WorldWideScience

Sample records for scandium 47 target

  1. CD47 target: from theory to reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Irving Weissman at the Stanford University School of Medicine in Palo Alto, California found that leukemia cells produced higher levels of CD47. This high expression help tumor cells to escape from the immune system. To date, the CD47 receptor becomes the interesting target in cancer treatment. Some recent studies from in vitro to pre-clinical trials showed that blocking CD47 by anti-CD47 or morpholino efficiently tumor cells or tumor growth. From these results, some clinical trials were suggested to test the safety and efficacy of anti-CD47 therapy. There is at least a clinical trial using anti-CD47 therapy registered in clinicaltrial.gov. Some other clinical trials will be performed at Stanford in the mid-2014 as well as in the United Kingdom.

  2. CD47: a potential immunotherapy target for eliminating cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, F; Gao, F; Li, H; Liu, H; Zhang, Y; Zheng, R; Zhang, Y; Chen, J; Li, X; Liu, G; Jia, Y

    2016-11-01

    The relationship between the immune system and cancer growth and aggravation has been discussed over a century. A number of molecules have been shown to participate in this process. CD47, a normal universally expressed member of the immunoglobulin superfamily, plays multiple functions in immune system. Researches demonstrated that CD47 was also highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells as well as cancer stem cells (CSCs). Whether the highly expressed CD47 was associated with tumor growth, metastasis, recurrence, or drug resistance has become the hotspot. Besides the roles of CD47 in tumor immunoregulation, the monoclonal antibodies targeting CD47 used in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and bladder CSCs were reported, which shed new light on tumor treatment. CSCs have been recognized as the root of tumor drug resistance and recurrence. Whether CD47 on CSCs could serve as a potential target for future anti-cancer treatment forms the focus of our review. Here we highlight the potential roles of CD47 in immune system, and discuss the promising therapeutic application of anti-CD47 antibodies for eliminating tumor cells.

  3. Cancer immunotherapy targeting the CD47/SIRPα axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Kipp

    2017-05-01

    The success of cancer immunotherapy has generated tremendous interest in identifying new immunotherapeutic targets. To date, the majority of therapies have focussed on stimulating the adaptive immune system to attack cancer, including agents targeting CTLA-4 and the PD-1/PD-L1 axis. However, macrophages and other myeloid immune cells offer much promise as effectors of cancer immunotherapy. The CD47/signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) axis is a critical regulator of myeloid cell activation and serves a broader role as a myeloid-specific immune checkpoint. CD47 is highly expressed on many different types of cancer, and it transduces inhibitory signals through SIRPα on macrophages and other myeloid cells. In a diverse range of preclinical models, therapies that block the CD47/SIRPα axis stimulate phagocytosis of cancer cells in vitro and anti-tumour immune responses in vivo. A number of therapeutics that target the CD47/SIRPα axis are under preclinical and clinical investigation. These include anti-CD47 antibodies, engineered receptor decoys, anti-SIRPα antibodies and bispecific agents. These therapeutics differ in their pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and toxicological properties. Clinical trials are underway for both solid and haematologic malignancies using anti-CD47 antibodies and recombinant SIRPα proteins. Since the CD47/SIRPα axis also limits the efficacy of tumour-opsonising antibodies, additional trials will examine their potential synergy with agents such as rituximab, cetuximab and trastuzumab. Phagocytosis in response to CD47/SIRPα-blocking agents results in antigen uptake and presentation, thereby linking the innate and adaptive immune systems. CD47/SIRPα blocking therapies may therefore synergise with immune checkpoint inhibitors that target the adaptive immune system. As a critical regulator of macrophage phagocytosis and activation, the potential applications of CD47/SIRPα blocking therapies extend beyond human cancer. They may be

  4. Targeting the Cancer Biomarker CD47: A Review on the Diverse Mechanisms of the CD47 Pathway in Cancer Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Huang, He

    2016-01-01

    CD47 is a widely expressed cell membrane receptor belonging to the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily. CD47 is involved in a number of cellular processes, including proliferation, apoptosis, adhesion and migration through interacting with integrin, thrombospondins and SIRPα. CD47 also plays an important role in the immune system and homeostasis. In recent few years, numerous studies have demonstrated that targeting CD47 exhibits noticeable effects on inhibition of tumor growth and prevention of metastasis in various types of cancers, while the mechanisms is complicated. In this review, we stated three possible mechanisms of targeting CD47 for cancer treatment. First, blockade of CD47 interrupts the CD47-SIRPα pathway which helps cancer cells escape from phagocytosis by macrophages. Second, ligation of CD47 induces cancer cells apoptosis. Third, targeting CD47 improves the tumor microenvironment. We also described several prospective strategies that have been used for targeting CD47 in cancer therapy, including antibodies, miRNA/siRNA and recombinant protein, etc. In conclusion, CD47 is a promising cancer biomarker, and targeting CD47 presents an effective and potential therapeutic strategy through synthesized mechanisms.

  5. Scandium recovery from slags after oxidized nickel ore processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyshlyaev, Denis; Botalov, Maxim; Bunkov, Grigory; Rychkov, Vladimir; Kirillov, Evgeny; Kirillov, Sergey; Semenishchev, Vladimir

    2017-09-01

    One of the possible sources of scandium production - waste (slags) from processing of oxidized nickel ores, has been considered in present research work. The hydrometallurgical method has been selected as the primary for scandium extraction. Different reagents for leaching of scandium, such as sulfuric acid, various carbonate salts and fluorides, have been tested. Sulfuric acid has been recognized as an optimal leaching reagent. Sulfuric acid concentration of 100 g L-1 allowed recovering up to 97 % of scandium.

  6. In-source laser spectroscopy developments at TRILIS-towards spectroscopy on actinium and scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raeder, Sebastian, E-mail: raeder@triumf.ca; Dombsky, Marik; Heggen, Henning; Lassen, Jens; Quenzel, Thomas [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Sjoedin, Marica [GANIL (France); Teigelhoefer, Andrea [TRIUMF, Canada' s National Laboratory for Nuclear and Particle Physics (Canada); Wendt, Klaus [Johannes Gutenberg-Universitaet Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany)

    2013-04-15

    Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources (RILIS) have become a versatile tool for production and study of exotic nuclides at Isotope Separator On-Line (ISOL) facilities such as ISAC at TRIUMF. The recent development and addition of a grating tuned spectroscopy laser to the TRIUMF RILIS solid state laser system allows for wide range spectral scans to investigate atomic structures on short lived isotopes, e.g., those from the element actinium, produced in uranium targets at ISAC. In addition, development of new and improved laser ionization schemes for rare isotope production at ISAC is ongoing. Here spectroscopic studies on bound states, Rydberg states and autoionizing (AI) resonances on scandium using the existing off-line capabilities are reported. These results allowed to identify a suitable ionization scheme for scandium via excitation into an autoionizing state at 58,104 cm{sup - 1} which has subsequently been used for ionization of on-line produced exotic scandium isotopes.

  7. CD47-CAR-T Cells Effectively Kill Target Cancer Cells and Block Pancreatic Tumor Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Berahovich, Robert; Zhou, Hua; Xu, Shirley; Harto, Hizkia; Li, Le; Chao, Cheng-Chi; Mao, Mike Ming; Wu, Lijun

    2017-01-01

    CD47 is a glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is often overexpressed in different types of hematological and solid cancer tumors and plays important role in blocking phagocytosis, increased tumor survival, metastasis and angiogenesis. In the present report, we designed CAR (chimeric antigen receptor)-T cells that bind CD47 antigen. We used ScFv (single chain variable fragment) from mouse CD47 antibody to generate CD47-CAR-T cells for targeting different cancer cell lines. CD47...

  8. Chemical and biological evaluation of scandium(III)-polyaminopolycarboxylate complexes as potential PET agents and radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huclier-Markai, S.; Sabatie, A.; Ribet, S. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Lab. Subatech; Kubicek, V.; Hermann, P. [Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Paris, M. [Univ. de Nantes (France). Inst. des Materiaux; Vidaud, C. [CEA/DSV/iBEB/SBTN, Bagnols sur Ceze (France). Lab. d' Etude des Proteines Cibles; Cutler, C.S. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Reserach Reactor Center

    2011-07-01

    Scandium isotopes ({sup 44}Sc, {sup 47}Sc) are more available and their properties are convenient for either PET imaging or radiotherapy. To use them in nuclear medicine, ligands forming complexes with a high stability are necessary. Available experimental data on stability constants for complexes of ligands such as EDTA, DTPA, DOTA, NOTA and TETA with various metal ions have been published. But scandium is the exception since scarce data is available in the literature. Values of stability constants of Sc(III) with the ligands were determined by free-ion selective radiotracer extraction, complemented by {sup 45}Sc NMR and potentiometry data. The thermodynamic stability of the Sc-complexes increases in the order TETA < NOTA < EDTA < DTPA < DOTA. The in vitro stability of the Sc(III) complexes was studied in the presence of hydroxyapatite and rat serum to estimate their in vivo stability. The most stable complex was shown to be Sc-DOTA.

  9. CD47-CAR-T Cells Effectively Kill Target Cancer Cells and Block Pancreatic Tumor Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vita Golubovskaya

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available CD47 is a glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is often overexpressed in different types of hematological and solid cancer tumors and plays important role in blocking phagocytosis, increased tumor survival, metastasis and angiogenesis. In the present report, we designed CAR (chimeric antigen receptor-T cells that bind CD47 antigen. We used ScFv (single chain variable fragment from mouse CD47 antibody to generate CD47-CAR-T cells for targeting different cancer cell lines. CD47-CAR-T cells effectively killed ovarian, pancreatic and other cancer cells and produced high level of cytokines that correlated with expression of CD47 antigen. In addition, CD47-CAR-T cells significantly blocked BxPC3 pancreatic xenograft tumor growth after intratumoral injection into NSG mice. Moreover, we humanized mouse CD47 ScFv and showed that it effectively bound CD47 antigen. The humanized CD47-CAR-T cells also specifically killed ovarian, pancreatic, and cervical cancer cell lines and produced IL-2 that correlated with expression of CD47. Thus, CD47-CAR-T cells can be used as a novel cellular therapeutic agent for treating different types of cancer.

  10. CD47-CAR-T Cells Effectively Kill Target Cancer Cells and Block Pancreatic Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovskaya, Vita; Berahovich, Robert; Zhou, Hua; Xu, Shirley; Harto, Hizkia; Li, Le; Chao, Cheng-Chi; Mao, Mike Ming; Wu, Lijun

    2017-10-21

    CD47 is a glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that is often overexpressed in different types of hematological and solid cancer tumors and plays important role in blocking phagocytosis, increased tumor survival, metastasis and angiogenesis. In the present report, we designed CAR (chimeric antigen receptor)-T cells that bind CD47 antigen. We used ScFv (single chain variable fragment) from mouse CD47 antibody to generate CD47-CAR-T cells for targeting different cancer cell lines. CD47-CAR-T cells effectively killed ovarian, pancreatic and other cancer cells and produced high level of cytokines that correlated with expression of CD47 antigen. In addition, CD47-CAR-T cells significantly blocked BxPC3 pancreatic xenograft tumor growth after intratumoral injection into NSG mice. Moreover, we humanized mouse CD47 ScFv and showed that it effectively bound CD47 antigen. The humanized CD47-CAR-T cells also specifically killed ovarian, pancreatic, and cervical cancer cell lines and produced IL-2 that correlated with expression of CD47. Thus, CD47-CAR-T cells can be used as a novel cellular therapeutic agent for treating different types of cancer.

  11. Antibody mediated therapy targeting CD47 inhibits tumor progression of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Zhenyu; Chung, Haniee; Banan, Babak; Manning, Pamela T; Ott, Katherine C; Lin, Shin; Capoccia, Benjamin J; Subramanian, Vijay; Hiebsch, Ronald R; Upadhya, Gundumi A; Mohanakumar, Thalachallour; Frazier, William A; Lin, Yiing; Chapman, William C

    2015-05-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has a high rate of tumor recurrence and metastasis, resulting in shortened survival times. The efficacy of current systemic therapies for HCC is limited. In this study, we used xenograft tumor models to investigate the use of antibodies that block CD47 and inhibit HCC tumor growth. Immunostaining of tumor tissue and HCC cell lines demonstrated CD47 over-expression in HCC as compared to normal hepatocytes. Macrophage phagocytosis of HCC cells was increased after treatment with CD47 antibodies (CD47mAbs) that block CD47 binding to SIRPα. Further, CD47 blockade inhibited tumor growth in both heterotopic and orthotopic models of HCC, and promoted the migration of macrophages into the tumor mass. Our results demonstrate that targeting CD47 by specific antibodies has potential immunotherapeutic efficacy in human HCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Targeting CD47: the achievements and concerns of current studies on cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuting; Ma, Yuchi

    2017-01-01

    Targeting CD47 is in the spotlight of cancer immunotherapy. Blocking CD47 triggers the recognition and elimination of cancer cells by the innate immunity. There are three CD47 antagonists in phase I clinical trials, but their potential efficacies are highly controversial. We raise our concern that NOD-based xenograft hosts tend to overestimate, while syngeneic mouse models could substantially underestimate the efficacy of anti-CD47 therapy. Such discrepancy may be resulted from specific reagent that alters CD47 clustering, and the highly variable avidities of interspecies and intraspecies CD47-SIRPα interaction. This problem can be addressed by alternative animal models for better recapitulation of human CD47-SIRPα interaction. Both fragment crystallizable (Fc) fragment-dependent effects, like antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), and Fc-independent CD47 intrinsic functions are involved in anti-CD47 therapy. The latter may be SIRPα-dependent or SIRPα-independent, such as the case of calreticulin. It has not reached a consensus which of the factors predominate the process, but the answer to this question will determine the optimal pharmaceutical and clinical design of CD47 targeting strategies. PMID:28275508

  13. Influence of scandium concentration on power generation figure of merit of scandium aluminum nitride thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akiyama, Morito; Nagase, Toshimi [Measurement Solution Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrials Science and Technology, Tosu, Saga 841-0052 (Japan); Umeda, Keiichi; Honda, Atsushi [Murata Manufacturing Co., Ltd., Nagaokakyo, Kyoto 617-8555 (Japan)

    2013-01-14

    The authors have investigated the influence of scandium concentration on the power generation figure of merit (FOM) of scandium aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) films prepared by cosputtering. The power generation FOM strongly depends on the scandium concentration. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film was 67 GPa, indicating that the FOM is five times larger than that of AlN. The FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is higher than those of lead zirconate titanate and Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-PbTiO{sub 3} films, which is the highest reported for any piezoelectric thin films. The high FOM of Sc{sub 0.41}Al{sub 0.59}N film is due to the high d{sub 31} and the low relative permittivity.

  14. CD47 is an adverse prognostic factor and a therapeutic target in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kazumichi; Tsujimoto, Hironori; Matsumura, Kouji; Kinoshita, Manabu; Takahata, Risa; Matsumoto, Yusuke; Hiraki, Shuichi; Ono, Satoshi; Seki, Shuhji; Yamamoto, Junji; Hase, Kazuo

    2015-09-01

    CD47 is an antiphagocytic molecule that acts via ligation to signal regulatory protein alpha on phagocytes; its enhanced expression and therapeutic targeting have recently been reported for several malignancies. However, CD47 expression in gastric cancer is not well documented. Immunohistochemical expression of CD47 in surgical specimens was investigated. Expression of CD47 and CD44, a known gastric cancer stem cell marker, were investigated in gastric cancer cell lines by flow cytometry. MKN45 and MKN74 gastric cancer cells were sorted by fluorescence-activated cell sorting according to CD44 and CD47 expression levels, and their in vitro proliferation, spheroid-forming capacity, and in vivo tumorigenicity were studied. In vitro phagocytosis of cancer cells by human macrophages in the presence of a CD47 blocking monoclonal antibody (B6H12) and the survival of immunodeficient mice intraperitoneally engrafted with MKN45 cells and B6H12 were compared to experiments using control antibodies. Immunohistochemistry of the clinical specimens indicated that CD47 was positive in 57 out of 115 cases, and its positivity was an independent adverse prognostic factor. Approximately 90% of the MKN45 and MKN74 cells expressed CD47 and CD44. CD47(hi) gastric cancer cells showed significantly higher proliferation and spheroid colony formation than CD47(lo) , and CD44(hi) CD47(hi) cells showed the highest proliferation in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. B6H12 significantly enhanced in vitro phagocytosis of cancer cells by human macrophages and prolonged the survival of intraperitoneal cancer dissemination in mice compared to control antibodies. In conclusion, CD47 is an adverse prognostic factor and promising therapeutic target in gastric cancer. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. The interaction between signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) and CD47: structure, function, and therapeutic target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, A Neil; Van den Berg, Timo K

    2014-01-01

    CD47 is a broadly expressed membrane protein that interacts with the myeloid inhibitory immunoreceptor SIRPα (also termed CD172a or SHPS-1). SIRPα is the prototypic member of the SIRP paired receptor family of closely related SIRP proteins. Engagement of SIRPα by CD47 provides a downregulatory signal that inhibits host cell phagocytosis, and CD47 therefore functions as a "don't-eat-me" signal. Here, we discuss recent structural analysis of CD47-SIRPα interactions and implications of this for the function and evolution of SIRPα and paired receptors in general. Furthermore, we review the proposed roles of CD47-SIRPα interactions in phagocytosis, (auto)immunity, and host defense, as well as its potential significance as a therapeutic target in cancer and inflammation and for improving graft survival in xenotransplantation.

  16. Lifetime measurements and oscillator strengths in singly ionized scandium and the solar abundance of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Belmonte, M. T.; Engström, L.; Lundberg, H.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.; Pickering, J. C.; Clear, C.; Quinet, P.; Fivet, V.; Palmeri, P.

    2017-12-01

    The lifetimes of 17 even-parity levels (3d5s, 3d4d, 3d6s and 4p2) in the region 57 743-77 837 cm-1 of singly ionized scandium (Sc II) were measured by two-step time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oscillator strengths of 57 lines from these highly excited upper levels were derived using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and a Fourier transform spectrometer. In addition, Hartree-Fock calculations where both the main relativistic and core-polarization effects were taken into account were carried out for both low- and high-excitation levels. There is a good agreement for most of the lines between our calculated branching fractions and the measurements of Lawler & Dakin in the region 9000-45 000 cm-1 for low excitation levels and with our measurements for high excitation levels in the region 23 500-63 100 cm-1. This, in turn, allowed us to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical oscillator strengths for a set of 380 E1 transitions in Sc II. These oscillator strengths include the weak lines that were used previously to derive the solar abundance of scandium. The solar abundance of scandium is now estimated to logε⊙ = 3.04 ± 0.13 using these semi-empirical oscillator strengths to shift the values determined by Scott et al. The new estimated abundance value is in agreement with the meteoritic value (logεmet = 3.05 ± 0.02) of Lodders, Palme & Gail.

  17. Inhibition of CD47 Effectively Targets Pancreatic Cancer Stem Cells via Dual Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cioffi, Michele; Trabulo, Sara; Hidalgo, Manuel; Costello, Eithne; Greenhalf, William; Erkan, Mert; Kleeff, Joerg; Sainz, Bruno; Heeschen, Christopher

    2015-05-15

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a cancer of the exocrine pancreas with unmet medical need and is strongly promoted by tumor-associated macrophages (TAM). The presence of TAMs is associated with poor clinical outcome, and their overall role, therefore, appears to be protumorigenic. The "don't eat me" signal CD47 on cancer cells communicates to the signal regulatory protein-α on macrophages and prevents their phagocytosis. Thus, inhibition of CD47 may offer a new opportunity to turn TAMs against PDAC cells, including cancer stem cells (CSC), as the exclusively tumorigenic population. We studied in vitro and in vivo the effects of CD47 inhibition on CSCs using a large set of primary pancreatic cancer (stem) cells as well as xenografts of primary human PDAC tissue. CD47 was highly expressed on CSCs, but not on other nonmalignant cells in the pancreas. Targeting CD47 efficiently enhanced phagocytosis of a representative set of primary human pancreatic cancer (stem) cells and, even more intriguingly, also directly induced their apoptosis in the absence of macrophages during long-term inhibition of CD47. In patient-derived xenograft models, CD47 targeting alone did not result in relevant slowing of tumor growth, but the addition of gemcitabine or Abraxane resulted in sustained tumor regression and prevention of disease relapse long after discontinuation of treatment. These data are consistent with efficient in vivo targeting of CSCs, and strongly suggest that CD47 inhibition could be a novel adjuvant treatment strategy for PDAC independent of underlying and highly variable driver mutations. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Satoshi; Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Inazu, Naomi; Suzuki, Eiichi; Wada, Yuji

    2017-09-27

    Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices-including acoustic ones-because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF₃ through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  19. Smelting of Scandium by Microwave Irradiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Fujii

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is being explored as an alloying element for aluminum alloys, which are gaining importance as high-performance lightweight structural alloys in the transportation industry. A few years ago, Sc was also found to be suitable for use in electrical devices. High-Sc-content ScAlN thin films have attracted significant attention because of their strong piezoelectricity. The piezoelectric response of ScAlN suggests that ScAlN thin films formed on a hard substrate would be suitable surface acoustic wave wideband filters for next-generation wireless communication systems. However, it is often difficult to use ScAlN thin films in MEMS devices—including acoustic ones—because of the extremely high price of metallic Sc, given the difficulty associated with smelting it. Here, we propose a novel process for smelting Sc metal by microwave irradiation. Sc metal was able to be obtained successfully from ScF3 through a microwave-irradiation-based carbon reduction reaction. The reaction temperature for this reduction process was approximately 880°C, which is half of that for the conventional smelting process involving reduction with Ca. Thus, the proposed microwave irradiation process has significant potential for use in the smelting of Sc metal.

  20. Therapeutic opportunities for targeting the ubiquitous cell surface receptor CD47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pantoja, David R.; Stein, Erica V.; Rogers, Natasha M.; Sharifi-Sanjani, Maryam; Isenberg, Jeffrey S.; Roberts, David D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed cell surface receptor that serves as a counter-receptor for SIRPα in recognition of self by the innate immune system. Independently, CD47 also functions as an important signaling receptor for regulating cell responses to stress. Areas covered We review the expression, molecular interactions, and pathophysiological functions of CD47 in the cardiovascular and immune systems. CD47 was first identified as a potential tumor marker, and we examine recent evidence that its dysregulation contributes to cancer progression and evasion of anti-tumor immunity. We further discuss therapeutic strategies for enhancing or inhibiting CD47 signaling and applications of such agents in preclinical models of ischemia and ischemia/reperfusion injuries, organ transplantation, pulmonary hypertension, radioprotection, and cancer. Expert opinion Ongoing studies are revealing a central role of CD47 for conveying signals from the extracellular microenvironment that limit cell and tissue survival upon exposure to various types of stress. Based on this key function, therapeutics targeting CD47 or its ligands thrombospondin-1 and SIRPα could have broad applications spanning reconstructive surgery, engineering of tissues and biocompatible surfaces, vascular diseases, diabetes, organ transplantation, radiation injuries, inflammatory diseases, and cancer. PMID:23101472

  1. Hydrometallurgical methods of recovery of scandium from the wastes of various technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molchanova, T. V.; Akimova, I. D.; Smirnov, K. M.; Krylova, O. K.; Zharova, E. V.

    2017-03-01

    The recovery of scandium from the wastes of the production of uranium, titanium, iron-vanadium, and alumina is studied. The applied acid schemes of scandium transfer to a solution followed by ion-exchange recovery and extraction concentration of scandium ensure the precipitation of crude scandium oxides containing up to 5% Sc2O3. Scandium oxides of 99.96-99.99% purity are formed after additional refining of these crude oxides according to an extraction technology using a mixture 15% multiradical phosphine oxide or Cyanex-925 + 15% tributyl phosphate in kerosene.

  2. Synthesis and Reactivity of a Scandium Terminal Hydride: H2  Activation by a Scandium Terminal Imido Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xianghao; Xiang, Li; Lamsfus, Carlos A; Mao, Weiqing; Lu, Erli; Maron, Laurent; Leng, Xuebing; Chen, Yaofeng

    2017-10-20

    Dihydrogen is easily activated by a scandium terminal imido complex containing the weakly coordinated THF. The reaction proceeds through a 1,2-addition mechanism, which is distinct from the σ-bond metathesis mechanism reported to date for rare-earth metal-mediated H2 activation. This reaction yields a scandium terminal hydride, which is structurally well-characterized, being the first one to date. The reactivity of this hydride is reported with unsaturated substrates, further shedding light on the existence of the terminal hydride complex. Interestingly, the H2 activation can be reversible. DFT investigations further eludciate the mechanistic aspects of the reactivity of the scandium anilido-terminal hydride complex with PhNCS but also on the reversible H2 activation process. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. 76 FR 76744 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Agents Targeting Thrombospondin-1 and CD47 To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: Use of Agents Targeting Thrombospondin-1 and CD47 To Treat Radiation... and CD47,'' to Radiation Control Technologies, Inc., a company incorporated under the laws of the... oligonucleotides that reduce expression of CD47 in combination with radiotherapy, to treat or prevent cancers in...

  4. Thermoelectric material comprising scandium doped zinc cadmium oxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    There is presented a composition of scandium doped Zinc Cadmium Oxide with the general formula ZnzCdxScyO which the inventors have prepared, and for which material the inventors have made the insight that it is particularly advantageous as an n-type oxide material, such as particularly advantageous...

  5. Scandium/carbon filters for soft x rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Artioukov, IA; Kasyanov, YS; Kopylets, IA; Pershin, YP; Romanova, SA

    2003-01-01

    This Note deals with thin-film soft x-ray filters for operation at the wavelengths near carbon K edge (similar to4.5 nm). The filters were fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of thin layers of scandium (total thickness 0.1-0.2 mum) onto films of polypropylene (thickness 1.5 mum) and

  6. The CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) interaction is a therapeutic target for human solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willingham, Stephen B; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Gentles, Andrew J; Sahoo, Debashis; Dalerba, Piero; Mitra, Siddhartha S; Wang, Jian; Contreras-Trujillo, Humberto; Martin, Robin; Cohen, Justin D; Lovelace, Patricia; Scheeren, Ferenc A; Chao, Mark P; Weiskopf, Kipp; Tang, Chad; Volkmer, Anne Kathrin; Naik, Tejaswitha J; Storm, Theresa A; Mosley, Adriane R; Edris, Badreddin; Schmid, Seraina M; Sun, Chris K; Chua, Mei-Sze; Murillo, Oihana; Rajendran, Pradeep; Cha, Adriel C; Chin, Robert K; Kim, Dongkyoon; Adorno, Maddalena; Raveh, Tal; Tseng, Diane; Jaiswal, Siddhartha; Enger, Per Øyvind; Steinberg, Gary K; Li, Gordon; So, Samuel K; Majeti, Ravindra; Harsh, Griffith R; van de Rijn, Matt; Teng, Nelson N H; Sunwoo, John B; Alizadeh, Ash A; Clarke, Michael F; Weissman, Irving L

    2012-04-24

    CD47, a "don't eat me" signal for phagocytic cells, is expressed on the surface of all human solid tumor cells. Analysis of patient tumor and matched adjacent normal (nontumor) tissue revealed that CD47 is overexpressed on cancer cells. CD47 mRNA expression levels correlated with a decreased probability of survival for multiple types of cancer. CD47 is a ligand for SIRPα, a protein expressed on macrophages and dendritic cells. In vitro, blockade of CD47 signaling using targeted monoclonal antibodies enabled macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells that were otherwise protected. Administration of anti-CD47 antibodies inhibited tumor growth in orthotopic immunodeficient mouse xenotransplantation models established with patient tumor cells and increased the survival of the mice over time. Anti-CD47 antibody therapy initiated on larger tumors inhibited tumor growth and prevented or treated metastasis, but initiation of the therapy on smaller tumors was potentially curative. The safety and efficacy of targeting CD47 was further tested and validated in immune competent hosts using an orthotopic mouse breast cancer model. These results suggest all human solid tumor cells require CD47 expression to suppress phagocytic innate immune surveillance and elimination. These data, taken together with similar findings with other human neoplasms, show that CD47 is a commonly expressed molecule on all cancers, its function to block phagocytosis is known, and blockade of its function leads to tumor cell phagocytosis and elimination. CD47 is therefore a validated target for cancer therapies.

  7. Selective Blockade of the Ubiquitous Checkpoint Receptor CD47 Is Enabled by Dual-Targeting Bispecific Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dheilly, Elie; Moine, Valéry; Broyer, Lucile; Salgado-Pires, Susana; Johnson, Zoë; Papaioannou, Anne; Cons, Laura; Calloud, Sébastien; Majocchi, Stefano; Nelson, Robert; Rousseau, François; Ferlin, Walter; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Fischer, Nicolas; Masternak, Krzysztof

    2017-02-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitously expressed immune checkpoint receptor that is often upregulated in cancer. CD47 interacts with its counter-receptor SIRPα on macrophages and other myeloid cells to inhibit cancer cell phagocytosis and drive immune evasion. To overcome tolerability and "antigen sink" issues arising from widespread CD47 expression, we generated dual-targeting bispecific antibodies that selectively block the CD47-SIRPα interaction on malignant cells expressing a specific tumor-associated antigen; e.g., CD19 or mesothelin. These bispecific κλ bodies are fully human, native IgG1 molecules, combining tumor targeting and selective CD47 blockade with immune activating mechanisms mediated by the Fc portion of the antibody. CD47-neutralizing κλ bodies efficiently kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo but interact only weakly with healthy cells expressing physiological levels of CD47. Accordingly, a κλ body administered to non-human primates showed a typical IgG pharmacokinetic profile and was well tolerated. Importantly, κλ bodies preserve their tumoricidal capabilities in the presence of a CD47 antigen sink. Thus, dual-targeting κλ bodies allow for efficacious yet safe targeting of CD47 in cancer. Such a bispecific design could be applied to limit the extent of neutralization of other ubiquitously expressed therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Intravenous Delivery of siRNA Targeting CD47 Effectively Inhibits Melanoma Tumor Growth and Lung Metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhua; Xu, Zhenghong; Guo, Shutao; Zhang, Lu; Sharma, Arati; Robertson, Gavin P; Huang, Leaf

    2013-01-01

    CD47 is a “self marker” that is usually overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells to enable them to escape immunosurveillance. Recognition of CD47 by its receptor, signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα), which is expressed in the macrophages, inhibits phagocytic destruction of cancer cells by the macrophages. In this study, we have first shown that clinical isolates of human melanoma significantly upregulate CD47, possibly as a mechanism to defend themselves against the macrophages. We then exploited RNA interference (RNAi) technology to test the hypothesis that knocking down CD47 in the tumor cells will render them targets for macrophage destruction; hence, creating a novel anti-cancer therapy. Anti-CD47 siRNA was encapsulated in a liposome-protamine-hyaluronic acid (LPH) nanoparticle (NP) formulation to address the challenge of targeted delivery of siRNA-based therapeutics in vivo. Efficient silencing of CD47 in tumor tissues with systemic administration of LPH(CD47) also significantly inhibited the growth of melanoma tumors. In a lung metastasis model, LPH(CD47) efficiently inhibited lung metastasis to about 27% of the untreated control. Moreover, no hematopoietic toxicity was observed in the animals that received multiple doses of LPH(CD47). Our findings indicate CD47 as a potential prognostic marker for melanoma development as well as a target for therapeutic intervention with RNAi-based nanomedicines. PMID:23774794

  9. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    OpenAIRE

    Ferizoğlu Ece; Kaya Şerif; Topkaya Yavuz A.

    2016-01-01

    Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to th...

  10. BASIC RESEARCH ON THE SEPARATION OF SCANDIUM YTTRIUM, AND THE RARE EARTHS BY SOLVENT EXTRACTION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RARE EARTH ELEMENTS, * SOLVENT EXTRACTION ), (*CHELATE COMPOUNDS, RARE EARTH ELEMENTS), PURIFICATION, ATOMIC SPECTROSCOPY, SCANDIUM, YTTRIUM, PRASEODYMIUM, SAMARIUM, EUROPIUM, GADOLINIUM, TERBIUM, FLUORINE COMPOUNDS, KETONES

  11. Chemical and biological evaluation of {sup 153}Sm and {sup 46/47}Sc complexes of indazolebisphosphonates for targeted radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neves, Maria, E-mail: mneves@itn.p [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Teixeira, Fatima C.; Antunes, Ines [INETI-Departamento de Tecnologia de Industrias Quimicas, Lisboa (Portugal); Majkowska, Agnieszka [Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology, Warsaw (Poland); Gano, Lurdes [Instituto Tecnologico e Nuclear, Sacavem (Portugal); Santos, Ana Cristina [IBB-Instituto de Biofisica e Biomatematica, Coimbra (Portugal)

    2011-01-15

    Introduction: Novel 1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphosphonates derived from indazole and substituted at the C-3 position were labeled with the radionuclides {sup 46}Sc and {sup 153}Sm. Several parameters such as molar ligand concentration, pH, reaction time and temperature were studied. The radiolabelling yield, reaction kinetics and stability were assessed and radiocomplexes were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Methods: The radionuclides {sup 46}Sc and {sup 153}Sm were obtained by neutron irradiation of natural Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} and enriched {sup 152}Sm{sub 2}O{sub 3} (98.4%) targets at the neutron flux of 3x10{sup 14} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The radiolabelling yield, reaction kinetics and stability were accomplished by ascending instant thin layer chromatography. The radiocomplexes were submitted to in vitro experiments (hydroxyapatite binding and lipophilicity) and biodistribution studies in animal models. Results: The radionuclides {sup 46}Sc and {sup 153}Sm were produced with specific activities of 100 and 430 MBq mg{sup -1}, respectively. High radiochemical yields were achieved and the hydrophilic radiocomplexes have shown high degree of binding to hydroxyapatite. Biodistribution studies at 1, 3 and 24 h of the 4 radiocomplexes under study, have showed a similar biodistribution profile with a relatively high bone uptake, slow clearance from blood and a very slow rate of total radioactivity excretion from the whole animal body. Conclusion: We have developed a new class of indazolebisphosphonates complexes with radioisotopes of samarium and scandium. All complexes have shown high degree of binding to hydroxyapatite, which could be attributed to the ionized phosphonate groups. The bone uptake and the bone-to-muscle ratios were relatively low.

  12. A bispecific antibody targeting CD47 and CD20 selectively binds and eliminates dual antigen expressing lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccione, Emily C; Juarez, Silvia; Liu, Jie; Tseng, Serena; Ryan, Christine E; Narayanan, Cyndhavi; Wang, Lijuan; Weiskopf, Kipp; Majeti, Ravindra

    2015-01-01

    Agents that block the anti-phagocytic signal CD47 can synergize with pro-phagocytic anti-tumor antigen antibodies to potently eliminate tumors. While CD47 is overexpressed on cancer cells, its expression in many normal tissues may create an 'antigen sink' that could minimize the therapeutic efficacy of CD47 blocking agents. Here, we report development of bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) that co-target CD47 and CD20, a therapeutic target for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), that have reduced affinity for CD47 relative to the parental antibody, but retain strong binding to CD20. These characteristics facilitate selective binding of BsAbs to tumor cells, leading to phagocytosis. Treatment of human NHL-engrafted mice with BsAbs reduced lymphoma burden and extended survival while recapitulating the synergistic efficacy of anti-CD47 and anti-CD20 combination therapy. These findings serve as proof of principle for BsAb targeting of CD47 with tumor-associated antigens as a viable strategy to induce selective phagocytosis of tumor cells and recapitulate the synergy of combination antibody therapy. This approach may be broadly applied to cancer to add a CD47 blocking component to existing antibody therapies.

  13. Development of anti-CD47 single-chain variable fragment targeted magnetic nanoparticles for treatment of human bladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Gashin; Habibi-Anbouhi, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Moradi-Kalbolandi, Shima; Behdani, Mahdi; Ghazizadeh, Leila; Abolhassani, Mohsen; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali

    2017-03-01

    To develop a novel anti-CD47 single-chain variable fragment (scFv) functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) for targeting bladder cell lines and its applicability in thermotherapy. An immunized murine antibody phage display library was constructed and screened to isolate anti-CD47 binders. A scFv was selected and conjugated to MNPs which was then utilized to discriminate CD47+ bladder cells along with assessing its efficacy in thermotherapy. An scFv with high affinity to bladder cells was efficiently conjugated to MNPs. Following a hyperthermia treatment, the function of scFv-MNP conjugates led to a considerable reduction in cell viability. The anti-CD47 scFv-MNP conjugate was an effective cancer cell thermotherapy tool that might pave the way for development of bionano-based targeting techniques in both early detection and treatment of cancer.

  14. Anti-CD47 Antibody As a Targeted Therapeutic Agent for Human Lung Cancer and Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiubao Ren

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence indicates that a small subset of cancer cells, termed the tumor-initiating cells or cancer stem cells (CSCs, construct a reservoir of self-sustaining cancer cells with the characteristic ability to self-renew and maintain the tumor mass. The CSCs play an important role in the tumor initiation, development, relapse, metastasis, and the ineffectiveness of conventional cancer therapies. CD47 is a ligand for signal-regulatory protein-α expressed on phagocytic cells and functions to inhibit phagocytosis. This study was to explore if the expression of CD47 is the mechanism used by lung cancer cells, especially CSCs, to escape phagocytosis in vitro and in vivo. Here, we selected CD133 as the marker for lung CSCs according to previous reports. We analyzed lung cancer and matched adjacent normal (non-tumor tissue and revealed that CD47 is overexpressed on lung cancer cells, especially on lung CSCs. The mRNA expression levels of CD47 and CD133 correlated with a decreased probability of survival for multiple types of lung cancer. Blocking CD47 function with anti-CD47 antibodies enabled macrophage phagocytosis of lung cancer cells and lung CSCs. Anti-CD47 antibodies inhibited tumor growth in immunodeficient mouse xenotransplantation models established with lung cancer cells or lung CSCs and improved survival in tumor-bearing animals. These data indicate that CD47 is a valid target for cancer therapies, especially for anti-CSC therapies.

  15. CD47 is a Potential Target for the Treatment of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChunPing Yang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: This study aims to investigate the effect of CD47 on the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC and the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibody against CD47 and its ligand SIRPα in the treatment of LSCC. Methods: We firstly detected the expressions of CD47 mRNA and protein in LSCC and para-carcinoma tissues, introduced the most efficient CD47siRNA sequence into LSCC cells by lentiviral transfection and employed three monoclonal antibodies to evaluate their anti-LSCC effects in vitro and in vivo. Results: We observed that the mRNA and protein expressions of CD47 in LSCC tissue had significant increase in LSCC tissues compared with those in para-carcinoma tissue (p Conclusion: The results suggested a critical role of CD47 in LSCC development and the promising treatment of antiCD47/SIRPα and/or CD47siRNA in LSCC.

  16. CD47 is a Potential Target for the Treatment of Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, ChunPing; Gao, ShuFeng; Zhang, HaiZhen; Xu, Lian; Liu, JianGuo; Wang, Meiqun; Zhang, ShaoRong

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effect of CD47 on the development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and the therapeutic potential of monoclonal antibody against CD47 and its ligand SIRPα in the treatment of LSCC. We firstly detected the expressions of CD47 mRNA and protein in LSCC and para-carcinoma tissues, introduced the most efficient CD47siRNA sequence into LSCC cells by lentiviral transfection and employed three monoclonal antibodies to evaluate their anti-LSCC effects in vitro and in vivo. We observed that the mRNA and protein expressions of CD47 in LSCC tissue had significant increase in LSCC tissues compared with those in para-carcinoma tissue (p CD47 BRIC126, anti-CD47 B6H12.2, in rats transfected with Hep-2 cell, it has been showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of CD47 in LSCC tissue decreased, macrophage efficiency was promoted when anti-SIRPα and/or CD47siRNA were used, the amounts, viabilities and expressions of CD47 protein of tumor cell were significantly inhibited. Additionally, combined use of CD47siRNA and anti-SIRPα seemed more efficient than solo use of CD47siRNA/anti-SIRPα. The results suggested a critical role of CD47 in LSCC development and the promising treatment of antiCD47/SIRPα and/or CD47siRNA in LSCC. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. “Eating” Cancer cells by blocking CD47 signaling: Cancer therapy by targeting the innate immune checkpoint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Rong Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Differing from the adaptive immune checkpoint mediated by programmed cell death-1 (PD-1 PD-1-ligand or CTLA-4, the CD47 and signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα axis is emerging as a novel innate immune checkpoint of the immune cells of myeloid lineage. A balance should be established between the dual signals, the “Don't eat me signal” of CD47-SIRPα and the “Eat me signal” of calreticulin/low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein. The enhanced expression of CD47 molecule has been found in many cancer tissues, including malignant blood tumors (acute myeloid leukemia and solid tumors. A therapeutic value could be achieved by counteracting the expression of CD47 in cancer cells. In the recent years, great progress has been made to develop anticancer therapies by targeting CD47 (e.g., anti-CD47 antibody, in various types of cancer. However, there are a few challenges, like “antigen sink” in the clinical translation of CD47-mediated anticancer therapies, the attention to which is crucial.

