chloride intravenous solutions under different storage conditions. The physico-chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL carboplatin-sodium chloride solutions prepared in polyvinyl chloride bags was determined following storage at room temperature under ambient fluorescent light and under refrigeration in the dark. Concentrations of carboplatin were measured at predetermined time points up to seven days using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. All tested solutions were found physically stable for at least seven days. The greatest chemical stability was observed under refrigerated storage conditions. At 4℃, all tested solutions were found chemically stable for at least seven days, with nominal losses of ≤6%. Following storage at room temperature exposed to normal fluorescent light, the chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL solutions was three days, five days, and seven days, respectively. The extended physico-chemical stability of carboplatin prepared in sodium chloride reported herein permits advance preparation of these admixtures, facilitating pharmacy utility and operations. Since no antibacterial preservative is contained within these carboplatin solutions, we recommend storage, when prepared under specified aseptic conditions, no greater than 24 h at room temperature or three days under refrigeration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Twenty years of fluorescence imaging of intracellular Chloride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eArosio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chloride homeostasis has a pivotal role in controlling neuronal excitability in the adult brain and during development. The intracellular concentration of chloride is regulated by the dynamic equilibrium between passive fluxes through membrane conductances and the active transport mediated by importers and exporters. In cortical neurons, chloride fluxes are coupled to network activity by the opening of the ionotropic GABAA receptors that provides a direct link between the activity of interneurons and chloride fluxes. These molecular mechanisms are not evenly distributed and regulated over the neuron surface and this fact can lead to a compartmentalized control of the intracellular concentration of chloride. The inhibitory drive provided by the activity of the GABAA receptors depends on the direction and strength of the associated currents, which are ultimately dictated by the gradient of chloride, the main charge carrier flowing through the GABAA channel. Thus, the intracellular distribution of chloride determines the local strength of ionotropic inhibition and influences the interaction between converging excitation and inhibition. The importance of chloride regulation is also underlined by its involvement in several brain pathologies, including epilepsy and disorders of the autistic spectra.The full comprehension of the physiological meaning of GABAergic activity on neurons requires the measure of the spatiotemporal dynamics of chloride fluxes across the membrane. Nowadays, there are several available tools for the task, and both synthetic and genetically encoded indicators have been successfully used for chloride imaging. Here, we will review the available sensors analyzing their properties and outlining desirable future developments.

  10. Lubiprostone: chloride channel activator for chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Anastasia; Chagan, Larisa

    2006-12-01

    Chronic constipation is a common and costly health problem occurring in approximately 4.5 million Americans. Current management of constipation is suboptimal and requires a stepwise approach using a combination of laxatives to decrease symptoms. The objective of this review was to describe the efficacy and safety of a new therapeutic entity, lubiprostone, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were conducted (1966-July 10, 2006). Search terms utilized were lubiprostone, RU-0211, and chronic constipation. References of selected articles were searched for additional articles or abstracts. All relevant published literature regarding lubiprostone was included in this review. Pertinent abstracts presented at meetings of the American College of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases Week were also included. Lubiprostone activates a chloride channel (ie, subtype 2) and increases chloride and fluid secretion into the intestines, resulting in relief of constipation. It is poorly absorbed after oral administration, and its metabolism occurs primarily in the stomach and jejunum. Lubiprostone was evaluated in 6 placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized Phase II or III clinical trials. Overall, in clinical trials, >1400 patients were exposed to 24 mug of lubiprostone BID for up to 48 weeks. It improved the number of bowel movements, stool consistency, bloating, and global assessment of constipation compared with placebo (P lubiprostone was given with food. Lubiprostone is the first in its class of chloride channel activators that results in improvement of symptoms of constipation. It has not been compared with other laxatives but, based on the available placebo-controlled studies, its efficacy is superior to placebo and its safety is acceptable. Considering the currently available laxatives, lubiprostone will become an

  11. Interaction between vanadyl chloride solutions and aerosil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skopenko, V.V.; Golub, A.A. (Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1980-08-01

    Interaction of aqueous and methanol solutions of vanadyl chloride with aerosil in the presence of bases is studied. The complexes prepared are studied using the methods of electron-reflective, ESR- and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that in aqueous solutions the exchange of hydrogen ions of aerosil surface proceeds in a greater degree than in methanol. ''Highly acid'' protons are most easily substituted and their concentration equals 0.05 mgxion/g SiO/sub 2/. On the basis of electron spectra a supposition is made on distorted-octahedral surrounding of vanadium (4) ions on aerosil surface.

  12. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  13. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg....../m(3) rapid-hardening Portland cement, w/c = 0.5, maturity minimum 6 months) stored at 65% and 85% RH, as well as in vacuum-saturated mortar samples, illustrate the applicability of the method. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  14. N-(2-Benzoylethylpropan-2-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C12H18NO+·Cl−, N—H...Cl interactions between the free chloride anions and the organic cations connect the molecules into hydrogen-bond dimers, forming a R22(8 motif. The dimers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [301]. The carbonyl group is co-planar with the phenyl ring [C—C—C=O torsion angle = −3.3 (7°]. The side chain has an E conformation.

  15. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete (RC structures subjected to chloride exposures mainly depends on coefficient of chloride diffusion, Dc, of concrete. Therefore, Dc is one of the key parameters needed for prediction of initiation of reinforcement corrosion. Fick’s second law of diffusion has been used for long time to derive the models for chloride diffusion in concrete. However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride binding by the cement, multidirectional ingress of chloride, and variation of Dc with time due to change in the microstructure of concrete during early period of cement hydration. In this paper, a review is presented on the development of chloride diffusion models by incorporating the effects of the key factors into basic Fick’s second law of diffusion. Determination of corrosion initiation time using chloride diffusion models is also explained. The information presented in this paper would be useful for accurate prediction of corrosion initiation time of RC structures subjected to chloride exposure, considering the effects of chloride binding, effect of time and space on Dc, and interaction effect of multidirectional chloride ingress.

  16. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes

    2005-01-01

    , there is increasing focus on the need for modeling the ingress of chloride into cracked concrete. Present models quantify chloride ingress in static cracks only, although several structural applications display dynamic loading conditions in an environment containing chlorides, e.g. marine structures and car parks....... Preliminary investigations have been undertaken to quantify the effect of dynamic load application on the chloride ingress into concrete cracks. Specimens were designed allowing ingress of a chloride solution into a single crack of a saturated unreinforced mortar beam. One set of specimens was subjected...... to a load frequency of ten applications per minute and a second set to one application per hour simulating static cracks, however limiting the ingress hampering effects of autogenous healing and a possible dense precipitation on the crack faces. The averaged chloride exposure interval of the crack faces...

  17. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel....... The results show that K+-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole is highly sensitive to chloride, whereas neurotransmitter release and ensuing contraction is not dependent on chloride. Thus, there are different activation pathways for depolarizing vasoconstrictors...

  18. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  19. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    OpenAIRE

    Elrefae, Fawaz; Elhassanien, Ahmed Farag; Alghiaty, Hesham Abdel-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon) with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spo...

  20. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  1. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  2. Purification of Food-grade Magnesium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Lianmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the varying weights of bischofite dissolved in the distilled water was investigated. The effects of the temperature on the rate of evaporation and the thermal precipitation time on the purity of the crystal products were fully investigated. Two validation tests including magnifying tests and recycling residue were also studied. Our results demonstrate that the contents of NaCl, KCl and CaSO4in the filtrate reached a minimum value after the pretreatment of 350 g bischofite dissolved in 100 mldistilled water. In the crystal products from the second evaporating stage of the validation tests, the contents of MgCl2·6H2O, SO4 and NaCl+KCl are 99%, ≤0.1±0.01%and ≤0.8±0.04%, respectively. The content of magnesium chloride in the solution was increased to a greater extent, and the impurities reduced correspondingly through thedissolution pretreatments of bischofite. This could decrease energy consumption for the impurity removing stage, evaporation and crystallization process, and thus reduce costs for the industrial production of food-grade magnesium chloride

  3. The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

  4. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution is...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....... is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...

  5. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions are immersed in NaCl solution with a mass concentration of 5%, to simulate the shallow immersion condition in sea water, and the surface chloride concentrations are measured at different ages. It is found that the surface chloride concentration increases following the increasing immersion durations, and varies from a weight percentage of 0.161%–0.781% in concretes with different mix proportions. The w/c (water-to-cement ratio influences the surface chloride concentration significantly, and the higher the w/c is, the higher the surface chloride concentration will be, at the same age. However, following the prolonging of immersion duration, the difference in surface chloride concentration induced by w/c becomes smaller and smaller. The incorporation of fly ash leads to higher surface chloride concentration. The phenomena are explained based on pore structure analyses.

  6. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  7. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  9. Two scandium-biuret complexes: [Sc(C2H5N3O2)(H2O)5]Cl3 x H2O and [Sc(C2H5N3O2)4](NO3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T A

    2008-05-01

    The scandium(III) cations in the structures of pentaaqua(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trichloride monohydrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(H(2)O)(5)]Cl(3) x H(2)O, (I), and tetrakis(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trinitrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(4)](NO(3))(3), (II), are found to adopt very different coordinations with the same biuret ligand. The roles of hydrogen bonding and the counter-ion in the establishment of the structures are described. In (I), the Sc(3+) cation adopts a fairly regular pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometry arising from one O,O'-bidentate biuret molecule and five water molecules. A dense network of N-H...Cl, O-H...O and O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, resulting in dimeric associations of two cations and two water molecules. In (II), the Sc(3+) cation (site symmetry 2) adopts a slightly squashed square-antiprismatic geometry arising from four O,O'-bidentate biuret molecules. A network of N-H...O hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, which features [010] chains of cations. One of the nitrate ions is disordered about an inversion centre. Both structures form three-dimensional hydrogen-bond networks.

  10. Acid Chlorides as Formal Carbon Dianion Linchpin Reagents in the Aluminum Chloride-Mediated Dieckmann Cyclization of Dicarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaly, Ahlam M; Bar, Sukanta; Schindler, Corinna S

    2017-08-04

    The development of acid chlorides as formal dianion linchpin reagents that enable access to cyclic 2-alkyl- and 2-acyl-1,3-alkanediones from dicarboxylic acids is described herein. Mechanistic experiments relying on (13)C-labeling studies confirm the role of acid chlorides as carbon dianion linchpin reagents and have led to a revised reaction mechanism for the aluminum(III)-mediated Dieckmann cyclization of dicarboxylic acids with acid chlorides.

  11. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...... DDC increased cadmium-induced acute mortality and testicular necrosis, and it enhanced cadmium-induced reduction of intestinal motility and increased the whole-body retention of cadmium, indicating increased intestinal cadmium absorption. Also, DDC changed the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium...

  12. 33 Effects of Sodium Chloride Solutions on Compressive Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Keywords: Sodium chloride, concrete, compressive strength. Introduction. Sodium chloride or rock salt could be used as a deicing agent to melt ice at temperatures below 20oF; it has a characteristic sharp taste and is readily soluble in water. (encyclopedia.com, 2010). It has been known to be relatively benign on concrete.

  13. Biological denitrification of fertiliser wastewater at high chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater from the fertiliser industry is characterised by high chloride concentration, normally varying between 60 and 76 g/ℓ. Experiments with biological denitrification were performed in laboratory-scale \\'fill and draw\\' reactors with synthetic fertiliser wastewater, with chloride concentrations up to 96.7 g Cl/ℓ at 37oC; the ...

  14. Biological denitrification of fertiliser wastewater at high chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... Wastewater from the fertiliser industry is characterised by high chloride concentration, normally varying between 60 and 76 g/ l. Experiments with biological denitrification were performed in laboratory-scale 'fill and draw' reactors with synthetic fertiliser wastewater, with chloride concentrations up to 96.7 g ...

  15. System reliability of concrete structures subjected to chloride ingress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leira, B.J.; Thöns, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    are obtained based on measurements from the Gimsøystraumen bridge in Norway. These probability distributions are subsequently employed as input to a prediction model for chloride concentration at the steel reinforcement for a single but arbitrary position along the reinforcement. In order to address chloride...

  16. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin ... methanol/methylene chloride (1:1) for 7 days. (with occasional stirring) at room temperature. ..... muscle and promote hepatic production of glucose22,23, whereas reduction of plasma.

  17. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cupronickels offer enhanced corrosion protection in marine environments by the formation of passive films on the surface. Cyclic voltammetric studies were carried on cupronickels in chloride solutions at H 6.3 to understand the role of chloride ions in passive film formation. Increase in nickel content of the alloy and of ...

  18. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new 1-benzylbenzimidazolium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Arndt, A; Brycki, B

    1997-08-01

    1-Benzylbenzimidazole reacts with chloromethylalkyl ethers or sulfides or chloromethylcycloalkyl ethers to produce 3-alkoxymethyl-1-benzylbenzimidazolium or 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-benzylbenzimidazolium or 1-benzyl-3-cycloalkoxymethylbenzimidazolium chlorides in very good yields. All the 1-benzylbenimidazolium chlorides showed antimicrobial activity. The relationship between chemical structure and antimicrobial activity was analyzed by quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR).

  19. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brycki, B; Skrzypczak, A; Mirska, I; Pernak, J

    1996-06-01

    Decyldimethylamine reacts readily with chloromethylalkyl ethers of sulfides, chloromethylbenzyl ethers or sulfides and chloromethylcycloalkyl ethers to give quaternary ammonium chlorides in very good yields. All the chlorides studied showed antimicrobial activity. The relationship between the chemical structure and antimicrobial activity was analyzed by rough sets.

  20. determination of serum chloride ion concentration in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusif

    Increased level of chloride indicates dehydration but can occur with other problems causing high blood sodium or hyperventilated. (Anderson and Scotti, 1980). Decreased levels of serum chloride also occur with disorders that result in low blood sodium, prolonged vomiting or gastric sunction, chronic diarrhea, with loss of ...

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šavija, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is recognized as the most common deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete structures. As such, it has been in focus of research for more than thirty years. Numerous studies of chloride ingress, corrosion initiation, and corrosion

  2. In-situ measurement of chloride ion concentration in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar

    2015-01-01

    Chloride ions are one of the major contributors to degradation of reinforcement-concrete. The presence of these ions initiate pitting corrosion in the reinforcement steel and ultimately results in the failure of the construction. Thus, the chloride ion concentration inside concrete is a crucial

  3. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-75 - Ferric chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferric chloride solution. 151.50-75 Section 151.50-75... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-75 Ferric chloride solution... solution must be lined with rubber, corrosion resistant plastic, or a material approved by the Commandant...

  5. Lattice dynamical calculations for bcc caesium chloride | Taura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, the obtained results agree reasonably well with the experimental data of the bcc Caesium Chloride. Keywords: Bcc caesium chloride; Lattice dynamics; Phonon dispersion; Density of state; Specific heat. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 20 (March, 2012), pp 261 – 266 ...

  6. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  7. Genetically encoded optical sensors for monitoring of intracellular chloride and chloride-selective channel activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bregestovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review briefly discusses the main approaches for monitoring chloride (Cl−, the most abundant physiological anion. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular Cl− ([Cl−]i is a challenging task owing to two main difficulties: (i the low transmembrane ratio for Cl−, approximately 10:1; and (ii the small driving force for Cl−, as the Cl− reversal potential (ECl is usually close to the resting potential of the cells. Thus, for reliable monitoring of intracellular Cl−, one has to use highly sensitive probes. From several methods for intracellular Cl− analysis, genetically encoded chloride indicators represent the most promising tools. Recent achievements in the development of genetically encoded chloride probes are based on the fact that yellow fluorescent protein (YFP exhibits Cl−-sensitivity. YFP-based probes have been successfully used for quantitative analysis of Cl− transport in different cells and for high-throughput screening of modulators of Cl−-selective channels. Development of a ratiometric genetically encoded probe, Clomeleon, has provided a tool for noninvasive estimation of intracellular Cl− concentrations. While the sensitivity of this protein to Cl− is low (EC50 about 160 mM, it has been successfully used for monitoring intracellular Cl− in different cell types. Recently a CFP–YFP-based probe with a relatively high sensitivity to Cl− (EC50 about 30 mM has been developed. This construct, termed Cl-Sensor, allows ratiometric monitoring using the fluorescence excitation ratio. Of particular interest are genetically encoded probes for monitoring of ion channel distribution and activity. A new molecular probe has been constructed by introducing into the cytoplasmic domain of the Cl−-selective glycine receptor (GlyR channel the CFP–YFP-based Cl-Sensor. This construct, termed BioSensor-GlyR, has been successfully expressed in cell lines. The new genetically encoded chloride probes offer means of screening

  8. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-01-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  9. Levels of CEA among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.A. (City Univ. of New York, NY); Snyder, J.; Lewinson, T.; Woo, C.; Lilis, R.; Selikoff, I.J

    1978-09-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride exposed workers were found to have an increased risk of malignant disease (hemangiosarcoma of the liver). We have examined 1,147 workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in three VC/PVC polymerization plants, and 269 workers from a PVC extrusion plant manufacturing PVC textile leather, exposed to much lower concentrations of vinyl chloride. Included among the comprehensive clinical and laboratory studies conducted was the CEA titer. We obtained, respectively, 1,115 and 248 CEA titers. Multiple factors were demonstrated which affected the distribution of CEA titers. Cigarette use had the greatest effect, followed by history of specific past illnesses and alcohol intake history. After removing these possible confounding effects, the distribution of CEA titers among the polymerization workers was significantly different from the extrusion plant group and from an unexposed comparison group. Of the six job categories analyzed, only production and maintenance workers had CEA titer distributions significantly different from the comparison group and the extrusion workers. The investigation demonstrates that occupational exposures in VC/PVC polymerization plants can cause elevations in the CEA titers of otherwise healthy individuals. Prospective follow-up is necessary before conclusions can be drawn concerning the usefulness of the CEA titer as a predictive indicator of possible increased risk.

  10. Microstructure-based simulation of time-dependent chloride diffusivity in saturated cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingzhong; Ye, Guang; Van Breugel, K.

    2010-01-01

    For accurately predicting the service life and evaluating the durability of reinforced concrete structure exposed to chloride environments, it is highly desirable to determine the chloride diffusivity in cement paste. Because of continuous cement hydration and chloride binding during the process of chloride diffusion, chloride diffusivity varies with time. In this paper, a computational approacht for predicting the time-depending chloride diffusivity in cement paste is presented. HYMOSTRUC3D,...

  11. Studies on the mercuric chloride resistance of Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaczi, L.; Fodor, M.; Milch, H.; Rethy, A.

    1962-01-01

    Among 409 pathogenic Staph. aureus strains 34% have been found to be sensitive, and 66% resistant, to mercuric chloride. The incidence of mercuric chloride resistant cultures among antibiotic sensitive staphylococci was 20%; among strains resistant to penicillin or to more than one antibiotic, 70%. Mercuric chloride resistant organisms occurred chiefly among phage group I and untypable strains; they were especially common among the so called epidemic strains of phage group I, and among cultures resistant to 4-6 antibiotics. In mercuric chloride sensitivity a thirtyfold, in merthiolate sensitivity only a two-fold difference has been revealed among the strains. The sulfydryl group content of mercuric chloride resistant organisms was only 1 1/2 times higher than that of sensitive bacteria. As to p-chlor mercuric benzoate binding capacity, a twofold difference was found between mercuric chloride sensitive and resistant staphylococci. The differences in the mercuric chloride resistance of various staphylococcal strains might be due to differences in the chemical structure of the cell surface. 9 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  12. Use and Effectiveness of Ethyl Chloride for Hand Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Orrin I; Stern, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    Limited literature supports using ethyl chloride topical spray as an anesthetic for hand injections whereas documented risks include frostbite, skin irritation, and inhalation toxicity. We hypothesize that ethyl chloride spray imparts no benefit to patients' perception of pain or anxiety for routine hand injections. We first surveyed all members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand to discern the prevalence of ethyl chloride use during routine injections. We then performed a prospective, randomized, study at 2 institutions evaluating the efficacy of ethyl chloride spray compared with "routine injection" (no topical spray) in patients indicated for a hand injection. All patients completed a pre- and postinjection 11-point questionnaire that inquired about various components of pain and anxiety. A total of 2,083 (73% response rate) American Society for Surgery of the Hand members responded to the survey and revealed that 59% of hand surgeons always or often use ethyl chloride, and 24% never use it. There were no differences for region or practice setting, but experienced surgeons were less likely to routinely use ethyl chloride (35%) compared with younger surgeons (66%). Among 151 patients participating in the clinical study (75 with ethyl chloride), there were no differences for any outcome measure assessed. Injection pain in the spray and no-spray groups, pain after 1 minute, and overall anxiety were equivalent. Subgroup analysis demonstrated no effect of sex, anticipated anxiety, or pain threshold. Ethyl chloride is widely used among hand surgeons but imparts no benefit for routine hand injections in the clinical setting. The potential risks and costs of ethyl chloride use may outweigh its benefits. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  14. A photochemical source of methyl chloride in saline waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert M

    2008-03-15

    It is shown experimentallythatthe methoxy group in simple lignin-like molecules can be the source of the methyl group in CH3Cl produced by a photochemical reaction in an aqueous solution of chloride. Terrestrially derived colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in river water also yields CH3Cl through a photochemical process in a chloride solution. CDOM extracted from subsurface ocean waters showed some ability to enhance photochemical production of CH3Cl while CDOM from surface water showed no effect. Reactions of the kind described in this paper may be contributors to the marine source of methyl chloride and possibly other alkyl halides.

  15. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  16. Chloride ion erosion experiment research in cracked concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shu; Yang, Li

    2017-08-01

    For the study of chloride ion erosion in cracked concrete, this essay tries to take advantages of relevant trails to build up concrete chloride ion diffusion model based on the Fick’s second law. The parameter of this model is easy to be set, and many factors such as the effect of cracks are taken into consideration in this experiment. The concept of “chloride ion diffusion coefficient of equivalent apparent” is introduced to simplify the calculation. It can help simplify the calculation process, and get a more accurate test result, as well as facilitating the practical application of this parameter.

  17. [Effect of pilocarpine chloride on pseudoplastic hydrogel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatloukal, Z

    2003-05-01

    Colloidal aqueous dispersions of 2 to 5% (weight) of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HMPC 4000) yield pseudoplastic mucilages and gels. Rotational viscosimetry in the cone-plate arrangement enables rapid and reproducible evaluation of the transitional region between pseudoplastic and plastic deformation, characterized by Herschel-Bulkley equation. To the traditional Ostwald's two-parameter relationship it adds a third one, revealing a deviation from the beginning of the coordinates of the rheogram caused by the limiting yield stress. The obtained equations make it possible not only to estimate apparent and real viscosity, but also the area under the curve of the pseudoplastic rheogram. The actual precondition of integration, however, is the estimation of the limiting yield stress as the shear rate for the zero shear stress. Experimental estimation of the bottom margin for the integration of the area under the curve makes mutual comparability of rheograms possible. At a temperature of 32 degrees C, analysis of variance demonstrated a significant diminution of this area in the presence of about 2% of pilocarpinium chloride.

  18. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  19. Effect of chloride-based deicers on reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an extensive literature review and performed laboratory tests to assess the effect of chloride-based deicers on the rebars and dowel bars in concrete and to determine whether or not deicer corrosion inhibitors help preserve the transport...

  20. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  1. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride....... The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by simulation. As an example a bridge pier in a marine environment is considered....

  2. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride....... The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by simulation. As an example a bridge pier in a marine environment is considered....

  3. Prediction of chloride ingress and binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Nielsen, Erik Pram; Herforth, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on an analytical model for predicting the ingress rate of chlorides in cement-based materials. An integral part of this is a thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement. The model’s ability to predict chloride binding...... in Portland cement pastes at any content of chloride, alkalis, sulfates and carbonate was verified experimentally and found to be equally valid when applied to other data in the literature. The thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement was introduced into an existing...... Finite Difference Model for the ingress of chlorides into concrete which takes into account its multi-component nature. The “composite theory” was then used to predict the diffusivity of each ion based on the phase assemblage present in the hydrated Portland cement paste. Agreement was found between...

  4. Generation of nitryl chloride from chlorotrimethylsilane-acetyl nitrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    amyl nitrate does not yield NO2Cl with silicon reagent. However, acetyl nitrate reacts successfully with chlorotrimethylsi- lane to give nitryl chloride, which is characterized by its UV spectrum. If it is generated in presence of ketoximes ...

  5. Evaluation of an alternative deicing chemical vs. conventional sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A research project was initiated to evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of a proprietary, pre-blended, : roadway-deicing chemical on New Hampshire highways. The evaluated material is a patented blend of sodium chloride, liquid : magnesium...

  6. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    state model; cyclic voltammetry; marine environment. 1. Introduction. Cupronickels are widely used in chloride environments due to their marked corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of these alloys is due to passivation, which occurs at.

  7. Lithium orotate, carbonate and chloride: pharmacokinetics, polyuria in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D F

    1976-04-01

    1 The pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion administered as lithium orotate were studied in rats. Parallel studies were carried out with lithium carbonate and lithium chloride. 2 No differences in the uptake, distribution and excretion of the lithium ion were observed between lithium orotate, lithium carbonate and lithium chloride after single intraperitoneal, subcutaneous or intragastric injections (0.5-1.0 mEq lithium/kg) or after administration of the lithium salts for 20 days in the food. 3 The findings oppose the notion that the pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion given as lithium orotate differ from lithium chloride or lithium carbonate. 4 Polyuria and polydipsia developed more slowly in rats given lithium orotate than in those given lithium carbonate or lithium chloride, perhaps due to an effect of the orotate anion.

  8. Diffusion vs. concentration of chloride ions in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This investigation was performed to gain insight and assist in determining the long-term durability of : reinforced concrete structures where the external chloride concentrations are different than those typically : observed at the permanently immers...

  9. Diffusion vs. concentration of chloride ions in concrete : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation : (FDOT) maintains hundreds of bridges, and also : builds new ones, in marine environments. These : structures are built with reinforced steel, and : over time, chloride ions from sea salt can migrate : throug...

  10. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  11. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    unconfined aquifer of Thiaroye zone using both water table fluctuation (WTF), chloride ... Therefore, in the urban area, the CMB method cannot be .... contribution from other sources such as human activities ..... in India: What has been learned?

  12. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  13. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: zhu@hse.gcoe.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  14. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asha, E-mail: arana5752@gmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Bhagat Phool Singh Mahilla Vishwavidyalaya, Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat-131305 (India); Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  15. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  16. cis-Dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthrolinechromium(III chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Gao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N22]Cl, the CrIII ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a slightly distorted octahedral CrCl2N4 coordination geometry. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline and two chloride ligands. The chloride counter-anion exhibits half-occupation and is equally disordered over two positions.

  17. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  18. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F; Izbicki, John A

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality-possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  19. Prediction of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Structure Using Meshless Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Ling; Li, Xiaolu; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of RC structures due to chloride penetration followed by reinforcement corrosion is a serious problem in civil engineering. The numerical simulation methods at present mainly involve finite element methods (FEM), which are based on mesh generation. In this study, element-free Galerkin (EFG) and meshless weighted least squares (MWLS) methods are used to solve the problem of simulation of chloride diffusion in concrete. The range of a scaling parameter is presented using numerical e...

  20. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM FROM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Horner, D.E.

    1960-05-24

    An improvement was made in a uranium extraction process wherein the organic extractant is a phosphine oxide. An aqueous solution containing phosphate ions or sulfate ions together with uranium is provided with a source of chloride ions during the extraction step. The presence of the chloride ions enables a phosphine oxide to extract uranium in the presence of strong uranium- complexing ions such as phosphate or sulfate ions.

  1. Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane, but accumulat...... anions determine the homeostatic set point for [Cl(-)], and hence, neuronal volume and the polarity of local GABA(A)R signaling....

  2. Comparison of a novel polytitanium chloride coagulant with polyaluminium chloride: coagulation performance and floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y X; Phuntsho, S; Gao, B Y; Yang, Y Z; Kim, J-H; Shon, H K

    2015-01-01

    Polymerized inorganic coagulants are increasingly being used in the water supply and wastewater treatment process, yet there is limited research on the development of polytitanium coagulants. The aim of this study is to synthesize polytitanium chloride (PTC) coagulants and investigate their coagulation behavior and floc characteristics for humic acid removal in comparison to polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The PTC samples with different B (molar ratios of OH/Ti) values were prepared using an instantaneous base-feeding method, employing sodium carbonate as the basification agent. The coagulation efficiency was significantly influenced by different B values. The results suggest that the humic acid removal increased with the increasing B value for PAC, while the inverse trend was observed for PTC. The optimum B value was chosen at 1.0 and 2.0 for PTC and PAC, respectively. Under the optimum coagulant dose and initial solution pH conditions, the PTC coagulant performed better than the PAC coagulant and the floc properties were significantly improved in terms of floc growth rate and floc size. However, the PAC coagulants produced flocs with better floc recoverability than the PTC coagulants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  4. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  5. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrefae F

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. Subjects and methods: This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Results: Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. Conclusion: A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management. Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, children, chronic diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, prenatal diagnosis

  6. 21 CFR 177.1990 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers. 177... chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 25038...) Identity. For the purposes of this section vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate copolymers consist of basic...

