WorldWideScience

Sample records for scandinavian policy making

  1. Scandinavian perspectives on plant gene technology: applications, policies and progress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Dennis; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Chawade, Aakash; Holme, Inger B; Hvoslef-Eide, Trine A K; Ritala, Anneli; Teeri, Teemu H; Thorstensen, Tage

    2017-10-28

    Plant research and breeding has a long and successful history in the Scandinavian countries, Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Researchers in the region have been early in adopting plant gene technologies as they developed. This review gives a background, as well as discuss the current and future progress of plant gene technology in these four countries. Country-specific details of the regulation of genetically modified plants are described, as well as similarities and differences in the approach to regulation of novel genome-editing techniques. Also, the development of a sustainable bioeconomy may encompass the application of plant gene technology and we discuss whether or not this is reflected in current associated national strategies. In addition, country-specific information about the opinion of the public and other stakeholders on plant gene technology is presented, together with a country-wise political comparison and a discussion of the potential reciprocal influence between public opinion and the political process of policy development. The Scandinavian region is unique in several aspects, such as climate and certain agriculturally related regulations, and at the same time the region is vulnerable to changes in plant breeding investments due to the relatively small market sizes. It is therefore important to discuss the role and regulation of innovative solutions in Scandinavian plant research and breeding. © 2017 The Authors. Physiologia Plantarum published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  2. Quality Assurance Policies and Practices in Scandinavian Higher Education Systems: Convergence or Different Paths?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia

    2017-01-01

    Because there is close cooperation on quality assurance in the Scandinavian countries, one would expect there to be convergence of quality assurance policies and practices in Scandinavian higher education. Few studies have analysed these quality assurance policies and practices from a comparative viewpoint. Based on empirical evidence produced in…

  3. Quality assurance policies and practices in Scandinavian higher education systems: convergence or different paths?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalpazidou Schmidt, Evanthia

    2017-01-01

    Because there is close cooperation on quality assurance in the Scandinavian countries, one would expect there to be convergence of quality assurance policies and practices in Scandinavian higher education. Few studies have analysed these quality assurance policies and practices from a comparative...... quality assurance. The debate is compelling with regard to the Swedish case in particular, with its ‘one size fits all’ approach and exclusive focus on outcomes which has been heavily criticised by the higher education institutions and has turned out to be controversial from the European viewpoint....... viewpoint. Based on empirical evidence produced in connection with studies of recent quality reforms in Scandinavia and an approach based on linking diffusion and translation theories with institutionalist perspectives focusing on path dependency, the paper contributes to the current debate on Scandinavian...

  4. Social policies and activation in the Scandinavian welfare model: the case of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Torben M.

    countries been able to reconcile social objectives with a high employment level? It is argued that the Scandinavian welfare model has a strong employment focus both because it is an important element in social policy based on social inclusion, but also because a collective welfare arrangement is only...... financially viable if (private) employment is sufficiently high. To ensure this, the social safety net includes a number of employment conditionalities (active labour market policies/workfare) to balance income protection with an employment focus. These policies are discussed using Denmark as an example...

  5. A 'civic turn' in Scandinavian family migration policies?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Emily Cochran; Borevi, Karin; Mouritsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners’ possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration ...

  6. Policy Making as Bricolage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Aggeri, Franck

    The making of environmental policies is a multi-stakeholders process where actors often hold antagonistic interests. The paper explores how institutional compromises are reached by the mechanism of collective bricolage. Recent studies are developing a view on institutional innovation as bricolage......, but the conditions under which bricolage occurs and succeeds in relation to institutional innovation are still unknown. Drawing on the notion of platform developed in the context of economics performativity, we study their role in bricolage mechanisms. We hold an empirical case study of the GETS platform...... that was instrumental in developing the European carbon market as a corner-stone of European climate policy. Based on the GETS case study, we find three modalities in which platforms stimulate institutional bricolage: catalyzing combinations, managing learning, fostering compromise. These findings draw on, and extend...

  7. Science communication in policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coumou, Hilde; van der Werf Kulichova, Z.; Wehrmann, C.

    2014-01-01

    Policy making regarding application of agricultural biotechnology has been controversial. This study investigates what determines the motivation of European biotech scientists to actively participate in policy making. To do this, a conceptual framework was developed based on the Theory of Planned...

  8. Scandinavian Egalitarianism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærsgård, Andreas Pihl

    The dissertation finds that, compared to people in other western countries, the Scandinavians were exceptionally egalitarian in the period from 1992 to 2009. This Scandinavian egalitarianism seems constituted mostly of an aversion to top-level excess, rather than a wish to spoil the bottom of the...

  9. Immigration and integration policy and labour market attainment among Scandinavian immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Korpi, Tomas; Lorentzen, Thomas

    increasingly deviated, introducing stricter immigration and harsher integration policies. Using Norway and Sweden as benchmarks, we assess the wider impact of this comprehensive policy reversal tracking the evolution of national employment and earnings gaps between 1993 and 2006. We use large data sets...

  10. A 'civic turn' in Scandinavian family migration policies? Comparing Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bech, Emily Cochran; Borevi, Karin; Mouritsen, Per

    2017-01-01

    Family migration policy, once basing citizens and resident foreigners' possibilities to bring in foreign family members mainly on the right to family life, is increasingly a tool states use to limit immigration and to push newcomers to integrate into civic and economic life. The family migration policies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden range widely - from more minimal support and age requirements to high expectations of language skills, work records and even income levels. While in Denmark and increasingly in Norway growing sets of requirements have been justified on the need to protect the welfare state and a Nordic liberal way of life, in Sweden more minimal requirements have been introduced in the name of spurring immigrants' labor market integration even as rights-based reasoning has continued to dominate. In all three countries, new restrictions have been introduced in the wake of the refugee crisis. These cases show how prioritizations of the right to family life vis-à-vis welfare-state sustainability have produced different rules for family entry, and how family migration policies are used to different extents to push civic integration of both new and already settled immigrants.

  11. Federal and European Union Policy Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dosenrode, Søren

    By using the policy cycle approach, this paper compares the policy-process in a number of Anglo-Saxon type federations with the policy-process in continental-European style federations from within the European Union (EU) area.  The comparison would reveal: a) distinct different styles of policy...... making in European style federations in relation with the Anglo-Saxon ones. b) that the policy-process in the EU resembles that of the European style federations, and c) the Constitutional Treaty (CT) or a possible CT-light would strengthen the federal policy-making characteristics already present...

  12. Policy-making in the European Union

    CERN Document Server

    Pollack, Mark A; Young, Alasadair R

    2015-01-01

    Constantly evolving, and with far-reaching implications, European Union policy-making is of central importance to the politics of the European Union. From defining the processes, institutions and modes through which policy-making operates, the text moves on to situate individual policies within these modes, detail their content, and analyse how they are implemented, navigating policy in all its complexities. The first part of the text examines processes, institutions, and the theoretical and analytical underpinnings of policy-making, while the second part considers a wide range of policy areas, from economics to the environment, and security to the single market. Throughout the text, theoretical approaches sit side by side with the reality of key events in the EU, including enlargement, the ratification of the Lisbon Treaty, and the financial crisis and resulting euro area crisis, exploring what determines how policies are made and implemented. In the final part, the editors consider trends in EU policy-makin...

  13. China's Education Policy-Making: A Policy Network Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuangmiao; Ye, Fugui

    2017-01-01

    Policy network approach has become a broadly accepted and frequently adopted practice in modern state governance, especially in the public sector. The study utilises a broadly defined policy network conceptual frame and categories of reference to trace the evolution of education policy-making in China. The study uses "The Outline of China's…

  14. Towards Agents for Policy Making

    OpenAIRE

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Dignum, V; Jonker, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The process of introducing new public policies is a complex one in the sense that the behavior of society at the macro-level depends directly on the individual behavior of the people in that society and ongoing dynamics of the environment. It is at the micro-level that change is initiated, that policies effectively change the behavior of individuals. Since macro-models do not suffice, science has turned to develop and study agent-based simulations, i.e., micro-level models. In correspondence ...

  15. Towards Agents for Policy Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dignum, F.P.M.; Dignum, V.; Jonker, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The process of introducing new public policies is a complex one in the sense that the behavior of society at the macro-level depends directly on the individual behavior of the people in that society and ongoing dynamics of the environment. It is at the micro-level that change is initiated, that

  16. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    A close analysis of the framework of existing governance and the existing jurisdictional arrangements for shipping and ports reveals that while policy-making is characterized by national considerations through flags, institutional representation at all jurisdictions and the inviolability of the state, the commercial, financial, legal and operational environment of the sector is almost wholly global. This governance mismatch means that in practice the maritime industry can avoid policies which it dislikes by trading nations off against one another, while enjoying the freedoms and benefits of a globalized economy. A Post-modern interpretation of this globalized society prompts suggestions for change in maritime policy-making so that the governance of the sector better matches more closely the environment in which shipping and ports operate. Maritime Governance and Policy-Making is a controversial commentary on the record of policy-making in the maritime sector and assesses whether the reason for continued polic...

  17. Strategic Delegation of Environmental Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roelfsema, H. [Utrecht University, Utrecht School of Economics, Vredenburg 138, 3511 BG Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2004-04-15

    A common claim is that nations should cooperate in environmental policy making. However, there is little empirical support that noncooperative decision making results in too low environmental standards and taxes. We develop a theoretical model and show that if the median voter cares sufficiently for the environment, she has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares more for the environment than she does herself. By doing so, she mitigates the 'race to the bottom' in environmental taxes. In contrast, if environmental policies are determined cooperatively with other countries, the median voter has an incentive to delegate policy making to a politician that cares less for the environment than she does herself, so as to free ride on international environmental agreements.

  18. Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koesling, Arne; Herder, Eelco; De Coi, Juri; Abel, Fabian

    2008-01-01

    Koesling, A., Herder, E., De Coi, J., & Abel, F. (2008). Making Legacy LMS adaptable using Policy and Policy templates. In J. Baumeister & M. Atzmüller, Proceedings of the 16th Workshop on Adaptivity and User Modeling in Interactive System, ABIS 2008 (pp. 35-40). October, 6-8, 2008, Würzburg,

  19. Judicial policy-making and Europeanization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Dorte Sindbjerg

    2011-01-01

    Judicial policy-making is having an increasing impact on political domains traditionally guarded by national sovereignty. This paper examines how the European judiciary has expanded Community competences into the policy domains of welfare and immigration, followed by subsequent Europeanization...... been cautious to apply the principle beyond economic law, it no longer treads as reluctantly, instead generally limiting the inner core of national policy control, i.e. the capacity of the national executive to detail, condition and administer national policies in almost all domains....

  20. Making sense of ESOL policy : tutor perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Clare

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores tutor perspectives on ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) learners in the UK. Government policy towards ESOL is increasingly driven by an ideology in which citizenship is conflated with the acquisition of English language skills. Underpinning this way of thinking are concepts of Othering and deficiency. My research aimed to investigate how tutors "make sense" (Spours, Coffield, & Gregson, 2007; James & Biesta, 2007) of ESOL policy in the UK, how this informs tut...

  1. Transforming Government's Policy-making Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Johnston

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We have seen a lot of very welcome progress in terms of making it easier for citizens to input their views into government policy-making processes. However, governments and citizens are now in a similar situation – after a burst of initial enthusiasm, they are not sure what to do next. Governments have struggled to get the mass participation they would like and where significant participation has occurred, have had difficulty integrating it effectively into existing decision-making processes. Citizens have been unsure what to make of this new apparent openness and where they have engaged, have found it hard to know what difference their input made. The solution is to focus on using technology to make existing policy processes more transparent and more participative rather than creating separate e-participation initiatives. The challenge for governments is to open up the whole of the policy process and be prepared to flag up very clearly and explicitly the difference citizen input made. The challenge for e-democracy advocates is to convince policymakers that their ideas can improve the existing policy process rather than simply generating more inputs into it.

  2. Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    2015-01-01

    . We conclude by endorsing the expression “Scandinavian cooperative advantage” in an effort to draw attention to the Scandinavian context and encourage the field of strategic management to shift its focus from achieving a competitive advantage toward achieving a cooperative advantage....

  3. AAS Special Session: Policy Making in Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardelli, J. A.; Massa, D.

    1995-12-01

    The professional astronomical community today is more diverse than at any time in its history. Individuals participating in creative research programs can be found in a wide range of positions. This type of diversity, which mixes research, education, and service (e.g. contract) work, represents the strength of contemporary astronomy. While recognizing the unavoidable reductions in funding and restructuring of organizations like NASA, it is imperative that the significance of the current diversity be considered during these processes. Creative ideas are one of the cornerstones of quality research, and they can originate anywhere. Consequently, it is essential that adequate research resources remain available for free and open competition by all astronomers. Our goal in this session is to bring together officials from the AAS, NASA, and the NSF to discuss how the policy and decision making process operates and whether it should be changed to better serve the general needs of the professional astronomical community. Examples of the issues we believe are important include: In establishing new policy, how can the needs of the average research astronomer be better addressed? How could input from such astronomers be provided to those who craft NASA/NSF policy? How can/should the AAS serve as an interface between policy/decision making bodies and its membership? Should the AAS membership become more actively/effectively involved in the decision making process and, if so, how? More information on this session and related issues can be found at the Association of Research Astronomers Home Page: http://www.phy.vill.edu/astro/faculty/ara/ara_home.htm

  4. Policies and place-making for competitive cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Kovács, Z.; Musterd, S.; Kovács, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Policy-makers are making efforts to strengthen the competitiveness of their cities and urban regions. This book is about these policies and their implications for place-making and competitive cities. Policies driven by ‘classic’ location theory, cluster policies, ‘creative class’ policies aimed at

  5. Scandinavian Participatory Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Ole Sejer; Smith, Rachel Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    As Scandinavian Participatory Design (PD) approach is a highly values-led design approach, and is gaining importance in IDC research, we discuss the underlying values of democracy, quality of work and emancipation of this approach. We present a case study, Digital Natives, in which the Scandinavian...... PD approach was put into practice. Here we involved seven teenagers in the design of an interactive museum exhibition. We discuss how this particular approach effects key design activities such as the establishment of the design space, power relations among participants, the dialogical design process......, project evaluation and the final outcome of the project. We conclude that the end goal of Scandinavian PD is not necessarily the final research prototype. Rather, in Scandinavian PD, designers strive to provide children with meaningful alternatives to existing technologies. It is to help children realize...

  6. Policy Research in the Context of Diffuse Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carol H.

    1982-01-01

    Common strategies for making public educational policy are outlined and a variety of indirect and slow as well as direct uses of policy are examined. Some suggestions are provided for policy analysts to make their work more relevant to current policy debates. (MSE)

  7. Public Policy-Making in Contemporary Ethiopia | Abebe | Africa Insight

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article draws attention to the perennial problems and salient features of public policy-making in contemporary Ethiopia, namely, the imbalance between policy-making institutions and policy benefi ciaries, and how these have infl uenced policy formulation and implementation from 1991 to 2004. Drawing from interviews ...

  8. Nigeria Fertilizer Policy: A Critque Of The Policy Making Process ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article reviews the policy formulation process and its impact on fertilizer policy in Nigeria. A descriptive approach was utilized to analyze past fertilizer policies and their impact on fertilizer usage in the country. Public policy formulation in the world today is dynamic and fast becoming complex for policy makers to grapple ...

  9. Governance and Youth Participation in local policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Haaber Pettersen, Charlotte Louise; Aro, Arja R.

    2016-01-01

    were not directly included in developing healthy public policies in Odense and Esbjerg municipalities mainly due to lack of tradition and supportive mechanisms for including youth in policy making. The mechanisms and pathways to facilitate their involvement were lacking from both communities. Youth...... the Danish principle of participatory policy process and good health system governance. Main messages: Mechanisms to facilitate youth participation in policy making in the study communities were lacking. The Danish goal of improved participatory policy making at the local level was not met.......Background: An evidence-informed approach to public health policy making can support tailor made health-enhancing physical activity policies (HEPA) at the local level. Youth is often a core target group of physical activity policies and their participation in the policy making also should be seen...

  10. Conflict within the Turkish foreign policy decision making mechanism:

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa OĞUZ; Oguz, Mustafa

    2005-01-01

    This thesis presents an analysis of Turkish foreign policy decision making in a theoretical model and argues that Turkish foreign policy is a product of negotiation and compromises among various foreign policy making actors. Theoretical foundation is built on decision units framework advanced by Margaret G. Herman. It applies this framework to two cases and four decision occasions to investigate who made foreign policy decisions and how this influenced foreign policy of Turkey. The first case...

  11. The Scandinavian Welfare States

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte

    1987-01-01

    and emphasises the need to explore the relationship between the family and the state ( and the family and the economy) in difefrent wefare states. The paper emphasises that the qualitative difference in the organization of care work are important for understanding the institutional differences for between...... the welfare states, and especially the Scandinavian welfare states, where motherhood and care work has to day bef´come part of social citizenship The auther argues that even though women have in important ways been empowered in the Scandinavian woefare states as mothers, workers and citizens, they have...

  12. The Society for Scandinavian Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grand, Karina Lykke

    2016-01-01

    The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]......The Society for Nordic Art & the Scandinavian Society [Selskabet for Nordisk Kunst & Skandinavisk Selskab]...

  13. Action research: Scandinavian Experiences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2004-01-01

    The article focus on paradigms, methods and ethics of action research in the Scandinavian countries. The special features of the action research paradigm is identified. A historical overview follows of some main action research projects in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. The tendency towards upsclae...

  14. Challenging Scandinavian employment relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Christian Lyhne; Larsen, Trine Pernille; Madsen, Jørgen Steen

    2011-01-01

    and employment relations in the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish public sector. In this paper, we argue that although differences exist across the Scandinavian countries, it is evident that they have managed to adopt and implement NPM-inspired reforms without dismantling their universal welfare services and strong...

  15. The Scandinavian Cooperative Advantage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward

    In this article we clarify the historical roots of stakeholder theory to establish that a much larger role was played by Scandinavian thinkers in its development than is currently acknowledged. We show that important contributions to the stakeholder concept were being made by Eric Rhenman and his...

  16. A College Trustee's Policy-Making Primer: The Role of a Policy Board in Governing Policy-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolduc, Trudy; Lafrance, Glenys

    This guide to the policy-making functions of community colleges' boards of trustees is based on a 3-year operational review conducted by Cambrian College in Sudbury, Ontario (Canada). The guide begins by outlining the purposes and processes of Cambrian's governance self-study. Next, differences among Canadian colleges that affect the role of their…

  17. Government and Educational Reform: Policy Networks in Policy-Making in Zimbabwe, 1980-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyo, Nathan; Modiba, Maropeng M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reflects on the key actors in education policy making in Zimbabwe. It looks at the contextual complexities that characterized policy-making in this country to make sense of the contestations that the state had to confront and accommodate. The policy network approach is employed as an analytical framework to clarify how, in particular…

  18. Evidence based policy-making: A review

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Strydom, FW

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available the engagement between science and policymaking. It is concluded that the issue of evidence-based policymaking remains unresolved and questions for future research on the science–policy interface are raised....

  19. Europeanising Intercultural Education: Politics and Policy Making in Cyprus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajisoteriou, Christina

    2010-01-01

    Historically, education policy making has been interwoven with the nation-building project. However, the centrality of the nation state in education policy making has been constrained by a wide range of new socio-political and economic phenomena that relate to European integration. This article explores the ways in which European education…

  20. Policy-Making in Unemployment Services:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caswell, Dorte; Høybye-Mortensen, Matilde

    The development of paternalist policies, such as the increase of punitive methods in welfare services, has been identified and analysed internationally (Mead, 1998; Soss et al., 2011a). The combination of these with an emphasis on instruments such as competition and performance measurement has be...... are categorised as having problems besides unemployment (Caswell et al., 2011)....

  1. Economic development, climate and values: making policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Nicholas

    2015-08-07

    The two defining challenges of this century are overcoming poverty and managing the risks of climate change. Over the past 10 years, we have learned much about how to tackle them together from ideas on economic development and public policy. My own work in these areas over four decades as an academic and as a policy adviser in universities and international financial institutions has focused on how the investment environment and the empowerment of people can change lives and livelihoods. The application of insights from economic development and public policy to climate change requires rigorous analysis of issues such as discounting, modelling the risks of unmanaged climate change, climate policy targets and estimates of the costs of mitigation. The latest research and results show that the case for avoiding the risks of dangerous climate change through the transition to low-carbon economic development and growth is still stronger than when the Stern Review was published. This is partly because of evidence that some of the impacts of climate change are happening more quickly than originally expected, and because of remarkable advances in technologies, such as solar power. Nevertheless, significant hurdles remain in securing the international cooperation required to avoid dangerous climate change, not least because of disagreements and misunderstandings about key issues, such as ethics and equity. © 2015 The Author(s).

  2. European Market Making and Policy Duplication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frankel, Christian

    2013-01-01

    This paper argues that private regulation has been essential to the making of the common European market. The distinction between negative and positive integration, usually used to understand the making of the common European market, only gives us part of the picture, as it focuses on public...... authorities and the regulation issued by them, and tends to ignore private authorities. A focus on private regulation is suggested to enlarge the focus on positive and negative integration, and this is used in an analysis of EU's removal of barriers to trade from 1958 to 2000. The paper shows that private...... regulation in the form of technical standardisation has become essential to European market making....

  3. Case Studies in Policy Making. Twelfth Edition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    effort. The point man for much of the actual policy implementation in Cuba was Chief of Mission, U.S. Interests Section Havana, Ambassador James C. Cason ... Cason , who eventually became the U.S. ambassador to Paraguay, undertook many ef- forts to break Castro’s information blockade and advance Bush’s...prodemocracy agenda. According to Cason , “[T]he Castro regime reserves for itself the exclusive prerogative to de- termine what Cubans should know

  4. Gastrointestinal hormone research - with a Scandinavian annotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rehfeld, Jens F

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal hormones are peptides released from neuroendocrine cells in the digestive tract. More than 30 hormone genes are currently known to be expressed in the gut, which makes it the largest hormone-producing organ in the body. Modern biology makes it feasible to conceive the hormones un......, but also constitute regulatory systems operating in the whole organism. This overview of gut hormone biology is supplemented with an annotation on some Scandinavian contributions to gastrointestinal hormone research....