  18. Determination of scandium concentrate composition by WD-XRF and ICP-MS methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisova, A. S.; Shibitko, A. O.; Abramov, A. V.; Rebrin, O. I.; Bunkov, G. M.; Lisienko, D. G.

    2017-09-01

    WD-XRF spectroscopy was applied for determining composition of scandium concentrate (ScC) containing 70 % scandium fluoride. Determination of ScC composition was performed using 6 glass beads reference materials produced by fusing synthesized mixture of analyte compounds with the lithium-borate flux in the ratio of 1:10. ScC powder with the known composition was then used as a powder pellet reference material to analyze scandium concentrate from technological line by external standard method. ICP-MS method was employed to control the ScC composition. The statistical data processing and metrological parameters evaluation of the analytical technique developed were carried out.

  19. The interaction between signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) and CD47: structure, function, and therapeutic target

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barclay, A. Neil; van den Berg, Timo K.

    2014-01-01

    CD47 is a broadly expressed membrane protein that interacts with the myeloid inhibitory immunoreceptor SIRPα (also termed CD172a or SHPS-1). SIRPα is the prototypic member of the SIRP paired receptor family of closely related SIRP proteins. Engagement of SIRPα by CD47 provides a downregulatory

  20. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachecka, M.; Lee, C. J.; Sturm, J. M.; Bijkerk, F.

    2017-08-01

    The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  1. Tin etching from metallic and oxidized scandium thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pachecka

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The role of oxide on Sn adhesion to Sc surfaces was studied with in-situ ellipsometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary electron microscopy. Sn etching with hydrogen radicals was performed on metallic Sc, metallic Sc with a native oxide, and a fully oxidized Sc layer. The results show that Sn adsorbs rather weakly to a non-oxidized Sc surface, and is etched relatively easily by atomic hydrogen. In contrast, the presence of native oxide on Sc allows Sn to adsorb more strongly to the surface, slowing the etching. Furthermore, thinner layers of scandium oxide result in weaker Sn adsorption, indicating that the layer beneath the oxide plays a significant role in determining the adsorption strength. Unexpectedly, for Sn on Sc2O3, and, to a lesser extent, for Sn on Sc, the etch rate shows a variation over time, which is explained by surface restructuring, temperature change, and hydrogen adsorption saturation.

  2. Replication Study: The CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) interaction is a therapeutic target for human solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, Stephen K

    2017-01-19

    In 2015, as part of the Reproducibility Project: Cancer Biology, we published a Registered Report (Chroscinski et al., 2015) that described how we intended to replicate selected experiments from the paper "The CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) interaction is a therapeutic target for human solid tumors "(Willingham et al., 2012). Here we report the results of those experiments. We found that treatment of immune competent mice bearing orthotopic breast tumors with anti-mouse CD47 antibodies resulted in short-term anemia compared to controls, consistent with the previously described function of CD47 in normal phagocytosis of aging red blood cells and results reported in the original study (Table S4; Willingham et al., 2012). The weight of tumors after 30 days administration of anti-CD47 antibodies or IgG isotype control were not found to be statistically different, whereas the original study reported inhibition of tumor growth with anti-CD47 treatment (Figure 6A,B; Willingham et al., 2012). However, our efforts to replicate this experiment were confounded because spontaneous regression of tumors occurred in several of the mice. Additionally, the excised tumors were scored for inflammatory cell infiltrates. We found IgG and anti-CD47 treated tumors resulted in minimal to moderate lymphocytic infiltrate, while the original study observed sparse lymphocytic infiltrate in IgG-treated tumors and increased inflammatory cell infiltrates in anti-CD47 treated tumors (Figure 6C; Willingham et al., 2012). Furthermore, we observed neutrophilic infiltration was slightly increased in anti-CD47 treated tumors compared to IgG control. Finally, we report a meta-analysis of the result.

  3. Extraction of scandium by liquid di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in fusible diluents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Isatayeva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Currently widespread distribution of extraction methods using fusible reagents can be explained by a number of advantages, such as high kinetic characteristics of the process, the ease separation of two phases, high selectivity of many extractants, relatively complete regeneration. For the extraction of scandium in technological order, neutral and cation exchange extractants can be used. Several extraction reagents melt easily at high temperatures, and such melts can be used for extraction. Efficiency of the extraction of metal by cation reagents depends on many factors. Extraction of scandium by melt mixtures of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid - higher carboxylic acid - paraffin and the effect of acidity of the aqueous phase, the concentration of scandium and the aqueous extractant in the organic phase, the volume ratio of organic and aqueous phases on the extraction of metal were studied. It was found that the extraction of scandium proceeds through the cation exchange mechanism. Scandium was extracted quantitatively (> 99.0% from acid solutions. The optimal concentration of di-2-ethylhexylphosphoric acid in the extractant was 0,250 M, quantitative extraction of scandium was observed in the range of its concentrations of 10-3-10-6 M and the volume ratio of organic phases to aqueous phases of 1:5 - 1:20.

  4. Therapeutic targeting of the thrombospondin-1 receptor CD47 to treat liver cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Roberts, David D; Kaur, Sukhbir; Soto-Pantoja, David R

    2015-01-01

    .... Following its initial discovery in 1992 as a cell surface protein that is over-expressed by ovarian carcinoma, elevated CD47 expression has emerged as a negative prognostic factor for a variety of cancers...

  5. Antibody therapy targeting the CD47 protein is effective in a model of aggressive metastatic leiomyosarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edris, Badreddin; Weiskopf, Kipp; Volkmer, Anne K.; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Willingham, Stephen B.; Contreras-Trujillo, Humberto; Liu, Jie; Majeti, Ravindra; West, Robert B.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.; Beck, Andrew H.; Weissman, Irving L.; van de Rijn, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Antibodies against CD47, which block tumor cell CD47 interactions with macrophage signal regulatory protein-α, have been shown to decrease tumor size in hematological and epithelial tumor models by interfering with the protection from phagocytosis by macrophages that intact CD47 bestows upon tumor cells. Leiomyosarcoma (LMS) is a tumor of smooth muscle that can express varying levels of colony-stimulating factor-1 (CSF1), the expression of which correlates with the numbers of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) that are found in these tumors. We have previously shown that the presence of TAMs in LMS is associated with poor clinical outcome and the overall effect of TAMs in LMS therefore appears to be protumorigenic. However, the use of inhibitory antibodies against CD47 offers an opportunity to turn TAMs against LMS cells by allowing the phagocytic behavior of resident macrophages to predominate. Here we show that interference with CD47 increases phagocytosis of two human LMS cell lines, LMS04 and LMS05, in vitro. In addition, treatment of mice bearing subcutaneous LMS04 and LMS05 tumors with a novel, humanized anti-CD47 antibody resulted in significant reductions in tumor size. Mice bearing LMS04 tumors develop large numbers of lymph node and lung metastases. In a unique model for neoadjuvant treatment, mice were treated with anti-CD47 antibody starting 1 wk before resection of established primary tumors and subsequently showed a striking decrease in the size and number of metastases. These data suggest that treatment with anti-CD47 antibodies not only reduces primary tumor size but can also be used to inhibit the development of, or to eliminate, metastatic disease. PMID:22451919

  6. Antibody Therapy Targeting CD47 and CD271 Effectively Suppresses Melanoma Metastasis in Patient-Derived Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Ngo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The high rate of metastasis and recurrence among melanoma patients indicates the existence of cells within melanoma that have the ability to both initiate metastatic programs and bypass immune recognition. Here, we identify CD47 as a regulator of melanoma tumor metastasis and immune evasion. Protein and gene expression analysis of clinical melanoma samples reveals that CD47, an anti-phagocytic signal, correlates with melanoma metastasis. Antibody-mediated blockade of CD47 coupled with targeting of CD271+ melanoma cells strongly inhibits tumor metastasis in patient-derived xenografts. This therapeutic effect is mediated by drastic changes in the tumor and metastatic site immune microenvironments, both of whichwhich exhibit greatly increased density of differentiated macrophages and significantly fewer inflammatory monocytes, pro-metastatic macrophages (CCR2+/VEGFR1+, and neutrophils, all of which are associated with disease progression. Thus, antibody therapy that activates the innate immune response in combination with selective targeting of CD271+ melanoma cells represents a powerful therapeutic approach against metastatic melanoma.

  7. Antibody Therapy Targeting CD47 and CD271 Effectively Suppresses Melanoma Metastasis in Patient-Derived Xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Michael; Han, Arum; Lakatos, Anita; Sahoo, Debashis; Hachey, Stephanie J; Weiskopf, Kipp; Beck, Andrew H; Weissman, Irving L; Boiko, Alexander D

    2016-08-09

    The high rate of metastasis and recurrence among melanoma patients indicates the existence of cells within melanoma that have the ability to both initiate metastatic programs and bypass immune recognition. Here, we identify CD47 as a regulator of melanoma tumor metastasis and immune evasion. Protein and gene expression analysis of clinical melanoma samples reveals that CD47, an anti-phagocytic signal, correlates with melanoma metastasis. Antibody-mediated blockade of CD47 coupled with targeting of CD271(+) melanoma cells strongly inhibits tumor metastasis in patient-derived xenografts. This therapeutic effect is mediated by drastic changes in the tumor and metastatic site immune microenvironments, both of whichwhich exhibit greatly increased density of differentiated macrophages and significantly fewer inflammatory monocytes, pro-metastatic macrophages (CCR2(+)/VEGFR1(+)), and neutrophils, all of which are associated with disease progression. Thus, antibody therapy that activates the innate immune response in combination with selective targeting of CD271(+) melanoma cells represents a powerful therapeutic approach against metastatic melanoma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Thermodynamic and kinetic study of scandium(III) complexes of DTPA and DOTA: a step toward scandium radiopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pniok, Miroslav; Kubíček, Vojtěch; Havlíčková, Jana; Kotek, Jan; Sabatie-Gogová, Andrea; Plutnar, Jan; Huclier-Markai, Sandrine; Hermann, Petr

    2014-06-23

    Diethylenetriamine-N,N,N',N'',N''-pentaacetic acid (DTPA) and 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid (DOTA) scandium(III) complexes were investigated in the solution and solid state. Three (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic references suitable for aqueous solutions were suggested: 0.1 M Sc(ClO4)3 in 1 M aq. HClO4 (δSc =0.0 ppm), 0.1 M ScCl3 in 1 M aq. HCl (δSc =1.75 ppm) and 0.01 M [Sc(ox)4](5-) (ox(2-) = oxalato) in 1 M aq. K2C2O4 (δSc =8.31 ppm). In solution, [Sc(dtpa)](2-) complex (δSc = 83 ppm, Δν = 770 Hz) has a rather symmetric ligand field unlike highly unsymmetrical donor atom arrangement in [Sc(dota)](-) anion (δSc = 100 ppm, Δν = 4300 Hz). The solid-state structure of K8[Sc2(ox)7]⋅13 H2O contains two [Sc(ox)3](3-) units bridged by twice "side-on" coordinated oxalate anion with Sc(3+) ion in a dodecahedral O8 arrangement. Structures of [Sc(dtpa)](2-) and [Sc(dota)](-) in [(Hguanidine)]2[Sc(dtpa)]⋅3 H2O and K[Sc(dota)][H6 dota]Cl2⋅4 H2O, respectively, are analogous to those of trivalent lanthanide complexes with the same ligands. The [Sc(dota)](-) unit exhibits twisted square-antiprismatic arrangement without an axial ligand (TSA' isomer) and [Sc(dota)](-) and (H6 dota)(2+) units are bridged by a K(+) cation. A surprisingly high value of the last DOTA dissociation constant (pKa =12.9) was determined by potentiometry and confirmed by using NMR spectroscopy. Stability constants of scandium(III) complexes (log KScL 27.43 and 30.79 for DTPA and DOTA, respectively) were determined from potentiometric and (45)Sc NMR spectroscopic data. Both complexes are fully formed even below pH 2. Complexation of DOTA with the Sc(3+) ion is much faster than with trivalent lanthanides. Proton-assisted decomplexation of the [Sc(dota)](-) complex (τ1/2 =45 h; 1 M aq. HCl, 25 °C) is much slower than that for [Ln(dota)](-) complexes. Therefore, DOTA and its derivatives seem to be very suitable ligands for scandium

  9. Effects of iron on intermetallic compound formation in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [National Metal and Materials Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@mail.kmutt.ac.th [Production Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Iron reduces the modification effects of scandium in Al–Si–Mg alloys. • Morphologies of Sc-rich intermetallic phases vary with Fe and Sc contents and the cooling rates. • Sc neutralizes effects of Fe by changing Fe-rich intermetallic phases from platelets to more cubic. - Abstract: In general, iron has a strong tendency to dissolve in molten aluminum. Iron has very low solid solubility in aluminum–silicon casting alloys, so it will form intermetallic compounds that cause detrimental effects on mechanical properties. In this work, the effects of iron on intermetallic compound formations in scandium modified Al–Si–Mg alloys were studied. There were two levels of iron addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%) and two levels of scandium addition (0.2 and 0.4 wt.%). We found that the effects of scandium modification decreased with increasing iron addition. The morphologies of the complex intermetallic compounds were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques. It was found that scandium changes the morphology of Fe-rich intermetallic compounds from β-phase (plate-like) to α-phase, which reduces the harmful effects of β-phase.

  10. Solvent extraction of scandium from lateritic nickel- cobalt ores using different organic reagents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferizoğlu Ece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scandium is the most important and strategic metal that can be recovered as a by-product from lateritic nickel-cobalt ores. In this research, different extractants were investigated in order to extract scandium from a sulfate medium by a using a solvent extraction method. Generally, the organic extractants are classified as acidic, neutral and basic organophosphorus compounds. However, in solvent extraction of scandium, the acidic and neutral organophosphorus compounds are preferred due to their higher extraction efficiencies. Thus, the aim of the present study was to compare the scandium extraction efficiencies of some acidic and neutral organic reagents. For this reason, Ionquest 290 (Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpenthyl phosphonic acid, DEHPA (Di(2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid, Cyanex 272 ((Bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid which are acidic organophosphorus compounds, and Cyanex 923 (Trialkylphosphine oxide, which is a neutral organophosphorus compound, were used. The extraction capacities of these organics were studied with respect to the extractant concentration at same pH and phase ratio. As a result of the study, DEHPA was found to have higher scandium extraction efficiency with lower iron extraction at pH = 0.55 at a phase ratio of 10:1 = A:O.

  11. Correlation between stoichiometry and properties of scandium oxide films prepared by reactive magnetron sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Juškevičius, Kęstutis; Ceizaris, Lukas; Samuilovas, Romanas; Stanionytė, Sandra; Jasulaitienė, Vitalija; Kičas, Simonas

    2018-01-01

    Scandium oxide films were deposited on fused silica substrates by reactive pulsed DC magnetron sputtering. The use of feed-back optical emission monitoring enabled high-rate reactive deposition of films with tunable stoichiometry and properties. The under-stoichiometric, stoichiometric and over-stoichiometric scandium oxide films were prepared. The compressive stress in films was between 235 and 530 MPa. We showed that phase structure, density, surface roughness and optical properties of the scandium oxide are affected by the film stoichiometry and deposition conditions. Transparent scandium oxide films were slightly hydrophobic (94 ± 3°), homogeneous with a crystallite size of 20 ± 5 nm. The lowest extinction coefficient 0.7 × 10-3, the highest refractive index 2.08 (both quantities at the wavelength of 355 nm) and the highest density 4.1 ± 0.1 g cm-3 exhibited film prepared with the stoichiometric composition. Stoichiometric scandium oxide can be used in various optical applications as high refractive index and wide bandgap material. Transitions to under- or over-stoichiometry lead to a decrease of film density, refractive index and increase of the extinction coefficient.

  12. Mossbauer investigation of scandium oxide-hematite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allwes, Mark; Sorescu, Monica

    Scandium oxide-doped hematite, xSc2O3*(1-x)alpha-Fe2O3 with molar concentration x =0.1, 0.3, and 0.5 was prepared by using ball milling, taking samples at times 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 hours. The resulting Mossbauer spectra of the nanoparticles systems were parameterized using NORMOS-90. For each concentration, the spectra at 0 hours only consisted of 1 sextet, as the substitution of Sc2O3into Fe2O3 did not appear until after 2 hours of ball milling time (BMT). Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 2hours consisted of 2 sextets while x =0.3 and 0.5 were fit with 1 sextet and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. Concentration x =0.1 at BMT 4 and 8 hours consisted of 3 sextets, and at BMT 12 hours consisted of 4 sextets. For concentrations x =0.3 and 0.5 at BMT 4, 8, and 12 hours the spectra were fit with 3 sextets and 1 quadrupole-split doublet. With increasing initial concentration, the appearance of the quadrupole-split doublet became more pronounced, indicating the substitution of Fe into Sc2O3 occurred. But for x =0.1, the BMT did influence the number of sextets needed, causing an increase in substitution of Sc2O3 into Fe2O3.

  13. Association between toenail scandium levels and risk of acute myocardial infarction in European men: The EURAMIC and Heavy Metals Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gómez-Aracena, J.; Martin-Moreno, J.M.; Riemersma, R.A.; Bode, P.; Gutiérrez-Bedmar, M.; Gorgojo, L.; Kark, J.D.; Garcia-Rodríguez, A.; Gomez-Gracia, E.; Kardinaal, A.F.M.; Aro, A.; Veer, P. van 't; Wedel, H.; Kok, F.J.; Fernández-Crehuet, J.

    2002-01-01

    The association between scandium status and risk of acute myocardial infarction (MI) was examined in a multicentre case control study in 10 centres from Europe and Israel. Scandium in toenails was assessed in 684 cases and 724 controls less than 70 years of age. Mean concentrations of toenail

  14. Process and Mechanical Properties: Applicability of a Scandium modified Al-alloy for Laser Additive Manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidtke, K.; Palm, F.; Hawkins, A.; Emmelmann, C.

    The applicability of an aluminium alloy containing scandium for laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is considered. Modified aluminium alloys with a scandium content beyond the eutectic point offer great potential to become a high prioritized aerospace material. Depending on other alloying elements like magnesium or zirconium, strongly required weight reduction, corrosion resistance and improved strength properties of metallic light weight alloys can be achieved. The development, production and testing of parts built up by a laser powder bed process will be presented with regard to the qualification of the new material concept "ScalmalloyRP®" for laser additive manufacturing.

  15. Development of methods for the selective separation of scandium, zirconium and tin for radiopharmaceutical applications; Entwicklung von Methoden zur selektiven Trennung von Scandium, Zirkonium und Zinn fuer radiopharmazeutische Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirks-Fandrei, Carina

    2014-07-01

    The subject of the present work is the development of fast and highly selective methods for the separation and purification of scandium, zirconium and tin radionuclides from potential target materials for use in nuclear medicine. A number of selected resins (TrisKem International) were first characterized with respect to their extraction behaviour towards a large number of cations. Characterization studies were performed in batch experiments by determination of weight distribution ratios D{sub w} and further the influence of interferences on the uptake of these elements was evaluated. Weight distribution ratios were determined in different acids and acid concentrations with main focus on scandium, tin or zirconium. The interference of macro amounts of Calcium and Ti on the Sc extraction was evaluated as well as the interference of macro amounts of Y on the Zr extraction. Best suited uptake conditions were found for Scandium on DGA were determined to be 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for Ti-Targets and 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} for Calcium-Targets. Otherwise it is also possible to extract Sc with TRU Resin. High uptakes were obtained at 2.5 M HNO{sub 3} for simulated Ti- and Calcium-targets. Separation methods were developed using elution studies; employed conditions were chosen according to parameters evaluated in the batch-experiment. The developed methods allowed separating Sc very rapidly in high purity very rapidly from Ti- or Calcium-targets. For Zr a separation method based on UTEVA Resin has been developed. Following results of batch experiments simulated Y-target solution were loaded onto a UTEVA resin column from 6 M HNO{sub 3}; the elution of Zr could be performed in 0.01 M oxalic acid. Decontamination factors in the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} could be obtained applying the developed method; the method thus allowed separating Zr in a high purity. Initial testing of a method for the separation of Sn from Cd targets based on the use of TBP Resin showed that the TBP resin seems

  16. Synthesis and structural characterization of scandium SALEN complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Sirsch, Peter; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2006-02-28

    A series of heteroleptic scandium SALEN complexes, [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)]2 and (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2] is obtained via amine elimination reactions using [Sc(N(i)Pr2)2(mu-Cl)(THF)]2 and Sc[N(SiHMe2)2]3(THF) as metal precursors, respectively. H(2)SALEN ligand precursors comprising H2Salen [(1,2-ethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salpren [(2,2-dimethylpropanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol], H2Salcyc [(1R,2R)-(-)-1,2-cyclohexanediyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] and H2Salphen [((1S,2S)-(-)-1,2-diphenylethandiyl)bis(nitrilomethylidyne)bis(2,4-di-tert-butyl)phenol] are selected according to solubility and ligand backbone variation ("=N-(R)-N=" bite angle) criteria. Consideration is given to the feasibility of [Cl --> NR2] and [N(SiHMe2)2--> OSiR3] secondary ligand exchange reactions. X-ray crystal structure analyses of donor-free (Salpren)Sc(N(i)Pr2), (R,R)-(Salcyc)Sc[N(SiHMe2)2], (Salen)Sc(OSi(t)BuPh2) and (Salphen)Sc(OSiH(t)Bu2) reveal (i) a very short Sc-N bond distance of 2.000(3) A, (ii) weak beta(Si-H)(amido)-Sc agostic interactions and (iii) an exclusive intramolecularly tetradentate and intrinsically bent coordination mode of the SALEN ligands with angle(Ph,Ph) dihedral angles and Sc-[N(2)O(2)] distances in the 124.27(9)-127.7(3) degrees and 0.638(1)-0.688(1) A range, respectively.

  17. Scandium SALEN complexes bearing chloro, aryloxo, and hydroxo ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meermann, Christian; Törnroos, Karl W; Anwander, Reiner

    2009-03-16

    Heteroleptic amide complexes (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] (SALEN = Salen(tBu,tBu), Salcyc(tBu,tBu), or Salpren(tBu,tBu) if not stated differently) were examined as synthesis precursors according to silylamine elimination reactions. Treatment of (SALEN)Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)] with H(2)O or phenols (HOAr(R,R); R = tBu, iPr) afforded complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-OH)](2) and (SALEN)Sc(OAr(R,R)), while chloro exchange products were formed from the respective reactions with NH(4)Cl or AlMe(2)Cl. Such complexes [(SALEN)Sc(mu-Cl)](2) and (SALEN)ScCl(thf) were also obtained by utilizing alternative synthesis protocols, allowing for controlled donor absence and presence. Heteroleptic amide precursors [Sc(NiPr(2))(2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) and [Sc[N(SiHMe(2))(2)](2)(mu-Cl)(thf)](2) readily undergo amine elimination reactions with H(2)SALEN derivatives to form the corresponding chloride complexes. Spectroscopic and X-ray structural data of the heteroleptic scandium complexes revealed an exclusive intramolecular tetradentate coordination mode of the SALEN ligands independent of the SALEN ligand bite angle and the nature of the "second" ligand (chloro, amido, aryloxo, hydroxo). The coordination of the SALEN ligands is rationalized on the basis of (a) the displacement d of the metal center from the [N(2)O(2)] least-squares plane, (b) the dihedral angle alpha between the phenyl rings of the salicylidene moieties, and (c) the angle beta = Ct-Ln-Ct (Ct = centroid of the phenyl rings) in the case of strongly twisted ligands.

  18. Vertical distribution of scandium in the north central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amakawa, Hiroshi; Nomura, Miho; Sasaki, Kazunori; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru

    2007-06-01

    The concentrations of scandium (Sc) in seawater, which have remained unreported since the early 1970s, were determined together with those of yttrium (Y) and lanthanides (Ln) with samples from the north central Pacific Ocean (St. BO-3). The Sc concentration shows a so-called nutrient-like profile: it increases gradually from the surface (about 2 pmol/kg) to the ocean floor (about 20 pmol/kg). That pattern closely resembles those of Y and Ln (correlation coefficient (r) > 0.92). Some light-to-middle Ln (Pr-Tb) exhibit a closer correlation with Sc than do Y, La, or heavy Ln (Ho-Lu). In contrast, Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios (elemental abundance ratios) indicate that Sc is depleted compared to either Y or Ln in seawater more than in loess, which represents chemical compositions of crustal material. These observations offer a conflicting view of chemical reactivity related Y, Ln, and Sc: r values show that the chemical reactivity of Sc resembles those of Y and Ln, but differences of Y/Sc and Ln/Sc ratios in seawater and in loess suggest that the chemical reactivity of Sc differs from those of Y and Ln. More Sc data for seawater are necessary to clarify the chemical reactivity of Sc in the ocean. We also propose that comparative studies of vertical profiles of Sc and such elements as Fe, Ti, Zr, and Hf showing so-called nutrient-like profiles at the same oceanic stations would be helpful and effective for clarifying the behavior of Sc in the ocean.

  19. Effect of small interfering RNA targeting CD47 gene mediated by lentivirus vectors on proliferation and apoptosis of human laryngocarcinoma Hep-2 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-feng GAO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective To study the effect of small interfering RNA(siRNA targeting CD47 gene mediated by lentivirus vectors on proliferation and apoptosis of human laryngocarcinoma Hep-2 cells. Methods After building lentivirus vector, a siRNA directed against CD47 gene was transfected into Hep-2 cells. Cell morphological changes were observed by fluorescence microscopy. The changes in CD47 mRNA expression were detected by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the protein of CD47 was evaluated byWestern blotting. Suppression of proliferation and apoptosis of Hep-2 cells were observed by MTT assay. Results After the laryngocarcinoma Hep-2 cells were transfected by CD47-siRNA lentiviral plasmid, it was showed by fluorescence microscopy that the CD47 siRNA was able to effectively suppress the Hep-2 cell proliferation, the cells were deformed and diminished in size obviously, and necrosis and apoptosis were observed. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR andWestern blotting revealed that the expression of CD47 mRNA and protein decreased by 76%–82% and 77%, respectively(P<0.05. Forty-eight hours after the lentivirus vectors transfection, MTT assay revealed that cell apoptosisi ncreased significantly(P<0.01. Conclusion Small interfering RNA targeting CD47 gene mediated by lentivirus vectors can significantly inhibit CD47 gene expression in Hep-2cells and induce cell apoptosis in vitro.

  20. In situ observation of the reaction of scandium and carbon by neutron diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juarez-Arellano, Erick A., E-mail: eajuarez@unpa.edu.m [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Universidad del Papaloapan, Circuito Central 200, Parque Industrial, Tuxtepec 68301 (Mexico); Winkler, Bjorn [Institut fuer Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Frankfurt, Altenhoeferallee 1, 60438 Frankfurt a.M. (Germany); Vogel, Sven C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lujan Center. Mail Stop H805, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Senyshyn, Anatoliy [Forschungsneutronenquelle Heinz Maier-Leibnitz (FRM II), Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Lichtenbergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Materialwissenschaft, TU Darmstadt, Petersensstr. 23, D-64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kammler, Daniel R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Avalos-Borja, Miguel [CNyN, UNAM, A. Postal 2681, Ensenada, B.C. (Mexico)

    2011-01-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Exist two ScC cubic phases with B1-structure type differing in site occupancy of C. {yields} A new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase is formed at 1473(50) K. {yields} The recrystallization of alpha-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. - Abstract: The formation of scandium carbides by reaction of the elements has been investigated by in situ neutron diffraction up to 1823 K. On heating, the recrystallization of {alpha}-Sc occurs between 1000 and 1223 K. The formation of Sc{sub 2}C and ScC (NaCl-B1 type structure) phases has been detected at 1323 and 1373 K, respectively. The formation of a new orthorhombic scandium carbide phase was observed at 1473(50) K. Once the scandium carbides are formed they are stable upon heating or cooling. No other phases were detected in the present study, in which the system was always carbon saturated. The thermal expansion coefficients of all phases have been determined, they are constant throughout the temperature interval studied.

  1. The effects of aluminum or scandium on the toughness, density and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of the substitution of aluminum or scandium on the density, toughness as well as the stability of the phases formed by such an addition on platinum, iridium, rhodium and palladium metals were evaluated with the density functional quantum mechanical calculation methods. All the metals had four atoms per ...

  2. Effects of erbium‑and chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-08-21

    Aug 21, 2014 ... surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High‑magnification SEM ... Key words: Erbium chromium‑doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet, diode laser, restorative dental materials, scanning electron ... garnet (Nd: YAG) and carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers on indirect ...

  3. Separation of (44)Ti from proton irradiated scandium by using solid-phase extraction chromatography and design of (44)Ti/(44)Sc generator system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radchenko, V; Meyer, C A L; Engle, J W; Naranjo, C M; Unc, G A; Mastren, T; Brugh, M; Birnbaum, E R; John, K D; Nortier, F M; Fassbender, M E

    2016-12-16

    Scandium-44g (half-life 3.97h [1]) shows promise for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of longer biological processes than that of the current gold standard, (18)F, due to its favorable decay parameters. One source of (44g)Sc is the long-lived parent nuclide (44)Ti (half-life 60.0 a). A (44)Ti/(44g)Sc generator would have the ability to provide radionuclidically pure (44g)Sc on a daily basis. The production of (44)Ti via the (45)Sc(p,2n) reaction requires high proton beam currents and long irradiation times. Recovery and purification of no-carrier added (nca) (44)Ti from scandium metal targets involves complex separation chemistry. In this study, separation systems based on solid phase extraction chromatography were investigated, including branched diglycolamide (BDGA) resin and hydroxamate based ZR resin. Results indicate that ZR resin in HCl media represents an effective (44)Ti/(44g)Sc separation system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Trimer hydroxylated quinone (IIIHyQ) derived from apocynin targets cysteine residues of p47phox preventing the activation of human vascular NADPH oxidase

    OpenAIRE

    Mora-Pale, Mauricio; Joon-Kwon, Seok; Linhardt, Robert J.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2011-01-01

    Enzymatic derived oligophenols from apocynin can be effective inhibitors of human vascular NADPH oxidase. An isolated IIIHyQ has been shown to inhibit endothelial NADPH oxidase with an IC50 ~30 nM. In vitro studies demonstrated that IIIHyQ is capable on disrupting the interaction between p47phox and p22phox, thereby blocking the activation of the Nox2 isoform. Herein, we report the role of key cysteine residues in p47phox as targets for the IIIHyQ. Incubation of p47phox with IIIHyQ results in...

  5. Precipitation behaviour and recrystallisation resistance in aluminum alloys with additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium

    OpenAIRE

    Hallem, Håkon

    2005-01-01

    The overall objective of this work has been to develop aluminium alloys, which after hot and cold deformation are able to withstand high temperatures without recrystallising. This has been done by investigating aluminium alloys with various additions of hafnium, scandium and zirconium, with a main focus on Hf and to which extent it may partly substitute or replace Zr and/or Sc as a dispersoid forming elements in these alloys. What is the effect of hafnium, alone and in combination with Zr...

  6. Pilot-scale recovery of rare earths and scandium from phosphogypsum and uranium leachates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashkovtsev Maxim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ural Federal University (UrFU and VTT have performed joint research on development of industrial technologies for the extraction of REM and Scandium compounds from phosphogypsum and Uranium ISL leachate solutions. Leaching-absorption experiments at UrFU have been supported with multicomponent solution modelling by VTT. The simulations have been performed with VTT’s ChemSheet/Balas program and can be used for speciation calculations in the lixiviant solution. The experimental work combines solvent extraction with advanced ion exchange methodology in a pilot facility capable of treating 5 m3 solution per hour. Currently, the plant produces cerium carbonate, lanthanum oxide, neodymium oxide and concentrate of heavy rare earth metals. A batch of 45 t solids has been processed with the gain of 100 kg’s of REM concentrate. A mini-pilot plant with productivity above 50 liters per hour has been applied to recover scandium oxide and REE concentrates from the uranium ISL solution. As the preliminary product contains radioactivity (mainly strontium, an additional decontamination and cleaning of both concentrates by extraction has rendered a necessity. Finally a purified 99% concentrate of scandium oxide as well as 99% rare earth concentrate are received.

  7. Optimization of scandium oxide growth by high pressure sputtering on silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feijoo, P.C., E-mail: pedronska@fis.ucm.es; Pampillon, M.A.; San Andres, E.; Lucia, M.L.

    2012-12-30

    This work demonstrates the viability of scandium oxide deposition on silicon by means of high pressure sputtering. Deposition pressure and radio frequency power are varied for optimization of the properties of the thin films and the ScO{sub x}/Si interface. The physical characterization was performed by ellipsometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. Aluminum gate electrodes were evaporated for metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) fabrication. From the electrical characterization of the MIS devices, the density of interfacial defects is found to decrease with deposition pressure, showing a reduced plasma damage of the substrate surface for higher pressures. This is also supported by lower flatband voltage shifts in the capacitance versus voltage hysteresis curves. Sputtering at high pressures (above 100 Pa) reduces the interfacial SiO{sub x} formation, according to the infrared spectra. The growth rates decrease with deposition pressure, so a very accurate control of the layer thicknesses could be provided. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide is considered as a high permittivity dielectric. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium oxide was deposited on Si by high pressure sputtering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization was performed for deposition condition optimization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High deposition pressures showed higher film and interface quality.

  8. Trimer hydroxylated quinone (IIIHyQ) derived from apocynin targets cysteine residues of p47phox preventing the activation of human vascular NADPH oxidase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Pale, Mauricio; Joon-Kwon, Seok; Linhardt, Robert J.; Dordick, Jonathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Enzymatic derived oligophenols from apocynin can be effective inhibitors of human vascular NADPH oxidase. An isolated IIIHyQ has been shown to inhibit endothelial NADPH oxidase with an IC50 ~30 nM. In vitro studies demonstrated that IIIHyQ is capable on disrupting the interaction between p47phox and p22phox, thereby blocking the activation of the Nox2 isoform. Herein, we report the role of key cysteine residues in p47phox as targets for the IIIHyQ. Incubation of p47phox with IIIHyQ results in a decrease of ~80% of the protein free cysteine residues; similar results were observed using 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinoes, while apocynin was unreactive. Mutants of p47phox, where each Cys was individually replaced by Ala (at residues 111, 196 and 378) and Gly (at residue 98), were generated to evaluate their individual importance in IIIHyQ-mediated inhibition of p47phox interaction with p22phox. Specific Michael addition on Cys196, within the N-SH3 domain, by the IIIHyQ is critical for disrupting the p47phox-p22phox interaction. When a C196A mutation was tested, the IIIHyQ was unable to disrupt the p47phox-p22phox interaction. However, the IIIHyQ was effective at disrupting this interaction with the other mutants, displaying IC50 values (4.9, 21.0, and 2.3 μM for the C111A, C378A, and C98G mutants, respectively) comparable to that of wild type p47phox. PMID:22240153

  9. Trimer hydroxylated quinone derived from apocynin targets cysteine residues of p47phox preventing the activation of human vascular NADPH oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Pale, Mauricio; Kwon, Seok Joon; Linhardt, Robert J; Dordick, Jonathan S

    2012-03-01

    Enzymatically derived oligophenols from apocynin can be effective inhibitors of human vascular NADPH oxidase (Nox). An isolated trimer hydroxylated quinone (IIIHyQ) has been shown to inhibit endothelial NADPH oxidase with an IC(50) ~30 nM. In vitro studies demonstrated that IIIHyQ is capable of disrupting the interaction between p47(phox) and p22(phox), thereby blocking the activation of the Nox2 isoform. Herein, we report the role of key cysteine residues in p47(phox) as targets for the IIIHyQ. Incubation of p47(phox) with IIIHyQ results in a decrease of ~80% of the protein free cysteine residues; similar results were observed using 1,2- and 1,4-naphthoquinones, whereas apocynin was unreactive. Mutants of p47(phox), in which each Cys was individually replaced by Ala (at residues 111, 196, and 378) or Gly (at residue 98), were generated to evaluate their individual importance in IIIHyQ-mediated inhibition of p47(phox) interaction with p22(phox). Specific Michael addition on Cys196, within the N-SH3 domain, by the IIIHyQ is critical for disrupting the p47(phox)-p22(phox) interaction. When a C196A mutation was tested, the IIIHyQ was unable to disrupt the p47(phox)-p22(phox) interaction. However, the IIIHyQ was effective at disrupting this interaction with the other mutants, displaying IC(50) values (4.9, 21.0, and 2.3μM for the C111A, C378A, and C98G mutants, respectively) comparable to that of wild-type p47(phox). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recovery of Scandium from Leachate of Sulfation-Roasted Bayer Red Mud by Liquid-Liquid Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaobo; Li, Hongxu; Jing, Qiankun; Zhang, Mingming

    2017-11-01

    The leachate obtained from sulfation-roasted Bayer red mud is suitable for extraction of scandium by liquid-liquid solvent extraction because it contains trace amounts of Fe3+ and Si4+. In this study, a completely new metallurgical process for selective recovery of scandium from Bayer red mud was proposed. The extraction performances of Sc3+, Fe3+, Al3+, Si4+, Ca2+, and Na+ from synthetic leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud were first investigated using organophosphorus extractants (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid P204 and 2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester P507) and carboxylic acid extractant (Versatic acid 10). It shows that P204 has an excellent extraction ability and that it can be applied to the scandium recovery. P507 and Versatic acid 10 are much poorer in performance for selective extraction of scandium. In the leachate of sulfation-roasted red mud, approximately 97% scandium can be recovered using a P204/sulfonated kerosene (1% v/v) extraction system under the condition of an organic-to-aqueous phase ratio of 10:1 and with an extraction temperature of 15°C.

  11. Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide as a new stable n-type oxide thermoelectric material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Li; Christensen, Dennis Valbjørn; Bhowmik, Arghya

    2016-01-01

    Scandium-doped zinc cadmium oxide (Sc-doped ZnCdO) is proposed as a new n-type oxide thermoelectric material. The material is sintered in air to maintain the oxygen stoichiometry and avoid instability issues. The successful alloying of CdO with ZnO at a molar ratio of 1 : 9 significantly reduced...... is a good candidate for improving the overall conversion efficiencies in oxide thermoelectric modules. Meanwhile, Sc-doped ZnCdO is robust in air at high temperatures, whereas other n-type materials, such as Al-doped ZnO, will experience rapid degradation of their electrical conductivity and ZT....

  12. The “don't eat me” signal CD47 is a novel diagnostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for diffuse malignant mesothelioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sara H.

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) is one of the prognostically most discouraging cancers with median survivals of only 12–22 months. Due to its insidious onset and delayed detection, DMM is often at an advanced stage at diagnosis and is considered incurable. Combined chemo- and radiotherapy followed by surgery only marginally affect outcome at the cost of significant morbidity. Because of the long time period between exposure to asbestos and disease onset, the incidence of DMM is still rising and predicted to peak around 2020. Novel markers for the reliable diagnosis of DMM in body cavity effusion specimens as well as more effective, targeted therapies are urgently needed. Here, we show that the “don't eat me” signalling molecule CD47, which inhibits phagocytosis by binding to signal regulatory protein α on macrophages, is overexpressed in DMM cells. A two-marker panel of high CD47 expression and BRCA1-associated protein 1 (BAP-1) deficiency had a sensitivity of 78% and specificity of 100% in discriminating DMM tumour cells from reactive mesothelial cells in effusions, which is superior to the currently used four-marker combination of BAP-1, glucose transporter type 1, epithelial membrane antigen and desmin. In addition, blocking CD47 inhibited growth and promoted phagocytosis of DMM cell lines by macrophages in vitro. Furthermore, DMM tumours in surgical specimens from patients as well as in a mouse DMM model expressed high levels of CD47 and were heavily infiltrated by macrophages. Our study demonstrates that CD47 is an accurate novel diagnostic DMM biomarker and that blocking CD47 may represent a promising therapeutic strategy for DMM. PMID:29296529

  13. CD47 Is an Adverse Prognostic Factor and Therapeutic Antibody Target on Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia Stem Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majeti, R.; Chao, M.P.; Alizadeh, AA; Pang, W.W.; Jaiswal, S.; Gibbs, K.D.; Rooijen, van N.; Weissman, I.L.