  7. The influence of particles of a minor component on the matrix strength of sodium chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Veen, B.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Bolhuis, G.K; Gons, M.; Zuurman, K.; Frijlink, H.W

    2002-01-01

    This paper deals with the matrix strength of sodium chloride particles in pure sodium chloride tablets and in tablets compressed from binary mixtures of sodium chloride with low concentrations of pregelatinised starch. Because this study concerns the strength of the sodium chloride matrix, the

  8. 21 CFR 178.3790 - Polymer modifiers in semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chloride plastics. 178.3790 Section 178.3790 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... modifiers in semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastics. The polymers identified in paragraph (a) of this... semirigid and rigid vinyl chloride plastic food-contact articles prepared from vinyl chloride homopolymers...

  9. Ab initio Investigations of the Equilibria between Trichlorothioacetyl Chloride, Tetrachlorothiirane, and Trichloroethenesulfenyl Chloride, their Reactants and Decomposition Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Kim Vestergaard; Christensen, Henrik; Shim, Irene

    2004-01-01

    Trichlorothioacetyl chloride 1, tetrachlorothiirane 2, and trichloroethenesulfenyl chloride 3 and the equilibria between them have been investigated by ab initio Hartree-Fock (HF), Møller-Plesset second order perturbation (MP2) calculations, and by Gaussian-3 theory, G3(MP2). The transition states...... of the isomerization reactions have been identified. Also investigated were possible reactions leading to the isomers and their possible decomposition products. The results show that the unobserved isomerization reactions are feasible....

  10. /sup 203/Hg excretion and tissue distribution in Holstein calves following single tracer intravenous doses of methyl mercury chloride or mercuric chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stake, P.E.; Neathery, M.W.; Miller, W.J.; Gentry, R.P.

    1975-01-01

    Eight male Holstein calves were given a single tracer intravenous dose of /sup 203/Hg as mercuric chloride or methyl mercury chloride 7 days before sacrifice. Total 7-day fecal and urinary Hg excretions were much higher from mercuric chloride dosing than from methyl mercury chloride. Retention of Hg from mercuric chloride was greater in kidney, liver, spleen, lung, testicle, rib shaft, tibia joint, tibia shaft, abomasum, small intestine, cecum, large intestine and pancreas and less in brain cerebellum and cerebrum, supraspinatus muscle and heart, and substantially lower in psoas and semitendinosus muscles. Fifteen minutes after dosing, whole blood Hg was lower from mercuric chloride followed by a similar rapid clearance for both Hg forms. Throughout the 7-day period, plasma Hg was greater from mercuric chloride. In red blood cells, Hg from methyl mercury chloride was higher during the first 2 hr after dosing, with no significant differences thereafter. 5 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  11. Acetylcholine chloride 1% usage for intraoperative cataract surgery miosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Macei Drudi

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: To test the efficacy of Acetylcholine chloride use in obtaining intraoperative miosis on phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Methods: Patients with cataract diagnosis and elected for surgical phacoemulsification procedure were selected. All patients underwent conventional phacoemulsification procedure performed by a single surgeon and all patients had 0.2 ml of Acetylcholine chloride 1% irrigated in the anterior chamber at the end of the surgery. The pupillary diameter was measured immediately before the beginning of surgery, immediately before and two minutes after the use of acetylcholine chloride 1%. Results: A total of 30 eyes from 30 patients were included in the study. 18 were female, and mean age was of 69.5 years with a 7.2y standard deviation on the population study. The mean pupillary diameter immediately before the beginning of surgery was 7.5 mm with a standard deviation of 0.56 mm; the mean pupillary diameter immediately before the acetylcholine chloride 1% use (after the intraocular lens im-plantation was 7.1 mm with a standard deviation of 0.57 mm. The mean pupillary diameter two minutes after the use of acetylcholine chloride 1% in the anterior chamber was 3.4 mm with standard deviation of 0.66 mm. The mean maximum action time of ACH chloride 1% was 64 seconds, with a standard deviation of 8 seconds. The mean intraocular pressure on the first postoperative day was 19.1 mmHg with a standard deviation of 2.45 mmHg. Conclusion: We conclude that acetylcholine chloride 1% is an important drug to obtaining intraoperative miosis in cataract surgery.

  12. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elrefae, Fawaz; Elhassanien, Ahmed Farag; Alghiaty, Hesham Abdel-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon) with high fecal chloride. To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR); polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management.

  13. Cystic fibrosis with normal sweat chloride concentration: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Filho Luiz Vicente Ferreira da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Cystic fibrosis is a genetic disease usually diagnosed by abnormal sweat testing. We report a case of an 18-year-old female with bronchiectasis, chronic P. aeruginosa infection, and normal sweat chloride concentrations who experienced rapid decrease of lung function and clinical deterioration despite treatment. Given the high suspicion ofcystic fibrosis, broad genotyping testing was performed, showing a compound heterozygous with deltaF508 and 3849+10kb C->T mutations, therefore confirming cystic fibrosis diagnosis. Although the sweat chloride test remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis, alternative diagnostic tests such as genotyping and electrophysiologic measurements must be performed if there is suspicion of cystic fibrosis, despite normal or borderline sweat chloride levels.

  14. [Effectiveness of new quarternary ammonium chloride compounds against selected bacteria and fungi. XXI. Synthesis of alkoxymethyl-3,4-dimethyl- pyridine and 1-ethyloxymethyl-3-alkylthiomethylimidazole chlorides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Krysiński, J; Skrzypczak, A; Michalak, L

    1989-01-01

    Syntheses and antibacterial properties of alkoxymethyl-3,4-dimethylpyridinium chlorides and 1-ethyloxymethyl-3-alkylthiomethylimidazolium chlorides are described. Alkoxymetgyl-3,4-dimethylpyridinium chlorides were synthetized by reacting 3,4-dimethylpyridine with chloromethyl alkyl ethers, while 1-ethyloxymethyl-3-alkylthiomethylimidazolium chlorides were obtained in reactions of 1-ethyloxymethylimidazol with chloromethyl alkyl sulfides. Antibacterial properties of the obtained compounds were tested on 13 strains of bacteria and fungi. Strong bacteriostatic activity was found to be displayed by iminium chlorides with octyloxymethyl, decyloxymethyl, octylthiomethyl and decylthiomethyl groups.

  15. A Simplified Extemporaneously Prepared Potassium Chloride Oral Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, Elias; Tal, Yana; Amarny, Kamal

    2016-01-01

    Although commercial preparations of oral potassium supplements are usually available, there are times when our Medical Center is faced with situations in which the oral solution of potassium chloride is not available. This solution is necessary for our pediatric outpatients who cannot swallow tablets and need an oral solution. Moreover, there are no studies available which describe an extemporaneously prepared potassium chloride oral solution on which we can rely for assigning a beyond-use date. The aim of this study was to formulate an extemporaneous pediatric oral solution of potassium chloride and to determine the physical and chemical stability of this preparation. We prepared 1 mMoL/mL by withdrawing 25 mL of potassium chloride 14.9%. Ora-Sweet SF was added to 50 mL in a metered flask. The solution was kept refrigerated (2°C to 8°C). Samples were withdrawn to measure potassium concentration, pH, and microbial overgrowth. The test was performed by our biochemical laboratory. The oral solution of potassium chloride 1 mMoL/mL stored at 2°C to 8°C maintained at least 91% of the initial concentration for 28 days. There were no notable changes in pH, and the solution remained physically stable with no visual microbial growth. The oral solution of potassium chloride 1 mMoL/mL prepared in Ora-Sweet and stored at 2°C to 8°C in amber glass bottles is expected to remain stable for 28 days. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  16. Sources of Variation in Sweat Chloride Measurements in Cystic Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackman, Scott M.; Raraigh, Karen S.; Corvol, Harriet; Rommens, Johanna M.; Pace, Rhonda G.; Boelle, Pierre-Yves; McGready, John; Sosnay, Patrick R.; Strug, Lisa J.; Knowles, Michael R.; Cutting, Garry R.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Expanding the use of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) potentiators and correctors for the treatment of cystic fibrosis (CF) requires precise and accurate biomarkers. Sweat chloride concentration provides an in vivo assessment of CFTR function, but it is unknown the degree to which CFTR mutations account for sweat chloride variation. Objectives: To estimate potential sources of variation for sweat chloride measurements, including demographic factors, testing variability, recording biases, and CFTR genotype itself. Methods: A total of 2,639 sweat chloride measurements were obtained in 1,761 twins/siblings from the CF Twin-Sibling Study, French CF Modifier Gene Study, and Canadian Consortium for Genetic Studies. Variance component estimation was performed by nested mixed modeling. Measurements and Main Results: Across the tested CF population as a whole, CFTR gene mutations were found to be the primary determinant of sweat chloride variability (56.1% of variation) with contributions from variation over time (e.g., factors related to testing on different days; 13.8%), environmental factors (e.g., climate, family diet; 13.5%), other residual factors (e.g., test variability; 9.9%), and unique individual factors (e.g., modifier genes, unique exposures; 6.8%) (likelihood ratio test, P < 0.001). Twin analysis suggested that modifier genes did not play a significant role because the heritability estimate was negligible (H2 = 0; 95% confidence interval, 0.0–0.35). For an individual with CF, variation in sweat chloride was primarily caused by variation over time (58.1%) with the remainder attributable to residual/random factors (41.9%). Conclusions: Variation in the CFTR gene is the predominant cause of sweat chloride variation; most of the non-CFTR variation is caused by testing variability and unique environmental factors. If test precision and accuracy can be improved, sweat chloride measurement could be a valuable biomarker

  17. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, S.; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    1996-01-01

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORM/SORM-analysis....

  18. Stochastic Models for Chloride-Initiated Corrosion in Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, Svend; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    Corrosion of the reinforcement in concrete structures can lead to a substantial decrease of the load-bearing capacity. One mode of corrosion initiation is when the chloride content around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. In the present paper a statistical model is developed by which...... the chloride content in a 1reinforced concrete structure can be predicted. The model parameters are estimated on the basis of measurements. The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by FORMISORM-analysis....

  19. Physicochemical changes in dry-cured hams salted with potassium, calcium and magnesium chloride as a partial replacement for sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliño, M; Grau, R; Toldrá, F; Barat, J M

    2010-10-01

    The reduction of added sodium chloride in dry-cured ham has been proposed to reduce dietary sodium intake in Mediterranean countries. The effect of substituting sodium chloride with potassium chloride, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride on some physicochemical characteristics of dry-cured ham during processing was evaluated. The results showed that hams salted with a mixture of sodium and potassium chloride registered higher salt concentrations and lower water contents and thus, needed less time to reach the required weight loss at the end of the process. The opposite effect was observed when calcium and magnesium chloride were added to the salt mixture. The observed differences in the texture and colour parameters were mainly due to differences in water and salt content. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Repassivation Potential of Alloy 22 in Sodium and Calcium Chloride Brines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebak, R B; Ilevbare, G O; Carranza, R M

    2007-08-11

    A comprehensive matrix of 60 tests was designed to explore the effect of calcium chloride vs. sodium chloride and the ratio R of nitrate concentration over chloride concentration on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22. Tests were conducted using the cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) technique at 75 C and at 90 C. Results show that at a ratio R of 0.18 and higher nitrate was able to inhibit the crevice corrosion in Alloy 22 induced by chloride. Current results fail to show in a consistent way a different effect on the repassivation potential of Alloy 22 for calcium chloride solutions than for sodium chloride solutions.

  1. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manure

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas. mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  2. 1, 3, 5-Trimethylpyrazolium chloride based ionogel as an efficient ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    1,3,5-Trimethylpyrazolium chloride based ionogel as an efficient and reusable heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of benzimidazoles ... Catalytic activity of ionogel was compared with silica coated with ionic liquid (silica-IL) and it was found that ionogel is highly active compared to silica-IL for the synthesis of ...

  3. Chlorocholine chloride residue distribution in eggs, breast and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of chlorocholine chloride (CCC) residue or its metabolites in the meat and eggs of laying hens was studied using the 15N delta value (d15N) and 15N atom % derived from 15N-CCC containing diets. In a completely randomised design, 20 laying hens were divided into four groups allocated four different ...

  4. Efficiency of Moringa oleifera and Polyaluminium Chloride for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The viability of using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a plant based coagulant in comparison to Polyaluminium Chloride a commonly used chemical coagulant for the thickening of activated sludge was investigated. Moringa oleifera also known as the drumstick tree or horseradish is widely found throughout Mauritius.

  5. Sweat chloride concentrations in children with Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guglani, Lokesh; Moir, Devin; Jain, Amrish

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic Nephrotic Syndrome (INS) has been believed to cause a false positive elevation of sweat chloride concentrations, as measured by the sweat test. Sweat tests were done for 11 children with acute onset INS at admission and again while they were in remission, with results being compared to normal historical controls. The initial sweat chloride concentration for 10 patients was normal (mean16.7 ± 11.02 mmol/L) and 1 patient had inadequate collection. This latter patient and two others were excluded during follow-up because of diagnoses other than INS. Sweat test results for the eight INS patients during follow up remained unchanged when they were in remission (16.94 ± 7.88 mmol/L; P = 0.98; Wilcoxon Matched-Pairs Signed Rank Test). In comparing sweat chloride concentrations from INS patients to those from 20 historical control subjects, we found no significant differences (Mann-Whitney Test; initial vs. control P = 0.643; follow up vs. control P = 0.806). INS does not cause a false positive sweat test. Further studies should be done to objectively assess the conditions that have been reported to affect sweat chloride concentrations. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Chloride coordination by oligoureas: from mononuclear crescents to dinuclear foldamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Biao; Jia, Chuandong; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Shaoguang; Huang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xiao-Juan

    2012-02-03

    A series of acyclic oligourea receptors which closely resemble the scaffolds and coordination behavior of oligopyridines have been synthesized. Assembly of the receptors with chloride ions afforded mononuclear anion complexes or dinuclear foldamers depending on the number of the urea groups. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  7. Antihypertensive effects of the methylene chloride leaf extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Celtis durandii (Ulmaceae), one of the plants used in traditional medicine to cure migraine, epilepsy,and high blood pressure, was administrated as antihypertensive in normotensive rats (NTR) and hypertensive saline rats (HSR). The antihypertensive effects of the methylene chloride extract of the plant were evaluated in ...

  8. Chloride ingress of carbonated blast furnace slag cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuizen, P.E.; Çopuroglu, O.; Polder, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands civil engineering structures, such as overpasses, bridges and tunnels are generally built using blast furnace slag cement (BFSC, CEM III/B) concrete, because of its high resistance against chloride penetration. Although the Dutch experience regarding durability performance of BFSC

  9. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Acqueous Chloride mission is to recover plutonium and americium from pyrochemical residues (undesirable form for utilization and storage) and generate plutonium oxide and americium oxide. Plutonium oxide is recycled into Pu metal production flowsheet. It is suitable for storage. Americium oxide is a valuable product, sold through the DOE-OS isotope sales program.

  10. 1 Efficiency of Moringa Oleifera and Polyaluminium chloride for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-06-29

    Jun 29, 2015 ... The viability of using Moringa Oleifera seed extract as a plant based coagulant in comparison to Polyaluminium Chloride a commonly used chemical coagulant for the thickening of activated sludge was investigated. Moringa Oleifera also known as the drumstick tree or horseradish is widely found ...

  11. Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on physiological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Respective effects of sodium and chloride ion on growth, cell morphological changes, membrane disorganization, ion homeostasis, exoenzyme activities and fermentation performance in Zymomonas mobilis232B cultures were presented. In batch cultures containing 0.15 M NaCl, Z. mobilis232B developed filaments, and ...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1170 - Chloride test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chloride test system. 862.1170 Section 862.1170 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... diagnosis and treatment of electrolyte and metabolic disorders such as cystic fibrosis and diabetic acidosis...

  13. Effects of Oral Supplementation with Manganese chloride on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty healthy adult albino rats of both sexes were used in two experiments to study the effect of Manganese chloride supplementation on the severity of Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma congolense infections. In each experiment, forty rats were divided into four groups of 10 rats each, namely; A, ...

  14. The effect of high oral magnesium chloride supplementation on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty healthy adult albino rats of both sex weighing 200-240 grams were used to assess the effect of high oral Magnesium chloride (100mg/kg body weight) supplementation on the pathogenicity of T. b. brucei (Basa strain) or T, congolense (Gboko strain) infections. Two studies were carried out and the rats were divided ...

  15. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical and isotopic characterization of groundwater, rainfall and the unsaturated zone were also carried out using a network of 48 points consisting of 8 rainfall stations, 10 unsaturated zone profiles and 30 dug wells, boreholes and piezometers. The concentrations of chloride in rainwater are between 3.2 and 53.4 mg/L.

  16. Autogeneous healing and chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.

    2016-01-01

    An experimental study of the influence of autogeneous healing on chloride ingress in cracked concrete is presented. In the study, two concrete mixtures (a Portland cement mix and a blast furnace slag mix), two healing regimes (submerged and fog room regime), two cracking ages (14 and 28 days), and

  17. Influence of granular strontium chloride as additives on some ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A matrix composed of polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) mixed with different concentration ratios of the granular strontium chloride (SrCl2.6H2O) were prepared by casting technique method at room temperature (about 30°C). The electric and dielectric properties such as a.c. electrical conductivity by a conventional method, using ...

  18. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    unconfined aquifer of Thiaroye zone using both water table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass balance. (CMB) methods and environmental ... applied computes both infiltration from rainwater and domestic waste water, while the CMB method estimates potential recharge .... Piezometric map (mars 2008). Department, UCAD.

  19. Chloride transport in normal and cystic fibrosis epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M. Kansen (Maarten)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThe experimental work described in this thesis was aimed at a better understanding of the pathogenesis of CF with the emphasis on electrophysiological studies on Cl" transport. Chloride transport was studied with Ussing chamber, isotopic ('25I")-efflux and fluorescent (SPQ) measurements

  20. Comparative effects of Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Honey (Mellifica sp) is produced by Apis mellifera africana, widely consumed without prescription or restriction, and has been shown to possess wound healing and antitusive properties. Comparative study of the effects of honey paste and Potash Sodium Chloride (PSC) mixture on the healing of incisional wound on albino ...

  1. Evaluating the Potential Use of Polyaluminium Chloride in the Water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alum is one of the world's oldest chemical used in water treatment. However, one of its disadvantages is that it operates over a limited range of pH. Recently, polyaluminium chloride (PACI) has come on the market and due to the various advantages, many countries have shifted to the use of PACI. At La Nicolière water ...

  2. Evaluation of Electrochemical Treatment of Chloride Contaminated Mortar Containing GGBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hong Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of cementitious binder on electrochemical treatment of steel embedded in salt contaminated mortar. As binder, ordinary Portland cement (OPC and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS were used and the current density of 250–750 mA/m2 was applied for 4 weeks to complete electrochemical chloride extraction. To evaluate the effect of electrochemical treatment the chloride profile and corrosion behaviour covering chloride concentration, galvanic current density, linear polarization resistance, open circuit potential, and mass loss were measured. An increase in the applied direct current density resulted in a decrease in the chloride concentration at the vicinity of steel, accompanying the mitigated corrosion damage. The performance of electrochemical treatment was more remarkable in mortar containing GGBS presumably due to binding mechanism. However, corrosion damage was more detrimental in GGBS rather than OPC at a given potential, while GGBS had superior corrosion resistance to a corrosive environment and treatment conditions. Therefore, the electrochemical treatment should be conducted prudently to evaluate the corrosion state of embedded steel depending on binder type.

  3. Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    Structure transitions between copper-sulphate and copper-chloride UPD phases on Au(111). 755. Acknowledgements. This work was supported by Research Center Jülich and the University of Bern. I V P also acknowledges support of Deutscher Akademischer Austausch. Dienst (DAAD) for a Ph D Fellowship. References.

  4. IRIS Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride) (Final Report)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA has finalized the Toxicological Review of Dichloromethane (Methylene Chloride): In support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). Now final, this assessment may be used by EPA’s program and regional offices to inform decisions to protect human health. This ...

  5. Methyl chloride and other chlorocarbons in polluted air during INDOEX

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, HA; Lelieveld, J; de Gouw, JA; van der Veen, C; Fischer, H

    2002-01-01

    [1] Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is the most abundant, natural, chlorine-containing gas in the atmosphere, with oceans and biomass burning as major identified sources. Estimates of global emissions suffer from large uncertainties, mostly for the tropics, partly due to a lack of measurements. We present

  6. Evaluation of Sulfonamide Derivatives of Dagenan Chloride as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the enzyme inhibition activity of various sulfonamides derived from dagenan chloride. ... Results: Molecules 5e and 5j showed good lipoxygenase inhibition activity with IC50 (50 % inhibition concentration) value of 132.21 ± 0.73 and 133.33 ± 0.87 μmol/L, respectively, relative to reference, while 5m was ...

  7. Cholesterol-lowering drug, in combination with chromium chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the parasite synthesizesergosterol instead of cholesterol, using the same biochemical pathway and enzymes, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA-Reductase ... Lovastatin, being an inhibitor of HMG-CoA-Reductase, inhibitsinfection by cholesterol depletion, while chromium chloride complexes, at their higher concentrations, are ...

  8. Isolation of polyvinyl chloride degrading bacterial strains from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation, potent microbial strains degrading plastic constituting polymer polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were isolated using enrichment culture technique. To increase the chances of isolating such strain which could have adapted to metabolize plastic constituting polymers, samples were collected from different ...

  9. Prenatal Mercuric Chloride Exposure Causes Developmental Deficits in Rat Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayebeh Rastegar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Environmental pollution with heavy metals such as mercury is a major health problem. Growing studies on the field have shown the deleterious effects of mercury on human and nonhuman nervous system, especially in infants, however the effects of prenatal exposure to mercuricchloride on cortical development are not yet well understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride on morphological characteristics of brain cortex. Methods: Mercuric chloride (2 mg/kg or normal saline were injected (I.P. to 36 Sprague – dawley rats in the 8th, 9th or 10th day of gestation. The embryos were surgically removed in the 15th day of gestation, and brain cortices were studied by histological techniques. Results: Histological studies showed that embryos of mercuric chloride treated rats hadcortical neuronal disarrangement withdifferent orientations of nuclei, increased diameter of cortex, increased mitosis of cells, increased cell death, decreased cellular density and increased intracellular space. Conclusion: These findings suggest some micro structural abnormalities in cortical regions after prenatal exposure to mercuric chloride. These structural abnormalities may underliesome neurologic disturbances following mercury intoxication.

  10. Quantitative assessment of the effect of anhydrous zinc chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... MgSO4, H3COOH, Mg(ClO4)2 to activate the carbonyl group of benzaldehyde, catalyse the nucleophilic attack by amines, and dehydrate the system, and eliminate water as the final steps. Anhydrous zinc chloride has been extensively used in literature for its affordability and reliability, however there is limited information ...

  11. Mercury chloride-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Key words: Mercury chloride, vitamins C and E, oxidative stress, erythrocytes, in vitro. ... of free radicals induced by oxidative damage to lipids and lipoproteins in various cellular ... metals toxicity in different experimental systems ..... vitamins C, E and beta carotene aganist gamma-ray-induced DNA damage ...

  12. Design and performance characteristics of a krypton chloride (λ ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-01-07

    Jan 7, 2014 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 1. Design and performance characteristics of a krypton chloride ( = 222 nm) excimer laser. N S Benerji N ... In this paper the design, successful realization and operating characteristics of KrCl excimer laser are reported. The laser is driven ...

  13. Analysis of the properties of dehydrochlorinated polyvinyl chloride films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kryshtob, V. I.; Rasmagin, S. I.

    2017-11-01

    The effect of the time of thermolysis (thermal degradation) on the absorption spectra, specific resistivity, and concentration of holes of partially dehydrochlorinated polyvinyl chloride films has been studied. The number of conjugated carbon double bonds in films has been determined as a function of the time of thermolysis.

  14. Heterogeneous chemistry of trichloroacetyl chloride in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, C.; Mirabel, P.; Ponche, J.L. [Laboratoire de Physico-Chimie de l`Atmosphere, Strasbourg (France); Lagrange, J.; Lagrange, P.; Pallares, C. [Laboratoire de Cinetique et Analyse, Strasbourg (France)

    1994-01-20

    This article investigates the effects of anthropogenic releases of partially and fully halogenated hydrocarbons on the stratospheric ozone layer. Experiments using direct measurements of the reaction rates of hydrolysis and direct uptake of trichloroacetyl chlorides by water droplets are described. 32 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. The toxicology of zinc chloride smoke producing bombs and screens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Idrissi, Ayman; van Berkel, Lisanne; Bonekamp, Nadia E; Dalemans, Diana J Z; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due

  16. Effect of benzimidazole fungicides and calcium chloride on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... fungicides benomyl, methyl-thiophanate, thiabendazole and calcium chloride on fungal decay of pears caused by Alternaria alternata and Penicillium expansum. Both in vitro and in vivo, the efficacy of fungicides alone against the two fungi was shown to be weak and without any practical interest. In vitro, CaCl2 alone was ...

  17. Late termination of pregnancy by intracardiac potassium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To report our experience with intracardiac potassium chloride (KCl) injection as a method of feticide for severe congenital abnormalities beyond 24 weeksf gestation. Method. A retrospective chart review. Patient demographics and types of fetal anomalies were analysed according to the groups that accepted

  18. Fluorinated tripodal receptors for potentiometric chloride detection in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, Nadezda; Cuartero, Maria; Jowett, Laura A; Howe, Ethan N W; Gale, Philip A; Bakker, Eric; Crespo, Gastón A

    2018-01-15

    Fluorinated tripodal compounds were recently reported to be efficient transmembrane transporters for a series of inorganic anions. In particular, this class of receptors has been shown to be suitable for the effective complexation of chloride, nitrate, bicarbonate and sulfate anions via hydrogen bonding. The potentiometric properties of urea and thiourea-based fluorinated tripodal receptors are explored here for the first time, in light of the need for reliable sensors for chloride monitoring in undiluted biological fluids. The ion selective electrode (ISE) membranes with tren-based tris-urea bis(CF3) tripodal compound (ionophore I) were found to exhibit the best selectivity for chloride over major lipophilic anions such as salicylate ( [Formula: see text] ) and thiocyanate ( [Formula: see text] ). Ionophore I-based ISEs were successfully applied for chloride determination in undiluted human serum as well as artificial serum sample, the slope of the linear calibration at the relevant background of interfering ions being close to Nernstian (49.8±1.7mV). The results of potentiometric measurements were confirmed by argentometric titration. Moreover, the ionophore I-based ISE membrane was shown to exhibit a very good long-term stability of potentiometric performance over the period of 10 weeks. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titrations, potentiometric sandwich membrane experiments and density functional theory (DFT) computational studies were performed to determine the binding constants and suggest 1:1 complexation stoichiometry for the ionophore I with chloride as well as salicylate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Microstructures and dynamics of tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong-Lei; Li, Bin; Sarman, Sten; Laaksonen, Aatto

    2017-12-01

    Atomistic simulations have been performed to investigate the effect of aliphatic chain length in tetraalkylphosphonium cations on liquid morphologies, microscopic ionic structures, and dynamical quantities of tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids. The liquid morphologies are characterized by sponge-like interpenetrating polar and apolar networks in ionic liquids consisting of tetraalkylphosphonium cations with short aliphatic chains. The lengthening aliphatic chains in tetraalkylphosphonium cations lead to polar domains consisting of chloride anions and central polar groups in cations being partially or totally segregated in ionic liquid matrices due to a progressive expansion of apolar domains in between. Prominent polarity alternation peaks and adjacency correlation peaks are observed at low and high q range in total X-ray scattering structural functions, respectively, and their peak positions gradually shift to lower q values with lengthening aliphatic chains in tetraalkylphosphonium cations. The charge alternation peaks registered in the intermediate q range exhibit complicated tendencies due to a cancellation of peaks and anti-peaks in partial structural functions for ionic subcomponents. The particular microstructures and liquid morphologies in tetraalkylphosphonium chloride ionic liquids intrinsically contribute to distinct dynamics characterized by mean square displacements, van Hove correlation functions, and non-Gaussian parameters for ionic species in the heterogeneous ionic environment. Most tetraalkylphosphonium cations have higher translational mobilities than their partner anions due to strong coordination of chloride anions with central polar groups in tetraalkylphosphonium cations through strong Coulombic and hydrogen bonding interactions. The increase of aliphatic chain length in tetraalkylphosphonium cations leads to a concomitant shift of van Hove correlation functions and non-Gaussian parameters to larger radial distances and longer time

  20. Catalytic oxidation of model soot by metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mul, Guido; Kapteijn, Freek; Moulijn, Jacob A. [Delft University of Technology, Industrial Catalysis, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-05-16

    Several metal chlorides were screened for their catalytic activity in the oxidation of model soot (Printex-U) in `loose contact` by means of TGA/DSC. HgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2}, CoCl{sub 2}, and NiCl{sub 2} show little activity. Hydrated BiCl{sub 3} and FeCl{sub 3} are converted in air into BiOCl and FeOCl, which have a moderate soot oxidation activity. MoCl{sub 5} is converted into the corresponding metal oxide and also shows a moderate `loose contact` activity. PbCl{sub 2}, CuCl{sub 2} and CuCl are very active catalysts; the soot oxidation temperature is lowered by 200-275K. The activity of metal chlorides is thought to be induced by in situ formation of intimate contact between the soot and the metal chloride via `wetting` and/or gas phase transport. A correlation between the melting point and the catalytic activity was found. Furthermore, a catalytic cycle is proposed involving activation of oxygen on the surface of the (oxy)chloride, followed by transfer of activated oxygen to the soot surface. DRIFT analyses showed that this results in the formation of carbon surface oxygen complexes. Decomposition of those complexes yields CO and CO{sub 2}. Practical application of metal chlorides for the removal of soot from diesel exhaust is not recommended, because they suffer from instability or high vapour pressures

  1. Factors that influence the efficiency of electrochemical chloride extraction during corrosion mitigation in reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an electrochemical bridge restoration method for mitigating corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. ECE does this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultan...