  5. Public policy-making and risk profiles: Scandinavian centre-right governments after the turn of the millennium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    , the textbook risk profile of centre-right parties’ electorates allows them to cut back on labour market-related schemes since these parties get negligible support from workers and low income voters. Conducting a comparative case study of recent Danish and Swedish centre-right governments, this article analyses......-related welfare schemes. Second, I argue that the leeway on labour market-related schemes is contingent on the actual risk profile of the centre-right’s electorate, and thereby move beyond the stylised assumptions from recent literature. In this respect, the Danish centre-right did, in contrast to its Swedish......Recent theoretical advances in the welfare state literature have outlined the differences between labour market- and life course-related schemes as centre-right parties have difficulties in enacting retrenchment on life course-related schemes because they concern every voter. In contrast...

  6. Dissolving decision making? : Models and their roles in decision-making processes and policy at large

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiss, Ragna; van Egmond, S.

    2014-01-01

    This article studies the roles three science-based models play in Dutch policy and decision making processes. Key is the interaction between model construction and environment. Their political and scientific environments form contexts that shape the roles of models in policy decision making.

  7. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...... universal public interventions and a high degree of employment in the formal labor market for all. The thesis promoted in this paper is, that the Scandinavian welfare regime ought to be highly desirable elsewhere, but unfortunately rather difficult to replicate, because it is premised upon a set...

  8. Health policy making for street children: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Saeieh, Sara Esmaelzadeh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh

    2017-08-17

    Background The phenomenon of street children is a bio-psychological and social issue that not only harms children, but also endangers the health of a society. In line with the national programs for the development and promotion of street children's health in Iran, health policy making and essential strategies for this group of children will be presented in this paper. This paper will discuss the main issues and challenges of street children's health and, also, health policy and guidelines for this population. Methods In this review study, the keywords; street children, health, challenges, policy, and health policy making were searched through PubMed, SID, Iranmedex, World Health Organization (WHO), Emro, the Cochran Library, Medline and Google scholar to collect data. The search resulted in 84 related resources from which 48 cases that were more relevant to this research and covered the issue more comprehensively, were used. All data published during 2002-2015 have been included in this paper. Results Key concepts including street children and their health, health policy, strategies to improve the health of street children, health policy approaches for street children, the WHO's strategies, and social support program for street children must be considered in the health policy making processes for street children, as precise identification of the relevant information makes planning more effective in health policy making for this group of children. Conclusion The phenomenon of street children is a growing problem in the world and it has turned into a serious concern in many countries including Iran. The findings of this study can be used for identifying necessary measures in order to use research outcomes more effectively in policy making processes and reforming street children's health policies in Iran.

  9. Evolving Bureaucratic Politics in Chinese Foreign Policy-Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qingmin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    .... Its conclusion is that the foreign policy-making process of the People's Republic of China (PRC) has progressed from the ideology based in-party factionalism of "line battles" to interest-based government politics of organizational competition...

  10. Knowledge to Policy: Making the Most of Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    5 avr. 2009 ... A major contribution to an understudied, poorly understood, but critical aspect of development. — John Young, Director of Programmes, Research and Policy in Development Group (RAPID), Overseas Development Institute, London. Does research influence public policy and decision-making and, if so, ...

  11. National platforms for evidence-informed physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rus, Diana; Bozdog, Elena; Loncarevic, Natasa

    Evidence-informed policy making in physical activity calls for inter-sectoral and interdisciplinary collaboration. To facilitate the exchange of knowledge, experiences and ideas across practice, policy and research, as part of the REPOPA Project and dissemination work, it was encouraged...

  12. Situating School District Resource Decision Making in Policy Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, Angeline K.

    2016-01-01

    Decentralization and deregulation policies assume that local educational leaders make better resource decisions than state policy makers do. Conceptual models drawn from organizational theory, however, offer competing predictions about how district central office administrators are likely to leverage their professional expertise in devolved…

  13. Liquidity problems and policy implications during the recent financial crisis in the Baltic-Scandinavian region: ex ante empirical study. Likviidsusprobleemid ning nende majanduspoliitiline käsitlus viimase finantskriisi ajal Balti ja Skandinaavia regioon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Karilaid

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an empirical examination of the development and determinants of the liquidity position in the financial sector during the past financial crises in the Baltic-Scandinavian region. We look at fiscal and monetary policy implications of the liquidity problems arising in the crisis, using panel data from Datastream and IFS data collection. The results are consistent with the theoretical predictions for a small open economy with the expected sign of changes and developments in common economic indicators. The main finding is that the changes (and the speed of changes of interest rates, GDP and money supply have occurred relatively fast, meaning that the rising area of the LM-curve has been shorter than theory would predict. Market reactions took place quickly and relatively simultaneously – there was no time for the slow restructuring, thus liquidity needs were higher than generally. The impact of crises on the liquidity position of the financial sector is also studied.

  14. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2011-01-01

    Firstly, I develop a theoretical framework for the discussion of religion i Scandinavian crime fiction where I consider theories of transgression and religion. Secondly, I run through five relatively popular examples of Scandinavian crime fiction to show how this genre trend works. Lastly, I...

  15. Making a Difference? Bringing Children's and Young People's Views into Policy-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisdall, E. Kay M.; Davis, John

    2004-01-01

    As the participation of children and young people in policy decision-making has spread in the UK, participation work is facing hard questions on its translation from principle to effective practice. The participation literature has been largely self-referential in its consideration of policy influence. This paper considers the potential usefulness…

  16. Integrating research evidence and physical activity policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aro, Arja R.; Bertram, Maja; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that regular physical activity is enhanced by supporting environment. Studies are needed to integrate research evidence into health enhancing, cross-sector physical activity (HEPA) policy making. This article presents the rationale, study design, measurement procedures...... and the initial results of the first phase of six European countries in a five-year research project (2011-2016), REsearch into POlicy to enhance Physical Activity (REPOPA). REPOPA is programmatic research; it consists of linked studies; the first phase studied the use of evidence in 21 policies in implementation...... to learn more in depth from the policy making process and carried out 86 qualitative stakeholder interviews. The second, ongoing phase builds on the central findings of the first phase in each country; it consists of two sets of interventions: game simulations to study cross-sector collaboration...

  17. Teaching Scandinavian Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    2016-01-01

    Methods for interaction design have emerged and established themselves first in a Scandinavian context, later in US context and in the rest of the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques...... that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in West Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement be directly transferred? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the communication of interaction design knowledge in West Africa by discussing whether insights from...... Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa....

  18. New Nordic and Scandinavian retro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Niels Peter; Munch, Anders V.

    2016-01-01

    to the current international neo-modernism in the form of digitally designed and industrially produced items in often thought-provoking minimalist forms and are directed at an elitist, international audience that wants to engage with these demanding aesthetics and the ideal picture of Nordic cultures—as a nice...... design and gourmet destination. New Nordic Design shows that the image and ideals of Scandinavian Modern are still living, as a subtle version of Scandinavian Retro, a reimagination of the lifestyle and values of Scandinavian Modern....

  19. Approaches to Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agger, Gunhild

    2010-01-01

    The working paper discusses some of the major approaches to Scandinavian crime fiction in the light of the dominant features of crime culture, e.g. the broad exposure of crime fiction via different platforms and media. In this connection, the concept of mediatization is considered as well...... as the approach of genre typology and the concept of evil – seemingly disparate concepts and approaches, but all related to the complex processes in the borderlands between crime fiction and society. Using examples from Scandinavian crime fiction, I discuss whether the growing proximity to international genres......, ways of production and standards increasingly removes Scandinavian crime fiction from its original attractions or not....

  20. Making robust policy decisions using global biodiversity indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Emily; Collen, Ben; Barausse, Alberto; Blanchard, Julia L; Costelloe, Brendan T; Sullivan, Kathryn M E; Underwood, Fiona M; Burn, Robert W; Fritz, Steffen; Jones, Julia P G; McRae, Louise; Possingham, Hugh P; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2012-01-01

    In order to influence global policy effectively, conservation scientists need to be able to provide robust predictions of the impact of alternative policies on biodiversity and measure progress towards goals using reliable indicators. We present a framework for using biodiversity indicators predictively to inform policy choices at a global level. The approach is illustrated with two case studies in which we project forwards the impacts of feasible policies on trends in biodiversity and in relevant indicators. The policies are based on targets agreed at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) meeting in Nagoya in October 2010. The first case study compares protected area policies for African mammals, assessed using the Red List Index; the second example uses the Living Planet Index to assess the impact of a complete halt, versus a reduction, in bottom trawling. In the protected areas example, we find that the indicator can aid in decision-making because it is able to differentiate between the impacts of the different policies. In the bottom trawling example, the indicator exhibits some counter-intuitive behaviour, due to over-representation of some taxonomic and functional groups in the indicator, and contrasting impacts of the policies on different groups caused by trophic interactions. Our results support the need for further research on how to use predictive models and indicators to credibly track trends and inform policy. To be useful and relevant, scientists must make testable predictions about the impact of global policy on biodiversity to ensure that targets such as those set at Nagoya catalyse effective and measurable change.

  1. Making robust policy decisions using global biodiversity indicators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Nicholson

    Full Text Available In order to influence global policy effectively, conservation scientists need to be able to provide robust predictions of the impact of alternative policies on biodiversity and measure progress towards goals using reliable indicators. We present a framework for using biodiversity indicators predictively to inform policy choices at a global level. The approach is illustrated with two case studies in which we project forwards the impacts of feasible policies on trends in biodiversity and in relevant indicators. The policies are based on targets agreed at the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD meeting in Nagoya in October 2010. The first case study compares protected area policies for African mammals, assessed using the Red List Index; the second example uses the Living Planet Index to assess the impact of a complete halt, versus a reduction, in bottom trawling. In the protected areas example, we find that the indicator can aid in decision-making because it is able to differentiate between the impacts of the different policies. In the bottom trawling example, the indicator exhibits some counter-intuitive behaviour, due to over-representation of some taxonomic and functional groups in the indicator, and contrasting impacts of the policies on different groups caused by trophic interactions. Our results support the need for further research on how to use predictive models and indicators to credibly track trends and inform policy. To be useful and relevant, scientists must make testable predictions about the impact of global policy on biodiversity to ensure that targets such as those set at Nagoya catalyse effective and measurable change.

  2. Scandinavian epidemiological research in gastroenterology and hepatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björnsson, Einar S; Ekbom, Anders

    2015-06-01

    In the last decades, a large number of epidemiological studies in gastroenterology and hepatology have originated from the Scandinavian countries. With the help of large health databases, with good validity and other registries related to patient outcomes, researchers from the Scandinavian countries have been able to make some very important contributions to the field. These countries, Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark and Iceland, have all universal access to health care and have shown to be ideal for epidemiological research. Population-based studies have been frequent and follow-up studies have been able to describe the temporal trends and changes in phenotypes. Our ability in Scandinavia to follow up defined groups of patients over time has been crucial to learn the natural history of many gastrointestinal and liver diseases and often in a population-based setting. Patient-related outcomes measures will probably gain increasing importance in the future, but Scandinavian gastroenterologists and surgeons are likely to have a better infrastructure for such endeavors compared to most other populations. Thus, there is a bright future for international competitive research within the field of gastrointestinal and liver diseases in Scandinavia.

  3. Norwegian environmental policy-making and the role of NGOs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rommetvedt, Hilmar; Farsund, Arild Aurvaag; Melberg, Kjersti

    1997-12-31

    This publication examines the role of pressure groups and their influence in the environmental policy-making processes in Norway. Fields concerned in this connection are in which ways do environmental and industrial organizations influence political authorities, and what kind of impact do the different organizations have on the processes mentioned. The publication presents firstly a classification of different types of relations between organized interests and public authorities, and of the different methods used to influence policy-making. Based on this classification and more general developmental trends in Norwegian politics, the publication then gives an elaboration of some hypotheses regarding environmental and industrial organizations and their influence on environmental policy. The validity of these hypotheses is examined through empirical data from surveys and case-studies. 27 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  4. Governance and political consumerism in Finnish energy policy-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruostetsaari, Ilkka [University of Turku, Turku (Finland)

    2009-01-15

    The research task in the study was, firstly, to analyse citizens' perceptions of the power structure underlying Finnish energy policy-making. Secondly, we analysed the role of civil society in the energy sector, addressing the question whether Finns feel that they can influence energy policy-making as citizens through general elections (civic participation) or as consumers via their own consumption choices (political consumerism). Methodologically, the study was based on postal survey conducted in 2007 among a random sample representing 18-75-year-old Finns (N=4000). According to the views expressed, the innermost core of the influence structure of Finland's energy policy-making today comprises only the Cabinet and Parliament, while the second circle is composed of energy-producer firms and big firms. The European Union, the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of Trade and Industry belong to the third circle of influence. The power relations in Finland's energy sector have continued particularly stable since the late 1980s despite the liberalization and globalization of the energy markets. In order to influence energy policy-making, citizens consider their own consumption choices more useful than voting in elections or contacts with MPs, authorities and energy-producing companies. The least useful devices are radical environmental activism and participation in mass demonstrations. (author)

  5. A dual justification for science-based policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2014-01-01

    Science-based policy-making has grown ever more important in recent years, in parallel with the dramatic increase in the complexity and uncertainty of the ways in which science and technology interact with society and economy at the national, regional and global level. Installing a proper framework...

  6. Democratization and Participation: National Education Policy-Making in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredua-Kwarteng, Eric

    2016-01-01

    This is Ghanaian case study that focuses on widening participation in national education policy-making via a social justice panel. It analyses the narratives of two former members of the Ghana Education Reform Committee and focus-groups interviews of ordinary Ghanaians. While the narratives of commission members are in favour of maintaining the…

  7. Personality Variables in Foreign Policy Decision Making Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Karen S.

    Described and critiqued are studies that attempt to describe how personality factors affect foreign policy decision making. Political behavior cannot be explained in terms of personality alone. Such an attempt is a psychological reductionism that ignores the chains of causation that run from underlying personality construct to social and political…

  8. Uncertainty in macroeconomic policy-making: art or science?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aikman, David; Barrett, Philip; Kapadia, Sujit; King, Mervyn; Proudman, James; Taylor, Tim; de Weymarn, Iain; Yates, Tony

    2011-12-13

    Uncertainty is pervasive in economic policy-making. Modern economies share similarities with other complex systems in their unpredictability. But economic systems also differ from those in the natural sciences because outcomes are affected by the state of beliefs of the systems' participants. The dynamics of beliefs and how they interact with economic outcomes can be rich and unpredictable. This paper relates these ideas to the recent crisis, which has reminded us that we need a financial system that is resilient in the face of the unpredictable and extreme. It also highlights how such uncertainty puts a premium on sound communication strategies by policy-makers. This creates challenges in informing others about the uncertainties in the economy, and how policy is set in the face of those uncertainties. We show how the Bank of England tries to deal with some of these challenges in its communications about monetary policy.

  9. Science and Policy in Interaction: On practices of science policy interactions for policy-making in health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Egmond (Stans)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractIn times of crisis, such as in the case of the volcanic ash cloud, the role of science in policy-making processes becomes more apparent than in ‘normal’, less controversial times. There is, however, hardly a policy area imaginable where science is not involved – even though that role, in

  10. Scandinavian exceptionalism in anti-doping within sport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tangen, Jan Ove; Møller, Verner

    2017-01-01

    Why are Scandinavian countries so committed to the cause of antidoping? In this paper, we propose that the Scandinavian mentality, formed by paternalistic welfare models, is a useful framework for understanding anti-doping. We focus on anti-doping policy and work in Norway and Denmark. We start......: the Norwegian self-image and its impact on politics, and Danish amateurism and corrupt idealism. We conclude that Nordic antidoping is pursued with rigour and determination, and suggest this is rooted in the Nordic countries’ exceptional social-welfare ideology and strong paternalism....

  11. Healthy kids: Making school health policy a participatory learning process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernqvist, Nanna Wurr; Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Høstgaard Bonde, Ane

    . Methods The presented model works at two levels - the classroom and the organizational level – and is based on four phases, namely: Investigation – Vision – Action – Change, viewed as an iterative process. Pupil perspectives and learning is the basis in all four phases based on a set of health education......Introduction: Research has suggested various school health policy models aimed at promoting children’s health through policy processes. The models present some overall phases in the process, but also different barriers calling for more in-depth qualitative studies (1). With education as the school...... programmes. Simultaneously a staff health team is formed from existing organisational structures, integrating local knowledge and building support for school policy making based on the pupils’ visions. A pilot study - applying the model in one Danish elementary school - has been conducted as an action...

  12. Transport policy-making and planning Javanese cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitriou, H.

    1995-12-31

    Based on findings of field studies in five Javanese cities in Indonesia, this paper looks at a hierarchy of settlements and investigates what aspects of urban development and the transport sector most influences transport policy-making and planning in the country. The paper highlights the presence of a community hierarchy within these settlements with consonant trip-making patterns and the widespread mis-use of certain transport modes. The paper cross-relates observed transport problems and policy issues diagnosed from the five Javanese cities with an earlier prepared national agenda of urban transport policy issues and problems. This is done with a view to arriving at more sensitive policy and planning responses nationwide for cities of different kinds in Indonesia. The paper commences with an explanation of the settlement hierarchy and community structure employed by Indonesian government planners. An attempt is then made to relate this hierarchy and structure to the five cities studied. Within this context, factors affecting urban transport are discussed and tabulated against the above cities settlement hierarchy. These include aspects of: settlement size, structure and area; settlement development policy, urban for, density and topography; and travel and transport characteristics. An attempt is made to match this settlement hierarchy (and its constituent community structure) with a conceptualized hierarchy of transport modes, simultaneously investigating: the relationship between urban communities and assigned road hierarchies; community-based travel demand and trip-making characteristics; and the relationship between travel, speed and distance. From this an assessment is made of the performance and current use and mis-use of such transport modes.

  13. Nondecision making and inertia in Portuguese health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Mónica D; Magone, José M; Pereira, João A

    2005-01-01

    Despite there having been a positive context for initiating health care reforms in Portugal in the past fifteen years (accompanied by political consensus on the nature of the structural problems within the health care system), there has been a lack of reform initiatives. We use a process-based framework to show how institutional arrangements have influenced Portuguese health care reform. Evidence is presented to demonstrate inertia and nondecision making in three critical areas of Portuguese health policy: clarifying the public-private mix in coverage and provision, creating financial incentives and motivation for human resources, and introducing changes in the pharmaceutical market. Several factors seem to explain these processes, namely, problems in the balance of power within the political system, which have contributed to a lack of proper policy discussion; a lack of pluralism in the formation of health care policies (with low participation from citizens and high mobilization among structural interest groups); and the low priority of health care in public sector reforms. Portuguese politicians should be aware of the pitfalls of the current political system that constrain participatory arrangements and pluralism in policy making. In order to pursue health care reform, future governments will need to counterbalance the strong influence of structural interest groups.

  14. Religion in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    connected with modernity, modern society and ensuing secularity, but the question is, then, what happens to crime fiction if modern societies no longer uphold its trust in secular ideals. The thesis is that this leaves modern Scandinavian media open for a religious discussion which then also seeps...... into popular crime fiction. In novels by Arne Dahl, Henning Mortensen, Gunnar Staalesen, A.J. Kazinski, Gretelise Holm and several other Scandinavian writers of crime fiction it is possible to locate an interest in theology and topics of religious philosophy which reflects this current trend in modern...... Scandinavian media where religion has become mediatized. Consumers of popular culture no longer endorse confidence in institutionalized religion, but that does not mean that people are losing faith: Faith only seem to adjust itself and tiptoe into popular media and popular fiction. Hence, this paper seeks...

  15. Postsecularism in Scandinavian Crime Fiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kim Toft

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the postsecular turn in Scandinavian crime fiction. Postsecularism describes a renewed openness towards questions of spirituality, while maintaining the practice of critical scrutiny. Since 2000, we have seen an intensive increase in the number of titles treating religion and....../or spirituality in a way which differs from the genre’s usual approach. Firstly, I will frame the traditional attitude towards religion in crime fiction by Scandinavian welfare modernity, outlining the conspicuous absence of religion in the genre. Secondly, I propose a typology of the treatment of religion...... in crime fiction. My examples are all taken from the vast corpus of contemporary Scandinavian crime fiction, but it would be rather unproblematic to stretch the scope of the theory to an analysis of western crime fiction in general. Within this typology, I will introduce the phenomenon of a religious...

  16. Archival Education in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Hanefi Kutluoğlu

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Every country has responsibilities to provide the necessary personnel needed for their archival inheritance by education. Education can be shaped through tradition, historical inheritance and scientifi c necessities by defi ning the right educational method. Scandinavian countries have determined different education models based on their tradition, historical inheritance and requirements. In this article we focused on the formation of archival tradition, application of archival education in Scandinavian countries and the infl uence of the developments taking place in Europe on these countries. The relation between the archival education in European and Scandinavian countries is evaluated through a comparative method, and similarities to other countries are also evaluated. Finally, the present situation of archival education and the measures needed in this fi eld are taken into consideration.

  17. Governing health equity in Scandinavian municipalities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Little, Ingvild; Diderichsen, Finn

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: Local governments in the Scandinavian countries are increasingly committed to reduce health inequity through 'health equity in all policies' (HEiAP) governance. There exists, however, only very sporadic implementation evidence concerning municipal HEiAP governance, which is the focus...... to health equity goals outside of the health sector and inadequate economic prioritization budget curbs implementation. Concerning evidence, there is a lack of epidemiological data, detailed evidence of health equity interventions as well as indicators relevant for monitoring implementation. Concerted...... administrative action relates to a lack of vertical support and alignment from the national and the regional level to the local level. Horizontally within the municipality, insufficient coordination across policy sectors inhibits effective health equity governance. CONCLUSIONS: A shift away from 'health in all...

  18. The Infinitive Marker across Scandinavian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ken Ramshøj

    2007-01-01

    In this paper I argue that the base-position of the infinitive marker in the Scandinavian languages and English share a common origin site. It is inserted as the top-most head in the VP-domain. The cross-linguistic variation in the syntactic distribution of the infinitive marker can be accounted...