    2009-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is organized as a cellular hierarchy initiated and maintained by a subset of self-renewing leukemia stem cells (LSC). We hypothesized that increased CD47 expression on human AML LSC contributes to pathogenesis by inhibiting their phagocytosis through the interaction of

  14. Scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes as initiators for ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakewell, Clare; White, Andrew J P; Long, Nicholas J; Williams, Charlotte K

    2015-03-02

    The synthesis and characterization of novel scandium and yttrium phosphasalen complexes is reported, where phosphasalen refers to two different bis(iminophosphorane) derivatives of the more ubiquitous salen ligands. The activity of the complexes as initiators for the ring-opening polymerization of cyclic esters is presented. The scandium complexes are inactive for lactide polymerization but slow and controlled initiators for ε-caprolactone polymerization. The lack of activity toward lactide exhibited by these compounds is probed, and a rare example of single-monomer insertion product, unable to undergo further reactions with lactide, is identified. In contrast, the analogous yttrium phosphasalen complex is a very active initiator for the ring-opening polymerization of rac-lactide (kobs = 1.5 × 10(-3) s(-1) at 1:500 [yttrium initiator]:[rac-lactide], 1 M overall concentration of lactide in THF at 298 K). In addition to being a very fast initiator, the yttrium complex also maintains excellent levels of polymerization control and a high degree of isoselectivity, with the probability of isotactic enchainment being Pi = 0.78 at 298 K.

  15. Thermodynamic parameters of scandium trifluoride and triiodide in the condensed state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aristova, N. M.; Belov, G. V.

    2015-06-01

    The thermodynamic properties of new classes of compounds, particularly scandium trihalides ScF3, ScCl3, ScBr3, and ScI3, are added to the IVTANTHERMO software package. A critical analysis and processing of the entire array of primary data available in the literature is performed. An equation approximating the temperature dependence of heat capacity in the temperature range 298.15- T m (K) is derived for each crystalline scandium trihalide. The resulting equations C {/p po}( T) for the solid state and the data for the liquid phase are used to calculate the thermodynamic functions of entropy, the reduced Gibbs free energies, and the enthalpy increments. Both the experimental data available in literature and the missing estimated thermodynamic data are used in calculations. The error of the recommended values is estimated in all cases. In the first part of this work, we describe the thermodynamic properties of ScF3 and ScI3 used as the reference data for calculating the thermodynamic functions of ScCl3 and ScBr3, for which experimental data are either very scarce or missing altogether. The resulting data are added to the database of the IVTANTHERMO software package.

  16. Comparison of Diagnostic Accuracy of PCR Targeting the 47-Kilodalton Protein Membrane Gene of Treponema pallidum and PCR Targeting the DNA Polymerase I Gene: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayet-Ageron, Angèle; Combescure, Christophe; Lautenschlager, Stephan; Ninet, Béatrice; Perneger, Thomas V

    2015-11-01

    Treponema pallidum PCR (Tp-PCR) testing now is recommended as a valid tool for the diagnosis of primary or secondary syphilis. The objectives were to systematically review and determine the optimal specific target gene to be used for Tp-PCR. Comparisons of the performance of the two main targets are tpp47 and polA genes were done using meta-analysis. Three electronic bibliographic databases, representing abstract books from five conferences specialized in infectious diseases from January 1990 to March 2015, were searched. Search keywords included ("syphilis" OR "Treponema pallidum" OR "neurosyphilis") AND ("PCR" OR "PCR" OR "molecular amplification"). We included diagnostic studies assessing the performance of Tp-PCR targeting tpp47 (tpp47-Tp-PCR) or the polA gene (polA-Tp-PCR) in ulcers from early syphilis. All studies were assessed against quality criteria using the QUADAS-2 tool. Of 37 studies identified, 62.2% were judged at low risk of bias or applicability. Most used the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) case definitions for primary or secondary (early) syphilis (89.2%; n = 33); 15 (40.5%) used darkfield microscopy (DFM). We did not find differences in sensitivity and specificity between the two Tp-PCR methods in the subgroup of studies using adequate reference tests. Among studies using DFM as the reference test, sensitivities were 79.8% (95% confidence intervals [CI], 72.7 to 85.4%) and 71.4% (46.0 to 88.0%) for tpp47-Tp-PCR and polA-Tp-PCR (P = 0.217), respectively; respective specificities were 95.3% (93.5 to 96.6%) and 93.7% (91.8 to 95.2%) (P = 0.304). Our findings suggest that the two Tp-PCR methods have similar accuracy and could be used interchangeably. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. CD47 fusion protein targets CD172a+ cells in Crohn's disease and dampens the production of IL-1β and TNF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baba, Nobuyasu; Van, Vu Quang; Wakahara, Keiko; Rubio, Manuel; Fortin, Geneviève; Panzini, Benoît; Soucy, Geneviève; Wassef, Ramses; Richard, Carole; Tamaz, Raja; Lahaie, Raymond; Bernard, Edmond-Jean; Caussignac, Yves; Leduc, Raymond; Lougnarath, Rasmy; Bergeron, Carole; Racicot, Marc-André; Bergeron, Fanny; Panzini, Marie-Andrée; Demetter, Pieter; Franchimont, Denis; Schäkel, Knut; Weckbecker, Gisbert; Kolbinger, Frank; Heusser, Christoph; Huber, Thomas; Welzenbach, Karl; Sarfati, Marika

    2013-06-03

    In mice, the transfer of CD172a(+) (SIRP-α) dendritic cells (DCs) elicits T cell-driven colitis, whereas treatment with CD47-Fc protein, a CD172a-binding agent, confers protection. The aim of this study was to elucidate the nature and functional properties of human CD172a(+) DCs in chronic intestinal inflammation. Here, we show that CD172a(+)CD11c(+) cells accumulate in the mesenteric lymph nodes (mLNs) and inflamed intestinal mucosa in patients with Crohn's disease (CD). These cells are distinct from resident DCs and may coexpress markers typically associated with monocyte-derived inflammatory DCs such as CD14 and/or DC-SIGN, E-Cadherin, and/or CX3CR1. Spontaneous IL-1β and TNF production by HLA-DR(+) cells in CD tissues is restricted to those expressing CD172a. An avidity-improved CD47 fusion protein (CD47-Var1) suppresses the release of a wide array of inflammatory cytokines by CD172a(+) cells, which may include HLA-DR(-)CD172a(+) neutrophils, in inflamed colonic explant cultures and impairs the ability of HLA-DR(+)CD172a(+) cells to activate memory Th17 but not Th1 responses in mLNs. In conclusion, targeting CD172a(+) cells may represent novel therapeutic perspectives for patients with CD.

  18. Recovery of Scandium(III) from Aqueous Solutions by Solvent Extraction with the Functionalized Ionic Liquid Betainium Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide

    OpenAIRE

    Onghena, Bieke; Binnemans, Koen

    2015-01-01

    The ionic liquid betainium is(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide [Hbet][Tf2N] was used for the extraction of scandium from aqueous solutions. The influence of several extraction parameters on the extraction efficiency was investigated, including the initial metal concentration, phase ratio, and pH. The extraction kinetics was examined, and a comparison was made between conventional liquid−liquid extraction and homogeneous liquid−liquid extraction (HLLE). The stoichiometry of the extracted scandium...

  19. Modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Manufacturing and Systems Engineering Program, Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut’s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2013-10-25

    Highlights: •Morphologies and growth of Sc and Sr-modified eutectic silicon resemble those of dendrites. •Crystal orientation of eutectic aluminum depends on growth characteristics of eutectic silicon. •We report strong evidence of the occurrence of an impurity-induced twinning mechanism. -- Abstract: The modification mechanism of eutectic silicon in Al–6Si–0.3Mg alloy with scandium was studied. The crystallographic orientation relationships between primary dendrites and the eutectic phase of unmodified and modified Al–6Si–0.3 Mg alloys were determined using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). The orientation of aluminum modified with scandium in the eutectic phase was different from that of the neighboring primary dendrites. This result implies that eutectic aluminum grows epitaxially from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the unmodified alloy and that eutectic aluminum grows competitively from the surrounding primary aluminum dendrites in the modified alloy. The pole figure maps of eutectic Si in the [1 0 0], [1 1 0] and [1 1 1] axes of the unmodified and Sc-modified alloys were different, suggesting that the eutectic Al and Si crystals in modified alloy growth are more isotropic and cover a larger set of directions. The lattice fringes of Si of the alloys with and without Sc modification were different in the TEM results. The lattice fringes of Si in modified alloy were found to be multiple twins. However, this was not observed in the unmodified alloy. The growth characteristic of eutectic Si crystal in modified alloy suggests the occurrence of multiple twinning reactions and the formation of a high density of twins. This modification mechanism by Sc is explained by the results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, which provide strong evidence of the occurrence of the impurity-induced twinning (IIT) mechanism.

  20. Grain refinement mechanism in an Al-Si-Mg alloy with scandium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patakham, Ussadawut [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand); Kajornchaiyakul, Julathep [National Metal and Material Technology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 114 Thailand Science Park, Klong Nueng, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Limmaneevichitr, Chaowalit, E-mail: chaowalit.lim@kmutt.ac.th [Department of Production Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, King Mongkut' s University of Technology Thonburi, 126 Pracha-Utid Rd., Bangmod, Tungkhru, Bangkok 10140 (Thailand)

    2012-11-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Scandium can be used to refine aluminum grains in an Al-Si-Mg aluminum alloy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effectiveness of Sc is lower than that of conventional Al-Ti grain refiners. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 3}Sc particles can act as heterogeneous nuclei of aluminum phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher alloying elements cause more intermetallic compound phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Those phases cannot effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei compared with Al{sub 3}Sc particles. - Abstract: Grain refinement of the primary aluminum ({alpha}-Al) phase in a hypoeutectic Al-Si alloy using scandium (Sc) was studied to identify the grain refinement mechanism. Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) techniques were extensively used in this study. We found that Sc refined grains of primary aluminum. However, the grain refinement efficiency of Sc was considerably lower than that of titanium (Ti) in the Al-Si-Mg foundry alloy. It was evident that the precipitated Sc-containing phases acted as heterogeneous nucleation sites for the primary aluminum phase. The Sc-containing heterogeneous sites are irregular in shape with sizes between 3 and 5 {mu}m. At least three groups of nuclei based on their chemical composition were found, i.e., (i) Al and Sc, (ii) Al, Si, Mg, and Sc, and (iii) Al, Si, Mg, Sc, and Fe. Crystal orientation mapping showed primary aluminum dendrites with one orientation in each grain near Al{sub 3}Sc particles. The grain refinement mechanism of Sc for aluminum relies on heterogeneous nucleation of Al{sub 3}Sc particles, with less responsibly for grain growth restriction. Many intermetallic phases with Al, Si, Fe, Mg and Sc as their major components were found, and these phases could not effectively act as heterogeneous nuclei.

  1. Neutron and Charged-Particle Induced Cross Sections for Radiochemistry for Isotopes of Scandium, Titanium, Vanadium, Chromium, Manganese, and Iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, K; Hoffman, R D; Dietrich, F S; Bauer, R; Mustafa, M

    2004-11-30

    We have developed a set of modeled nuclear reaction cross sections for use in radiochemical diagnostics. Local systematics for the input parameters required by the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model were developed and used to calculate neutron and proton induced nuclear reaction cross sections in the mass region of scandium, titanium, vanadium, chromium, manganese, and iron (21 {le} Z {le} 26, 20 {le} N {le} 32).

  2. A composite cathode based on scandium doped titanate with enhanced electrocatalytic activity towards direct carbon dioxide electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liming; Xie, Kui; Wu, Lan; Qin, Qingqing; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Yong; Xie, Ting; Wu, Yucheng

    2014-10-21

    A composite cathode based on redox-stable La0.2Sr0.8TiO(3+δ) (LSTO) can perform direct carbon dioxide electrolysis; however, the insufficient electro-catalytic activity limits the electrode performances and current efficiencies. In this work, catalytically active scandium is doped into LSTO to enhance the electro-catalytic activity for CO2 electrolysis. The structures, electronic conductivities and ionic conductivities of La0.2Sr0.8Ti(1-x)Sc(x)O (LSTS(x)O) (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.15 and 0.2) are systematically studied and further correlated with electrode performances. The ionic conductivities of single-phase LSTS(x)O (x = 0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.15) remarkably improve versus the scandium doping contents though the electrical conductivities gradually change in an adverse trend. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate promising electrode polarisation of LSTS(x)O electrodes and increasing scandium doping contents accordingly improve electrode performances. The Faradic efficiencies of carbon dioxide electrolysis are enhanced by 20% with LSTS0.15O in contrast to bare LSTO electrodes in a solid oxide electrolyser at 800 °C.

  3. Adsorption of hydrogen in Scandium/Titanium decorated nitrogen doped carbon nanotube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mananghaya, Michael, E-mail: mikemananghaya@gmail.com [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines); DOST-ASTHRDP, PCIEERD, Gen. Santos Ave., Bicutan, Taguig City 1631 (Philippines); Belo, Lawrence Phoa; Beltran, Arnel [De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Ave, 0922, Manila (Philippines); DLSU STC Laguna Boulevard, LTI Spine Road Barangays Biñan and Malamig, Biñan City, Laguna (Philippines)

    2016-09-01

    Nitrogen doped Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) that is decorated with Scandium and Titanium as potential hydrogen storage medium using the pseudo potential density functional method was investigated. Highly localized states near the Fermi level, which are derived from the nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation and improve the material stability. A detailed Comparison of the Hydrogen adsorption capability with promising system-weight efficiency of Sc over Ti was elucidated when functionalized with 4ND-CN{sub x}NT. Finally, the (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT composite material has a thermodynamically favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy for ideal reversible adsorption and desorption of hydrogen at room temperature such that it can hold at least 5.8 wt% hydrogen molecules at the LDA and GGA level. - Highlights: • Carbon Nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CN{sub x}NT) decorated with Sc and Ti. • Nitrogen defects, contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings. • H{sub 2} and (Sc/4ND){sub 10}-CN{sub x}CNT has a favorable adsorption. • 5.8 wt% adsorption at the LDA and GGA level.

  4. Urinary monitoring of exposure to yttrium, scandium, and europium in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Yasuhiro; Usuda, Kan; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Kono, Rei; Fujita, Aiko; Kono, Koichi

    2012-12-01

    On the assumption that rare earth elements (REEs) are nontoxic, they are being utilized as replacements of toxic heavy metals in novel technological applications. However, REEs are not entirely innocuous, and their impact on health is still uncertain. In the past decade, our laboratory has studied the urinary excretion of REEs in male Wistar rats given chlorides of europium, scandium, and yttrium solutions by one-shot intraperitoneal injection or oral dose. The present paper describes three experiments for the suitability and appropriateness of a method to use urine for biological monitoring of exposure to these REEs. The concentrations of REEs were determined in cumulative urine samples taken at 0-24 h by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, showing that the urinary excretion of REEs is <2 %. Rare earth elements form colloidal conjugates in the bloodstream, which make high REEs accumulation in the reticuloendothelial system and glomeruli and low urinary excretion. The high sensitivity of inductively coupled plasma-argon emission spectrometry analytical methods, with detection limits of <2 μg/L, makes urine a comprehensive assessment tool that reflects REE exposure. The analytical method and animal experimental model described in this study will be of great importance and encourage further discussion for future studies.

  5. Expression and targeting of a 47 kDa integral peroxisomal membrane protein of Candida boidinii in wild type and a peroxisome-deficient mutant of Hansenula polymorpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulter, G.J.; Waterham, H.R.; Vrieling, E.G.; Goodman, J.M.; Harder, W.; Veenhuis, M.

    1993-01-01

    A 47 kDa integral peroxisomal membrane protein (PMP47) of Candida boidinii was expressed in wild type (WT) and a temperature-sensitive (Ts6) peroxisome-deficient (per) mutant of Hansenula polymorpha. The subcellular location of PMP47 appeared to be dependent on the level of expression. At low

  6. (44g)Sc production using a water target on a 13MeV cyclotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehr, Cornelia; Oehlke, Elisabeth; Benard, Francois; Lee, Chris Jaeil; Hou, Xinchi; Badesso, Brian; Ferguson, Simon; Miao, Qing; Yang, Hua; Buckley, Ken; Hanemaayer, Victoire; Zeisler, Stefan; Ruth, Thomas; Celler, Anna; Schaffer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Access to promising radiometals as isotopes for novel molecular imaging agents requires that they are routinely available and inexpensive to obtain. Proximity to a cyclotron center outfitted with solid target hardware, or to an isotope generator for the metal of interest is necessary, both of which can introduce significant hurdles in development of less common isotopes. Herein, we describe the production of ⁴⁴Sc (t1/2=3.97 h, Eavg,β⁺=1.47MeV, branching ratio=94.27%) in a solution target and an automated loading system which allows a quick turn-around between different radiometallic isotopes and therefore greatly improves their availability for tracer development. Experimental yields are compared to theoretical calculations. Solutions containing a high concentration (1.44-1.55g/mL) of natural-abundance calcium nitrate tetrahydrate (Ca(NO₃)2·4 H₂O) were irradiated on a 13MeV proton-beam cyclotron using a standard liquid target. (44g)Sc was produced via the ⁴⁴Ca(p,n)(44g)Sc reaction. (44g)Sc was produced for the first time in a solution target with yields sufficient for early radiochemical studies. Saturation yields of up to 4.6 ± 0.3 MBq/μA were achieved using 7.6 ± 0.3 μA proton beams for 60.0 ± 0.2 minutes (number of runs n=3). Experimental data and calculation results are in fair agreement. Scandium was isolated from the target mixture via solid-phase extraction with 88 ± 6% (n=5) efficiency and successfully used for radiolabelling experiments. The demonstration of the production of ⁴⁴Sc in a liquid target greatly improves its availability for tracer development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Selective recovery of vanadium and scandium by ion exchange with D201 and solvent extraction using P507 from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaobo; Li, Wang; Tang, Sen; Zeng, Majian; Bai, Pengyuan; Chen, Lunjian

    2017-05-01

    D201 resin and P507 extractant diluted with sulfonated kerosene were used to respectively separate vanadium and scandium, and impurity ions from hydrochloric acid leaching solution of red mud. More than 99% of vanadium was selectively adsorbed from the hydrochloric acid leaching solution under the conditions of pH value of 1.8, volume ratio of leaching solution to resin of 10, and flow rate of 3.33 mL/min. Maximum extraction and separation of scandium was observed from the acid leaching solution at an aqueous pH value of 0.2. More than 99% of scandium can be selectively extracted using 15% P507, 5% TBP at the aqueous solution/organic phase (A/O) ratio of 10:1 for 6 min. The loaded organic phase was washed with 0.3 mol/L sulfuric acid, wherein most impurities were removed. After the process of desorption or stripping, precipitation, and roasting, high-purity V2O5 and Sc2O3 were obtained. Finally, a conceptual flow sheet was established to separate and recover vanadium and scandium from red mud hydrochloric acid leaching solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Random-field Potts model for the polar domains of lead magnesium niobate and lead scandium tantalate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, H.; Bursill, L.A

    1997-06-01

    A random filed Potts model is used to establish the spatial relationship between the nanoscale distribution of charges chemical defects and nanoscale polar domains for the perovskite-based relaxor materials lead magnesium niobate (PMN) and lead scandium tantalate (PST). The random fields are not set stochastically but are determined initially by the distribution of B-site cations (Mg, Nb) or (Sc, Ta) generated by Monte Carlo NNNI-model simulations for the chemical defects. An appropriate random field Potts model is derived and algorithms developed for a 2D lattice. It is shown that the local fields are strongly correlated with the chemical domain walls and that polar domains as a function of decreasing temperature is simulated for the two cases of PMN and PST. The dynamics of the polar clusters is also discussed. 33 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Production of scandium-44m and scandium-44g with deuterons on calcium-44: cross section measurements and production yield calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchemin, C.; Guertin, A.; Haddad, F.; Michel, N.; Métivier, V.

    2015-09-01

    HIGHLIGHTS • Production of Sc-44m, Sc-44g and contaminants. • Experimental values determined using the stacked-foil technique. • Thick-Target production Yield (TTY) calculations. • Comparison with the TALYS code version 1.6. Among the large number of radionuclides of medical interest, Sc-44 is promising for PET imaging. Either the ground-state Sc-44g or the metastable-state Sc-44m can be used for such applications, depending on the molecule used as vector. This study compares the production rates of both Sc-44 states, when protons or deuterons are used as projectiles on an enriched Calcium-44 target. This work presents the first set of data for the deuteron route. The results are compared with the TALYS code. The Thick-Target production Yields of Sc-44m and Sc-44g are calculated and compared with those for the proton route for three different scenarios: the production of Sc-44g for conventional PET imaging, its production for the new 3 γ imaging technique developed at the SUBATECH laboratory and the production of a Sc-44m/Sc-44g in vivo generator for antibody labelling.

  10. The impact of an erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser with radial-firing tips on endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, U; Barylyak, A; Goharkhay, K; Beer, F; Wernisch, J; Georgopoulos, A; Sperr, W; Moritz, A

    2009-01-01

    Radial-firing tips should allow a more homogeneous laser irradiation of root canal walls. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser irradiation in conjunction with those newly designed tips. The investigation comprised bacteriology, morphological evaluations and temperature measurements. Root canals were inoculated with two test strains and laser irradiated with power settings of 0.6 W and 0.9 W and a repetition rate of 20 Hz. Subsequently, the samples were subjected to microbiological evaluation. The morphological changes of the canal walls were assessed by scanning electron microscopy. To reveal possible thermal side effects, we carried out temperature measurements. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a decisive disinfectant effect. Scanning electron microscopy showed the homogeneous removal of smear layer from the root canal walls. The temperature rise at the root surface during the irradiation was moderate, yielding 1.3 degrees C for the 0.6 W setting and 1.6 degrees C for the 0.9 W setting. The investigations indicated that the Er,Cr:YSGG laser, in conjunction with radial-firing tips, is a suitable tool for the elimination of bacteria in root canals and for the removal of smear layer.

  11. Effect of scandium addition on the microstructure, mechanical and wear properties of the spray formed hypereutectic aluminum–silicon alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raghukiran, Nadimpalli; Kumar, Ravi, E-mail: nvrk@iitm.ac.in

    2015-08-12

    Hypereutectic Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys (x=13, 16, 19 and 22 wt%) were produced by spray forming. The microstructures of all the alloys exhibited very fine silicon phase with average size of about 5–10 µm irrespective of the silicon content of the alloy. Transmission electron microscopy revealed the presence of a nano-scale scandium rich phase, identified as AlSi{sub 2}Sc{sub 2} (V-phase) uniformly distributed in the alloy. The presence of V-phase resulted in higher matrix hardness (1.34 GPa) in contrast to 1.04 GPa observed in the case of binary Al–Si alloys by nanoindentation. Isothermal heat treatment at 375 °C revealed insignificant coarsening of silicon phase in both binary and ternary alloys. The Al–x%Si–0.8Sc alloys exhibited higher flow stress and tensile strength in contrast to their binary alloy counterparts which was attributed to the bi-modal size distribution of the strengthening phases in the form of nano-scale V-phase and sub-micron to 10 µm size silicon particles. The pin-on-disk wear tests exhibited appreciable improvement in the wear performance of the relatively low-silicon content ternary alloys over their binary counterparts while the high-silicon content binary and ternary alloys exhibited no much difference in the wear performance.

  12. Scandium and Titanium Containing Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes for Hydrogen Storage: a Thermodynamic and First Principle Calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mananghaya, Michael; Yu, Dennis; Santos, Gil Nonato; Rodulfo, Emmanuel

    2016-06-15

    The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) to density functional theory (DFT) calculations indicate that the highly localized states derived from the defects of nitrogen doped carbon nanotube with divacancy (4ND-CNxNT) contribute to strong Sc and Ti bindings, which prevent metal aggregation. Comparison of the H2 adsorption capability of Sc over Ti-decorated 4ND-CNxNT shows that Ti cannot be used for reversible H2 storage due to its inherent high adsorption energy. The Sc/4ND-CNxNT possesses favorable adsorption and consecutive adsorption energy at the local-density approximation (LDA) and GGA level. Molecular dynamics (MD) study confirmed that the interaction between molecular hydrogen and 4ND-CNxNT decorated with scandium is indeed favorable. Simulations indicate that the total amount of adsorption is directly related to the operating temperature and pressure. The number of absorbed hydrogen molecules almost logarithmically increases as the pressure increases at a given temperature. The total excess adsorption of hydrogen on the (Sc/4ND)10-CNxNT arrays at 300 K is within the range set by the department of energy (DOE) with a value of at least 5.85 wt%.

  13. Effects of scandium addition on iron-bearing phases and tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Yu-Chih [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chih-Ting [Department of Vehicle Engineering, Army Academy R.O.C., Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Bor, Hui-Yun; Horng, Jain-Long; Tsai, Mu-Lin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Lee, Sheng-Long, E-mail: shenglon@cc.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China); Institute of Materials Science and Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, Taiwan (China)

    2014-01-21

    Iron is the most deleterious impurity in aluminum alloys and can easily combine with aluminum to form an acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase that reduces ductility during the solidification of the molten metal. Adding scandium (Sc) to Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can transform the acicular β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase into a comparatively harmless nodular Sc–Fe phase (Al{sub 12}Si{sub 6}Fe{sub 2}(Mg,Sc){sub 5}). This Sc–Fe phase has a lower hardness and elastic modulus than the β-Al{sub 5}FeSi phase; it is thus less likely to initiate cracks in the Al matrix. Moreover, the nodular Sc–Fe phase can improve the fluidity of Al during solidification, reducing interdendritic shrinkage. Tensile testing measurements showed that the elongation of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys with 0.04 and 0.12 wt% Sc can be respectively increased by 115% and 110% compared to Al–7Si–0.6Mg without Sc. The corresponding quality indices are increased by 17% and 19%, respectively, suggesting that the tensile properties of Al–7Si–0.6Mg alloys can be enhanced by adding scandium.

  14. CD47 promotes ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ran; Wei, Huiting; Gao, Peng; Yu, Hu; Wang, Ke; Fu, Zheng; Ju, Baohui; Zhao, Meng; Dong, Shangwen; Li, Zhijun; He, Yifeng; Huang, Yuting; Yao, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Targeting CD47 efficiently enhances macrophage phagocytosis in both physiological and pathological conditions. Anti-CD47 antibodies have been shown to inhibit the progression of several types of cancer. However, the mechanism of anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment remains controversial. In this study, we confirmed that CD47 protein is highly expressed in ovarian cancer, and is correlated with poor clinical characteristics and prognosis. CD47 knockdown in the ovarian cancer cell line...

  15. Gd-Sc-based mixed-metal nitride cluster fullerenes: mutual influence of the cage and cluster size and the role of scandium in the electronic structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svitova, Anna L; Popov, Alexey A; Dunsch, Lothar

    2013-03-18

    The influence of the cage as well as of the cluster size has been studied in Gd-Sc nitride cluster fullerenes, which have been synthesized and isolated for these studies. A series of carbon cages ranging from C78 to C88 have been synthesized, isolated, and characterized in detail using absorption and vibrational spectroscopy as well as electrochemistry and density functional theory calculations. Gd-Sc mixed-metal cluster fullerenes in carbon cages different from C80 were described for the first time. A review of their structures, properties, and stability is given. The synthesis was performed with melamine as an effective solid source of nitrogen, providing high fullerene yield and suppressing empty fullerene formation. Substitution of gadolinium by scandium imposes a noticeable influence on the electronic structure of nitride cluster fullerenes as revealed by electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational methods.

  16. Copper scandium zirconium phosphate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bond, Andrew David; Warner, Terence Edwin

    2013-01-01

    components. The [Sc(III)Zr(IV)(PO(4))(3)](2-) framework is composed of corner-sharing Sc/ZrO(6) octahedra and PO(4) tetrahedra. The Sc and Zr atoms are disordered on one atomic site on a crystallographic threefold axis. The P atom of the phosphate group lies on a crystallographic twofold axis. Nonframework...

  17. $\\beta$ decay of $^{47}$Ar

    CERN Document Server

    Weissman, L; Bergmann, U C; Brown, B A; Catherall, R; Cederkäll, J; Dillmann, I; Hallmann, O; Fraile-Prieto, L M; Franchoo, S; Gaudefroy, L; Köster, U; Kratz, K L; Pfeiffer, B; Sorlin, O; 10.1103/PhysRevC.70.024304

    2004-01-01

    Information on beta -decay properties of neutron-rich /sup 47/Ar was obtained at the ISOLDE facility at CERN using isobaric selectivity. This was achieved by a combination of a plasma-ion source with a cooled transfer line and subsequent mass separation. A doubly charged beam was used in order to improve the signal-to-background ratio associated with multi-charged noble gas fission products. The identification of the /sup 47/Ar gamma -ray transitions was performed by comparing the spectra obtained from direct proton bombardment of the target and of the neutron converter. New excited levels in the daughter /sup 47/K nucleus corresponding to the negative-parity states were observed. The obtained data are compared to the result of large-scale shell model calculations and quasiparticle random-phase approximation predictions. (29 refs).

  18. Synthesis and characterization of reduced scandium halide containing one- and two-dimensional metal bonded arrays. [Sc--ScCl3; Cs3Sc2Cl9; CsScCl3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeppelmeier, K.R.

    1978-08-01

    The stabilization effect of metal-metal bond formation on reduced scandium compounds was studied. The binary compounds Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 12/, Sc/sub 5/Cl/sub 8/, Sc/sub 7/Cl/sub 10/ and ScCl were prepared by high temperature techniques and were characterized by single crystal x-ray diffraction. The respective metal arrays in these compounds can be viewed as fragments of scandium metal ranging from discrete six atom metal cluster species (Sc(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 12/)), through intermediate single and double infinite chain configurations ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 4/Cl/sub 6/)) and ((ScCl/sub 2/)(Sc/sub 6/Cl/sub 8/)) to double metal close-packed sheets (ScCl). The halogen atoms effectively isolate the clusters, chains and sheets by bonding face, edge or exo positions on the metal arrays. The common occurrence of isolated scandium (III) ions emphasizes that a minimum number of bonding electrons is required to stabilize what are formally anionic metal arrays. The distribution of the reduction electrons in these anisotropic materials was studied by magnetic susceptibility, EPR and uv-X photoelectron spectroscopy. The ternary compounds studied were Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2/Cl/sub 9/ and CsScCl/sub 3/. The anion-bridged metal chain of the hexagonal perovskite structure was found to stabilize scandium (II). CsScCl/sub 3/ was found to be grossly nonstoichiometric on the transition metal site and the effects of the mixed valence character were studied between the single valence extremes Cs/sub 3/Sc/sub 2 + x/Cl/sub 9/; 0< x < 1.0.

  19. Scandium functionalized carbon aerogel: Synthesis of nanoparticles and structure of a new ScOCl and properties of NaAlH{sub 4} as a function of pore size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javadian, Payam; Nielsen, Thomas K. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B. [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge 02142, MA (United States); Jepsen, Lars H. [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark); Polanski, Marek [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Plocinski, Tomasz [Faculty of Material Science and Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 144 Woloska Str., 02-507 Warsaw (Poland); Kunce, Izabela [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Besenbacher, Flemming [Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO) and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Bystrzycki, Jerzy [Faculty of Advanced Technology and Chemistry, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warsaw (Poland); Jensen, Torben R., E-mail: trj@chem.au.dk [Center for Energy Materials, Interdisciplinary Nanoscience Center (iNANO), and Department of Chemistry, Aarhus University, DK-8000 Aarhus (Denmark)

    2015-11-15

    A new method for scandium-functionalization of carbon aerogels forming nanoparticles of a new scandiumoxochloride, ScOCl is presented. Sodium aluminiumhydride, NaAlH{sub 4}, is successfully melt infiltrated into the nano porous scaffolds with pore sizes of D{sub max}=7, 10, 13, 21, 26 and 39 nm, containing scandium based nano particles (<2.9 wt%) confirmed by elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy. A systematic study of hydrogen storage properties of the nano composite materials is presented. An aqueous solution of ScCl{sub 3} was initially infiltrated and formed nanoconfined [Sc(OH)(H{sub 2}O){sub 5}]{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}, which transforms to nanoparticles of a new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl at 192 °C and to Sc{sub 2}O{sub 3} at 420 °C. ScOCl crystallizes in an orthorhombic unit cell a=3.4409(8), b=3.9613(6) and c=8.178(2) Å, space group Pmmn, and is built from layers of [ScO{sub 4}Cl{sub 2}] octahedra forming neutral ScOCl layers. Temperature programmed desorption mass spectroscopy shows slightly improved kinetics for release of hydrogen with decreasing pore size. Continuous cycling of hydrogen release and uptake measured by the Sieverts' method reveal a larger preserved hydrogen storage capacity for scandium-functionalized aerogel with the larger pores (39 nm). - Highlights: • New synthesis approach for nanoporous Sc-functionalization carbon aerogel (Sc-CA). • The new scandium oxochloride, ScOCl, structure is obtained. • NaAlH{sub 4} nanoconfined in Sc-CA with pores ranging between 7 nm

  20. The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser in endodontic treatment: the results of an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoop, Ulrich; Goharkhay, Kawe; Klimscha, Johannes; Zagler, Manuela; Wernisch, Johann; Georgopoulos, Apostolos; Sperr, Wolfgang; Moritz, Andreas

    2007-07-01

    The use of the erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG) laser has become accepted in the field of cavity preparation. The development of miniaturized and flexible fiber tips has allowed this device to be used in endodontics. The authors conducted an in vitro study to assess the effects of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on root canals. The authors inoculated root canals with two bacteria, laser irradiated them at two power settings and subjected them to a quantitative microbiological evaluation. They used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to assess morphological changes in endodontically processed and laser-irradiated root canal walls. They measured temperature increases on the root surface to determine possible thermal side effects. The bacteriological evaluation revealed a disinfecting effect in the root dentin samples that was dependent on the output power but not specific for the bacterial species investigated. SEM showed the removal of the smear layer from the root canal walls and the exposure of dentinal tubules. The temperature rise during irradiation was moderate when standardized power settings were used. The Er,Cr:YSGG laser can be used to eliminate bacteria in root canals. It also effectively removes smear layer and debris from the canal wall. Practitioners can use the Er,Cr:YSGG laser to prepare root canals for endodontic therapy.

  1. Aluminum-Scandium Alloys: Material Characterization, Friction Stir Welding, and Compatibility With Hydrogen Peroxide (MSFC Center Director's Discretionary Fund Final Report, Proj. No. 04-14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. A.; Chen, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    This Technical Memorandum describes the development of several high-strength aluminum (Al) alloys that are compatible with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) propellant for NASA Hypersonic-X (Hyper-X) vehicles fuel tanks and structures. The yield strengths for some of these Al-magnesium-based alloys are more than 3 times stronger than the conventional 5254-H112 Al alloy, while maintaining excellent H2O2 compatibility similar to class 1 5254 alloy. The alloy development strategy is to add scandium, zirconium, and other transitional metals with unique electrochemical properties, which will not act as catalysts, to decompose the highly concentrated 90 percent H2O2. Test coupons are machined from sheet metals for H2O2 long-term exposure testing and mechanical properties testing. In addition, the ability to weld the new alloys using friction stir welding has also been explored. The new high-strength alloys could represent an enabling material technology for Hyper-X vehicles, where flight weight reduction is a critical requirement.

  2. High-fluence and high-density treatment of perioral rhytides using a new, fractionated 2,790-nm ablative erbium-doped Yttrium Scandium Gallium Garnet Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocon, David H; Hussain, Mussarat; Goldberg, David J

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of a novel 2,790-nm erbium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser system for the treatment of facial photodamage and perioral wrinkles using a single-treatment, high-fluence, high-density protocol. Eleven female participants with Fitzpatrick skin types II to III and facial wrinkles underwent a single full-face fractional ablative treatment with a 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser. Follow-up visits were completed at 1, 2, and 6 weeks 3 and 6 months. Quartile improvement scale (0-4) and Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores (1-9) were used for the assessments. Based on blinded photographic assessments, the mean difference in Fitzpatrick wrinkle scores for full face wrinkles was 1.5 ± 1.2 (a reduction from 6.6 to 5.1; paired t-test, p = .003). There was also a statistically significant mean reduction of 1.7 ± 1.3 in perioral wrinkle scores (from 6.7 to 5.0; p = .002). No serious adverse events were reported. A novel, fractionated, ablative 2,790-nm Er:YSGG laser can safely and effectively treat photodamage and perioral wrinkles in a single treatment using a high-fluence, high-density protocol. Cutera provided the equipment used in this study and funding to Dr. Goldberg. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.

  3. Impact of layer and substrate properties on the surface acoustic wave velocity in scandium doped aluminum nitride based SAW devices on sapphire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillinger, M., E-mail: manuel.gillinger@tuwien.ac.at; Knobloch, T.; Schneider, M.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Shaposhnikov, K.; Kaltenbacher, M. [Institute of Mechanics and Mechatronics, TU Wien, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2016-06-06

    This paper investigates the performance of surface acoustic wave (SAW) devices consisting of reactively sputter deposited scandium doped aluminum nitride (Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1-x}N) thin films as piezoelectric layers on sapphire substrates for wireless sensor or for RF-MEMS applications. To investigate the influence of piezoelectric film thickness on the device properties, samples with thickness ranging from 500 nm up to 3000 nm are fabricated. S{sub 21} measurements and simulations demonstrate that the phase velocity is predominantly influenced by the mass density of the electrode material rather than by the thickness of the piezoelectric film. Additionally, the wave propagation direction is varied by rotating the interdigital transducer structures with respect to the crystal orientation of the substrate. The phase velocity is about 2.5% higher for a-direction compared to m-direction of the sapphire substrate, which is in excellent agreement with the difference in the anisotropic Young's modulus of the substrate corresponding to these directions.

  4. CD47 promotes ovarian cancer progression by inhibiting macrophage phagocytosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Yu, Hu; Wang, Ke; Fu, Zheng; Ju, Baohui; Zhao, Meng; Dong, Shangwen; Li, Zhijun; He, Yifeng; Huang, Yuting; Yao, Zhi

    2017-01-01

    Targeting CD47 efficiently enhances macrophage phagocytosis in both physiological and pathological conditions. Anti-CD47 antibodies have been shown to inhibit the progression of several types of cancer. However, the mechanism of anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody (mAb) treatment remains controversial. In this study, we confirmed that CD47 protein is highly expressed in ovarian cancer, and is correlated with poor clinical characteristics and prognosis. CD47 knockdown in the ovarian cancer cell line, SK-OV-3, promoted phagocytosis by macrophages in vitro and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. These data combined suggest that CD47 inhibition is a potential strategy for cancer treatment. Using an anti-CD47 mAb, we found that CD47 inhibition in both SK-OV-3 cells and primary cancer cells was able to recapitulate our knockdown results and led to an increase in the number of infiltrating macrophages. In addition, the CD133+ tumor initiating cells expressed a high level of CD47, and anti-CD47 mAb treatment was able to trigger the phagocytosis of this cell population. In conclusion, our results indicate that CD47 inhibits macrophage phagocytosis of ovarian cancer cells, and down-regulation of CD47 or inhibiting CD47 by mAb was able to reverse the negative effect. Thus, CD47 antibody therapy may be a promising strategy to treat ovarian cancer. PMID:28380460

  5. Structure and temperature effects on Nd3+ spectra in polycrystalline mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupei, A.; Lupei, V.; Hau, S.; Gheorghe, C.; Voicu, F.

    2015-09-01

    New spectroscopic data obtained from high resolution low temperature absorption and emission spectra of Nd3+ in mixed scandium aluminum garnets Y3ScxAl5-xO12 - (x = 0-2) translucent ceramics revealed transition dependent composition effects: modification of the shapes (Lorentz at x = 0 and 2, quasi-Gauss at x = 1, x-dependent asymmetric for other x values, with obvious multicenter structure for low x), widths and shifts of the lines. Nd3+ electronic structure dependence on structural changes with composition is analyzed in terms of nephelauxetic effect and maximum splitting of manifolds: Sc3+ co-doping reduces the nephelauxetic effect, and the increase of 4F3/2 splitting from 85 cm-1 (x = 0) to 98 cm-1 (x = 2) denotes the lowering of local symmetry. The multicenter structure and inhomogeneous broadening of Nd3+ lines is attributed to crystal field distributions determined by the random occupancy of the octahedral sites by Sc3+ and Al3+. For low x (0.2) the resolved two satellites S1, S2 that accompany Nd:YAG lines are correlated to anisotropic crystal field perturbations produced by the n.n. Sc3+ by analogy to those determined by Y3+-antisites (excess of Y3+ ions that enter in octahedral sites of the melt-grown YAG crystals). The temperature evolution of the Nd3+ spectral characteristics (line intensity, shift, broadening) in the 10-300 K range is analyzed in terms of thermal population of the Stark levels, of the effect on electron-phonon interaction and on lattice expansion. The relevance of the spectroscopic properties on the laser emission characteristics in these systems is discussed.

  6. Dissolved scandium, yttrium, and lanthanum in the surface waters of the North Atlantic: Potential use as an indicator of scavenging intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, C. P.; Shelley, R. U.; Landing, W. M.; Bruland, K. W.