  2. Sweat chloride as a biomarker of CFTR activity: proof of concept and ivacaftor clinical trial data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurso, Frank J; Van Goor, Fredrick; Zha, Jiuhong; Stone, Anne J; Dong, Qunming; Ordonez, Claudia L; Rowe, Steven M; Clancy, John Paul; Konstan, Michael W; Hoch, Heather E; Heltshe, Sonya L; Ramsey, Bonnie W; Campbell, Preston W; Ashlock, Melissa A

    2014-03-01

    We examined data from a Phase 2 trial {NCT00457821} of ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator, in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with aG551D mutation to evaluate standardized approaches to sweat chloride measurement and to explore the use of sweat chloride and nasal potential difference (NPD) to estimate CFTR activity. Sweat chloride and NPD were secondary endpoints in this placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Standardization of sweat collection, processing,and analysis was employed for the first time. Sweat chloride and chloride ion transport (NPD) were integrated into a model of CFTR activity. Within-patient sweat chloride determinations showed sufficient precision to detect differences between dose-groups and assess ivacaftor treatment effects. Analysis of changes in sweat chloride and NPD demonstrated that patients treated with ivacaftor achieved CFTR activity equivalent to approximately 35%–40% of normal. Sweat chloride is useful in multicenter trials as a biomarker of CFTR activity and to test the effect of CFTR potentiators.

  3. Cutaneous haemangioendothelioma: a possible link with chronic exposure to vinyl chloride.

    OpenAIRE

    Davies, M F; Curtis, M; Howat, J M

    1990-01-01

    A patient who worked with polyvinyl chloride developed a malignant haemangioendothelioma of a toe. This rare tumour is more commonly found in the liver where it has been reported to arise in association with exposure to the vinyl chloride monomer.

  4. Hemostatic effect of aluminum chloride in liver bleeding: an animal model study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Nouri

    2014-10-01

    Conclusion: Aluminum chloride compare to the control method (i.e. controlling liver bleeding by simple suturing needs less time to control liver bleeding. Aluminum chloride is an effective agent in controlling liver hemorrhage in an animal model.

  5. Altered Chloride Homeostasis Decreases the Action Potential Threshold and Increases Hyperexcitability in Hippocampal Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Ledri, Marco; Melis, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    flows through activated GABAA receptors into the neurons causing hyperpolarization or shunting inhibition, and in turn inhibits action potential (AP) generation. However, in situations when intracellular chloride concentration is increased, chloride ions can flow in opposite direction, depolarize...

  6. corIncorporating cracking of concrete on chloride ingress and service life modeling of concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacheco, Jose; Polder, R.B.

    2016-01-01

    Chloride induced reinforcement corrosion is the most common degradation mechanisms for reinforced concrete structures. The service life of concrete structures is normally predicted by estimating the rate of chloride ingress and the necessary time to initiate reinforcement corrosion. Normally,

  7. Surface resistivity test evaluation as an indicator of the chloride permeability of concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Many agencies have adopted the standard tests for electrical : indication of concretes ability to resist chloride ion penetration : (AASHTO T 277 and ASTM C1202), commonly known as the rapid : chloride permeability test (RCPT), in their specificat...

  8. Nitrate removal from water using alum and ferric chloride: A comparative study of alum and ferric chloride efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Ahmad Aghapour

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nitrate is an acute and well-known hazardous contaminant, and its contamination of water sources has been a growing concern worldwide in recent years. This study evaluated the feasibility of nitrate removal from water using the traditional coagulants alum and ferric chloride with lower concentrations than those used in the conventional coagulation process. Methods: In this research, two coagulants, alum and ferric chloride, were compared for their efficiency in removing nitrate in a conventional water treatment system. The removal process was done in a batch system (jar test to examine the effects of coagulant dosages and determine the conditions required to achieve optimum results. Results: The results revealed that ferric chloride at an initial dose rate of 4 mg/L reduced nitrate concentration from 70 mg/L to less than the World Health Organization (WHO guideline value (50 mg/L N-NO 3. However, the removal efficiency of alum was not salient to significant nitrate reduction. Conclusion: In conclusion, ferric chloride was more effective than alumin removing NO-3, even in common dosage range, and can be considered a cost-effective and worthy treatment option to remediate nitratepolluted water. Furthermore, the removal of nitrate by coagulation can be simple and more economical than other treatment alternatives.

  9. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc

  10. separation of strontium and cesium from ternary and quaternary lithium chloride-potassium chloride salts via melt crystallization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammon N. Williams

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation of cesium chloride (CsCl and strontium chloride (SrCl2 from the lithium chloride-potassium chloride (LiCl-KCl salt was studied using a melt crystallization process similar to the reverse vertical Bridgeman growth technique. A ternary SrCl2-LiCl-KCl salt was explored at similar growth rates (1.8–5 mm/h and compared with CsCl ternary results to identify similarities. Quaternary experiments were also conducted and compared with the ternary cases to identify trends and possible limitations to the separations process. In the ternary case, as much as 68% of the total salt could be recycled per batch process. In the quaternary experiments, separation of Cs and Sr was nearly identical at the slower rates; however, as the growth rate increased, SrCl2 separated more easily than CsCl. The quaternary results show less separation and rate dependence than in both ternary cases. As an estimated result, only 51% of the total salt could be recycled per batch. Furthermore, two models have been explored to further understand the growth process and separation. A comparison of the experimental and modeling results reveals that the nonmixed model fits reasonably well with the ternary and quaternary data sets. A dimensional analysis was performed and a correlation was identified to semipredict the segregation coefficient.

  11. Transient elevation of sweat chloride concentration in a malnourished girl with the Mauriac syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polack, F P; Transue, D J; Belknap, W M; Freij, B J; Aughton, D J

    1995-02-01

    Elevated sweat chloride concentration in a patient with Mauriac syndrome has been reported only once. The authors of that report regarded their patient's underlying malnutrition, and not Mauriac syndrome per se, as the cause of the elevated sweat chloride concentration. We describe a second example of transient elevation of sweat chloride concentration, which confirms that the malnutrition intrinsic to Mauriac syndrome, rather than the syndrome itself, was the probable cause of elevated sweat chloride values.

  12. Chloride is essential for contraction of afferent arterioles after agonists and potassium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B L; Ellekvist, Peter; Skøtt, O

    1997-01-01

    A depolarizing chloride efflux has been suggested to activate voltage-dependent calcium channels in renal afferent arteriolar smooth muscle cells in response to vasoconstrictors. To test this proposal, rabbit afferent arterioles were microperfused, and the contractile dose responses...... chloride. We conclude that norepinephrine and ANG II use different mechanisms for contraction and that extracellular chloride is essential for contraction in afferent arterioles after activation of voltage-dependent calcium channels. We suggest that a chloride influx pathway is activated concomitantly...

  13. Synthesis and anti-microbial activities of choline-like quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, Juliusz; Chwała, Przemysław

    2003-01-01

    New choline-like quaternary ammonium chlorides were obtained. The work-up procedure of synthesis was quick and efficient. The obtained chlorides showed anti-microbial activities. Quaternary ammonium chlorides derivatives of deanol esters exhibited strong activity and wide anti-bacterial spectra, similar to the activity of benzalkonium chloride. The relationship between chemical structure and anti-microbial activity was analyzed by the QSAR method.

  14. Spectroscopic investigation of cement hydrate phases and their chloride binding properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping

    This thesis investigates the chloride binding properties of the hydrate phases present in Portland cement paste and the relationships between chloride binding capacity and the structure of these phases, using primarily NMR spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, XRD, thermal analysis, and chemical analysis. It provides important basic data and new insights into the effects of the structure of the individual hydrate phases on their chloride binding properties, and the atomic level structural states and dynamic behavior of the bound chloride in the cement hydrate crystals and at the solid/solution interface. The chloride binding capacity depends on the structure and surface properties of the individual hydrates. Portlandite and AFm surfaces have high affinity for chloride due to their positive zeta-potentials. For C-S-H samples, the chloride binding capacity increases with increasing C/S ratio due to increased numbers of surface Ca-OH sites and decreased polymerization of silicate chains. Aluminum substitution in C-S-H is unfavorable for chloride binding due to reduced layer charge and increased chain polymerization. For all hydrate phases the mechanism of chloride binding is not simply electrostatic attraction. Formation of metal-chloride clusters in the solution and sorption in the Stem layer may contribute substantially. The bound chlorides near the cement hydrate surfaces are in water solvated environments similar to those in the bulk solution and are in rapid exchange (>2kHz) with free chloride in the bulk solution. The chloride concentration near the surfaces is much higher than in the equilibrium bulk solution, and the reorientational frequency of the water molecules solvating the bound chloride is slower than those in the bulk solution. Chloride has a well-defined structural site in Friedel's salt. In solid solutions between Friedel's salt and hydroxyl-AFm, chloride occurs predominantly in Cl-rich domains except at high OH-contents.

  15. 21 CFR 172.330 - Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium pantothenate, calcium chloride double salt. 172.330 Section 172.330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN..., calcium chloride double salt. The food additive calcium chloride double salt of calcium pantothenate may...

  16. 77 FR 22847 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-17

    ... a surrogate for chlorine gas. In setting limits for all HAP emitted at PVC major sources, we... limits for HCl as a surrogate for all acid gas HAP and chlorine gas, vinyl chloride, and CDD/CDF... limits (ppmw) limits (ppmw) \\a\\ \\b\\ \\a\\ \\b\\ Existing Vinyl Chloride 0.48 37 Total Non-Vinyl Chloride...

  17. Potentiometric measurement with a Kelvin probe: Contactless measurement of chloride ions in aqueous electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Zhu, X.; de Boer, Hans L.; Tanvir, N.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    For the first time the chloride ion concentration in electrolyte is measured using a Kelvin probe. A silver-silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode, which is a chloride ion selective electrode, is used as a sample plate in the electrolyte and the Kelvin probe is used as a reference plate that is

  18. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. 177...-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. The vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers identified in paragraph... section vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers consist of basic copolymers produced by the...

  19. 75 FR 36629 - Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... International Trade Administration Barium Chloride From the People's Republic of China: Continuation of... the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') would... of initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on barium chloride from the...

  20. The Influence of C3A Content in Cement on the Chloride Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study concerns the influence of C3A in cement on chloride transport in reinforced concrete. Three modified cement was manufactured in the variation of the C3A content, ranging from 6.0 and 10.5 up to 16.9%. The setting time of fresh concrete was measured immediately after mixing, together with the temperature at the time of initial set. For properties of hardened concrete in the variation in the C3A, a development of the compressive strength and chloride permeation were measured using mortar specimens. Simultaneously, chloride binding capacity was measured by the water extraction method. To ensure the influence of pore structure on chloride transport, the pore structure was examined by the mercury intrusion porosimetry. As a result, it was found that an increase in the C3A content resulted in an increase in chloride binding capacity. However, it seemed that increased binding of chlorides is related to the higher ingress of chlorides, despite denser pore structure. It may be attributed to the higher surface chloride, which could increase the gradient of chloride concentration from the surface, thereby leading to the higher level of chloride profiles. Substantially, the benefit of high C3A in resisting corrosion, arising from removal of free chlorides in the pore solution, would be offset by increased chloride ingress at a given duration, when it comes to the corrosion-free service life.

  1. 76 FR 30604 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-26

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Proposed..., the proposed rule, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production, under Docket ID No. EPA-HQ-OAR-2002-0037 (available at http...

  2. 76 FR 42613 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Environmental Protection... for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers Production is being extended for 14... extend the public comment period for the May 20, 2011, Proposed Polyvinyl Chloride and Copolymers...

  3. 40 CFR 61.64 - Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission standard for polyvinyl... Standard for Vinyl Chloride § 61.64 Emission standard for polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of a polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section and § 61.65. (a...

  4. Preparation of Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) Material and its Application to Electrochemical Degradation of Methylene Blue in Sodium Chloride Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riyanto; Prawidha, A. D.

    2018-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode in sodium chloride have been done. The aim of this work was to degradation of methylene blue using Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC). Carbon chitosan composite electrode was preparing by Carbon and Chitosan powder and PVC in 4 mL tetrahydrofuran (THF) solvent and swirled flatly to homogeneous followed by drying in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The mixture was placed in stainless steel mould and pressed at 10 ton/cm2. Sodium chloride was used electrolyte solution. The effects of the current and electrolysis time were investigated using spectrophotometer UV-Visible. The experimental results showed that the carbon-chitosan composite electrode have higher effect in the electrochemical degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Based on UV-visible spectra analysis shows current and electrolysis time has high effect to degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride. Chitosan and polyvinyl chloride can strengthen the bond between the carbons so that the material has the high stability and conductivity. As conclusions is Carbon-Chitosan-Polyvinyl Chloride (CC-PVC) electrode have a high electrochemical activity for degradation of methylene blue in sodium chloride.

  5. [Evaluating risk of health disorders in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production (according to data collected by polls)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'iakovich, O A

    2014-01-01

    The authors represent data of automated system for quantitative risk evaluation of main pathologic syndromes in workers engaged into polyvinyl chloride, vinyl chloride and caustic soda production. Vinyl chloride and mercury levels at the investigation time corresponded with MAC. Relationship was seen between value of arterial hypertension risk and duration of contact with both vinyl chloride and mercury. Risk values for functional disorders of liver, endocrine system and nervous system were in weak correlation with length of exposure to mercury at work. Workers exposed to mercury appeared to have lower self-estimation of health state and higher dissatisfaction with the work.

  6. Increasing of Mechanical Parameters of Clay soil Using Calcium Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshty, Seyyed Amir Hossein; Moosa Aniran, Mir; Firoozfar, Alireza; Kiamehr, Ramin

    2017-04-01

    Research on roads to increase the resistance of weak soils to build structures on it has been increased in recent years. The present article provide the effects of different mixtures containing calcium chloride solution and clay soil on mechanical parameters such as, compressibility, compressive strength, shear strength and durability characteristic. In this study also is investigated evaluation the effect of road subgrade based on proposed material. The used clay soil in this research was obtained from zanjan city where is located in northwestern of Iran. The obtained results show that the calcium chloride solution could play a major role in reducing the cost and required time for building roads and also building foundation on these types of soils.

  7. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran, Abdurrahman Erdem; Karataş-Torun, Nimet; Maslak, İbrahim Cemal; Bingöl, Ayşen; Alper, Özgül M

    2017-01-01

    Başaran AE, Karataş-Torun N, Maslak İC, Bingöl A, Alper ÖM. Normal sweat chloride test does not rule out cystic fibrosis. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 68-70. A 5-month-old patient presented with complaints of fever and cough. He was hospitalized with the diagnosis of bronchopneumonia and pseudo-Bartter's syndrome. Patient was further investigated for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis. The chloride (Cl) level in sweat was determined within the normal range (25.1 mmol/L, 20.3 mmol/L). CFTR (Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator gene; NM_000492.2) genotyping results were positive for p.E92K; p.F1052V mutations. The patient was diagnosed with cystic fibrosis. In our patient, with features of CF and normal sweat test, mutation analysis was helpful for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis.

  8. Successful computational modeling of isobornyl chloride ion-pair mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jing; Schleyer, Paul v R; Rzepa, Henry S

    2010-08-06

    Along with the directly related Wagner-Meerwein camphene hydrochloride-isobornyl chloride rearrangement, the racemization of isobornyl chloride involves intermediate carbocation-anion ion pairs; both processes have become mechanistic icons in organic chemistry. The two known racemization pathways, involving either a hydride transfer or a methyl migration, are observed to be concurrent. However, prior quantitative computational modeling has not been able to reproduce the fine kinetic balance of these processes. We demonstrate that a density functional approach, which includes two explicit solvent molecules embedded in a continuum solvent field, coupled with full geometric optimization using smoothed solvent cavities and free energy calculation, yields results in accord with experiment. Alternative racemization routes also have been explored.

  9. Molybdenum chloride catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Joo; Nguyen, Thach T.; Lam, Jonathan K.; Torker, Sebastian; Hyvl, Jakub; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2017-01-01

    The development of catalyst-controlled stereoselective olefin metathesis processes has been a pivotal recent advance in chemistry. The incorporation of appropriate ligands within complexes based on molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium has led to reactivity and selectivity levels that were previously inaccessible. Here we show that molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes furnish higher-energy (Z) isomers of trifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes through cross-metathesis reactions with the commercially available, inexpensive and typically inert Z-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene. Furthermore, otherwise inefficient and non-stereoselective transformations with Z-1,2-dichloroethene and 1,2-dibromoethene can be effected with substantially improved efficiency and Z selectivity. The use of such molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes enables the synthesis of representative biologically active molecules and trifluoromethyl analogues of medicinally relevant compounds. The origins of the activity and selectivity levels observed, which contradict previously proposed principles, are elucidated with the aid of density functional theory calculations.

  10. STABILIZATION OF PERTUSSIS VACCINE IN THE PRESENCE OF BENZETHONIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, B. H.; Eldering, Grace; Graham, Bernice

    1964-01-01

    Olson, B. H. (Division of Laboratories, Michigan Department of Health, Lansing), Grace Eldering, and Bernice Graham. Stabilization of pertussis vaccine in the presence of benzethonium chloride. J. Bacteriol. 87:543–546. 1964.—Data are presented showing that pertussis vaccine preserved with benzethonium chloride (BC; Phemerol) was inactivated during storage. BC-preserved vaccine stored at 37 C showed no measurable mouse-protective potency at 16 weeks. That stored at 0 to 4 C lost approximately 80% of its potency within 1 year. Treatment of pertussis vaccines with aluminum, calcium, magnesium, choline, or dl-lysine before the addition of the BC prevented its uptake by the cells. Pertussis vaccines pretreated with 0.004 m Ca++ or 0.0004 m Al+++ retained 70% of the initial potency after 42 weeks of storage at 37 C. Similar vaccines showed no loss of protective antigens when stored for 1 year at 0 to 4 C. PMID:14127568

  11. Swell activated chloride channel function in human neutrophils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmon, Michael D. [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom); Ahluwalia, Jatinder, E-mail: j.ahluwalia@uel.ac.uk [Leukocyte and Ion Channel Research Laboratory, School of Health and Biosciences, University of East London, Stratford Campus, London E15 4LZ (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-17

    Non-excitable cells such as neutrophil granulocytes are the archetypal inflammatory immune cell involved in critical functions of the innate immune system. The electron current generated (I{sub e}) by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase is electrogenic and rapidly depolarises the membrane potential. For continuous function of the NADPH oxidase, I{sub e} has to be balanced to preserve electroneutrality, if not; sufficient depolarisation would prevent electrons from leaving the cell and neutrophil function would be abrogated. Subsequently, the depolarisation generated by the neutrophil NADPH oxidase I{sub e} must be counteracted by ion transport. The finding that depolarisation required counter-ions to compensate electron transport was followed by the observation that chloride channels activated by swell can counteract the NADPH oxidase membrane depolarisation. In this mini review, we discuss the research findings that revealed the essential role of swell activated chloride channels in human neutrophil function.

  12. Antidepressants and seizure-interactions at the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatynska, E.; Knapp, R.J.; Ikeda, M.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    Convulsive seizures are a potential side effect of antidepressant drug treatment and can be produced by all classes of antidepressants. It is also know that some convulsant and anticonvulsant drug actions are mediated by the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex. Drugs acting at this complex appear to induce convulsions by inhibiting chloride conductance through the associated chloride channel. Using the method of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl-uptake by rat cerebral cortical vesicles, we show that some antidepressant drugs can inhibit the GABA-receptor chloride uptake, and that the degree of chloride channel inhibition by these drugs correlates with the frequency of convulsive seizures induced by them.

  13. Tomato pomace protects against mercuric chloride-induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tomato is reported to possess antioxidant activity and this study investigated tomato pomace powder's (TPP) effect on mercuric chloride (HgCl2) intoxication in rats. Thirty male rats were assigned randomly into five groups (n=6): Control; Propylene glycol; TPP (50 mg/kg bwt) for 19 days; HgCl2 (4 mg/bwt) from day 5 to 19 of ...

  14. Studies of Degradation of Plasticized Polyvinyl Chloride (PPVC)

    OpenAIRE

    Doina Elena Gavrilă

    2016-01-01

    Commercial plasticizers are introduced in Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) to obtain flexibility, high elongation to break, durability, resistance to heat and chemicals. Very used plasticizers are phthalates, most commonly phthalate being di-2-ethyl hexyl phthalate (DEHP). The phthalates are not chemically bound to PVC and can migrate from different devices and objects due to the influence of temperature, or to other types of degradation. In article are presented the harm effects of phtha...

  15. Medium effect on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium (III) chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Sevostyanova N.; Batashev S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents influence of some solvents on cyclohexene hydrocarbomethoxylation catalyzed by ruthenium(III) chloride. The objective of the work was contained in the determination of medium influence on the reaction rate and yield of product — methyl cyclohexanecarboxylate. The kinetic method was used as the main method of investigation. The gas–liquid chromatography method was used to analyze the reaction mass. Influence of methanol, toluene, acetone and water on the hydrocarmothoxy...

  16. Cu(II) chloride complexes in frozen ethanol solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, V.F.; Usov, O.M.

    1985-12-01

    This paper examines the photochemical properties of Cu(II) chloride complexes in frozen organic matrices. It was necessary to determine the spectroscopic parameters and conditions of the existence of individual complexes at 77 K. Ethanol was saturated with gaseous HC1, the solubility of which is appreciably greater than that of such salts as LiC1, NaC1, or KC1. The spectroscopic parameters of the complexes are determined and discussed.

  17. Lost bits: particle shedding with polyvinyl chloride intravenous administration sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Peter; Ainsworth, Paul; Cassey, John; Phelan, David

    2002-12-01

    Silicone particles have been demonstrated in the effluent from silicone intravenous (IV) tubing. It has been widely suspected that polyvinyl chloride (PVC) particles are also lost. We sought to clarify the situation in a carefully controlled laboratory setting using the apparatus and flow rates common in a paediatric setting, using scanning electron microscope techniques (SEM), we found that particles were indeed shed from IV tubing during use, but they were not PVC.

  18. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Logothetis, Stelios; Walker,Graeme

    2010-01-01

    Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride) on growth, viabi...

  19. Synthesis and thermal behavior of polyacrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer

    OpenAIRE

    Robson Fleming; Luiz Claudio Pardini; Nilton Alves; Elson Garcia; Carlos Brito Júnior

    2014-01-01

    Polyacrylonitrile fiber encompasses a broad range of products based on acrylonitrile (AN) which is readily copolymerized with a wide range of ethylenic unsaturated monomers giving rise to polymers with different characteristics and applications. Such products can be designed for cost-effective, flame and heat resistant solutions for the textile industry, aircraft and automotive markets. In the present work acrylonitrile was copolymerized with vinylidene chloride (VDC) by conventional suspensi...

  20. The effects of surface treatments on rapid chloride permeability tests

    KAUST Repository

    Yoon, Seyoon

    2012-08-01

    Surface treatments are commonly applied to improve the chloride resistance of concrete structures exposed to saline environments. Information on chloride ingress to surface-treated concrete is mostly provided by application of the rapid chloride permeability test (RCPT); this test is short in duration and provides rapid results. This study presents a numerical formulation, based on the extended Nernst-Plank/Poisson (NPP) equation, to model the effect of the surface treatment on a sample tested by RCPT. Predictions of the model are compared to experimental measurements. The simulations show that the results from RCPT, in terms of ionic profiles and measurement of the electric field, are dependent on the effectiveness of surface treatments. During RCPT, highly effective surface treatments cause both cations and anions to flocculate at the interface between the surface treatment and the concrete, creating a local electric field. Our numerical model includes these phenomena and presents a methodology to obtain more accurate diffusivities of the surface-treated- concrete from RCPT. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Prediction of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Structure Using Meshless Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Yao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Degradation of RC structures due to chloride penetration followed by reinforcement corrosion is a serious problem in civil engineering. The numerical simulation methods at present mainly involve finite element methods (FEM, which are based on mesh generation. In this study, element-free Galerkin (EFG and meshless weighted least squares (MWLS methods are used to solve the problem of simulation of chloride diffusion in concrete. The range of a scaling parameter is presented using numerical examples based on meshless methods. One- and two-dimensional numerical examples validated the effectiveness and accuracy of the two meshless methods by comparing results obtained by MWLS with results computed by EFG and FEM and results calculated by an analytical method. A good agreement is obtained among MWLS and EFG numerical simulations and the experimental data obtained from an existing marine concrete structure. These results indicate that MWLS and EFG are reliable meshless methods that can be used for the prediction of chloride ingress in concrete structures.

  2. Evaluation of Phenylephrine Stability in Polyvinyl Chloride Bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldland, Alan R.; Kiser, Tyree H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Phenylephrine hydrochloride (HCl) is commonly used to maintain adequate blood pressure during shock and shocklike states. Phenylephrine is prepared in concentrated stock vials that require further dilution prior to administration. This study evaluated the physical and chemical stability of phenylephrine in extemporaneously prepared polyvinyl chloride (PVC) bags. Methods: Phenylephrine HCl 10 mg/mL solution was diluted with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection to final concentrations of 200 µg/mL and 400 µg/mL and stored at room temperature (23°C-25°C) exposed to fluorescent light. Stability of phenylephrine HCl was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography on days 0, 7, 14, 21, 30, 45, and 60. Results: Phenylephrine HCl 200 and 400 µg/mL solutions in PVC bags were physically stable during the entire 60-day study period. Phenylephrine HCl retained > 95% of the original concentration. Conclusion: Phenylephrine HCl diluted to 200 or 400 µg/mL with 0.9% sodium chloride for injection is both physically and chemically stable for a period of 60 days with ≤5% degradation when stored at room temperature and exposed to fluorescent lighting. PMID:24958958

  3. Stannic chloride impregnated chitosan for defluoridation of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahu, Shashikant; Shekhawat, Anita; Saravanan, D; Jugade, Ravin

    2017-11-01

    Chitosan, a potent amino polysaccharide, has been impregnated with Sn(IV) chloride for effective adsorption of fluoride from water. The Sn(IV) chloride impregnated chitosan was synthesized using microwave assisted technique. The material was thoroughly characterized using FTIR, SEM, EDX and XRD. The decrease in surface area and pore volume has been revealed from BET studies. Enhanced thermal stability of this material was ascertained by TGA-DTA studies. This Sn(IV) chloride impregnated chitosan(Sn-Ch) has been exploited for its defluoridation property. Various parameters like pH, amount of adsorbent, adsorption time etc have been optimized to achieve maximum defluoridation efficiency. Under optimum conditions, Sn-Ch was found to have adsorption capacity of 17. 63mg/g. The equilibrium studies showed that the data fits well with Freundlich isotherm model. Thermodynamics and kinetics parameters have been evaluated. The material has been applied for the defluoridation of real water sample. It was found to be recyclable material and can be regenerated and reused multiple times adding a greener dimension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vigier, Jean-François, E-mail: jean-francois.vigier@ec.europa.eu [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Laplace, Annabelle [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Renard, Catherine [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France); Miguirditchian, Manuel [CEA, Nuclear Energy Division, Radiochemistry & Processes Department, F-30207 Bagnols sur Cèze (France); Abraham, Francis [Unité de Catalyse et de Chimie du Solide, UCCS UMR CNRS 8181, Univ. Lille Nord de France, ENSCL-USTL, B.P. 90108, 59652 Villeneuve d' Ascq Cedex (France)

    2016-06-15

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10{sup −4.0}, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl{sub 3} precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO{sub 2} powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation. - Highlights: • Precipitation of Uranium (III) is quantitative in molten salt LiCl-CaCl{sub 2} (30–70 mol%). • The salt is oxoacid with a water dissociation constant of 10{sup −4.0} at 705 °C. • Volatility of uranium chloride is strongly reduced in reductive conditions. • Coprecipitation of U(III) and Nd(III) leads to a consecutive precipitation of the two elements.