  19. Creating Adaptive Policies: A Guide for Policy-making in an ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-01-01

    Jan 1, 2009 ... This is an essential toolkit for those in the business of making, recommending, learning about or teaching sensible and sound policy. – Margaret Catley-Carlson (United Nations Secretary General Advisory Board on Water, Patron, Global Water Partnership, and Chair, World Economic Forum Global Agenda ...

  20. Scandinavian Nurse Specialist Group/Cystic Fibrosis (SNSG/CF)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bregnballe, Vibeke; Erwander, Inger

    2006-01-01

    Aims: SNSG/CF was established to stimulate and improve cooperation between CF nurses from Scandinavian CF centers. Methods: SNSG/CF includes all the CF centers in Norway (Oslo and Bergen), Sweden (Stockholm, Gothenburg, Lund and Uppsala) and Denmark (Copenhagen and Aarhus). The board of SNSG....../CF comprises one CF nurse from each of the centers. The board meets twice a year to plan workshops and courses. SNSG/CF is part of the International Nurse Specialist Group/Cystic Fibrosis (INSG/CF). Results: Within the framework of SNSG/CF a 2-day workshop is held every second year for approximately 40...... Scandinavian CF nurses. A twelve-day CF course equivalent to 5 ECTS has been held once. Twenty-one nurses, physiotherapists and dieticians attended the course and the course will be repeated. SNSG/CF plans to make a common Scandinavian database on nursing interventions in CE SNSG/CF aims to conduct common...

  1. Identifying and Comparing Scandinavian Ethnography: Comparisons and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant growth in the volume of research production in education ethnography in Scandinavia due partly to a regionally financed network. The present article makes some comparisons between Scandinavian and other education research contexts in relation to aspects of general ethnographic design to try to analyse…

  2. Pharmaceutical expenditure forecast model to support health policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rémuzat, Cécile; Urbinati, Duccio; Kornfeld, Åsa; Vataire, Anne-Lise; Cetinsoy, Laurent; Aballéa, Samuel; Mzoughi, Olfa; Toumi, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    generics had a major impact on savings. However, very aggressive pricing of generic and biosimilar products might make this market unattractive and can be counterproductive. Worth noting, delaying time to access innovative products was also identified as an effective leverage to increase savings but might not be a desirable policy for breakthrough products. Increasing patient financial contributions, either directly or indirectly via their private insurances, is a more likely scenario rather than expanding the national pharmaceutical expenditure coverage.

  3. The Politics of Local Tax Policy-Making in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swianiewicz Paweł

    2016-06-01

    To what extent is tax policy an important item of the local political agenda in Polish municipalities ? Is it a subject of intense debates at city hall and local councils or is it accepted as a routine exercise ? The results suggest that the issues related to local taxes play a relatively marginal role compared to issues such as the location of major investments. However, the importance of taxes in local debates increases in those local communities in which the tax yields collected are larger and in the case of those taxes which are paid by a wider group of tax payers.Who governs in local tax-policy-making ? According to local provisions the proposal of tax resolution is submitted by the mayor, and the local council makes the final decision. But empirical findings suggest that the practice follows the “strong mayor” model, in which the local political leader, supporter by his staff of the financial department, is more influential than the councilors.

  4. Constructing consumers. Efforts to make governmentality through energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godbolt, Aasne L.; Karlstroem, Henrik; Soerensen, Knut H. (Centre for Energy and Society, Dept. of Interdisciplinary Studies of Culture, Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway))

    2009-07-01

    The paper focuses on the way household consumers have been perceived and constructed by Norwegian policy-makers through a period of 30 years. It shows how, Norwegian energy policy makers have engaged in the making of ambiguous, vague and shifting constructions of consumers and their anticipated market behaviour. We have identified three main shifts in the constructions, each related to a particular time period. The first came about in the wake of the international oil crisis of 1973, when a combined focus on energy conservation and economic efficiency of energy use were introduced as a goal in Norwegian energy policy. This construction was based on a belief in economically rational behaviour, but rendered unclear by observations of deficits related to knowledge and morals. The second shift occurred at the end of the 1980s, with the introduction of the proposal of a new Energy Act with the aim of deregulating the electricity trade. The result was a controversy and construction of two versions of the consumer as economically rational or as in need of political care. The third change came with the crisis in the supply of electricity that occurred during the winter of 2002/2003. This meant a shift towards a focus on investment in technology rather than the act of consuming. We suggest that the ineffectiveness of energy efficiency measures to some extent has been due to these constructions. On this basis, we propose the need for policy-makers to be more reflexive about the performance of their constructions, maybe also engage more actively with other social science research than economics to find knowledge about consumers.

  5. Innovation gaps in Scandinavian rural tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalager, Anne Mette; Kwiatkowski, Grzegorz; Østervig Larsen, Martin

    2018-01-01

    that rural tourism has its basis in a dichotomy between authenticity and modernization. New and prospective customer groups, particularly from Germany, demand more diversified and higher quality rural tourism products than current groups, for example, in relation to outdoor opportunities, leisure festivals......© 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Drawing on primary data from a consumer survey (N = 2000), this study demonstrates a clear growth potential in rural tourism in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, which is, however, hampered by innovation gaps. At the conceptual level......, the study offers a model that identifies the following five innovation gaps in Scandinavian rural tourism: (1) the portfolio gap, (2) the policy departmentalization gap, (3) the knowledge gap, (4) the change motivation gap, and (5) the resource interpretation gap. At the empirical level, the study shows...

  6. Design Concepts and Design Practices in Policy-Making and Public Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junginger, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    governments but they also pose new challenges for policy-makers and public administrators who are not yet familiar with design concepts, principles and methods beyond problem-solving. Despite the many linkages between and among design, designing, policy-making and policy implementation, we have yet to clarify...... how and what makes design relevant to policy-makers and public managers. Although policy-making, in its essence, constitutes a design activity, policy-making is not widely discussed in design terms. Literature on policy-making processes and policy design has treated design almost exclusively...... that could “achieve more humanizing outcomes” (Lynch 1965) and meaningfully transform government. Problem-solving design is then contrasted with design as inquiry. The paper concludes that a more sophisticated understanding of design concepts, methods and practices in policy-making is a condition...

  7. Future needs for Nursing Talents in Scandinavian countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Randi Kjelde; Herholdt-Lomholdt, Sine Maria

    2017-01-01

    Review question/objective: The aim of this review is to systematically identify, appraise and synthesize available text and opinion papers from policy-makers and trade unions in Scandinavian countries (Denmark, Sweden and Norway) containing information about nursing talent needed in healthcare...... systems for the future. The overall objective is to identify and synthesize the opinions of various stakeholders of what they believe is required in terms of nursing talent in Scandinavia. In this review, ‘‘nursing talent’’ refers to certain skills or competencies that are essential within nursing to meet...... the challenges and demands of future health care. The purpose of this review is to provide knowledge about the opinions of two key stakeholders (policy-makers and trade unions) on nursing talent needed in future Scandinavian healthcare systems....

  8. Tobacco Industry interference in TAPS policy making in Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel P Antonov

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco industry (TI has a powerful grasp of politics and the media in Bulgaria, but there is limited knowledge of its methods and communication messages. To explore and analyse them, we are using a recent case from the policy advocacy practice of the Smoke-free Life Coalition, ENSP member in Bulgaria. A mixed social research methodology was employed, involving: a case study; qualitative content analysis of documented communication; ethnographic participant observation; and semi-structured interviews with TAPS advocacy campaigners, policy makers and TI representatives, in the action research tradition. The case study analyses TI reaction to a surprising proposal for a complete ban of tobacco advertising, promotion and sponsorship, submitted to Bulgaria’s Parliament in November 2016 – and consecutively withdrawn. Being involved in all stages of the case and present at meetings between TI and MPs enables the researchers to gather rich information and analyse it, to cast light on: the methods for successful interference with democratic decision making, applied by industry representatives; the specific communication messages and arguments they employ to suppress smoke-free legislation. The paper observes how TI speculates with the interests of different groups, affected by and involved in its operations, to successfully contradict health concerns voiced by MPs. Democratically elected representatives appear unable to uphold the social and health interests of their voters and succumb to TI priorities. The paper concludes that a pro-industry discourse, which favours corporate incomes over concerns for people’s health and life, dominates democratic decision making mechanisms in Bulgaria’s post-socialist political landscape. Funding The Union Against Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases

  9. Variables in health care policy-making: resolving a quandary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, George P

    2009-08-01

    Contemporary debate on health care resource management is tied to a central moral issue: how to achieve an optimum level of reasonable or appropriate treatment based on the medical condition of each patient. Failure to tackle and resolve this issue in a confident and forthright manner ensures that the present approach to health care decision-making will continue in a state of indecisiveness if not, indeed, lethargy. Undergirding this moral issue is the foundational economic dilemma of controlling costs while limiting access to health care resources. Crafting a just solution to an equitable distribution of finite health care resources is, indeed, a quandary, if not almost an impossibility. What this article seeks to do, nonetheless, is to undertake an examination of the principles, socio-economic values and public policies needed to formulate health care compromises necessary to achieve greater stability in the normative decision-making process. In turn, this will ensure, ideally, a level of distributive justice in the total allocative process.

  10. The anatomy of EU policy-making: Appointing the experts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Field

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available At 38,000, the total number of staff at the European Commission is relatively small for a body representing half a billion citizens. Likewise, the 3,500 strong research and statistical team is modest in size given that it operates across the Directorates General and other services. In order to assist policy-makers, the Commission supplements this research base by using outside expertise to advise at all stages of the policy-making process. For many years, those who observe the European Union’s institutions have recognised that this use of outside expertise to assist with the shaping of policy presents a potential democratic shortfall. The 2001 White Paper on Governance acknowledged that the line between expertise and political authority had become blurred and that, increasingly, the public questioned the independence of expert advice. The following year, the Commission published its first set of guidelines on the collection and use of expertise, listing ‘openness’ as one of three core principles. Despite considerable changes that have occurred in the transparency landscape in the intervening period, the Commission’s commitment to this core principle of expertise remains. This article investigates the measures the Commission introduced specifically to facilitate this openness. Applying a structure-agency approach, the article characterises an expert group as a ‘community of knowledge’ and contrasts the transparency of the Commission’s formal appointment procedures with the less visible but frequently used informal measures through which individuals are identified and approached. Based on a recent and highly relevant case, the article employs data gathered from the near contemporaneous accounts of expert group members and Commission officials. It finds that the reported appointment processes do not reflect the widespread incidence of individuals selected based on previous contact or personal recommendation and argues that this may

  11. Making healthy public policy; developing the science by learning the art: an ecological framework for policy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milio, N

    1987-01-01

    During the 1980s increasing attention has been given to the view that a vast array of public policies have great potential for health promotion and that this potential ought to be developed. After briefly discussing the basis for this concept and its policy implications, this article turns to a major corequisite for making healthy public policy a political reality: learning how to do it. Where healthy public policy exists, how did it happen? This is a question that calls for a new generation of policy studies, one that is relevant to advocates of healthy public policy within and outside governments. An ecological framework of policy-making is proposed for such studies, delineating the social climate, key players, and strategic action. From it, operational indicators and study methods are suggested, in order to learn some general principles, within a real-world context, of how to develop public policies that are healthful.

  12. The Practices and Politics of Making Policy: Irrigation Management Transfer in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rap, E.R.; Wester, P.

    2013-01-01

    This article argues that policy making is an interactive and ongoing process that transcends the spatio-temporal boundaries drawn by a linear, rational or instrumental model of policy. We construct this argument by analysing the making of the Irrigation Management Transfer (IMT) policy in Mexico in

  13. U.S. Trade and Investment Policy Making Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overall, EPA’s trade and environment policy organization is designed to create a flexible and collaborative mechanism so that EPA can participate fully and effectively in the development and implementation of U.S. trade and environment policy.

  14. Nutritional status indicators: interpretation and policy making role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowler, E A; Payne, P R; Seo, Y O; Thompson, A M; Wheeler, E F

    1982-05-01

    Anthropometric measurements, usually based on the growth of children, and considered to be reflective of the degree and state of nutritional status, have long been the measurement of choice in assessing the health and welfare of a community. However, it must be borne in mind that any such measure serves only as an indicator of the functioning of a very complex system. As such it is subject to error when applied according to rigid and predetermined numeral scales reflecting social valuations, and really cannot be considered to be a technical description of a physiological state. The limitations to the application of such inferred nutritional data, from a systems viewpoint, are many and should be recognized. Nonetheless, measures of nutritional status can provide valuable information on the effects of the health, social and food environment of individuals and communities. Bearing in mind the limitations of their usefulness, such measurements can serve as useful tools in policy making and can be integrated with information from other sectors of government for this purpose.

  15. Preventing Smog Crisis: New Thinking for Energy Policy-Making in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng; Dong, Liang

    2015-01-01

    effective and efficient policy implementation. The critical questions include: is there the new thinking that can be used for policy-making in China for making it more effective? According to our investigations, there are two problems in China’s energy policy-making: (1) the policy-makers cannot fully...... to give enough financial support to the farmers for straw recycling due to the limited fiscal budget. What is more, the farmers will also suffer from declining soil fertility without burning straw. Therefore, the policies for promoting biomass to energy face a bottleneck and innovative policies design...... is required. The above case calls for a rethink in China’s policy-making for promoting the development of renewable energy. The policy-makers lack in-depth understanding of the key points for promoting straw to energy: improving the recycling efficiency and lowering the recycling cost. To some extent, straw...

  16. Processes of local alcohol policy-making in England: Does the theory of policy transfer provide useful insights into public health decision-making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavens, Lucy; Holmes, John; Buykx, Penny; de Vocht, Frank; Egan, Matt; Grace, Daniel; Lock, Karen; Mooney, John D; Brennan, Alan

    2017-06-13

    Recent years have seen a rise in new and innovative policies to reduce alcohol consumption and related harm in England, which can be implemented by local, as opposed to national, policy-makers. The aim of this paper is to explore the processes that underpin the adoption of these alcohol policies within local authorities. In particular, it aims to assess whether the concept of policy transfer (i.e. a process through which knowledge about policies in one place is used in the development of policies in another time or place) provides a useful model for understanding local alcohol policy-making. Qualitative data generated through in-depth interviews and focus groups from five case study sites across England were used to explore stakeholder experiences of alcohol policy transfer between local authorities. The purposive sample of policy actors included representatives from the police, trading standards, public health, licensing, and commissioning. Thematic analysis was used inductively to identify key features in the data. Themes from the policy transfer literature identified in the data were: policy copying, emulating, hybridization, and inspiration. Participants described a multitude of ways in which learning was shared between places, ranging from formal academic evaluation to opportunistic conversations in informal settings. Participants also described facilitators and constraints to policy transfer, such as the historical policy context and the local cultural, economic, and bureaucratic context, which influenced whether or not a policy that was perceived to work in one place might be transferred successfully to another context. Theories of policy transfer provide a promising framework for characterising processes of local alcohol policy-making in England, extending beyond debates regarding evidence-informed policy to account for a much wider range of considerations. Applying a policy transfer lens enables us to move beyond simple (but still important) questions of

  17. Speculation and Justification in Policy-Making on Neuroenhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Schlag

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Los descubrimientos de las neurociencias permiten intervenir en el cerebro humano para mejorar su estado o sus capacidades sin indicación médica. Este fenómeno es conocido como “Neuroenhancement” y está sujeto a un amplio debate ético. Como “Neuroenhancement” es un fenómeno evolutivo, el debate de aspectos éticos está necesariamente orientado al futuro y depende de la información sobre el posible desarrollo de la tecnología y sus consecuencias para la sociedad. Sin embargo, hay que establecer límites para la formulación de previsiones especulativas en argumentos éticos y justificaciones políticas. Propongo distinguir argumentos con tres propósitos distintos: la formación de intuiciones éticas, el reflejo sobre el futuro de la sociedad y justificación de normativas y políticas. Para cada uno de ellos necesitamos estándares adecuados. Es tarea de la filosofía política desarrollar un estándar para los argumentos justificadores. Abstract: Neuroscientific findings allow interventions in the human brain to improve its function or modify mental states even without medical indication. This procedure, termed as neuroenhancement, is subject to a broad ethical debate. As neuroenhancement is an evolving phenomenon, the debate is necessarily future-oriented and highly dependent on information about future developments. It remains an open question to what degree uncertain forecasting or even speculation should be considered in the ethical debate and policy-making. I propose to distinguish between arguments with three different purposes: intuition-forming, self-reflecting and justifying arguments. Adequate standards are required for all kinds of future-oriented arguments. The development of these standards for justifying arguments is a task for political philosophy.

  18. Between Policy-Making and Planning SEA and Strategic Decision-Making in the Danish Energy Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with the challenge of approaching decision-making processes through strategic environmental assessment (SEA). It is argued that the interaction between policy-making and planning in strategic decision-making processes is a neglected reason for problems with applying SEA......, as legislation and guidance on SEA primarily approach either the policy or plan level. To substantiate the argument, the extent of interaction is empirically investigated. Four contemporary decision-making processes in the Danish energy sector are mapped as a series of choices. Fundamental changes...... with considerable environmental impacts are decided these years, often without preceding SEA processes. The mapping shows a profound interaction between policy-making and planning. In this interaction, public consultation, systematic environmental analyses, and transparency on alternatives are primarily related...

  19. Knowledge to Policy: Making the Most of Development Research ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2009-04-05

    Apr 5, 2009 ... It shows how research can contribute to better governance in at least three ways: by encouraging open inquiry and debate, by empowering people with the knowledge to hold governments accountable, and by enlarging the array of policy options and solutions available to the policy process. Knowledge to ...

  20. Make in India and Challenges before Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Satya Narayan; Ghadai, Sanjaya Ku.

    2015-01-01

    Economic development, inclusive growth and high employability are significantly linked to education policy of a country. Beginning with Kothari Commission (1966) with its emphasis on science & technology and research to National Policy on Education (1986), several committees during the last decade have advocated for greater foreign…

  1. Two discourses: researchers and policy-making in higher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Välimaa, Jussi; Westerheijden, Donald F.

    1995-01-01

    The theme of this article focuses on how policy discourse and research discourse meet in contract research in higher education. The interplay of these discourses has consequences for researchers who have to balance conflicting demands, which we view as links between research and policy cycles. Two

  2. The tension between research of policy and research for policy in an era of transnational education policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desjardins, Richard; Rubenson, Kjell

    2009-01-01

    -liberalism and the transnationalization of education policy-making, as well as the tension between research of policy and research for policy. Working from different perspectives, the authors help to provide a better understanding of these two important sets of issues which the field of education must contend with today....

  3. The Infinitive Marker across Scandinavian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Ramshøj Christensen

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I argue that the base-position of the infinitive marker in the Scandinavian languages and English share a common origin site. It is inserted as the top-most head in the VP-domain. The cross-linguistic variation in the syntactic distribution of the infinitive marker can be accounted for by assuming that it undergoes head movement. This movement is optional in Danish, English, Norwegian, and Early Modern Danish and is not feature-driven. In Faroese, Icelandic, and Swedish, on the other hand, it is triggered by φ-feature checking on Finº. In Icelandic and Swedish these φ-features are strong and induce obligatory vº→Finº movement, whereas they are weak in Faroese and do not induce vº→Finº movement.

  4. Public Discourse in Energy Policy Decision-Making: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Idaho Citizen; Eileen DeShazo; John Freemuth; Tina Giannini; Troy Hall; Ann Hunter; Jeffrey C. Joe; Michael Louis; Carole Nemnich; Jennie Newman; Steven J. Piet; Stephen Sorensen; Paulina Starkey; Kendelle Vogt; Patrick Wilson

    2010-08-01

    The ground is littered with projects that failed because of strong public opposition, including natural gas and coal power plants proposed in Idaho over the past several years. This joint project , of the Idaho National Laboratory, Boise State University, Idaho State University and University of Idaho has aimed to add to the tool box to reduce project risk through encouraging the public to engage in more critical thought and be more actively involved in public or social issues. Early in a project, project managers and decision-makers can talk with no one, pro and con stakeholder groups, or members of the public. Experience has shown that talking with no one outside of the project incurs high risk because opposition stakeholders have many means to stop most (if not all) energy projects. Talking with organized stakeholder groups provides some risk reduction from mutual learning, but organized groups tend not to change positions except under conditions of a negotiated settlement. Achieving a negotiated settlement may be impossible. Furthermore, opposition often arises outside pre-existing groups. Standard public polling provides some information but does not reveal underlying motivations, intensity of attitudes, etc. Improved methods are needed that probe deeper into stakeholder (organized groups and members of the public) values and beliefs/heuristics to increase the potential for change of opinions and/or out-of-box solutions. The term “heuristics” refers to the mental short-cuts, underlying beliefs, and paradigms that everyone uses to filter and interpret information, to interpret what is around us, and to guide our actions and decisions. This document is the final report of a 3-year effort to test different public discourse methods in the subject area of energy policy decision-making. We analyzed 504 mail-in surveys and 80 participants in groups on the Boise State University campus for their preference, financial support, and evaluations of eight attributes

  5. The Impact of Irish Policy and Legislation on How Adults with Learning Disabilities Make Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Eileen; Griffiths, Colin

    2016-01-01

    This paper reflects the impact of policy and legislation in the context of how adults with learning disabilities make choices. Following an overview of policies which have improved choice for people with learning disability in the United Kingdom, this paper reviews "choice" in current Irish policy and legislation. This paper, while…

  6. The African diaspora’s public participation in policy-making concerning Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to

  7. Incorporating Evidence and Politics in Health Policy: Can Institutionalising Evidence Review Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flitcroft, Kathy; Gillespie, James; Carter, Stacy; Salkeld, Glenn; Trevena, Lyndal

    2014-01-01

    Much of the evidence translation literature focuses narrowly on the use of evidence in the initial policy formulation stages, and downplays the crucial role of institutions and the inherently political nature of policy making. More recent approaches acknowledge the importance of institutional and political factors, but make no attempt to…

  8. The Role of Mental Models in the Public Policy Decision-making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Role of Mental Models in the Public Policy Decision-making Process: The Case Study of Ghana. S Zeka. Abstract. Whether in developed, transitioning, or developing countries, the public policy decision-making process poses a challenge, and in some cases contributes to a bellicose relationship between government ...

  9. Environmental Pollution Control Policy-Making: An Analysis of Elite Perceptions and Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althoff, Phillip; Greig, William H.