    2017-08-01

    Recent work has begun to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of scandium (Sc) in the open ocean, but so far no surface distribution data have been reported of dissolved Sc, and no basin-scale surface distributions have been reported of yttrium (Y) or lanthanum (La). This work presents basin-wide surface Sc, Y, and La data in a section across the North Atlantic subtropical gyre (2011 GEOTRACES GA03) and investigates the potential utility of these distributions. This work uses dissolved and aerosol concentration data for La and Sc to estimate their surface ocean residence times in both the center of the oligotrophic gyre and near the African coastline. This work additionally shows that the surface distribution of Sc in the North Atlantic correlates with the shape of the gyre as inferred by isotherm depth, with lower Sc concentrations at the gyre boundaries. This pattern suggests that Sc could be drawn down by the elevated particle flux at the gyre boundaries. In this case, Sc removal could be used as an indicator of scavenging intensity. In order to account for variable input of Sc to the surface ocean, we propose normalizing the Sc distribution to that of Y or La, which are much less particle reactive and are input via dust to the surface North Atlantic in constant ratios with Sc. Such normalization improves the correlation with isotherm depth. We propose that the variations in dissolved Y/Sc and La/Sc ratios may be due to preferential Sc scavenging and could therefore indicate scavenging intensity.

  7. On new ternary equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminum compounds ScTAl with T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radzieowski, Mathis; Janka, Oliver [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Benndorf, Christopher [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie; Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Haverkamp, Sandra [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; Eckert, Hellmut [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische Chemie; University of Sao Paulo, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Inst. of Physics

    2016-08-01

    The new equiatomic scandium transition metal aluminides ScTAl for T = Cr, Ru, Ag, Re, Pt, and Au were obtained by arc-melting of the elements followed by subsequent annealing for crystal growth. The samples were studied by powder and single crystal X-ray diffraction. The structures of three compounds were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data: ScCrAl, MgZn{sub 2} type, P6{sub 3}/mmc, a = 525.77(3), c = 858.68(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0188, wR{sub 2} = 0.0485, 204 F{sup 2} values, 13 variables, ScPtAl, TiNiSi type, Pnma, a = 642.83(4), b = 428.96(2), c = 754.54(5) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0326, wR{sub 2} = 0.0458, 448 F{sup 2} values, 20 variables and ScAuAl, HfRhSn type, P anti 62c, a = 722.88(4), c = 724.15(4) pm, R{sub 1} = 0.0316, wR{sub 2} = 0.0653, 512 F{sup 2} values, 18 variables. Phase pure samples of all compounds were furthermore investigated by magnetic susceptibility measurements, and Pauli-paramagnetism but no superconductivity was observed down to 2.1 K for all of them. The local structural features and disordering phenomena have been characterized by {sup 27}Al and {sup 45}Sc magic angle spinning (MAS) and static NMR spectroscopic investigations.

  8. Treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis with a 2790-nm erbium: yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kui Young; Oh, In Young; Moon, Nam Ju; Seo, Seong Jun

    2013-04-01

    Although many Asian atopic patients have orbital darkening symptom and the demand to treat this condition is increasing, little has been reported in the literature on the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis. To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of 2790-nm erbium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er:YSGG) laser therapy for reducing infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients. Ten Korean patients over 21 year with mild atopic dermatitis and infraorbital dark circles were enrolled in this study. Patients who need active atopic dermatitis treatments are excluded because of the possibility of aggravation after laser treatment. They were treated for dark circles using a 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser. The treatment parameters were 1.8-2.2 J/cm² fluence, 6-mm spot size, and 0.3-ms pulse width with 10% overlap over the infraorbital areas once with a 4-week interval between treatments. Efficacy was assessed with a quartile grading score ranging from 0 to 5 by a blinded investigator, and the patients also documented their degree of satisfaction with the same grading score. All possible side effects were evaluated. The clinical assessment showed 74.5% (2.7) and 72.5% (2.5) improvements, and the patient satisfaction scale scores improved an average of 74% (2.4) and 71.5% (2.3) at 2 months and 4 months after treatment, respectively. There were no severe side effects or aggravation of atopic dermatitis. Our study suggests that 2790-nm Er:YSGG laser therapy can be effectively and safely used in the treatment of infraorbital dark circles in atopic dermatitis patients.

  9. The influence of cation ordering, oxygen vacancy distribution and proton siting on observed properties in ceramic electrolytes: the case of scandium substituted barium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, Nico; Henry, Paul F; Knee, Christopher S; Bjørheim, Tor Svendsen; Rahman, Seikh M H; Suard, Emma; Giacobbe, Carlotta; Eriksson, Sten G

    2017-07-04

    The origin of the 2-order of magnitude difference in the proton conductivity of the hydrated forms of hexagonal and cubic oxygen deficient BaScxTi1-xO3-δ (x = 0.2 and x = 0.7) was probed using a combination of neutron diffraction and density functional theory techniques to support published X-ray diffraction, conductivity, thermogravimetric and differential scanning calorimetry studies. Cation ordering is found in the 6H structure type (space group P63/mmc) adopted by BaSc0.2Ti0.8O3-δ with scandium preferentially substituting in the vertex sharing octahedra (2a crystallographic site) and avoiding the face-sharing octahedra (4f site). This is coupled with oxygen vacancy ordering in the central plane of the face-sharing octahedra (O1 site). In BaSc0.7Ti0.3O3-δ a simple cubic perovskite (space group Pm3[combining macron]m) best represents the average structure from Rietveld analysis with no evidence of either cation ordering or oxygen vacancy ordering. Significant diffuse scattering is observed, indicative of local order. Hydration in both cases leads to complete filling of the available oxygen vacancies and permits definition of the proton sites. We suggest that the more localised nature of the proton sites in the 6H structure is responsible for the significantly lower proton conduction observed in the literature. Within the 6H structure type final model, proton diffusion requires a 3-step process via higher energy proton sites that are unoccupied at room temperature and is also likely to be anisotropic whereas the highly disordered cubic perovskite proton position allows 3-dimensional diffusion by well-described modes. Finally, we propose how this knowledge can be used to further materials design for ceramic electrolytes for proton conducting fuel cells.

  10. Recovery and purification of nickel-63 from HFIR-irradiated targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.; O`Kelley, G.D.; Knauer, J.B.; Porter, C.E.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1993-06-01

    The production of large quantities of high-specific-activity {sup 63}Ni (>10 Ci/g) requires both a highly enriched {sup 62}Ni target and a long irradiation period at high neutron flux. Trace impurities in the nickel and associated target materials are also activated and account for a significant fraction of the discharged activity and essentially all of the gamma activity. While most of these undesirable activation products can be removed as chloride complexes during anion exchange, chromium, present at {sup 51}Cr, and scandium, present as {sup 46}Sc, are exceptions and require additional processing to achieve the desired purity. Optimized flowsheets are discussed based upon the current development and production experience.

  11. Recovery and purification of nickel-63 from HFIR-irradiated targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.F.; O' Kelley, G.D.; Knauer, J.B.; Porter, C.E.; Wiggins, J.T.

    1993-06-01

    The production of large quantities of high-specific-activity [sup 63]Ni (>10 Ci/g) requires both a highly enriched [sup 62]Ni target and a long irradiation period at high neutron flux. Trace impurities in the nickel and associated target materials are also activated and account for a significant fraction of the discharged activity and essentially all of the gamma activity. While most of these undesirable activation products can be removed as chloride complexes during anion exchange, chromium, present at [sup 51]Cr, and scandium, present as [sup 46]Sc, are exceptions and require additional processing to achieve the desired purity. Optimized flowsheets are discussed based upon the current development and production experience.

  12. Is CD47 an innate immune checkpoint for tumor evasion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Kwon, Hyunwoo; Li, Zihai; Fu, Yang-Xin

    2017-01-11

    Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) (also known as integrin-associated protein) is a ubiquitously expressed glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that plays a critical role in self-recognition. Various solid and hematologic cancers exploit CD47 expression in order to evade immunological eradication, and its overexpression is clinically correlated with poor prognoses. One essential mechanism behind CD47-mediated immune evasion is that it can interact with signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα) expressed on myeloid cells, causing phosphorylation of the SIRPα cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs and recruitment of Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases to ultimately result in delivering an anti-phagocytic-"don't eat me"-signal. Given its essential role as a negative checkpoint for innate immunity and subsequent adaptive immunity, CD47-SIRPα axis has been explored as a new target for cancer immunotherapy and its disruption has demonstrated great therapeutic promise. Indeed, CD47 blocking antibodies have been found to decrease primary tumor size and/or metastasis in various pre-clinical models. In this review, we highlight the various functions of CD47, discuss anti-tumor responses generated by both the innate and adaptive immune systems as a consequence of administering anti-CD47 blocking antibody, and finally elaborate on the clinical potential of CD47 blockade. We argue that CD47 is a checkpoint molecule for both innate and adaptive immunity for tumor evasion and is thus a promising target for cancer immunotherapy.

  13. Effects of erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet and diode lasers on the surfaces of restorative dental materials: a scanning electron microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatipoglu, M; Barutcigil, C

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the potential effects of laser irradiation, which is commonly performed in periodontal surgery, on the surfaces of restorative materials. Five different restorative dental materials were used in this study, as follows: (1) Resin composite, (2) poly acid-modified resin composite (compomer), (3) conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC), (4) resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC), and (5) amalgam. Four cylindrical samples (8 mm diameter, 2 mm height) were prepared for each restorative material. In addition, four freshly extracted, sound human incisors teeth were selected. Two different laser systems commonly used in periodontal surgery were examined in this study: A 810 nm diode laser at a setting of 1 W with continuous-phase laser irradiation for 10 s, and an erbium-and chromium-doped yttrium scandium gallium garnet (Er, Cr: YSGG) laser at settings of 2.5 W, 3.25 W, and 4 W with 25 Hz laser irradiation for 10 s. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis was performed to evaluate the morphology and surface deformation of the restorative materials and tooth surfaces. According to the SEM images, the Er, Cr: YSGG laser causes irradiation markings that appear as demineralized surfaces on tooth samples. The Er, Cr: YSGG laser also caused deep defects on composite, compomer, and RMGIC surfaces because of its high power, and the ablation was deeper for these samples. High-magnification SEM images of GIC samples showed the melting and combustion effects of the Er, Cr: YSGG laser, which increased as the laser power was increased. In amalgam samples, neither laser left significant harmful effects at the lowest power setting. The diode laser did cause irradiation markings, but they were insignificant compared with those left by the Er, Cr: YSGG laser on the surfaces of the different materials and teeth. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that Er, Cr: YSGG laser irradiation could cause distortions of the surfaces

  14. Cotranscriptional recruitment of RNA exosome cofactors Rrp47p and Mpp6p and two distinct Trf-Air-Mtr4 polyadenylation (TRAMP) complexes assists the exonuclease Rrp6p in the targeting and degradation of an aberrant messenger ribonucleoprotein particle (mRNP) in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuparevic, Igor; Mosrin-Huaman, Christine; Hervouet-Coste, Nadège; Remenaric, Mateja; Rahmouni, A Rachid

    2013-11-01

    The cotranscriptional mRNA processing and packaging reactions that lead to the formation of export-competent messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) are under the surveillance of quality control steps. Aberrant mRNPs resulting from faulty events are retained in the nucleus with ensuing elimination of their mRNA component. The molecular mechanisms by which the surveillance system recognizes defective mRNPs and stimulates their destruction by the RNA degradation machinery are still not completely elucidated. Using an experimental approach in which mRNP formation in yeast is disturbed by the action of the bacterial Rho helicase, we have shown previously that the targeting of Rho-induced aberrant mRNPs is mediated by Rrp6p, which is recruited cotranscriptionally in association with Nrd1p following Rho action. Here we investigated the specific involvement in this quality control process of different cofactors associated with the nuclear RNA degradation machinery. We show that, in addition to the main hydrolytic action of the exonuclease Rrp6p, the cofactors Rrp47p, Mpp6p as well as the Trf-Air-Mtr4 polyadenylation (TRAMP) components Trf4p, Trf5p, and Air2p contribute significantly by stimulating the degradation process upon their cotranscriptional recruitment. Trf4p and Trf5p are apparently recruited in two distinct TRAMP complexes that both contain Air2p as component. Surprisingly, Rrp47p appears to play an important role in mutual protein stabilization with Rrp6p, which highlights a close association between the two partners. Together, our results provide an integrated view of how different cofactors of the RNA degradation machinery cooperate to target and eliminate aberrant mRNPs.

  15. Cotranscriptional Recruitment of RNA Exosome Cofactors Rrp47p and Mpp6p and Two Distinct Trf-Air-Mtr4 Polyadenylation (TRAMP) Complexes Assists the Exonuclease Rrp6p in the Targeting and Degradation of an Aberrant Messenger Ribonucleoprotein Particle (mRNP) in Yeast*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuparevic, Igor; Mosrin-Huaman, Christine; Hervouet-Coste, Nadège; Remenaric, Mateja; Rahmouni, A. Rachid

    2013-01-01

    The cotranscriptional mRNA processing and packaging reactions that lead to the formation of export-competent messenger ribonucleoprotein particles (mRNPs) are under the surveillance of quality control steps. Aberrant mRNPs resulting from faulty events are retained in the nucleus with ensuing elimination of their mRNA component. The molecular mechanisms by which the surveillance system recognizes defective mRNPs and stimulates their destruction by the RNA degradation machinery are still not completely elucidated. Using an experimental approach in which mRNP formation in yeast is disturbed by the action of the bacterial Rho helicase, we have shown previously that the targeting of Rho-induced aberrant mRNPs is mediated by Rrp6p, which is recruited cotranscriptionally in association with Nrd1p following Rho action. Here we investigated the specific involvement in this quality control process of different cofactors associated with the nuclear RNA degradation machinery. We show that, in addition to the main hydrolytic action of the exonuclease Rrp6p, the cofactors Rrp47p, Mpp6p as well as the Trf-Air-Mtr4 polyadenylation (TRAMP) components Trf4p, Trf5p, and Air2p contribute significantly by stimulating the degradation process upon their cotranscriptional recruitment. Trf4p and Trf5p are apparently recruited in two distinct TRAMP complexes that both contain Air2p as component. Surprisingly, Rrp47p appears to play an important role in mutual protein stabilization with Rrp6p, which highlights a close association between the two partners. Together, our results provide an integrated view of how different cofactors of the RNA degradation machinery cooperate to target and eliminate aberrant mRNPs. PMID:24047896

  16. Influence of c-axis orientation and scandium concentration on infrared active modes of magnetron sputtered Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrhofer, P. M.; Bittner, A.; Schmid, U. [Institute of Sensor and Actuator Systems, Vienna University of Technology, Floragasse 7, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Eisenmenger-Sittner, C. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Vienna University of Technology, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 8, 1040 Vienna (Austria); Euchner, H. [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Karlsplatz 13, 1040 Vienna (Austria)

    2013-12-16

    Doping of wurtzite aluminium nitride (AlN) with scandium (Sc) significantly enhances the piezoelectric properties of AlN. Sc{sub x}Al{sub 1−x}N thin films with different Sc concentrations (x = 0 to 0.15) were deposited by DC reactive magnetron sputtering. Infrared (IR) absorbance spectroscopy was applied to investigate the Sc concentration dependent shift of the IR active modes E{sub 1}(TO) and A{sub 1}(TO). These results are compared to ab initio simulations, being in excellent agreement with the experimental findings. In addition, IR spectroscopy is established as an economical and fast method to distinguish between thin films with a high degree of c-axis orientation and those exhibiting mixed orientations.

  17. 47,XXY Klinefelter syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aksglaede, Lise; Link, Katarina; Giwercman, Aleksander

    2013-01-01

    47,XXY (Klinefelter syndrome) is the most frequent sex chromosomal disorder and affects approximately one in 660 newborn boys. The syndrome is characterized by varying degrees of cognitive, social, behavioral, and learning difficulties and in adulthood additionally primary testicular failure...... with small testes, hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, tall stature, and eunuchoid body proportions. The phenotype is variable ranging from "near-normal" to a significantly affected individual. In addition, newborns with Klinefelter syndrome generally present with a normal male phenotype and the only consistent...... clinical finding in KS is small testes, that are most often not identified until after puberty. Decreased awareness of this syndrome among health professionals and a general perception that all patients with 47,XXY exhibit the classic textbook phenotype results in a highly under-diagnosed condition with up...

  18. Platelet homeostasis is regulated by platelet expression of CD47 under normal conditions and in passive immune thrombocytopenia

    OpenAIRE

    Olsson, Mattias; Bruhns, Pierre; Frazier, William A.; Ravetch, Jeffrey V.; Oldenborg, Per-Arne

    2005-01-01

    Interaction between target cell CD47 and the inhibitory macrophage receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) counteracts macrophage phagocytosis of CD47-expressing host cells. As platelets also express CD47, we asked whether inhibitory CD47/SIRPα signaling regulates normal platelet turnover and clearance of platelets in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP). CD47-/- mice had a mild spontaneous thrombocytopenia, which was not due to a decreased platelet half-life as a result of increased ex...

  19. Is CD47 an innate immune checkpoint for tumor evasion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47 (also known as integrin-associated protein is a ubiquitously expressed glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily that plays a critical role in self-recognition. Various solid and hematologic cancers exploit CD47 expression in order to evade immunological eradication, and its overexpression is clinically correlated with poor prognoses. One essential mechanism behind CD47-mediated immune evasion is that it can interact with signal regulatory protein-alpha (SIRPα expressed on myeloid cells, causing phosphorylation of the SIRPα cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs and recruitment of Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatases to ultimately result in delivering an anti-phagocytic—“don’t eat me”—signal. Given its essential role as a negative checkpoint for innate immunity and subsequent adaptive immunity, CD47-SIRPα axis has been explored as a new target for cancer immunotherapy and its disruption has demonstrated great therapeutic promise. Indeed, CD47 blocking antibodies have been found to decrease primary tumor size and/or metastasis in various pre-clinical models. In this review, we highlight the various functions of CD47, discuss anti-tumor responses generated by both the innate and adaptive immune systems as a consequence of administering anti-CD47 blocking antibody, and finally elaborate on the clinical potential of CD47 blockade. We argue that CD47 is a checkpoint molecule for both innate and adaptive immunity for tumor evasion and is thus a promising target for cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Target Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — [Part of the ATLAS user facility.] The Physics Division operates a target development laboratory that produces targets and foils of various thickness and substrates,...

  1. Two scandium-biuret complexes: [Sc(C2H5N3O2)(H2O)5]Cl3 x H2O and [Sc(C2H5N3O2)4](NO3)3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, William T A

    2008-05-01

    The scandium(III) cations in the structures of pentaaqua(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trichloride monohydrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(H(2)O)(5)]Cl(3) x H(2)O, (I), and tetrakis(biuret-kappa(2)O,O')scandium(III) trinitrate, [Sc(C(2)H(5)N(3)O(2))(4)](NO(3))(3), (II), are found to adopt very different coordinations with the same biuret ligand. The roles of hydrogen bonding and the counter-ion in the establishment of the structures are described. In (I), the Sc(3+) cation adopts a fairly regular pentagonal bipyramidal coordination geometry arising from one O,O'-bidentate biuret molecule and five water molecules. A dense network of N-H...Cl, O-H...O and O-H...Cl hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, resulting in dimeric associations of two cations and two water molecules. In (II), the Sc(3+) cation (site symmetry 2) adopts a slightly squashed square-antiprismatic geometry arising from four O,O'-bidentate biuret molecules. A network of N-H...O hydrogen bonds help to establish the packing, which features [010] chains of cations. One of the nitrate ions is disordered about an inversion centre. Both structures form three-dimensional hydrogen-bond networks.

  2. Thrombospondin-1 signaling through CD47 inhibits cell cycle progression and induces senescence in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Qi; Chen, Kexin; Gao, Lu; Zheng, Yang; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2016-09-08

    CD47 signaling in endothelial cells has been shown to suppress angiogenesis, but little is known about the link between CD47 and endothelial senescence. Herein, we demonstrate that the thrombospondin-1 (TSP1)-CD47 signaling pathway is a major mechanism for driving endothelial cell senescence. CD47 deficiency in endothelial cells significantly improved their angiogenic function and attenuated their replicative senescence. Lack of CD47 also suppresses activation of cell cycle inhibitors and upregulates the expression of cell cycle promoters, leading to increased cell cycle progression. Furthermore, TSP1 significantly accelerates replicative senescence and associated cell cycle arrest in a CD47-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that TSP1-CD47 signaling is an important mechanism driving endothelial cell senescence. Thus, TSP1 and CD47 provide attractive molecular targets for treatment of aging-associated cardiovascular dysfunction and diseases involving endothelial dysregulation.

  3. 47th Relay Race!

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    On Thursday June 1st at 12.15, Fabiola Gianotti, our Director-General, will fire the starting shot for the 47th Relay Race. This Race is above all a festive CERN event, open for runners and walkers, as well as the people cheering them on throughout the race, and those who wish to participate in the various activities organised between 11.30 and 14.30 out on the lawn in front of Restaurant 1. In order to make this sports event accessible for everyone, our Director-General will allow for flexible lunch hours on the day, applicable for all the members of personnel. An alert for the closure of roads will be send out on the day of the event. The Staff Association and the CERN Running Club thank you in advance for your participation and your continued support throughout the years. This year the CERN Running Club has announced the participation of locally and internationally renowned runners, no less! A bit over a week from the Relay Race of 1st June, the number of teams is going up nicely (already almost 40). Am...

  4. CD47-blocking immunotherapies stimulate macrophage-mediated destruction of small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskopf, Kipp; Jahchan, Nadine S; Schnorr, Peter J; Cristea, Sandra; Ring, Aaron M; Maute, Roy L; Volkmer, Anne K; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; Liu, Jie; Lim, Jing Shan; Yang, Dian; Seitz, Garrett; Nguyen, Thuyen; Wu, Di; Jude, Kevin; Guerston, Heather; Barkal, Amira; Trapani, Francesca; George, Julie; Poirier, John T; Gardner, Eric E; Miles, Linde A; de Stanchina, Elisa; Lofgren, Shane M; Vogel, Hannes; Winslow, Monte M; Dive, Caroline; Thomas, Roman K; Rudin, Charles M; van de Rijn, Matt; Majeti, Ravindra; Garcia, K Christopher; Weissman, Irving L; Sage, Julien

    2016-07-01

    Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a highly aggressive subtype of lung cancer with limited treatment options. CD47 is a cell-surface molecule that promotes immune evasion by engaging signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα), which serves as an inhibitory receptor on macrophages. Here, we found that CD47 is highly expressed on the surface of human SCLC cells; therefore, we investigated CD47-blocking immunotherapies as a potential approach for SCLC treatment. Disruption of the interaction of CD47 with SIRPα using anti-CD47 antibodies induced macrophage-mediated phagocytosis of human SCLC patient cells in culture. In a murine model, administration of CD47-blocking antibodies or targeted inactivation of the Cd47 gene markedly inhibited SCLC tumor growth. Furthermore, using comprehensive antibody arrays, we identified several possible therapeutic targets on the surface of SCLC cells. Antibodies to these targets, including CD56/neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), promoted phagocytosis in human SCLC cell lines that was enhanced when combined with CD47-blocking therapies. In light of recent clinical trials for CD47-blocking therapies in cancer treatment, these findings identify disruption of the CD47/SIRPα axis as a potential immunotherapeutic strategy for SCLC. This approach could enable personalized immunotherapeutic regimens in patients with SCLC and other cancers.

  5. CH-47F Improved Cargo Helicopter (CH-47F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    funding lines changed starting in FY 2010 to CH-47 Helicopter (A05101) - a parent (roll-up) of New Build and Service Life Extension Program (SLEP...Selected Acquisition Report (SAR) RCS: DD-A&T(Q&A)823-278 CH-47F Improved Cargo Helicopter (CH-47F) As of FY 2017 President’s Budget Defense...December 2015 SAR March 21, 2016 18:18:21 UNCLASSIFIED 4 LTC Richard Bratt Office of the Project Manager Cargo Helicopters Building 5678 Redstone Arsenal

  6. Localized CD47 blockade enhances immunotherapy for murine melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Jessica R; Blomberg, Olga S; Sockolosky, Jonathan T; Ali, Lestat; Schmidt, Florian I; Pishesha, Novalia; Espinosa, Camilo; Dougan, Stephanie K; Garcia, K Christopher; Ploegh, Hidde L; Dougan, Michael

    2017-09-19

    CD47 is an antiphagocytic ligand broadly expressed on normal and malignant tissues that delivers an inhibitory signal through the receptor signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). Inhibitors of the CD47-SIRPα interaction improve antitumor antibody responses by enhancing antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP) in xenograft models. Endogenous expression of CD47 on a variety of cell types, including erythrocytes, creates a formidable antigen sink that may limit the efficacy of CD47-targeting therapies. We generated a nanobody, A4, that blocks the CD47-SIRPα interaction. A4 synergizes with anti-PD-L1, but not anti-CTLA4, therapy in the syngeneic B16F10 melanoma model. Neither increased dosing nor half-life extension by fusion of A4 to IgG2a Fc (A4Fc) overcame the issue of an antigen sink or, in the case of A4Fc, systemic toxicity. Generation of a B16F10 cell line that secretes the A4 nanobody showed that an enhanced response to several immune therapies requires near-complete blockade of CD47 in the tumor microenvironment. Thus, strategies to localize CD47 blockade to tumors may be particularly valuable for immune therapy.

  7. Efficacy of anti-CD47 antibody-mediated phagocytosis with macrophages against primary effusion lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Hiroki; Kojima, Yuki; Matsuda, Kouki; Kariya, Ryusho; Taura, Manabu; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Nagai, Hirokazu; Katano, Harutaka; Okada, Seiji

    2014-07-01

    Recently, the critical role of CD47 on the surface of resistant cancer cells has been proposed in their evasion of immunosurveillance. Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a subtype of aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma that shows serous lymphomatous effusion in body cavities, especially in advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PEL is resistant to conventional chemotherapy and has a poor prognosis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of anti-CD47 antibody (Ab) on PEL in vitro and in vivo. Surface CD47 of PEL cell lines was examined by flow cytometry. Efficacy of knocking down CD47 or anti-CD47 Ab-mediated phagocytosis against PEL was evaluated using mouse peritoneal macrophages and human macrophages in vitro. Primary PEL cells were injected intraperitoneally into NOD/Rag-2/Jak3 double-deficient (NRJ) mice to establish a direct xenograft mouse model. Surface CD47 of PEL cell lines was highly expressed. Knocking down CD47 and anti-CD47 Ab promoted phagocytic activities of macrophages in a CD47 expression-dependent manner in vitro. Treatment with anti-CD47 Ab inhibited ascite formation and organ invasion completely in vivo compared with control IgG-treated mice. CD47 plays the pivotal role in the immune evasion of PEL cells in body cavities. Therapeutic antibody targeting of CD47 could be an effective therapy for PEL. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Lack of CD47 on nonhematopoietic cells induces split macrophage tolerance to CD47null cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; Madariaga, Maria Lucia; Wang, Shumei; Van Rooijen, Nico; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2007-01-01

    Macrophages recognize CD47 as a marker of “self” and phagocytose CD47null hematopoietic cells. Using CD47 chimera models, here, we show that the phagocytic activity of macrophages against CD47null hematopoietic cells is conferred by CD47 expression on nonhematopoietic cells, and this “education” process is hematopoietic cell-independent. Macrophages in the chimeras where nonhematopoietic cells express CD47 phagocytose CD47null cells, whereas those in the chimeras lacking CD47 on nonhematopoie...

  9. Antiproton Target

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Antiproton target used for the AA (antiproton accumulator). The first type of antiproton production target used from 1980 to 1982 comprised a rod of copper 3mm diameter and 120mm long embedded in a graphite cylinder that was itself pressed into a finned aluminium container. This assembly was air-cooled and it was used in conjunction with the Van der Meer magnetic horn. In 1983 Fermilab provided us with lithium lenses to replace the horn with a view to increasing the antiproton yield by about 30%. These lenses needed a much shorter target made of heavy metal - iridium was chosen for this purpose. The 50 mm iridium rod was housed in an extension to the original finned target container so that it could be brought very close to the entrance to the lithium lens. Picture 1 shows this target assembly and Picture 2 shows it mounted together with the lithium lens. These target containers had a short lifetime due to a combination of beam heating and radiation damage. This led to the design of the water-cooled target in...

  10. Role of heat shock protein 47 in intestinal fibrosis of experimental colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Shuji; Nakase, Hiroshi; Matsuura, Minoru; Honzawa, Yusuke; Matsumura, Kayoko; Takeda, Yasuhiro; Uza, Norimitsu; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Chiba, Tsutomu

    2011-01-14

    Intestinal fibrosis is a clinically important issue of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is unclear whether or not heat shock protein 47 (HSP47), a collagen-specific molecular chaperone, plays a critical role in intestinal fibrosis. The aim of this study is to investigate the role of HSP47 in intestinal fibrosis of murine colitis. HSP47 expression and localization were evaluated in interleukin-10 knockout (IL-10KO) and wild-type (WT, C57BL/6) mice by immunohistochemistry. Expression of HSP47 and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) in colonic tissue was measured. In vitro studies were conducted in NIH/3T3 cells and primary culture of myofibroblasts separated from colonic tissue of IL-10KO (PMF KO) and WT mice (PMF WT) with stimulation of several cytokines. We evaluated the inhibitory effect of administration of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting HSP47 on intestinal fibrosis in IL-10KO mice in vivo. Immunohistochemistry revealed HSP47 positive cells were observed in the mesenchymal and submucosal area of both WT and IL-10 KO mice. Gene expressions of HSP47 and TGF-β1 were significantly higher in IL-10KO mice than in WT mice and correlated with the severity of inflammation. In vitro experiments with NIH3T3 cells, TGF-β1 only induced HSP47 gene expression. There was a significant difference of HSP47 gene expression between PMF KO and PMF WT. Administration of siRNA targeting HSP47 remarkably reduced collagen deposition in colonic tissue of IL-10KO mice. Our results indicate that HSP47 plays an essential role in intestinal fibrosis of IL-10KO mice, and may be a potential target for intestinal fibrosis associated with IBD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The CD47 "don't eat me signal" is highly expressed in human ovarian cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brightwell, R M; Grzankowski, K S; Lele, S; Eng, K; Arshad, M; Chen, H; Odunsi, K

    2016-11-01

    The CD47 "don't eat me" signal allows tumor immune evasion. We tested the association of CD47 expression with outcomes in EOC. CD47 expression was examined within the TCGA database for ovarian carcinoma. For validation, IHC was performed on a TMA consisting of specimens from 265 patients with EOC. The medical records of the patients were also retrospectively reviewed to correlate demographic and survival data. CD47 was amplified in 15/316 (5%) ovarian serous cancers in TCGA. In the validation cohort, the majority of patients had stage III/IV disease (208/265, 78.4%). CD47 expression was seen in 210/265 (79.2%). Patients were categorized into CD47hi (129/265; 48.7%) versus CD47lo (136/265; 51.3%). Patients with CD47lo tumors were more likely to have a complete response to adjuvant therapy than CD47hi (65% vs 50%, p=0.026). Although there was a trend towards an increase in median OS (37.64 vs 45.26months, p=0.92) in the CD47lo group compared with CD47hi, the difference was not significant. CD47 is expressed at high frequency in EOC. Patients with CD47lo EOC had a better treatment response to standard therapy, and trended towards improved OS. This demonstrates that while CD47 may be an immunologic shield that may be considered for targeted therapies, it is likely that it operates in concert with other mechanisms of immune evasion. Future studies to evaluate CD47 expression with other known mechanisms of immune escape in the tumor microenvironment may help further define its role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. 47 CFR 3.47 - Use of SDRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL AUTHORIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION OF ACCOUNTING AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.47 Use of SDRs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in Special...

  13. Acute CD47 Blockade During Ischemic Myocardial Reperfusion Enhances Phagocytosis-Associated Cardiac Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang Zhang, BS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Our data suggest that, after a myocardial infarction, integrin-associated protein CD47 on cardiac myocytes is elevated. In culture, increased CD47 on the surface of dying cardiomyocytes impairs phagocytic removal by immune cell macrophages. After myocardial ischemia and reperfusion, acute CD47 inhibition with blocking antibodies enhanced dead myocyte clearance by cardiac phagocytes and also improved the resolution of cardiac inflammation, reduced infarct size, and preserved cardiac contractile function. Early targeting of CD47 in the myocardium after reperfusion may be a new strategy to enhance wound repair in the ischemic heart.

  14. Prenatal diagnosis of 47,XXX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury-Collado, Fady; Wehbeh, Ammar N; Fisher, Allan J; Bombard, Allan T; Weiner, Zeev

    2005-05-01

    We report 2 cases of 47,XXX that were diagnosed prenatally and were screened positive for trisomy 21 by biochemical and ultrasound markers. These cases underline the importance of discussing the sex chromosome abnormalities during the genetic counseling after an abnormal triple screen test or ultrasound examination.

  15. Uganda Journal - Vol 47 (2001)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vertebrate Prey of the Barn Owl (Tyto alba Scopoli) from Tororo, Eastern Uganda · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Robert Kityo, 67-73. http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/uj.v47i1.23053 ...

  16. Targeted Learning

    CERN Document Server

    van der Laan, Mark J

    2011-01-01

    The statistics profession is at a unique point in history. The need for valid statistical tools is greater than ever; data sets are massive, often measuring hundreds of thousands of measurements for a single subject. The field is ready to move towards clear objective benchmarks under which tools can be evaluated. Targeted learning allows (1) the full generalization and utilization of cross-validation as an estimator selection tool so that the subjective choices made by humans are now made by the machine, and (2) targeting the fitting of the probability distribution of the data toward the targe

  17. CD20-selective inhibition of CD47-SIRPα "don't eat me" signaling with a bispecific antibody-derivative enhances the anticancer activity of daratumumab, alemtuzumab and obinutuzumab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bommel, Peter E; He, Yuan; Schepel, Ilona; Hendriks, Mark A J M; Wiersma, Valerie R; van Ginkel, Robert J; van Meerten, Tom; Ammatuna, Emanuele; Huls, Gerwin; Samplonius, Douwe F; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    Here, we report on a novel bispecific antibody-derivative, designated RTX-CD47, with unique capacity for CD20-directed inhibition of CD47-SIRPα "don't eat me" signaling. RTX-CD47 comprises a CD20-targeting scFv antibody fragment derived from rituximab fused in tandem to a CD47-blocking scFv. Single

  18. SIRP/CD47 signaling in neurological disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haiyue; Li, Fengwu; Yang, Yuanyuan; Chen, Jun; Hu, Xiaoming

    2015-10-14

    Microglia play important roles in the process of neuronal injury and recovery. Numeous surface receptors have been described to regulate microglial activation. These receptors tightly mediate normal microglial functions including cell mobility, phagocytosis, and production of inflammatory mediators or trophic factors. In recent years, significant progresses have been achieved for understanding the signaling mechanisms underlying these receptors. Their specific roles in neurological diseases have been documented. This review will focus on the signal regulatory protein (SIRP) and its ligand CD47, two surface receptors expressed on microglia and other cells in the central nervous system (CNS) such as neurons. We will discuss the involvement of SIRP/CD47 signaling in microglial activation and in the interplay between microglia and other CNS cells. Current studies reveal the importance of CD47 and SIRPα in the process of neuroinflammation in the CNS disorders. The dual and contradictory role of CD47 suggests that targeting the SIRPα/CD47 signaling may achieve different effects depending on disease stage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Cell Interactions In Stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. CD47 signaling regulates the immunosuppressive activity of VEGF in T cells*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Chang, Tiffany; Singh, Satya P.; Lim, Langston; Mannan, Poonam; Garfield, Susan H.; Pendrak, Michael L.; Pantoja, David R. Soto; Rosenberg, Avi Z.; Jin, Shelly; Roberts, David D.

    2014-01-01

    Thromobospondin-1 inhibits angiogenesis in part by interacting with the ubiquitous cell surface receptor CD47. In endothelial cells, CD47 interacts directly with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR2), and thrombospondin-1 inhibits VEGFR2 phosphorylation and signaling by disrupting this association. We now show that CD47 similarly associates with and regulates VEGFR2 in T cells. Thrombospondin-1 inhibits phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream target Src in wild type but not in CD47-deficient human Jurkat and primary murine T cells. VEGFR2 signaling inhibits proliferation and TCR signaling in wild type T cells. However, ligation of CD47 by thrombospondin-1 or loss of CD47 expression reverses some inhibitory effects of VEGF on proliferation and T cell activation. We further found that VEGF and VEGFR2 expression are up-regulated in CD47-deficient murine CD4+ and human Jurkat T cells, and the resulting autocrine VEGFR2 signaling enhances proliferation and some TCR responses in the absence of CD47. Thus, CD47 signaling modulates the ability of VEGF to regulate proliferation and TCR signaling, and autocrine production of VEGF by T cells contributes to this regulation. This provides a mechanism to understand the context-dependent effects of thrombospondin-1 and VEGF on T cell activation and reveals an important role for CD47 signaling in regulating T cell production of the major angiogenic factor VEGF. PMID:25200950

  20. CD47 signaling regulates the immunosuppressive activity of VEGF in T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Chang, Tiffany; Singh, Satya P; Lim, Langston; Mannan, Poonam; Garfield, Susan H; Pendrak, Michael L; Soto-Pantoja, David R; Rosenberg, Avi Z; Jin, Shelly; Roberts, David D

    2014-10-15

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) inhibits angiogenesis, in part, by interacting with the ubiquitous cell-surface receptor CD47. In endothelial cells, CD47 interacts directly with vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2, and TSP1 inhibits VEGFR2 phosphorylation and signaling by disrupting this association. We show that CD47 similarly associates with and regulates VEGFR2 in T cells. TSP1 inhibits phosphorylation of VEGFR2 and its downstream target Src in wild type but not in CD47-deficient human Jurkat and primary murine T cells. VEGFR2 signaling inhibits proliferation and TCR signaling in wild type T cells. However, ligation of CD47 by TSP1 or loss of CD47 expression reverses some inhibitory effects of VEGF on proliferation and T cell activation. We further found that VEGF and VEGFR2 expression are upregulated in CD47-deficient murine CD4(+) and human Jurkat T cells, and the resulting autocrine VEGFR2 signaling enhances proliferation and some TCR responses in the absence of CD47. Thus, CD47 signaling modulates the ability of VEGF to regulate proliferation and TCR signaling, and autocrine production of VEGF by T cells contributes to this regulation. This provides a mechanism to understand the context-dependent effects of TSP1 and VEGF on T cell activation, and reveals an important role for CD47 signaling in regulating T cell production of the major angiogenic factor VEGF.