  5. Stabilized gold nanoparticles by laser ablation in ferric chloride solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouraddini, M. I.; Ranjbar, M.; Dobson, P. J.; Farrokhpour, H.; Johnston, C.; Jurkschat, K.

    2017-12-01

    In this study, laser ablation of gold was performed in different ferric chloride solutions and water as a reference. The ferric chloride solutions included hexachloro iron(III) and aquachloro iron(III) having low and high hydrolysis degree. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images showed spherical gold nanoparticles (GNPs) in water, particles which are strongly agglomerated with intimate contact at their interfaces in hexachloro iron(III) and individual separated particles with a halo of an iron component in aquachloro iron(III). In addition, no combination of Au and Fe was found in HAADF analysis or X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns. In optical investigations, it was observed that gold nanoparticles made in hexachloro iron(III) solutions have localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks broader than in the case of water that are quenched after a few hours, while ablation in the aquachloro iron(III) solution provides narrow LSPR absorption with a long-term stability. According to X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) there are metallic Au and Fe2+ states in the drop-casted samples. By comparison of cyclic voltammetry of solutions before and after laser ablation, strong agglomeration in hexachloro iron(III) was attributed to the reducing role of iron(III) creating an unstable gold surface in the chloride solution. In aquachloro iron(III), however, the observed stability was attributed to the formation of the halo of an iron compound around the particles.

  6. Chloride transport and chloride thresholdvalues-Studies on concretes and mortars with Portland cement and limestone blended cement

    OpenAIRE

    Boubitsas, Dimitrios

    2015-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is one of the most widely used building materials and if it is properly designed and produced, it is an extremely durable material with a service life up to 100 years. However, under certain environmental conditions the service life of reinforced concrete structures is more limited. Deterioration of concrete structure is in most cases caused by the penetration of aggressive media from the surrounding environment. Chloride initiated reinforcement corrosion is one of t...

  7. Preparation and characterization of poly-(methacrylatoethyl trimethylammonium chloride-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-ethylene dimethacrylate monolith

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eko Malis

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A polymer monolithic column, poly-(methacrylatoethyltrimethylammonium chloride-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-ethylene dimethacrylate or poly-(MATE-co-VBC-co-EDMA was successfully prepared in the current study by one-step thermally initiated in situ polymerization, confined in a steel tubing of 0.5 mm i.d. and 1/16” o.d. The monoliths were prepared from methacrylatoethyltrimethylammonium chloride (MATE and vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC as monomer and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA as crosslinker using a binary porogen system of 1-propanol and 1,4-butanediol. The inner wall of steel tubing was pretreated with 3-methacryloxypropyl-trimethoxysilane (MAPS. In order to obtain monolith with adequate column efficiency and low flow resistance, some parameters such as total monomer concentration (%T and crosslinker concentration (%C were optimized. The morphology of this monolith was assessed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The properties of the monolithic column, such as permeability, binding capacity, and pore size distribution were also characterized in detail. From the results of the characterization of all monolith variation, monolith with %T 30 %C 50 and %T 35 %C 50 give the best characteristic. These monoliths have high permeability, adequate molecular recognition sites (represented with binding capacity value of over 20 mg/mL, and have over 80% flow through pores in their pore structure contribute to low flow resistance. The resulted monolithic columns have promising potential for dual mode liquid chromatography. MATE may contribute for anion-exchange while VBC may responsible for reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

  8. Continuous microcellular foaming of polyvinyl chloride and compatibilization of polyvinyl chloride and polylactide composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Bhavesh

    This dissertation focuses on overcoming existing limitations of WPCs which prevent them from realizing their full market potential. These limitations include: (i) lack of a continuous extrusion process for microcellular foaming of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and its composites using supercritical fluids to reduce the high density of the WPCs, (ii) need for an efficient coupling agent for WPCs to overcome the poor compatibility between wood and plastic, and (iii) unproven use of wood as a filler for the biopolymer polylactide (PLA) to make "green" composites. These limitations were addressed through experimentation to develop a continuous extrusion process for microcellular foaming, and through surface modification of wood flour using natural coupling agents. The effects of wood flour, acrylic modifier and plasticizer content on the rheological properties of PVC based WPCs were studied using an extrusion capillary rheometer and a two-level factorial design. Wood flour content and acrylic modifier content were the major factors affecting the die swell ratio. Addition of plasticizer decreased the true viscosity of unfilled and filled PVC, irrespective of the acrylic modifier content. However, the addition of acrylic modifier significantly increased the viscosity of unfilled PVC but decreased the composite viscosity. Results of the rheological study were used to set baseline conditions for the continuous extrusion foaming of PVC WPCs using supercritical CO 2. Effects of material composition and processing conditions on the morphology of foamed samples were investigated. Foamed samples were produced using various material compositions and processing conditions, but steady-state conditions could not be obtained for PVC. Thus the relationships could not be determined. Incompatibility between wood flour and PVC was the focus of another study. The natural polymers chitin and chitosan were used as novel coupling agents to improve interfacial adhesion between the polymer matrix

  9. 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride as an effective corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel current collectors in magnesium chloride complex electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung Hoon; Cho, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Jong Hak; Cho, Byung Won; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2017-07-01

    Corrosion of current collectors is one of the most significant issues to tackle in rechargeable magnesium batteries where chloride-abundant electrolytes are commonly used since it can affect the electrochemical performance and the safety of battery system seriously. Here we investigate 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride ionic liquid as an effective corrosion inhibitor of the current collector in an electrolyte containing magnesium chloride complex. We find that adding just 0.2 wt.% ionic liquid increases the anodic stability of common current collectors by 0.1-0.3 V while maintaining the coulombic efficiencies for Mg deposition and stripping at over 98%. In particular, analytical studies of the passive film formed on 316L stainless steel show that the inhibitor efficiently prevents the formation of corrosion pits and preserves the protective property of the passive film upon repeated anodic scans. Furthermore, the inhibitor enables almost 100% efficiencies in the full cell cycling with Mo6S8 cathode, reflecting higher anodic stability of the current collectors in the electrolyte containing the inhibitor. We propose that the formation of an adsorbed layer of the ionic liquid as a plausible corrosion inhibition mechanism.

  10. A pH-independent DNA nanodevice for quantifying chloride transport in organelles of living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Sonali; Prakash, Ved; Halder, Saheli; Chakraborty, Kasturi; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of chloride ions in the cytoplasm and subcellular organelles of living cells spans a wide range (5-130 mM), and is tightly regulated by intracellular chloride channels or transporters. Chloride-sensitive protein reporters have been used to study the role of these chloride regulators, but they are limited to a small range of chloride concentrations and are pH-sensitive. Here, we show that a DNA nanodevice can precisely measure the activity and location of subcellular chloride channels and transporters in living cells in a pH-independent manner. The DNA nanodevice, called Clensor, is composed of sensing, normalizing and targeting modules, and is designed to localize within organelles along the endolysosomal pathway. It allows fluorescent, ratiometric sensing of chloride ions across the entire physiological regime. We used Clensor to quantitate the resting chloride concentration in the lumen of acidic organelles in Drosophila melanogaster. We showed that lumenal lysosomal chloride, which is implicated in various lysosomal storage diseases, is regulated by the intracellular chloride transporter DmClC-b.

  11. Synthesis and antibiotic activity of 1-cycloalkoxymethyl-4-dimethylaminopyridinium and 1-[(1-alkoxy)ethyl]-4-dimethylaminopyridinium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Michalak, L; Krysinski, J; Kuncewicz, Z

    1995-06-01

    DMAP reacts readily with chloromethylcycloalkyl ethers and alpha-chloroethyl alkyl ethers to give stable (1a-1e) and unstable (2a-2h) pyridinium chlorides. Reaction of these chlorides with NaOH produces the corresponding 4-pyridones. All the chlorides synthesized showed antibiotic activity. Particularly high activity against microbes representing cocci, rods, fungi, and bacilli was shown by 1-cyclododecyloxymethyl-4-dimethylaminopyridinium chloride 1d and 1-[(1-dodecyloxy)ethyl]-4-dimethylaminopyridinium chloride 2f.

  12. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenthal Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual

  13. Chemistry and Spectroscopy of Frozen Chloride Salts on Icy Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Paul; Thomas, Elena C.; Hodyss, Robert; Vu, Tuan; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    Currently, our understanding of the chemical composition of Europa's surface is our best means of inferring constraints on the subsurface ocean composition and its subsequent habitability. The bulk of our knowledge of Europa surface chemistry can be traced to near infrared spectra recorded by the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer on the Galileo spacecraft. However, the usefulness of this and other remote sensing data is limited by the availability of spectral libraries of candidate materials under relevant conditions (temperature, thermal/radiation history, etc.). Chloride salts are expected to exist on the surface of Europa, and other icy bodies, based on geochemical predictions of the ocean composition. In order to help improve our understanding of Europa's surface composition, we have conducted a study of frozen chloride-salt brines prepared under simulated Europa surface conditions (vacuum, temperature, and UV irradiation) using both near IR and Raman spectroscopies. Specifically, Raman spectroscopy was used to determine the hydration states of various chloride salts as a function of temperature. Near IR spectroscopy of identically prepared samples was used to provide reference reflectance spectra of the identified hydrated salts. Our results indicate that at temperatures ranging from 80 K to 233 K, hydrohalite is formed from the freezing of NaCl brines, while the freezing of KCl solutions does not form KCl hydrates. In addition, the freezing of MgCl2 solutions forms a stable hexahydrate, and the freezing of CaCl2 solutions forms a hexahydrate, a tetrahydrate, and a dihydrate. Dehydration of the salts was observed as temperatures were increased, leading to a succession of hydration states in the case of CaCl2.

  14. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 degrees C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not

  15. Effects of methylmercury chloride on rat incisor odontoblasts and dentinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, J E

    1984-08-01

    Methylmercury chloride, a well-known nerve cell toxicant, was administered to 40 rats in 2 groups, in doses of 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg. Histomorphologic investigation of maxillary incisors after 2 and 4 days revealed granular and hydropic changes in parts of the odontoblastema. Deposition of interglobular dentin was seen after 7 and 11 days. The most vulnerable cells seemed to be the mantle dentin-producing odontoblasts, and the alterations found are probably due to interference with the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

  16. Effect Of Adsorption Of Tetrabutylammonium Chloride In Polarography

    OpenAIRE

    Hamza, A. [عبد الغني حمزة; Amireh, Tawfiq A.; Al-Doudam, Saeed H.

    1994-01-01

    The polarographic behaviour of chromate, iodate and zinc has been investigated in the presence of different concentrations of tetrabutylammonium chloride in 0.1 M Na2SO4 and 0.1 M H2SO4. The effect of organic compound on the half-wave potential and on the limiting current of the polarographic wave was investigated. The results are discussed in terms of displacement of these species from the electrode surface by the adsorbed orga'nic species and the retardation of the charge-transfer process. ...

  17. Electrochemical Migration on Electronic Chip Resistors in Chloride Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minzari, Daniel; Jellesen, Morten Stendahl; Møller, Per

    2009-01-01

    Electrochemical migration behavior of end terminals on ceramic chip resistors (CCRs) was studied using a novel experimental setup in varying sodium chloride concentrations from 0 to 1000 ppm. The chip resistor used for the investigation was 10-kΩ CCR size 0805 with end terminals made of 97Sn3Pb...... alloy. Anodic polarization behavior of the electrode materials was investigated using a microelectrochemical setup. Material makeup of the chip resistor was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM)/energy dispersive spectroscopy and focused-ion-beam SEM. Results showed that the dissolution...

  18. Chlorine and hydrogen chloride gas emissions cleaning in vinylchloride production

    OpenAIRE

    Гармаш, Роман Вікторович

    2013-01-01

    The paper gives the data on mathematical modeling of simultaneous absorption of chlorine and hydrogen chloride by alkaline solutions. The mathematical model of the process includes the system of differential equations of component-wise material balance and the system of kinetic equations. The system of material balance equations describes the change in concentrations of components along the column height. For its solving it is necessary to know the numerical values of chemisorption accelerati...

  19. QUALITY OF YOGHURTS FROM GOAT'S MILK ENRICHED WITH MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Agata Znamirowska; Dorota Kalicka; Małgorzata Pawlos; Katarzyna Szajnar

    2015-01-01

    Goat’s milk can be enriched with magnesium in the form of chloride before pasteurization with a save dose, i.e. 20 mg of magnesium for 100 g of milk. Higher doses of magnesium can lead to coagulation of proteins since together with the increase of the dose of fortification there increases general acidity while pH of milk decreases. Together with the increase of the dose of fortification of yoghurts with magnesium there was shown an essential proportional increase of acidity and hardness of cu...

  20. Chloride Migration in Heterogeneous Soil - 1. Experimental Methodology and Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sassner, Mona; Jensen, Karsten Høgh; Destouni, Georgia

    1994-01-01

    was estimated to about 10 m. The ratio between the arrival time of the peak in chloride concentration and the water residence time given by the measured flow parameters indicated a mobile water content that was smaller than the measured water content. The large variability in hydraulic conductivity in both......, the individual monoliths showed large and irregular variability in their soil characteristics and in their flow and transport properties. The distribution of the specific discharge of water could be quantified by a bimodal distribution; the horizontal correlation length for the specific discharge of water...

  1. Concrete Carbonation and Chloride Resistance Under Initial Hot Water Curing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Guo; Li, Xiaoling L.; Wei, Rongrong R.; Du, Jianmin M.; Wu, Xiaosuo S.

    2014-01-01

    Three concrete mix proportions were designed and prepared, respectively, such as fly ash concrete (abbreviated as “FAC”) with 30% fly ash replacement ratio of cement, fly ash, and slag concrete (abbreviated as “FSC”) with each of 20% fly ash and slag replacement ratio and ordinary Portland cement concrete (abbreviated as “OPC”) for the research of carbonation and chloride resistance of concrete under different initial hot water curing. Specimens with precuring were put into 20°C water tank fo...

  2. Corrosion Resistance of Some Stainless Steels in Chloride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasprzyk D.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work compares corrosion behaviour of four types of S30403, S31603, S32615 austenitic and S32404 austenitic-ferritic stainless steels in chloride solutions (1%, 3% NaCl and in Ringer solution, at 37°C temperature. Corrosion resistance was determined by potentiodynamic polarization measurements and a thirty day immersion test conducted in Ringer solution. The immersion test was performed in term of biomedical application. These alloy were spontaneously passivated in all electrolytes, wherein S30403, S31603 and S32404 undergo pitting corrosion. Only S32615 containing 5.5% Si shows resistance to pitting corrosion.

  3. Chlorination of (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc by Thionyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pincer (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc (2 (Phebox = 3,5-dimethylphenyl-2,6-bis(oxazolinyl complex, formed by benzylic C-H activation of mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene using (PheboxIr(OAc2OH2 (1, was treated with thionyl chloride to rapidly form 1-(chloromethyl-3,5-dimethylbenzene in 50% yield at 23 °C. A green species was obtained at the end of reaction, which decomposed during flash column chromatography to form (PheboxIrCl2OH2 in 87% yield.

  4. Interactions between chloride and sulfate or silica removals using an advanced lime-aluminum softening process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, Ahmed; Batchelor, Bill

    2006-12-01

    An advanced softening process called the ultra-high lime with aluminum process (UHLA) was initiated in this research. The UHLA process has the ability to remove sulfate, silica, and chloride from waters such as recycled cooling water and desalination brines. Furthermore, it can remove other scale-forming materials, such as calcium, magnesium, carbonate, and phosphate. The purpose of this paper is to study the interactions among chloride, sulfate, and silica in the UHLA process. Results of equilibrium experiments indicated that sulfate is preferentially removed over chloride. Final chloride concentration increased with increasing initial sulfate concentration. However, initial chloride concentration was found to have negligible effect on final sulfate concentration. Silica was found to have only a small effect on chloride removal.

  5. Antiviral effect of lithium chloride on infection of cells by canine parvovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Fu, Xinliang; Yan, Zhongshan; Fang, Bo; Huang, San; Fu, Cheng; Hong, Malin; Li, Shoujun

    2015-11-01

    Canine parvovirus type 2 causes significant viral disease in dogs, with high morbidity, high infectivity, and high mortality. Lithium chloride is a potential antiviral drug for viruses. We determined the antiviral effect of Lithium Chloride on canine parvovirus type 2 in feline kidney cells. The viral DNA and proteins of canine parvovirus were suppressed in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. Further investigation verified that viral entry into cells was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by lithium chloride. These results indicated that lithium chloride could be a potential antiviral drug for curing dogs with canine parvovirus infection. The specific steps of canine parvovirus entry into cells that are affected by lithium chloride and its antiviral effect in vivo should be explored in future studies.

  6. Chloride analysis in magnesium metal using ion chromatography with conductometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sangita D; Tripathi, V S; Shenoy, Niyoti; Maiti, B

    2004-08-13

    A simple, rapid and accurate method for the determination of chloride in magnesium metal has been developed. The quantitative determination of chloride was accomplished by anion exchange chromatography with conductometric determination. A Metrosep Anion Dual 2 analytical column connected in series with a Metrosep RP guard column was used for chloride separation. A solution containing a mixture of 1.3 mM Na2CO3 and 2 mM NaHCO3 was used as eluent. The method requires a sample dissolution using nitric acid. The limit of detection for the determination of chloride is 50 mg kg(-1) and the relative standard deviation was 5% for the overall method. The recovery of chloride added was 99-102%. No interference was observed from either the closely eluting "system peak" or the nitrate peak in the determination of chloride.

  7. Synaptic Conversion of Chloride-Dependent Synapses in Spinal Nociceptive Circuits: Roles in Neuropathic Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Mark S; Przebinda, Adam S.

    2011-01-01

    Electrophysiological conversion of chloride-dependent synapses from inhibitory to excitatory function, as a result of aberrant neuronal chloride homeostasis, is a known mechanism for the genesis of neuropathic pain. This paper examines theoretically how this type of synaptic conversion can disrupt circuit logic in spinal nociceptive circuits. First, a mathematical scaling factor is developed to represent local aberration in chloride electrochemical driving potential. Using this mathematical ...

  8. Methylene Chloride Alternative HAP-Free Chemical Paint Strippers at Anniston Army Depot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    DATES COVERED 00-00-2010 to 00-00-2010 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Methylene Chloride Alternative HAP-Free Chemical Paint Strippers at Anniston Army... Chloride Alternative HAP-Free Chemical Paint Strippers at Anniston Army Depot Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Report Documentation... Methylene Chloride in the immersion paint stripping process at ANAD? Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Survey HAP emitting Army

  9. On the corrosion of reinforcing steels in concrete in the presence of chlorides

    OpenAIRE

    R. Genin, Jean Marie; Raharinaivo, Andre

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to give a scientific justification to some empirical results, in steel corrosion field, from concrete containing chlorides. First, it appears that corrosion products on the steels, have different structures and natures in function of the chloride content would be inferior or superior to a characteristic value. Second, the penetration of the chlorides in the concrete can be described by a simple Fick's diffusion law in the most frecuent cases. When cement...

  10. Characteristic X-ray imaging for palliative therapy using strontium-89 chloride: understanding the mechanism of nuclear medicine imaging of strontium-89 chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owaki, Yoshiki; Inoue, Kazumasa; Narita, Hiroto; Tsuda, Keisuke; Fukushi, Masahiro

    2017-06-01

    Strontium-89 (Sr-89) chloride is a targeted palliative therapy used for painful bone metastasis in which repeated doses can be administered, and its usefulness has been reported in the case of bone metastasis of various primary tumors. However, the effectiveness of the pain relief treatment is only described using a subjective index such as the visual analog scale, which lacks objectivity. Although various attempts at quantifying the effectiveness of Sr-89 chloride therapy have been reported using nuclear medicine imaging for energy peaks around 70-80 keV, the principle of Sr-89 chloride imaging has not been explained. In this study, the principle of nuclear medicine imaging for Sr-89 chloride was evaluated using a fundamental study. Additionally, the optimal collimator for acquiring Sr-89 chloride image data was evaluated. Based on the results, the principle of nuclear medicine imaging for Sr-89 chloride could be explained: the energy peaks were characteristic X-rays produced by interactions between gamma rays (514 keV) emitted from Sr-85, which is included during the manufacturing process of the Sr-89 chloride solution, and the lead collimator used in the imaging. The optimal collimator for generating characteristic X-rays efficiently was identified as a middle-to-high energy collimator.

  11. The influence of Group I metal chlorides on water loss and chloride release from magnesium oxychloride cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Cannesson

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The water loss and chloride release from four different formulations of magnesium oxychloride cement have been studied. The formulations were all based on 25% m/m aqueous MgCl2 and the solutions employed to prepare cements consisted of either MgCl2:water or MgCl2:aqueous MCl (M = Li, Na or K, all MCl salts at 1 mol dm-3. Solutions were mixed with solid MgO at a ratio of 1:1 (m/v and allowed to harden at room temperature for 1 hour. Five disc-shaped specimens (6 mm diameter × 2 mm thickness of each were prepared, stored in a desiccating atmosphere and weighed at regular intervals. All were found to lose water rapidly, equilibrating within three hours. Water loss was Fickian to values of Mt/M∞ of around 0.7 in all cases. Diffusion coefficients were slightly smaller than for the additive-free cement (1.52 × 10-6 cm2/s and fell in the range 1.27-1.39 × 10-6 cm2/s. Equilibrium water losses varied from 23.1% (with NaCl to 20.0% (with KCl, but only with NaCl did the value differ significantly from that for the additive-free cement (20.7%. Chloride release was increased by the presence of the additives. It followed a consistent pattern, with a maximum generally at about 5 hours, followed by a reduction up to 2 weeks (336 hours. This shows that a proportion of the released chloride was taken back up as the cement matured.

  12. Investigation of factors affecting the accumulation of vinyl chloride in polyvinyl chloride piping used in drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Ryan K; Lin, Po-Hsun; Edwards, Marc; Richardson, Ruth E

    2011-04-01

    Plastic piping made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and chlorinated PVC (CPVC), is being increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Given the formulation of the material from vinyl chloride (VC), there has been concern that the VC (a confirmed human carcinogen) can leach from the plastic piping into drinking water. PVC/CPVC pipe reactors in the laboratory and tap samples collected from consumers homes (n = 15) revealed vinyl chloride accumulation in the tens of ng/L range after a few days and hundreds of ng/L after two years. While these levels did not exceed the EPA's maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 2 μg/L, many readings that simulated stagnation times in homes (overnight) exceeded the MCL-Goal of 0 μg/L. Considerable differences in VC levels were seen across different manufacturers, while aging and biofilm effects were generally small. Preliminary evidence suggests that VC may accumulate not only via chemical leaching from the plastic piping, but also as a disinfection byproduct (DBP) via a chlorine-dependent reaction. This is supported from studies with CPVC pipe reactors where chlorinated reactors accumulated more VC than dechlorinated reactors, copper pipe reactors that accumulated VC in chlorinated reactors and not in dechlorinated reactors, and field samples where VC levels were the same before and after flushing the lines where PVC/CPVC fittings were contributing. Free chlorine residual tests suggest that VC may be formed as a secondary, rather than primary, DBP. Further research and additional studies need to be conducted in order to elucidate reaction mechanisms and tease apart relative contributions of VC accumulation from PVC/CPVC piping and chlorine-dependent reactions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Speciation of copper(II) complexes in an ionic liquid based on choline chloride and in choline chloride/water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vreese, Peter; Brooks, Neil R; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Matthijs, Edward; Binnemans, Koen; Van Deun, Rik

    2012-05-07

    A deep-eutectic solvent with the properties of an ionic liquid is formed when choline chloride is mixed with copper(II) chloride dihydrate in a 1:2 molar ratio. EXAFS and UV-vis-near-IR optical absorption spectroscopy have been used to compare the coordination sphere of the cupric ion in this ionic liquid with that of the cupric ion in solutions of 0.1 M of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O in solvents with varying molar ratios of choline chloride and water. The EXAFS data show that species with three chloride ions and one water molecule coordinated to the cupric ion as well as species with two chloride molecules and two water molecules coordinated to the cupric ion are present in the ionic liquid. On the other hand, a fully hydrated copper(II) ion is formed in an aqueous solution free of choline chloride, and the tetrachlorocuprate(II) complex forms in aqueous choline chloride solutions with more than 50 wt % of choline chloride. In solutions with between 0 and 50 wt % of choline chloride, mixed chloro-aquo complexes occur. Upon standing at room temperature, crystals of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O and of Cu(choline)Cl(3) formed in the ionic liquid. Cu(choline)Cl(3) is the first example of a choline cation coordinating to a transition-metal ion. Crystals of [choline](3)[CuCl(4)][Cl] and of [choline](4)[Cu(4)Cl(10)O] were also synthesized from molecular or ionic liquid solvents, and their crystal structures were determined.

  14. A genetically-encoded YFP sensor with enhanced chloride sensitivity, photostability and reduced ph interference demonstrates augmented transmembrane chloride movement by gerbil prestin (SLC26a5.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Zhong

    Full Text Available Chloride is the major anion in cells, with many diseases arising from disordered Cl- regulation. For the non-invasive investigation of Cl- flux, YFP-H148Q and its derivatives chameleon and Cl-Sensor previously were introduced as genetically encoded chloride indicators. Neither the Cl- sensitivity nor the pH-susceptibility of these modifications to YFP is optimal for precise measurements of Cl- under physiological conditions. Furthermore, the relatively poor photostability of YFP derivatives hinders their application for dynamic and quantitative Cl- measurements. Dynamic and accurate measurement of physiological concentrations of chloride would significantly affect our ability to study effects of chloride on cellular events.In this study, we developed a series of YFP derivatives to remove pH interference, increase photostability and enhance chloride sensitivity. The final product, EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP, has a chloride Kd of 14 mM and pKa of 5.9. The bleach time constant of 175 seconds is over 15-fold greater than wild-type EYFP. We have used the sensor fused to the transmembrane protein prestin (gerbil prestin, SLC26a5, and shown for the first time physiological (mM chloride flux in HEK cells expressing this protein. This modified fluorescent protein will facilitate investigations of dynamics of chloride ions and their mediation of cell function.Modifications to YFP (EYFP-F46L/Q69K/H148Q/I152L/V163S/S175G/S205V/A206K (monomeric Cl-YFP results in a photostable fluorescent protein that allows measurement of physiological changes in chloride concentration while remaining minimally affected by changes in pH.

  15. Chloride:Sodium Ratio May Accurately Predict Corrected Chloride Disorders and the Presence of Unmeasured Anions in Dogs and Cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggs, Robert; Myers, Marc; De Rosa, Sage; Zager, Erik; Fletcher, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Disorders of chloride and mixed acid-base disturbances are common in veterinary emergency medicine. Rapid identification of these alterations and the presence of unmeasured anions aid prompt patient assessment and management. This study aimed to determine in dogs and cats if site-specific reference values for [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and [Na+] - [Cl-] difference accurately identify corrected chloride abnormalities and to evaluate the predictive ability of the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio for the identification of unmeasured anions. A database containing 33,117 canine, and 7,604 feline blood gas and electrolyte profiles was generated. Institution reference intervals were used to calculate site-specific reference values for the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and the [Na+] - [Cl-] difference. Contingency tables were used to assess the ability of these values to correctly identify corrected chloride disorders. Unmeasured anions were estimated by calculating strong ion gap (SIG). Continuous variables were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Correlations between continuous variables were assessed using Spearman's rho (rs). In dogs, site-specific reference values for the [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio correctly identified 94.6% of profiles as hyper-, normo-, or hypochloremic. For dogs with normal sodium concentrations, site-specific reference values for the [Na+] - [Cl-] difference correctly identified 97.0% of profiles. In dogs with metabolic acidosis (base deficit > 4.0), [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and SIG were moderately but significantly negatively correlated (rs -0.592, P SIG was significantly greater in dogs with metabolic acidosis and hypochloremia compared to those without hypochloremia (P SIG were moderately significantly negatively correlated (rs -0.730, P SIG was significantly greater in cats with metabolic acidosis and hypochloremia compared to those without hypochloremia (P < 0.0001). Site-specific values for [Cl-]:[Na+] ratio and [Na+] - [Cl-] difference accurately identify

  16. Accurate ab initio vibrational energies of methyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, Alec, E-mail: owens@mpi-muelheim.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Yachmenev, Andrey; Tennyson, Jonathan [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, WC1E 6BT London (United Kingdom); Thiel, Walter [Max-Planck-Institut für Kohlenforschung, Kaiser-Wilhelm-Platz 1, 45470 Mülheim an der Ruhr (Germany)

    2015-06-28

    Two new nine-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been generated using high-level ab initio theory for the two main isotopologues of methyl chloride, CH{sub 3}{sup 35}Cl and CH{sub 3}{sup 37}Cl. The respective PESs, CBS-35{sup  HL}, and CBS-37{sup  HL}, are based on explicitly correlated coupled cluster calculations with extrapolation to the complete basis set (CBS) limit, and incorporate a range of higher-level (HL) additive energy corrections to account for core-valence electron correlation, higher-order coupled cluster terms, scalar relativistic effects, and diagonal Born-Oppenheimer corrections. Variational calculations of the vibrational energy levels were performed using the computer program TROVE, whose functionality has been extended to handle molecules of the form XY {sub 3}Z. Fully converged energies were obtained by means of a complete vibrational basis set extrapolation. The CBS-35{sup  HL} and CBS-37{sup  HL} PESs reproduce the fundamental term values with root-mean-square errors of 0.75 and 1.00 cm{sup −1}, respectively. An analysis of the combined effect of the HL corrections and CBS extrapolation on the vibrational wavenumbers indicates that both are needed to compute accurate theoretical results for methyl chloride. We believe that it would be extremely challenging to go beyond the accuracy currently achieved for CH{sub 3}Cl without empirical refinement of the respective PESs.