    1974-01-01

    This article is based on an analysis of the perceptions and preferences of elite groups concerning environmental pollution control policy making. Results showed that although the groups agreed that present methods were inadequate, they were, nevertheless, unable to agree upon the nature of a future policy-making system. (MA)

  10. Regime change and public policy: the political and macro-economic decision-making of Spanish energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, T.D.

    1983-01-01

    This dissertation examines the effects of peaceful regime change on public policy-making. Spain's National Energy Plan (PEN) in particular, and energy planning in general, constitute a critical policy issue which permits direct comparison of decision-making across regime change from the Franco dictatorship to the present constitutional monarchy. The research reveals that the nature of the political coalition underlying Spain's regime change accounts of the lack of significant change in policy-making processes in this particular policy issue. This thesis develops a two-pronged argument to explain the absence of significant policy change. The first is based on a general view of the Franco regime's and the democratic system's coalitional support. In each, three major political forces are seen as central: the military, business, and labor. One of these, business, is seen as being pivotal in the regime transition. Business' pivotal position, it is argued, has permitted a defence of a national energy policy beneficial to its economic interests in energy. The argument's second part focuses on the binding constraint on policy outcomes imposed by private interests in state planning and the generally non-binding nature of oppositional party policy proposals and public opinion.

  11. Foreign Policy Involvement Matters: Towards an Analytical Framework Examining the Role of the Media in the Making of Foreign Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schulz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Foreign policy processes have long played a minor role in the study of political communication. There is a broad consensus that the media is the central mediating actor and primary conduit between political decision-makers and the public. However, the media’s influence on foreign policy remains contingent across various processes and phases of foreign policy making; it is dynamic and multi-directional. Considering that the public sphere is essential for the legitimacy of foreign policy making, there is a demand for further research on the media’s performance in the making of foreign policy. Based on secondary research, this paper proposes an analytical framework for the systematic analysis of media–foreign policy relations by integrating foreign-policy context conditions as a research variable. The framework is based on the assumption that the role of the media varies across diverse foreign policy contexts depending on the intensity of governmental involvement in foreign affairs. The intensity is distinguished according to three dimensions: no involvement, indirect involvement and direct involvement. Finally, a case study is suggested in order to demonstrate the framework’s explanatory power: the German media coverage of Russia.

  12. Energy saving and energy efficiency concepts for policy making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oikonomou, V. [SOM, University of Groningen, PO Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Becchis, F. [POLIS Department, University of East Piedmont, via Duomo, 6-13100 Vercelli (Italy); Steg, L. [Faculty of Behavioural and Social Sciences, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 72 9700 AB (Netherlands); Russolillo, D. [Fondazione per l' Ambiente ' T. Fenoglio' , Via Gaudenzio Ferrari 1, I-10124 Torino (Italy)

    2009-11-15

    Departing from the concept of rational use of energy, the paper outlines the microeconomics of end-use energy saving as a result of frugality or efficiency measures. Frugality refers to the behaviour that is aimed at energy conservation, and with efficiency we refer to the technical ratio between energy input and output services that can be modified with technical improvements (e.g. technology substitution). Changing behaviour from one side and technology from the other are key issues for public energy policy. In this paper, we attempt to identify the effects of parameters that determine energy saving behaviour with the use of the microeconomic theory. The role of these parameters is crucial and can determine the outcome of energy efficiency policies; therefore policymakers should properly address them when designing policies. (author)

  13. Special interest in decision making in entrepreneurship policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben; Klyver, Kim; Schou Nielsen, Pia

    2015-01-01

    The study investigates the role of the special interests of key decision makers in entrepreneurship policy formation at the national level. An ethnographic method is applied to analyse in depth the 2005 decision by the Danish Government to shift from volume oriented to growth oriented...... entrepreneurship policy. The theoretical value of this paper is its challenge to the widespread rationality view in the entrepreneurship field and a deepened understanding of how the pursuit of special interests is related to ambiguous evidence and system-level rationality....

  14. Promoting evidence informed policy making in Nigeria: a review of the maternal, newborn and child health policy development process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Uro-Chukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing recognition worldwide that health policymaking process should be informed by best available evidence. The purpose of this study was to review the policy documents on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) in Nigeria to assess the extent evidence informed policymaking mechanism was employed in the policy formulation process. Methods: A comprehensive literature search of websites of the Federal Ministry of Health(FMOH) Nigeria and other related ministries and agencies for relevant health policy documents related to MNCH from year 2000 to 2015 was undertaken. The following terms were used interchangeably for the literature search: maternal, child, newborn, health, policy, strategy,framework, guidelines, Nigeria. Results: Of the 108 policy documents found, 19 (17.6%) of them fulfilled the study inclusion criteria. The policy documents focused on the major aspects of maternal health improvements in Nigeria such as reproductive health, anti-malaria treatment, development of adolescent and young people health, mid wives service scheme, prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV and family planning. All the policy documents indicated that a consultative process of collection of input involving multiple stakeholders was employed, but there was no rigorous scientific process of assessing, adapting, synthesizing and application of scientific evidence reported in the policy development process. Conclusion: It is recommended that future health policy development process on MNCH should follow evidence informed policy making process and clearly document the process of incorporating evidence in the policy development.

  15. Do Scandinavians Care about International Law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Although Scandinavians are often celebrated as the vanguards of human rights and international law, we know little about whether courts and judges in these countries have embraced those international courts and conventions that they themselves helped establish after the Second World War....... This article presents original and comprehensive data on three Scandinavian courts’ citation practice. It demonstrates that not only do Scandinavian Supreme Courts engage surprisingly little with international law, but also that there is great variation in the degree to which they have domesticated...... international law and courts by citing their case law. Building on this author’s previous research, it is argued that Norway sticks out as much more engaged internationally due to a solid judicial review tradition at the national level. It is also argued that Scandinavian legal positivism, has influenced a much...

  16. Do Scandinavian Care about international law?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    2016-01-01

    Although Scandinavians are often celebrated as the vanguards of human rights and international law, we know little about whether courts and judges in these countries have embraced those international courts and conventions that they themselves helped establish after the Second World War....... This article presents original and comprehensive data on three Scandinavian courts' citation practice. It demonstrates that not only do Scandinavian Supreme Courts engage surprisingly little with international law, but also that there is great variation in the degree to which they have domesticated...... international law and courts by citing their case law. Building on this author's previous research, it is argued that Norway sticks out as much more engaged internationally due to a solid judicial review tradition at the national level. It is also argued that Scandinavian legal positivism has influenced a much...

  17. What factors in the policy-making process determine the priority given to a policy issue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erisa Xhixho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agenda setting is the process by which problems and alternative solutions gain or lose public attention (Birkland T. (2007, p.63; Werner J. and Wegrich K. (2007, p.46.. The main factor that determine an issue that it could become a priority, drawing the attention of decision makers, the public, reaching for it to become part of the agenda are: “Window of Opportunity”, which is a strategy used by less powerful groups, which are benefiting from the fact that powerful groups in certain situations may lose control of the agenda, they manage this circumstances to make their case to the priority. Another factor are the “Focus Event” that emphasizes the fact that unexpected events that shock the public opinion, as were the cases of corruption of officials, case “Snowden” or 11 September in the USA, affecting an issue that directly lead the decision-making agenda. Advocacy coalitions, is a form that use less powerful groups by joining on the basis of certain principles, values, beliefs they have about a particular issue. This alliance of values, resources and coordination of actions helps to advance the issue becoming a priority. “Venue shop” as a factor that aims to reach groups through institutions, be heard, be able to attract the attention of decision makers, also using the media as a very important factor nowadays for sensitizing public opinion on the issue and influence in order to become a priority issue. “Policy network” has come as a need of developing a relationship between government and the private sector, thus forming a power dependency relationship mainly the exchange of resources and thereby influencing the political agenda on particular issues. Therefore in this article I will try to argue that these factors affect in various ways becoming determinant that the issue be the priority on the decision agenda. Also, I can say that after the development of the analysis, I think that the two factors have a greater influence

  18. Fiscal Challenge: An Experiential Exercise in Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Mike; Soques, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce a pedagogical innovation that is designed to enhance students' understanding of fiscal policy in general, and the national debt and deficit in particular. The innovation leverages the educational advantages offered through a competitive environment by pitting teams of students against one another with the…

  19. Making scenarios for nature policy in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammers, E.; Hinsberg, van A.; Vader, J.; Wiersinga, W.A.

    2012-01-01

    The subsequent building blocks of the scenario study enable policymakers to gradually gain insight into alternative desirable future states of nature and alternative policy-strategies to realize them. This is further stimulated by the character of the scenarios, which contain not only qualitative

  20. A problem solving model for regulatory policy making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A.; van Engers, T.; Sileno, G.; Wyner, A.; Benn, N.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how the interests and field theory promoted by public administration as a stakeholder in policy argumentation, directly arise from its problem solving activities, using the framework for public administration problem solving we proposed in [1,2]. We propose that calls for

  1. Place-making and policies for competitive cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musterd, S.; Kovács, Z.

    2013-01-01

    Urban policy makers are increasingly striving to strengthen the economic competitiveness of their cities. Currently, they do that mainly in the field of the creative knowledge economy - arts, media, entertainment, creative business services, architecture, publishing, design; and ICT, R&D, finance,

  2. South Korea: Language Policy and Planning in the Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jae Jung

    2012-01-01

    This monograph discusses South Korea's language situation in a language policy and planning context. This monograph consists of four parts. Part 1 presents a genetic, typological and sociolinguistic description of South Korea's national language, and an overview of minority languages, including English as well as other languages, recently…

  3. Civil Society Participation in EU Gender Policy-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2008-01-01

    The participation of transnational advocacy networks (TANs) in the policy processes of the European Union (EU) is a potential site of substantial representation of women (SRW). In the article, it is argued that the institutional context can both enable and constrain civil society actors’ claims...

  4. Early Childhood Policy-Making: Inputs, Processes, and Legislative Outputs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgione, Pascal D., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Reports on rationales that states have used to support recent early childhood education (ECE) initiatives and describes how reform policies were made in 1971-73 in West Virginia, California, Georgia, New Mexico, and Ohio. Outlines background and initiation of reform, building of support for ECE, opposition, and resulting legislation. (Author/GC)

  5. Fighting Poverty: Attentive Policy Can Make a Huge Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeding, Timothy M.; Waldfogel, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the implication of the implementation of anti-poverty policy in both the United Kingdom and the United States. International studies of child poverty usually find that the United States and United Kingdom are at the bottom of the league table in terms of child poverty. Indeed, the U.S. and U.K do not fare well in…

  6. Policy-Making and Governance in Academic Health Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, Douglas A.; Crispell, Kenneth R.

    1980-01-01

    With a view of academic health centers (AHC) as unique organizations meriting investigation, key changes that have shaped AHCs, various modes of AHC organization and governance, and factors that make AHC policymaking so complex are discussed. Also examined are models and methods for analyzing AHC decision making. (Author/JMD)

  7. The making of environmental policy in the European Council

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Skou; Rasmussen, Lise Nordvig

    1998-01-01

    Details the decision-making processes regarding the legal acts approved by the European Union Council of Ministers on environmental issues during 1993 and 1994. Role of the Committee of the Permanent Representatives; Use of council presidency by member states; Significance of decision-making proc......Details the decision-making processes regarding the legal acts approved by the European Union Council of Ministers on environmental issues during 1993 and 1994. Role of the Committee of the Permanent Representatives; Use of council presidency by member states; Significance of decision...

  8. Braving the Tempest: Methodological foundations of policy-making in sustainability transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Mercure, J -F; Bassi, A M; Viñuales, J E; Edwards, N R

    2015-01-01

    Policy-makers currently face unprecedented challenges and uncertainty when taking decisions that simultaneously affect economic development, technology and the environment. It is not clear to policy-makers how to reconcile economic policy supporting growth with climate change mitigation, and it is not clear how effective policies are likely to be. This paper argues that informing policy-making using conventional equilibrium or optimisation modelling of technology and economics is not fine-grained enough to capture the complexities of real-world human behaviour and its diversity, leaving a wide uncertainty gap for policy-making. We suggest that the use of a dynamical methodology involving complexity science coupled to behavioural science with sophisticated uncertainty analysis can provide appropriate tools to better understand policy issues in sectors that involve a high degree of interaction (collective effects) or differentiation (agent heterogeneity/diversity) between agents. We argue that a better represen...

  9. Smokefree Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: Making Progress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanton A. Glantz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We reviewed the adoption and implementation of smokefree policies in all Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC countries. Significant progress has been achieved among LAC countries since the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC was adopted in 2005. Both national and sub-national legislation have provided effective mechanisms to increase the fraction of the population protected from secondhand tobacco smoke. Civil society has actively promoted these policies and played a main role in enacting them and monitoring their enforcement. The tobacco industry, while continuing to oppose the approval and regulation of the laws at legislative and executive levels, has gone a step further by litigating against them in the Courts. As in the US and elsewhere, this litigation has failed to stop the legislation.

  10. Empowerment in healthcare policy making: three domains of substantive controversy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiapperino, Luca; Tengland, Per-Anders

    2015-12-01

    This paper distinguishes between the uses of empowerment across different contexts in healthcare policy and health promotion, providing a model for the ethical and political scrutiny of those uses. We argue that the controversies currently engendered by empowerment are better understood by means of a historical distinction between two concepts of empowerment, namely, what we call the radical empowerment approach and the new wave of empowerment. Building on this distinction, we present a research agenda for ethicists and policy makers, highlighting three domains of controversy raised by the new wave of empowerment, namely: (1) the relationship between empowerment and paternalistic interferences on the part of professionals; (2) the evaluative commitment of empowerment strategies to the achievement of health-related goals; and (3) the problems arising from the emphasis on responsibility for health in recent uses of empowerment. Finally, we encourage the explicit theorisation of these moral controversies as a necessary step for the development and implementation of ethically legitimate empowerment processes.

  11. Making Public Policies Work: Between Responsiveness and Convergence of Agendas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa Gabriela POPESCU

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This research highlights two concepts: responsive government and policy agenda – as a result of convergence between citizens’ priorities and governmental and parliamentary activity –, and tries to find evidence to prove a relationship of mutual conditioning between the two concepts. The purpose for such a research is justified by the need for a “vision of the future”, a concept devoid of academic rigor and, therefore, difficult to define, but which emphasizes, on one hand, the force of a clear strategic intent and, on the other hand, the irreplaceable role in achieving this vision of public policy to meet the legitimate expectations of citizens. On one side, responsiveness in the context of a system can be defined as an outcome that can be achieved when institutions and institutional relationships are designed in such a way that they are cognizant and respond appropriately to the universally legitimate expectations of the citizens. On the other side, we can detect a policy agenda that represents a common place of convergence between citizens’ priorities and governmental and parliamentary activity. This convergence is a guarantee that the citizens will receive appropriate and opportune responses to their demands. In other words, the convergence agenda involves the existence of a responsive government.

  12. An overview of the United States government's space and science policy-making process

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    A brief overview of the basic elements of the US space and science policy-making apparatus will be presented, focussing on insights into the interactions among the principal organizations, policy-making bodies and individual participants and their respective impact on policy outcomes. Several specific examples will be provided to illustrate the points made, and in the conclusion there will be some observations on current events in the US that may shape the outcome for the near-term future of US space and science policy in several areas.

  13. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU) has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010). This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA); action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames looking at investments and

  14. Positioning women's and children's health in African union policy-making: a policy analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toure Kadidiatou

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With limited time to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, progress towards improving women's and children's health needs to be accelerated. With Africa accounting for over half of the world's maternal and child deaths, the African Union (AU has a critical role in prioritizing related policies and catalysing required investments and action. In this paper, the authors assess the evolution of African Union policies related to women's and children's health, and analyze how these policies are prioritized and framed. Methods The main method used in this policy analysis was a document review of all African Union policies developed from 1963 to 2010, focusing specifically on policies that explicitly mention health. The findings from this document review were discussed with key actors to identify policy implications. Results With over 220 policies in total, peace and security is the most common AU policy topic. Social affairs and other development issues became more prominent in the 1990s. The number of policies that mentioned health rose steadily over the years (with 1 policy mentioning health in 1963 to 7 in 2010. This change was catalysed by factors such as: a favourable shift in AU priorities and systems towards development issues, spurred by the transition from the Organization of African Unity to the African Union; the mandate of the African Commission on Human and People's Rights; health-related advocacy initiatives, such as the Campaign for the Accelerated Reduction of Maternal Mortality in Africa (CARMMA; action and accountability requirements arising from international human rights treaties, the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs, and new health-funding mechanisms, such as the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Prioritization of women's and children's health issues in AU policies has been framed primarily by human rights, advocacy and accountability considerations, more by economic and health frames

  15. Simulating the Foreign Policy Decision-Making Process in the Undergraduate Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loggins, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    A simulation of the foreign policy decision-making process, as described in this article, can assist an instructor in linking students' abstract understanding of complex political events, circumstances, and decision making to the real-world interplay of the multiple factors involved in decision making. It is this type of active learning that helps…

  16. Do Strategic Foresight and Policy Making Go Hand in Hand?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chloupkova, Jarka; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Zdechovský, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    theory on an empirical example of the serious security problems that unfolded in Europe in November 2015, the authors demonstrate how foresight, which draws on stakeholder knowledge and available information to connect the dots between fields and scattered information, would lead to more holistic...... and coordinated joint policy decisions. This would aid in establishing the optimal amount of public goods for which tax-payers’ money is to be invested. Currently, Europe stands at an important cross-road as to what its future will be. Some political decisions have been made, and some are still to be made...

  17. Essays on the Making and Implementation of Monetary Policy Decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.K. Bierut

    2006-01-01

    textabstractAccording to the recent book by Professor Alan S. Blinder "The Quiet Revolution. Central Banking Goes Modern", published in 2004, "...one of the hallmarks of the quiet revolution in central banking practice has apparently been a movement toward making decisions by committee, whereas

  18. Internationalization of Higher Education: Implications for Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhwa, Rashim; Jha, Shashiranjan

    2014-01-01

    During the last decade education worldwide has experienced massive changes ranging from domestic market inauguration to the internationalization. In due course of time, there has been a great urge for restructuring the education system to make it internationally comparable ensuring economic benefit. The developed countries have dominated through…

  19. The value of FLA for Strategic Policy Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessen, A.M. van der; Marinelli, E.

    2012-01-01

    The EFP (European Foresight Platform) is a Coordination and Support Action funded under the Euro-pean Commission FP7 programme. Its goal is to support forward looking decision making and to con-solidate the knowledge base on foresight and forward looking activities (FLA) in Europe and

  20. Comparing Different European Income Tax Policies Making Work Pay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H.J.M. Gradus (Raymond); J.M. Julsing

    2003-01-01

    textabstractRaising the participation at the lower end of the labour market abstract is hindered by the high burden of taxation. Therefore, recently, in some European countries serious efforts have been made to make work pay. In this paper an overview of these current efforts is given. With the

  1. Scientists as lobbyists? How science can make its voice heard in the South African policy-making arena

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Funke, Nicola S

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the complexity of the South African policy-making context and its official and non-official actors and investigates the challenges that scientists face when trying to exert their influence here in order to strengthen the science...

  2. The role of policy-making and planning cultures for sustainable transport?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carsten Jahn

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the potential role of culture in relation to policy-making and planning activities, exemplified through a discussion on how it may influence sustainable transport policy and planning. It is recognised that discourses and institutions play an essential part in framing problems...... and solutions, however an improved understanding of barriers and potentials in policy and planning deliberation is likely to be reached if underlying layers of values and perceptions are considered and illuminated more explicitly. Culture is also changeable, which means that it becomes relevant for policy...... and barriers. In conclusion, a culture focus recognises diversity inside and outside normal policy and planning settings and procedures and attempts to bring different cultures to interact and to learn from each other. A transport policy-making and planning process based in a culture approach may illuminate...

  3. Think tanks and strategic policy-making : the contribution of think tanks to policy advisory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraussen, B.; Halpin, D.R.

    2017-01-01

    Think tanks have proliferated in most Western democracies over the past three decades and are often considered to be increasingly important actors in public policy. Still, their precise contribution to public policy remains contested. This paper takes the existing literature in a new direction by

  4. The New Cannabis Policy Taxonomy on APIS: Making Sense of the Cannabis Policy Universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klitzner, Michael D; Thomas, Sue; Schuler, Jonathan; Hilton, Michael; Mosher, James

    2017-06-01

    The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism's Alcohol Policy Information System (APIS) is, for the first time, adding legal data pertaining to recreational cannabis use to its current offerings on alcohol policy. Now that Colorado, Washington, Oregon, Alaska, and the District of Columbia have legalized aspects of recreational cannabis, and more states are considering it, there is an urgency to provide high-quality, multi-dimensional legal data to the public health community. This article introduces the Cannabis Policy Taxonomy recently posted on APIS, and explores its theoretical and empirical contributions to the substance abuse literature and its potential for use in policy research. We also present results of interviews with public health experts in alcohol and cannabis policy, which sought to determine the most important variables to address in the initial release of cannabis policy data. From this process, we found that pricing controls emerged as the variable singled out by the largest number of experts. This analysis points to a host of vital policies that are of increasing importance to public health policy scholars and their current and future research.

  5. Determinants of evidence use in Public Health Policy making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van de Goor, Ien; Hämäläinen, Riitta-Maija; Syed, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge-practice gap in public health is widely known. The importance of using different types of evidence for the development of effective health promotion has also been emphasized. Nevertheless, in practice, intervention decisions are often based on perceived short-term opportunities, lac...... evidence use. Developing and evaluating tailored approaches impacting on networking, personal relationships, collaboration and evidence coproduction is recommended.......The knowledge-practice gap in public health is widely known. The importance of using different types of evidence for the development of effective health promotion has also been emphasized. Nevertheless, in practice, intervention decisions are often based on perceived short-term opportunities......, lacking the most effective approaches, thus limiting the impact of health promotion strategies. This article focuses on facilitators and barriers in the use of evidence in developing health enhancing physical activity policies. Data was collected in 2012 by interviewing 86 key stakeholders from six EU...

  6. Renewable energy policy and politics: a handbook for decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallon, Karl (ed.)