  1. "Velcro" engineering of high affinity CD47 ectodomain as signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) antagonists that enhance antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chia Chi M; Guo, Nan; Sockolosky, Jonathan T; Ring, Aaron M; Weiskopf, Kipp; Özkan, Engin; Mori, Yasuo; Weissman, Irving L; Garcia, K Christopher

    2015-05-15

    CD47 is a cell surface protein that transmits an anti-phagocytic signal, known as the "don't-eat-me" signal, to macrophages upon engaging its receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα). Molecules that antagonize the CD47-SIRPα interaction by binding to CD47, such as anti-CD47 antibodies and the engineered SIRPα variant CV1, have been shown to facilitate macrophage-mediated anti-tumor responses. However, these strategies targeting CD47 are handicapped by large antigen sinks in vivo and indiscriminate cell binding due to ubiquitous expression of CD47. These factors reduce bioavailability and increase the risk of toxicity. Here, we present an alternative strategy to antagonize the CD47-SIRPα pathway by engineering high affinity CD47 variants that target SIRPα, which has restricted tissue expression. CD47 proved to be refractive to conventional affinity maturation techniques targeting its binding interface with SIRPα. Therefore, we developed a novel engineering approach, whereby we augmented the existing contact interface via N-terminal peptide extension, coined "Velcro" engineering. The high affinity variant (Velcro-CD47) bound to the two most prominent human SIRPα alleles with greatly increased affinity relative to wild-type CD47 and potently antagonized CD47 binding to SIRPα on human macrophages. Velcro-CD47 synergizes with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to enhance macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells in vitro, with similar potency as CV1. Finally, Velcro-CD47 interacts specifically with a subset of myeloid-derived cells in human blood, whereas CV1 binds all myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid populations interrogated. This is consistent with the restricted expression of SIRPα compared with CD47. Herein, we have demonstrated that "Velcro" engineering is a powerful protein-engineering tool with potential applications to other systems and that Velcro-CD47 could be an alternative adjuvant to CD47-targeting agents for cancer immunotherapy. © 2015 by

  2. “Velcro” Engineering of High Affinity CD47 Ectodomain as Signal Regulatory Protein α (SIRPα) Antagonists That Enhance Antibody-dependent Cellular Phagocytosis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Chia Chi M.; Guo, Nan; Sockolosky, Jonathan T.; Ring, Aaron M.; Weiskopf, Kipp; Özkan, Engin; Mori, Yasuo; Weissman, Irving L.; Garcia, K. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is a cell surface protein that transmits an anti-phagocytic signal, known as the “don't-eat-me” signal, to macrophages upon engaging its receptor signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα). Molecules that antagonize the CD47-SIRPα interaction by binding to CD47, such as anti-CD47 antibodies and the engineered SIRPα variant CV1, have been shown to facilitate macrophage-mediated anti-tumor responses. However, these strategies targeting CD47 are handicapped by large antigen sinks in vivo and indiscriminate cell binding due to ubiquitous expression of CD47. These factors reduce bioavailability and increase the risk of toxicity. Here, we present an alternative strategy to antagonize the CD47-SIRPα pathway by engineering high affinity CD47 variants that target SIRPα, which has restricted tissue expression. CD47 proved to be refractive to conventional affinity maturation techniques targeting its binding interface with SIRPα. Therefore, we developed a novel engineering approach, whereby we augmented the existing contact interface via N-terminal peptide extension, coined “Velcro” engineering. The high affinity variant (Velcro-CD47) bound to the two most prominent human SIRPα alleles with greatly increased affinity relative to wild-type CD47 and potently antagonized CD47 binding to SIRPα on human macrophages. Velcro-CD47 synergizes with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to enhance macrophage phagocytosis of tumor cells in vitro, with similar potency as CV1. Finally, Velcro-CD47 interacts specifically with a subset of myeloid-derived cells in human blood, whereas CV1 binds all myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid populations interrogated. This is consistent with the restricted expression of SIRPα compared with CD47. Herein, we have demonstrated that “Velcro” engineering is a powerful protein-engineering tool with potential applications to other systems and that Velcro-CD47 could be an alternative adjuvant to CD47-targeting agents for cancer immunotherapy

  3. CD47 signaling pathways controlling cellular differentiation and responses to stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pantoja, David R; Kaur, Sukhbir; Roberts, David D

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is a widely expressed integral membrane protein that serves as the counter-receptor for the inhibitory phagocyte receptor signal-regulatory protein-α (SIRPα) and as a signaling receptor for the secreted matricellular protein thrombospondin-1. Recent studies employing mice and somatic cells lacking CD47 have revealed important pathophysiological functions of CD47 in cardiovascular homeostasis, immune regulation, resistance of cells and tissues to stress and chronic diseases of aging including cancer. With the emergence of experimental therapeutics targeting CD47, a more thorough understanding of CD47 signal transduction is essential. CD47 lacks a substantial cytoplasmic signaling domain, but several cytoplasmic binding partners have been identified, and lateral interactions of CD47 with other membrane receptors play important roles in mediating signaling resulting from the binding of thrombospondin-1. This review addresses recent advances in identifying the lateral binding partners, signal transduction pathways and downstream transcription networks regulated through CD47 in specific cell lineages. Major pathways regulated by CD47 signaling include calcium homeostasis, cyclic nucleotide signaling, nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide biosynthesis and signaling and stem cell transcription factors. These pathways and other undefined proximal mediators of CD47 signaling regulate cell death and protective autophagy responses, mitochondrial biogenesis, cell adhesion and motility and stem cell self-renewal. Although thrombospondin-1 is the best characterized agonist of CD47, the potential roles of other members of the thrombospondin family, SIRPα and SIRPγ binding and homotypic CD47 interactions as agonists or antagonists of signaling through CD47 should also be considered.

  4. 19 CFR 10.47 - [Reserved

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 10.47 Section 10.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ARTICLES... of Art ...

  5. Purification of CD47-streptavidin fusion protein from bacterial lysate using biotin-agarose affinity chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Nasrin; Peng, Ching-An

    2016-07-08

    CD47 is a widely expressed transmembrane glycoprotein that modulates the activity of a plethora of immune cells via its extracellular domain. Therefore, CD47 plays important roles in the regulation of immune responses and may serve as targets for the development of immunotherapeutic agents. To make sure CD47 functionality is intact under the process of protein conjugation, CD47-streptavidin fusion protein was expressed and purified because it can easily bind to biotin-tagged materials via the unique biotin-streptavidin affinity. In this study, gene sequences of CD47 extracellular domain (CD47ECD) and core streptavidin (coreSA) with a total 834 bp were inserted into pET20b plasmid to construct recombinant plasmid encoding CD47-SA fusion gene. After bacteria transformation, the CD47-SA fusion protein was expressed by isopropyl-β-d-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction. The collected bacteria lysate was loaded on biotinylated agarose to proceed the purification of CD47-SA fusion protein. Due to the unexpected high affinity between biotin and coreSA, standard washing and elution approaches (e.g., varying pH, using biotin, and applying guanidine hydrochloride) reported for biotin-streptavidin affinity chromatography were not able to separate the target fusion protein. Instead, using low concentration of the non-ionic detergent Triton X-100 followed with alkaline buffer could efficiently weaken the binding between biotin and coreSA, thereby eluting out CD47-SA fusion protein from the biotin agarose column. The purified CD47-SA fusion protein was further characterized by molecular biology methods and its antiphagocytic functionality was confirmed by the phagocytosis assay. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:949-958, 2016. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  6. 49 CFR 230.47 - Boiler number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Boiler number. 230.47 Section 230.47..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Steam Gauges § 230.47 Boiler number. (a) Generally. The builder's number of the boiler, if known, shall...

  7. 12 CFR 563.47 - Pension plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pension plans. 563.47 Section 563.47 Banks and... and Structure § 563.47 Pension plans. (a) General. No savings association or service corporation thereof shall sponsor an employee pension plan which, because of unreasonable costs or any other reason...

  8. 29 CFR 501.47 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification. 501.47 Section 501.47 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF... AND NATIONALITY ACT Administrative Proceedings Record § 501.47 Certification. Upon receipt of a...

  9. 28 CFR 47.5 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification. 47.5 Section 47.5 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT § 47.5 Certification. Prior to obtaining the requested records pursuant to a formal written request, an official of a rank designated by...

  10. 29 CFR 502.47 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Certification. 502.47 Section 502.47 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS ENFORCEMENT OF... AND NATIONALITY ACT (SUSPENDED 6-29-2009) Administrative Proceedings Record § 502.47 Certification...

  11. 14 CFR 47.43 - Invalid registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invalid registration. 47.43 Section 47.43... REGISTRATION Certificates of Aircraft Registration § 47.43 Invalid registration. (a) The registration of an...) compliance with 49 U.S.C. 44101-44104. (b) If the registration of an aircraft is invalid under paragraph (a...

  12. 7 CFR 983.47 - Marketing policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Marketing policy. 983.47 Section 983.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Marketing Policy § 983.47 Marketing policy. Prior to August 1st each year, the...

  13. 21 CFR 1230.47 - Rejected containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rejected containers. 1230.47 Section 1230.47 Food... FEDERAL CAUSTIC POISON ACT Imports § 1230.47 Rejected containers. (a) In all cases where the containers... notification to the importer that the containers must be exported under customs supervision within 3 months...

  14. 45 CFR 96.47 - Primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Primary care. 96.47 Section 96.47 Public Welfare... and Tribal Organizations § 96.47 Primary care. Applications for direct funding of Indian tribes and tribal organizations under the primary care block grant must comply with 42 CFR Part 51c (Grants for...

  15. 46 CFR 151.03-47 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 151.03-47 Section 151.03-47 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Definitions § 151.03-47 Service. The waters upon which a vessel may be...

  16. 14 CFR 33.47 - Detonation test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detonation test. 33.47 Section 33.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.47 Detonation test. Each engine...

  17. 37 CFR 2.47 - Supplemental Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supplemental Register. 2.47 Section 2.47 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES The Written Application § 2.47 Supplemental Register. (a) In...

  18. 7 CFR 201.47 - Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Separation. 201.47 Section 201.47 Agriculture... REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.47 Separation. (a) The working sample shall... percentage of each part shall be determined to two decimal places. (b) Aids for the classification of pure...

  19. 19 CFR 19.47 - Security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security. 19.47 Section 19.47 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CUSTOMS WAREHOUSES, CONTAINER STATIONS AND CONTROL OF MERCHANDISE THEREIN Container Stations § 19.47 Security. The...

  20. 20 CFR 617.47 - Moving allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Moving allowance. 617.47 Section 617.47... FOR WORKERS UNDER THE TRADE ACT OF 1974 Relocation Allowances § 617.47 Moving allowance. (a) Computation. The amount of a moving allowance payable under § 617.45(a)(2) shall be 90 percent of the total of...

  1. CD47 limits antibody dependent phagocytosis against non-malignant B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Sandra; Turman, Sean; Lekstrom, Kristen; Wilson, Susan; Herbst, Ronald; Wang, Yue

    2017-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of CD47 in protecting malignant B cells from antibody dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP). Combined treatment of anti-CD47 and -CD20 antibodies synergistically augment elimination of tumor B cells in xenograft mouse models. This has led to the development of novel reagents that can potentially enhance killing of malignant B cells in patients. B cell depleting therapy is also a promising treatment for autoimmune patients. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether or not CD47 protects non-malignant B cells from ADCP. We show that CD47 is expressed on all B cells in mice, with the highest level on plasma cells in bone marrow and spleen. Although its expression is dispensable for B cell development in mice, CD47 on B cells limits antibody mediated phagocytosis. B cell depletion following in vivo anti-CD19 treatment is more efficient in CD47-/- mice than in wild type mice. In vitro, both naïve and activated B cells from CD47-/- mice are more sensitive to ADCP than wild type B cells. Lastly, we show in an ADCP assay that blocking CD47 can enhance anti-CD19 antibody mediated phagocytosis of wild type B cells. These results suggest that in addition to its already demonstrated benefit in cancer, targeting CD47 may be used as an adjunct in combination with B cell depletion antibodies for treatment of autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. CD47 blockade inhibits tumor progression human osteosarcoma in xenograft models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ji-Feng; Pan, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Shui-Jun; Zhao, Chen; Qiu, Bin-Song; Gu, Hai-Feng; Hong, Jian-Fei; Cao, Li; Chen, Yu; Xia, Bing; Bi, Qin; Wang, Ya-Ping

    2015-09-15

    Osteosarcoma is the most common bone tumors in children and adolescents. Despite intensive chemotherapy, patients with advanced disease still have a poor prognosis, illustrating the need for alternative therapies. In this study, we explored the use of antibodies that block CD47 with a tumor growth suppressive effect on osteosarcoma. We first found that up-regulation of CD47 mRNA levels in the tumorous tissues from eight patients with osteosarcoma when compared with that in adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Further western-blot (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) demonstrated that CD47 protein level was highly expressed in osteosarcoma compared to normal osteoblastic cells and adjacent non-tumorous tissues. Osteosarcoma cancer stem cell markers staining shown that the majority of CD44+ cells expressed CD47 albeit with different percentages (ranging from 80% to 99%). Furthermore, high CD47 mRNA expression levels were associated with a decreased probability of progression-free and overall survival. In addition, blockade of CD47 by specific Abs suppresses the invasive ability of osteosarcoma tumor cells and further inhibits spontaneous pulmonary metastasis of KRIB osteosarcoma cells in vivo. Finally, CD47 blockade increases macrophage phagocytosis of osteosarcoma tumor cells.In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that CD47 is a critical regulator in the metastasis of osteosarcoma and suggest that targeted inhibition of this antigen by anti-CD47 may be a novel immunotherapeutic approach in the management of this tumor.

  3. Programmed cell removal biomarkers calreticulin and CD47 implicated in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allon, I; Vered, H; Hirshberg, A

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the expression of the programmed cell removal markers, calreticulin (CRT) and CD47, known to be involved in various autoimmune diseases, in patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), and to investigate the association with clinical behavior. Biopsies of 78 patients with OLP were included. The clinical data were collected from patients' charts. The expression of CRT and CD47 was immunomorphometrically analyzed in the epithelial (CRTep, CD47ep) and inflammatory cells (CRTinf, CD47inf), and the results were correlated with the clinical presentation. The epithelial and inflammatory cells expressed CRT (2.83 ± 6.62 and 5.13 ± 3.72) and CD47 (7.92 ± 4.6 and 10.7 ± 7.16). The expressions of CD47ep and CD47inf were associated (R = 0.64, P CD47 in OLP suggests a general programmed cell removal response in OLP. Symptomatic patients may benefit from CRT/CD47 targeted therapy in the future. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. CD47 in the tumor microenvironment limits cooperation between antitumor T-cell immunity and radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pantoja, David R; Terabe, Masaki; Ghosh, Arunima; Ridnour, Lisa A; DeGraff, William G; Wink, David A; Berzofsky, Jay A; Roberts, David D

    2014-12-01

    Although significant advances in radiotherapy have increased its effectiveness in many cancer settings, general strategies to widen the therapeutic window between normal tissue toxicity and malignant tumor destruction would still offer great value. CD47 blockade has been found to confer radioprotection to normal tissues while enhancing tumor radiosensitivity. Here, we report that CD47 blockade directly enhances tumor immunosurveillance by CD8(+) T cells. Combining CD47 blockade with irradiation did not affect fibrosarcoma growth in T cell-deficient mice, whereas adoptive transfer of tumor-specific CD8(+) T cells restored combinatorial efficacy. Furthermore, ablation of CD8(+) T cells abolished radiotherapeutic response in immunocompetent syngeneic hosts. CD47 blockade in either target cells or effector cells was sufficient to enhance antigen-dependent CD8(+) CTL-mediated tumor cell killing in vitro. In CD47-deficient syngeneic hosts, engrafted B16 melanomas were 50% more sensitive to irradiation, establishing that CD47 expression in the microenvironment was sufficient to limit tumor radiosensitivity. Mechanistic investigations revealed increased tumor infiltration by cytotoxic CD8(+) T cells in a CD47-deficient microenvironment, with an associated increase in T cell-dependent intratumoral expression of granzyme B. Correspondingly, an inverse correlation between CD8(+) T-cell infiltration and CD47 expression was observed in human melanomas. Our findings establish that blocking CD47 in the context of radiotherapy enhances antitumor immunity by directly stimulating CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells, with the potential to increase curative responses. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Lewis Y antigen modified CD47 is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis and promotes early ovarian cancer metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Mingzi; Zhu, Liancheng; Zhuang, Huiyu; Hao, Yingying; Gao, Song; Liu, Shuice; Liu, Qing; Liu, Dawo; Liu, Juanjuan; Lin, Bei

    2015-01-01

    CD47 is a membrane receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and plays an important role in the mechanisms of tumor immune escape. CD47 participates in tumor immune escape by combining with SIRPα to reduce the phagocytic activity of macrophages. There are six potential N-glycosylation sites on CD47, and glycosylation is known to be necessary for its membrane localization. However, it is still unknown to what extent glycosylation influences CD47 ligand binding properties and subsequent signaling. By using immunoprecipitation and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we showed that CD47 contains Lewis y antigen. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that both the positive expression and the overexpression of CD47 and Lewis y antigen in cancer tissues and borderline tumors were significantly higher than those in benign ovarian tumors and normal ovarian tissues (P CD47 and Lewis y antigen was evident (r = 0.47, P CD47 and Lewis y antigen showed significant correlations with the clinical pathological parameters of ovarian cancer [International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) standards, lymph node metastasis, and degree of differentiation] (P CD47 was an independent adverse risk factor for the prognosis of ovarian cancer. Cases with both high CD47 and Lewis y antigen expression had poor prognoses. Our study demonstrates that Lewis y antigens of CD47 may play a crucial role in the development of ovarian cancer, and could be new targets for immunotherapy for ovarian cancer. PMID:26609483

  6. Gclust Server: 47 [Gclust Server

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 47 Fal_FRAAL5151=lpdA Cluster Sequences Related Sequences(1247) 460 Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase...AAL5151=lpdA Link to cluster sequences Cluster Sequences Link to related sequences Related Se...quences(1247) Sequence length 460 Representative annotation Dihydrolipoyl dehydrogenase (E3 comp...onent of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex) (LPD-Val) (Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase) Number of Se... (E3 component of branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex) (LPD-Val) (Dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase

  7. 47 CFR 11.47 - Optional use of other communications methods and systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional use of other communications methods and systems. 11.47 Section 11.47 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) Organization § 11.47 Optional use of other communications methods and systems. (a...

  8. Ara-C and anti-CD47 antibody combination therapy eliminates acute monocytic leukemia THP-1 cells in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; Yin, C; Feng, L; Wang, C; Sheng, G

    2015-05-25

    Leukemia stem cells (LSCs) are regarded as the origin of leukemia and its recurrence. Side population (SP) cells possess some intrinsic stem cell properties and contain numerous LSCs. In this study, we examined the prognostic significance of cluster differentiation 47 (CD47) and identified the appropriate target for eliminating LSCs. We determined the percentage of SP cells in a THP-1 cell population and analyzed CD47 expression in different cell subsets. We then explored whether CD47 affected the phagocytic ability of macrophages to LSCs in vitro. Finally, the effect of anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies, alone or combination with cytarabine, against leukemic cells was evaluated in vitro and in vivo to identify the optimal targets for the treatment of leukemia. We observed an SP sub-fraction at low frequency (1.81 ± 0.99%), which was a likely candidate for LSC enrichment. CD47 was more highly expressed on THP-1 LSCs (P CD47 monoclonal antibody stimulated preferential phagocytosis of LSCs by macrophages in vitro. Finally, single or combination treatment of THP-1 LSC-engrafted mice with cytarabine and anti-CD47 antibody resulted in targeting of LSCs and depletion of leukemia cells. These findings suggest that CD47 is an antibody target in LSCs and combination treatment with cytarabine and anti-CD47 monoclonal antibody represents an attractive option for the therapeutic targeting of acute monocytic leukemia.

  9. Anti-leukemic activity and tolerability of anti-human CD47 monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietsch, E C; Dong, J; Cardoso, R; Zhang, X; Chin, D; Hawkins, R; Dinh, T; Zhou, M; Strake, B; Feng, P-H; Rocca, M; Santos, C Dos; Shan, X; Danet-Desnoyers, G; Shi, F; Kaiser, E; Millar, H J; Fenton, S; Swanson, R; Nemeth, J A; Attar, R M

    2017-02-24

    CD47, a broadly expressed cell surface protein, inhibits cell phagocytosis via interaction with phagocyte-expressed SIRPα. A variety of hematological malignancies demonstrate elevated CD47 expression, suggesting that CD47 may mediate immune escape. We discovered three unique CD47-SIRPα blocking anti-CD47 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with low nano-molar affinity to human and cynomolgus monkey CD47, and no hemagglutination and platelet aggregation activity. To characterize the anti-cancer activity elicited by blocking CD47, the mAbs were cloned into effector function silent and competent Fc backbones. Effector function competent mAbs demonstrated potent activity in vitro and in vivo, while effector function silent mAbs demonstrated minimal activity, indicating that blocking CD47 only leads to a therapeutic effect in the presence of Fc effector function. A non-human primate study revealed that the effector function competent mAb IgG1 C47B222-(CHO) decreased red blood cells (RBC), hematocrit and hemoglobin by >40% at 1 mg/kg, whereas the effector function silent mAb IgG2σ C47B222-(CHO) had minimal impact on RBC indices at 1 and 10 mg/kg. Taken together, our findings suggest that targeting CD47 is an attractive therapeutic anti-cancer approach. However, the anti-cancer activity observed with anti-CD47 mAbs is Fc effector dependent as are the side effects observed on RBC indices.

  10. CD47-blocking antibodies restore phagocytosis and prevent atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoko; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; McKenna, Kelly; Civelek, Mete; Lusis, Aldons Jake; Miller, Clint L; Direnzo, Daniel; Nanda, Vivek; Ye, Jianqin; Connolly, Andrew J; Schadt, Eric E; Quertermous, Thomas; Betancur, Paola; Maegdefessel, Lars; Matic, Ljubica Perisic; Hedin, Ulf; Weissman, Irving L; Leeper, Nicholas J

    2016-08-04

    Atherosclerosis is the disease process that underlies heart attack and stroke. Advanced lesions at risk of rupture are characterized by the pathological accumulation of diseased vascular cells and apoptotic cellular debris. Why these cells are not cleared remains unknown. Here we show that atherogenesis is associated with upregulation of CD47, a key anti-phagocytic molecule that is known to render malignant cells resistant to programmed cell removal, or 'efferocytosis'. We find that administration of CD47-blocking antibodies reverses this defect in efferocytosis, normalizes the clearance of diseased vascular tissue, and ameliorates atherosclerosis in multiple mouse models. Mechanistic studies implicate the pro-atherosclerotic factor TNF-α as a fundamental driver of impaired programmed cell removal, explaining why this process is compromised in vascular disease. Similar to recent observations in cancer, impaired efferocytosis appears to play a pathogenic role in cardiovascular disease, but is not a fixed defect and may represent a novel therapeutic target.

  11. CD20-selective inhibition of CD47-SIRPα “don't eat me” signaling with a bispecific antibody-derivative enhances the anticancer activity of daratumumab, alemtuzumab and obinutuzumab

    OpenAIRE

    van Bommel, Peter E.; He, Yuan; Schepel, Ilona; Hendriks, Mark A. J. M.; Wiersma, Valerie R.; van Ginkel, Robert J.; van Meerten, Tom; Ammatuna, Emanuele; Huls, Gerwin; Samplonius, Douwe F.; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report on a novel bispecific antibody-derivative, designated RTX-CD47, with unique capacity for CD20-directed inhibition of CD47-SIRPα “don't eat me” signaling. RTX-CD47 comprises a CD20-targeting scFv antibody fragment derived from rituximab fused in tandem to a CD47-blocking scFv. Single agent treatment with RTX-CD47 triggered significant phagocytic removal of CD20pos/CD47pos malignant B-cells, but not of CD20neg/CD47pos cells, and required no pro-phagocytic FcR-mediated s...

  12. 19 CFR 122.47 - Stores list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Stores list. 122.47 Section 122.47 Customs Duties... Overflying the United States § 122.47 Stores list. (a) When required. A stores list shall be filed for all aircraft required to enter under § 122.41. (b) Form. The aircraft stores shall be listed on the cargo...

  13. Construction of lentiviral shRNA expression vector targeting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimal interfering target was then selected, while the titer of lentiviral packing PLD2-shRNA was 3.47 × 104 TU/ml and the virus was successfully packaged. PCR and sequencing analyses revealed that lentiviral shRNA vectors of three targeting PLD2 gene were successfully constructed. Key words: RNA interference ...

  14. HIF-1 regulates CD47 expression in breast cancer cells to promote evasion of phagocytosis and maintenance of cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huimin; Lu, Haiquan; Xiang, Lisha; Bullen, John W; Zhang, Chuanzhao; Samanta, Debangshu; Gilkes, Daniele M; He, Jianjun; Semenza, Gregg L

    2015-11-10

    Increased expression of CD47 has been reported to enable cancer cells to evade phagocytosis by macrophages and to promote the cancer stem cell phenotype, but the molecular mechanisms regulating CD47 expression have not been determined. Here we report that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) directly activates transcription of the CD47 gene in hypoxic breast cancer cells. Knockdown of HIF activity or CD47 expression increased the phagocytosis of breast cancer cells by bone marrow-derived macrophages. CD47 expression was increased in mammosphere cultures, which are enriched for cancer stem cells, and CD47 deficiency led to cancer stem cell depletion. Analysis of datasets derived from thousands of patients with breast cancer revealed that CD47 expression was correlated with HIF target gene expression and with patient mortality. Thus, CD47 expression contributes to the lethal breast cancer phenotype that is mediated by HIF-1.

  15. 7 CFR 51.47 - Political activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Political activity. 51.47 Section 51.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...

  16. 36 CFR 292.47 - Mining activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mining activities. 292.47 Section 292.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE NATIONAL... common varieties of gravel, sand, or stone, may be used only within the HCNRA for the purpose of...

  17. 47 CFR 68.400 - Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 1999-10-01 1999-10-01 false Content. 68.400 Section 68.400 Title 47- FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION-(CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Complaint Procedures § 68.400 Content. A complaint shall be in writing...

  18. 48 CFR 47.202 - Presolicitation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presolicitation planning. 47.202 Section 47.202 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT... Presolicitation planning. Contracting officers shall inform activities that plan to acquire transportation or...

  19. 7 CFR 47.12 - Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intervention. 47.12 Section 47.12 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Intervention. At any time after the institution of a proceeding and before it has been submitted to the...

  20. 21 CFR 312.47 - Meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... of the drug and in the solution of scientific problems concerning the drug, to the extent that FDA's... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meetings. 312.47 Section 312.47 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE...

  1. 45 CFR 74.47 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration. 74.47 Section 74.47 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR AWARDS AND SUBAWARDS TO INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, OTHER NONPROFIT ORGANIZATIONS, AND COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS...

  2. 49 CFR 19.47 - Contract administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Contract administration. 19.47 Section 19.47 Transportation Office of the Secretary of Transportation UNIFORM ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS FOR GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS WITH INSTITUTIONS OF HIGHER EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards §...

  3. 48 CFR 47.502 - Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policy. 47.502 Section 47.502 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... tonnage of these supplies (computed separately for dry bulk carriers, dry cargo liners, and tankers) is...

  4. 48 CFR 47.501 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 47.501 Section 47.501 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... bareboat charter to, and operated by, U.S. citizens. Tanker means a vessel used primarily for the carriage...

  5. 33 CFR 62.47 - Sound signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....47 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System § 62.47 Sound signals. (a) Often sound signals are located on or adjacent to aids to navigation. When visual signals are obscured...

  6. 47 CFR 22.5 - Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship. 22.5 Section 22.5... and Authority § 22.5 Citizenship. The rules in this section implement section 310 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended (47 U.S.C. § 310), in regard to the citizenship of licensees in the Public...

  7. 47 CFR 20.5 - Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Citizenship. 20.5 Section 20.5... SERVICES § 20.5 Citizenship. (a) This rule implements section 310 of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. 310, regarding the citizenship of licensees in the commercial mobile radio services. Commercial mobile radio...

  8. The CD47-SIRPα signaling axis as an innate immune checkpoint in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matlung, Hanke L; Szilagyi, Katka; Barclay, Neil A; van den Berg, Timo K

    2017-03-01

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors, including those targeting CTLA-4/B7 and the PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitory pathways, are now available for clinical use in cancer patients, with other interesting checkpoint inhibitors being currently in development. Most of these have the purpose to promote adaptive T cell-mediated immunity against cancer. Here, we review another checkpoint acting to potentiate the activity of innate immune cells towards cancer. This innate immune checkpoint is composed of what has become known as the 'don't-eat me' signal CD47, which is a protein broadly expressed on normal cells and often overexpressed on cancer cells, and its counter-receptor, the myeloid inhibitory immunoreceptor SIRPα. Blocking CD47-SIRPα interactions has been shown to promote the destruction of cancer cells by phagocytes, including macrophages and neutrophils. Furthermore, there is growing evidence that targeting of the CD47-SIRPα axis may also promote antigen-presenting cell function and thereby stimulate adaptive T cell-mediated anti-cancer immunity. The development of CD47-SIRPα checkpoint inhibitors and the potential side effects that these may have are discussed. Collectively, this identifies the CD47-SIRPα axis as a promising innate immune checkpoint in cancer, and with data of the first clinical studies with CD47-SIRPα checkpoint inhibitors expected within the coming years, this is an exciting and rapidly developing field. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Ancestry & molecular evolutionary analyses of heat shock protein 47 kDa (HSP47/SERPINH1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, Abhishek; Bhandari, Anita; Sarde, Sandeep J.; Goswami, Chandan

    2017-01-01

    HSP47/SERPINH1 is key-regulator for collagen biosynthesis and its structural assembly. To date, there is no comprehensive study on the phylogenetic history of HSP47. Herein we illustrate the evolutionary history of HSP47/SERPINH1 along with sequence, structural and syntenic traits for

  10. 47 CFR 61.47 - Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands. 61.47... (CONTINUED) TARIFFS General Rules for Dominant Carriers § 61.47 Adjustments to the SBI; pricing bands. (a) In... restructured service) that will remain or become available after restructuring. (e) Pricing bands shall be...

  11. MEET ISOLDE - Target Production

    CERN Multimedia

    2017-01-01

    MEET ISOLDE - Target Production. Everything at ISOLDE starts with a target and the target production team realise on more then 50 years of experience to build and develop new targets for ISOLDE’s wide physics program.

  12. The use of CD47-modified biomaterials to mitigate the immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tengood, Jillian E; Levy, Robert J; Stachelek, Stanley J

    2016-05-01

    Addressing the aberrant interactions between immune cells and biomaterials represents an unmet need in biomaterial research. Although progress has been made in the development of bioinert coatings, identifying and targeting relevant cellular and molecular pathways can provide additional therapeutic strategies to address this major healthcare concern. To that end, we describe the immune inhibitory motif, receptor-ligand pairing of signal regulatory protein alpha and its cognate ligand CD47 as a potential signaling pathway to enhance biocompatibility. The goals of this article are to detail the known roles of CD47-signal regulatory protein alpha signal transduction pathway and to describe how immobilized CD47 can be used to mitigate the immune response to biomaterials. Current applications of CD47-modified biomaterials will also be discussed herein. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  13. Exosome-SIRPα, a CD47 blockade increases cancer cell phagocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Eunee; Lee, Eun Jung; Nam, Gi-Hoon; Hong, Yeonsun; Cho, Eunji; Yang, Yoosoo; Kim, In-San

    2017-03-01

    CD47, a "don't eat me" signal, is over-expressed on the surface of most tumors that interacts with signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) on phagocytic cells. By engaging SIRPα, CD47 limits the ability of macrophages to engulf tumor cells, which acts as a major phagocytic barrier. In this study, we developed an exosome-based immune checkpoint blockade that antagonizes the interaction between CD47 and SIRPα. These exosomes harboring SIRPα variants (SIRPα-exosomes) were sufficient to induce remarkably augmented tumor phagocytosis, lead to prime effective anti-tumor T cell response. Given that clustering of native CD47 provides a high binding avidity to ligate dimerized SIRPα on macrophage, nature-derived exosomes could be appreciable platform to antagonize CD47. Disruption of CD47-SIRPα interaction by SIRPα-exosomes leads to an increase in cells being engulfed by macrophages and a concomitant inhibition of tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. Moreover, SIRPα-exosomes therapy promotes an intensive T cell infiltration in syngeneic mouse models of cancer, raising the possibility of CD47-targeted therapies to unleash both an innate and adaptive anti-tumor response. Note that very small amount of exosomal SIRPα proteins could effectively lead to phagocytic elimination of tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that superlative exosome-based platform has broad potential to maximize the therapeutic efficacy of membrane-associated protein therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CD47 Receptor Globally Regulates Metabolic Pathways That Control Resistance to Ionizing Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas W; Soto-Pantoja, David R; Schwartz, Anthony L; Sipes, John M; DeGraff, William G; Ridnour, Lisa A; Wink, David A; Roberts, David D

    2015-10-09

    Modulating tissue responses to stress is an important therapeutic objective. Oxidative and genotoxic stresses caused by ionizing radiation are detrimental to healthy tissues but beneficial for treatment of cancer. CD47 is a signaling receptor for thrombospondin-1 and an attractive therapeutic target because blocking CD47 signaling protects normal tissues while sensitizing tumors to ionizing radiation. Here we utilized a metabolomic approach to define molecular mechanisms underlying this radioprotective activity. CD47-deficient cells and cd47-null mice exhibited global advantages in preserving metabolite levels after irradiation. Metabolic pathways required for controlling oxidative stress and mediating DNA repair were enhanced. Some cellular energetics pathways differed basally in CD47-deficient cells, and the global declines in the glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolites characteristic of normal cell and tissue responses to irradiation were prevented in the absence of CD47. Thus, CD47 mediates signaling from the extracellular matrix that coordinately regulates basal metabolism and cytoprotective responses to radiation injury. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. Secreted Thrombospondin-1 Regulates Macrophage Interleukin-1β Production and Activation through CD47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Erica V; Miller, Thomas W; Ivins-O'Keefe, Kelly; Kaur, Sukhbir; Roberts, David D

    2016-01-27

    Thrombospondin-1 regulates inflammation by engaging several cell surface receptors and by modulating activities of other secreted factors. We have uncovered a novel role of thrombospondin-1 in modulating production and activation of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β by human and murine macrophages. Physiological concentrations of thrombospondin-1 limit the induction by lipopolysaccharide of IL-1β mRNA and total protein production by human macrophages. This inhibition can be explained by the ability of thrombospondin-1 to disrupt the interaction between CD47 and CD14, thereby limiting activation of NFκB/AP-1 by lipopolysaccharide. Only the CD47-binding domain of thrombospondin-1 exhibits this activity. In contrast, CD47, CD36, and integrin-binding domains of thrombospondin-1 independently enhance the inflammasome-dependent maturation of IL-1β in human THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. Correspondingly, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages that lack either thrombospondin-1 or CD47 exhibit diminished induction of mature IL-1β in response to lipopolysaccharide. Lack of CD47 also limits lipopolysaccharide induction of IL-1β, NLRP3, and caspase-1 mRNAs. These data demonstrate that thrombospondin-1 exerts CD47-dependent and -independent pro-and anti-inflammatory effects on the IL-1β pathway. Therefore, thrombospondin-1 and its receptor CD47 may be useful targets for limiting the pro-inflammatory effects of lipopolysaccharide and for treating endotoxemia.

  16. Uptake, translocation and biotransformation kinetics of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuehui; Wen, Bei; Huang, Honglin; Wang, Sen; Han, Ruixia; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a detailed kinetic investigation on the uptake, acropetal translocation and transformation of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize (Zea mays L.) by hydroponic exposure. Root uptake followed the order: BDE-47 > 6-MeO-BDE-47 > 6-OH-BDE-47, while 6-OH-BDE-47 was the most prone to acropetal translocation. Debromination rates of BDE-47 were 1.31 and 1.46 times greater than the hydroxylation and methoxylation rates, respectively. Transformation from BDE-47 to lower brominated OH/MeO-PBDEs occurred mainly through debromination first followed by hydroxylation or methoxylation. There was no transformation from 6-OH-BDE-47 or 6-MeO-BDE-47 to PBDEs. Methylation rate of 6-OH-BDE-47 was twice as high as that of 6-MeO-BDE-47 hydroxylation, indicating methylation of 6-OH-BDE-47 was easier and more rapid than hydroxylation of 6-MeO-BDE-47. Debromination and isomerization were potential metabolic pathways for 6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47 in maize. This study provides important information for better understanding the mechanism on plant uptake and transformation of PBDEs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Genetics Home Reference: 47,XYY syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Names for This Condition Jacob's syndrome XYY karyotype XYY syndrome YY syndrome Related Information How are ... Y chromosome in males with a 47,XYY karyotype. Hum Mol Genet. 1999 Nov;8(12):2205- ...

  18. In-silico analysis of heat shock protein 47 for identifying the novel therapeutic agents in the management of oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayasankar P Pillai

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: HSP47 can be a potential candidate to target, in order to control the production of abundance collagen in OSF. Hence, the binding sites of HSP47 with collagen are identified and some natural compounds with a potential to bind with these binding receptors are also recognized. These natural compounds might act as anti-HSP47 lead molecules in designing novel therapeutic agents for OSF, which are so far unavailable.

  19. CD47 in the tumor microenvironment limits cooperation between anti-tumor T cell immunity and radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto-Pantoja, David R.; Terabe, Masaki; Ghosh, Arunima; Ridnour, Lisa A.; DeGraff, William G.; Wink, David A.; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Roberts, David D.

    2014-01-01

    While significant advances in radiotherapy have increased its effectiveness in many cancer settings, general strategies to widen the therapeutic window between normal tissue toxicity and malignant tumor destruction would still offer great value. CD47 blockade has been found to confer radioprotection to normal tissues while enhancing tumor radiosensitivity. Here we report that CD47 blockade directly enhances tumor immunosurveillance by CD8+ T cells. Combining CD47 blockade with irradiation did not affect fibrosarcoma growth in T cell-deficient mice, whereas adoptive transfer of tumor-specific CD8+ T cells restored combinatorial efficacy. Further, ablation of CD8+ T cells abolished radiotherapeutic response in immunocompetent syngeneic hosts. CD47 blockade in either target cells or effector cells was sufficient to enhance antigen-dependent CD8+ CTL-mediated tumor cell killing in vitro. In CD47-deficient syngeneic hosts, engrafted B16 melanomas were 50% more sensitive to irradiation, establishing that CD47 expression in the microenvironment was sufficient to limit tumor radiosensitivity. Mechanistic investigations revealed increased tumor infiltration by cytotoxic CD8+ T cells in a CD47-deficient microenvironment, with an associated increase in T cell-dependent intratumoral expression of granzyme B. Correspondingly, an inverse correlation between CD8+ T cell infiltration and CD47 expression was observed in human melanomas. Our findings establish that blocking CD47 in the context of radiotherapy enhances antitumor immunity by directly stimulating CD8+ cytotoxic T cells, with the potential to increase curative responses. PMID:25297630

  20. ORA47 (octadecanoid-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47) regulates jasmonic acid and abscisic acid biosynthesis and signaling through binding to a novel cis-element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsing-Yu; Hsieh, En-Jung; Cheng, Mei-Chun; Chen, Chien-Yu; Hwang, Shih-Ying; Lin, Tsan-Piao

    2016-07-01

    ORA47 (octadecanoid-responsive AP2/ERF-domain transcription factor 47) of Arabidopsis thaliana is an AP2/ERF domain transcription factor that regulates jasmonate (JA) biosynthesis and is induced by methyl JA treatment. The regulatory mechanism of ORA47 remains unclear. ORA47 is shown to bind to the cis-element (NC/GT)CGNCCA, which is referred to as the O-box, in the promoter of ABI2. We proposed that ORA47 acts as a connection between ABA INSENSITIVE1 (ABI1) and ABI2 and mediates an ABI1-ORA47-ABI2 positive feedback loop. PORA47:ORA47-GFP transgenic plants were used in a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay to show that ORA47 participates in the biosynthesis and/or signaling pathways of nine phytohormones. Specifically, many abscisic acid (ABA) and JA biosynthesis and signaling genes were direct targets of ORA47 under stress conditions. The JA content of the P35S:ORA47-GR lines was highly induced under wounding and moderately induced under water stress relative to that of the wild-type plants. The wounding treatment moderately increased ABA accumulation in the transgenic lines, whereas the water stress treatment repressed the ABA content. ORA47 is proposed to play a role in the biosynthesis of JA and ABA and in regulating the biosynthesis and/or signaling of a suite of phytohormone genes when plants are subjected to wounding and water stress. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  1. TARGET 2 and Settlement Finality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan MANGATCHEV

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines how TARGET 2 as system implements the idea of settlement finality regulated by Directive 98/26 EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 19 May 1998 on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems (Settlement Finality Directive and Directive 2009/44/EC of the European parliament and of the Council of 6 May 2009 amending Directive 98/26/EC on settlement finality in payment and securities settlement systems and Directive 2002/47/EC on financial collateral arrangements as regards linked systems and credit claims (Directive 2009/44/EC. As the title of the arti and finality of the settlement in this system.

  2. Durable antitumor responses to CD47 blockade require adaptive immune stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockolosky, Jonathan T; Dougan, Michael; Ingram, Jessica R; Ho, Chia Chi M; Kauke, Monique J; Almo, Steven C; Ploegh, Hidde L; Garcia, K Christopher

    2016-05-10

    Therapeutic antitumor antibodies treat cancer by mobilizing both innate and adaptive immunity. CD47 is an antiphagocytic ligand exploited by tumor cells to blunt antibody effector functions by transmitting an inhibitory signal through its receptor signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα). Interference with the CD47-SIRPα interaction synergizes with tumor-specific monoclonal antibodies to eliminate human tumor xenografts by enhancing macrophage-mediated antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis (ADCP), but synergy between CD47 blockade and ADCP has yet to be demonstrated in immunocompetent hosts. Here, we show that CD47 blockade alone or in combination with a tumor-specific antibody fails to generate antitumor immunity against syngeneic B16F10 tumors in mice. Durable tumor immunity required programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) blockade in combination with an antitumor antibody, with incorporation of CD47 antagonism substantially improving response rates. Our results highlight an underappreciated contribution of the adaptive immune system to anti-CD47 adjuvant therapy and suggest that targeting both innate and adaptive immune checkpoints can potentiate the vaccinal effect of antitumor antibody therapy.