  17. Purification of biodiesel by choline chloride based deep eutectic solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niawanti, Helda; Zullaikah, Siti; Rachimoellah, M.

    2017-05-01

    Purification is a crucial step in biodiesel production to meet the biodiesel standard. This study purified biodiesel using choline chloride based deep eutectic solvent (DES). DES was used to reduce unreacted oil and unsaponifiable matter in rice bran oil based biodiesel. The objective of this work was to study the effect of extraction time using DES on the content and yield of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME). Rice bran used in this work contains 16.49 % of oil with initial free fatty acids (FFA) of 44.75 %. Acid catalyzed methanolysis was employed to convert rice bran oil (RBO) into biodiesel under following operation conditions: T = 60 °C, t = 8 h, molar ratio of oil to methanol = 1/10, H2SO4 = 1% w/w of oil. Rice bran oil based biodiesel obtained contain 89.05 % of FAME with very low FFA content (0.05 %). DES was made from a mixture of choline chloride and ethylene glycol with molar ratio of 1/2. Molar ratio of crude biodiesel to DES were 1/2 and 1/4. Extraction time was varied from 15 minutes to 240 minutes at 30 °C. The highest FAME content was obtained after purification for 240 min. at molar ratio crude biodiesel to DES 1/4 was 96.60 %. This work shows that DES has potential to purify biodiesel from non-edible raw material, such as RBO.

  18. Enhanced surface photochemistry in chloride-nitrate ion mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingen, Lisa M; Moskun, Amy C; Johnson, Stanley N; Thomas, Jennie L; Roeselová, Martina; Tobias, Douglas J; Kleinman, Michael T; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2008-10-01

    Heterogeneous reactions of sea salt aerosol with various oxides of nitrogen lead to replacement of chloride ion by nitrate ion. Studies of the photochemistry of a model system were carried out using deliquesced mixtures of NaCl and NaNO3 on a Teflon substrate. Varying molar ratios of NaCl to NaNO3 (1 : 9 Cl- : NO3-, 1 : 1 Cl- : NO3-, 3 : 1 Cl- : NO3-, 9 : 1 Cl- : NO3-) and NaNO3 at the same total concentration were irradiated in air at 299 +/- 3 K and at a relative humidity of 75 +/- 8% using broadband UVB light (270-380 nm). Gaseous NO2 production was measured as a function of time using a chemiluminescence NO(y) detector. Surprisingly, an enhanced yield of NO2 was observed as the chloride to nitrate ratio increased. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations show that as the Cl- : NO3- ratio increases, the nitrate ions are drawn closer to the interface due to the existence of a double layer of interfacial Cl- and subsurface Na+. This leads to a decreased solvent cage effect when the nitrate ion photodissociates to NO2+O*-, increasing the effective quantum yield and hence the production of gaseous NO2. The implications of enhanced NO2 and likely OH production as sea salt aerosols become processed in the atmosphere are discussed.

  19. Raman spectroscopic study of uranyl complex in alkali chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki, E-mail: tosiyuki@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Nuclear Engineering Science, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010, Asashiro Nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Uda, Takeshi [Division of Nuclear Engineering Science, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010, Asashiro Nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto daigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Iwadate, Yasuhiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Yayoi 1-33, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Nagai, Takayuki [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Lab., Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Uehara, Akihiro; Yamana, Hajimu [Division of Nuclear Engineering Science, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010, Asashiro Nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    Raman spectra of alkali chloride melts containing 3 mol% U(VI) were measured at 823 K. The complexation of UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup 2-} in binary mixtures of LiCl-KCl, LiCl-RbCl, and LiCl-CsCl was investigated. The spectrum of UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup 2-} obtained was characterized by Raman active vibration modes, that is, totally symmetric stretching vibrations A{sub 1g} (ν{sub 1}: OUO) and A{sub 1g} (ν{sub 2}: UCl{sub 4}), and bending vibration E{sub g} (ν{sub 8:} UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). The dependence of polarizing power of solvent cations on the vibrational frequencies was clarified. The ν{sub 8} frequencies were insensitive to the change in the polarizing power. On the other hand, the ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2} frequencies increased with the rise of polarizing power. The Raman shifts suggest that the square bipyramidal structure of UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup 2-} is kept in various binary alkali chlorides, while O{sup 2−} and Cl{sup −} around U(VI) are clearly polarized by the increase of polarizing power.

  20. Sulfation of Condensed Potassium Chloride by SO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sengeløv, Louise With; Hansen, Troels Bruun; Bartolomé, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K and with rea......The interaction between alkali chloride and sulfur oxides has important implications for deposition and corrosion in combustion of biomass. In the present study, the sulfation of particulate KCl (90–125 μm) by SO2 was studied in a fixed bed reactor in the temperature range 673–1023 K...... and with reactant concentrations of 500–3000 ppm SO2, 1–20% O2, and 4–15% H2O. The degree of sulfation was monitored by measuring the formation of HCl. Analysis of the solid residue confirmed that the reaction proceeds according to a shrinking core model and showed the formation of an eutectic at higher...... temperatures. On the basis of the experimental results, a rate expression for the sulfation reaction was derived. The model compared well with literature data for sulfation of KCl and NaCl, and the results indicate that it may be applied at even higher SO2 concentrations and temperatures than those...

  1. QUALITY OF YOGHURTS FROM GOAT'S MILK ENRICHED WITH MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Znamirowska

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Goat’s milk can be enriched with magnesium in the form of chloride before pasteurization with a save dose, i.e. 20 mg of magnesium for 100 g of milk. Higher doses of magnesium can lead to coagulation of proteins since together with the increase of the dose of fortification there increases general acidity while pH of milk decreases. Together with the increase of the dose of fortification of yoghurts with magnesium there was shown an essential proportional increase of acidity and hardness of curds persisting for 21 days of storage. Enriching goat’s milk yoghurts with magnesium decreased the intensity of „goat” smell and aftertaste and did not cause a change in colour. The most favourable solution is the production of goat’s milk yoghurts enriched with 10-20 mg of magnesium in the form of magnesium chloride. Such doses of enrichment caused successive lowering of perceptibility of „goat” aftertaste and smell together with extension of storage time.

  2. Synthesis and thermal behavior of polyacrylonitrile/vinylidene chloride copolymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Fleming

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylonitrile fiber encompasses a broad range of products based on acrylonitrile (AN which is readily copolymerized with a wide range of ethylenic unsaturated monomers giving rise to polymers with different characteristics and applications. Such products can be designed for cost-effective, flame and heat resistant solutions for the textile industry, aircraft and automotive markets. In the present work acrylonitrile was copolymerized with vinylidene chloride (VDC by conventional suspension polymerization process via redox system, with an initial content of 10%/mass of the VDC monomer. The copolymer average molecular weight was obtained by Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and by intrinsic viscosity analysis. To control the polymerization process continuously, qualitative and quantitative analysis of the chloride content in the PAN AN/VDC copolymer structure was accomplished by using X-ray fluorescence and potentiometric titration techniques. A good correlation was found between these two techniques, leading to a straightforward verification of VDC in the polymer structure. The thermal behavior of PAN AN/VDC copolymer was performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA. The results showed that VDC monomers exhibited a nearly stoichiometric reaction with acrylonitrile, copolymerizing about 90% of its initial mass. VDC changed significantly the polyacrylonitrile thermal behavior, decreasing the polymer degradation temperature by about 40-50°C.

  3. Large Scale Synthesis of Carbon Nanofibres on Sodium Chloride Support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Rajarao

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Large scale synthesis of carbon nanofibres (CNFs on a sodium chloride support has been achieved. CNFs have been synthesized using metal oxalate (Ni, Co and Fe as catalyst precursors at 680 C by chemical vapour deposition method. Upon pyrolysis, this catalyst precursors yield catalyst nanoparticles directly. The sodium chloride was used as a catalyst support, it was chosen because of its non‐toxic and water soluble nature. Problems, such as the detrimental effect of CNFs, the detrimental effects on the environment and even cost, have been avoided by using a water soluble support. The structure of products was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The purity of the grown products and purified products were determined by the thermal analysis and X‐ray diffraction method. Here we report the 7600, 7000 and 6500 wt% yield of CNFs synthesized over nickel, cobalt and iron oxalate. The long, curved and worm shaped CNFs were obtained on Ni, Co and Fe catalysts respectively. The lengthy process of calcination and reduction for the preparation of catalysts is avoided in this method. This synthesis route is simple and economical, hence, it can be used for CNF synthesis in industries.

  4. Influence of sodium chloride on wine yeast fermentation performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stilianos Logothetis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Stilianos Logothetis1, Elias T Nerantzis2, Anna Gioulioti3, Tasos Kanelis2, Tataridis Panagiotis2, Graeme Walker11University of Abertay Dundee, School of Contemporary Sciences, Dundee, Scotland; 2TEI of Athens Department of Oenology and Spirit Technology, Biotechnology and Industrial Fermentations Lab Agiou Spiridonos, Athens, Greece; 3Ampeloiniki SA Industrial Park Thermi, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: This paper concerns research into the influence of salt (sodium chloride on growth, viability and fermentation performance in a winemaking strain of the yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Experimental fermentations were conducted in both laboratory-scale and industrial-scale experiments. Preculturing yeasts in elevated levels of sodium chloride, or salt “preconditioning” led to improved fermentation performance. This was manifest by preconditioned yeasts having an improved capability to ferment high-sugar containing media with increased cell viability and with elevated levels of produced ethanol. Salt-preconditioning most likely influenced the stress-tolerance of yeasts by inducing the synthesis of key metabolites such as trehalose and glycerol. These compounds may act to improve cells’ ability to withstand osmostress and ethanol toxicity during fermentations of grape must. Industrial-scale trials using salt-preconditioned yeasts verified the benefit of this novel physiological cell engineering approach to practical winemaking fermentations.Keywords: salt, preconditioning, fermentation performance, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, wine

  5. Formulation and Characterization of Cetylpyridinium Chloride Bioadhesive Tablets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Akbari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Bioadhesive polymers play an important role in biomedical and drug delivery applications. The aim of this study is to develop a sustained- release tablet for local application of Cetylpyridinium Chloride (CPC. This delivery system would supply the drug at an effective level for a long period of time, and thereby overcome the problem of the short retention time of CPC and could be used for buccal delivery as a topical anti-infective agent. Methods: CPC bioadhesive tablets were directly prepared using 7 mm flat-faced punches on a hydraulic press. The materials for each tablet were weighted, introduced into the die and compacted at constant compression pressure. The dissolution tests were performed to the rotation paddle method and the bioadhesive strength of the tablets were measured. Results: The results showed that as the concentration of polymer increased, the drug release rate was decreased. Also the type and ratio of polymers altered the release kinetic of Cetylpyridinium Chloride from investigated tablets. The bioadhesion strength increased with increasing the concentration of polymer and maximum bioadhesion strength was observed with HPMC K100M. Conclusion: The selected formulation of CPC bioadhesive tablet can be used as a suitable preparation for continuous release of CPC with appropriate bioadhesion strength.

  6. 75 FR 760 - Choline chloride; Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-06

    ...; wetting, spreading, and dispersing agents; propellants in aerosol dispensers; microencapsulating agents... be carcinogenic or mutagenic. Since the 1930's choline chloride has been used as a widespread...

  7. Properties of a conductive cellular chloride pathway in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, P

    1978-01-01

    Two types of chloride current response to a step-wise hyperpolarization of the toad skin is demonstrated: (1) An "instantaneous" response observed immediately upon voltage change, and (2) a subsequent slow response, the time course of which is sigmoidal. The slow response is due to an increase......-state phenomenon: In skins hyperpolarized for a few minutes, the "instantaneous" I-V curves show that the chloride pathway in the conducting state allows a large inward chloride current (outward chloride flux) to pass in the voltage range 40 mV greater than V greater than 0 mV. Calculations based on a three...

  8. Explosion of lithium-thionyl-chloride battery due to presence of lithium nitride

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hennesø, E.; Hedlund, Frank Huess

    2015-01-01

    An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react with atm......An explosion of a lithium–thionyl-chloride (Li–SOCl2) battery during production (assembly) leads to serious worker injury. The accident cell batch had been in a dry-air intermediate storage room for months before being readied with thionyl chloride electrolyte. Metallic lithium can react...

  9. Synthesis and bactericidal properties of pyridinium chlorides with alkylthiomethyl and alkoxymethyl hydrophobic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weglewski, J; Pernak, J; Krysinski, J

    1991-01-01

    The products of a reaction between 3-ethoxymethylpyridine and chloromethylalkyl ether or sulfide were proven to be 1-[(alkylthio)-methyl]-3-[(ethoxy)methyl]pyridinium or 1-[(alkoxy)methyl]-3-[(ethoxy)-methyl]pyridinium chlorides. Bacteriostatic properties of the obtained chlorides against 13 different microbial strains representing cocci, rods, fungi, and bacilli were studied. The MICs were measured by serial dilution. All studied chlorides showed bacteriostatic properties. Particularly high activity against microbes was shown by 1-[(dodecylthio)-methyl]-3-[(ethoxy)methyl]pyridinium and 3-[(ethoxy)methyl]-1-[(tetradecylthio)methyl]pyridinium chlorides.

  10. On the Durability of Sealable Circular Concrete Structures under Chloride Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwen Mi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforcement corrosion resulting from chloride attack is one major mechanism that compromises concrete durability. Numerical methods were commonly used for tackling Fick’s diffusion equations. In this paper, we developed a Crank-Nicolson based finite difference scheme suitable for circular concrete structures. Both a time-dependent surface chloride model and diffusivity were considered. The impact of an ideal sealer on chloride redistribution was further investigated. Results suggested that the chloride threshold depth in a concrete structure is greatly affected by the radius of curvature, environment severity, and diffusivity. For sealable concrete structures, both the sealer application timing and location are of great importance.

  11. Effect of nickel chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation and glutathione concentration in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1989-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of nickel chloride enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation (HLP) in 6-wk-old and 8-12-wk-old male CBA-mice but not in 3-wk-old mice. Nickel chloride administration depleted hepatic GSH in 8-12-wk-old mice but not in the younger age groups. After 300 mumol NiCl2/kg morta......, enhance the toxicity of nickel chloride. This might be owing to chelation of the Ni(II)-ion by BSO. The results demonstrate age dependency and a protective effect of enhanced GSH synthesis in nickel chloride stimulated HLP....

  12. Response to comments on "Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K

    2014-01-01

    We appreciate the interest in our paper and the opportunity to clarify theoretical and technical aspects describing the influence of Donnan equilibria on neuronal chloride ion (Cl(-)) distributions....

  13. Influence of chloride on the chronic toxicity of sodium nitrate to Ceriodaphnia dubia and Hyalella azteca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucek, David J; Dickinson, Amy

    2016-09-01

    While it has been well established that increasing chloride concentration in water reduces the toxicity of nitrite to freshwater species, little work has been done to investigate the effect of chloride on nitrate toxicity. We conducted acute and chronic nitrate (as sodium nitrate) toxicity tests with the cladoceran Ceriodaphnia dubia and the amphipod Hyalella azteca (chronic tests only) over a range of chloride concentrations spanning natural chloride levels found in surface waters representative of watersheds of the Great Lakes Region. Chronic nitrate toxicity test results with both crustaceans were variable, with H. azteca appearing to be one of the more sensitive invertebrate species tested and C. dubia being less sensitive. While the variability in results for H. azteca were to an extent related to chloride concentration in test water that was distinctly not the case for C. dubia. We concluded that the chloride dependent toxicity of nitrate is not universal among freshwater crustaceans. An additional sodium chloride chronic toxicity test with the US Lab strain of H. azteca in the present study suggested that when present as predominantly sodium chloride and with relatively low concentrations of other ions, there is a narrow range of chloride concentrations over which this strain is most fit, and within which toxicity test data are reliable.

  14. Taste properties of potassium chloride alone and in mixtures with sodium chloride using a check-all-that-apply method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinopoli, Dominique A; Lawless, Harry T

    2012-09-01

    As consumers try to reduce their sodium consumption for health purposes, the food industry seeks ways to reduce the sodium content in products while maintaining palatability. One potential solution for lowering sodium content is using potassium chloride (KCl) as a substitute. However, many people find KCl to have unpleasant off-tastes, which limits its effectiveness to replace sodium chloride (NaCl). This study examined the taste properties of KCl using a check-all-that-apply (CATA) ballot. The objectives were to see which terms people use to describe KCl and in what ways this changes in various combinations with NaCl. Panelists were served mixtures of varying NaCl and KCl concentrations, and evaluated them using a set of predetermined terms on a CATA ballot. Frequency counts were taken, and binomial and McNemar tests were performed to see which stimuli changed the most between samples. Results showed that adding KCl increased salt perception slightly, and salty was chosen more frequently when in combination with NaCl. Adding NaCl in a mixture with KCl decreases unpleasant side tastes associated with KCl, such as bitter, chemical, and metallic. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Mortality and cancer morbidity in workers exposed to low levels of vinyl chloride monomer at a polyvinyl chloride processing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagmar, L.; Akesson, B.; Nielsen, J.; Andersson, C.; Linden, K.; Attewell, R.; Moeller, T. (University Hospital, Lund (Sweden))

    1990-01-01

    To study whether exposure to low levels of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM) causes increased risk for cancer morbidity and death from ischemic heart disease, a cohort study was performed among 2,031 male workers at a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) processing plant who had been employed for at least 3 months during the period 1945-1980. An almost significantly increased total mortality (SMR = 116, 95% CI 99-136) was found. Deaths caused by violence or intoxication were significantly increased (SMR = 153, 95% CI 109-213), but not deaths from ischemic heart disease (SMR = 100, 95% CI 73-135). A significant increase in total cancer morbidity was observed (SMR = 128, 95% CI 101-161). Respiratory cancers were significantly increased (SMR = 213, 95% CI 127-346). Furthermore, six brain tumors (vs. 2.6 expected) were observed. This increase, however, was not significant (SMR = 229, 95% CI 84-498). No liver hemangiosarcoma was observed. Applying a latency period of greater than or equal to 10 years from start of employment did not change the risk patterns. There were no significant exposure-response associations between exposure estimates for VCM, asbestos, and plasticizers and cancer morbidity.

  16. Migration of epoxidized soybean oil from polyvinyl chloride/polyvinylidene chloride food packaging wraps into food simulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Min Sun; Rehman, Shaheed Ur; Kim, Hyeon; Han, Sang Beom; Lee, Jeongmi; Hong, Jongki; Yoo, Hye Hyun

    2017-12-23

    Epoxidized soybean oil (ESBO) has been used in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)/polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) food packaging cling film as a plasticizer and stabilizer. The aim of this study was to investigate the migration of ESBO from PVC/PVDC cling film, based on gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The specific migration of ESBO was evaluated using various food simulants (water, 4% acetic acid, 50% ethanol and n-heptane) for PVC and PVDC wrap products. ESBO did not migrate into water and 4% acetic acid for all the tested samples. However, it was released into 50% ethanol and n-heptane in several PVC/PVDC wraps, with maximum migration levels of 38.4 ± 0.7 and 37.4 ± 0.8 μg/mL, respectively. These results demonstrate that ESBO is capable of being released from PVC/PVDC wrap into amphiphilic/oily food and its migration should be regularly monitored.

  17. Dynamic [Cl{sup -}]{sub i} measurement with chloride sensing quantum dots nanosensor in epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Yuchi; Mao Hua; Wong, Lid B, E-mail: ywang@biotechplex.com [BioTechPlex Corporation, 1205 Linda Vista Drive Suite A, San Marcos, CA 92078 (United States); Cytoptics Corporation, 1205 Linda Vista Drive Suite B, San Marcos, CA 92078 (United States)

    2010-02-05

    We have synthesized a chloride sensing quantum dots (QD) nanosensor, Cl-QD, for the dynamic measurements of chloride ion concentration in the millimolar range, a sensitivity that is applicable to most physiological intracellular chloride ion concentration ([Cl{sup -}]{sub i}) measurements in epithelial cells. The Cl-QD is synthesized by conjugating an anion receptor, 1-(2-mercapto-ethyl)-3-phenyl-thiourea (MEPTU) to a water soluble CdSe/ZnS QD at an emission wavelength of 620 nm. Upon binding of chloride ions to the Cl-QD, a photo-induced electron transfer mechanism caused the fluorescence of the QD to quench. This resulted in an inversely proportional relationship between the chloride ion concentration and the fluorescence intensity of the Cl-QD. We have utilized this Cl-QD to measure [Cl{sup -}]{sub i} in T84 and CF-PAC cultured cells, with either the C1C-2 or CFTR chloride channels being manipulated by pharmacological chloride channel activators and inhibitors. Activations of C1C-2 and CFTR chloride channels in T84 by the respective lubiprostone and genistein caused predictive increases in the fluorescence of the Cl-QD, i.e., a decrease of [Cl{sup -}]{sub i}. Conversely, glibenclamide, a chloride channel inhibitor, applied to the CF-PAC cells caused a predictable decrease in the fluorescence of Cl-QD due to the increase of [Cl{sup -}]{sub i}. These are the first data in using QD-based chloride ion sensors for dynamic measurements of intracellular chloride ion concentrations in epithelial cells.

  18. Dynamic [Cl-]i measurement with chloride sensing quantum dots nanosensor in epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuchi; Mao, Hua; Wong, Lid B.

    2010-02-01

    We have synthesized a chloride sensing quantum dots (QD) nanosensor, Cl-QD, for the dynamic measurements of chloride ion concentration in the millimolar range, a sensitivity that is applicable to most physiological intracellular chloride ion concentration ([Cl-]i) measurements in epithelial cells. The Cl-QD is synthesized by conjugating an anion receptor, 1-(2-mercapto-ethyl)-3-phenyl-thiourea (MEPTU) to a water soluble CdSe/ZnS QD at an emission wavelength of 620 nm. Upon binding of chloride ions to the Cl-QD, a photo-induced electron transfer mechanism caused the fluorescence of the QD to quench. This resulted in an inversely proportional relationship between the chloride ion concentration and the fluorescence intensity of the Cl-QD. We have utilized this Cl-QD to measure [Cl-]i in T84 and CF-PAC cultured cells, with either the C1C-2 or CFTR chloride channels being manipulated by pharmacological chloride channel activators and inhibitors. Activations of C1C-2 and CFTR chloride channels in T84 by the respective lubiprostone and genistein caused predictive increases in the fluorescence of the Cl-QD, i.e., a decrease of [Cl-]i. Conversely, glibenclamide, a chloride channel inhibitor, applied to the CF-PAC cells caused a predictable decrease in the fluorescence of Cl-QD due to the increase of [Cl-]i. These are the first data in using QD-based chloride ion sensors for dynamic measurements of intracellular chloride ion concentrations in epithelial cells.

  19. Replacement of ammonium chloride when processing Scholven coals. (Tests conducted in rotating autoclave at 350 atmosheres. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, G.; Schiffmann, F.

    1944-01-03

    Hydrogenation tests were conducted on coal from Scholven in view of difficulties in delivery of ammonium chloride to the Scholven works. The results were, that of the materials containing chlorine, ferrous chloride and water-soluble chlorine-bearing alumina appeared to be first and second choices as replacements for ammonium chloride. Ferrous chloride, used for an equivalent amount of chlorine, gave, other than a bit higher volatilization, the same results as ammonium chloride. Water-soluble chlorine-bearing alumina was found to be just as favorable as the ammonium chloride. But, there was a disadvantage. Since the alumina carried a lesser amount of chloride, a relatively larger amount (5.9%) of the material had to be used. This caused another problem. The increased residual material caused an overload on the reprocessing system. Water-soluble alumina at 1.9% was found to be unsuitable, because volatilization rose considerably with higher temperatures. Hydrated aluminum chloride (AlCl/sub 3/ . 6H/sub 2/O) was significantly more unsuitable than ammonium chloride. It was found that at .3 mV higher temperature, significant improvement could be noted, but certainly at the cost of volatilization, which rose sharply. Two tests of aluminum oxychloride, which contained more chlorine than the water-soluble alumina, showed suitable cracking properties, but figures as good as those obtained with ammonium chloride were not reached in treating asphalt and volatilization. Attempts to activate the chlorine in sodium chloride through ion exchange with ammonium sulfate did not succeed. The resulting substance gave worse results than did aluminum chlorohydrate. 1 table

  20. Wetting properties and critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukiet, Frédéric; Couderc, Guillaume; Camps, Jean; Tassery, Hervé; Cuisinier, Frederic; About, Imad; Charrier, Anne; Candoni, Nadine

    2012-11-01

    The purposes of the present study were to (1) assess the effect of the addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite on its wetting properties, contact angle, and surface energy; (2) determine the critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite; and (3) investigate the influence of addition of benzalkonium chloride on the free chlorine level, cytotoxicity, and antiseptic properties of the mixture. Solutions of benzalkonium chloride, with concentrations ranging from 0%-1%, were mixed in 2.4% sodium hypochlorite and tested as follows. The wetting properties were investigated by measuring the contact angle of the solutions on a nondehydrated dentin surface by using the static sessile drop method. The pending drop technique was subsequently used to determine the surface energy of the solutions. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride mixed in sodium hypochlorite was calculated from the data. When 2.4% NaOCl was mixed with benzalkonium chloride at the critical micellar concentration, 3 parameters were tested: free chloride content, cytotoxicity, and antibacterial effects against Enterococcus faecalis. The contact angle (P concentrations. The critical micellar concentration of benzalkonium chloride in sodium hypochlorite was 0.008%. At this concentration, the addition of benzalkonium chloride had no effect on the free chlorine content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial efficiency of the mixture. The addition of benzalkonium chloride to sodium hypochlorite at the critical micellar concentration reduced the contact angle by 51.2% and the surface energy by 53.4%, without affecting the free chloride content, cytotoxicity, or antibacterial properties of the mixture. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Sodium chloride composition of commercial white bread in Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Ali; El-Kardi, Younes; Derouiche, Abdelfettah

    2017-12-14

    This study aimed to evaluate the amount of salt provided by the consumption of bread in daily food intake and compare it to recommended salt intake. Chloride ion concentrations were measured using Mohr's Method to indirectly quantify added salt in bread samples from 80 professional bakeries in Casablanca, Morocco. Results showed that the average amount of added salt during the preparation of white bread is 17.42 ± 1.28 g / kg, which is the equivalent of a daily intake of 8 to 9 g of salt through bread alone, and exceeds all recommendations. The high salt content of white bread might be a contributing factor to the high sodium intake in Morocco, especially considering that bread is a staple food in the country. Any policies or initiatives to reduce sodium consumption should target bread as a strategic vehicle to reduce salt intake.

  2. Molecular Integrity of Mitochondria Alters by Potassium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Mishra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride (KCl has been commonly used in homogenization buffer and procedures of protein extraction. It is known to facilitate release of membrane-associated molecules but the higher concentration of KCl may affect the integrity of mitochondria by breaching the electrostatic force between the lipids and proteins. Therefore, it has been intended to explore the effect of KCl on mitochondrial proteome. The mitochondria were isolated from the mice liver and sub-fractionated into mitochondrial matrix and outer mitochondrial membrane fraction. The fractions were analysed by denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE and 2D-PAGE. The analysis of ultrastructure and protein profiles by MALDI-MS and data-mining reveals KCl-associated alterations in the integrity of mitochondria and its proteome. The mitochondrial membrane, cristae, and the matrix proteins appear altered under the influence of KCl.