    2006-02-15

    At a time when renewable energy attracts varying degrees of political support and mixed success in policy implementation, clear information on why and how to promote renewable energy markets is much needed, for decision-makers in particular. This book meets that need. The reason for exploiting renewable energy sources should not be because they are cheap, or because fossil fuels are running out. The crucial reasons are: saving the environment, developing new industries and establishing more secure sources of energy. This book outlines how renewable energies can be promoted at a political level, encouraging the expansion of current markets and the establishment of new industries. Critical pathways are made clear, and key stakeholders are identified and described. Acknowledging the importance of the media and the interaction between public and private bodies, this book sets out the rules of the game, the stakes and the strategies for success. (Author)

  7. From Agent-based models to network analysis (and return): the policy-making perspective.

    OpenAIRE

    Fontana, Magda; Terna, Pietro

    2015-01-01

    An important perspective use of Agent-based models (ABMs) is that of being employed as tools to support decision systems in policy-making, in the complex systems framework. Such models can be usefully employed at two different levels: to help in deciding (policy-maker level) and to empower the capabilities of people in evaluating the effectiveness of policies (citizen level). Consequently, the class of ABMs for policymaking needs to be both quite simple in its structure and highly sophisticat...

  8. The African diaspora’s public participation in policy-making concerning Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Norglo, Benhardt Edem Kofi; Goris, Margriet; Lie, Rico; Ong’ayo, Antony Otieno

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines the involvement of African diaspora organizations in Dutch and European policy-making concerning Africa. It addresses the extent to which their inclusion or exclusion in public policy processes in their destination countries is likely to impact (development) policies relating to their countries of origin. The findings are based on a collaborative research project that involved knowledge institutes and African diaspora organizations in the Netherlands. The data consist of 3...

  9. The honest broker: making sense of science in policy and politics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pielke, R.A

    2007-01-01

    The book aims to identify a range of options for individual scientists to consider in making their own judgements about how they would like to position themselves in relation to policy and politics...

  10. Rationality versus reality: the challenges of evidence-based decision making for health policy makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Current healthcare systems have extended the evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to health policy and delivery decisions, such as access-to-care, healthcare funding and health program continuance, through attempts to integrate valid and reliable evidence into the decision making process. These policy decisions have major impacts on society and have high personal and financial costs associated with those decisions. Decision models such as these function under a shared assumption of rational choice and utility maximization in the decision-making process. Discussion We contend that health policy decision makers are generally unable to attain the basic goals of evidence-based decision making (EBDM) and evidence-based policy making (EBPM) because humans make decisions with their naturally limited, faulty, and biased decision-making processes. A cognitive information processing framework is presented to support this argument, and subtle cognitive processing mechanisms are introduced to support the focal thesis: health policy makers' decisions are influenced by the subjective manner in which they individually process decision-relevant information rather than on the objective merits of the evidence alone. As such, subsequent health policy decisions do not necessarily achieve the goals of evidence-based policy making, such as maximizing health outcomes for society based on valid and reliable research evidence. Summary In this era of increasing adoption of evidence-based healthcare models, the rational choice, utility maximizing assumptions in EBDM and EBPM, must be critically evaluated to ensure effective and high-quality health policy decisions. The cognitive information processing framework presented here will aid health policy decision makers by identifying how their decisions might be subtly influenced by non-rational factors. In this paper, we identify some of the biases and potential intervention points and provide some initial suggestions about how the

  11. Scandinavian Semantics and the Human Body

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levisen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference, it is demo......This paper presents an ethnolinguistic analysis of how the space between the head and the body is construed in Scandinavian semantic systems vis-a-vis the semantic system of English. With an extensive case study of neck-related meanings in Danish, and with cross-Scandinavian reference......, it is demonstrated that Scandinavian and English systems differ significantly in some aspects of the way in which the construe the human body with words. The study ventures an innovative combination of methods, pairing the Natural Semantic Metalanguage (NSM) approach to linguistic and conceptual analysis...... with empirical evidence from the Evolution of Semantic Systems (EoSS) project. This combination of empirical and interpretative tools helps to integrate evidence from semantics and semiotics, pinning out in great detail the intricacies of the meanings of particular body words. The paper concludes that body words...

  12. Data-Based Decision Making at the Policy, Research, and Practice Levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schildkamp, Kim; Ebbeler, J.

    2015-01-01

    Data-based decision making (DBDM) can lead to school improvement. However, schools struggle with the implementation of DBDM. In this symposium, we will discuss research and the implementation of DBDM at the national and regional policy level and the classroom level. We will discuss policy issues

  13. Making the Most of Obesity Research: Developing Research and Policy Objectives through Evidence Triangulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kathryn; Aicken, Catherine; Arai, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Drawing lessons from research can help policy makers make better decisions. If a large and methodologically varied body of research exists, as with childhood obesity, this is challenging. We present new research and policy objectives for child obesity developed by triangulating user involvement data with a mapping study of interventions aimed at…

  14. HIV/AIDS Policy-Making in Iran: Part 2- from Formulation to Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Achieving an appropriate policy needs an in-depth and comprehensive understanding of policy-making process. This study aimed to analyze HIV/AIDS policy-making process in Iran. Material and Methods: This is a qualitative/exploratory study. Data were collected through document review and semi-structured interview. Non-probability sampling was used for selecting documents and research participants. We used framework analysis approach assisted by MAXQDA for analyzing qualitative data. Results: AIDS policy is formulated in two specific ways within national work group in the format of national strategic plan and drug damage reduction committee. The main problem of the policy process is fragmentation and lack of comprehensiveness. Country approach of the policy implementation is top-down. The main duty of country committee and its sub-committees facing with some challenges is generating interaction between the relevant organizations. Despite the specific structure of evaluation process, it suffers from challenges such as lack of required implementation power, lack of resource anticipation, weakness in systematic and comprehensiveness evaluation and not-enough cooperation among plan’s stakeholders. Conclusion: It is obvious that policy-making in this area is completely governmental and the role of non-governmental organizations and civil servants is neglected. It seems that reform in AIDS policy-making structure and process can solve most of the problems of implementation, monitoring and evaluation.

  15. Policy Making Processes with Respect to Teacher Education in Finland and Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afdal, Hilde Wagsas

    2013-01-01

    This article examines policy making processes in the area of teacher education (TE) in Finland and Norway. Particular attention is given to the roles different actors play in these processes and the potential effects of their involvement on the TE programs in the two countries. Contemporary policy processes are analyzed through a set of interviews…

  16. Gaming gentrification. An explorative device for urban policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Annunziata

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Gentrification is an urban phenomenon that can be seen as a game in which a multiplicity of agencies have uneven power to participate. An alternative narrative to the process can only be shaped by intercepting and informing the decision making process that concerns the development of the future gentrifying areas. This can be done with a participatory and educative game that invites participants to re-image the future of the city. This assumption stimulated the creation of a board game called Gentrification: What’s in it for Hackney Wick?

  17. Making Sense in the City: Dolly Parton, Early Reading and Educational Policy-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Christine; Jones, Susan

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a case study of a philanthropic literacy initiative, Dolly Parton's Imagination Library, a book-gifting scheme for under 5s, and consider the impact of the scheme on literacy policy in the English city where it was introduced. We bring four lenses to bear on the case study. First, we analyse the operation of the scheme in…

  18. Europeanization in making policies against domestic violence in Central and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krizsan, Andrea; Popa, Raluca

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at how Europe matters in the development of policies against domestic violence, a gender equality field outside the core European Union (EU) conditionality criteria. By analyzing the concrete workings and uses of Europe's domestic violence policy-making in five Central and Eastern European countries, it identifies three mechanisms of Europeanization in the field and shows how together they work to expand the reach of the EU to this policy realm. The findings point toward an understanding of Europeanization based on social learning and dynamic, interactive processes of constructing what membership in the EU means in terms of domestic violence policy processes.

  19. DISCOURSE ANALYSIS OF DECENTRALIZATION POLICY MAKING PROCESS OF PROTECTED FOREST MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistya Ekawati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ”Decentralization of protected forest management from central to district government has not yet been implemented effectively. This effectiveness depends on many factors that include policy contents and political process or discourse in the policy making process. This study aimsto: 1 analyze the discourse in policy making process of decentralization in the management of protected forests, 2 analyze the actors/networks and their interests and 3 find out policy space for future policy reform. Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in the study. The results show that there are three discourses in the policy-making process of decentralized management of protected forests, namely: i democratic discourse (with story line of externality and accountability, supported by an association forum of Indonesian district government and  decentralization experts; ii economic discourse (with story line of efficiency, supported by businessmen, Association of Indonesian Provincial Government and World Bank; and iii democratic and economic discourses. The House of Representatives (DPR and Ministry of Home Affairs have authorities and capacities to integrate two discourses. Redefining of externality and interdependency can be used as narratives of new policies to improve the policy of decentralized protected forest management.

  20. Contestations and complexities of nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudence Ditlopo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: There has been increased emphasis globally on nurses’ involvement in health policy and systems development. However, there has been limited scholarly attention on nurses’ participation in policy-making in South Africa. Objective: This paper analyses the dynamics, strengths, and weaknesses of nurses’ participation in four national health workforce policies: the 2008 Nursing Strategy, revision of the Scope of Practice for nurses, the new Framework for Nursing Qualifications, and the Occupation-Specific Dispensation (OSD remuneration policy. Design: Using a policy analysis framework, we conducted in-depth interviews with 28 key informants and 73 frontline nurses in four South African provinces. Thematic content analysis was done using the Atlas.ti software. Results: The study found that nurses’ participation in policy-making is both contested and complex. The contestation relates to the extent and nature of nurses’ participation in nursing policies. There was a disjuncture between nursing leadership and frontline nurses in their levels of awareness of the four policies. The latter group was generally unaware of these policies with the exception of the OSD remuneration policy as it affected them directly. There was also limited consensus on which nursing group legitimately represented nursing issues in the policy arena. Shifting power relationships influenced who participated, how the participation happened, and the degree to which nurses’ views and inputs were considered and incorporated. Conclusions: The South African health system presents major opportunities for nurses to influence and direct policies that affect them. This will require a combination of proactive leadership, health policy capacity and skills development among nurses, and strong support from the national nursing association.

  1. WOMEN’S AUTONOMY AND THE FAMILY IN RECENT ROMANIAN POLICY-MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALICE IANCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In my paper I aim to provide an analysis of the relation between women’s autonomy and the family in Romanian recent policy-making. I will focus primarily on policies developed by the Romanian state after Romania’s integration in the European Union with regards to the family and family-related policy domains. My analysis will focus on several variables: 1. the theoretical instruments available for analyzing women’s autonomy in relation to state policies 2. the understanding of the family in Romanian policy-making 3. the interplay between women’s autonomy and the family and how policy-making influences the relation between the two. The analysis will take into consideration the specific Romanian socio-political context in terms of economic conditions, ideological influences and gender relations. Political theory is no stranger to the issue of individual autonomy. In my paper I will focus on recent feminist political theories on gendered accounts of autonomy. These accounts modify the understanding of autonomy and focus on conditions and aspects of autonomy relevant to women’s lives and experiences. The current financial crisis and recent developments in Romanian policy-making will be analyzed in terms of how they affect women’s autonomy. Since much of Romanian policy-making still avoids including gender and gender relations into its explicit justifications, provisions and evaluation, referring to the family as a basic social unit, the gendered consequences for women’s autonomy of such an approach need to be understood and acknowledged. In my analysis I will use both Romanian and European recent policy papers, as well as recent data obtained through social research.

  2. Using Open Research Data for Public Policy Making : Opportunities of Virtual Research Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuiderwijk-van Eijk, AMG; Jeffery, Keith; Bailo, Daniele; Yin, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Governments and publicly-funded research organisations increasingly make research data available openly. Researchers can use this data in Virtual Research Environments (VREs) to conduct multidisciplinary data-driven research and to obtain new insights potentially for governmental policy-making.

  3. Ingredients for Good Health Policy-Making: Incorporating Power and Politics into the Mix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusra Shawar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Eggs, flour, sugar, butter, baking soda, milk, and vanilla extract—all ingredients necessary to make a delicious cake. Similarly, good health policy-making can only be successfully pursued and understood by accounting for all of its basic ingredients, including the role of politics and power. Otherwise, the result is simply not good.

  4. Conservation Policy Making in Nepal: Problematising the Politics of Civic Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Sunam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Protected area governance has witnessed a shift from a strict-nature conservation model towards a seemingly more participatory approach in Nepal. Despite some progress, top-down and non-deliberative processes characterise policy making in protected area. However, many civil society actors have increasingly challenged the government to provide space for local people in decision making so that their rights to natural resources are considered. This article examines two key aspects of the politics of policy process: why conservation policy making is often less deliberative than it could be and why civil actors pick up some policy decisions (not others for contestation. In doing so, we analyse a recent policy decision of the Nepal government on the protected area which encountered civic contestation. Drawing on the review of policy decisions and interviews with government authorities, civic leaders and protected area experts, this paper shows that the government and large conservation organisations continue to shape the policy process while undermining the legitimate voices of local and non-state actors in the conservation policy landscape. Civic resistance as a means of democratising policy processes looks promising, challenging unquestioned authorities of the government and conservation organisations. Nevertheless, the politics of resistance has enjoyed limited success due to the political interests of civic institutions and their leaders, at times overshadowing critical policy agenda such as the severity of rights constrained and issues of poverty and marginalisation. This article suggests that civic actors need to rethink over their politics of resistance in terms of pursuing agenda and strategies to ramp up policy deliberation.

  5. Beyond the usual suspects: using political science to enhance public health policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fafard, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    That public health policy and practice should be evidence based is a seemingly uncontroversial claim. Yet governments and citizens routinely reject the best available evidence and prefer policies that reflect other considerations and concerns. The most common explanations of this paradox emphasise scientific disagreement, the power of 'politics', or the belief that scientists and policymakers live in two separate communities that do not communicate. However, another explanation may lie in the limits of the very notion of evidence-based policy making. In fact, the social science discipline of political science offers a rich body of theory and empirical evidence to explain the apparent gap between evidence and policy. This essay introduces this literature with a particular emphasis on a recent book by Katherine Smith, Beyond evidence-based policy in public health: the interplay of ideas. As the title suggests, Smith argues that what matters for public health policy is less scientific evidence and much more a more complex set of ideas. Based on detailed case studies of UK tobacco and health inequality policy, Smith offers a richly textured alternative account of what matters for policy making. This excellent book is part of a small but growing body of political science research on public health policy that draws on contemporary theories of policy change and governance more generally. This essay provides a window on this research, describes some examples, but emphasises that public health scholars and practitioners too often retain a narrow if not naive view of the policy-making process. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Risk Governance: An Application of Analytic-Deliberative Policy Making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renn, Ortwin [Univ. of Stuttgart (Germany)

    2006-09-15

    The paper introduces an integrated analytic framework for risk governance which provides guidance for the development of comprehensive assessment and management strategies to cope with risks, in particular at the global level. The framework integrates scientific, economic, social and cultural aspects and includes the effective engagement of stakeholders. The concept of risk governance comprises a broad picture of risk: not only does it include what has been termed 'risk management' or 'risk analysis, it also looks at how risk-related decision-making unfolds when a range of actors is involved, requiring co-ordination and possibly reconciliation between a profusion of roles, perspectives, goals and activities. The framework's risk process breaks down into three main phases: 'pre-assessment', 'appraisal', and 'management'. A further phase, comprising the 'characterisation' and 'evaluation' of risk, is placed between the appraisal and management phases and, depending on whether those charged with the assessment or those responsible for management are better equipped to perform the associated tasks, can be assigned to either of them - thus concluding the appraisal phase or marking the start of the management phase. The risk process has 'communication' as a companion to all phases of addressing and handling risk and is itself of a cyclical nature. However, the clear sequence of phases and steps offered by this process is primarily a logical and functional one and will not always correspond to reality. The paper will address in particular the role of public participation and stakeholder involvement.

  7. Individual and Organisational Capacity for Evidence Use in Policy Making in Nigeria: An Exploratory Study of the Perceptions of Nigeria Health Policy Makers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, C. J.; Ezeoha, A. E.; Ndukwe, C. D.; Oyibo, P. G.; Onwe, F.; Igbinedion, E. B.; Chukwu, P. N.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses the outcome of an exploratory quantitative cross-sectional study of the perceptions of Nigeria health policy makers on capacity for evidence use in policy making at individual and organisational levels. The capacity for acquisition, assessment, adaptation and application of research evidence in policy making at…

  8. Use of energy policy research and/or analysis in congressional decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahiarah, S.C.O.

    1985-01-01

    Regardless of what anyone thinks about it, policy science, as conceived by Lasswell, has become a discipline that is breeding new professionals who are producing policy researches and/or analyses decision making. But are they so used - is the intended marriage between PRA information and public policy decision making taking place. Many think they are, although others are skeptical. This study goes beyond the question of whether or not PRAs are used in public policy decision making, to investigate the purposes for which they are used therein. The public-policy decision making context selected is the legislative (congressional) decision making occasions in energy issues between 1979 and 1982; the objects of use are the energy PRAs from three congressional support agencies - the General Accounting Office, the Office of Technology Assessment, and the Congressional Budget Office. The findings are that when use is defined as congressional admission of the PRAs, all support agency PRAs are used, but when use is defined in terms of Congress Considering or adapting the PRAs in its decision making contexts, only a portion of all the support agency PRAs get used. The PRAs that are consideratively or adaptively used are more likely to be used for enlightenment, position support, and/or symbolic-propagandistic purposes.

  9. Age- and Gender-Specific Unemployment in Scandinavian Countries: An Analysis based on Okun’s Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stadtmann, Georg; Hutengs, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigates Scandinavian countries and their male and female unemployment rates. Okun’s law is used to estimate age cohort and gender-specific Okun coefficients to make inference about the business-cycle dependence of young peoples’ unemployment across Scandinavian countries. Results...... show that men have higher Okun coefficients in absolute terms. Thus, their unemployment rate reacts more strongly to any change in GDP....

  10. Organisational Factors Affecting Policy and Programme Decision Making in a Public Health Policy Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Organisational factors can affect the success of interventions aimed at increasing research use. Research is needed to identify organisational factors affecting research use in specific public health policy contexts. Qualitative interviews with decision makers from a specific public health context identified a range of organisational factors that…

  11. Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne; Nyvang, Tom

    2011-01-01

    approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues...

  12. Modern Perceptions of Roman-Scandinavian Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grane, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the modern research history of connections between Scandinavian Iron Age societies and the Roman Empire focusing more or less on the last half century. In this time, there has been a significant increase in Danish excavations of Roman Iron Age sites, of which several have...

  13. Shifting Authenticities in Scandinavian Music Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyndahl, Petter; Nielsen, Siw Graabraek

    2014-01-01

    There has been an ongoing tendency, taking place in the Scandinavian countries from the late 1970s onwards, to expand the repertoires and resources of music as an educational matter, an academic field, as well as an area for support and funding from cultural authorities, organisations and institutions. Here, popular music, jazz, folk music and…

  14. Efficacy of recent transport policy making and implementation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm Mitchell

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite the importance of transport to the social and economic development of a country, very little, if any, work appears to have been done in South Africa to assess the impact of transport policy in achieving its aims and objectives. Two policy areas that have wide social and economic impacts are the public transport industry and the development of the national roads network. Public transport, or more specifically commuter bus transport policy, is aimed at improving the mobility and affordability of the travelling public while at the same time increasing the transparency of the subsidy system through a tender and negotiated contract regimen. The policy on national roads directly impacts the general economy as an estimated 88% of all freight tonnage (excluding the dedicated iron ore and coal lines of Transnet Freight Rail is moved over the road network of South Africa with the national roads linking the main economic centres of the country. This research assesses the impact of these two areas of policy making by comparing policies for commuter bus transport and primary (national roads for two policy periods, namely, 1986 to 1994 and 1994 to 2004. The research methodology used is that of the mixed-methods research procedure explained more fully in the article and the annexure to the paper. The research arrives at conclusions in respect of the impact of the policy on the problems and issues in the two separate sectors of transport during the policy periods analysed. It also draws conclusions on the policy-making process used as well as identifying deficiencies in the process. Finally it makes recommendations to address these inadequacies.

  15. When planners deal with change: Stories of Performativity in the politics of urban planning in two Scandinavian cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissandrello, Enza

    planning professionals become carriers of specific abilities that shape the possibilities of action and innovation in urban planning practice. It also argues that planning is performed by a plurality of actors, discourses, stages and politics but that in addition, urban planning proceeds by the acts...... the terrain of changing structural conditions altering current urban planning practice in two Scandinavian cities. Inspired by John Forester, their stories are here as lessons about what planning practitioners do in practice when facing challenges in their work. The aim is to explore an interpretation...... within a set of meanings and forms of legitimation. Across this analytic approach, some dimensions of transitions in urban planning include new institutional conditions and the actions of public planners, their performativity and their role in establishing innovative policy-making and planning practices...

  16. Multi-sphere climate policy: Conceptualizing national policy-making in Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boasson, Elin Lerum

    2011-07-01

    In 2000, there was general political agreement that Norwegian climate policy should focus on general economic measures, such as the Co2 tax and emission quotas. Nevertheless, only ten years later, a wide range of more specific measures were in place, albeit with considerable differences among the issue-areas. While CCS is supported through direct state industry construction, renewable energy is supported by means of a market-based system of green certificates. In the buildings sector, a great range of different measures have been introduced to increase energy efficiency. Massive sums have been invested in CCS, but much less support has been given to renewable energy and energy efficiency of buildings. The dissertation enquires whether this is due to political governance, to close ties between bureaucracy and industry actors, or to EU directives and regulation imposed on Norway through the EEA Agreement. The analysis shows that Norwegian politicians have devoted considerable energy and resources to realizing CCS, but opposition from the oil industry and parts of the bureaucracy has made implementation difficult. Many actors have invoked EU arguments to strengthen their own positions, whereas in reality the EU has had scant influence on Norways CCS policy. As regards renewable energy, it took a long time for the politicians to bow to pressures from the power industry to create a system of green certificates. It also proved difficult to design an alternative system that could be acceptable under EU state aid regulations. Norwegian politicians were not very interested in regulations related to energy efficiency of buildings, and this gave administrative officials greater freedom to develop measures. EU policies in this sphere had differing consequences for the various aspects of policy on energy efficiency in buildings, due in part to differences between the predominant cultures of the Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, and the Ministry of Local Government. Comparison

  17. “Sustainability State” in the Making? Institutionalization of Sustainability in German Federal Policy Making

    OpenAIRE

    Harald Heinrichs; Norman Laws

    2014-01-01

    More than two decades after the Rio-conference on environment and development in 1992, sustainable development remains a big challenge. Politics and administration, especially in democratic societies, have a specific responsibility in coordinating sustainable development. In order to fulfill this role, the regulative idea of sustainability needs to be integrated into decision-making in politics and administration at all levels, from local to global. Taking this into account, we have analyzed ...