  3. CD47-dependent immunomodulatory and angiogenic activities of extracellular vesicles produced by T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Singh, Satya P; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Wu, Weiwei; Abu-Asab, Mones S; Roberts, David D

    2014-07-01

    Intercellular communication is critical for integrating complex signals in multicellular eukaryotes. Vascular endothelial cells and T lymphocytes closely interact during the recirculation and trans-endothelial migration of T cells. In addition to direct cell-cell contact, we show that T cell derived extracellular vesicles can interact with endothelial cells and modulate their cellular functions. Thrombospondin-1 and its receptor CD47 are expressed on exosomes/ectosomes derived from T cells, and these extracellular vesicles are internalized and modulate signaling in both T cells and endothelial cells. Extracellular vesicles released from cells expressing or lacking CD47 differentially regulate activation of T cells induced by engaging the T cell receptor. Similarly, T cell-derived extracellular vesicles modulate endothelial cell responses to vascular endothelial growth factor and tube formation in a CD47-dependent manner. Uptake of T cell derived extracellular vesicles by recipient endothelial cells globally alters gene expression in a CD47-dependent manner. CD47 also regulates the mRNA content of extracellular vesicles in a manner consistent with some of the resulting alterations in target endothelial cell gene expression. Therefore, the thrombospondin-1 receptor CD47 directly or indirectly regulates intercellular communication mediated by the transfer of extracellular vesicles between vascular cells. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. CD47 regulates renal tubular epithelial cell self-renewal and proliferation following renal ischemia reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Natasha M; Zhang, Zheng J; Wang, Jiao-Jing; Thomson, Angus W; Isenberg, Jeffrey S

    2016-08-01

    Defects in renal tubular epithelial cell repair contribute to renal ischemia reperfusion injury, cause acute kidney damage, and promote chronic renal disease. The matricellular protein thrombospondin-1 and its receptor CD47 are involved in experimental renal ischemia reperfusion injury, although the role of this interaction in renal recovery is unknown. We found upregulation of self-renewal genes (transcription factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and cMyc) in the kidney of CD47(-/-) mice after ischemia reperfusion injury. Wild-type animals had minimal self-renewal gene expression, both before and after injury. Suggestive of cell autonomy, CD47(-/-) renal tubular epithelial cells were found to increase expression of the self-renewal genes. This correlated with enhanced proliferative capacity compared with cells from wild-type mice. Exogenous thrombospondin-1 inhibited self-renewal gene expression in renal tubular epithelial cells from wild-type but not CD47(-/-) mice, and this was associated with decreased proliferation. Treatment of renal tubular epithelial cells with a CD47 blocking antibody or CD47-targeting small interfering RNA increased expression of some self-renewal transcription factors and promoted cell proliferation. In a syngeneic kidney transplant model, treatment with a CD47 blocking antibody increased self-renewal transcription factor expression, decreased tissue damage, and improved renal function compared with that in control mice. Thus, thrombospondin-1 via CD47 inhibits renal tubular epithelial cell recovery after ischemia reperfusion injury through inhibition of proliferation/self-renewal. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Reduced size of the amygdala in individuals with 47,XXY and 47,XXX karyotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Anil J; Brown, Wendy E; Bender, Bruce G; Linden, Mary G; Eliez, Stephan; Reiss, Allan L

    2002-01-08

    The excess of 47,XXX and 47,XXY karyotypes found in cytogenetic screening studies of individuals with schizophrenia has given support for an increased risk of psychiatric illness among men and women with sex chromosomal aneuploidy (SCA). Mesial temporal lobe structures, including the amygdala and hippocampus, are thought to be associated with abnormalities of mood and behavior in humans and in the neurobiology of schizophrenia. This study focuses on variations in volumes of mesial temporal lobe structures in men and women with SCA. Utilizing an unselected birth cohort of subjects with SCA and high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we investigated the neuroanatomical consequences of a supernumerary X chromosome on the morphology of the amygdala and hippocampus. Regional and total brain volumes were measured in 10 subjects with 47,XXY, 10 subjects with 47,XXX, and 20 euploid controls. Amygdala volumes were significantly reduced in men with 47,XXY, compared to control men, while the decrease in women with 47,XXX was not as pronounced. Hippocampus volumes were preserved in both groups, compared to same-gender controls. Longitudinal studies of SCA individuals have shown an increased incidence of mild psychopathology and behavioral dysfunction in men with 47,XXY and more overt psychiatric illness in women with 47,XXX, compared to control populations. The alteration in amygdala volumes in individuals with a supernumerary X chromosome may provide a neuroanatomic basis for these findings. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  6. Precise Masses in the WASP-47 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderburg, Andrew; Becker, Juliette C.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Mortier, Annelies; Lopez, Eric; Malavolta, Luca; Haywood, Raphaëlle D.; Latham, David W.; Charbonneau, David; López-Morales, Mercedes; Adams, Fred C.; Bonomo, Aldo Stefano; Bouchy, François; Collier Cameron, Andrew; Cosentino, Rosario; Di Fabrizio, Luca; Dumusque, Xavier; Fiorenzano, Aldo; Harutyunyan, Avet; Johnson, John Asher; Lorenzi, Vania; Lovis, Christophe; Mayor, Michel; Micela, Giusi; Molinari, Emilio; Pedani, Marco; Pepe, Francesco; Piotto, Giampaolo; Phillips, David; Rice, Ken; Sasselov, Dimitar; Ségransan, Damien; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Udry, Stéphane; Watson, Chris

    2017-12-01

    We present precise radial velocity observations of WASP-47, a star known to host a hot Jupiter, a distant Jovian companion, and, uniquely, two additional transiting planets in short-period orbits: a super-Earth in a ≈19 hr orbit, and a Neptune in a ≈9 day orbit. We analyze our observations from the HARPS-N spectrograph along with previously published data to measure the most precise planet masses yet for this system. When combined with new stellar parameters and reanalyzed transit photometry, our mass measurements place strong constraints on the compositions of the two small planets. We find that, unlike most other ultra-short-period planets, the inner planet, WASP-47 e, has a mass (6.83 ± 0.66 {M}\\oplus ) and a radius (1.810 ± 0.027 {R}\\oplus ) that are inconsistent with an Earth-like composition. Instead, WASP-47 e likely has a volatile-rich envelope surrounding an Earth-like core and mantle. We also perform a dynamical analysis to constrain the orbital inclination of WASP-47 c, the outer Jovian planet. This planet likely orbits close to the plane of the inner three planets, suggesting a quiet dynamical history for the system. Our dynamical constraints also imply that WASP-47 c is much more likely to transit than a geometric calculation would suggest. We calculate a transit probability for WASP-47 c of about 10%, more than an order of magnitude larger than the geometric transit probability of 0.6%.

  7. CD47 blocking antibodies restore phagocytosis and prevent atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Yoko; Volkmer, Jens-Peter; McKenna, Kelly; Civelek, Mete; Lusis, A. Jake; Miller, Clint; Direnzo, Daniel; Nanda, Vivek; Ye, Jianqin; Connolly, Andrew; Schadt, Eric; Quertermous, Thomas; Betancur, Paola; Maegdefessel, Lars; Perisic, Ljubica; Hedin, Ulf; Weissman, Irv; Leeper, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Atherosclerosis is the disease process underlying heart attack and stroke1. Advanced lesions at risk for rupture are characterized by the pathological accumulation of diseased vascular cells and apoptotic cellular debris2. Why these cells are not cleared remains unknown3. Here we show that atherogenesis is associated with upregulation of CD47, a key ‘don’t eat me’ molecule known to render malignant cells resistant to programmed cell removal (PrCR), or ‘efferocytosis’4–7. We find that administration of CD47 blocking antibodies reverses this defect in efferocytosis, normalizes the clearance of diseased vascular tissue, and ameliorates atherosclerosis in multiple mouse models. Mechanistic studies implicate the pro-atherosclerotic factor TNF-α as a fundamental driver of impaired PrCR, explaining why this process is compromised in vascular disease. Similar to recent observations in cancer5, impaired efferocytosis appears to play a pathogenic role in cardiovascular disease, but is not a fixed defect and may represent a novel therapeutic target. PMID:27437576

  8. CD47-SIRPα Interactions Regulate Macrophage Uptake of Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Erythrocytes and Clearance of Malaria In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayi, Kodjo; Lu, Ziyue; Serghides, Lena; Ho, Jenny M; Finney, Constance; Wang, Jean C Y; Liles, W Conrad; Kain, Kevin C

    2016-07-01

    CD47 engagement by the macrophage signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) inhibits phagocytic activity and protects red blood cells (RBCs) from erythrophagocytosis. The role of CD47-SIRPα in the innate immune response to Plasmodium falciparum infection is unknown. We hypothesized that disruption of SIRPα signaling may enhance macrophage uptake of malaria parasite-infected RBCs. To test this hypothesis, we examined in vivo clearance in CD47-deficient mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and in vitro phagocytosis of P. falciparum-infected RBCs by macrophages from SHP-1-deficient (Shp-1(-/-)) mice and NOD.NOR-Idd13.Prkdc(scid) (NS-Idd13) mice, as well as human macrophages, following disruption of CD47-SIRPα interactions with anti-SIRPα antibodies or recombinant SIRPα-Fc fusion protein. Compared to their wild-type counterparts, Cd47(-/-) mice displayed significantly lower parasitemia, decreased endothelial activation, and enhanced survival. Using macrophages from SHP-1-deficient mice or from NS-Idd13 mice, which express a SIRPα variant that does not bind human CD47, we showed that altered SIRPα signaling resulted in enhanced phagocytosis of P. falciparum-infected RBCs. Moreover, disrupting CD47-SIRPα engagement using anti-SIRPα antibodies or SIRPα-Fc fusion protein also increased phagocytosis of P. falciparum-infected RBCs. These results indicate an important role for CD47-SIRPα interactions in innate control of malaria and suggest novel targets for intervention. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Cd47-Sirpα interaction and IL-10 constrain inflammation-induced macrophage phagocytosis of healthy self-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Zhen; Shi, Lei; Guo, Ya-Lan; Lv, Zhiyuan; Tang, Cong; Niu, Shuo; Tremblay, Alexandra; Venkataramani, Mahathi; Culpepper, Courtney; Li, Limin; Zhou, Zhen; Mansour, Ahmed; Zhang, Yongliang; Gewirtz, Andrew; Kidder, Koby; Zen, Ke; Liu, Yuan

    2016-09-13

    Rapid clearance of adoptively transferred Cd47-null (Cd47(-/-)) cells in congeneic WT mice suggests a critical self-recognition mechanism, in which CD47 is the ubiquitous marker of self, and its interaction with macrophage signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) triggers inhibitory signaling through SIRPα cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs and tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1/2. However, instead of displaying self-destruction phenotypes, Cd47(-/-) mice manifest no, or only mild, macrophage phagocytosis toward self-cells except under the nonobese diabetic background. Studying our recently established Sirpα-KO (Sirpα(-/-)) mice, as well as Cd47(-/-) mice, we reveal additional activation and inhibitory mechanisms besides the CD47-SIRPα axis dominantly controlling macrophage behavior. Sirpα(-/-) mice and Cd47(-/-) mice, although being normally healthy, develop severe anemia and splenomegaly under chronic colitis, peritonitis, cytokine treatments, and CFA-/LPS-induced inflammation, owing to splenic macrophages phagocytizing self-red blood cells. Ex vivo phagocytosis assays confirmed general inactivity of macrophages from Sirpα(-/-) or Cd47(-/-) mice toward healthy self-cells, whereas they aggressively attack toward bacteria, zymosan, apoptotic, and immune complex-bound cells; however, treating these macrophages with IL-17, LPS, IL-6, IL-1β, and TNFα, but not IFNγ, dramatically initiates potent phagocytosis toward self-cells, for which only the Cd47-Sirpα interaction restrains. Even for macrophages from WT mice, phagocytosis toward Cd47(-/-) cells does not occur without phagocytic activation. Mechanistic studies suggest a PKC-Syk-mediated signaling pathway, to which IL-10 conversely inhibits, is required for activating macrophage self-targeting, followed by phagocytosis independent of calreticulin Moreover, we identified spleen red pulp to be one specific tissue that provides stimuli constantly activating macrophage phagocytosis albeit lacking

  10. A function-blocking CD47 antibody suppresses stem cell and EGF signaling in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhbir; Elkahloun, Abdel G; Singh, Satya P; Chen, Qing-Rong; Meerzaman, Daoud M; Song, Timothy; Manu, Nidhi; Wu, Weiwei; Mannan, Poonam; Garfield, Susan H; Roberts, David D

    2016-03-01

    CD47 is a signaling receptor for thrombospondin-1 and the counter-receptor for signal-regulatory protein-α (SIRPα). By inducing inhibitory SIRPα signaling, elevated CD47 expression by some cancers prevents macrophage phagocytosis. The anti-human CD47 antibody B6H12 inhibits tumor growth in several xenograft models, presumably by preventing SIRPα engagement. However, CD47 signaling in nontransformed and some malignant cells regulates self-renewal, suggesting that CD47 antibodies may therapeutically target cancer stem cells (CSCs). Treatment of MDA-MB-231 breast CSCs with B6H12 decreased proliferation and asymmetric cell division. Similar effects were observed in T47D CSCs but not in MCF7 breast carcinoma or MCF10A breast epithelial cells. Gene expression analysis in breast CSCs treated with B6H12 showed decreased expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the stem cell transcription factor KLF4. EGFR and KLF4 mRNAs are known targets of microRNA-7, and B6H12 treatment correspondingly enhanced microRNA-7 expression in breast CSCs. B6H12 treatment also acutely inhibited EGF-induced EGFR tyrosine phosphorylation. Expression of B6H12-responsive genes correlated with CD47 mRNA expression in human breast cancers, suggesting that the CD47 signaling pathways identified in breast CSCs are functional in vivo. These data reveal a novel SIRPα-independent mechanism by which therapeutic CD47 antibodies could control tumor growth by autonomously forcing differentiation of CSC.

  11. 47 CFR 52.105 - Warehousing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Warehousing. 52.105 Section 52.105... Free Numbers § 52.105 Warehousing. (a) As used in this section, warehousing is the practice whereby... shall be a rebuttable presumption that a Responsible Organization is warehousing toll free numbers if...

  12. 47 CFR 69.309 - Other investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other investment. 69.309 Section 69.309... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.309 Other investment. Investment that is not apportioned pursuant to §§ 69... category and access elements in the same proportions as the combined investment that is apportioned...

  13. 47 CFR 69.302 - Net investment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net investment. 69.302 Section 69.302... Apportionment of Net Investment § 69.302 Net investment. (a) Investment in Accounts 2001, 1220 and Class B Rural...) Investment in Accounts 2002, 2003 and to the extent such inclusions are allowed by this Commission, Account...

  14. 47 CFR 61.171 - Adoption notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adoption notice. 61.171 Section 61.171 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) TARIFFS Adoption of Tariffs and Other Documents of Predecessor Carriers § 61.171 Adoption notice. When a carrier's...

  15. 47 CFR 24.237 - Interference protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference protection. 24.237 Section 24.237... SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.237 Interference protection. (a) All licensees are required to coordinate their... proposed facilities will not cause interference to existing OFS stations within the coordination distance...

  16. 47 CFR 27.1221 - Interference protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference protection. 27.1221 Section 27... Technical Standards § 27.1221 Interference protection. (a) Interference protection will be afforded to BRS... station relative to a base station in another GSA, is equal to the distance, in kilometers, from the base...

  17. 47 CFR 32.6113 - Aircraft expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft expense. 32.6113 Section 32.6113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6113 Aircraft expense. (a) This account shall include such costs as aircraft fuel, flight crews, mechanics and ground crews...

  18. 47 CFR 32.2113 - Aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aircraft. 32.2113 Section 32.2113... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2113 Aircraft. This account shall include the original cost of aircraft and any associated equipment and furnishings installed...

  19. 47 CFR 97.207 - Space station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... space station licensee has assessed and limited the amount of debris released in a planned manner during... space station becoming a source of debris by collisions with large debris or other operational space... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Space station. 97.207 Section 97.207...

  20. 47 CFR 10.400 - Classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Classification. 10.400 Section 10.400 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMERCIAL MOBILE ALERT SYSTEM Alert Message Requirements § 10.400 Classification. A Participating CMS Provider is required to receive and transmit three...

  1. 47 CFR 1.21 - Parties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Parties. 1.21 Section 1.21 Telecommunication... Parties, Practitioners, and Witnesses § 1.21 Parties. (a) Any party may appear before the Commission and... deemed to be a party to every adjudicatory proceeding (as defined in the Administrative Procedure Act...

  2. 47 CFR 32.23 - Nonregulated activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonregulated activities. 32.23 Section 32.23... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES General Instructions § 32.23 Nonregulated activities. (a) This section describes the accounting treatment of activities classified for accounting purposes as...

  3. 47 CFR 87.69 - Maintenance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance tests. 87.69 Section 87.69... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Requirements § 87.69 Maintenance tests. The licensee may make routine maintenance tests on equipment other than emergency locator transmitters if there is no...

  4. 47 CFR 101.1109 - Records maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records maintenance. 101.1109 Section 101.1109 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Competitive Bidding Procedures for LMDS § 101.1109 Records maintenance. All winning bidders...

  5. 47 CFR 80.96 - Maintenance tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance tests. 80.96 Section 80.96... MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures-General § 80.96 Maintenance tests. Stations are authorized to engage in test transmissions necessary for maintenance of the station...

  6. Tekstiilitööstuse TOP 47

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Tekstiilitööstuse TOP 47; Käibe TOP 35; Kasumi TOP 35; Käibe kasvu TOP 20; Kasumi kasvu TOP 20; Rentaabluse TOP 20; Varade tootlikkuse TOP 20; Tekstiilitööstuse TOP-i firmade üld- ja finantsandmed

  7. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 73

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Digital Broadcast Television Redistribution Control Manufacture for exportation. Pt. 73, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 73 Rules Apply to All Services, AM, FM, and TV, Unless Indicated as Pertaining to a... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part 73 Index Alphabetical Index...

  8. 47 CFR Alphabetical Index - Part 74

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part 74 Index Alphabetical Index..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES FM Broadcast Translator Stations and FM Broadcast Booster Stations FM translator and booster station information available on the Internet...

  9. 47 CFR 69.109 - Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Information. 69.109 Section 69.109... Computation of Charges § 69.109 Information. (a) A charge shall be assessed upon all interexchange carriers..., the projected annual revenue requirement for the Information element shall be divided by 12 to compute...

  10. 47 CFR 69.156 - Marketing expenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing expenses. 69.156 Section 69.156... Computation of Charges for Price Cap Local Exchange Carriers § 69.156 Marketing expenses. Effective July 1, 2000, the marketing expenses formerly allocated to the common line and traffic sensitive baskets, and...

  11. 47 CFR 97.505 - Element credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Element credit. 97.505 Section 97.505... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.505 Element credit. (a) The administering VEs must give credit.... (b) No examination credit, except as herein provided, shall be allowed on the basis of holding or...

  12. 47 CFR 53.211 - Audit planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit planning. 53.211 Section 53.211 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) SPECIAL PROVISIONS CONCERNING BELL OPERATING COMPANIES Separate Affiliate; Safeguards § 53.211 Audit planning. (a...

  13. 47 CFR 73.1217 - Broadcast hoaxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast hoaxes. 73.1217 Section 73.1217 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1217 Broadcast hoaxes. No licensee or permittee of any...

  14. 47 CFR 74.794 - Digital emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Booster Stations § 74.794 Digital emissions. (a)(1) An applicant for a digital LPTV or TV translator... (including attenuation of radio frequency harmonics), digital low power TV and TV translator stations... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital emissions. 74.794 Section 74.794...

  15. 47 CFR 74.787 - Digital licensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or licensees and permittees of Class A TV stations may submit applications for companion digital... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital licensing. 74.787 Section 74.787..., AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV...

  16. 47 CFR 68.300 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labeling requirements. 68.300 Section 68.300 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) CONNECTION OF TERMINAL EQUIPMENT TO THE TELEPHONE NETWORK Conditions for Terminal Equipment Approval § 68.300 Labeling...

  17. 47 CFR 1.1953 - Interagency requests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interagency requests. 1.1953 Section 1.1953... United States General Provisions Concerning Interagency Requests § 1.1953 Interagency requests. (a) Requests to the Commission by other Federal agencies for administrative or salary offset shall be in...

  18. 47 CFR 13.215 - Question pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 13.215 Section 13.215... Question pools. The question pool for each written examination element will be composed of questions acceptable to the FCC. Each question pool must contain at least five (5) times the number of questions...

  19. 47 CFR 97.523 - Question pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Question pools. 97.523 Section 97.523... SERVICE Qualifying Examination Systems § 97.523 Question pools. All VECs must cooperate in maintaining one question pool for each written examination element. Each question pool must contain at least 10 times the...

  20. 47 CFR 76.912 - Joint certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Joint certification. 76.912 Section 76.912... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.912 Joint certification. (a) Franchising authorities may apply for joint certification and may engage in joint regulation, including, but not limited to...

  1. 47 CFR 2.907 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification. 2.907 Section 2.907... RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures General Provisions § 2.907 Certification. (a) Certification is an equipment authorization issued by the Commission, based on representations and test data...

  2. 47 CFR 76.1502 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification. 76.1502 Section 76.1502... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Open Video Systems § 76.1502 Certification. (a) An operator of an open video... certification prior to the commencement of service at such a point in time that would allow the applicant...

  3. 47 CFR 95.851 - Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Certification. 95.851 Section 95.851 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.851 Certification. Each CTS and RTU transmitter must...

  4. 47 CFR 54.505 - Discounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discounts. 54.505 Section 54.505... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.505 Discounts. (a) Discount mechanism. Discounts for eligible schools and libraries shall be set as a percentage discount from the pre-discount...

  5. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a... numbers and organizational affiliations of the chairperson(s) and all members of the planning committee...

  6. 47 CFR 32.2311 - Station apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (excluding mobile), installed for customer's use. Items included in this account shall remain herein until... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station apparatus. 32.2311 Section 32.2311 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS...

  7. 47 CFR 76.10 - Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Review. 76.10 Section 76.10 Telecommunication... TELEVISION SERVICE General § 76.10 Review. (a) Interlocutory review. (1) Except as provided below, no party may seek review of interlocutory rulings until a decision on the merits has been issued by the staff...

  8. 47 CFR 201.0 - Background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Background. 201.0 Section 201.0 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.0 Background. National policy with respect to the conservation, allocation and use of the Nation's...

  9. 47 CFR 32.2122 - Furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furniture. 32.2122 Section 32.2122... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2122 Furniture. This account shall include the original cost of furniture in offices, storerooms, shops, and all other quarters...

  10. 47 CFR 54.508 - Technology plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technology plans. 54.508 Section 54.508... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.508 Technology plans. (a) Contents. The technology plans referred to in this subpart must include the following five elements: (1) A clear statement...

  11. 47 CFR 73.1700 - Broadcast day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast day. 73.1700 Section 73.1700 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1700 Broadcast day. The term broadcast day means that...

  12. 47 CFR 213.7 - Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Policies. 213.7 Section 213.7 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL GOVERNMENT AND PUBLIC CORRESPONDENCE TELECOMMUNICATIONS PRECEDENCE SYSTEM § 213.7 Policies. (a) Calls and messages in each precedence...

  13. 47 CFR 73.755 - Modulation monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation monitors. 73.755 Section 73.755... International Broadcast Stations § 73.755 Modulation monitors. The licensee of each international broadcast station shall have a modulation monitor in operation at the transmitter. ...

  14. 47 CFR 101.141 - Microwave modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Microwave modulation. 101.141 Section 101.141... SERVICES Technical Standards § 101.141 Microwave modulation. (a) Microwave transmitters employing digital modulation techniques and operating below 25.25 GHz (except for MVDDS stations in the 12,200-12,700 MHz band...

  15. 47 CFR 95.637 - Modulation standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation standards. 95.637 Section 95.637... SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.637 Modulation standards. (a) A GMRS transmitter... paragraphs of § 95.631 (without filtering.) The filter must be between the modulation limiter and the...

  16. 47 CFR 78.115 - Modulation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation limits. 78.115 Section 78.115... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.115 Modulation limits. (a) If amplitude modulation is employed, negative modulation peaks shall not exceed 100 percent modulation. Pt. 78, Index Alphabetical Index—Part 78...

  17. 47 CFR 74.663 - Modulation limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation limits. 74.663 Section 74.663 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.663 Modulation limits. If amplitude modulation is employed, negative modulation peaks shall...

  18. 47 CFR 101.64 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.64 Section 101.64... Service areas. Service areas for 38.6-40.0 GHz service are Economic Areas (EAs) as defined below. EAs are.... Additionally, there are four EA-like areas: Guam and Northern Mariana Islands; Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin...

  19. 47 CFR 101.1315 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.1315 Section 101.1315... SERVICES Multiple Address Systems System License Requirements § 101.1315 Service areas. In the frequency bands not licensed on a site-by-site basis, the geographic service areas for MAS are Economic Areas (EAs...

  20. 47 CFR 24.202 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 24.202 Section 24.202... SERVICES Broadband PCS § 24.202 Service areas. Broadband PCS service areas are Major Trading Areas (MTAs) and Basic Trading Areas (BTAs) as defined in this section. MTAs and BTAs are based on the Rand McNally...

  1. 47 CFR 101.1501 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.1501 Section 101.1501 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1501 Service areas. The 70/80/90 GHz...

  2. 47 CFR 27.6 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 27.6 Section 27.6... COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES General Information § 27.6 Service areas. (a) WCS service areas include Economic Areas (EAs), Major Economic Areas (MEAs), Regional Economic Area Groupings (REAGs), cellular markets...

  3. 47 CFR 54.207 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 54.207 Section 54.207... SERVICE Carriers Eligible for Universal Service Support § 54.207 Service areas. (a) The term service area means a geographic area established by a state commission for the purpose of determining universal...

  4. 47 CFR 101.1401 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.1401 Section 101.1401... Service areas. Multichannel Video Distribution and Data Service (MVDDS) is licensed on the basis of Designated Market Areas (DMAs). The 214 DMA service areas are based on the 210 Designated Market Areas...

  5. 47 CFR 24.102 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 24.102 Section 24.102... SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.102 Service areas. Narrowband PCS service areas are nationwide, regional, and Major Trading Areas (MTAs), as defined in this section. MTAs are based on the Rand McNally 1992...

  6. 47 CFR 101.523 - Service areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service areas. 101.523 Section 101.523... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.523 Service areas. (a) The service areas for 24 GHz are Economic Areas (EAs) as defined in this paragraph (a). The Bureau of Economic...

  7. 47 CFR 65.450 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.450 Section 65.450... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.450 Net income. (a) Net income shall consist of all revenues derived from the provision of interstate telecommunications services...

  8. 47 CFR 65.500 - Net income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net income. 65.500 Section 65.500... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Interexchange Carriers § 65.500 Net income. The net income methodology specified in § 65.450 shall be utilized by all interexchange carriers that are...

  9. 47 CFR 90.121 - Canadian registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Canadian registration. 90.121 Section 90.121 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.121 Canadian registration. Form 410 shall be...

  10. 47 CFR 73.816 - Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... manufacturer. In no event may composite antennas (i.e., antennas that consist of multiple stacked and/or phased... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 73.816 Section 73.816... Low Power FM Broadcast Stations (LPFM) § 73.816 Antennas. (a) Permittees and licensees may employ...

  11. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base documents. 61.16 Section 61.16... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which incorporates all effective revisions, as of the last day of the preceding month. The Base Document should be...

  12. 47 CFR 80.213 - Modulation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 80.213 Section 80.213... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.213 Modulation requirements. (a) Transmitters must meet the following modulation requirements: (1) When double sideband emission is used the peak modulation...

  13. 47 CFR 74.463 - Modulation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 74.463 Section 74.463....463 Modulation requirements. (a) Each new remote pickup broadcast station authorized to operate with a... modulation in excess of the limits set forth in this subpart. (b) If amplitude modulation is employed...

  14. 47 CFR 87.141 - Modulation requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Modulation requirements. 87.141 Section 87.141... Technical Requirements § 87.141 Modulation requirements. (a) When A3E emission is used, the modulation... modulation in excess of 100 percent. (c) If any licensed radiotelephone transmitter causes harmful...

  15. 47 CFR 64.1603 - Customer notification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer notification. 64.1603 Section 64.1603 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) MISCELLANEOUS RULES RELATING TO COMMON CARRIERS Calling Party Telephone Number; Privacy § 64.1603 Customer...

  16. 47 CFR 73.4055 - Cigarette advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cigarette advertising. 73.4055 Section 73.4055 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4055 Cigarette advertising. See 15 U.S.C. 1335. ...

  17. 47 CFR 1.1928 - Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hearing. 1.1928 Section 1.1928... United States Salary Offset-Individual Debt § 1.1928 Hearing. (a) Petition for hearing. (1) An employee may request a hearing by filing a written petition with the Managing Director of the Commission, or...

  18. 47 CFR 32.6610 - Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing. 32.6610 Section 32.6610 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6610 Marketing. Class B...

  19. 47 CFR 73.333 - Engineering charts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Engineering charts. 73.333 Section 73.333 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM Broadcast Stations § 73.333 Engineering charts. This section consists of the following Figures 1, 1a, 2, and...

  20. 47 CFR 32.2006 - Nonoperating plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Nonoperating plant. 32.2006 Section 32.2006... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2006 Nonoperating plant... in the plant accounts as operating telecommunications plant. It shall include the company's...

  1. 47 CFR 80.925 - Electric light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Electric light. 80.925 Section 80.925... MARITIME SERVICES Compulsory Radiotelephone Installations for Small Passenger Boats § 80.925 Electric light. (a) If the vessel is navigated at night an electric light or dial lights which clearly illuminate the...

  2. 47 CFR 80.769 - Shadow loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shadow loss. 80.769 Section 80.769... MARITIME SERVICES Standards for Computing Public Coast Station VHF Coverage § 80.769 Shadow loss. Where the transmission path is obstructed the received signal must be adjusted to include shadow loss. Attenuation due to...

  3. 47 CFR 76.1701 - Political file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political file. 76.1701 Section 76.1701... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Documents to be Maintained for Inspection § 76.1701 Political file. (a) Every... (political file) of all requests for cablecast time made by or on behalf of a candidate for public office...

  4. 47 CFR 73.1943 - Political file.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Political file. 73.1943 Section 73.1943... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1943 Political file. (a) Every licensee shall keep and permit public inspection of a complete and orderly record (political file) of all requests for broadcast...

  5. 47 CFR 27.1238 - Eligible costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... material costs (including cabling and connectors); (6) Contract labor: (i) Tower; (ii) Building... Interference Analysis. (8) Equipment disposal/shipping (9) Program Management (third party or internal costs to... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Eligible costs. 27.1238 Section 27.1238...

  6. 47 CFR 101.1505 - Segmentation plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Segmentation plan. 101.1505 Section 101.1505 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1505 Segmentation plan. (a) An entity...

  7. 47 CFR 1.296 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 1.296 Section 1.296 Telecommunication... in Hearing Proceedings § 1.296 Service. No pleading filed pursuant to § 1.51 or § 1.294 will be considered unless it is accompanied by proof of service upon the parties to the proceeding. (Secs. 4(i), 303...

  8. 47 CFR 1.211 - Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service. 1.211 Section 1.211 Telecommunication... Service. Except as otherwise expressly provided in this chapter, all pleadings filed in a hearing... counsel, then upon such party. All such papers shall be accompanied by proof of service. For provisions...

  9. 47 CFR 3.60 - Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports. 3.60 Section 3.60 Telecommunication... MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Reporting Requirements § 3.60 Reports. (a) Initial... authority is required to submit to the FCC a report on additions, modifications or deletions to its list of...

  10. 47 CFR 2.1503 - Test environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Test environment. 2.1503 Section 2.1503 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL... Radiobeacons (EPIRBs) General § 2.1503 Test environment. (a) Measurement sites. Radiated emission tests for...

  11. 47 CFR 1.1623 - Probability calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Probability calculation. 1.1623 Section 1.1623... Mass Media Services General Procedures § 1.1623 Probability calculation. (a) All calculations shall be computed to no less than three significant digits. Probabilities will be truncated to the number of...

  12. 47 CFR 73.58 - Indicating instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indicating instruments. 73.58 Section 73.58... Broadcast Stations § 73.58 Indicating instruments. (a) Each AM broadcast station must be equipped with indicating instruments which conform with the specifications described in § 73.1215 for determining power by...

  13. 47 CFR 73.558 - Indicating instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indicating instruments. 73.558 Section 73.558... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.558 Indicating instruments. The requirements for indicating instruments described in § 73.258 are applicable to all educational FM broadcast stations licensed with a...

  14. 47 CFR 73.258 - Indicating instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Indicating instruments. 73.258 Section 73.258... Broadcast Stations § 73.258 Indicating instruments. (a) Each FM broadcast station shall be equipped with indicating instruments which conform with the specifications described in § 73.1215 for determining power by...

  15. 47 CFR 54.515 - Distributing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distributing support. 54.515 Section 54.515... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Schools and Libraries § 54.515 Distributing support. (a) A telecommunications carrier providing services eligible for support under this subpart to eligible schools and...

  16. 47 CFR 54.611 - Distributing support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distributing support. 54.611 Section 54.611... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.611 Distributing support. (a) A telecommunications carrier providing services eligible for support under this subpart to eligible health care...

  17. 47 CFR 54.609 - Calculating support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculating support. 54.609 Section 54.609... SERVICE Universal Service Support for Health Care Providers § 54.609 Calculating support. (a) Except with... amount of universal service support for an eligible service provided to a public or non-profit rural...

  18. 47 CFR 73.1910 - Fairness Doctrine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fairness Doctrine. 73.1910 Section 73.1910... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1910 Fairness Doctrine. The Fairness Doctrine is... issues of public importance. See FCC public notice “Fairness Doctrine and the Public Interest Standards...

  19. 47 CFR 74.641 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 74.641 Section 74.641... Stations § 74.641 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating above 2025 MHz, the following standards... elevation planes. (2) New periscope antenna systems will be authorized upon a certification that the...

  20. 47 CFR 73.510 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.510 Section 73.510... Noncommercial Educational FM Broadcast Stations § 73.510 Antenna systems. (a) All noncommercial educational... § 73.316 concerning antenna systems contained in subpart B of this part. (b) Directional antenna. No...

  1. 47 CFR 78.105 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 78.105 Section 78.105... SERVICE Technical Regulations § 78.105 Antenna systems. (a) For fixed stations operating in the 12.7-13.2... planes. (2) New periscope antenna systems will be authorized upon a certification that the radiation, in...

  2. 47 CFR 32.2220 - Operator systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operator systems. 32.2220 Section 32.2220 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2220 Operator systems...

  3. 47 CFR 32.2441 - Conduit systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduit systems. 32.2441 Section 32.2441 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2441 Conduit systems. (a...

  4. 47 CFR 73.753 - Antenna systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antenna systems. 73.753 Section 73.753 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES International Broadcast Stations § 73.753 Antenna systems. All international broadcasting stations shall operate...

  5. 47 CFR 32.2231 - Radio systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio systems. 32.2231 Section 32.2231 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2231 Radio systems. (a...

  6. 47 CFR 1.724 - Answers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Answers. 1.724 Section 1.724 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Complaints, Applications, Tariffs, and.... Nevertheless, answers on the Accelerated Docket shall fully set out the facts and legal theories on which the...

  7. 47 CFR 1.774 - Pricing flexibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pricing flexibility. 1.774 Section 1.774..., and Reports Involving Common Carriers Tariffs § 1.774 Pricing flexibility. (a) Petitions. (1) A petition seeking pricing flexibility for specific services pursuant to part 69, subpart H, of this chapter...

  8. 47 CFR 22.657 - Transmitter locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter locations. 22.657 Section 22.657 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES... effective radiated power (ERP) of the most powerful mobile transmitter(s) in the system: Mobile unit ERP...

  9. 47 CFR 73.210 - Station classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station classes. 73.210 Section 73.210 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES FM... forth in § 73.211. If a station has an ERP and an antenna HAAT such that it cannot be classified using...

  10. 47 CFR 95.1013 - Antennas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Antennas. 95.1013 Section 95.1013 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... ERP for a station in the LPRS other than an AMTS station is 100 mW. The maximum allowable ERP for an...

  11. 47 CFR 73.509 - Prohibited overlap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Prohibited overlap. 73.509 Section 73.509 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES... must be used. (3) The effective radiated power (ERP) that is the maximum ERP for any elevation plane on...

  12. 47 CFR 90.715 - Frequencies available.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequencies available. 90.715 Section 90.715 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND... a maximum effective radiated power (ERP) of 2 watts and a maximum antenna height of 6.1 meters (20...

  13. 47 CFR 22.1015 - Repeater operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Repeater operation. 22.1015 Section 22.1015 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES... the time. Table I-2—Maximum ERP (Watts) Distance from the 4.8 km (3 mi) limit 30 meters (100 feet) 61...

  14. 47 CFR 2.302 - Call signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Call signs. 2.302 Section 2.302... RULES AND REGULATIONS Call Signs and Other Forms of Identifying Radio Transmissions § 2.302 Call signs. The table which follows indicates the composition and blocks of international call signs available for...

  15. 26 CFR 1.47-6 - Partnerships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.47-6 Partnerships. (a) In general—(1... computing qualified investment with respect to such property, a recapture determination shall be made with... (or cost) of such property taken into account by such partner in computing his qualified investment...

  16. 47 CFR 27.10 - Regulatory status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regulatory status. 27.10 Section 27.10... COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Applications and Licenses § 27.10 Regulatory status. The following rules apply concerning the regulatory status in the frequency bands specified in § 27.5. (a) Single authorization...

  17. 47 CFR 101.1425 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1425 Section 101.1425 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE... safety. MVDDS stations in the 12.2-12.7 GHz frequency band do not operate with output powers that equal...

  18. 47 CFR 101.1525 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 101.1525 Section 101.1525 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Service and Technical Rules for the 70/80/90 GHz Bands § 101.1525 RF safety. Licensees in the 70...

  19. 47 CFR 27.52 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 27.52 Section 27.52 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES MISCELLANEOUS WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES Technical Standards § 27.52 RF safety. Licensees and manufacturers are subject to the...

  20. 47 CFR 90.1335 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 90.1335 Section 90.1335 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1335 RF safety...

  1. 47 CFR 95.1125 - RF safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false RF safety. 95.1125 Section 95.1125 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1125 RF safety. Portable devices...

  2. 47 CFR 10.420 - Message elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Message elements. 10.420 Section 10.420... Requirements § 10.420 Message elements. A CMAS Alert Message processed by a Participating CMS Provider shall include five mandatory CAP elements—Event Type; Area Affected; Recommended Action; Expiration Time (with...

  3. 47 CFR 32.2123 - Office equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Office equipment. 32.2123 Section 32.2123... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2123 Office equipment. This account shall include the original cost of office equipment in offices, shops and all other...

  4. 47 CFR 32.2232 - Circuit equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit equipment. 32.2232 Section 32.2232... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2232 Circuit equipment. (a) This account shall include the original cost of equipment which is used to reduce the number of...

  5. 47 CFR 32.4510 - Capital stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital stock. 32.4510 Section 32.4510... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4510 Capital stock. (a) This account shall include the par value, stated amount, or in the case of no-par stock, the amount...

  6. 47 CFR 32.4530 - Treasury stock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Treasury stock. 32.4530 Section 32.4530... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.4530 Treasury stock. This account shall include the cost of the company's own capital stock which has been issued and...

  7. 47 CFR 65.304 - Capital structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Capital structure. 65.304 Section 65.304... OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND METHODOLOGIES Exchange Carriers § 65.304 Capital structure. The proportion of each cost of capital component in the capital structure is equal to: Proportion in the capital...

  8. 47 CFR 32.5230 - Directory revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Directory revenue. 32.5230 Section 32.5230... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions For Revenue Accounts § 32.5230 Directory revenue. This account shall include revenue derived from alphabetical and classified sections of directories and shall...

  9. 48 CFR 47.102 - Transportation insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transportation insurance... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION General 47.102 Transportation insurance. (a) The Government generally (1) retains... carriers and (2) does not buy insurance coverage for its property in the possession of commercial carriers...

  10. 47 CFR 74.461 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 74.461 Section 74.461....461 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power is the power at the transmitter output terminals and.... For the purpose of this Subpart, the transmitter power is the carrier power. (b) The authorized...

  11. 47 CFR 101.513 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.513 Section 101.513... SERVICES 24 GHz Service and Digital Electronic Message Service § 101.513 Transmitter power. The transmitter power will be governed by § 101.113. Further, each application must contain an analysis demonstrating...

  12. 47 CFR 73.751 - Operating power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operating power. 73.751 Section 73.751... International Broadcast Stations § 73.751 Operating power. No international broadcast station shall be authorized to install, or be licensed for operation of, transmitter equipment with: (a) A rated carrier power...

  13. 47 CFR 80.215 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 80.215 Section 80.215... MARITIME SERVICES General Technical Standards § 80.215 Transmitter power. (a) Transmitter power shown on the radio station authorization is the maximum power the licensee is authorized to use. Power is...