  3. Probing supramolecular complexation of cetylpyridinium chloride with crown ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhadeep; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-11-01

    Supramolecular complexations of cetylpyridinium chloride with three comparable cavity dimension based crown ethers, namely, dibenzo-18-crown-6, 18-crown-6 and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 have been explored and adequately compared in acetonitrile with the help of conductivity in a series of temperatures to reveal the stoichiometry of the three host-guest complexes. Programme based mathematical treatment of the conductivity data affords association constants for complexations from which the thermodynamic parameters were derived for better comprehension about the process. The interactions at molecular level have been explained and decisively discussed by means of FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies that demonstrate H-bond type interactions as the primarily force of attraction for the investigated supramolecular complexations.

  4. Hydration patterns and salting effects in sodium chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weifeng; Mu, Yuguang

    2011-10-07

    The salting effects of 2M sodium chloride electrolyte are studied based on a series of model solutes with properties ranging from hydrophobic to hydrophilic. Generally, hydrophobic solutes will be salted out and hydrophilic solutes will be salted in by NaCl solution. The solvation free energy changes are highly correlated with Kirkwood-Buff integrals. The underlying mechanism resorts to the preferential binding of ions and water to solutes. Our results demonstrate that the salting effect not only depends on the salt's position in Hofmeister series, but also on the solutes' specifics. Taking the hydration free energies of solutes and ions as independent variables, a schematic diagram of salting effects is suggested. The resolved multifaceted salting effects rely on the sensitive balance of the tripartite interaction among solutes, ions, and water. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  5. Chloride Migration in Heterogeneous Soil - 2. Stohastic Modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Destouni, Geogia; Sassner, Mona; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    1994-01-01

    dispersion within the mobile water will often have a second-order effect on field scale solute transport. The stochastic-advective model is robust with regard to the rate of mass transfer between mobile and immobile water zones. This robustness implies that order of magnitude estimates may be sufficient......The observed statistics of chloride breakthrough presented by Sassner et al. (this issue) were compared with predictions of a stochastic-advective modeling approach. The stochastic-advective model based on the observed spatial distribution of flow rates and on transport parameters consistent...... with parameter values obtained from local breakthrough curves (BTCs) agreed well with the observations. Alternative models that agreed well with the local BTCs failed to predict the large-scale BTC with realistic parameter values. The results support the assumption that compared to advection variability, local...

  6. Gating the Selectivity Filter in ClC Chloride Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutzler, Raimund; Campbell, Ernest B.; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2003-04-01

    ClC channels conduct chloride (Cl-) ions across cell membranes and thereby govern the electrical activity of muscle cells and certain neurons, the transport of fluid and electrolytes across epithelia, and the acidification of intracellular vesicles. The structural basis of ClC channel gating was studied. Crystal structures of wild-type and mutant Escherichia coli ClC channels bound to a monoclonal Fab fragment reveal three Cl- binding sites within the 15-angstrom neck of an hourglass-shaped pore. The Cl- binding site nearest the extracellular solution can be occupied either by a Cl- ion or by a glutamate carboxyl group. Mutations of this glutamate residue in Torpedo ray ClC channels alter gating in electrophysiological assays. These findings reveal a form of gating in which the glutamate carboxyl group closes the pore by mimicking a Cl- ion.

  7. 1,3-Bis(4-bromophenylimidazolium chloride dihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon J. Garden

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated salt, C15H11Br2N2+·Cl−·2H2O, the complete imidazolium cation is generated by a crystallographic twofold axis, with one C atom lying on the axis. The chloride ion and both water molecules of crystallization also lie on a crystallographic twofold axis of symmetry. The cation is non-planar, the dihedral angle formed between the central imidazolium and benzene rings being 12.9 (3°; the dihedral angle between the symmetry-related benzene rings is 25.60 (13°. In the crystal, O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds result in supramolecular chains along c mediated by eight-membered {...HOH...Cl}2 synthons. These are consolidated by C—H...O and π–π [centroid–centroid distance = 3.687 (3 Å] interactions.

  8. Involvement of chloride in renin secretion from isolated rat glomeruli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, O; Jensen, B L

    1992-01-01

    M) inhibited renin release reversibly. Substitution of Cl- with nitrate (101 mM) stimulated renin secretion. Substitution with iodide (15 or 101 mM) had no consistent effect. The stimulation induced by calcium-free solutions was high in May and low in September. In the absence of chloride, the response....... It is concluded that the renin secretory process has a demand for permeant anions. The stimulation caused by low external calcium involves at least two mechanisms: one is anion sensitive, powerful, varies with the season, and includes a recruitment phenomenon; another is anion insensitive and weak.......The sensitivity of renin release to changes in anion and calcium concentrations was assessed in superfused rat glomeruli with attached juxtaglomerular cells. Isosmotic substitution of Cl-with gluconate (1/12, 1/6, 1/3, 2/3, or total exchange), isethionate (15 or 101 mM), or sulfate (10 m...

  9. Mild and efficient cyanuric chloride catalyzed Pictet–Spengler reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Sharma

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A practical, mild and efficient protocol for the Pictet–Spengler reaction catalyzed by cyanuric chloride (trichloro-1,3,5-triazine, TCT is described. The 6-endo cyclization of tryptophan/tryptamine and modified Pictet–Spengler substrates with both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating aldehydes was carried out by using a catalytic amount of TCT (10 mol % in DMSO under a nitrogen atmosphere. TCT catalyzed the Pictet–Spengler reaction involving electron-donating aldehydes in excellent yield. Thus, it has a distinct advantage over the existing methodologies where electron-donating aldehydes failed to undergo 6-endo cyclization. Our methodology provided broad substrate scope and diversity. This is indeed the first report of the use of TCT as a catalyst for the Pictet–Spengler reaction.

  10. Methylmercury chloride induces learning deficits in prenatally treated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muesch, H.R.; Bornhausen, M.; Kriegel, H.; Greim, H.

    1978-01-01

    Methylmercury chloride (MMC) was given to pregnant rats on the 6th, 7th, 8th, and 9th day after conception in doses of 0.05 and 2.0 mg/kg/day. The female offspring of these animals were tested 90 days after birth for learning ability using operant conditioning procedures. The rats were kept at 90% of their normal body weight and trained in a lever-box to press a bar in order to obtain a food pellet. Significant differences in the acquisition speed became apparent when the ratio of bar presses to reward was increased in a classical contingency of differential reinforcement of high rates even at MMC-doses of 4 x 0.05 mg/kg. These differences were not found in the general motility level nor in motor coordination.

  11. Polyphosphates as Inhibitors for Poly(vinyl Chloride Photodegradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina S. Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Three polyphosphates were used as inhibitors for poly(vinyl chloride (PVC photodegradation. The polyphosphates were added to PVC at a concentration of 0.5% by weight. The PVC films (40 µm thickness were irradiated at room temperature with ultraviolet (UV light for up to 300 h. The changes in PVC films after irradiation were monitored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, weight loss, viscosity-average molecular weight determination, and atomic force microscopy. These changes were very noticeable in the blank PVC films compared to the ones obtained when additives were used. The polyphosphates can inhibit the PVC photodegradation through direct absorption of UV light, interactions with PVC chains, and acting as radical scavengers.

  12. Investigation of Polyvinyl Chloride and Thermoplastic Polyurethane Waste Blend Miscibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnė LAUKAITIENĖ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study the miscibility of polyvinyl chloride (PVC and poly-e-caprolactone based thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU waste blends were investigated by dilute solution viscometry. The miscibility criteria a, Db, DB, and D[h] were used to assess the degree of miscibility of polymers in tetrahydrofuran solution. Also, to assess the miscibility and microstructure of PVC/TPU blends obtained by solution casting have been characterized by X-ray diffraction. The tensile strength and deformability properties varying on the blend composition were determined. It was found that PVC and TPU are partially miscible, their blend is amorphous and show two-phase structure. TPU changes the mechanical behaviour of PVC the blends. Increase of TPU content causes PVC elongation at break increase and tensile strength decreases. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.19.4.3145

  13. Hibiscus sabdariffa Affects Ammonium Chloride-Induced Hyperammonemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohamed Essa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa (HS is an edible medicinal plant, indigenous to India, China and Thailand and is used in Ayurveda and traditional medicine. Alcoholic extract of HS leaves (HSEt was studied for its anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant effects in brain tissues of ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. Oral administration of HSEt (250 mg kg−1 body weight significantly normalizes the levels of ammonia, urea, uric acid, creatinine and non-protein nitrogen in the blood. HSEt significantly reduced brain levels of lipid peroxidation products such as thiobarbituric acid and reactive substances (TBARS and hydroperoxides (HP. However, the administered extract significantly increased the levels of antioxidants such as catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx and reduced glutathione (GSH in brain tissues of hyperammonemic rats. This investigation demonstrates significant anti-hyperammonemic and antioxidant activity of HS.

  14. 1,3,5-Trimethylpyrazolium chloride based ionogel as an efficient and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    and 1,3,5-trimethylpyrazolium chloride through sol-gel process and comparison with silica coated with 1,3,5- trimethylpyrazolium chloride for the synthesis of benz- imidazoles. Our method involves simple work-up procedure, solvent-free conditions, less reaction time, tolerance to various functionalities and excellent yields,.

  15. Evidence that azide occupies the chloride binding site near the manganese cluster in photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Aznar, Constantino P; Xu, Xianzhong; Britt, R David

    2005-09-13

    The effect of adding azide to photosystem II (PS II) membrane samples (BBY preparation), with or without chloride, has been investigated using continuous wave (CW) and pulsed EPR spectroscopy. In the BBY samples with 25 mM chloride, we observed that the inhibition induced by azide is partly recovered by the addition of bicarbonate. Electron spin-echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) was used to search for spin transitions of 15N nuclei magnetically coupled to the S2 state Mn cluster (multiline EPR signal form) in 15N (single terminal label) azide-treated samples with negative results. However, an 15N ESEEM peak was observed in parallel chloride-depleted PS II samples when the 15N-labeled azide is added. However, this peak is absent in chloride-depleted samples incubated in buffer containing both chloride and [15N]azide. Thus these results demonstrate an azide binding site in the immediate vicinity of the Mn cluster, and since this site appears to be competitive with chloride, these results provide further evidence that chloride is bound proximal to the Mn cluster as well. Discussion on the possible interplay between azide, chloride, and bicarbonate is provided.

  16. Uptake of chloride ion from aqueous solution by calcined layered double hydroxides: equilibrium and kinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Liang; He, Jing; Wei, Min; Evans, D G; Duan, Xue

    2006-02-01

    Layered double hydroxides (LDH) calcined within a certain temperature range (denoted as CLDH) have been shown to recover their original layered structure in the presence of appropriate anions. In the light of this so-called "memory effect", uptake of chloride ion from aqueous solution by calcined MgAl-CO3 LDH was investigated in batch mode. The equilibrium isotherm showed that the uptake of chloride ion by CLDH was consistent with the Langmuir and Freundlich equations and that the Langmuir model gave a better fit to the experimental data than the Freundlich model. The maximum uptake capacity of CLDH for chloride ion was 149.5 mg/g, close to the stoichiometric uptake (168 mg/g). The influence of varying pH of solution, initial chloride concentration, adsorbent quantity, and temperature on the kinetics of chloride removal has also been explored. Four kinetic models were used to fit the experimental data, and it was found that the pseudo-second-order kinetics model could be used to describe the uptake process satisfactorily. The calculated value of Ea was found to be 56.8 kJ/mol, which suggests that the process of uptake of chloride ion is controlled by the rate of reaction of chloride ion with the CLDH rather than diffusion. A mechanism for removal of chloride ion has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction, FT-IR spectroscopy and TG-MS measurements.

  17. Polymer versus Monomer Action on the Growth and Habit Modification of Sodium Chloride Crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Townsend, E.R.; Enckevort, W.J.P. van; Meijer, J.A.M.; Vlieg, E.

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the use of polymers and monomers as habit modifiers and anticaking agents for sodium chloride. We show that amide functional groups cause the {111} faces to propagate on sodium chloride crystals and that polymer amides give a 1-2 orders of magnitude greater effect than the

  18. 21 CFR 175.365 - Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... polycarbonate film. 175.365 Section 175.365 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH... chloride copolymer coatings for polycarbonate film. Vinylidene chloride copolymer coatings identified in this section and applied on polycarbonate film may be safely used as food-contact surfaces, in...

  19. The effect and mechanism of chloride ion attack on portland cement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect and mechanism of chloride ion attack on Portland cement concrete and the structural steel reinforcement was investigated. At low concentrations, chloride ion has little or no effect on the physical stability of concrete structure but it causes the corrosion of the reinforcing steel in the concrete but at high ...

  20. Cutaneous haemangioendothelioma: a possible link with chronic exposure to vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, M F; Curtis, M; Howat, J M

    1990-01-01

    A patient who worked with polyvinyl chloride developed a malignant haemangioendothelioma of a toe. This rare tumour is more commonly found in the liver where it has been reported to arise in association with exposure to the vinyl chloride monomer. Images PMID:2310710

  1. Catalytic allylation of phenols : chloride-free route towards epoxy resins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, Jimmy Antonius van

    2010-01-01

    An industrially applicable process was developed for the synthesis of epoxy resin components. A catalytic reaction was explored towards allyl phenyl ethers that prevents the use of chloride-containing starting materials and thus formation of chloride-containing side products. The preferred

  2. The influence of chloride and sulphate ions on the slaking rate of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes an investigation into the influence of chloride and sulphate ions on the slaking of lime prepared from limestones of different geological origin in South Africa. It was endeavoured to assess the effects of the presence of chloride and sulphate ions on the hydration rate of lime, compared to its slaking in ...

  3. Altered Chloride Homeostasis Decreases the Action Potential Threshold and Increases Hyperexcitability in Hippocampal Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Andreas T; Ledri, Marco; Melis, Miriam; Nikitidou Ledri, Litsa; Andersson, My; Kokaia, Merab

    2017-01-01

    Chloride ions play an important role in controlling excitability of principal neurons in the central nervous system. When neurotransmitter GABA is released from inhibitory interneurons, activated GABA type A (GABA A ) receptors on principal neurons become permeable to chloride. Typically, chloride flows through activated GABA A receptors into the neurons causing hyperpolarization or shunting inhibition, and in turn inhibits action potential (AP) generation. However, in situations when intracellular chloride concentration is increased, chloride ions can flow in opposite direction, depolarize neurons, and promote AP generation. It is generally recognized that altered chloride homeostasis per se has no effect on the AP threshold. Here, we demonstrate that chloride overload of mouse principal CA3 pyramidal neurons not only makes these cells more excitable through GABA A receptor activation but also lowers the AP threshold, further aggravating excitability. This phenomenon has not been described in principal neurons and adds to our understanding of mechanisms regulating neuronal and network excitability, particularly in developing brain and during pathological situations with altered chloride homeostasis. This finding further broadens the spectrum of neuronal plasticity regulated by ionic compositions across the cellular membrane.

  4. Effect of procainamide, lidocaine and diphenylhydantoin on thallium-201 chloride uptake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schachner, E.R.; Oster, Z.H.; Sacker, D.F.; Som, P.; Atkins, H.L.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of procainamide, lidocaine and diphenylhydantoin on the organ distribution (particularly the heart) of /sup 201/Tl chloride in rats was studied. The results show that diphenylhydantoin significantly decreases the uptake of /sup 201/Tl chloride in several organs of rats previously treated with this drug. No statistically significant effects were noted with procainamide and lidocaine.

  5. 21 CFR 177.2000 - Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... methacrylate polymers. 177.2000 Section 177.2000 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...: POLYMERS Substances for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.2000 Vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate/methyl methacrylate polymers. The vinylidene chloride/methyl acrylate...

  6. Oxidative addition of aryl chlorides to monoligated palladium(0): A DFT-SCRF study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlquist, Mårten Sten Gösta; Norrby, Per-Ola

    2007-01-01

    Oxidative addition of aryl chlorides to palladium has been investigated by hybrid density functional theory methods (B3LYP), including a continuum model describing the solvent implicitly. A series of para-substituted aryl chlorides were studied to see the influence of electronic effects on the re...

  7. Chloride, alkali- en aardalkalimetaal opneming via de voeding; resultaten van 201 duplicaten van 24-uurs voeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaessen; H.A.M.G.; Kamp; C.G.van de

    1985-01-01

    Onderzocht werden 201 duplicaten van evenzovele 24-uurs voedingen op gehalte aan chloride, natrium, kalium, calcium, magnesium, rubidium en lithium en hieruit werd de opname van deze elementen per persoon en per etmaal berekend. De gemiddelde opname bedroeg voor chloride 5,08 gram, voor natrium

  8. Effects of Mercury Chloride on the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Wistar Rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mercury is among the heavy metals that have been reported to cause devastating health problem worldwide. The primary site of action of mercury chloride is the central nervous system. This study investigated the effect of mercury chloride on the cerebral cortex of adult wistar rats. Twenty-four (24) adult wistar rats were used ...

  9. SUBACTUTE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE YUCATAN SAILFIN MOLLY (POECILIA VELIFERA) EXPOSED TO CADMIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the subacute hematological responses of the Yucatan sailfin molly, Poecilia velifera, exposed to cadmium chloride. Previous studies in other teleosts and mammals have suggested that exposure to cadmium chloride results in a leucocytic response. Fish were exp...

  10. SUBACUTE HEMATOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE YUCATAN SAILFIN MOLLY (POECILIA VELIFERA) EXPOSED TO CADMIUM CHLORIDE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study focuses on the subacute hematological responses of the Yucatan sailfin molly, Poecilia velifera, exposed to cadmium chloride. Previous studies in other teleosts and mammals have suggested that exposure to cadmium chloride results in a leucocytic response. Fish were exp...

  11. International water negotiations under asymmetry, lessons from the Rhine chlorides dispute settlement (1931-2004)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieperink, C.

    2011-01-01

    Negotiations concerning the quality of international rivers are not easy, as incongruence in preferences between upstream and downstream countries generally exists. The Rhine Chlorides dispute is a clear example of this. The chloride issue has been on the international water agenda of the

  12. Resistance of Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete to Chloride-Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Woo Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of steel in alkali-activated slag (AAS mortar was evaluated by a monitoring of the galvanic current and half-cell potential with time against a chloride-contaminated environment. For chloride transport, rapid chloride penetration test was performed, and chloride binding capacity of AAS was evaluated at a given chloride. The mortar/paste specimens were manufactured with ground granulated blast-furnace slag, instead of Portland cement, and alkali activators were added in mixing water, including Ca(OH2, KOH and NaOH, to activate hydration process. As a result, it was found that the corrosion behavior was strongly dependent on the type of alkali activator: the AAS containing the Ca(OH2 activator was the most passive in monitoring of the galvanic corrosion and half-cell potential, while KOH, and NaOH activators indicated a similar level of corrosion to Portland cement mortar (control. Despite a lower binding of chloride ions in the paste, the AAS had quite a higher resistance to chloride transport in rapid chloride penetration, presumably due to the lower level of capillary pores, which was ensured by the pore distribution of AAS mortar in mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  13. Chloride-associated adaptive response in aerobic methylotrophic dichloromethane-utilising bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgonskaya, Maria L; Doronina, Nina V; Hourcade, Edith; Trotsenko, Yuri A; Vuilleumier, Stéphane

    2011-06-01

    Aerobic methylotrophic bacteria able to grow with dichloromethane (DCM) as the sole carbon and energy source possess a specific glutathione S-transferase, DCM dehalogenase, which transforms DCM to formaldehyde, used for biomass and energy production, and hydrochloric acid, which is excreted. Evidence is presented for chloride-specific responses for three DCM-degrading bacteria, Methylobacterium extorquens DM4, Methylopila helvetica DM6 and Albibacter methylovorans DM10. Chloride release into the medium was inhibited by sodium azide and m -chlorophenylhydrazone, suggesting an energy-dependent process. In contrast, only nigericin affected chloride excretion in Mb. extorquens DM4 and Mp. helvetica DM6, while valinomycin had the same effect in A. methylovorans DM10 only. Chloride ions stimulated DCM-dependent induction of DCM dehalogenase expression for Mp. helvetica DM6 and A. methylovorans DM10, and shortened the time for onset of chloride release into the medium. Striking chloride-containing structures were observed by electron microscopy and X-ray microanalysis on the cell surface of Mp. helvetica DM6 and A. methylovorans DM10 during growth with DCM, and with methanol in medium supplemented with sodium chloride. Taken together, these data suggest the existence of both general and specific chloride-associated adaptations in aerobic DCM-degrading bacteria. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Simulation of Chloride Diffusion in Cracked Concrete with Different Crack Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yong Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chloride-induced corrosion of steel rebar is one of the primary durability problems for reinforced concrete structures in marine environment. Furthermore, if the surfaces of concrete structures have cracks, additional chloride can penetrate into concrete through cracked zone. For chloride ingression into cracked concrete, former researches mainly focus on influence of crack width on chloride diffusion coefficients. Other crack characteristics, such as chloride depth, crack shape (equal-width crack or tapered crack, crack density, and spacing, are not studied in detail. To fill this gap, this paper presents a numerical procedure to simulate chloride ingression into cracked concrete with different crack geometry characteristics. Cracked concrete is divided into two parts, sound zone and cracked zone. For stress-free concrete, the diffusion coefficient of sound zone is approximately assumed to be the same as sound concrete, and the diffusion coefficient of cracked zone is expressed as a piecewise function of crack width. Two-dimensional finite element method is used to determine chloride concentration. It is found that, with the increasing of crack width, crack depth, and crack amount, chloride ingression will aggravate. The analysis results generally agree with experimental results.

  15. The influence of polyvinyl chloride (P.V.C.) tubing on the isolated perfused rat heart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Willebrands, A.F.; Durrer, D.

    1960-01-01

    Some brands of polyvinyl chlorides interfere with cardiac contraction, whereas other brands do not. Chemical investigation showed that the stabilizer is most probably responsibie for the cardiotoxic effect. It is suggested that all types of polyvinyl chloride used for medical and biological

  16. De invloed van plastic (polyvinyl-chloride) op het geïsoleerde overlevende rattehart

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.; Willebrands, A.F.; Durrer, D.

    1959-01-01

    Sommige soorten plastic(polyvinyl-chloride)slang doen de mechanische activiteit van het overlevende, geïsoleerde rattehart verminderen, of verdwijnen. Dit polyvinyl-chloride wordt verkocht en gebruikt voor medische en biologische doeleinden. Chemische analyses toonden een duidelijk verschil tussen

  17. Chloride-binding Effect of Blast Furnace Slag in Cement Pastes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    2017-05-16

    May 16, 2017 ... J.H. Potgietera, D.J. Delportb,*, S. Verrync and S.S. Potgieter-Vermaakd ... matrix. It is shown that both the OPC and BFS contribute to chloride binding in cement pastes, depending on the amount of BFS that replace the OPC component in ... chloride ingress into the concrete matrix from an external source.

  18. Effect of spray drying on the properties of amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water soluble amylose-hexadecyl ammonium chloride complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and hexadecyl ammonium chloride by excess steam jet cooking. Amylose inclusion complexes were spray dried to determine the viability of spray drying as a production method. The variables tested in...

  19. Study of Synthesis of N-Nitroborazine Compounds. I. Nitryl Chloride as Nitrating Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as the solid complexes of boron trifluoride (BF3). Nearly water-white nitryl chloride was obtained in this manner. A tinge of...yellow was attributed to the presence of chlorine . The reaction of nitryl chloride with a model compound, lithium dimethylamide, was found to yield

  20. Solute rejection by porous glass membranes. I - Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballou, E. V.; Wydeven, T.; Leban, M. I.

    1971-01-01

    Hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea was studied with porous glass membranes in closed-end capillary form, to determine the effect of pressure, temperature, and concentration variations, and lifetime rejection and flux characteristics. Rejection data for sodium chloride were consistent with the functioning of the porous glass as a low-capacity ion-exchange membrane.

  1. 21 CFR 178.2650 - Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics... plastics. The organotin chemicals identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safety used alone or... mercaptoacetate is derived from oxo process primary octyl alcohols. (b) The vinyl chloride plastic containers...

  2. A mathematical model in charactering chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Ye, G.; Pecur, I.B.; Baricevic, A.; Stirmer, N; Bjegovic, D.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a new analytic model for predicting chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious materials is developed based on conductivity theory and Nernst-Einstein equation. The model specifies that chloride diffusivity in unsaturated cementitious materials can be mathematically described as

  3. Luminal chloride modulates rat distal tubule bidirectional bicarbonate flux in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D Z; Vandorpe, D; Iacovitti, M

    1990-06-01

    The effects of replacing luminal chloride with gluconate on distal tubule bicarbonate transport were studied in vivo in normally fed rats, overnight-fasted rats, and rats made mildly alkalotic by administration of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA). In paired microperfusions of the same tubule with 0 or 55 mM Cl at 25 nl/min, net secretion of bicarbonate by distal tubules of fed rats was inhibited by chloride replacement. Zero chloride perfusion in DOCA rats also resulted in an inhibition of net bicarbonate secretion at 25 nl/min. In contrast, replacement of 45 mM chloride also perfused at 25 nl/min in fasted rats caused an increase in net bicarbonate reabsorption. To further characterize the effects of changes in luminal chloride, experiments were undertaken in fasted rats with 0, 45, and 100 mM chloride-containing solutions perfused at 8 and 25 nl/min. Perfusion with zero Cl resulted in net bicarbonate reabsorption at 8 nl/min that increased markedly with high flow, whereas bicarbonate reabsorption did not change significantly during perfusion at high flow with a 45-mM Cl perfusate. In marked contrast, perfusion with a 100-mM Cl solution resulted in only minimal bicarbonate reabsorption at 8 nl/min with significant secretion observed at high flow. Thus, chloride-free perfusates inhibit bicarbonate secretion and enhance bicarbonate reabsorption, while high chloride perfusates elicit net bicarbonate secretion in usually reabsorbing distal tubules.

  4. Effect of kaolin treatment temperature on mortar chloride permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puertas, F.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The present paper discusses the results of chloride resistance tests conducted on ordinary Portland cement (OPC mortars containing a Colombian kaolin pre-treated at temperatures of from 600 to 800 ºC. The resulting metakaolin (MK was added to OPC mortar mixes in proportions of 10 and 20% by cement weight. The mortars were compared for physical and chemical properties, including capillary absorption, chloride permeability and pore microstructure as assessed by mercury porosimetry. The best performance was recorded for the samples containing 20% of the material treated at 800 ºC.En el presente trabajo se incluyen los resultados de la resistencia a la penetración de cloruros de morteros de Cemento Portland Ordinario (OPC adicionados con un caolín colombiano sometido a tratamiento térmico en un rango de temperaturas entre 600 y 800 °C. Los productos del tratamiento térmico, metacaolín (MK, son incorporados en mezclas de morteros de OPC en proporciones del 10 y 20% en relación al peso del cemento. Se comparan sus características físico-químicas, entre las cuales se incluye la microestructura de poros evaluada por la técnica de porosimetría de mercurio, con la absorción capilar y la permeabilidad a cloruros. Se concluye que las muestras adicionadas con un 20% del material tratado térmicamente a 800 °C presentan el mejor desempeño en sus propiedades finales.

  5. Treatment of Highly Turbid Water by Polyaluminum Ferric Chloride (PAFCL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazel Fazel Mohammadi-Moghaddam

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: In some situation like rainfall seasons raw water become very turbid so it affected the water treatment plant processes and quality of produced water. Treatment of very high turbid water has some concerns like precursors for disinfection by-products and very loading rate of particle on filter's media and consequently increases in water consumption for filter backwash. This paper investigates the performance of a composite inorganic polymer of aluminium and ferric salt, Polyaluminium ferric chloride (PAFCl, for the removal of turbidity, color and natural organic matter (NOM from high turbid water. Materials and Methods: Experiments were carried out by Jar test experiment by synthetic water samples with 250 and 500 NTU turbidity that prepared in laboratory. Results: The results of conventional jar test showed that the optimum pH for coagulation of water sample was 7.5 to 8 and optimum dosage of the coagulant was 10 mg/L. Removal efficiency of turbidity, color and UV adsorbent at 254 nm at optimum dose and pH without filtration was 99.92%, 100% and 80.6% respectively for first sample (250 NTU and 99.95%, 99.49% and 84.77 for second sample (500 NTU respectively. Conclusion: It concluded that polyaluminium ferric chloride has a very good efficiency for the removal of turbidity, color and organic matter in high turbid water. Also it can be select as a coagulant for high turbid water and some waste water from water treatment plant like filter backwash water.

  6. Exploring how animations of sodium chloride dissolution affect students' explanations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Resa M.