  18. The Impact of Global Institutions on National Health HIV/AIDS Policy Making in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanat Mokushev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship of global institutions such as the International Monetary Fund, World Trade Organization, World Bank, and individual developing countries in social health policy making in terms of HIV and AIDS. We examine the role of IGOs and NGOs in regarding to HIV/AIDS issues then analyse the TRIPs agreement as a tool for developing countries to negotiate with International organisations in global health policy decisions.

  19. Knowledge and power in policy-making for child survival in Niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalglish, Sarah L; Rodríguez, Daniela C; Harouna, Abdoutan; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-03-01

    Calls to enhance the use of scientific evidence in international health and development policy have increased in recent years; however, analytic frameworks for understanding evidence use focus narrowly on scientific research and were created using data and observations nearly exclusively from Western countries. We examine processes of health policy development in a case study of Niger, a low-income West African country that adopted integrated community case management of childhood illness (iCCM) beginning in 2007, resulting in measurable declines in child mortality. Data collection included in-depth interviews with policy actors in Niger (N = 32), document review (N = 103) and direct observation of policy forums (N = 3). Data analysis used process tracing methodology and applied an Aristotelian definition of "knowledge" as 1) episteme (facts), 2) techne (skills) and 3) phronesis (practical wisdom), while also using a critical perspective to understand issues of power. We found sharp differentials in policy-makers' possession and use of codified forms of knowledge (episteme), with Nigerien policy officers' access highly mediated by actors at international agencies. Government policy-makers possessed skills and capacities (techne) to negotiate with donors and deliberate and weigh conflicting considerations; however they lacked capacity and resources to formally evaluate and document programs and thus reliably draw lessons from them. Practical wisdom (phronesis) emerged as key to the iCCM policy enterprise, particularly among Nigerien government actors, who used logical and ethical arguments to make decisions later found to be critical to iCCM's success. While codified knowledge confers power on members of policy discussions who can access it, this represents only one form of knowledge used in the policy process and perhaps not the most important. Future research on evidence-based policy should use broader definitions of evidence or knowledge, examine on how

  20. HIV/AIDS policy-making in Kyrgyzstan: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancker, Svetlana; Rechel, Bernd

    2015-02-01

    Kyrgyzstan has adopted a number of policy initiatives to deal with an accelerating HIV/AIDS epidemic. This article explores the main actors in HIV/AIDS policy-making, their interests, support and involvement and their current ability to set the agenda and influence the policy-making process. Fifty-four semi-structured interviews were conducted in the autumn of 2011, complemented by a review of policy documents and secondary sources on HIV/AIDS in Kyrgyzstan. We found that most stakeholders were supportive of progressive HIV/AIDS policies, but that their influence levels varied considerably. Worryingly, several major state agencies exhibited some resistance or lack of initiative towards HIV/AIDS policies, often prompting international agencies and local NGOs to conceptualize and drive appropriate policies. We conclude that, without clear vision and leadership by the state, the sustainability of the national response will be in question. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2013; all rights reserved.

  1. Pathways of undue influence in health policy-making: a main actor's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Aguado, Ildefonso; Chilet-Rosell, Elisa

    2017-10-27

    It is crucial to know the extent to which influences lead to policy capture-by which the policy-making process is shifted away from the public interest towards narrow private interests. Using the case study of Spain, our aim was to identify interactions between public administration, civil society and private companies that could influence health policies. 54 semistructured interviews with key actors related to health policy. The interviews were used to gather information on main policy actors as well as on direct and subtle influences that could modify health policies. The analysis identified and described, from the interviewed persons' experiences, both the inappropriate influences exerted on the actors and those that they exerted. Inappropriate influences were identified at all levels of administration and policy. They included actions for personal benefits, pressure for blocking health policies and pressure from high levels of government in favour of private corporations. The private sector played a significant role in these strategies through bribery, personal gifts, revolving doors, negative campaigns and by blocking unfavourable political positions or determining the knowledge agenda. The interviewees reported subtle forms of influence (social events, offers of technical support, invitations, etc) that contributed to the intellectual and cultural capture of health officials. The health policy decision-making processes in Spain are subject to influences by stakeholders that determine a degree of policy capture, which is avoidable. The private sector uses different strategies, from subtle influences to outright corruption, taking advantage in many cases of flexible legislation. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Australia's Health Star Rating policy process: Lessons for global policy-making in front-of-pack nutrition labelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Medha; Gleeson, Deborah; Barraclough, Simon

    2017-11-12

    This study explored factors that shaped the development of Australia's Health Star Rating system for front-of-pack labelling (FoPL) on packaged foods and whether insights could be drawn from this experience to inform the development of global FoPL standards. Ten individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with public health or consumer advocates, academics in the field of nutrition labelling and policy, a food industry employee, and Australian public servants. Thematic analysis was undertaken, guided by Kingdon's Multiple Streams Framework, to identify factors which shaped Australian and international FoPL policy processes. Senior Australian bureaucrats played the policy entrepreneur role to facilitate the development of the Health Star Rating system. The public health and consumer advocacy groups formed an alliance to counter-balance the influence of the food industry in the Health Star Rating development process. Public health and consumer groups have less influence at Codex Alimentarius, where policy-making is constrained by political alliances and consensus voting structures. Strong leadership, policy entrepreneurship and a coherent alliance between public health and consumer groups enabled the development of a FoPL system in Australia and could contribute to advancing FoPL standards at the international level. © 2017 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  3. Renewable energy support policy in Spain : An analysis of the decision-making process (1994-2014)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leston, D.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the decision-making process behind the RE support policy will be explored in order to answer the following research questions: “why has the policy-making process been revised so many times?” and “how can such a drastic change on the RE support policy be explained?” The answer is found

  4. Controlling equine influenza: policy networks and decision-making during the 2007 Australian equine influenza outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemann, K; Gillespie, J A; Toribio, J-A L M L; Ward, M P; Dhand, N K

    2014-10-01

    Rapid, evidence-based decision-making is critical during a disease outbreak response; however, compliance by stakeholders is necessary to ensure that such decisions are effective - especially if the response depends on voluntary action. This mixed method study evaluated technical policy decision-making processes during the 2007 outbreak of equine influenza in Australia by identifying and analysing the stakeholder network involved and the factors driving policy decision-making. The study started with a review of the outbreak literature and published policy documents. This identified six policy issues regarding policy modifications or differing interpretations by different state agencies. Data on factors influencing the decision-making process for these six issues and on stakeholder interaction were collected using a pre-tested, semi-structured questionnaire. Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 24 individuals representing 12 industry and government organizations. Quantitative data were analysed using social network analysis. Qualitative data were coded and patterns matched to test a pre-determined general theory using a method called theory-oriented process-tracing. Results revealed that technical policy decisions were framed by social, political, financial, strategic and operational considerations. Industry stakeholders had influence through formal pre-existing channels, yet specific gaps in stakeholder interaction were overcome by reactive alliances formed during the outbreak response but outside the established system. Overall, the crisis management system and response were seen as positive, and 75-100% of individuals interviewed were supportive of, had interest in and considered the outcome as good for the majority of policy decisions, yet only 46-75% of those interviewed considered that they had influence on these decisions. Training to increase awareness and knowledge of emergency animal diseases (EADs) and response systems will improve stakeholder

  5. Using media to impact health policy-making: an integrative systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Karroum, Lama; El-Jardali, Fadi; Hemadi, Nour; Faraj, Yasmine; Ojha, Utkarsh; Shahrour, Maher; Darzi, Andrea; Ali, Maha; Doumit, Carine; Langlois, Etienne V; Melki, Jad; AbouHaidar, Gladys Honein; Akl, Elie A

    2017-04-18

    Media interventions can potentially play a major role in influencing health policies. This integrative systematic review aimed to assess the effects of planned media interventions-including social media-on the health policy-making process. Eligible study designs included randomized and non-randomized designs, economic studies, process evaluation studies, stakeholder analyses, qualitative methods, and case studies. We electronically searched Medline, EMBASE, Communication and Mass Media Complete, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the WHO Global Health Library. We followed standard systematic review methodology for study selection, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessment. Twenty-one studies met our eligibility criteria: 10 evaluation studies using either quantitative (n = 7) or qualitative (n = 3) designs and 11 case studies. None of the evaluation studies were on social media. The findings of the evaluation studies suggest that media interventions may have a positive impact when used as accountability tools leading to prioritizing and initiating policy discussions, as tools to increase policymakers' awareness, as tools to influence policy formulation, as awareness tools leading to policy adoption, and as awareness tools to improve compliance with laws and regulations. In one study, media-generated attention had a negative effect on policy advocacy as it mobilized opponents who defeated the passage of the bills that the media intervention advocated for. We judged the confidence in the available evidence as limited due to the risk of bias in the included studies and the indirectness of the evidence. There is currently a lack of reliable evidence to guide decisions on the use of media interventions to influence health policy-making. Additional and better-designed, conducted, and reported primary research is needed to better understand the effects of media interventions, particularly social media, on health policy-making processes, and

  6. Policy Making While Paradigms Shift: Understanding the Development of Policy Drought in the U.S. Congress 1981-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2013-12-01

    Ronald Reagan famously announced in his 1981 inaugural address that 'government is not the solution to our problem; government is the problem.' For the scientific community and Members of Congress of that time, who were partners in working within the scientific management policy paradigm and the meritocracy on which its technical expertise depended, these words were outside their paradigm of good public service. Despite this announcement of a new paradigm by the incoming President, their policy world continued undisturbed, finding points of agreement to make incremental improvements in policy. Executive branch actions in Reagan's two terms as president were dismissed as peculiar, although they were the beginnings of realizing a policy goal of reducing the size and influence of the federal government. The important parameters influencing policy making in the U.S. Congress, which party holds the majority that sets the agenda and schedules votes, seniority that determines leadership positions in the conference and caucus, specialization on policy by committee jurisdictions, vary little annually and thereby were treated as constants by participants and observers alike. But member replacement has policy consequences that are infrequently noted. Members die in office, retire, and lose re-election bids, while the new members replacing them do not replicate any of their institutional characteristics. The policy process continues seemingly unchanged, but there are changes that become apparent with time. By 2013, scientists are no longer unquestioning partners in shaping federal public policy. They have been ridiculed in congressional hearings and in media attacks. Meanwhile new legislative strategies are being tried, e.g. shutting down government, increasing the use of earmarks instead of peer review, filibuster threats, and repeated attempts to repeal laws are now common tactics in Congress. Science and Congress no longer seem to act as partners in policy making, but as

  7. Legitimacy and institutional response strategies of public participation in nuclear policy-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. H.; Ahn, S. K.; Yun, Y. J. [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper proposes that the approach to nuclear policy system should be changed to the participatory and resilient way from the managerial and anticipatory way. This change is surely reasonable in the point that, firstly, the managerial and anticipatory approach contains the internal weakness of not allowing trials and errors due to its centralized decision making and, secondly, active participation of general public can give a great contribution to the course of decision-making in science and technology as well. However, the expansion of public participation has the risk of falling into the deadlock of unreasonable populism, so the course and procedures of public participation need to be included in the process of decision making in the matter of science and technology systematically. Accordingly, this paper shows the research result on the process of public participation in Europe and suggests the possibility that there can be a balanced and effective system of public participation in nuclear policy making.

  8. Assessing Patient Participation in Health Policy Decision-Making in Cyprus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyriakos Souliotis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of patient participation in the design and evaluation of health programs and services is well-documented, there is scarcity of research with regard to patient association (PA participation in health policy decision-making processes. To this end, the present study aimed to validate further a previously developed instrument as well as to investigate the degree of PA participation in health policy decision-making in Cyprus. A convenient sample of 114 patients-members of patients associations took part in the study. Participants were recruited from an umbrella organization, the Pancyprian Federation of Patient Associations and Friends (PFPA. PA participation in health policy decision-making was assessed with the Health Democracy Index (HDI, an original 8-item tool. To explore its psychometric properties, Cronbach α was computed as regards to its internal consistency, while its convergent validity was tested against a self-rated question enquiring about the degree of PA participation in health policy decision-making. The findings revealed that the HDI has good internal consistency and convergent validity. Furthermore, PAs were found to participate more in consultations in health-related organizations and the Ministry of Health (MoH as well as in reforms or crucial decisions in health policy. Lower levels were documented with regard to participation in hospital boards, ethics committees in clinical trials and health technology assessment (HTA procedures. Overall, PA participation levels were found to be lower than the mid-point of the scale. Targeted interventions aiming to facilitate patients’ involvement in health policy decision-making processes and to increase its impact are greatly needed in Cyprus.

  9. Modi's 'Make in India' Industrial Reform Policy and East Asian Flying-Geese Paradigm

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Chang Woon; Nam, Sumin; Steinhoff, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The on-going ‘Make in India’ campaign aims at manufacturing revival. Its characteristics resemble East Asian industrial reform and growth policies based on the flying-geese model which highlights ‘step-by-step’ changes in a country’s specialisation pattern and global competitiveness accompanied by economic growth. Unlikely, ‘Make in India’ comprises heterogeneous measures ‘simultaneously’ supporting industries in different development stages from labour and capital-intensive to high-tech indu...

  10. Diversity Management and the Scandinavian Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Romani, Laurence; Holck, Lotte; Holgersson, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    This chapter presents the principal interpretations that took place in Denmark and Sweden regarding the discourse on ‘Diversity Management’. We organise our presentation around three major themes that are central to the local Scandinavian context: gender equality, migration and moral grounds....... This chapter shows the important role of gender equality work practices and how these practices now tend to be progressively incorporated in a broad Diversity Management construct, possibly leading to a less radical stance. Moreover, the comparison between Denmark and Sweden reveals the political associations...... with Diversity Management and migration in Denmark, but not in Sweden. Our third contribution unveils the tensions between the value of equality, which remains strong in the Scandinavian welfare state model, and the actual practices of Diversity Management....

  11. Scandinavian Object Shift and Optimality Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engels, Eva; Vikner, Sten

    This study presents an account of object shift, a word order phenomenon found in most of the Scandinavian languages where an object occurs unexpectedly to the left and not to the right of a sentential adverbial. The book examines object shift across many of the Scandinavian languages and dialects...... and original observations, this book is an important addition to the fields of phonology, optimality theory and theoretical syntax......., and analyses the variation, for example whether object shift is optional or obligatory, whether it applies only to pronouns or other objects as well, and whether it applies to adverbials. The authors show that optimality theory, traditionally used in phonology, is a useful framework for accounting...

  12. A Biological Security Motivation System for Potential Threats: Are There Implications for Policy-Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Z Woody

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Research indicates that there is a specially adapted, hard-wired brain circuit, the security motivation system, which evolved to manage potential threats, such as the possibility of contamination or predation. The existence of this system may have important implications for policy-making related to security. The system is sensitive to partial, uncertain cues of potential danger, detection of which activates a persistent, potent motivational state of wariness or anxiety. This state motivates behaviours to probe the potential danger, such as checking, and to correct for it, such as washing. Engagement in these behaviours serves as the terminating feedback for the activation of the system. Because security motivation theory makes predictions about what kinds of stimuli activate security motivation and what conditions terminate it, the theory may have applications both in understanding how policy-makers can best influence others, such as the public, and also in understanding the behavior of policy-makers themselves.

  13. How Qualitative Research Informs Clinical and Policy Decision Making in Transplantation: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Allison; Morton, Rachael L; Webster, Angela C

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centered care is no longer just a buzzword. It is now widely touted as a cornerstone in delivering quality care across all fields of medicine. However, patient-centered strategies and interventions necessitate evidence about patients' decision-making processes, values, priorities, and needs. Qualitative research is particularly well suited to understanding the experience and perspective of patients, donors, clinicians, and policy makers on a wide range of transplantation-related topics including organ donation and allocation, adherence to prescribed therapy, pretransplant and posttransplant care, implementation of clinical guidelines, and doctor-patient communication. In transplantation, evidence derived from qualitative research has been integrated into strategies for shared decision-making, patient educational resources, process evaluations of trials, clinical guidelines, and policies. The aim of this article is to outline key concepts and methods used in qualitative research, guide the appraisal of qualitative studies, and assist clinicians to understand how qualitative research may inform their practice and policy.

  14. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks...... surrounding these activities, the article provides new insights into the respective strategies for governing and promoting the advancement of women researchers. In doing so, it exposes some interesting disparities among the cases and shows how Norwegian and Swedish gender equality activities revolve around...

  15. Dial D for Distraction: The Making and Breaking of Cell Phone Policies in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael J.; Westfall, Aubrey

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones are nearly ubiquitous in the college classroom. This study asks two primary questions regarding the making and breaking of in-class cell phone policies. In what manner are students using their phones and how can faculty members minimize the potential for phone-related distractions? To answer these questions we analyze original survey…

  16. At the Crossroads : ICT Policy Making in East Africa | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    At the Crossroads : ICT Policy Making in East Africa. Couverture du livre At the Crossroads : ICT Policymaking in East Africa. Directeur(s) : Florence Etta et Laurent Elder. Maison(s) d'édition : East African Educational Publishers, CRDI. 1 janvier 2005. ISBN : 9966254390. 336 pages. e-ISBN : 1552502198. Téléchargez le ...

  17. Co-opting human security and deductions for security policy-making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It argues that far from being an abstract idea, human security meets a tangible need. Using Ghana as a case study, the article hints at possible implications of the co-optation of human security on security policy-making in Ghana. Keywords: Human Security, Protection, Empowerment, Threats, National Security ...

  18. Public Marketing: An Alternative Policy Decision-Making Idea for Small Cities. Community Development Research Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, James; And Others

    The concept of public marketing presents a strategy for the systems approach to community development that would facilitate the community decision making process via improved communication. Basic aspects of the social marketing process include: (1) product policy; (2) channels of distribution; (3) pricing (perceived price vs quality and quantity…

  19. Discourses, Decisions, Designs: "Special" Education Policy-Making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Pei Wen; Graham, Linda J.

    2017-01-01

    This comparative analysis investigates the influence of neo-liberal and inclusive discourses in "special" education policy-making in New South Wales, Scotland, Finland and Malaysia. The centrality of competition, selectivity and accountability in the discourses used in New South Wales and Malaysia suggests a system preference for…

  20. Can sense-making tools inform adaptation policy? A practitioner's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyla M. G. Milne

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available As governments struggle to find solutions to complex problems like climate change, policy makers look for tools that can capture complexity and elicit insight. I explored the application of one such tool, known as "SenseMaker," in helping Canadian policy makers understand the factors that enable or hinder climate change adaptation in Canada. I have reflected on the usefulness of SenseMaker and of a multiperspective, multimethod approach to investigating perceptions and experiences of adaptation. The challenges and advantages of applying this analysis in government were explored, and data findings assessed for their impact on policy. Findings showed that although the approach has promise, further work and testing are needed before sense-making approaches support adaptation policy.

  1. Using knowledge brokering to promote evidence-based policy-making: The need for support structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kammen, Jessika; de Savigny, Don; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2006-08-01

    Knowledge brokering is a promising strategy to close the "know-do gap" and foster greater use of research findings and evidence in policy-making. It focuses on organizing the interactive process between the producers and users of knowledge so that they can co-produce feasible and research-informed policy options. We describe a recent successful experience with this novel approach in the Netherlands and discuss the requirements for effective institutionalization of knowledge brokering. We also discuss the potential of this approach to assist health policy development in low-income countries based on the experience of developing the Regional East-African Health (REACH)-Policy Initiative. We believe that intermediary organizations, such as regional networks, dedicated institutional mechanisms and funding agencies, can play key roles in supporting knowledge brokering. We recommend the need to support and learn from the brokerage approach to strengthen the relationship between the research and policy communities and hence move towards a stronger culture of evidence-based policy and policy-relevant research.

  2. [The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process : arvustus] / Hiski Haukkala

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Haukkala, Hiski

    2013-01-01

    Arvustus: Maria Groeneveld. The role of the state and society relationship in the foreign policy making process. Tartu : Tartu University Press, 2012. ( Dissertationes rerum politicarum Universitatis Tartuensis ; 7)

  3. Identifying and assessing the application of ecosystem services approaches in environmental policies and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wensem, Joke; Calow, Peter; Dollacker, Annik; Maltby, Lorraine; Olander, Lydia; Tuvendal, Magnus; Van Houtven, George

    2017-01-01

    The presumption is that ecosystem services (ES) approaches provide a better basis for environmental decision making than do other approaches because they make explicit the connection between human well-being and ecosystem structures and processes. However, the existing literature does not provide a precise description of ES approaches for environmental policy and decision making, nor does it assess whether these applications will make a difference in terms of changing decisions and improving outcomes. We describe 3 criteria that can be used to identify whether and to what extent ES approaches are being applied: 1) connect impacts all the way from ecosystem changes to human well-being, 2) consider all relevant ES affected by the decision, and 3) consider and compare the changes in well-being of different stakeholders. As a demonstration, we then analyze retrospectively whether and how the criteria were met in different decision-making contexts. For this assessment, we have developed an analysis format that describes the type of policy, the relevant scales, the decisions or questions, the decision maker, and the underlying documents. This format includes a general judgment of how far the 3 ES criteria have been applied. It shows that the criteria can be applied to many different decision-making processes, ranging from the supranational to the local scale and to different parts of decision-making processes. In conclusion we suggest these criteria could be used for assessments of the extent to which ES approaches have been and should be applied, what benefits and challenges arise, and whether using ES approaches made a difference in the decision-making process, decisions made, or outcomes of those decisions. Results from such studies could inform future use and development of ES approaches, draw attention to where the greatest benefits and challenges are, and help to target integration of ES approaches into policies, where they can be most effective. Integr Environ

  4. The Quality Improvement Demonstration Study: An example of evidence-based policy-making in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quimbo Stella A

    2008-03-01

    collection effort to account for unanticipated findings; introducing sustainable policy interventions based on the reform agenda; and providing results in real-time to policy makers through a combination of venues. Conclusion QIDS demonstrates that a large, prospective, randomized controlled policy experiment can be successfully implemented at a national level as part of sectoral reform. While we believe policy experiments should be used to generate evidence-based health policy, to do this requires opportunity and trust, strong collaborative relationships, and timing. This study nurtures the growing attitude that translation of scientific findings from the bedside to the community can be done successfully and that we should raise the bar on project evaluation and the policy-making process.