  14. 47 CFR 12.2 - Backup power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Backup power. 12.2 Section 12.2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL REDUNDANCY OF COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS § 12.2 Backup power..., must have an emergency backup power source (e.g., batteries, generators, fuel cells) for all assets...

  15. 47 CFR 101.807 - Transmitter power.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Transmitter power. 101.807 Section 101.807... SERVICES Local Television Transmission Service § 101.807 Transmitter power. Stations in this service will not be authorized to use transmitters having a rated power output in excess of the limits set forth in...

  16. 47 CFR 32.3100 - Accumulated depreciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accumulated depreciation. 32.3100 Section 32... Accumulated depreciation. (a) This account shall include the accumulated depreciation associated with the... with depreciation amounts concurrently charged to Account 6561, Depreciation expense—telecommunications...

  17. 28 CFR 47.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) RIGHT TO FINANCIAL PRIVACY ACT § 47.1 Definitions. The terms used in this part shall have the same meaning as similar terms used in the Right to Financial Privacy... Department of Justice which is authorized to conduct law enforcement inquiries. Act means the Right to...

  18. 47 CFR 1.1414 - State certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... shall give public notice thereof. (d) Certification shall be by order of the state regulatory body or by... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false State certification. 1.1414 Section 1.1414... Procedures § 1.1414 State certification. (a) If the Commission does not receive certification from a state...

  19. 47 CFR 95.801 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 218-219 MHz Service General Provisions § 95.801 Scope. This subpart sets out the regulations governing the licensing and operation of a 218-219 MHz system. This subpart supplements part 1, subpart F of... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 95.801 Section 95.801 Telecommunication...

  20. 47 CFR 2.909 - Responsible party.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsible party. 2.909 Section 2.909... RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures General Provisions § 2.909 Responsible party. The following parties are responsible for the compliance of radio frequency equipment with the...

  1. 47 CFR 76.1612 - Personal attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Notices § 76.1612 Personal attack. (a) When, during origination cablecasting of issues of public importance, an attack is made upon the honesty, character, integrity, or like personal... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Personal attack. 76.1612 Section 76.1612...

  2. 47 CFR 32.2111 - Land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Land. 32.2111 Section 32.2111 Telecommunication... TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2111 Land. (a) This account shall include the original cost of all land held in fee and of easements, and similar rights in land having a term...

  3. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  4. 47 CFR 18.107 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 18.107 Section 18.107... Information § 18.107 Definitions. (a) Radio frequency (RF) energy. Electromagnetic energy at any frequency in..., biological, or chemical effects such as heating, ionization of gases, mechanical vibrations, hair removal and...

  5. 47 CFR 95.635 - Unwanted radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Unwanted radiation. 95.635 Section 95.635 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Technical Regulations Technical Standards § 95.635 Unwanted radiation. (a) In addition to the...

  6. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) (b) Where two or more licensees are assigned a common channel...

  7. 47 CFR 68.5 - Waivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... interested person, initiate a proceeding to waive the requirements of § 68.4(a)(1) with respect to new telephones, or telephones associated with a new technology or service. The Commission shall not grant such a... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Waivers. 68.5 Section 68.5 Telecommunication...

  8. 47 CFR 214.3 - Assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assumptions. 214.3 Section 214.3 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL PROCEDURES FOR THE USE AND..., will have authority to make new or revised assignments of radio frequencies in accordance with...

  9. 47 CFR 95.7 - Channel sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel sharing. 95.7 Section 95.7... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.7 Channel sharing. (a) Channels or channel pairs (one 462... and use of channels to reduce interference and to make the most effective use of the facilities. (b...

  10. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a) At... obligations, a cable operator shall carry such signal on the cable system channel number on which the local...

  11. 47 CFR 32.2112 - Motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor vehicles. 32.2112 Section 32.2112... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2112 Motor vehicles. This account shall include the original cost of motor vehicles of the type which are designed and...

  12. 47 CFR 76.213 - Lotteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lotteries. 76.213 Section 76.213... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cablecasting § 76.213 Lotteries. (a) No cable television system operator... any lottery, gift, enterprise, or similar scheme, offering prizes dependent in whole or in part upon...

  13. 47 CFR 73.4165 - Obscene language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Obscene language. 73.4165 Section 73.4165 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4165 Obscene language. (a) See FCC v. Pacifica...

  14. 47 CFR 1.204 - Pleadings; definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pleadings; definition. 1.204 Section 1.204....204 Pleadings; definition. As used in this subpart, the term pleading means any written notice, motion... paper filed with the Commission in a hearing proceeding. It does not include exhibits or documents...

  15. 47 CFR 74.537 - Temporary authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.537 Section 74.537 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO.... However, in the case of events of widespread interest and importance which cannot be transmitted...

  16. 47 CFR 201.2 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... enforcement responsibilities of importance to national security and emergency preparedness telecommunications... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions. 201.2 Section 201.2 Telecommunication OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY AND NATIONAL SECURITY COUNCIL EXECUTIVE POLICY § 201.2...

  17. 47 CFR 74.633 - Temporary authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.633 Section 74.633 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... wide-spread interest and importance which cannot be transmitted successfully on these frequencies...

  18. 47 CFR 74.833 - Temporary authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.833 Section 74.833 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... interest and importance which cannot be transmitted successfully on these frequencies, frequencies assigned...

  19. 47 CFR 24.10 - Scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope. 24.10 Section 24.10 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PERSONAL COMMUNICATIONS SERVICES... also should consult subparts F and G of this part. Other Commission rule parts of importance that may...

  20. 47 CFR 74.433 - Temporary authorizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Temporary authorizations. 74.433 Section 74.433 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... of events of wide-spread interest and importance which cannot be transmitted successfully on these...

  1. 47 CFR 80.1075 - Radio records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Radio records. 80.1075 Section 80.1075 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... incidents connected with the radio-communication service which appear to be of importance to safety of life...

  2. 47 CFR 2.1501 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 2.1501 Section 2.1501 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO TREATY MATTERS; GENERAL... Radiobeacons (EPIRBs) General § 2.1501 Introduction. The procedure described herein sets forth uniform methods...

  3. 47 CFR 1.1200 - Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Introduction. 1.1200 Section 1.1200 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL PRACTICE AND PROCEDURE Ex Parte Communications General § 1.1200 Introduction. (a) Purpose. To ensure the fairness and integrity of its decision-making, the...

  4. 47 CFR 32.6613 - Product advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product advertising. 32.6613 Section 32.6613... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6613 Product advertising. This... the purchase of products and services. This excludes nonproduct-related advertising, such as corporate...

  5. 47 CFR 80.1015 - Power supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power supply. 80.1015 Section 80.1015... MARITIME SERVICES Radiotelephone Installations Required by the Bridge-to-Bridge Act § 80.1015 Power supply. (a) There must be readily available for use under normal load conditions, a power supply sufficient...

  6. 47 CFR 95.853 - Frequency segments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency segments. 95.853 Section 95.853... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service Technical Standards § 95.853 Frequency segments. There are two frequency segments available for assignment to the 218-219 MHz Service in each service area. Frequency segment A is...

  7. 47 CFR 73.754 - Frequency monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency monitors. 73.754 Section 73.754... International Broadcast Stations § 73.754 Frequency monitors. (a) The licensee of each international broadcast station shall operate a frequency monitor at the transmitter independent of the frequency control of the...

  8. 47 CFR 95.1401 - Frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency. 95.1401 Section 95.1401... SERVICES Personal Locator Beacons (PLB). § 95.1401 Frequency. The frequency band 406.0-406.1 MHz is an emergency and distress frequency band available for use by Personal Locator Beacons (PLBs). Personal Locator...

  9. 47 CFR 87.351 - Frequency changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Frequency changes. 87.351 Section 87.351... Aeronautical Utility Mobile Stations § 87.351 Frequency changes. When the aeronautical utility frequency is... control of unicom frequency) the licensee must submit an application for modification to specify the new...

  10. 47 CFR 32.6623 - Customer services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Customer services. 32.6623 Section 32.6623... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Expense Accounts § 32.6623 Customer services. (a... includes: (1) Initiating customer service orders and records; (2) Maintaining and billing customer accounts...

  11. 47 CFR 95.1209 - Permissible communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... communications. (a) Except for the purposes of testing and for demonstrations to health care professionals, Med... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Permissible communications. 95.1209 Section 95.1209 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES...

  12. 47 CFR 95.835 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES 218-219 MHz Service System Requirements § 95.835 Station identification. No RTU or CTS is required to transmit a station identification announcement. ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.835 Section 95.835...

  13. 47 CFR 95.119 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... station identification is the call sign assigned to the GMRS station or system. (c) A unit number may be... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.119 Section 95.119... SERVICES General Mobile Radio Service (GMRS) § 95.119 Station identification. (a) Except as provided in...

  14. 47 CFR 90.735 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....735 Station identification. (a) Except for nationwide systems authorized in the 220-222 MHz band, station identification is required pursuant to § 90.425 of this part. (b) Trunked systems shall employ an... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 90.735 Section 90.735...

  15. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 80.519 Section 80.519... MARITIME SERVICES Private Coast Stations and Marine Utility Stations § 80.519 Station identification. (a.... In lieu of the identification of the station by voice, the official call sign may be transmitted by...

  16. 47 CFR 90.647 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 90.647 Section 90.647..., 851-869 Mhz, 896-901 Mhz, and 935-940 Mhz Bands § 90.647 Station identification. (a) Conventional... at 30 minute intervals. Such station identification shall be made on the lowest frequency in the base...

  17. 47 CFR 2.1074 - Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification. 2.1074 Section 2.1074... Identification. Devices subject only to a Declaration of Conformity shall be uniquely identified by the responsible party. This identification shall not be of a format which could be confused with the FCC...

  18. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 73.1201 Section 73.1201... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1201 Station identification. (a) When regularly required. Broadcast station identification announcements shall be made: (1) At the beginning and ending of each time...

  19. 47 CFR 25.206 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 25.206 Section 25.206... Technical Standards § 25.206 Station identification. The requirement for transmission of station identification is waived for all radio stations licensed under this part with the exception of satellite uplinks...

  20. 47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 87.107 Section 87.107... Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures § 87.107 Station identification. (a) Aircraft... an airport to another location in that airport may be identified by a station identification...

  1. 47 CFR 95.1305 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1305 Section 95.1305... SERVICES Multi-Use Radio Service (MURS) General Provisions § 95.1305 Station identification. A MURS station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  2. 47 CFR 80.1181 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 80.1181 Section 80.1181... MARITIME SERVICES Voluntary Radio Installations On-Board Communications § 80.1181 Station identification...; or (2) The communications are likely to be received aboard another vessel. (b) Identification, when...

  3. 47 CFR 97.119 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 97.119 Section 97.119... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.119 Station identification. (a) Each amateur station, except a... keyed by an automatic device used only for identification, the speed must not exceed 20 words per minute...

  4. 47 CFR 73.787 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 73.787 Section 73.787... International Broadcast Stations § 73.787 Station identification. (a) A licensee of an international broadcast station shall make station identification announcement (call letters and location), at the beginning and...

  5. 47 CFR 95.1127 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1127 Section 95.1127... SERVICES Wireless Medical Telemetry Service (WMTS) General Provisions § 95.1127 Station identification. A WMTS station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  6. 47 CFR 95.1507 - Station Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station Identification. 95.1507 Section 95.1507 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO... Identification. A DSRCS On-Board Unit is not required to transmit an FCC station identification announcement. ...

  7. 47 CFR 95.1205 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1205 Section 95.1205... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1205 Station identification. A station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  8. 47 CFR 2.954 - Identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Identification. 2.954 Section 2.954... RULES AND REGULATIONS Equipment Authorization Procedures Verification § 2.954 Identification. Devices... importing the equipment within the United States. However, the identification shall not be of a format which...

  9. 47 CFR 101.213 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 101.213 Section 101.213 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES FIXED MICROWAVE SERVICES Operational Requirements § 101.213 Station identification. Stations in these services are exempt...

  10. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 22.313 Section 22.313... Operational and Technical Requirements Operational Requirements § 22.313 Station identification. The licensee... identified in accordance with the requirements of this section. (a) Station identification is not required...

  11. 47 CFR 95.1005 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station identification. 95.1005 Section 95.1005... SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1005 Station identification. An LPRS station is not required to transmit a station identification announcement. ...

  12. 47 CFR 1.1840 - Employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employment. 1.1840 Section 1.1840... Commission § 1.1840 Employment. No qualified individual with a disability shall, on the basis of disability, be subjected to discrimination in employment under any program or activity conducted by the...

  13. 47 CFR 18.207 - Technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical report. 18.207 Section 18.207... Applications and Authorizations § 18.207 Technical report. When required by the Commission a technical report...(s) under which the equipment is or will be marketed. (e) A statement of the rated technical...

  14. 47 CFR 73.4250 - Subliminal perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Subliminal perception. 73.4250 Section 73.4250 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES RADIO BROADCAST SERVICES Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.4250 Subliminal perception. (a) See Public Notice, FCC...

  15. Phytotoxicity of brominated diphenyl ether-47 (BDE-47) and its hydroxylated and methoxylated analogues (6-OH-BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47) to maize (Zea mays L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xuehui; Huang, Honglin; Wen, Bei; Wang, Sen; Zhang, Shuzhen

    2015-03-16

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs), and hydroxylated PBDEs (OH-PBDEs) are widely found in various environmental media, which is of concern given their biological toxicity. In this study, the phytotoxicities of BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 to maize (Zea mays L.) were investigated by an in vivo exposure experiment. Results showed that BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 inhibited seed germination and seedling development, and elevated malondialdehyde (MDA), carbonyl groups, and phosphorylated histone H2AX levels in maize roots, suggesting the inducement of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, and DNA damage to maize. Exposure to BDE-47, 6-MeO-BDE-47, and 6-OH-BDE-47 caused the overproduction of H2O2, O2(•-), and •OH, and elevated the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the roots. In addition, 6-OH-BDE-47 caused more severe damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in maize than did BDE-47 and 6-MeO-BDE-47. These results demonstrated the phytotoxicities of BDE-47, 6-OH-BDE-47, and 6-MeO-BDE-47 to maize, and clarified that overproduction of ROS was the key mechanism leading to toxicity. This study offers useful information for a more comprehensive understanding of the environmental behaviors and toxicities of PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs, and OH-PBDEs.

  16. Targeted therapies for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... so they cannot spread. How Does Targeted Therapy Work? Targeted therapy drugs work in a few different ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  17. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590...

  18. Reflectance Reference Targets (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spectral reflectance measurements of flat field targets as reference points representative of pseudo-invariant targets as measured by Spectron SE590 spectrophotometer

  19. CD47 update: a multifaceted actor in the tumour microenvironment of potential therapeutic interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sick, E; Jeanne, A; Schneider, C; Dedieu, S; Takeda, K; Martiny, L

    2012-01-01

    CD47 is a ubiquitous 50 kDa five-spanning membrane receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. This receptor, also known as integrin-associated protein, mediates cell-to-cell communication by ligation to transmembrane signal-regulatory proteins SIRPα and SIRPγ and interacts with integrins. CD47 is also implicated in cell-extracellular matrix interactions via ligation with thrombospondins. Furthermore, CD47 is involved in many and diverse cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation, adhesion and migration. It also plays a key role in many immune and cardiovascular responses. Thus, this multifaceted receptor might be a central actor in the tumour microenvironment. Solid tumours are composed of not only cancer cells that actively proliferate but also other cell types including immune cells and fibroblasts that make up the tumour microenvironment. Tumour cell proliferation is strongly sustained by continuous sprouting of new vessels, which also represents a gate for metastasis. Moreover, infiltration of inflammatory cells is observed in most neoplasms. Much evidence has accumulated indicating that infiltrating leukocytes promote cancer progression. Given its ubiquitous expression on all the different cell types that compose the tumour microenvironment, targeting CD47 could represent an original therapeutic strategy in the field of oncology. We present a current overview of the biological effects associated with CD47 on cancer cells and stromal cells. PMID:22774848

  20. A safe and efficient hepatocyte-selective carrier system based on myristoylated preS1/21-47 domain of hepatitis B virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Quan; Zhang, Xuanmiao; Chen, Tijia; Wang, Xinyi; Fu, Yao; Jin, Yun; Sun, Xun; Gong, Tao; Zhang, Zhirong

    2015-05-01

    A safe and efficient liver targeted PEGylated liposome (PEG-Lip) based on N-terminal myristoylated preS1/21-47 (preS1/21-47myr) of hepatitis B virus was successfully developed. The study aimed to elucidate the cellular uptake mechanism of preS1/21-47myr modified PEG-Lip (preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip) in hepatogenic cells and the distribution behavior of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip in Vr:CD1 (ICR) mice. The cellular uptake results showed that preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip was effectively taken up by hepatogenic cells (including primary hepatocytes and liver tumor cells) through a receptor-mediated endocytosis pathway compared with non-hepatogenic cells. After systemic administration to H22 hepatoma-bearing mice, preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip showed significant liver-specific delivery and an increase in the distribution of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip in hepatic tumor. Furthermore, the antitumor effect of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip loaded with paclitaxel (PTX) was remarkably stronger than that of PTX injection and PTX loaded liposomes (including common liposomes and PEG-Lip). In safety evaluation, no acute systemic toxicity and immunotoxicity were observed after intravenous injection of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip. No liver toxicity was observed despite the dramatic increase of preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip in liver. Taken together, preS1/21-47myr-PEG-Lip represents a promising carrier system for targeted liver disease therapy and imaging.

  1. Targets for Precision Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loveland, W.; Yao, L.; Asner, D. M.; Baker, R. G.; Bundgaard, J.; Burgett, E.; Cunningham, M.; Deaven, J.; Duke, D. L.; Greife, U.; Grimes, S.; Heffner, M.; Hill, T.; Isenhower, D.; Klay, J. L.; Kleinrath, V.; Kornilov, N.; Laptev, A. B.; Massey, T. N.; Meharchand, R.; Qu, H.; Ruz, J.; Sangiorgio, S.; Selhan, B.; Snyder, L.; Stave, S.; Tatishvili, G.; Thornton, R. T.; Tovesson, F.; Towell, D.; Towell, R. S.; Watson, S.; Wendt, B.; Wood, L.

    2014-05-01

    The general properties needed in targets (sources) for high precision, high accuracy measurements are reviewed. The application of these principles to the problem of developing targets for the Fission TPC is described. Longer term issues, such as the availability of actinide materials, improved knowledge of energy losses and straggling and the stability of targets during irradiation are also discussed.

  2. Setting Asset Performance Targets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Masschelein, S.; Schoenmaker, R.; Muruvan, S.

    2015-01-01

    Setting targets is a common way for organisations to establish performance expectations. However the validity of targets is challenged when performance is influenced by factors beyond the control of the manager. This project examines the issue of target setting for a single asset performance measure

  3. Development of distributed target

    CERN Document Server

    Yu Hai Jun; Li Qin; Zhou Fu Xin; Shi Jin Shui; Ma Bing; Chen Nan; Jing Xiao Bing

    2002-01-01

    Linear introduction accelerator is expected to generate small diameter X-ray spots with high intensity. The interaction of the electron beam with plasmas generated at the X-ray converter will make the spot on target increase with time and debase the X-ray dose and the imaging resolving power. A distributed target is developed which has about 24 pieces of thin 0.05 mm tantalum films distributed over 1 cm. due to the structure adoption, the distributed target material over a large volume decreases the energy deposition per unit volume and hence reduces the temperature of target surface, then reduces the initial plasma formalizing and its expansion velocity. The comparison and analysis with two kinds of target structures are presented using numerical calculation and experiments, the results show the X-ray dose and normalized angle distribution of the two is basically the same, while the surface of the distributed target is not destroyed like the previous block target

  4. Candy from the 47 Tuc shop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ewan; Possenti, Andrea; Johnston, Simon; Kramer, Michael; Burgay, Marta; Freire, Paulo; Eatough, Ralph; van Straten, Willem; Keane, Evan; Kerr, Matthew; Champion, David; Jameson, Andrew; Ng, Cherry; Tiburzi, Caterina; Flynn, Chris; Caleb, Manisha; Morello, Vincent

    2014-10-01

    Studies of the 23 MSPs in the globular cluster (GC) 47 Tucanae (47 Tuc) have provided a wealth of interesting science. Timing of these MSPs (all with periods between 2 and 8 ms) has enabled us to probe the environment and dynamics of the cluster in impressive detail and has allowed us to put constraints on the masses of several of the pulsars. However, previous studies of the cluster were limited by the hardware used. The AFB provided 1-bit digitisation and relatively coarse 88 us sampling. Through the use of the CASPSR backend, we will observe 47 Tuc and its 23 MSPs with unprecedented time resolution. For timing we will achieve almost two orders of magnitude better time resolution, allowing us to resolve out features in the profiles of several cluster pulsars, greatly improving their timing accuracy. For search purposes the CASPSR backend will provide a coherently dedispersed filterbank file at the cluster's dispersion measure. We will search this data using state-of-the-art GPU acceleration searching codes to hunt for compact binary systems. In tandem with timing and searching, we will perform real-time transient searching to hunt for fast radio bursts (FRBs). Through shadowing with the Molonglo telescope, we will be able to provide the best localisation, spectral index measurement and repetition limits for any detected FRB. This will provide us with much needed information for multi-wavelength follow-up and will give new insight into the origins of these mysterious events.

  5. Pregnancy outcomes in prenatally diagnosed 47, XXX and 47, XYY syndromes: a 30-year French, retrospective, multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruchy, Nicolas; Blondeel, Eleonore; Le Meur, Nathalie; Joly-Hélas, Géraldine; Chambon, Pascal; Till, Marianne; Herbaux, Martine; Vigouroux-Castera, Adeline; Coussement, Aurélie; Lespinasse, James; Amblard, Florence; Jimenez Pocquet, Mélanie; Lebel-Roy, Camille; Carré-Pigeon, Frédérique; Flori, Elisabeth; Mugneret, Francine; Jaillard, Sylvie; Yardin, Catherine; Harbuz, Radu; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Vago, Philippe; Valduga, Mylène; Leporrier, Nathalie; Vialard, François

    2016-06-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies are frequently detected fortuitously in a prenatal diagnosis. Most cases of 47, XXX and 47, XYY syndromes are diagnosed in this context, and parents are thus faced with an unexpected situation. The objective of the present study was to characterize a French cohort of prenatally diagnosed cases of 47, XXX and 47, XYY and to evaluate the termination of pregnancy (TOP) rate before and after France's implementation of multidisciplinary centres for prenatal diagnosis in 1997. This retrospective study identified respectively 291 and 175 cases of prenatally diagnosed 47, XXX and 47, XYY between 1976 and 2012. For each case, the indication, maternal age, karyotype and outcome were recorded. Most diagnoses of the two conditions were fortuitous. The occurrence of 47, XXX was associated with advanced maternal age. The overall TOP rate was higher for 47, XXX (22.9%) than for 47, XYY (14.6%), although this difference was not statistically significant. However, the TOP rates fell significantly after 1997 (from 41.1% to 11.8% for 47, XXX and from 25.8% to 6.7% for 47, XYY). The TOP rates after prenatal diagnoses of 47, XXX and 47, XYY fell significantly after 1997, following France's implementation of multidisciplinary centres for prenatal diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Attenuation of phagocytosis of xenogeneic cells by manipulating CD47

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Hui; VerHalen, Jon; Madariaga, Maria Lucia; Xiang, Shuanglin; Wang, Shumei; Lan, Ping; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Sykes, Megan; Yang, Yong-Guang

    2007-01-01

    Signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα) is a critical immune inhibitory receptor on macrophages, and its interaction with CD47, a ligand for SIRPα, prevents autologous phagocytosis. We hypothesized that interspecies incompatibility of CD47 may contribute to the rejection of xenogeneic cells by macrophages. Here, we show that pig CD47 does not interact with mouse SIPRα. Similar to CD47−/− mouse cells, porcine red blood cells (RBCs) failed to induce SIRPα tyrosine phosphorylation in mouse macrophag...

  7. Inertial Confinement fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, C. D.

    1982-01-01

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets are made as simple flat discs, as hollow shells or as complicated multilayer structures. Many techniques were devised for producing the targets. Glass and metal shells are made by using drop and bubble techniques. Solid hydrogen shells are also produced by adapting old methods to the solution of modern problems. Some of these techniques, problems, and solutions are discussed. In addition, the applications of many of the techniques to fabrication of ICF targets is presented.

  8. Target Window Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-02-11

    The target window design implemented and tested in experiments at ANL have performed without failure for the available beam of 6 mm FWHM on a 12 mm diameter target. However, scaling that design to a 25 mm diameter target size for a 12 mm FWHM beam has proven problematic. Combined thermal and mechanical (pressure induced) stresses and strains are too high to maintain the small coolant gaps and provide adequate fatigue lifetime.

  9. The ISOLDE target robots

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilein Brice

    2002-01-01

    ISOLDE targets need to be changed frequently, around 80 times per year. The high radiation levels do not permit this to be done by human hands and the target changes are effected by 2 industrial robots (picture _01). On the left, in the distance, the front-end of the GPS (General Purpose Separator) is seen, while the HRS (High Resolution Separator) is at the right. Also seen are the doors to the irradiated-target storage.

  10. Targeting the tumor microenvironment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, P.A.; Lee, G.Y.; Bissell, M.J.

    2006-11-07

    Despite some notable successes cancer remains, for the most part, a seemingly intractable problem. There is, however, a growing appreciation that targeting the tumor epithelium in isolation is not sufficient as there is an intricate mutually sustaining synergy between the tumor epithelial cells and their surrounding stroma. As the details of this dialogue emerge, new therapeutic targets have been proposed. The FDA has already approved drugs targeting microenvironmental components such as VEGF and aromatase and many more agents are in the pipeline. In this article, we describe some of the 'druggable' targets and processes within the tumor microenvironment and review the approaches being taken to disrupt these interactions.

  11. Target Assembly Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Target Assembly Facility integrates new armor concepts into actual armored vehicles. Featuring the capability ofmachining and cutting radioactive materials, it...

  12. 10 CFR 60.47 - Facility information and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facility information and verification. 60.47 Section 60.47... REPOSITORIES Licenses Us/iaea Safeguards Agreement § 60.47 Facility information and verification. (a) In... and each recipient of a construction authorization or a license shall submit facility information, as...

  13. 10 CFR 63.47 - Facility information and verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Facility information and verification. 63.47 Section 63.47... REPOSITORY AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, NEVADA Licenses Us/iaea Safeguards Agreement § 63.47 Facility information and verification. (a) In response to a written request by the Commission, each applicant for a construction...

  14. 14 CFR 47.19 - FAA Aircraft Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false FAA Aircraft Registry. 47.19 Section 47.19 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION General § 47.19 FAA Aircraft Registry. Each application, request, notification, or other...

  15. 48 CFR 47.306-2 - Lowest overall transportation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... transportation costs. 47.306-2 Section 47.306-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.306-2 Lowest overall transportation costs. (a) For the evaluation of offers, the transportation officer shall give to the contracting...

  16. 30 CFR 47.85 - Confidentiality agreement and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Confidentiality agreement and remedies. 47.85... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.85 Confidentiality agreement and remedies. (a) The confidentiality agreement authorized by § 47.84— (1) May restrict the use of the...

  17. 7 CFR 47.1 - Meaning of words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meaning of words. 47.1 Section 47.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... UNDER THE PERISHABLE AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES ACT General Provisions § 47.1 Meaning of words. Words in...

  18. 7 CFR 201.47a - Seed unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seed unit. 201.47a Section 201.47a Agriculture..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Purity Analysis in the Administration of the Act § 201.47a Seed unit. The seed unit is the...

  19. 46 CFR 78.47-53 - Automatic ventilation dampers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Automatic ventilation dampers. 78.47-53 Section 78.47-53... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-53 Automatic ventilation dampers. (a) The manual operating positions for automatic fire dampers in ventilation ducts passing through main vertical zone bulkheads shall...

  20. 43 CFR 2.47 - Records subject to Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records subject to Privacy Act. 2.47 Section 2.47 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior RECORDS AND TESTIMONY; FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.47 Records subject to Privacy Act. The Privacy Act applies to all...

  1. 7 CFR 927.47 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 927.47 Section 927.47... WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 927.47 Research and development. The Fresh... development projects designed to assist, improve, or promote the marketing, distribution, and consumption of...

  2. 7 CFR 958.47 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 958.47 Section 958.47... DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN IDAHO, AND MALHEUR COUNTY, OREGON Order Regulating Handling Research and Development § 958.47 Research and development. (a) The committee with the approval of the Secretary, may establish...

  3. 7 CFR 947.47 - Research and development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Research and development. 947.47 Section 947.47... Research and Development § 947.47 Research and development. The committee, with the approval of the Secretary, may provide for the establishment of marketing research and development projects designed to...

  4. 21 CFR 1308.47 - Control of immediate precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of immediate precursors. 1308.47 Section 1308.47 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE SCHEDULES OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Hearings § 1308.47 Control of immediate precursors. Pursuant to section 201(e) of the Act (21 U.S...

  5. 46 CFR 78.47-40 - Exit signs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Exit signs. 78.47-40 Section 78.47-40 Shipping COAST... Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-40 Exit signs. (a) Illuminated exit signs are required and must be... sign in red letters “EMERGENCY EXIT” directing attention to such escape. Cross Reference: See...

  6. 46 CFR 97.47-1 - All persons must comply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false All persons must comply. 97.47-1 Section 97.47-1... OPERATIONS Routing Instructions § 97.47-1 All persons must comply. All licensed masters, officers, and certificated seamen on U.S. vessels must strictly comply with routing instructions issued by competent naval...

  7. 40 CFR 98.47 - Records that must be retained.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records that must be retained. 98.47 Section 98.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) MANDATORY GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Electricity Generation § 98.47 Records that must be retained...

  8. 7 CFR 400.47 - Denial of crop insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Denial of crop insurance. 400.47 Section 400.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FEDERAL CROP INSURANCE CORPORATION...; Denial of Benefits § 400.47 Denial of crop insurance. (a) Any person convicted under Federal or State law...

  9. 36 CFR 7.47 - Carlsbad Caverns National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carlsbad Caverns National Park. 7.47 Section 7.47 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.47 Carlsbad Caverns National Park. (a...

  10. CD47 functions as a molecular switch for erythrocyte phagocytosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burger, Patrick; Hilarius-Stokman, Petra; de Korte, Dirk; van den Berg, Timo K.; van Bruggen, Robin

    2012-01-01

    CD47 on erythrocytes inhibits phagocytosis through interaction with the inhibitory immunoreceptor SIRP alpha expressed by macrophages. Thus, the CD47-SIRP alpha interaction constitutes a negative signal for erythrocyte phagocytosis. However, we report here that CD47 does not only function as a "do

  11. 46 CFR 78.47-30 - Hand portable fire extinguishers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hand portable fire extinguishers. 78.47-30 Section 78.47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-30 Hand portable fire extinguishers. (a) Each hand portable fire extinguisher shall be marked with a number and the location where stowed shall be marked with...

  12. 46 CFR 78.47-9 - Carbon dioxide alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carbon dioxide alarm. 78.47-9 Section 78.47-9 Shipping... and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-9 Carbon dioxide alarm. (a) All carbon dioxide alarms shall be conspicuously identified: “WHEN ALARM SOUNDS—VACATE AT ONCE. CARBON DIOXIDE BEING RELEASED.” (b) ...

  13. 46 CFR 196.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 196.37-47 Section 196.37-47... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, etc. § 196.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST — FLAMMABLE — KEEP...

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-70 - Portable magazine chests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 78.47-70 Section 78.47-70... Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-70 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chest shall be marked in letters of at least 3 inches high “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP LIGHTS AND...

  15. 46 CFR 97.37-47 - Portable magazine chests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Portable magazine chests. 97.37-47 Section 97.37-47... OPERATIONS Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 97.37-47 Portable magazine chests. (a) Portable magazine chests shall be marked in letters at least 3 inches high: “PORTABLE MAGAZINE CHEST—FLAMMABLE—KEEP...

  16. 28 CFR 0.47 - Alien property matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alien property matters. 0.47 Section 0.47....47 Alien property matters. The Office of Alien Property shall be a part of the Civil Division: (a... Alien Property: (1) Exercising or performing all the authority, rights, privileges, powers, duties, and...

  17. Reaching the Target Audience

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-13

    audience to think and behave in a certain manner.3 Under this definition, advertising and political activism can be considered propaganda...4. 10Ibid., 1-1. 11Ibid., 1-5. 19 sciences, advertising , cultural anthropology, humanities, language, and cultural studies.12 To increase the...Century, radio will be for the Twentieth Century.”47 His philosophy was based on his perception that the public went to the cinema for entertainment but

  18. Target visibility for multiple maneuvering target tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabordo, Madeleine G.; Aboutanios, Elias

    2015-05-01

    We present a recursion of the probability of target visibility and its applications to analysis of track life and termination in the context of Global Nearest Neighbour (GNN) approach and Probability Hypothesis Density (PHD) filter. In the presence of uncertainties brought about by clutter; decisions to retain a track, terminate it or initialise a new track are based on probability, rather than on distance criterion or estimation error. The visibility concept is introduced into a conventional data-association-oriented multitarget tracker, the GNN; and a random finite set based-tracker, the PHD filter, to take into account instances when targets become invisible or occluded by obstacles. We employ the natural logarithmof the Dynamic Error Spectrum to assess the performance of the trackers with and without probability of visibility incorporated. Simulation results show that the performance of the GNN tracker with visibility concept incorporated is significantly enhanced.

  19. Entrainment by the jet in HH 47

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, John C.; Morse, Jon A.; Hartigan, P.; Curiel, S.; Heathcote, Steve

    1994-01-01

    Fabry-Perot images of the HH 47 optical jet show that the velocity decreases from the center toward the edges which is interpreted as evidence for entrainment. Those images can be used to investigate the rate of entrainment required to account for the observed luminosity. Entrainment along the jet can account for only small fractions of the jet mass and the molecular outflow seen in CO. We compare the density, excitation, and velocity structure of the jet with the predictions of viscous entrainment models and models of entrainment by expulsion of jet material by internal shocks, and find that either type of model can explain the general features.

  20. 47 CFR 76.53 - Reference points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.53 Reference points. The...°41′30″ 97°20′16″ Kentucky: Ashland 38°28′36″ 82°38′23″ Bowling Green 36°59′41″ 86°26′33″ Covington 39...°19′38″ 82°06′09″ Bowling Green 41°22′37″ 83°39′03″ Canton 40°47′50″ 81°22′37″ Cincinnati 39°06′07″ 84...

  1. Frozen spin targets

    CERN Document Server

    Parsons, A S L

    1976-01-01

    Describes six projects which use the frozen-spin principle: Helium-3 R.M.S. and longitudinally polarized frozen spin targets at Rutherford Laboratory, and the frozen spin targets at KEK, Saclay and the one used by the CERN-Helsinki collaboration. (7 refs).

  2. Seedling root targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diane L. Haase

    2011-01-01

    Roots are critical to seedling performance after outplanting. Although root quality is not as quick and simple to measure as shoot quality, target root characteristics should be included in any seedling quality assessment program. This paper provides a brief review of root characteristics most commonly targeted for operational seedling production. These are: root mass...

  3. Strategic Targeted Advertising

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Galeotti; J.L. Moraga-Gonzalez (José Luis)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractWe present a strategic game of pricing and targeted-advertising. Firms can simultaneously target price advertisements to different groups of customers, or to the entire market. Pure strategy equilibria do not exist and thus market segmentation cannot occur surely. Equilibria exhibit

  4. Segmented Target Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhi, Abdul Rahman; Frank, Nathan; Gueye, Paul; Thoennessen, Michael; MoNA Collaboration

    2013-10-01

    A proposed segmented target would improve decay energy measurements of neutron-unbound nuclei. Experiments like this have been performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL) located at Michigan State University. Many different nuclei are produced in such experiments, some of which immediately decay into a charged particle and neutron. The charged particles are bent by a large magnet and measured by a suite of charged particle detectors. The neutrons are measured by the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and Large Multi-Institutional Scintillation Array (LISA). With the current target setup, a nucleus in a neutron-unbound state is produced with a radioactive beam impinged upon a beryllium target. The resolution of these measurements is very dependent on the target thickness since the nuclear interaction point is unknown. In a segmented target using alternating layers of silicon detectors and Be-targets, the Be-target in which the nuclear reaction takes place would be determined. Thus the experimental resolution would improve. This poster will describe the improvement over the current target along with the status of the design. Work supported by Augustana College and the National Science Foundation grant #0969173.

  5. The CNGS target

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2005-01-01

    The CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) target ‘magazine’ of five target units. Each unit contains a series of 10-cm long graphite rods distributed over a length of 2 m. It is designed to maximize the number of secondary particles produced and hence the number of neutrinos. One unit is used at a time to prevent over heating.

  6. Mechanismy regulace povrchové exprese CD47

    OpenAIRE

    Jakubec, Martin

    2017-01-01

    CD47 glycoprotein can be found on the surface of all healthy cells in our body. The interaction of CD47 with inhibitory receptor SIRPα on the macrophage leads to the inhibition of phagocytosis. This makes CD47 irreplaceable for the safe recognition of own cells and removal of aged or apoptotic cells. Apart from this, CD47 plays a major role in several essential signalling pathways, such as cell adhesion and motility or calcium homeostasis. The level of CD47 expression and its presence on the ...

  7. Targeted therapy in lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalli Franco

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Discovery of new treatments for lymphoma that prolong survival and are less toxic than currently available agents represents an urgent unmet need. We now have a better understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of lymphoma, such as aberrant signal transduction pathways, which have led to the discovery and development of targeted therapeutics. The ubiquitin-proteasome and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways are examples of pathological mechanisms that are being targeted in drug development efforts. Bortezomib (a small molecule protease inhibitor and the mTOR inhibitors temsirolimus, everolimus, and ridaforolimus are some of the targeted therapies currently being studied in the treatment of aggressive, relapsed/refractory lymphoma. This review will discuss the rationale for and summarize the reported findings of initial and ongoing investigations of mTOR inhibitors and other small molecule targeted therapies in the treatment of lymphoma.

  8. Targets and teamwork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skinner, Timothy C; Lange, Karin S; Hoey, Hilary

    2017-01-01

    with less disagreement about recommended targets. Multiple regression analysis indicated that teams reporting higher HbA1c targets and more target disagreement had parents reporting higher treatment targets. This seemed to partially account for center differences in Hb1Ac. Conclusions: The diabetes care....... Research Design and Methods: Children, under the age of 11 with type 1 diabetes and their parents treated at the study centers participated. Clinical, medical, and demographic data were obtained, along with blood sample for centralized assay. Parents and all members of the diabetes care team completed...... questionnaires on treatment targets for hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and recommended frequency of blood glucose monitoring. Results: Totally 1113 (53% male) children (mean age 8.0±2.1years) from 18 centers in 17 countries, along with parents and 113 health-care professionals, participated. There were substantial...