    2005-11-01

    In an attempt to improve the learning of molecular structures and dynamics, animations of microchemistry processes have been developed to supplement instruction. Since many studies (Kelly, Phelps and Sanger, 2004; Sanger, Phelps and Feinhold, 2000; Wu, Krajcik, and Soloway, 2001; Burke, Greenbowe and Windschitl, 1998; and Williamson and Abraham, 1995) have suggested that students who receive instruction including computer animations or visualizations of chemical processes at the molecular level are better able to answer conceptual questions about particulate phenomena, publishers have supplemented their textbooks with compact discs or websites containing molecular animations. In this study, eighteen college students enrolled in general chemistry participated in three research sessions. First, they were individually shown two popular textbook animations of salt dissolution after each performed an activity of the same event. Second, after one week the same subjects were asked to interpret a precipitation reaction at the molecular level. Third, a debriefing session and semi-structured interview were held. An analysis of the data from the first session showed that students incorporated some of the microscopic structural and functional features from the animations into their explanations, and many were able to connect how the microscopic process of dissolution related to the macroscopic disappearance of the salt. Although students' drawn explanations displayed many features seen in the salt dissolution animations, their verbal explanations sometimes indicated that they drew these features without full comprehension of their meaning. In a study of the transfer of learning, it was found that most students did not see a relation between the sodium chloride solution made when dissolving the salt and the sodium chloride solution used in a precipitation reaction.

  7. Alkali metal bismuth(III) chloride double salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Andrew W. [Department of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States); Nicholas, Aaron; Ahern, John C. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Chan, Benny [Department of Chemistry, College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ 08628-0718 (United States); Patterson, Howard H. [Department of Chemistry, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469 (United States); Pike, Robert D., E-mail: rdpike@wm.edu [Department of Chemistry, College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA 23187 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Evaporative co-crystallization of MCl (M = Na, K, Rb, Cs) with BiOCl in aqueous HCl produces double salts: M{sub x}Bi{sub y}Cl{sub (x+3y)}·zH{sub 2}O. The sodium salt, Na{sub 2}BiCl{sub 5}·5H{sub 2}O (monoclinic P2{sub 1}/c, a = 8.6983(7) Å, b = 21.7779(17) Å, c = 7.1831(6) Å, β = 103.0540(10)°, V = 1325.54(19) Å{sup 3}, Z = 4) is composed of zigzag chains of μ{sub 2}-Cl-cis-linked (BiCl{sub 5}){sub n}{sup 2n–} chains. Edge-sharing chains of NaCl{sub n}(OH{sub 2}){sub 6−n} octahedra (n = 0, 2, 3) are linked through μ{sub 3}-Cl to Bi. The potassium salt, K{sub 7}Bi{sub 3}Cl{sub 16} (trigonal R−3c, a = 12.7053(9) Å, b = 12.7053(9) Å, c = 99.794(7) Å, V = 13,951(2) Å{sup 3}, Z = 18) contains (Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 10}){sup 4–} edge-sharing dimers of octahedra and simple (BiCl{sub 6}){sup 3–} octahedra. The K{sup +} ions are 5- to 8-coordinate and the chlorides are 3-, 4-, or 5-coordinate. The rubidium salt, Rb{sub 3}BiCl{sub 6}·0.5H{sub 2}O (orthorhombic Pnma, a = 12.6778(10) Å, b = 25.326(2) Å, c = 8.1498(7) Å, V = 2616.8(4) Å{sup 3}, Z = 8) contains (BiCl{sub 6}){sup 3–} octahedra. The Rb{sup +} ions are 6-, 8-, and 9-coordinate, and the chlorides are 4- or 5-coordinate. Two cesium salts were formed: Cs{sub 3}BiCl{sub 6} (orthorhombic Pbcm, a = 8.2463(9) Å, b = 12.9980(15) Å, c = 26.481(3) Å, V = 2838.4(6) Å{sup 3}, Z = 8) being comprised of (BiCl{sub 6}){sup 3–} octahedra, 8-coordinate Cs{sup +}, and 3-, 4-, and 5-coordinate Cl{sup −}. In Cs{sub 3}Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9} (orthorhombic Pnma, a = 18.4615(15) Å, b = 7.5752(6) Å, c = 13.0807(11) Å, V = 1818.87(11) Å{sup 3}, Z = 4) Bi octahedra are linked by μ{sub 2}-bridged Cl into edge-sharing Bi{sub 4} squares which form zigzag (Bi{sub 2}Cl{sub 9}){sub n}{sup 3n–} ladders. The 12-coordinate Cs{sup +} ions bridge the ladders, and the Cl{sup −} ions are 5- and 6-coordinate. Four of the double salts are weakly photoluminescent at 78 K, each showing a series of three excitation peaks

  8. Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    1985-01-01

    Fittings of unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (PVC-U), chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (PVC-C) or acrylonitrile/butadiene/styrene (ABS) with plain sockets for pipes under pressure - Dimensions of sockets - Metric series

  9. Plastics piping systems for industrial applications : acrylonitrile-butadiene- styrene (ABS), unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) : specifications for components and the system : metric series

    CERN Document Server

    International Organization for Standardization. Geneva

    2003-01-01

    Plastics piping systems for industrial applications : acrylonitrile-butadiene- styrene (ABS), unplasticized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-U) and chlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC-C) : specifications for components and the system : metric series

  10. TESTING OF 304L STAINLESS STEEL IN NITRIC ACID ENVIRONMENTS WITH FLUORIDES AND CHLORIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2010-10-04

    Impure radioactive material processed in nitric acid solutions resulted in the presence of chlorides in a dissolver fabricated from 304L stainless steel. An experimental program was conducted to study the effects of chloride in nitric acid/fluoride solutions on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel. The test variables included temperature (80, 95, and 110 C) and the concentrations of nitric acid (6, 12, and 14 M), fluoride (0.01, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and chloride (100, 350, 1000, and 2000 ppm). The impact of welding was also investigated. Results showed that the chloride concentration alone was not a dominant variable affecting the corrosion, but rather the interaction of chloride with fluoride significantly affected corrosion.

  11. Prediction of the Chloride Resistance of Concrete Modified with High Calcium Fly Ash Using Machine Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Michał; Glinicki, Michał A; Gibas, Karolina

    2015-12-11

    The aim of the study was to generate rules for the prediction of the chloride resistance of concrete modified with high calcium fly ash using machine learning methods. The rapid chloride permeability test, according to the Nordtest Method Build 492, was used for determining the chloride ions' penetration in concrete containing high calcium fly ash (HCFA) for partial replacement of Portland cement. The results of the performed tests were used as the training set to generate rules describing the relation between material composition and the chloride resistance. Multiple methods for rule generation were applied and compared. The rules generated by algorithm J48 from the Weka workbench provided the means for adequate classification of plain concretes and concretes modified with high calcium fly ash as materials of good, acceptable or unacceptable resistance to chloride penetration.

  12. A novel capsule-based self-recovery system with a chloride ion trigger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Tang, Jiaoning; Zhu, Guangming; Han, Ningxu; Schlangen, Erik; Dong, Biqin; Wang, Xianfeng; Xing, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Steel is prone to corrosion induced by chloride ions, which is a serious threat to reinforced concrete structures, especially in marine environments. In this work, we report a novel capsule-based self-recovery system that utilizes chloride ions as a trigger. These capsules, which are functionalized via a smart response to chloride ions, are fabricated using a silver alginate hydrogel that disintegrates upon contact with chloride ions, and thereby releases the activated core materials. The experimental results show that the smart capsules respond to a very low concentration of chloride ions (0.1 wt%). Therefore, we believe that this novel capsule-based self-recovery system will exhibit a promising prospect for self-healing or corrosion inhibition applications.

  13. Chlordetect: Commercial Calcium Aluminate Based Conductimetric Sensor for Chloride Presence Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Luque, Magda; Sánchez-Silva, Mauricio

    2017-01-01

    Chloride presence affects different environments (soil, water, concrete) decreasing their qualities. In order to assess chloride concentration this paper proposes a novel sensor for detecting and measuring it. This sensor is based on electric changes of commercial monocalcium aluminate (CA) when it interacts with chloride aqueous solutions. CA is used as a dielectric material between two coplanar capacitors. The geometry proposed for this sensor allows to assess the chloride content profile, or to make four times the same measurement. Besides, the experimental design gives us the possibility of study not just the chloride effect, but also the time and some geometric effects due to the sensor design. As a result, this sensor shows a limit of detection, sensitivity, and response time: 0.01 wt % Cl− and 0.06 wt % Cl−, and 2 min, respectively, comparable with other non invasive techniques as optical fibre sensors. PMID:28902147

  14. Experiment on Chloride Ion Content of Concrete Structure in Coastal Salt-fog Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nie Ming

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper chose the south-east coastal salt-fog area Shantou to carry out the experiment study on chloride ion content of concrete structure, through the chloride ion content field test on reinforced concrete structure in Shantou, respectively for the slat-fog atmosphere zone and the splash zone in marine environment, discuss the corrosion by chloride ion of long-time existing concrete structure.And then measure the chloride ion content of concrete cover in different depth, and determine the chloride ion diffusion model in different conditions concrete through comparative analysis.The result of study, can be used in directing the selection of design scheme for building in planning, and also it will help predict the corrosion time of reinforcement inside the concrete on different positions for existing structure.

  15. The influence of cement type and temperature on chloride binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Korzen, Migge Sofie Hoffmann; Skibsted, Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes effects of cement type and temperature on chloride binding in cement paste, which is an important subject in relation to life-time modelling of reinforced concrete structures. The influence of cement type on chloride binding is investigated by substituting cement with pure...... cement clinker. Both theoretical considerations and experimental data for chloride binding in cement pastes are presented. A physico-chemically based model to describe the influence of temperature on physical binding of chloride is presented. Solid-state 27Al and 29Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) nuclear...... magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used for quantification of the anhydrous and hydrated aluminate and silicate phases in the chloride exposed cement pastes. The 27Al isotropic chemical shift and nuclear quadrupole coupling is reported for a synthetic sample of Friedel's salt, Ca2Al(OH)6Cl×2H2O....

  16. Chloride stress corrosion cracking of Alloy 600 in boric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Ph. [Electricite de France, 92 - Paris la Defense (France); Noel, D.; Gras, J.M.; Prieux, B. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret-sur-Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-10-01

    The high nickel austenitic alloys are generally considered to have good resistance to chloride stress corrosion cracking. In the standard boiling magnesium chloride solution tests, alloys with more than 40% nickel are immune. Nevertheless, more recent data show that cracking can occur in both Alloys 600 and 690 if the solution is acidified. In other low pH media, such as boric acid solution at 100 deg C, transgranular and intergranular cracking are observed in Alloy 600 in the presence of minor concentrations of sodium chloride (2g/I). In concentrated boric acid at higher temperatures (250 and 290 deg C), intergranular cracking also occurs, either when the chloride concentration is high, or at low chloride contents and high oxygen levels. The role of pH and a possible specific action of boric acid are discussed, together with the influence of electrochemical potential. (author) 21 refs.

  17. Investigation of the reactions of chlorides binding to aluminates using XRD and DTA methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikić Farzet H.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of chlorides binding to aluminates were investigated by analyzing the monochloroaluminate hydrate, product of the reaction. The results show that the product is formed in the fresh concrete, after adding chloride within the stage of the preparation of concrete, as well as adding chlorides by penetration from the environment into the concrete. The obtained results are significant, considering the aspect of preventing corrosion of the steel reinforcement into the concrete. It is known that only free chlorides activate corrosion processes in the steel reinforcement in concrete. The process of chloride bonding is followed by X-ray diffraction (XRD and differential thermal (DTA analysis of samples of the cement paste, which is the process of preparation and care is described in detail in this work.

  18. Erratum to: Study on Chloride Ion Penetration Resistance of Rubberized Concrete Under Steady State Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Noor Nurazuwa

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the effect of crumb rubber, CR as fine aggregate in the concrete to enhance concrete durability against chloride ion diffusion was studied. Chloride ion diffusion in rubberized concrete was tested by migration test under steady state condition. Concrete specimen with water-to-cement ratio of 0.50 was prepared to study the CR effectiveness in comparison with lower water-to-cement ratio. In addition, 10% silica fume, SF was added to provide denser concrete and to understand its effectiveness against chloride ion diffusion. Results showed that chloride transport characteristics were improved by the increasing amount of CR in all mixed due to the fact that CR has the ability to repel water. Meanwhile, rubberized concrete with w/c = 0.35 gave better resistance against chloride ion penetration compared to w/c = 0.50. This was much improved with combination of CR and SF.

  19. Estimation of Groundwater Recharge at Pahute Mesa using the Chloride Mass-Balance Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, Clay A [DRI; Hershey, Ronald L [DRI; Healey, John M [DRI; Lyles, Brad F [DRI

    2013-07-01

    Groundwater recharge on Pahute Mesa was estimated using the chloride mass-balance (CMB) method. This method relies on the conservative properties of chloride to trace its movement from the atmosphere as dry- and wet-deposition through the soil zone and ultimately to the saturated zone. Typically, the CMB method assumes no mixing of groundwater with different chloride concentrations; however, because groundwater is thought to flow into Pahute Mesa from valleys north of Pahute Mesa, groundwater flow rates (i.e., underflow) and chloride concentrations from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat were carefully considered. Precipitation was measured with bulk and tipping-bucket precipitation gauges installed for this study at six sites on Pahute Mesa. These data, along with historical precipitation amounts from gauges on Pahute Mesa and estimates from the PRISM model, were evaluated to estimate mean annual precipitation. Chloride deposition from the atmosphere was estimated by analyzing quarterly samples of wet- and dry-deposition for chloride in the bulk gauges and evaluating chloride wet-deposition amounts measured at other locations by the National Atmospheric Deposition Program. Mean chloride concentrations in groundwater were estimated using data from the UGTA Geochemistry Database, data from other reports, and data from samples collected from emplacement boreholes for this study. Calculations were conducted assuming both no underflow and underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. Model results estimate recharge to be 30 mm/yr with a standard deviation of 18 mm/yr on Pahute Mesa, for elevations >1800 m amsl. These estimates assume Pahute Mesa recharge mixes completely with underflow from Kawich Valley and Gold Flat. The model assumes that precipitation, chloride concentration in bulk deposition, underflow and its chloride concentration, have been constant over the length of time of recharge.

  20. Protective Role of Sodium Selenite on Mercuric Chloride Induced Oxidative and Renal Stress in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Necib, Youcef

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgroud: Reactive oxygen species are known to play a major role in mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress. Sodium selenite as an exogenous source of selenium is used for endogenous selenoprotein synthesis to scavenge the free radicals. The study was designed to investigate the possible protective role of sodium selenite in mercuric chloride induced renal stress, by using biochemical approaches. Adult male Albinos Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was served as the control, the second group was given sodium selenite (0.25 mg/kg b.w, while the third group was given mercuric chloride (0.25 mg/kg, finally, the fourth group was given combined treatment of sodium selenite and mercuric chloride for 3 weeks.Results: The effects of sodium selenite on mercuric chloride induced oxidative and renal stress were evaluated by serum creatinine, urea, uric acid, billirubin levels and LDH activity, kidney tissue lipid peroxidation, GSH levels, GSH-Px, GST and catalase activities and hematological parameters. Administration of mercuric chloride induced significant increase in serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin concentration showing renal stress. Mercuric chloride also induced oxidative stress, as indicate by decreased kidney tissue of GSH level, GSH-Px, GST, and catalase activities along with increase the level of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, treatment with mercuric chloride caused a marked elevation of kidney weight and decreased body weight and erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit levels. Sodium selenite treatment markedly reduced elevated serum: creatinine, urea, uric acid and billirubin levels, and LDH activity and conteracted the deterious effects of mercuric chloride on oxidative stress markers and hematological parameters and atteneuated histopathological changes caused by HgCl2 in kidney.Conclusion: Our results indicate that sodium selenite could have a beneficial role against mercuric

  1. Influence of partial replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride in Minas fresh cheese of sheep’s milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalana Cecília Hanauer

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The sheep’s milk has high contents of fat, protein and minerals in relation to the cow’s milk and is suitable for the production of cheeses, as the Minas fresh. The production of this cheese includes the salting, by offering important functions for this product. The salting is performed by adding sodium chloride (NaCl, however in excess this salt may be harmful to consumer health. Then, it was evaluated the development of tree formulations of Minas fresh cheese sheep’s milk (100% NaCl – QA; 75% NaCl and 25% potassium chloride (KCl – QB; 50% NaCl and 50% KCl – QC and they were evaluated by physical-chemical, microbiological and sensorial analyzes. A partial replacement of NaCl by KCl did not influence the moisture, protein and ash contents, pH and water activity of the cheeses. Furthermore, a 50% substitution of NaCl by KCl enabled to obtain a cheese with reduced sodium content in relation to the standard with 100% NaCl. The sensorial analysis showed that the substitution of 50% (QC and 25% (QB of NaCl by KCl did not show significant for the overall acceptance index, however, the use of KCl was perceived by the evaluators, since the formulations QB and QC differed significantly from the standard (QA. However, in the multiple comparison test there was no significant difference between the samples. Thus, the results indicated that a partial replacement of NaCl by KCl can be performed at Minas fresh cheese from sheep’smilk.

  2. A comprehensive analysis of plausible genotoxic covariates among workers of a polyvinyl chloride plant exposed to vinyl chloride monomer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Alagamuthu Karthick; Balachandar, Vellingiri; Arun, Meyyazhagan; Ahamed, Shafi Ahammed Khan Mustaq; Kumar, Shanmugam Suresh; Balamuralikrishnan, Balasubramanium; Sankar, Kathannan; Sasikala, Keshavarao

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of chromosomal aberrations-including chromatid type aberrations (CTAs), chromosomal type aberrations, micronucleus (MN) comet assay, and XRCC1 399 Arg/Gln polymorphism-in peripheral blood lymphocytes of workers occupationally exposed to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). A total of 52 workers and an equal number of controls were recruited into the study to explore the potential cytogenetic risk of occupational exposure to VCM. Questionnaires were administered to obtain details of habitual cigarette-smoking, alcohol-consumption pattern, and occupation, etc. The exposed subjects and controls were classified into two groups based on age (group I 8 and ≥8 years). CTA, MN, and comet assay frequency were significantly greater in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) factory workers (p < 0.05) with long-duration work. CTA, MN, and comet assay values were found to be increased with age in exposed subjects as well as in controls, with exposed subjects showing a statistically greater degree. An extensively greater MN frequency was observed in smokers exposed to VCM than in the control group (P < 0.05). The mean tail length of exposed subjects was greater compared with controls. The study on XRCC1 399 Arg/gln polymorphism in PVC factory workers showed less significant difference in allele frequency compared with controls. In conclusion, this results of work provides evidence for an apparent genotoxic effect associated with VCM exposure. Our results reinforce the greater sensitivity of cytogenetic assays for biomonitoring of occupationally exposed populations. Statistics indicate that workers exposed to VCM are at carcinogenic risk and should be monitored for long-term adverse effects from their exposure.

  3. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....

  4. [Investigation of activity of new quaternary imidazole-linear chlorides against selected bacterial strains. Synthesis of 2-alkyl-3-alkymethyl-1-ethylimidazolelinear and 2-alkyl-3-alkoxymethyl-1-ethylimidazolelinear chlorides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuncewicz, Z; Krysiński, J; Pernak, J; Kazimierczak, M

    1992-01-01

    Synthesis and bacteriostatic properties of a new alkylthiomethylimidazole-linear and alkomethyly-limidazole-linear chlorides was described. It was found that these chlorides are active against bacilli, cocci and yeast-like fungi and express lower activity against rods. Highest activity was observed with 2-benzyl-3-decyloxymethyl-1--ethylimidazolinear and 1-ethyl-heptadecyl-3-undecyloxymethylimidazolelinear chlorides.

  5. Catchment conceptualisation for examining applicability of chloride mass balance method in an area with historical forest clearance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Of the various approaches for estimating groundwater recharge, the chloride mass balance (CMB method is one of the most frequently used, especially for arid and semiarid regions. Widespread native vegetation clearance, common in many areas globally, has changed the land surface boundary condition, posing the question as to whether the current system has reached new chloride equilibrium, required for a CMB application. Although a one-dimensional CMB can be applied at a point where the water and chloride fluxes are locally in steady state, the CMB method is usually applied at a catchment scale owing to significant lateral flows in mountains. The applicability of the CMB method to several conceptual catchment types of various chloride equilibrium conditions is examined. The conceptualisation, combined with some local climate conditions, is shown to be useful in assessing whether or not a catchment has reached new chloride equilibrium. The six conceptual catchment types are tested with eleven selected catchments in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area in South Australia having experienced widespread historical forest clearance. The results show that six of the eleven catchments match a type VI chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a gaining stream, with the ratios of stream chloride output (O over atmospheric chloride input (I, or catchment chloride O/I ratios, ranging from 2 to 4. Two catchments match a type V chloride balance condition (chloride non-equilibrium with a losing stream, with catchment chloride O/I ratios about 0.5. For these type V and type VI catchments, the CMB method is not applicable. The results also suggest that neither a chloride O/I ratio less than one nor a low seasonal fluctuation of streamflow chloride concentration (a factor below 4 guarantees a chloride equilibrium condition in the study area. A large chloride O/I value (above one and a large fluctuation of streamflow chloride

  6. The Effect of Fly Ash and GGBFS as Cement Replacement on Chloride Binding and Ingress in Mortar Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Ytterdal, Silje Gystad

    2014-01-01

    Reinforcement corrosion has been identified as the predominant deterioration mechanism for reinforced concrete structures (fib, 2006), and is usually caused by carbonation or chloride attack. Chloride- induced corrosion is triggered by an increasing concentration of chloride ions in the pore solution. Corrosion seriously affects the serviceability and safety of concrete structures, and can cause major maintenance costs. Therefore, precise information and understanding of chloride ingress and ...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10056 - Benzenemethanaminium, N-(3-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. 721.10056 Section 721.10056 Protection of Environment...-aminopropyl)-N,N-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses...-dimethyl-, N-soya acyl derivs., chlorides (PMN P-03-47; CAS No. 90194-13-1) is subject to reporting under...

  8. The action and interaction of calcium and alkali chlorides on eggs of Limnaea stagnalis and their chemical interpretation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geilenkirchen, W.L.M.

    1. 1. The action and interaction of CaCl2 and alkali chlorides on eggs of Limnaea stagnalis have been studied. 2. 2. CaCl2 antagonizes death caused by alkali chlorides. The number of normally developing embryos increases in all cases. 3. 3. Alkali chlorides antagonize death caused by CaCl2. With

  9. Pourbaix Diagrams for Copper in 5 m Chloride Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverskog, Bjoern [OECD Halden Reactor Project (Norway); Pettersson, Sven-Olof [ChemIT, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2002-12-01

    Pourbaix diagrams for the copper in 5 molal chlorine at 5-100 deg C have been calculated. Predominance diagrams for dissolved copper containing species have also been calculated. Two different total concentrations of dissolved copper, 10{sup -4} and 10{sup -6} molal, have been used in the calculations. ChIoride is the predominating chlorine species in aqueous solutions. Therefore Pourbaix diagrams for chlorine can be used to discuss the effect of chloride solutions on the corrosion behavior of a metal. Presence of chloride increases the corrosion regions of copper at the expense of the immunity and passivity regions in the Pourbaix diagrams. Copper corrodes in 5 molal chloride by formation Of CuCl{sub 3}{sup 2-} in acid and alkaline solutions. At higher potentials in acid solutions CuCl{sub 3}{sup 2-} is oxidized to CuCl{sub 2}(aq), which at increasing potentials can form CuCI{sup +}, Cu{sup 2+} or CuClO{sub 3}{sup +}. Copper passivates by formation of Cu{sub 2}O(cr), CuO(cr), or CUO{sub 2} 3 Cu(OH){sub 2}(s). Cu{sub 2}O(cr) does not form at [Cu(aq)]{sub tot} = 10{sup -6} molal in 5 m C1-, which results in a corrosion area between the immunity and passivity areas. Copper at the anticipated repository potentials and pH corrodes at 100 deg C at [Cu(aq)]{sub tot} = 10{sup -4} molal and at 80-100 deg C at [Cu(aq)]{sub tot} = 10{sup -6} molal. Copper at the anticipated repository potentials and pH can corrode at 80 deg C at [Cu(aq)]{sub tot} = 10{sup -4} molal and at 50 deg C at [Cu(aq)]{sub tot} = 10{sup -6} molal. The bentonite clay and copper canisters in the deep repository can be considered as a 'closed' system from macroscopic point of view. The clay barrier limits both inward diffusion of oxygen and aggressive anions as well as outward diffusion of corrosion products from the canisters. Both diffusion phenomena will drive the corrosion potential into the immunity area of the Pourbaix diagram for copper. The corrosion will thereby stop by an automatic

  10. Molten Chloride Salts for Heat Transfer in Nuclear Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosek, James Wallace

    2011-12-01

    A forced convection loop was designed and constructed to examine the thermal-hydraulic performance of molten KCl-MgCl2 (68-32 at %) salt for use in nuclear co-generation facilities. As part of this research, methods for prediction of the thermo-physical properties of salt mixtures for selection of the coolant salt were studied. In addition, corrosion studies of 10 different alloys were exposed to the KCl-MgCl2 to determine a suitable construction material for the loop. Using experimental data found in literature for unary and binary salt systems, models were found, or developed to extrapolate the available experimental data to unstudied salt systems. These property models were then used to investigate the thermo-physical properties of the LINO3-NaNO3-KNO 3-Ca(NO3), system used in solar energy applications. Using these models, the density, viscosity, adiabatic compressibility, thermal conductivity, heat capacity, and melting temperatures of higher order systems can be approximated. These models may be applied to other molten salt systems. Coupons of 10 different alloys were exposed to the chloride salt for 100 hours at 850°C was undertaken to help determine with which alloy to construct the loop. Of the alloys exposed, Haynes 230 had the least amount of weight loss per area. Nickel and Hastelloy N performed best based on maximum depth of attack. Inconel 625 and 718 had a nearly uniform depletion of Cr from the surface of the sample. All other alloys tested had depletion of Cr along the grain boundaries. The Nb in Inconel 625 and 718 changed the way the Cr is depleted in these alloys. Grain-boundary engineering (GBE) of Incoloy 800H improved the corrosion resistance (weight loss and maximum depth of attack) by nearly 50% as compared to the as-received Incoloy 800H sample. A high temperature pump, thermal flow meter, and pressure differential device was designed, constructed and tested for use in the loop, The heat transfer of the molten chloride salt was found to

  11. Hydrothermal fluoride and chloride complexation of indium: an EXAFS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, Anselm; Testemale, Denis; Huotari, Simo; Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Potapkin, Vasily; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Indium (In) is one of the geochemically lesser studied ore metals, and the factors that control the hydrothermal transport and deposition are largely unknown. It has no ore deposits of its own and is commonly mined as a by-product of Zn ores, and there are very few minerals that contain In as an essential structural component. Recently, industrial application of In in touch screen devices has drastically increased demand, which is projected to exceed supply from the current sources in the near future. Since the most relevant In sources are hydrothermal sphalerite ores and to a lesser extent hydrothermal greisen-type deposits in evolved granitic plutons, the aqueous geochemistry of In is of particular interest for understanding its ore forming processes. As a first step towards a comprehensive model for hydrothermal In solubility and speciation, we have studied In speciation in fluoride and chloride bearing solutions at 30-400˚ C and 500 bar using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. The experiments were conducted in a unique hydrothermal autoclave setup at beamline BM30B-FAME at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. Our results show that the complexation of In changes dramatically between 30 and 400˚ C. Below ca. 200˚ C, fluoride complexes are the most stable ones, but they break down at higher temperatures. Chloride complexes on the other hand become increasingly stable with increasing temperature. This behavior has interesting consequences for natural ore forming systems. In Cl-rich systems (e.g. massive sulfide ores formed in sea floor environments), cooling can be an effective precipitating mechanism. In F-rich systems, fluoride complexation can extend In mobility to low temperatures and In will only precipitate when F is effectively removed from the fluid, e.g. by mixing with a Ca-rich fluid and precipitation of fluorite (CaF2) as is commonly observed in skarn or greisen-type deposits. Due to In complexing with

  12. Inhibition of Chloride Induced Crevice Corrosion in Alloy 22 by Fluoride Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carranza, R M; Rodr?guez, M A; Rebak, R B

    2005-10-09

    Alloy 22 (N06022) is highly resistant to localized corrosion. Alloy 22 may be susceptible to crevice corrosion in pure chloride (Cl{sup -}) solutions under aggressive environmental conditions. The effect of the fluoride (F{sup -}) over the crevice corrosion induced by chloride ions is still not well established. The objective of the present work was to explore the crevice corrosion resistance of this alloy to different mixtures of fluorides and chlorides. Cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (CPP) tests were conducted in deaerated aqueous solutions of pure halide ions and also in different mixtures of chloride and fluoride at 90 C and pH 6. The range of chloride concentration [Cl{sup -}] was 0.001 M {le} [Cl{sup -}] {le} 1 M and the range of molar fluoride to chloride ratio [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] was 0.1 {le} [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] {le} 10. Results showed that Alloy 22 was susceptible to crevice corrosion in all the pure chloride solutions but not in the pure fluoride solutions. Fluoride ions showed an inhibitor behavior only in mixtures with a molar ratio [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] > 2. For mixtures with a molar ratio [F{sup -}]/[Cl{sup -}] of 7 and 10 the inhibition of crevice corrosion was complete.