  5. Indigeneity-Grounded Analysis (IGA as Policy(-Making Lens: New Zealand Models, Canadian Realities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Maaka

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Engaging politically with the principles of indigeneity is neither an option nor a cop out. The emergence of Indigenous peoples as prime-time players on the world’s political stage attests to the timeliness and relevance of indigeneity in advancing a new postcolonial contract for living together differently. Insofar as the principles of indigeneity are inextricably linked with challenge, resistance, and transformation, this paper argues that reference to indigeneity as policy(- making paradigm is both necessary and overdue. To put this argument to the test, the politics of Maori indigeneity in Aotearoa New Zealand are analyzed and assessed in constructing an indigeneity agenda model. The political implications of an indigeneity-policy nexus are then applied to the realities of Canada’s Indigenous/Aboriginal peoples. The paper contends that, just as the Government is committed to a gender based analysis (GBA for improving policy outcomes along gender lines, so too should the principles of indigeneity (or aboriginality secure an indigeneity grounded analysis (IGA framework for minimizing systemic policy bias while maximizing Indigenous peoples inputs. The paper concludes by theorizing those provisional first principles that inform an IGA framework as a policy (-making lens.

  6. A role for low-order system dynamics models in urban health policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Barry; Siri, José

    2016-10-01

    Cities are complex adaptive systems whose responses to policy initiatives emerge from feedback interactions between their parts. Urban policy makers must routinely deal with both detail and dynamic complexity, coupled with high levels of diversity, uncertainty and contingency. In such circumstances, it is difficult to generate reliable predictions of health-policy outcomes. In this paper we explore the potential for low-order system dynamics (LOSD) models to make a contribution towards meeting this challenge. By definition, LOSD models have few state variables (≤5), illustrate the non-linear effects caused by feedback and accumulation, and focus on endogenous dynamics generated within well-defined boundaries. We suggest that experience with LOSD models can help practitioners to develop an understanding of basic principles of system dynamics, giving them the ability to 'see with new eyes'. Because efforts to build a set of LOSD models can help a transdisciplinary group to develop a shared, coherent view of the problems that they seek to tackle, such models can also become the foundations of 'powerful ideas'. Powerful ideas are conceptual metaphors that provide the members of a policy-making group with the a priori shared context required for effective communication, the co-production of knowledge, and the collaborative development of effective public health policies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enacting Green Consumers: The Case of the Scandinavian Preppies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuentes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to develop and illustrate an analytic approach that brings the active making and makings of green consumer images to the fore. Efforts to "know" the green consumers have generated multiple representations. Enactments of the green consumer are not innocent but also play a role in shaping how we understand and approach sustainable consumption. Because of this it is important to examine and critically discuss how green consumers are enacted today. This paper develops an approach that allows us to examine how green consumers are enacted and discuss the consequences these constructions might have for sustainability. Theoretically, a performativity approach drawing on theories from Science and Technology Studies (STS and economic sociology is used to discuss the enactment of green consumers. Empirically, focus is on Boomerang � a Swedish fashion retailer, brand, and producer � and its marketing practices. The analysis shows how the marketing work of the Boomerang Company leads to the enactment of the Green Scandinavian Preppy. This specific version of the green consumer is a combination of the knowledgeable green connoisseur - a consumer that knows quality when he/she sees it - and the green hedonist in search of the good life. The Green Scandinavian Preppy wants to enjoy nature, go sailing, and do so wearing fashionable quality clothes. This is a consumer that knows quality, appreciates design, and has the means to pay for both. While this is a version of the green consumer that might be appealing and thus have the potential to pro-mote a version of green consumption, it is also a green consumer image that has lost much of its political power as green consumption is framed as simply another source of pleasure and identity-making.

  8. Applying multi-criteria decision-making to improve the waste reduction policy in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jun-Pin; Hung, Ming-Lung; Chao, Chia-Wei; Ma, Hwong-wen

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the waste reduction problem has been a major issue in environmental protection. Both recycling and waste reduction policies have become increasingly important. As the complexity of decision-making has increased, it has become evident that more factors must be considered in the development and implementation of policies aimed at resource recycling and waste reduction. There are many studies focused on waste management excluding waste reduction. This study paid more attention to waste reduction. Social, economic, and management aspects of waste treatment policies were considered in this study. Further, a life-cycle assessment model was applied as an evaluation system for the environmental aspect. Results of both quantitative and qualitative analyses on the social, economic, and management aspects were integrated via the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method into the comprehensive decision-making support system of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM). A case study evaluating the waste reduction policy in Taoyuan County is presented to demonstrate the feasibility of this model. In the case study, reinforcement of MSW sorting was shown to be the best practice. The model in this study can be applied to other cities faced with the waste reduction problems.

  9. Sustainability Performance of Scandinavian Corporations and their Value Chains assessed by UN Global Compact and Global Reporting Initiative standards - a way to identify superior performers?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a combination of the two most adopted multi- stakeholder standards for sustainability reporting as an alternate framework for assessing sustainability performance in Scandinavian corporations. This novel approach leverages numeric measures on the criteria...... Strategies & Policies, Management Systems, Monitoring and Evaluation Mechanisms and Key Outcomes on sustainability defined broadly as the Human Rights, Labour, Environment and Anti-Corruption issues by the UN Global Compact. The study firmly concludes that Scandinavian corporations on average...

  10. Why do we need to integrate farmer decision making and wildlife models for policy evaluation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malawska, Anna Katarzyna; Topping, Christopher John; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted

    2014-01-01

    complexity into account. Therefore, a solution that integrates both feedback interactions and the differing scales at which these interactions take place is needed. For this, we suggest developing integrated policy assessment tools comprising of simulated farmer decision making, on-farm land-use and wildlife...... and technical limitations, traditional agricultural economic and ecological models fall short in terms of predictions of impacts of agri-environmental measures. The feedback situation between policy, human behaviour and ecological systems behaviour can confound these approaches, which do not take systems...

  11. Management challenges at the intersection of public policy environments and strategic decision making in public hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longest, Beaufort B

    2012-01-01

    Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.

  12. An assessment of policymakers' engagement initiatives to promote evidence informed health policy making in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    In most developing countries including Nigeria, one of the most challenging issues associated with evidence-to-policy link is the capacity constraints of policymakers to access, synthesize, adapt and utilize available research evidence. The purpose of this review is to assess the efforts and various initiatives that have been undertaken to deliberately engage policymakers and other stakeholders in the health sector in Nigeria for the promotion of evidence informed policymaking. A MEDLINE Entrez Pubmed search was performed and studies that investigated policy making process, evidence to policy link, research to policy mechanism, and researchers/policymakers interaction in Nigeria in relation to health policy were sought. Of the 132 publications found, 14(10.6%) fulfilled the study inclusion criteria and were selected and included in the review. Of the fourteen scientific publications identified, 11 of the studies targeted both researchers and policymakers and the principal tool of intervention was training workshops which focused on various aspects of evidence informed policymaking. All the studies indicated positive outcomes and impacts in relation to quantifiable improvement in policymakers' knowledge and competence in evidence to policy process. Capacity strengthening engagement mechanism is needed for both researchers to generate better evidence and for policymakers and health-care professionals to better use available evidence.

  13. An Australian childhood obesity summit: the role of data and evidence in 'public' policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, S A; Develin, E; Grove, N; Zwi, A B

    2005-07-20

    Overweight and obesity in Australia has risen at an alarming rate over the last 20 years as in other industrialised countries around the world, yet the policy response, locally and globally, has been limited. Using a childhood obesity summit held in Australia in 2002 as a case study, this paper examines how evidence was used in setting the agenda, influencing the Summit debate and shaping the policy responses which emerged. The study used multiple methods of data collection including documentary analysis, key informant interviews, a focus group discussion and media analysis. The resulting data were content analysed to examine the types of evidence used in the Summit and how the state of the evidence base contributed to policy-making. Empirical research evidence concerning the magnitude of the problem was widely reported and largely uncontested in the media and in the Summit debates. In contrast, the evidence base for action was mostly opinion and ideas as empirical data was lacking. Opinions and ideas were generally found to be an acceptable basis for agreeing policy action coupled with thorough evaluation. However, the analysis revealed that the evidence was fiercely contested around food advertising to children and action agreed was therefore limited. The Summit demonstrated that policy action will move forward in the absence of strong research evidence. Where powerful and competing groups contest possible policy options, however, the evidence base required for action needs to be substantial. As with tobacco control, obesity control efforts are likely to face ongoing challenges around the nature of the evidence and interventions proposed to tackle the problem. Overcoming the challenges in controlling obesity will be more likely if researchers and public health advocates enhance their understanding of the policy process, including the role different types of evidence can play in influencing public debate and policy decisions, the interests and tactics of the

  14. The didn't pilot the Welfare State: on evidence and temporality in policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vohnsen, Nina Holm

    in the development of the pilot and discusses the idea of ‘piloting’, which in today’s policy-making seems to be an indispensable stage preceding radically new policy. Yet it seems there is a fundamental mismatch between ‘a pilot’ and the innovative work such are often called upon to do. Taking as is starting point...... for a discussion a key civil servants lament that “they did not pilot the welfare state” the paper moves on to argue that the real potential of a pilot lies not in its capacity to predict and prepare for policy outcome but in its capacity to prototype political alliances which might eventually do other work....

  15. The role of migration-specific and migration-relevant policies in migrant decision-making in transit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuschminder - de Guerre, Katie; Koser, Khalid

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines the role of migration-specific and migration-relevant policies in migrant decision-making factors for onwards migration or stay in Greece and Turkey. In this paper we distinguish migration-specific policies from migration-relevant policies in transit and destination countries,

  16. Neo-Democracy in Educational Policy-Making: A Critical Case Study of Neoliberal Reform in Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Peter

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores changes to the educational policy-making arena through case study analysis of a Massachusetts law passed in 2012 that limits seniority-based job protections for public K-12 teachers. I use data from interviews with policy stakeholders, observations of public meetings, and policy artifacts to explore struggles over democratic…

  17. Experiences and attitudes towards evidence-informed policy-making among research and policy stakeholders in the Canadian agri-food public health sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, I; Gropp, K; Pintar, K; Waddell, L; Marshall, B; Thomas, K; McEwen, S A; Rajić, A

    2014-12-01

    Policy-makers working at the interface of agri-food and public health often deal with complex and cross-cutting issues that have broad health impacts and socio-economic implications. They have a responsibility to ensure that policy-making based on these issues is accountable and informed by the best available scientific evidence. We conducted a qualitative descriptive study of agri-food public health policy-makers and research and policy analysts in Ontario, Canada, to understand their perspectives on how the policy-making process is currently informed by scientific evidence and how to facilitate this process. Five focus groups of 3-7 participants and five-one-to-one interviews were held in 2012 with participants from federal and provincial government departments and industry organizations in the agri-food public health sector. We conducted a thematic analysis of the focus group and interview transcripts to identify overarching themes. Participants indicated that the following six key principles are necessary to enable and demonstrate evidence-informed policy-making (EIPM) in this sector: (i) establish and clarify the policy objectives and context; (ii) support policy-making with credible scientific evidence from different sources; (iii) integrate scientific evidence with other diverse policy inputs (e.g. economics, local applicability and stakeholder interests); (iv) ensure that scientific evidence is communicated by research and policy stakeholders in relevant and user-friendly formats; (V) create and foster interdisciplinary relationships and networks across research and policy communities; and (VI) enhance organizational capacity and individual skills for EIPM. Ongoing and planned efforts in these areas, a supportive culture, and additional education and training in both research and policy realms are important to facilitate evidence-informed policy-making in this sector. Future research should explore these findings further in other countries and contexts.

  18. Waste Management Strategy in The Netherlands. Part 4. Policy and Decision-making on (Geological) Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haverkate, B.R.W

    2003-12-17

    This report reflects the Dutch input to work package 4 of the EU thematic network COMPAS. This (last) work package focused on the review of current national positions in the EU member states and their applicant countries. This report describes the current national position of The Netherlands concerning policy and decision-making on (geological) disposal of radioactive waste. After the introduction (in chapter 1), which summarises the background to the current situation regarding geological disposal, current Government policy is described (in chapter 2). A strategy founded on main disposal issues (highlighted in Chapter 3) as well as on historical investigations and the remaining options (appendix A). Finally the relevant decision-making process for radioactive waste management in The Netherlands is discussed (in chapter 4) by means of describing the key issues and the successful implementation of long-term interim storage facilities for radioactive waste. Additionally, in appendix B, an overview is given of responsibilities for radioactive waste management.

  19. Purposive interaction in multi-actor decision making : Operationalizing Coleman's linear system of action for policy decision support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, J.S.

    2004-01-01

    Purposive Interaction in Multi-Actor Decision Making; Operationalizing Coleman's Linear System of Action for Policy Decision Support, started out with a ball and a web, a policy domain moved by a network of actors. How can the ball maintain its pace? Who are the actors that make the difference? How

  20. The power of science economic research and European decision-making : the case of energy and environment policies

    CERN Document Server

    Rossetti di Valdalbero, Domenico

    2010-01-01

    This book highlights the interaction between science and politics and between research in economics and European Union policy-making. It focuses on the use of Quantitative tools, Top-down and Bottom-up models in up-stream European decision-making process through five EU policy case studies: energy taxation, climate change, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and internalisation of external costs.

  1. Mapping Russian Media Network: Media’s Role in Russian Foreign Policy and Decision-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-14

    influence strategy. In addition, we highlight Russian decision-making and messaging through four distinct past and future scenarios along the spectrum of...instrument and lever of influence . The role of media in promoting Russian foreign policy and exerting the influence of President Vladimir Putin has...examine the role that Russia’s media and messaging plays in external influence . In addition, we highlight that while media is a key instrument of

  2. SCANDINAVIAN MIGRATION IN THE VIKING AGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wladyslaw Duczko

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Movements of Scandinavians in period between late 8th AD to middle of 11th AD, called Viking Age, were combined military actions-piracy – and migrations with goal to colonize territories in the West Europe – mainly Insular world of Atlantic and British isles, but also in East Europe, among Finno-Ugrians and Slavs. This activity is seen as the recent, and last, of the Migration Period, the time of great movements of Germanic people in the 4th century AD.

  3. A Scandinavian Model of Innovative Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup; Boelskifte, Per

    2007-01-01

    competencies. We reflect on our efforts to produce a new type of design professionalism, pointing to new roles and identities for the professional-ism of synthesis and innovation. Finally, we round up by articulating what we see as the future pattern of product development, which should be sup-ported already......The educational systems in the small Scandinavian countries are open to experiments and new education programmes. This paper presents such an initiative from Denmark, showing new interpretations of industrial needs, research insights, educational ideas and identification of core innovative...

  4. Seventh Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mayoh, Brian Henry; Perram, John

    2001-01-01

    The book covers the seventh Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, held at the Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller Institute for Production Technology at the University of Southern Denmark during the period 20-21 February, 2001. It continues the tradition established by SCAI of being one...... of the most important regional AI conferences in Europe, attracting high quality submissions from Scandinavia and the rest of the world, including the Baltic countries. The contents include robotics, sensor/motor intelligence, evolutionary robotics, behaviour-based systems, multi-agent systems, applications...

  5. The principles of Catholic social teaching: A guide for decision making from daily clinical encounters to national policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Karen Shields

    2017-02-01

    Catholic social teaching (CST), a branch of moral theology, addresses contemporary issues within the political, economic, and cultural structures of society. The threefold cornerstone of CST contains the principles of human dignity, solidarity, and subsidiarity. It is the foundation on which to form our conscience in order to evaluate the framework of society and is the Catholic criteria for prudential judgment and direction in developing current policy-making. With knowledge of these social principles, in combination with our faith, we will be more armed and informed as to articulate the Catholic vision of reality, the truthful nature of the human person and society, to apply and integrate the social teachings in our everyday administrative and clinical encounters, and through the virtue of charity take action within the social, political, and economic spheres in which we have influence. Summary: The Church's social encyclicals are a reflection upon the issues of the day using the light of faith and reason. They offer commentary on the ways to evaluate and address particular social problems-also using natural law principles-in the areas of politics, economics, and culture. Quotes were selected from the encyclicals that define and expand upon the primary principles for the purpose of representing them for study, reflection, and use in everyday personal and business encounters and decision making for healthcare professionals.

  6. Design of coordinated energy and environmental policies: use of multi-criteria decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greening, L.A. [Oso Energy and Environmental Economics, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bernow, S. [Tellus Institute Inc., Boston, MA (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Conventional economic modeling tools that depend upon one criterion to select among possible alternatives for inclusion in an energy or environmental policy have limitations. Formulation of both sets of policies involves large numbers of stakeholders with differing views and preferences. Those views and preferences cannot always be determined in advance or with certainty since many of the attributes of these policy alternatives are non-market valued. The use of multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods in an integrated assessment (IA) framework offers a far better alternative to cost/benefit and similar methods. To facilitate understanding of MCDM methods, we offer a typology for this broad class o models, suggest some of the types of problems that may be analyzed with these methods, and recommend the implementation of several MCDM methods in currently evolving IA frameworks. Depending upon the choice of method from this family of methods, a wide range of attributes associated with multi-pollutant reduction and energy system development strategies, and a diversity of stakeholder preferences may be incorporated into the analysis. The resulting policy space can then provide a basis for comparison and selection of policy alternatives in a political or negotiated process. (author)

  7. Understanding farmers' strategic decision-making processes and the implications for biodiversity conservation policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmar-Bowers, Quentin; Lane, Ruth

    2009-02-01

    The conservation of biodiversity is an important issue world wide and in Australia the maintenance of native biodiversity on farms makes an important contribution to overall conservation objectives. This paper seeks to explain Australian farmers' rationale for maintaining biodiversity on their farms for personal as opposed to business reasons by developing a decision-systems theory from in-depth interviews. This difference has implications for policy development. The decision-systems theory is divided into two main sections. The first section contains five parts. (1) A hierarchy of motivation stories, (2) the concept of suitability and availability of opportunities, (3) a hierarchy of three decision-systems, (4) the concept of personal career paths, (5) the concept of Lenses. The second section contains one part, a policy classification system called 'boxes of influence' that suggests how policy developers can use the information in the first section to develop new biodiversity conservation policy. The paper suggests that decision-systems theory could be used to shed new light on current trends in agriculture and become an important investigative tool for policy development concerning the conservation of biodiversity on farms.

  8. Designing Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways using Many-Objective Robust Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwakkel, Jan; Haasnoot, Marjolijn

    2017-04-01

    Dealing with climate risks in water management requires confronting a wide variety of deeply uncertain factors, while navigating a many dimensional space of trade-offs amongst objectives. There is an emerging body of literature on supporting this type of decision problem, under the label of decision making under deep uncertainty. Two approaches within this literature are Many-Objective Robust Decision Making, and Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways. In recent work, these approaches have been compared. One of the main conclusions of this comparison was that they are highly complementary. Many-Objective Robust Decision Making is a model based decision support approach, while Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways is primarily a conceptual framework for the design of flexible strategies that can be adapted over time in response to how the future is actually unfolding. In this research we explore this complementarity in more detail. Specifically, we demonstrate how Many-Objective Robust Decision Making can be used to design adaptation pathways. We demonstrate this combined approach using a water management problem, in the Netherlands. The water level of Lake IJselmeer, the main fresh water resource of the Netherlands, is currently managed through discharge by gravity. Due to climate change, this won't be possible in the future, unless water levels are changed. Changing the water level has undesirable flood risk and spatial planning consequences. The challenge is to find promising adaptation pathways that balance objectives related to fresh water supply, flood risk, and spatial issues, while accounting for uncertain climatic and land use change. We conclude that the combination of Many-Objective Robust Decision Making and Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways is particularly suited for dealing with deeply uncertain climate risks.

  9. Scandinavian Accents in Their Relation to One Another

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberman, A. S.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is concerned with four Scandinavian prosodemes: accent 1, accent 2, stoed, and no stoed. The aim is to establish the function of each of them, i.e., the role they play in the system of each Scandinavian language. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (Author/TL)

  10. Making policy practice in afterschool programs: a randomized controlled trial on physical activity changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Weaver, R Glenn; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Huberty, Jennifer; Ward, Dianne S; Pate, Russell R; Freedman, Darcy; Hutto, Brent; Moore, Justin B; Beighle, Aaron

    2015-06-01

    intervention afterschool programs increased the proportion of girls achieving physical activity policy to ≥30% compared to no control afterschool programs. The Strategies To Enhance Practice intervention can make meaningful changes in the proportion of children meeting the moderate to vigorous physical activity policy within one school year. Additional efforts are required to enhance the impact of the intervention. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Does Age Matter in HR Decision Making? Four Types of Age Policies in Finnish Work Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Pärnänen

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The extension of work careers is one of the key targets of social policy in the EU as well as in Finnish national policy-making. But how is this objective of lengthened work life received at the workplace level? This study examines the aim of extending working careers at an organizational level. The data comprise interviews with human resources managers, shop stewards, and employees reaching the end of their working life, conducted in ten Finnish work organizations. Four different age policy lines can be distinguished from the data. First, the age policy practices of manufacturing enterprises are very much alike in that a clear turn has occurred from favoring the unemployment pension path in the case of dismissals to extending working careers. Second, the age policy of public sector organizations encourages investment in extending the working careers of older employees, though young people are clearly preferred in recruitment. The third line can be found in private service sector enterprises that utilize age segmentation based on the age of their customers – young waiters for young customers, for example – while the fourth can be described by the words ‘situation-specific’ and ‘passive’. No input is made into extending working careers and the unemployment route is used as the means of dismissal where needed. The study reveals that the organizations’ age policies are strategic in nature: longer working careers are supported and older people are hired only if it is strategically sound. It can be said that workplaces currently determine the boundaries of who and at what age people are fit for work and of ‘working age’.