  9. Enhanced biocompatibility of CD47-functionalized vascular stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slee, Joshua B; Alferiev, Ivan S; Nagaswami, Chandrasekaran; Weisel, John W; Levy, Robert J; Fishbein, Ilia; Stachelek, Stanley J

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of endovascular stents is hindered by in-stent restenosis (ISR), a secondary re-obstruction of treated arteries due to unresolved inflammation and activation of smooth muscle cells in the arterial wall. We previously demonstrated that immobilized CD47, a ubiquitously expressed transmembrane protein with an established role in immune evasion, can confer biocompatibility when appended to polymeric surfaces. In present studies, we test the hypothesis that CD47 immobilized onto metallic surfaces of stents can effectively inhibit the inflammatory response thus mitigating ISR. Recombinant CD47 (recCD47) or a peptide sequence corresponding to the Ig domain of CD47 (pepCD47), were attached to the surfaces of both 316L-grade stainless steel foils and stents using bisphosphonate coordination chemistry and thiol-based conjugation reactions to assess the anti-inflammatory properties of CD47-functionalized surfaces. Initial in vitro and ex vivo analysis demonstrated that both recCD47 and pepCD47 significantly reduced inflammatory cell attachment to steel surfaces without impeding on endothelial cell retention and expansion. Using a rat carotid stent model, we showed that pepCD47-functionalized stents prevented fibrin and platelet thrombus deposition, inhibited inflammatory cell attachment, and reduced restenosis by 30%. It is concluded that CD47-modified stent surfaces mitigate platelet and inflammatory cell attachment, thereby disrupting ISR pathophysiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunoenrichment Microwave & Magnetic (IM2) Proteomics for Quantifying CD47 in the EAE Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesula, Swetha; Raphael, Itay; Raghunathan, Rekha; Kalsaria, Karan; Kotagiri, Venkat; Purkar, Anjali B.; Anjanappa, Manjushree; Shah, Darshit; Pericherla, Vidya; Jadhav, Yeshwant Lal Avinash; Gelfond, Jonathan A.L.; Forsthuber, Thomas G.; Haskins, William E.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that quantitative tandem mass spectrometry-based proteomics at multiple time points, incorporating immunoenrichment prior to rapid microwave and magnetic (IM2) sample preparation, might enable correlation of the relative expression of CD47 and other low abundance proteins to disease progression in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model of multiple sclerosis. To test our hypothesis, anti-CD47 antibodies were used to enrich for low abundance CD47 prior to microwave and magnetic (M2) proteomics in EAE. Decoding protein expression at each time point, with CD47-immunoenriched samples and targeted proteomic analysis, enabled peptides from the low abundance proteins to be precisely quantified throughout disease progression, including: CD47: 86-99, corresponding to the “marker of self” overexpressed by myelin that prevents phagocytosis, or “cellular devouring”, by microglia and macrophages; MBP: 223-228, corresponding to myelin basic protein; and MIF: 79-87, corresponding to a proinflammatory cytokine that inhibits macrophage migration. While validation in a larger cohort is underway, we conclude that IM2 proteomics is a rapid method to precisely quantify peptides from CD47 and other low abundance proteins throughout disease progression in EAE. This is likely due to improvements in selectivity and sensitivity, necessary to partially overcome masking of low abundance proteins by high abundance proteins and improve dynamic range. PMID:23160929

  11. TSP1-CD47 signaling is upregulated in clinical pulmonary hypertension and contributes to pulmonary arterial vasculopathy and dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Natasha M; Sharifi-Sanjani, Maryam; Yao, Mingyi; Ghimire, Kedar; Bienes-Martinez, Raquel; Mutchler, Stephanie M; Knupp, Heather E; Baust, Jeffrey; Novelli, Enrico M; Ross, Mark; St Croix, Claudette; Kutten, Johannes C; Czajka, Caitlin A; Sembrat, John C; Rojas, Mauricio; Labrousse-Arias, David; Bachman, Timothy N; Vanderpool, Rebecca R; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Champion, Hunter C; Mora, Ana L; Straub, Adam C; Bilonick, Richard A; Calzada, Maria J; Isenberg, Jeffrey S

    2017-01-01

    Thrombospondin-1 (TSP1) is a ligand for CD47 and TSP1-/- mice are protected from pulmonary hypertension (PH). We hypothesized the TSP1-CD47 axis is upregulated in human PH and promotes pulmonary arterial vasculopathy. We analyzed the molecular signature and functional response of lung tissue and distal pulmonary arteries (PAs) from individuals with (n = 23) and without (n = 16) PH. Compared with controls, lungs and distal PAs from PH patients showed induction of TSP1-CD47 and endothelin-1/endothelin A receptor (ET-1/ETA) protein and mRNA. In control PAs, treatment with exogenous TSP1 inhibited vasodilation and potentiated vasoconstriction to ET-1. Treatment of diseased PAs from PH patients with a CD47 blocking antibody improved sensitivity to vasodilators. Hypoxic wild type (WT) mice developed PH and displayed upregulation of pulmonary TSP1, CD47, and ET-1/ETA concurrent with down regulation of the transcription factor cell homolog of the v-myc oncogene (cMyc). In contrast, PH was attenuated in hypoxic CD47-/- mice while pulmonary TSP1 and ET-1/ETA were unchanged and cMyc was overexpressed. In CD47-/- pulmonary endothelial cells cMyc was increased and ET-1 decreased. In CD47+/+ cells, forced induction of cMyc suppressed ET-1 transcript, whereas suppression of cMyc increased ET-1 signaling. Furthermore, disrupting TSP1-CD47 signaling in pulmonary smooth muscle cells abrogated ET-1-stimulated hypertrophy. Finally, a CD47 antibody given 2 weeks after monocrotaline challenge in rats upregulated pulmonary cMyc and improved aberrations in PH-associated cardiopulmonary parameters. In pre-clinical models of PH CD47 targets cMyc to increase ET-1 signaling. In clinical PH TSP1-CD47 is upregulated, and in both, contributes to pulmonary arterial vasculopathy and dysfunction. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. 26 CFR 1.47-3 - Exceptions to the application of § 1.47-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... INCOME TAXES Rules for Computing Credit for Investment in Certain Depreciable Property § 1.47-3... purposes of recomputing qualified investment with respect to such newly selected used section 38 property... used section 38 property taken into account by X Corporation in computing its qualified investment for...

  13. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing of stainless steel. At the entrance to the target assembly was a scintillator screen, imprinted with circles every 5 mm in radius, which allowed to precisely aim the 26 GeV high-intensity proton beam from the PS onto the centre of the target rod. The scintillator screen was a 1 mm thick plate of Cr-doped alumina. See also 7903034 and 7905091.

  14. Significance of CD47 expression in gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudo, Tomoya; Takahashi, Yusuke; Sawada, Genta; Uchi, Ryutaro; Mimori, Koshi; Akagi, Yoshito

    2017-01-01

    Integrin-associated protein (CD47) is ubiquitously expressed on the surface of cells and functions as an identifier of self. In blood cancer, tumor cells expressing CD47 evade phagocytosis by macrophages, leading to a poor patient prognosis. However, the status of CD47 expression in solid tumors, particularly in gastric cancer, is not well understood. The purpose of the present study was to examine the level of CD47 in the primary tumor, peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) of patients with gastric cancer, and to determine its effect. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was performed to determine the level of CD47 mRNA expression in primary tumor, PB and BM samples collected from 168 patients with gastric cancer. Cell sorting was performed to investigate CD47 protein expression in PB and BM fractions, and to identify the source of CD47 expression. In primary tumors, the expression of CD47 was not associated with any clinicopathological factors or prognosis. By contrast, in PB, the low CD47 expression group demonstrated a significantly increased tumor size, and frequency of lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis, compared with the high CD47 expression group. In addition, the clinical tumor stage of the low CD47 expression group was significantly increased compared with that of the high CD47 expression group. Conversely, in PB, the high CD47 expression group had a significantly higher frequency of lymphatic invasion and lymph node metastasis compared with the low CD47 expression group. The lymphocyte fraction exhibited the highest CD47 expression compared with the other fractions in PB and BM samples. Low expression of CD47 was associated with the advancement of gastric cancer, in contrast to other cancers, and it may be associated with a decrease in lymphocytes during later stages. These results indicate that CD47 expression in the PB and BM may serve as a marker to analyze the immunological function of patients with

  15. Target Price Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander G. Kerl

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the accuracy of forecasted target prices within analysts’ reports. We compute a measure for target price forecast accuracy that evaluates the ability of analysts to exactly forecast the ex-ante (unknown 12-month stock price. Furthermore, we determine factors that explain this accuracy. Target price accuracy is negatively related to analyst-specific optimism and stock-specific risk (measured by volatility and price-to-book ratio. However, target price accuracy is positively related to the level of detail of each report, company size and the reputation of the investment bank. The potential conflicts of interests between an analyst and a covered company do not bias forecast accuracy.

  16. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This research describes a quantitative methodology for deriving optimal exploration target zones based on a probabilistic mineral prospectivity map. In order to arrive at out objective, we provide a plausible answer to the following question: "Which...

  17. Delays in thick targets

    CERN Document Server

    Bennett, J R J

    2002-01-01

    The delays in the emission of radioactive particles from a thick target bombarded by high-energy protons is discussed in relation to the basic physical processes of diffusion and effusion through the target and ioniser. The delay time, relative to the decay time, is crucial to the efficiency of particle release at the exit of the ioniser. The principles of minimizing the delay times are discussed with reference to a mathematical model of the process, and some experimental examples are given.

  18. Disruption of Toxoplasma gondii Parasitophorous Vacuoles by the Mouse p47-Resistance GTPases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The p47 GTPases are essential for interferon-gamma-induced cell-autonomous immunity against the protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, in mice, but the mechanism of resistance is poorly understood. We show that the p47 GTPases, including IIGP1, accumulate at vacuoles containing T. gondii. The accumulation is GTP-dependent and requires live parasites. Vacuolar IIGP1 accumulations undergo a maturation-like process accompanied by vesiculation of the parasitophorous vacuole membrane. This culminates in disruption of the parasitophorous vacuole and finally of the parasite itself. Over-expression of IIGP1 leads to accelerated vacuolar disruption whereas a dominant negative form of IIGP1 interferes with interferon-gamma-mediated killing of intracellular parasites. Targeted deletion of the IIGP1 gene results in partial loss of the IFN-gamma-mediated T. gondii growth restriction in mouse astrocytes.

  19. An ISOLDE target unit

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    A good dozen different targets are available for ISOLDE, made of different materials and equipped with different kinds of ion-sources, according to the needs of the experiments. Each separator (GPS: general purpose; HRS: high resolution) has its own target. Because of the high radiation levels, robots effect the target changes, about 80 times per year. In the standard unit shown in picture _01, the target is the cylindrical object in the front. It contains uranium-carbide kept at a temperature of 2200 deg C, necessary for the isotopes to be able to escape. At either end, one sees the heater current leads, carrying 700 A. The Booster beam, some 3E13 protons per pulse, enters the target from left. The evaporated isotope atoms enter a hot-plasma ion source (the black object behind the target). The whole unit sits at 60 kV potential (pulsed in synchronism with the arrival of the Booster beam) which accelerates the ions (away from the viewer) towards one of the 2 separators.

  20. Laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty in 47 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuar Ibrahim Mitre

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the results of a sequence of 47 laparoscopic Anderson-Hynes pyeloplasties for the treatment of patients with ureteropelvic junction obstruction, independently of the etiology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty male and 27 female patients diagnosed with ureteropelvic junction obstruction were treated by Anderson-Hynes transperitoneal laparoscopic dismembered pyeloplasty from April 2002 to January 2006. The age of the patients ranged from four to 75 years, with a mean age of 32.3 years. The follow-up ranged between six and 30 months, with a mean follow-up time of 24 months. The outcomes were evaluated through the assessment of symptoms and imaging studies. RESULTS: In 44 (93.6% of the 47 patients, resolution of the pain and a reduction in ureteropelvic dilation were observed. The mean operative time was 157 minutes (ranging from 90 to 270 minutes. Neither blood transfusion nor conversion to open surgery was required. The mean hospital stay was 2.2 days. The presence of crossing vessels over the ureteropelvic junction was verified in 26 patients (55%, and vessel transposition in relation to the urinary tract was performed in 25 of these cases. In one patient, the crossing vessel was mobilized out of the ureteropelvic junction with a perivascular suture to the renal capsule associated with the pyeloplasty. CONCLUSIONS: The outcome of transperitoneal Anderson-Hynes laparoscopic pyeloplasty used for different causes of pyeloureteral obstruction presented a success rate similar to a previously-published open procedure, with the advantage of being less invasive. This procedure may be considered the first option for the treatment of ureteropelvic junction obstruction.

  1. CD20-selective inhibition of CD47-SIRPα “don't eat me” signaling with a bispecific antibody-derivative enhances the anticancer activity of daratumumab, alemtuzumab and obinutuzumab

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Bommel, Peter E.; He, Yuan; Schepel, Ilona; Hendriks, Mark A. J. M.; Wiersma, Valerie R.; van Ginkel, Robert J.; van Meerten, Tom; Ammatuna, Emanuele; Huls, Gerwin; Samplonius, Douwe F.; Helfrich, Wijnand; Bremer, Edwin

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here, we report on a novel bispecific antibody-derivative, designated RTX-CD47, with unique capacity for CD20-directed inhibition of CD47-SIRPα “don't eat me” signaling. RTX-CD47 comprises a CD20-targeting scFv antibody fragment derived from rituximab fused in tandem to a CD47-blocking scFv. Single agent treatment with RTX-CD47 triggered significant phagocytic removal of CD20pos/CD47pos malignant B-cells, but not of CD20neg/CD47pos cells, and required no pro-phagocytic FcR-mediated signaling. Importantly, treatment with RTX-CD47 synergistically enhanced the phagocytic elimination of primary malignant B cells by autologous phagocytic effector cells as induced by therapeutic anticancer antibodies daratumumab (anti-CD38), alemtuzumab (anti-CD52) and obinutuzumab (anti-CD20). In conclusion, RTX-CD47 blocks CD47 “don't eat me” signaling by cancer cells in a CD20-directed manner with essentially no activity towards CD20neg/CD47pos cells and enhances the activity of therapeutic anticancer antibodies directed to B-cell malignancies. PMID:29308308

  2. Resolving the dependence of Δ47 thermometers on acid digestion temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, A. S.; Olack, G.

    2015-12-01

    Clumped isotope paleothermometry on carbonate minerals has emerged as a leading tool in paleoclimate and paleoaltimetry studies. The utility of Δ47 measurements is especially pronounced when estimating formation temperature of carbonates that precipitated from solutions with unknown water oxygen isotope composition. However, the interpretation of Δ47 values has been hindered by discrepancies among the many published thermometric calibrations. As the number of calibrations grows, it now appears that the slope of the Δ47 vs. inverse temperature relationship clusters into two distinct groupings based on whether the carbonate minerals were digested at low temperature (25°C) vs. high temperature (generally 70 - 90°C). We model the effect that small amounts of oxygen exchange between CO2 liberated to the phosphoric acid solution and trace water in that solution can have on measured Δ47. This can occur with very little shift in δ47 and δ18O of the CO2. The extent and effect of oxygen exchange following CaCO3 dissolution is a complex function of the phosphoric acid's temperature, water content, and viscosity. Conventional approaches to preparation of phosphoric acid (targeting a defined density range at room temperature) are likely inadequate for resolving the details of these dependencies. This stems in part from changes that can occur to the water content and density of phosphoric acid during heating of the acid under vacuum. Secondary effects may also arise that relate to the grain and crystallite size of the carbonate minerals, intercalation of carbonate minerals with siliciclastic matrix in sediments or paleosols, and possibly the reactivity of hydrous components of a siliciclastic rich sample.

  3. HSP47 expression in cornea after excimer laser photoablation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasagi, Yasuo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi

    2002-01-01

    The expression of heat shock protein 47 (HSP47) was observed histologically to investigate the spatial and chronological effects of excimer laser photoablation. HSP47 expression after radial keratotomy (RK) was also investigated and compared with the effects after excimer laser photoablation. Twenty-eight male rabbits were used. The rabbits were divided with two groups and treated with either excimer laser photoablation or four radial incisions to simulate corneal refractive surgery. The chronological and spatial changes in the expression of HSP47 were observed immunohistochemically. In eyes that underwent excimer laser photoablation, HSP47 was detected in the basal layer of the epithelial cells and in the superficial stromal layer 3 days after surgery. After 5 and 7 days, HSP47 expression extended to the deep layer of the stroma and to the endothelial cells. After 14 days, HSP47 was detected only in the deep layer of the stroma and in the endothelial cells. After 28 days, HSP47 expression was reduced. In eyes that underwent RK, HSP47 was detected in the basal layer of the epithelial cells and in the stroma surrounding the wound 1 day after surgery. After 3 and 7 days, HSP47 expression did not expand further. After 28 days, HSP47 expression diminished. Excimer laser photoablation affects the whole layer of the cornea, and may be caused by the shock wave that occurs as a result of photoablation. In addition, interaction among the keratocytes may propagate the stress-induced response to the whole layer of the cornea. With RK, the wound is smaller and deeper. HSP47 expression occurs earlier, but is limited to the area surrounding the wound.

  4. Engineering macrophages to eat cancer: from "marker of self" CD47 and phagocytosis to differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvey, Cory; Discher, Dennis E

    2017-07-01

    The ability of a macrophage to engulf and break down invading cells and other targets provides a first line of immune defense in nearly all tissues. This defining ability to "phagos" or devour can subsequently activate the entire immune system against foreign and diseased cells, and progress is now being made on a decades-old idea of directing macrophages to phagocytose specific targets, such as cancer cells. Engineered T cells provide precedence with recent clinical successes against liquid tumors, but solid tumors remain a challenge, and a handful of clinical trials seek to exploit the abundance of tumor-associated macrophages instead. Although macrophage differentiation into such phenotypes with deficiencies in phagocytic ability can raise challenges, newly recognized features of cancer cells that might be manipulated to increase the phagocytosis of those cells include ≥1 membrane protein, CD47, which broadly inhibits phagocytosis and is abundantly expressed on all healthy cells. Physical properties of the target also influence phagocytosis and again relate-via cytoskeleton forces-to differentiation pathways in solid tumors. Such pathways extend to mechanosensing by the nuclear lamina, which is known to influence signaling by soluble retinoids that can regulate the macrophage SIRPα, the receptor for CD47. Here, we highlight some of those past, present, and rapidly emerging efforts to understand and control macrophages for cancer therapy. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  5. Burglar Target Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsley, Michael; Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn; Johnson, Shane D.; White, Gentry; Baum, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study builds on research undertaken by Bernasco and Nieuwbeerta and explores the generalizability of a theoretically derived offender target selection model in three cross-national study regions. Methods: Taking a discrete spatial choice approach, we estimate the impact of both environment- and offender-level factors on residential burglary placement in the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and Australia. Combining cleared burglary data from all study regions in a single statistical model, we make statistical comparisons between environments. Results: In all three study regions, the likelihood an offender selects an area for burglary is positively influenced by proximity to their home, the proportion of easily accessible targets, and the total number of targets available. Furthermore, in two of the three study regions, juvenile offenders under the legal driving age are significantly more influenced by target proximity than adult offenders. Post hoc tests indicate the magnitudes of these impacts vary significantly between study regions. Conclusions: While burglary target selection strategies are consistent with opportunity-based explanations of offending, the impact of environmental context is significant. As such, the approach undertaken in combining observations from multiple study regions may aid criminology scholars in assessing the generalizability of observed findings across multiple environments. PMID:25866418

  6. The Sinuous Target

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zwaska, R. [Fermilab

    2015-06-01

    We report on the concept for a target material comprised of a multitude of interlaced wires of small dimension. This target material concept is primarily directed at high-power neutrino targets where the thermal shock is large due to small beam sizes and short durations; it also has applications to other high-power targets, particularly where the energy deposition is great or a high surface area is preferred. This approach ameliorates the problem of thermal shock by engineering a material with high strength on the micro-scale, but a very low modulus of elasticity on the meso-scale. The low modulus of elasticity is achieved by constructing the material of spring-like wire segments much smaller than the beam dimension. The intrinsic bends of the wires will allow them to absorb the strain of thermal shock with minimal stress. Furthermore, the interlaced nature of the wires provides containment of any segment that might become loose. We will discuss the progress on studies of analogue materials and fabrication techniques for sinuous target materials.

  7. Molecular Pathways: Activating T Cells after Cancer Cell Phagocytosis from Blockade of CD47 "Don't Eat Me" Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCracken, Melissa N; Cha, Adriel C; Weissman, Irving L

    2015-08-15

    Recent advances with immunotherapy agents for the treatment of cancer have provided remarkable, and in some cases, curative results. Our laboratory has identified CD47 as an important "don't eat me" signal expressed on malignant cells. Blockade of the CD47:SIRP-α axis between tumor cells and innate immune cells (monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells) increases tumor cell phagocytosis in both solid tumors (including, but not limited to, bladder, breast, colon, lung, and pancreatic) and hematologic malignancies. These phagocytic innate cells are also professional antigen-presenting cells (APC), providing a link from innate to adaptive antitumor immunity. Preliminary studies have demonstrated that APCs present antigens from phagocytosed tumor cells, causing T-cell activation. Therefore, agents that block the CD47:SIRP-α engagement are attractive therapeutic targets as a monotherapy or in combination with additional immune-modulating agents for activating antitumor T cells in vivo. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Setting reference targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruland, R.E.

    1997-04-01

    Reference Targets are used to represent virtual quantities like the magnetic axis of a magnet or the definition of a coordinate system. To explain the function of reference targets in the sequence of the alignment process, this paper will first briefly discuss the geometry of the trajectory design space and of the surveying space, then continue with an overview of a typical alignment process. This is followed by a discussion on magnet fiducialization. While the magnetic measurement methods to determine the magnetic centerline are only listed (they will be discussed in detail in a subsequent talk), emphasis is given to the optical/mechanical methods and to the task of transferring the centerline position to reference targets.

  9. Targeted Therapy of CLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sawaf, Othman; Fischer, Kirsten; Eichhorst, Barbara; Hallek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The landscape of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has undergone profound changes in the past years. First, the addition of CD20-targeting antibodies to conventional chemotherapy has improved the therapeutic outcome in the majority of CLL patients. Since the establishment of the critical role of the B cell receptor signaling pathway in the pathogenesis of CLL, several agents have been developed to target this pathway. Ibrutinib and idelalisib, 2 potent kinase inhibitors, have both become available for CLL therapy in the first and second line. Additionally, the observation of high expression levels of the anti-apoptotic mitochondrial protein Bcl-2 in CLL has led to the development of venetoclax, a BH3 mimetic compound that inhibits Bcl-2 and has shown high efficacy in CLL. This short review summarizes preclinical and clinical data on currently available agents in CLL and provides an outlook on upcoming new challenges in the targeted therapy of CLL. © 2016 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  10. Modelling Recycling Targets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hill, Amanda Louise; Leinikka Dall, Ole; Andersen, Frits M.

    2014-01-01

    Within the European Union (EU) a paradigm shift is currently occurring in the waste sector, where EU waste directives and national waste strategies are placing emphasis on resource efficiency and recycling targets. The most recent Danish resource strategy calculates a national recycling rate of 22......% for household waste, and sets an ambitious goal of a 50% recycling rate by 2020. This study integrates the recycling target into the FRIDA model to project how much waste and from which streams should be diverted from incineration to recycling in order to achieve the target. Furthermore, it discusses how...... the existing technological, organizational and legislative frameworks may affect recycling activities. The results of the analysis show that with current best practice recycling rates, the 50% recycling rate cannot be reached without recycling of household biowaste. It also shows that all Danish municipalities...

  11. Optimal exploration target zones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Debba, Pravesh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available , Carranza, Stein, van der Meer Introduction to Remote Sensing Background and Objective of the study Methodology Results Optimal Exploration Target Zones Pravesh Debba1, Emmanual M.J. Carranza2, Alfred Stein2, Freek D. van der Meer2 1CSIR, Logistics... and Quantitative Methods, CSIR Built Environment 2International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, P.O. Box 6, 7500AA Enschede, The Netherlands Optimal Exploration Target Zones Debba, Carranza, Stein, van der Meer...

  12. AA antiproton production target

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    The first version of the antiproton production target was a tungsten rod, 11 cm long (actually a row of 11 rods, each 1 cm long) and 3 mm in diameter. The rod was embedded in graphite, pressure-seated into an outer casing made of stainless steel. The casing had fins for forced-air cooling. In this picture, the 26 GeV high-intensity beam from the PS enters from the right, where a scintillator screen, with circles every 5 mm in radius, permits precise aim at the target centre. See also 7903034 and 7905094.

  13. Farby-Perot observations and new models of the HH 47A and HH 47D bow shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jon A.; Hartigan, Patrick; Heathcote, Steve; Raymond, John C.; Cecil, Gerald

    1994-01-01

    We present new models for the HH 47A and HH 47D bow shocks based on line flux and velocity maps obtained with an imaging Fabry-Perot spectrometer. We confirm that HH 47A and HH 47D each show a bow shock/Mach disk morphology, and that velocity variability in the outflow can account for the observed structures. While it was suggested a decade ago that the inner working surface HH 47A appears to be traveling into the wake of HH 47D, we find kinematic evidence that the outer bow shock HH 47D is also not the primary ejection event in the outflow but follows in the wake of previously ejected material. By comparing the observed line ratios and line profiles to those predicted by our bow shock models, we find that both bow shocks have substantially lower shock velocities than their space motions would imply, and that the emission from each bow shock is systematically blueshifted from the rest-frame velocity of the ambient emission, indicating a comoving preshock medium. We derive kinematic ages of approximately 1150 yr for HH 47D and approximately 550 yr for HH 47A, which implies that the stellar driving source may undergo repetitive eruptions similar to FU Orionis-type outbursts every several hundred years. This timescale is similar to estimates made by Reipurth and collaborators for the separation between major outbursts in the HH 34 and HH 111 stellar jets.

  14. Comprehensive Behavioral Analysis of Cluster of Differentiation 47 Knockout Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshimizu, Hisatsugu; Takao, Keizo; Matozaki, Takashi; Ohnishi, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47) is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which functions as a ligand for the extracellular region of signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα), a protein which is abundantly expressed in the brain. Previous studies, including ours, have demonstrated that both CD47 and SIRPα fulfill various functions in the central nervous system (CNS), such as the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal cell survival. We previously reported that CD47 is involved in the regulation of depression-like behavior of mice in the forced swim test through its modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα. However, other potential behavioral functions of CD47 remain largely unknown. In this study, in an effort to further investigate functional roles of CD47 in the CNS, CD47 knockout (KO) mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. CD47 KO mice displayed decreased prepulse inhibition, while the startle response did not differ between genotypes. The mutants exhibited slightly but significantly decreased sociability and social novelty preference in Crawley’s three-chamber social approach test, whereas in social interaction tests in which experimental and stimulus mice have direct contact with each other in a freely moving setting in a novel environment or home cage, there were no significant differences between the genotypes. While previous studies suggested that CD47 regulates fear memory in the inhibitory avoidance test in rodents, our CD47 KO mice exhibited normal fear and spatial memory in the fear conditioning and the Barnes maze tests, respectively. These findings suggest that CD47 is potentially involved in the regulation of sensorimotor gating and social behavior in mice. PMID:24586890

  15. Comprehensive behavioral analysis of cluster of differentiation 47 knockout mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisatsugu Koshimizu

    Full Text Available Cluster of differentiation 47 (CD47 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily which functions as a ligand for the extracellular region of signal regulatory protein α (SIRPα, a protein which is abundantly expressed in the brain. Previous studies, including ours, have demonstrated that both CD47 and SIRPα fulfill various functions in the central nervous system (CNS, such as the modulation of synaptic transmission and neuronal cell survival. We previously reported that CD47 is involved in the regulation of depression-like behavior of mice in the forced swim test through its modulation of tyrosine phosphorylation of SIRPα. However, other potential behavioral functions of CD47 remain largely unknown. In this study, in an effort to further investigate functional roles of CD47 in the CNS, CD47 knockout (KO mice and their wild-type littermates were subjected to a battery of behavioral tests. CD47 KO mice displayed decreased prepulse inhibition, while the startle response did not differ between genotypes. The mutants exhibited slightly but significantly decreased sociability and social novelty preference in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, whereas in social interaction tests in which experimental and stimulus mice have direct contact with each other in a freely moving setting in a novel environment or home cage, there were no significant differences between the genotypes. While previous studies suggested that CD47 regulates fear memory in the inhibitory avoidance test in rodents, our CD47 KO mice exhibited normal fear and spatial memory in the fear conditioning and the Barnes maze tests, respectively. These findings suggest that CD47 is potentially involved in the regulation of sensorimotor gating and social behavior in mice.

  16. Aquaporin-2 membrane targeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Emma T B; Fenton, Robert A

    2017-01-01

    The targeting of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) to the apical plasma membrane of kidney collecting duct principal cells is regulated mainly by the antidiuretic peptide hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP). This process is of crucial importance for the maintenance of body water homeostasis...

  17. ISOLDE back on target

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2014-01-01

    Today, Friday 1 August, the ISOLDE installation, supplied by the beams of the PS Booster, restarted its physics programme. After a shutdown of almost a year and a half, there was a real buzz in the air as the first beam of protons hit the target of the first post-LS1 ISOLDE experiment.   One of the new target-handling robots installed by ISOLDE during LS1. Many improvements have been made to the ISOLDE installation during LS1. One of the main projects was the installation of new robots for handling the targets (see photo 1). “Our targets are bombarded by protons from the PS Booster’s beams and become very radioactive,” explains Maria Jose Garcia Borge, spokesperson for the ISOLDE collaboration. “They therefore need to be handled carefully, which is where the robots come in. The robots we had until now were already over 20 years old and were starting to suffer from the effects of radiation. So LS1 was a perfect opportunity to replace them with more moder...

  18. Microenvironmental targets in sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika eEhnman

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sarcomas are rare malignant tumors affecting all age groups. They are typically classified according to their resemblance to corresponding normal tissue. Their heterogeneous features, for example in terms of disease-driving genetic aberrations and body location, complicate both disease classification and development of novel treatment regimens. Many years of failure of improved patient outcome in clinical trials has lead to the conclusion that novel targeted therapies are likely needed in combination with current multimodality regimens. Sarcomas have not, in contrast to the common carcinomas, been the subject for larger systematic studies on how tumor behavior relates to characteristics of the tumor microenvironment. There is consequently an urgent need for identifying suitable molecular targets, not only in tumor cells, but also in the tumor microenvironment. This review discusses preclinical and clinical data about potential molecular targets in sarcomas. Studies on targeted therapies involving the tumor microenvironment are prioritized. A greater understanding of the biological context is expected to facilitate more successful design of future clinical trials in sarcoma.

  19. Target Heart Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is your level of intensity? When is the best time of day to work out? Target Heart Rates Warm Up, Cool Down See More >> Getting Active Getting Started - Tips for Long-term Exercise Success Get Moving: Easy Tips to Get Active! ...

  20. Targeted Therapy for Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quinn, Thomas [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States); Moore, Herbert [Alphamed, Jackson, TN (United States)

    2016-12-05

    The research project, entitled ”Targeted Therapy for Melanoma,” was focused on investigating the use of kidney protection measures to lower the non-specific kidney uptake of the radiolabeled Pb-DOTA-ReCCMSH peptide. Previous published work demonstrated that the kidney exhibited the highest non-target tissue uptake of the 212Pb/203Pb radiolabeled melanoma targeting peptide DOTA-ReCCMSH. The radiolabeled alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) peptide analog DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH, which binds the melanocortin-1 receptor over-expressed on melanoma tumor cells, has shown promise as a PRRT agent in pre-clinical studies. High tumor uptake of 212Pb labeled DOTA-Re(Arg11)CCMSH resulted in tumor reduction or eradication in melanoma therapy studies. Of particular note was the 20-50% cure rate observed when melanoma mice were treated with alpha particle emitter 212Pb. However, as with most PRRT agents, high radiation doses to the kidneys where observed. To optimize tumor treatment efficacy and reduce nephrotoxicity, the tumor to kidney uptake ratio must be improved. Strategies to reduce kidney retention of the radiolabeled peptide, while not effecting tumor uptake and retention, can be broken into several categories including modification of the targeting peptide sequence and reducing proximal tubule reabsorption.

  1. Target Chamber Manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantillo, Anthony; Watson, Matthew

    2015-11-01

    A system has been developed to allow remote actuation of sensors in a high vacuum target chamber used with a particle accelerator. Typically, sensors of various types are placed into the target chamber at specific radial and angular positions relative to the beam line and target. The chamber is then evacuated and the experiments are performed for those sensor positions. Then, the chamber is opened, the sensors are repositioned to new angles or radii, and the process is repeated, with a separate pump-down cycle for each set of sensor positions. The new sensor positioning system allows scientists to pre-set the radii of up to a dozen sensors, and then remotely actuate their angular positions without breaking the vacuum of the target chamber. This reduces the time required to reposition sensors from 6 hours to 1 minute. The sensors are placed into one of two tracks that are separately actuated using vacuum-grade stepping motors. The positions of the sensors are verified using absolute optical rotary encoders, and the positions are accurate to 0.5 degrees. The positions of the sensors are electronically recorded and time-stamped after every change. User control is through a GUI using LabVIEW.

  2. Active Target Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Nathan; Draznik, Peter; Frank, Nathan

    2012-10-01

    We have simulated an existing experimental design to determine the resolution improvement upon energy measurements of neutron unbound nuclei. A number of experiments of this type have been performed at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL), located at Michigan State University. An excited nucleus is typically produced with a radioactive beam interacting with a passive Beryllium target. Many different nuclei are produced in experiment, each of which immediately decays into a charged particle and neutron. The charged particles are detected and the neutrons interact in scintillation detectors such as the Modular Neutron Array (MoNA) and Large Multi-Institutional Scintillation Array (LISA). In our simulation, we have constructed an active target that provides additional information such that the point of nuclear interaction within the target may be determined. This information improves the resolution in decay energy measurements of neutron unbound isotopes. This presentation will cover some aspects of the simulation process, as well as showing some of the results that demonstrate the simulated improvement over a passive target.

  3. Polymorphisms in the human inhibitory signal-regulatory protein α do not affect binding to its ligand CD47.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatherley, Deborah; Lea, Susan M; Johnson, Steven; Barclay, A Neil

    2014-04-04

    CD47 is a widely distributed membrane protein that interacts with signal-regulatory protein α (SIRPα), an inhibitory receptor on myeloid cells that gives a "don't-eat-me" signal. Manipulation of the interaction is of considerable interest in the immunotherapy of cancer and in xenotransplantation. The amino-terminal ligand binding domain of SIRPα is highly polymorphic in contrast to the single Ig-like domain of CD47. There is confusion as to whether the polymorphisms will affect ligand binding, but this is an important point for this interaction and other paired receptors being considered as targets for therapy. We show by x-ray crystallography that one human SIRPα allele differing in 13 amino acid residues has a very similar binding site and that several different alleles all bind CD47 with similar affinity as expected because the residues are mostly surface-exposed and distant from the binding site. A peptide from the binding site of CD47 has been reported to mimic the CD47 interaction with SIRPα, but we could find no binding. We discuss the possible pitfalls in determining the affinity of weak interactions and also speculate on how SIRPα polymorphisms may have been selected by pathogens and how this may also be true in other paired receptors such as the KIRs.

  4. 48 CFR 47.305-14 - Mode of transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mode of transportation. 47... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-14 Mode of transportation. Generally, solicitations shall not specify a particular mode of transportation or a particular carrier. If...

  5. 27 CFR 29.47 - Notice requirement; manufacture of stills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...; manufacture of stills. 29.47 Section 29.47 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Notice requirement; manufacture of stills. (a) General. When required by letter issued by the appropriate... manufactures any still, boiler (double or pot still), condenser, or other apparatus to be used for the purpose...

  6. 24 CFR 203.47 - Eligibility of growing equity mortgages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... mortgages. 203.47 Section 203.47 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER AUTHORITIES SINGLE FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Eligibility Requirements and Underwriting Procedures Eligible...

  7. 48 CFR 47.300 - Scope of subpart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 47.300 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.300 Scope of subpart. (a) This subpart prescribes policies and procedures for the application of transportation and traffic management considerations in the...

  8. 7 CFR 1962.47 - Bankruptcy and insolvency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 14 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Bankruptcy and insolvency. 1962.47 Section 1962.47 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, RURAL BUSINESS... Bankruptcy and insolvency. (a) Borrower files bankruptcy. When the Agency becomes aware that a Farm Loan...

  9. 30 CFR 47.44 - Temporary, portable containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Temporary, portable containers. 47.44 Section... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Container Labels and Other Forms of Warning § 47.44 Temporary, portable containers. (a) The operator does not have to label a temporary, portable container if he or she...

  10. 37 CFR 10.47 - Aiding unauthorized practice of law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aiding unauthorized practice of law. 10.47 Section 10.47 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE Patent and Trademark Office Code of Professional...

  11. 14 CFR 105.47 - Use of static lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of static lines. 105.47 Section 105.47... operation using a static line attached to the aircraft and the main parachute unless an assist device, described and attached as follows, is used to aid the pilot chute in performing its function, or, if no...

  12. 17 CFR 41.47 - Withdrawal of margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Withdrawal of margin. 41.47... PRODUCTS Customer Accounts and Margin Requirements § 41.47 Withdrawal of margin. (a) By the customer... deposited as margin for positions in an account may be withdrawn, provided that the equity in the account...

  13. 7 CFR 1735.47 - Rescissions of loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... need for those purposes. (c) RUS shall not initiate the rescission of a loan unless all of the purposes... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rescissions of loans. 1735.47 Section 1735.47... AGRICULTURE GENERAL POLICIES, TYPES OF LOANS, LOAN REQUIREMENTS-TELECOMMUNICATIONS PROGRAM Terms of Loans...

  14. 46 CFR 78.47-17 - Fire extinguishing system controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire extinguishing system controls. 78.47-17 Section 78... Markings for Fire and Emergency Equipment, Etc. § 78.47-17 Fire extinguishing system controls. (a) The control cabinets or spaces containing valves or manifolds for the various fire extinguishing systems shall...

  15. 28 CFR 4.7 - Notice of hearing; postponements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Notice of hearing; postponements. 4.7... RETIREMENT INCOME SECURITY ACT OF 1974 § 4.7 Notice of hearing; postponements. Upon the filing of an... supporting documents. Any party may request a postponement of a hearing date in writing from the Office of...

  16. 49 CFR 220.47 - Emergency radio transmissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency radio transmissions. 220.47 Section 220... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD COMMUNICATIONS Radio and Wireless Communication Procedures § 220.47 Emergency radio transmissions. An initial emergency radio transmission shall be preceded by the...

  17. 29 CFR 452.47 - Employer or supervisor members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... whether a member may fairly be denied the right to be a candidate for union office as an employer or... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employer or supervisor members. 452.47 Section 452.47 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT...

  18. 46 CFR 189.25-47 - Chemical and explosive hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Chemical and explosive hazards. 189.25-47 Section 189.25... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Inspection for Certification § 189.25-47 Chemical and explosive hazards. (a) The marine inspector shall inspect every chemistry laboratory, scientific laboratory, and chemical storeroom...

  19. “Marker of Self” CD47 on lentiviral vectors decreases macrophage-mediated clearance and increases delivery to SIRPA-expressing lung carcinoma tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha G Sosale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lentiviruses infect many cell types and are now widely used for gene delivery in vitro, but in vivo uptake of these foreign vectors by macrophages is a limitation. Lentivectors are produced here from packaging cells that overexpress “Marker of Self” CD47, which inhibits macrophage uptake of cells when prophagocytic factors are also displayed. Single particle analyses show “hCD47-Lenti” display properly oriented human-CD47 for interactions with the macrophage's inhibitory receptor SIRPA. Macrophages derived from human and NOD/SCID/Il2rg−/− (NSG mice show a SIRPA-dependent decrease in transduction, i.e., transgene expression, by hCD47-Lenti compared to control Lenti. Consistent with known “Self” signaling pathways, macrophage transduction by control Lenti is decreased by drug inhibition of Myosin-II to the same levels as hCD47-Lenti. In contrast, human lung carcinoma cells express SIRPA and use it to enhance transduction by hCD47-Lenti- as illustrated by more efficient gene deletion using CRISPR/Cas9. Intravenous injection of hCD47-Lenti into NSG mice shows hCD47 prolongs circulation, unless a blocking anti-SIRPA is preinjected. In vivo transduction of spleen and liver macrophages also decreases for hCD47-Lenti while transduction of lung carcinoma xenografts increases. hCD47 could be useful when macrophage uptake is limiting on other viral vectors that are emerging in cancer treatments (e.g., Measles glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentivectors and also in targeting various SIRPA-expressing tumors such as glioblastomas.

  20. “Marker of Self” CD47 on lentiviral vectors decreases macrophage-mediated clearance and increases delivery to SIRPA-expressing lung carcinoma tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosale, Nisha G; Ivanovska, Irena I; Tsai, Richard K; Swift, Joe; Hsu, Jake W; Alvey, Cory M; Zoltick, Philip W; Discher, Dennis E

    2016-01-01

    Lentiviruses infect many cell types and are now widely used for gene delivery in vitro, but in vivo uptake of these foreign vectors by macrophages is a limitation. Lentivectors are produced here from packaging cells that overexpress “Marker of Self” CD47, which inhibits macrophage uptake of cells when prophagocytic factors are also displayed. Single particle analyses show “hCD47-Lenti” display properly oriented human-CD47 for interactions with the macrophage’s inhibitory receptor SIRPA. Macrophages derived from human and NOD/SCID/Il2rg−/− (NSG) mice show a SIRPA-dependent decrease in transduction, i.e., transgene expression, by hCD47-Lenti compared to control Lenti. Consistent with known “Self” signaling pathways, macrophage transduction by control Lenti is decreased by drug inhibition of Myosin-II to the same levels as hCD47-Lenti. In contrast, human lung carcinoma cells express SIRPA and use it to enhance transduction by hCD47-Lenti- as illustrated by more efficient gene deletion using CRISPR/Cas9. Intravenous injection of hCD47-Lenti into NSG mice shows hCD47 prolongs circulation, unless a blocking anti-SIRPA is preinjected. In vivo transduction of spleen and liver macrophages also decreases for hCD47-Lenti while transduction of lung carcinoma xenografts increases. hCD47 could be useful when macrophage uptake is limiting on other viral vectors that are emerging in cancer treatments (e.g., Measles glycoprotein-pseudotyped lentivectors) and also in targeting various SIRPA-expressing tumors such as glioblastomas. PMID:28053997