  13. Correlation of sweat chloride and percent predicted FEV1in cystic fibrosis patients treated with ivacaftor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidler, Meredith C; Beusmans, Jack; Panorchan, Paul; Van Goor, Fredrick

    2017-01-01

    Ivacaftor, a CFTR potentiator that enhances chloride transport by acting directly on CFTR to increase its channel gating activity, has been evaluated in patients with different CFTR mutations. Several previous analyses have reported no statistical correlation between change from baseline in ppFEV 1 and reduction in sweat chloride levels for individuals treated with ivacaftor. The objective of the post hoc analysis described here was to expand upon previous analyses and evaluate the correlation between sweat chloride levels and absolute ppFEV 1 changes across multiple cohorts of patients with different CF-causing mutations who were treated with ivacaftor. The goal of the analysis was to help define the potential value of sweat chloride as a pharmacodynamic biomarker for use in CFTR modulator trials. For any given study, reductions in sweat chloride levels and improvements in absolute ppFEV 1 were not correlated for individual patients. However, when the data from all studies were combined, a statistically significant correlation between sweat chloride levels and ppFEV 1 changes was observed (psweat chloride level changes in response to potentiation of the CFTR protein by ivacaftor appear to be a predictive pharmacodynamic biomarker of lung function changes on a population basis but are unsuitable for the prediction of treatment benefits for individuals. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Vinyl chloride exposure and cirrhosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frullanti, Elisa; La Vecchia, Carlo; Boffetta, Paolo; Zocchetti, Carlo

    2012-09-01

    It has been proposed that vinyl chloride exposure is associated with increased risk of death from cirrhosis, although epidemiologic evidence is limited. We analyzed the risk of death from cirrhosis by occupational vinyl chloride exposure by conducting a meta-analysis on seven available studies, including more than 40,000 workers exposed to vinyl chloride mostly in North America and Europe, with a total of 203 deaths from cirrhosis. All epidemiological studies on vinyl chloride exposure and risk of death from cirrhosis resulted in an overall relative risk of 0.73 (95% confidence interval 0.61-0.87). Thus, the epidemiologic evidence does not suggest an excess mortality from cirrhosis in vinyl chloride-exposed workers; this is consistent with histopathological observations in livers of angiosarcoma patients and of vinyl chloride-exposed rodents revealing no signs of cirrhosis. Overall, our findings indicate the absence of increased risk of death from cirrhosis in vinyl chloride-exposed workers. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A new approach prevailing over chloride interference in the photoelectrochemical determination of chemical oxygen demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shanqing; Zhao, Huijun

    2008-12-01

    A new approach to overcome chloride interferences in the photoelectrochemical determination of chemical oxygen demand (PeCOD) was developed. This approach was based on the kinetic characteristics of photocatalytic oxidation reactions of chloride in the presence and absence of organics. The effectiveness of the proposed approach was evaluated using the newly developed PeCOD system with a wide range of possible scenarios. It was found that the chloride interference was insignificant when a sample meets the two critical criteria, i.e., chloride concentration Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) of such a sample can be directly determined by the direct PeCOD method. When the chloride content in a sample exceeds 26.6 ppm, an appropriate sample dilution could effectively reduce the chloride interference to less than 5%, if the diluted sample meets the critical criteria. An organic addition method was proposed to deal with scenarios for samples containing high chloride and low organic concentrations where the critical criteria cannot be met by simple dilution. Such an approach greatly extends the applicability of the proposed method, covering a wide range of possible real-world scenarios without the need to use expensive (i.e. AgNO(3)) and toxic (i.e. HgSO(4)) masking reagents.

  16. Pitting corrosion of inconel 600 in chloride and sulfate solutions at low temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ming-Yu; Yu, Ge-Ping

    1993-06-01

    Pitting corrosion of Inconel 600 was examined in chloride and sulfate solutions through usage of potentiodynamic polarization techniques. The effects of chloride and sulfate concentration were investigated in the range of 0.0001 to 0.1M. Increasing chloride concentrations resulted in active shifts of the pit nucleation potential. Immunity to pitting corrosion was evident at a chloride level below 0.005M. Increasing sulfate concentrations resulted in improved pitting resistance of Inconel 600 in chloride solutions. Detrimental effects associated with pitting were evident with low-level sulfate being added to dilute chloride media. The density of pits increased with increasing chloride concentrations or temperature between room temperature and 70°C. Systematic trends for the depth of pits were not evident. The observations of pitting corrosion in open immersion were consistent with those in polarization methods. Corrosion products contained in the pits were enriched in nickel, chromium and iron with a small amount of titanium and silicon. The enrichment of chlorine or sulfur was still, however, not found.

  17. The Effect of Crack Width on Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available When subjected to loading or thermal shrinkage, reinforced concrete structures usually behave in a cracking state, which raises the risk of bar corrosion from the working environment. The influence of cover cracking on chloride-induced corrosion was experimentally investigated through a 654-day laboratory test on cracked reinforced concrete specimens exposed to chloride solution. The concrete specimens have a dimension of 100 mm × 100 mm × 400 mm and a single prefabricated crack at the midspan. When the percentage concentration of chloride ion (0.6%, 1.2%, 2.1%, 3.0%, and 6.0% and crack width (uncracked, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mm are taken as variables, the experimental results showed that the corrosion rates for cracked specimens increased with increasing percentage concentration of chloride and increasing crack width. This study also showed the interrelationship between crack width and percentage concentration of chloride on the corrosion rate. In addition, an empirical model, incorporating the influence of the cover cracking and chloride concentration, was developed to predict the corrosion rate. This model allows the prediction of the maximum allowable wcr based on the given percentage concentration of chloride in the exposure condition.

  18. Measurement and Modeling of the Ability of Crack Fillers to Prevent Chloride Ingress into Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Scott Z; Bentz, Dale P; Davis, Jeffrey M; Hussey, Daniel S; Jacobson, David L; Molloy, John L; Sieber, John R

    2017-09-01

    A common repair procedures applied to damaged concrete is to fill cracks with an organic polymer. This operation is performed to increase the service life of the concrete by removing a preferential pathway for the ingress of water, chlorides, and other deleterious species. To effectively fulfill its mission of preventing chloride ingress, the polymer must not only fully fill the macro-crack, but must also intrude the damage zone surrounding the crack perimeter. Here, the performance of two commonly employed crack fillers, one epoxy, and one methacrylate, are investigated using a combined experimental and computer modeling approach. Neutron tomography and microbeam X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (μXRF) measurements are employed on pre-cracked and chloride-exposed specimens to quantify the crack filling and chloride ingress limiting abilities, respectively, of the two polymers. A two-dimensional model of chloride transport is derived from a mass balance and solved by the finite element method. Crack images provided by μXRF are used to generate the input microstructure for the simulations. When chloride binding and a time-dependent mortar diffusivity are both included in the computer model, good agreement with the experimental results is obtained. Both crack fillers significantly reduce chloride ingress during the 21 d period of the present experiments; however, the epoxy itself contains approximately 4 % by mass chlorine. Leaching studies were performed assess the epoxy as a source of deleterious ions for initiating corrosion of the steel reinforcement in concrete structures.

  19. Impact of the associated cation on chloride binding of Portland cement paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Weerdt, K., E-mail: klaartje.d.weerdt@ntnu.no [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway); Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Bergamo (Italy); Colombo, A. [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway); Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Bergamo (Italy); Coppola, L. [Department of Engineering and Applied Sciences, University of Bergamo (Italy); Justnes, H. [SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Trondheim (Norway); Geiker, M.R. [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norway)

    2015-02-15

    Well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2} and NaCl solutions at 20 °C. The chloride binding isotherms for free chloride concentrations ranging up to 1.5 mol/l were determined experimentally. More chlorides were found to be bound when the associated cation was Mg{sup 2} {sup +} or Ca{sup 2} {sup +} compared to Na{sup +}. The chloride binding capacity of the paste appeared to be related to the pH of the exposure solution. In order to explain the cation dependency of the chloride binding a selection of samples was investigated in detail using experimental techniques such as TG, XRD and SEM–EDS to identify the phases binding the chlorides. The experimentally obtained data were compared with the calculations of a thermodynamic model, GEMS. It was concluded that the measured change in chloride binding depending on the cation was mainly governed by the pH of the exposure solution and thereby the binding capacity of the C-S-H.

  20. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Weerdt, K., E-mail: klaartje.d.weerdt@ntnu.no [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); SINTEF Building and Infrastructure, Trondheim (Norway); Orsáková, D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Brno, Brno (Czech Republic); Geiker, M.R. [Department of Structural Engineering, Norwegian University of science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway)

    2014-11-15

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl{sub 2}, MgSO{sub 4} + MgCl{sub 2} and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding for NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite.

  1. Concentration Distribution of Chloride Ion under the Influence of the Convection-Diffusion Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Q. L. Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The transfer process of chloride ion under the action of the convection-diffusion coupling was analyzed in order to predict the corrosion of reinforcement and the durability of structure more accurately. Considering the time-varying properties of diffusion coefficient and the space-time effect of the convection velocity, the differential equation for chloride ion transfer under the action of the convection-diffusion coupling was constructed. And then the chloride ion transfer model was validated by the existing experimental datum and the actual project datum. The results showed that when only diffusion was considered, the chlorine ion concentration increased with the time and decreased with the decay index of time. Under the action of the convection-diffusion coupling, at each point of coupling region, the chloride ion concentration first increased and then decreased and tended to stabilize, and the maximum appeared at the moment of convection velocity being 0; in the diffusion zone, the chloride ion concentration increased over time, and the chloride ion concentration of the same location increased with the depth of convection (in the later period, the velocity of convection (in the early period, and the chloride ion concentration of the surface.

  2. Egg Production and Quality of Quails Fed Diets with Varying Levels of Methionine and Choline Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of choline chloride supplementation at 1500 ppm in diets containing various levels of methionine on egg production and egg quality in quails. A total of 180 birds, at 6 week-old quail were divided into 18 experimental units, and assigned to a 2 x 3 factorial design experiment with 3 replications (10 birds each in each treatment. The birds were offered diets containing choline chloride at either 0 (A1 or 1500 ppm (A2, with three levels of methionine namely, low (0.19%, B1, standard (0.79%, B2 and, high (1.05%, B3. The feeding trial lasted for 8 weeks. Supplementation of choline chloride in low methionine diet significantly (P<0.05 increased egg production, egg mass, and egg weight as compared to those without choline chloride supplementation. Supplementation of choline chloride significantly (P<0.05 increased egg yolk weight but decreased albumen and egg shell weight as compared to those fed diets without choline chloride supplementation. It can be concluded that supplementation of choline chloride to a diet containing low methionine increased egg production, without affecting egg quality.

  3. Fatal exposure to methylene chloride among bathtub refinishers - United States, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    In 2010, the Michigan Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program conducted an investigation into the death of a bathtub refinisher who used a methylene chloride-based paint stripping product marketed for use in aircraft maintenance. The program identified two earlier, similar deaths in Michigan. Program staff members notified CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which in turn notified the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In addition to the three deaths, OSHA identified 10 other bathtub refinisher fatalities associated with methylene chloride stripping agents that had been investigated in nine states during 2000-2011. Each death occurred in a residential bathroom with inadequate ventilation. Protective equipment, including a respirator, either was not used or was inadequate to protect against methylene chloride vapor, which has been recognized as potentially fatal to furniture strippers and factory workers but has not been reported previously as a cause of death among bathtub refinishers. Worker safety agencies, public health agencies, methylene chloride-based stripper manufacturers, and trade organizations should communicate the extreme hazards of using methylene chloride-based stripping products in bathtub refinishing to employers, workers, and consumers. Employers should strongly consider alternative methods of bathtub stripping and always ensure worker safety protections that reduce the risk for health hazards to acceptable levels. Employers choosing to use methylene chloride-based stripping products must comply with OSHA's standard to limit methylene chloride exposures to safe levels.

  4. Salt equivalence and temporal dominance of sensations of different sodium chloride substitutes in butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Vanessa Rios; Freire, Tassyana Vieira Marques; Saraiva, Carla Gonçalves; de Deus Souza Carneiro, João; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Nunes, Cleiton Antônio

    2013-08-01

    Studies indicate a positive association between dietary salt intake and some diseases, which has promoted the tendency to reduce the sodium in foods. The objective of this study was to determine the equivalent amount of different sodium chloride replacements required to promote the same degree of ideal saltiness in butter and to study the sensory profile of sodium chloride and the substitutes using the analysis of Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). Using the magnitude estimation method, it was determined that the potencies of potassium chloride, monosodium glutamate and potassium phosphate relative to the 1% sodium chloride in butter are 83·33, 31·59 and 33·32, respectively. Regarding the sensory profile of the tested salt substitutes, a bitter taste was perceived in the butter with potassium chloride, a sour taste was perceived in the butter with potassium phosphate and sweet and umami tastes were dominant in the butter with monosodium glutamate. Of all the salt substitutes tested calcium lactate, potassium lactate, calcium chloride and magnesium chloride were impractical to use in butter.

  5. Sweating the small stuff: adequacy and accuracy in sweat chloride determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMarco, Mari L; Dietzen, Dennis J; Brown, Sarah M

    2015-04-01

    Sweat chloride testing is the gold standard for diagnosis of cystic fibrosis (CF). Our objectives were to: 1) describe variables that determine sweat rate; 2) determine the analytic and diagnostic capacity of sweat chloride analysis across the range of observed sweat rates; and 3) determine the biologic variability of sweat chloride concentration. A retrospective analysis was performed using data from all sweat chloride tests performed at St. Louis Children's Hospital over a 21-month period. A total of 1397 sweat chloride tests (1155 sufficient [≥75 mg], 242 insufficient [sweat weight collected from forearms was statistically greater than that collected from legs. There was a negligible correlation between sweat weight and chloride concentration (r=-0.06). The mean individual biologic CV calculated from individuals with two or more sweat collections ≥75 mg was 13.1% (95% CI: 11.3-14.9%; range 0-88%) yielding a reference change value of 36%. Using 60 mmol/L as the diagnostic chloride cutoff, 100% of CF cases were detected whether a minimum sweat weight of 75, 40, or 20 mg was required. 1) Collection of sweat from forearms is preferable to upper legs, particularly in very young infants; 2) sweat chloride concentrations are not highly dependent upon sweat rate; 3) a change in sweat chloride concentration exceeding 36% may be considered a clinically significant response to cystic fibrosis transmembrane receptor targeted therapy, and 4) sweat collections of less than 75 mg provide clinically accurate information. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Crystal structure of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin with a partially depopulated primary chloride-binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Madeleine; Schlesinger, Ramona; Heberle, Joachim; Niemann, Hartmut H

    2016-09-01

    The transmembrane pump halorhodopsin in halophilic archaea translocates chloride ions from the extracellular to the cytoplasmic side upon illumination. In the ground state a tightly bound chloride ion occupies the primary chloride-binding site (CBS I) close to the protonated Schiff base that links the retinal chromophore to the protein. The light-triggered trans-cis isomerization of retinal causes structural changes in the protein associated with movement of the chloride ion. In reverse, chemical depletion of CBS I in Natronomonas pharaonis halorhodopsin (NpHR) through deprotonation of the Schiff base results in conformational changes of the protein: a state thought to mimic late stages of the photocycle. Here, crystals of Halobacterium salinarum halorhodopsin (HsHR) were soaked at high pH to provoke deprotonation of the Schiff base and loss of chloride. The crystals changed colour from purple to yellow and the occupancy of CBS I was reduced from 1 to about 0.5. In contrast to NpHR, this chloride depletion did not cause substantial conformational changes in the protein. Nevertheless, two observations indicate that chloride depletion could eventually result in structural changes similar to those found in NpHR. Firstly, the partially chloride-depleted form of HsHR has increased normalized B factors in the region of helix C that is close to CBS I and changes its conformation in NpHR. Secondly, prolonged soaking of HsHR crystals at high pH resulted in loss of diffraction. In conclusion, the conformation of the chloride-free protein may not be compatible with this crystal form of HsHR despite a packing arrangement that hardly restrains helices E and F that presumably move during ion transport.

  7. Studies of extractive removal of silver(I from chloride solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wejman-Gibas Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For efficient recovery of silver(I from chloride solutions, amine extractants were used. The effect of the type of diluent, extractant and chloride concentration, contact time and reextraction were studied. It was found that the best diluent for this process was xylene. Extraction of silver depended on concentration of hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and extractant and additionally on the contact time. Reextraction of Ag(I ions from the loaded organic phase showed that it can be removed only little using NH3·H2O, NaOH, NH4NO3, and NaNO3 as the stripping agents.

  8. Stochastic Analysis of the Multi-dimensional Effect of Chloride Ingress into Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2007-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of the reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. One mode of corrosion initiation occurs when the chloride content around the reinforcement bars exceeds a critical threshold value, which...... is the subject of the present paper. Typically, the chloride concentration is obtained by solving Fick's diffusion partial differential equation assuming chloride flow into an infinite half space. However, when the concrete structure is relatively thin or when a rebar is situated at a corner of the structure...... Optimum Linear Estimation) approach. A bridge pier in a marine environment is considered to exemplify the results....

  9. Studies on poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes were prepared by using the method of immersion-precipitation process. The influences of stretching ratio on the formation of the interfacial microporous of poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes were specifically investigated by scanning electron microscope, dynamic mechanical analysis, and finite element method. Results show that with the stretching ratio increasing, numerous IFM appear on the surface of membranes. Finite element method actually reflects the dynamic change of microporous structure of poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes.

  10. Stress Corrosion Cracking of an Austenitic Stainless Steel in Nitrite-Containing Chloride Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh Raman, R. K.; Siew, Wai Hoong

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the susceptibility of 316L stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in a nitrite-containing chloride solution. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) in 30 wt. % MgCl2 solution established SCC susceptibility, as evidenced by post-SSRT fractography. Addition of nitrite to the chloride solution, which is reported to have inhibitive influence on corrosion of stainless steels, was found to increase SCC susceptibility. The susceptibility was also found to increase with nitrite concentration. This behaviour is explained on the basis of the passivation and pitting characteristics of 316L steel in chloride solution. PMID:28788276

  11. Stress Corrosion Cracking of an Austenitic Stainless Steel in Nitrite-Containing Chloride Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Singh Raman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the susceptibility of 316L stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking (SCC in a nitrite-containing chloride solution. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT in 30 wt. % MgCl2 solution established SCC susceptibility, as evidenced by post-SSRT fractography. Addition of nitrite to the chloride solution, which is reported to have inhibitive influence on corrosion of stainless steels, was found to increase SCC susceptibility. The susceptibility was also found to increase with nitrite concentration. This behaviour is explained on the basis of the passivation and pitting characteristics of 316L steel in chloride solution.

  12. Stress Corrosion Cracking of an Austenitic Stainless Steel in Nitrite-Containing Chloride Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, R K Singh; Siew, Wai Hoong

    2014-12-05

    This article describes the susceptibility of 316L stainless steel to stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in a nitrite-containing chloride solution. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) in 30 wt. % MgCl₂ solution established SCC susceptibility, as evidenced by post-SSRT fractography. Addition of nitrite to the chloride solution, which is reported to have inhibitive influence on corrosion of stainless steels, was found to increase SCC susceptibility. The susceptibility was also found to increase with nitrite concentration. This behaviour is explained on the basis of the passivation and pitting characteristics of 316L steel in chloride solution.

  13. Self-assembled hemocompatible coating on poly (vinyl chloride) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zha, Zhengbao; Ma, Yan; Yue, Xiuli; Liu, Meng; Dai, Zhifei

    2009-11-01

    A stable hemocompatible coating was fabricated by consecutive alternating adsorption of iron (III) and two kinds of polysaccharides, heparin (Hep) and dextran sulfate (DS), onto poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC) surfaces via electrostatic interaction. The fluctuation of contact angles with the alternative deposition of iron (III) and polysaccharides verified the progressive buildup of the mulitilayer coating onto the PVC surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis revealed that the PVC surfaces were completely masked by iron-polysaccharides multilayer coatings. The activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) assay showed that both Hep/Fe 3+/Hep and DS/Fe 3+/Hep coated PVC were less thrombogenic than the uncoated one. Chromogenic assay for heparin activity proved definitively that the inhibition of locally produced thrombin was ascribed to the thromboresistance of the surface-bound heparin. Compared with the unmodified PVC surfaces, iron-polysaccharide multilayer coating presented a drastically reduced adhesion in vitro of platelets, polymorphonuclear neutrophil leukocytes (PMN) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Interestingly, the DS/Fe 3+/Hep coating was found to exhibit higher hydrophilicity and stability, hence lower non-specific protein adsorption in comparison with Hep/Fe 3+/Hep coating due to the incorporation of dextran sulfate into the multilayer coating.

  14. Flocculation of thermomechanical pulping spent liquor with polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yonghui; Liu, Zhong; Fatehi, Pedram

    2017-09-15

    Currently, the dissolved lignocelluloses in the spent liquor (SL) of a thermomechanical pulping process are treated in wastewater treatment systems and thus they are wasted. In this work, polydiallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDADMAC), with different molecular weights, was used for flocculating lignocelluloses of SL and thus isolating them from SL. Results showed that the maximum removals were 38% via treating SL with 100 mg/L of PDADMAC (with 1045 kg/mol molecular weight) at 25 °C for 30 min. The focused beam reflectance measurement of the flocculation process revealed that the chord length of the flocs with the maximum square weighted counts was increased from 70 to 100 μm and also their maximum square weighted counts was increased from 5 to 25 μm(2)/s. The flocs contained 60.71-74.41 wt% PDADMAC, the balance of lignocelluloses and the heating value of 24-25 MJ/kg. The high molecular PDADMAC generated flocs with more organics and a higher heating value. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Aluminium chloride-induced toxicity in zebrafish larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaco, A; Grimaldi, M C; Ferrandino, I

    2017-05-01

    Embryos at shield stage and larvae at protruding mouth stage were exposed to different concentrations of aluminium chloride (AlCl3 ) for 72 h with the purpose to analyse their phenotype and lethality. After 24, 48 and 72 h of treatment, higher toxicity of the metal was observed on larvae with minimal lethal concentration of 0.25, 0.20 and 0.08 mm, respectively, while for embryos the corresponding values were 40, 25 and 16 mm. We observed pericardial oedema and alteration of heart rate in 50% of larvae after 48 h of exposure to 100 μm. In larvae exposed to the same concentration, there was also a neurological injury at the level of glial cells, with the number of glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive cells being significantly reduced. This study confirms the toxic nature of this metal and shows that aluminium could also interestingly represent a cardiotoxin in addition to its neurotoxic ability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Histophysiological study of aluminum chloride effect on male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. H. Al-Mallah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to detect the effects of aluminum chloride AlCl3 on some pathophysiological features of adult male rats. Eighteen rats were divided to 3 groups of 6 animals each. These included untreated control and 2 treated groups received AlCl3 at the doses 40 and 80 mg/kg of body weight, orally and daily for 30 days. The following parameters were recorded: Body weight (weekly, central nervous system activity tests (weekly, hematological examinations at 15 and 30 days of experimentally and gross and histopathology for brain, liver, kidneys and heart at the day (30. The results showed a significant decrease in body weight mean of 3rd group (80 mg/kg at 4th week, a significant decrease in the activity associated with time progress in experiment by recording (moving onset, square crossed and rearing in 3 minutes, negative geotaxis tests, there were no significant differences between groups at pack cell volume and hemoglobin concentration with a significant decrease in total leukocyte count at 2nd group (40 mg/kg. Differential leukocyte count revealed significant increase in lymphocyte at day 30. Histopathological changes were neuronal vaculation and proliferation of microgelial cells in brain, vacular degeneration and lymphocytic infiltrations in hepatic parenchyma with mild portal fibrosis in liver, at kidneys there were cloudy swelling, coagulative necrosis to the renal tubular epithelium, more severely noticed at 3rd group, no pathological changes were noticed at myocardium and coronary arteries at both treated groups.

  17. Compost leachate treatment using polyaluminium chloride and nanofiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simonič Marjana

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory scale filtration tests utilizing leachate were conducted to investigate fouling and filtration performance of nanofiltration membranes. The work presented in this study is conducted on real samples rather than model water. Physico-chemical analyses showed that the leachate contained a lot of organic substances, exceeding 20000 mg/L O2 expressed as chemical oxygen demand. Proper pre-treatment method must be chosen in order to reduce fouling index. Coagulation pre-treatment using poly-aluminium chloride was chosen. Two thin film polysulfone membranes were used, purchased by Osmonic Desal. The focus of this research is to assess the influence of the particle size and zeta-potential of the colloidal fraction in leachate on nanofiltration performance. The isoelectric point of both membranes was 4.7 and 4.3, respectively. The fouled membranes were negatively charged over the pH range with isoelectric point shifting to the left (lower pH indicating the foulant material mainly not charged. It was confirmed by its zeta-potential, measured at -2 mV.

  18. Does magnesium chloride modify aldrin-induced neurotoxicity in rats?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarini, C A; Vassilieff, I

    1998-10-01

    Magnesium chloride (MgCl2) has been proposed for the treatment of seizures of different etiologies. The present study investigated the effect of MgCl2 on aldrin-induced seizures. Initially, 50 male rats received 60 mg aldrin/kg po and the effects were classified as muscular twitches, clonic convulsions or tonic-clonic convulsions. Another group of 40 rats dosed with 60 mg aldrin/kg po received 0, 4, 8, or 12 mg MgCl2/kg i.m. The percentage of tonic-clonic convulsant rats that resulted from MgCl2 treatment were 90% at 0 mg/kg, 50% at 4 mg/kg, 40% at 8 mg/kg and 20% at 12 mg MgCl2/kg. The percentage of survivors in the group receiving 12 mg MgCl2/kg was 80% while the control group had 20% survival. The clonic convulsions were not modified by MgCl2 treatment. Blood and brain concentrations of aldrin and dieldrin (metabolite of aldrin) did not differ among groups. The MgCl2 administration decreased the neuroexcitability induced by aldrin and increased survivability.

  19. Contact dermatitis to cobalt chloride with an unusual mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Sevket; Aksan, Serkan; Ucar, Ramazan; Caliskaner, Ahmet Zafer

    2015-10-01

    Contact dermatitis is a frequent inflammatory skin disease. A suspected diagnosis is based on clinical symptoms, a plausible contact to allergens and a suitable history of dermatitis. Therefore, careful diagnosis by patch testing is of great importance because the patch testing is important to find out which allergen/material causes the complaints. Metallic allergens such as cobalt are among the most common causes of allergic contact dermatitis, but frequencies of contact dermatitis to these allergens may vary in different skin areas. Here, we report an unusual case of cobalt allergy on the skin contact with the prosthetic leg of a 30-year-old female patient. The patient developed maculopapular and vesicular lesions on her contact region of residual limb to prosthetic leg. She underwent standard patch testing, which resulted in a strong positive reaction to cobalt chloride. This case report may serve to remind doctors to be aware of potential allergic reactions to prostheses and to enable them to recognize a metal allergy if it appears. Prosthetists should also be reminded of potential allergic reactions. Cobalt can be used as an accelerator in making a prosthetic socket. Several cases have been reported concerning allergies to components of the prosthetic socket. This is the first report of sensitization to cobalt which is used in making a prosthetic leg. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  20. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator for treatment of chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambizas, Emily M; Ginzburg, Regina

    2007-06-01

    To review lubiprostone's pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety in the treatment of chronic constipation. A literature search was conducted using PubMed/MEDLINE (1966-January 2007), IngentaConnect, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts (1977-January 2007). Key words used included lubiprostone, Amitiza, and chronic constipation. All articles identified from the data sources that were published in English were evaluated. Lubiprostone is a chloride channel activator approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic constipation. A randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study evaluating the effect of lubiprostone on gastric function showed slowed gastric emptying and increased small bowel and colonic transit time. Peak plasma concentration was shown to be around 1.14 hours, with a majority of the drug excreted in the urine within 48 hours. Phase III trials have noted that most patients with chronic constipation have a spontaneous bowel movement within 24 hours after taking lubiprostone. The most common adverse events in these trials were nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Lubiprostone use has not been studied in the pediatric population. Lubiprostone may be a reasonable alternative for use in patients who either fail or are intolerant of standard therapy for chronic constipation. Head-to-head comparison studies with conventional therapy are needed to contrast clinical efficacy and safety of this medication.