  12. Exploring qualitative research synthesis: the role of patients' perspectives in health policy design and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Helle Ploug; Draborg, Eva; Kristensen, Finn Børlum

    2011-01-01

    Health systems are placing more and more emphasis on the design and delivery of services that are focused on the patient, and there is a growing interest in patient involvement in health policy research and health technology assessment (HTA). Furthermore, there is a growing research interest in eliciting patients' views, not only on 'what works' for patients but also on the need for intervention and on factors influencing the implementation of particular health technologies, their appropriateness and acceptability. This article focuses on qualitative research synthesis in eliciting patients' perspectives. Its aim is to bring research closer to policy development and decision making, to facilitate better use of research findings for health and welfare, to generate a body of evidence, and to ensure that effective and appropriate information is used in health policy decision design. A variety of synthesizing approaches in qualitative research are explored, such as meta-synthesis, meta-summary, meta-ethnography, and meta-study, focusing especially on methodology. Meta-synthesis and meta-ethnography are probably the most frequently cited approaches in qualitative research synthesis and have perhaps the most developed methodology. The implications of these various synthesizing approaches in relation to health policy and HTA are discussed, and we suggest that meta-synthesis and meta-summary are particularly useful approaches. They have an explicit focus on 'evidence synthesis', fairly clear methodologies, and they are designed to not only present interpretations of the findings but also integrate research findings. Qualitative research synthesis enables researchers to synthesize findings from multiple qualitative studies on patients' perspectives instead of establishing new, expensive, and perhaps redundant studies that might intrude on the lives of patients. Qualitative research synthesis is highly recommended by decision makers and in health policy research and HTA. In

  13. Influential Factors of Evidence-Based Energy Policy-making: Government Regulation on Targeting Renewable Energy in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wati Hermawati

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on research identifying lessons and approaches in making energy policy and scrutinizes whether empirical evidence–based energy policy exists in Indonesia. Empirical evidence–based energy policy has the potential to reduce poverty as well as have a greater impact on the economic performance of individuals, communities and the government. In this study, we used document analysis and key informant interviews to explore empirical evidence input in energy policy-making. The results of the analysis revealed the following three points. First, there are a range of limitations in the process of energy policy-making as well as in getting an evidence inputs from concerned institutions such as universities, R&D institutions, and industries. Second, the process in making energy policy went through several stages and was not always in sequences, starting from problem identification, needs identification, advocacy, information gathering, policy drafting, and approval obtainment from the institutions concerned. Third, the most influential factor in the formulation of this energy policy is the factor of power and authority instead of knowledge and evidence. The limitations have demonstrated insufficient evidence in the policy-making. Finally, the paper suggests that a working group for data and information gathering should be created.

  14. The Role of Higher Education in National Quality Infrastructure Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Ruso

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to raise awareness of the importance of the policy makers’ knowledge and expertise about quality infrastructure (QI for the successful policy-making. This article, which addresses the role of higher education in Serbian quality infrastructure policy-making, is an analysis of QI related contents of higher education institution curriculum. The target institutions are public faculties from whose official websites the data were collected. Depending on the keywords, the analysis was performed in order to classify the faculties into three categories. After reviewing the 307 subject titles and descriptions of undergraduate courses, the results show that the concepts of QI are widely recognized as an important and popular topic. The analysis of the QI adoption and diffusion indicates that although some of the faculties might be ‘leaders’ in a particular dimension, they still do not necessarily fall into the ‘leader’ category. JEL Classification:I21, I23, H54, L15

  15. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2003-07-29

    The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws - the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies.

  16. Psychosocial risks: is risk management strategic enough in business and policy making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhan, Melissa K; Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya

    2013-06-01

    In times of continuous change and volatile markets, organizations are increasingly characterized by downsizing, work intensification, and resource rationalization. This has resulted in diversification, and the emergence of new risks within the field of occupational health and safety, with an important impact. This paper focuses on one such type of risk in the modern workplace-psychosocial risks. The current study aimed to explore stakeholder perspectives, regarding the extent to which psychosocial risks are incorporated into strategic risk management practices, at both the business and policy level. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 professionals, representing employer, expert, policy maker, and trade union stakeholder perspectives. It was found that the majority of organizations do not sufficiently, if at all, understand and incorporate psychosocial risks into strategic decision making, whereby the key barrier related to practical difficulties of not knowing how to manage psychosocial risks adequately. The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes) and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance.

  17. Psychosocial Risks: Is Risk Management Strategic Enough in Business and Policy Making?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenhan, Melissa K.; Leka, Stavroula; Jain, Aditya

    2013-01-01

    Background In times of continuous change and volatile markets, organizations are increasingly characterized by downsizing, work intensification, and resource rationalization. This has resulted in diversification, and the emergence of new risks within the field of occupational health and safety, with an important impact. This paper focuses on one such type of risk in the modern workplace—psychosocial risks. The current study aimed to explore stakeholder perspectives, regarding the extent to which psychosocial risks are incorporated into strategic risk management practices, at both the business and policy level. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 professionals, representing employer, expert, policy maker, and trade union stakeholder perspectives. Results It was found that the majority of organizations do not sufficiently, if at all, understand and incorporate psychosocial risks into strategic decision making, whereby the key barrier related to practical difficulties of not knowing how to manage psychosocial risks adequately. Conclusion The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes) and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance. PMID:23961331

  18. Thinking Copenhagen: The Cognitive Dimension of Climate Change Policy Making In Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark S. Langevin

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the cognitive dimension of climate change policy making in Brazil and the United States as both countries prepare for the Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change or COP15 in Copenhagen. The comparative policy analysis is framed by Putnam (1988 and informed by Bazerman (2009, but adapted to explore the cognitive expressions of policymaking through investigation of public opinion, newspaper coverage, and policymaker statements. The analysis reveals key differences in the ways that Brazilian and U.S. citizens, journalists, and policymakers understand global warming and climate change and think through the policy alternatives for addressing this global challenge through national policy and international negotiations. Brazil’s cognitive dimension provides its negotiators with a wide range of strategic positions, allowing this country to play the role of dealmaker. The U.S. administration arrives at Copenhagen with a narrow win-set, limited by the discordant and divisive cognitive expressions that surround policymaking. These differences limit bilateral cooperation and complicate the COP15 negotiations.

  19. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulfield, Timothy

    2003-01-01

    Background The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. Discussion The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws – the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. Summary It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies. PMID:12887735

  20. Human cloning laws, human dignity and the poverty of the policy making dialogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caulfield Timothy

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulation of human cloning continues to be a significant national and international policy issue. Despite years of intense academic and public debate, there is little clarity as to the philosophical foundations for many of the emerging policy choices. The notion of "human dignity" is commonly used to justify cloning laws. The basis for this justification is that reproductive human cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. Discussion The author critiques one of the most commonly used ethical justifications for cloning laws – the idea that reproductive cloning necessarily infringes notions of human dignity. He points out that there is, in fact, little consensus on point and that the counter arguments are rarely reflected in formal policy. Rarely do domestic or international instruments provide an operational definition of human dignity and there is rarely an explanation of how, exactly, dignity is infringed in the context reproductive cloning. Summary It is the author's position that the lack of thoughtful analysis of the role of human dignity hurts the broader public debate about reproductive cloning, trivializes the value of human dignity as a normative principle and makes it nearly impossible to critique the actual justifications behind many of the proposed policies.

  1. UTILIZATION OF EVALUATION RESULTS IN LEGAL POLICY-MAKING AND ADMINISTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hellmut Wollmann

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of evaluation method and its impact on legal policy development in governance, including in the area of law enforcement.The author outlines the importance of question whether, when and how the evaluation results of public policies, programs and measures has been utilized (or not utilized in policy making and policy implementation.In the pursuit of this guiding question the article will come in five steps.First, major variants of evaluation will be briefly presented particularly with an eye on their respective “utilization potential”.Second, different concepts will be sketched that have been forwarded to capture the utilization of social science generated knowledge by political, administrative and social actors. The author outlines a detailed description of types of evaluations: a retrospective, prelimi-nary, ongoing, interactive, – as well as existing concepts of application of its results.Third, looking at Germany, Switzerland and the European Union as “cases in point” perti-ent research findings will be discussed. The article also subjected to a detailed analysis of the experience of Germany, Switzerland and the European Union in the field of utilization of evaluation results.Fourth, a summary and conclusion will be given.Fifth, some remarks on pertinent research needs will be made.The author comes to the conclusion that that the rate of the utilization of evaluation-generated knowledge has so far turned out be, by and large, scarce. The author says that re-garding the politically crucial decisions the political rationality and its underlying political will of the decision-makers prevail while concerning less important decisions evaluation-generated evidence does show some effect and, hence, a dose of scientific rationality comes to the fore.There is also a need for further research on the subject of how should (and should not use assessment results when making legal and political decisions.

  2. Use (and abuse) of expert elicitation in support of decision making for public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, M Granger

    2014-05-20

    The elicitation of scientific and technical judgments from experts, in the form of subjective probability distributions, can be a valuable addition to other forms of evidence in support of public policy decision making. This paper explores when it is sensible to perform such elicitation and how that can best be done. A number of key issues are discussed, including topics on which there are, and are not, experts who have knowledge that provides a basis for making informed predictive judgments; the inadequacy of only using qualitative uncertainty language; the role of cognitive heuristics and of overconfidence; the choice of experts; the development, refinement, and iterative testing of elicitation protocols that are designed to help experts to consider systematically all relevant knowledge when they make their judgments; the treatment of uncertainty about model functional form; diversity of expert opinion; and when it does or does not make sense to combine judgments from different experts. Although it may be tempting to view expert elicitation as a low-cost, low-effort alternative to conducting serious research and analysis, it is neither. Rather, expert elicitation should build on and use the best available research and analysis and be undertaken only when, given those, the state of knowledge will remain insufficient to support timely informed assessment and decision making.

  3. Participation, public policy-making, and legitimacy in the EU Voluntary Partnership Agreement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wodschow, Astrid; Nathan, Iben; Cerutti, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses how participatory policy-making processes such as the Voluntary Partnership Agreement (VPA) negotiations are and should be organised to foster political legitimacy and support. The VPAs are bilateral agreements between the European Union (EU) and timber producing countries...... to a rationalist model with elements of the mixed model, and that this has increased legitimacy and support only to a limited extent. For future processes in other countries, we recommend stronger elements of the mixed model, and more careful considerations about stakeholder identification processes; how to adapt...

  4. The Scandinavian baltic pancreatic club (SBPC) database

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Maagaard; Poulsen, Jakob L; Drewes, Asbjørn M.

    2017-01-01

    , we describe the design of the database and characteristics of the study cohort. METHODS: Nine centres from six different countries in the Scandinavian-Baltic region joined the database. Patients with definitive or probable CP (M-ANNHEIM diagnostic criteria) were included. Standardised case report......: The study cohort comprised of 910 patients (608 men: 302 women; median age 58 (IQR: 48-67) years with definite 848 (93%) or probable CP 62 (7%). Nicotine (70%) and alcohol (59%) were the most frequent aetiologies and seen in combination in 44% of patients. A history of recurrent acute pancreatitis was seen...... in 49% prior to the development of CP. Pain (69%) and exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (68%) were the most common complications followed by diabetes (43%). Most patients (30%) were classified as clinical stage II (symptomatic CP with exocrine or endocrine insufficiency). Less than 10% of the patients...

  5. Politics of oil in Venezuela: A decision-making analysis of PDVSA's internationalisation policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Cesar E.

    The high degree of international vertical integration achieved by the Venezuelan state oil enterprise, Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. (PDVSA), has placed it among the most important oil multinationals (MNs). The policy of creating downstream outlets through the establishment of foreign direct investments (FDIs) in the form of refinery assets was given the term of 'internationalisation'. By analysing PDVSA's internationalisation policy, the thesis explores the difficulties encountered by a major state-owned enterprise (SOE) from a developing country in its efforts to grow beyond national borders. The study focuses on the impact of democratic bargaining on the process of oil policymaking in Venezuela, stressing the constraints posed by politics on PDVSA's efforts to expand its foreign operations. Specifically, the study examines the intricate policymaking process that shaped the origins and the development of PDVSA's internationalisation policy, underlying the events and factors that influenced each one of its three distinguishable phases: adoption, formulation, and implementation. The tensions between politics and corporate strategy are highlighted at the core of the policymaking process. The study also looks at the relationship between the oil industry and the other two key decision-making centres involved in the oil policymaking process: the executive and Congress. In exploring the ways in which each one of them sought to influence policy outcome, the study attempts to gain insight into the main factors that prompted the tensions among the policy actors involved. Three environments, or pressure-generating centres, constantly exert influence on the oil industry: the oil market, the political context and the government's financial situation. By seeking to determine the industry's response to their pervasive influence on policy formulation and implementation, this research ascertains the extent to which these variables influenced the decision-making process that

  6. The Boardroom Perspective: How Does Energy Efficiency Policy Influence Decision Making in Industry?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report delves into the major factors or driving forces that decision makers within a large industrial company take into account when deciding to make new investments - the so-called {sup b}oardroom perspective{sup .} The rationale for an individual company making an investment that will reduce energy consumption varies considerably and depends on a range of factors. This report explores those factors that influence companies to invest in energy savings and proposes a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of a country's energy efficiency and greenhouse gas mitigation policies mix from this boardroom perspective. This paper is the product of collaboration between the IEA and the Institute of Industrial Productivity (IIP).

  7. Is welfare all that matters? A discussion of what should be included in policy-making regarding animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yeates, J.W.; Röcklinsberg, H.; Gjerris, Mickey

    2011-01-01

    Policy-making concerned with animals often includes human interests, such as economy, trade, environmental protection, disease control, species conservation etc. When it comes to the interests of the animals, such policy-making often makes use of the results of animal welfare science to provide...... to animals. This can be considered as a problem of what is included in welfare science, or of what is included in policy. This suggests two possible solutions: expanding animal welfare science to address all ethical concerns about animals’ interests or widening the perspective considered in policy...... assessments of ethically relevant concerns for animals. This has provided a scientific rigour that has helped to overcome controversies and allowed debates to move forward according to generally agreed methodologies. However, this focus can lead to policies leaving out other important issues relevant...

  8. Scandinavian-Saami religious connections in the history of research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkan Rydving

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The religions of Scandinavians and Saamis have, for decades of scholarship, functioned as sources of analogies to explain elements in one another. For the study of Saami religion answers to questions about origins were sought in Scandinavian religion, while Saami religion has been seen by students of Scandinavian religion, as a preserver and a faithful witness of Scandinavian concepts and rites that had vanished in the times reflected in the literary sources. This view has now changed. In recent decades the tendency has been to use the loan- explanations more and more sparsely. Elements in Saami religion that were seen earlier as Scandinavian loans are now explained in a Finno-Ugric context, whereas the few elements in Scandinavian religion that were thought of as loans from the Saamis are more often looked upon as inherited from a common origin, a North Eurasian cultural stratum. The search for analogies has, in any case, preoccupied the historian of religions in this field, too. The purpose here is to provide a short and selective résumé of some aspects of a theme in the history of scholarship, a theme where "resemblances" have been found, compared, used as analogies, and — called into question: the comparative study of the religions of the Scandinavians and Saamis.

  9. Foreign Policy Making and the U.S. Vision of European Integration in the Nixon Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers an insight into Washington’s foreign policy establishment and its vision of European integration under the Nixon administration. It argues that President Nixon and his National Security Advisor, Henry Kissinger, managed to formulate many important aspects of foreign policy at the White House. From a realist perspective, the Nixon-Kissinger team saw the emergence of a new world order and in it the evolvement of European integration in a way different from previous U.S. administrations. The paper begins by discussing the Nixon administration’s realist approach to foreign policy before analyzing President Nixon’s determination to make decisions on foreign relations at the White House. Next, the paper examines the main features of the Nixon-Kissinger team’s vision of European integration. It concludes that, as realists, the Nixon administration supported integration in Western Europe, yet Washington was ambivalent if a united Europe with increasing self-confidence and self-assertiveness would be in the U.S. national interest. Henceforth, the European integration process had to be, in the Nixon-Kissinger view, taking place under U.S. control in the form of the consultative mechanism and the U.S. military umbrella.

  10. Participatory Policy Making by Dairy Producers to Reduce Anti-Microbial use on Farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, L; Hayton, A; Main, D C J; Booth, A; King, A; Barrett, D C; Buller, H J; Reyher, K K

    2017-09-01

    Pressures for more responsible use of anti-microbial (AM) medicines in food animals are likely to increase from policymakers and the food industry, including retailers. To address this challenge, participatory approaches to welfare interventions and disease prevention may also be necessary alongside more conventional regulatory measures. This article describes the process of enabling groups of dairy producers to use a participatory policy making approach to develop an AM stewardship policy. The policy includes measures agreed to by all producers for more responsible use of AMs, whilst maintaining or improving dairy herd health and welfare. This process provided a unique opportunity for collaboration and dialogue between producers, veterinarians, industry and researchers. Its participatory nature encouraged comprehensive learning for all involved. This integration of science with producers' knowledge and experience led to credible and practical recommendations designed to deliver real and lasting change in AM use. The multidisciplinary nature of this research marks a significant contribution to embedding social science skills and approaches into the veterinary sphere. As an initial step in creating better understanding of how participatory approaches with farmers can be applied in a UK context and more widely, this work serves as a pilot for promoting more responsible use of veterinary medicines in other livestock species. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. The Nexus between Czech Non-State Actors and Domestic Foreign Policy Making in the EU Presidency Context

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Neuman, Marek

    2011-01-01

    Holding the EU Council Presidency presented the Czech Republic with an unprecedented opportunity to leave its imprint on, among others, EU foreign policy making by co-shaping the EU's political agenda...

  12. China’s Foreign- and Security-policy Decision-making Processes under Hu Jintao

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Cabestan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Since 1979, foreign- and security-policy-making and implementation processes have gradually and substantially changed. New modes of operation that have consolidated under Hu Jintao, actually took shape under Jiang Zemin in the 1990s, and some, under Deng Xiaoping. While the military’s role has diminished, that of diplomats, experts, and bureaucracies dealing with trade, international economic relations, energy, propaganda and education has increased. Decision making in this area has remained highly centralized and concentrated in the supreme leading bodies of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP. However, China’s globalization and decentralization, as well as the increasing complexity of its international interests, have intensified the need to better coordinate the activities of the various CCP and state organs involved in foreign and security policy; hence, the growing importance of the CCP leading small groups (foreign affairs, national security, Taiwan, etc.. But the rigidity of the current institutional pattern has so far foiled repeated attempts to establish a National Security Council.

  13. Evidence based policy making in the European Union: the role of the scientific community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcen, Špela

    2017-03-01

    In the times when the acquis of the European Union (EU) has developed so far as to reach a high level of technical complexity, in particular in certain policy fields such as environmental legislation, it is important to look at what kind of information and data policy decisions are based on. This position paper looks at the extent to which evidence-based decision-making process is being considered in the EU institutions when it comes to adopting legislation in the field of environment at the EU level. The paper calls for closer collaboration between scientists and decision-makers in view of ensuring that correct data is understood and taken into consideration when drafting, amending, negotiating and adopting new legal texts at all levels of the EU decision-making process. It concludes that better awareness of the need for such collaboration among the decision-makers as well as the scientific community would benefit the process and quality of the final outcomes (legislation).

  14. Sites of institutional racism in public health policy making in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Came, Heather

    2014-04-01

    Although New Zealanders have historically prided ourselves on being a country where everyone has a 'fair go', the systemic and longstanding existence of health inequities between Māori and non-Māori suggests something isn't working. This paper informed by critical race theory, asks the reader to consider the counter narrative viewpoints of Māori health leaders; that suggest institutional racism has permeated public health policy making in New Zealand and is a contributor to health inequities alongside colonisation and uneven access to the determinants of health. Using a mixed methods approach and critical anti-racism scholarship this paper identifies five specific sites of institutional racism. These sites are: majoritarian decision making, the misuse of evidence, deficiencies in both cultural competencies and consultation processes and the impact of Crown filters. These findings suggest the failure of quality assurance systems, existing anti-racism initiatives and health sector leadership to detect and eliminate racism. The author calls for institutional racism to be urgently addressed within New Zealand and this paper serves as a reminder to policy makers operating within other colonial contexts to be vigilant for such racism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Speaking of Rights : The Influence of Law and Courts on the Making of Family Migration Policies in Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonjour, S.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of the judiciary on immigration policies has been simultaneously overestimated and underestimated. Migration scholars broadly assume that courts have forced liberal states to admit unwanted migration. Based on an analysis of family migration policy making in the Federal Republic of

  16. Educational Policy-Making as Power Struggle in a Multi-Cultural Society: The Malaysian Case. Revised Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Philip, Jr.

    This essay demonstrates how politics affected educational policy making at the national level in Malaysia. A historical and social overview describes the country's ethnic diversity and the passage of legislation that was designed to promote universal access to education. The government's higher education policies are evaluated, based on a process…

  17. The Media Got It Wrong! A Critical Discourse Analysis of Changes to the Educational Policy Making Arena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The context for education policy making has changed dramatically in recent years. Policymaking at the state-level has become characterized by near-unprecedented enactment of neo-liberal education policies, increased influence of so-called Education Reform Advocacy Organizations (ERAOs) and increased challenges to unions' political influence. In…

  18. Mediating Education Policy: Making up the "Anti-Politics" of Third-Sector Participation in Public Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the participation of "third-sector" organisations in public education in England. These organisations act as a cross-sectoral policy network made up of new kinds of policy experts: mediators and brokers with entrepreneurial careers in ideas. They have sought to make education reform thinkable, intelligible and…

  19. Building a maintenance policy through a multi-criterion decision-making model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghihinia, Elahe; Mollaverdi, Naser

    2012-08-01

    A major competitive advantage of production and service systems is establishing a proper maintenance policy. Therefore, maintenance managers should make maintenance decisions that best fit their systems. Multi-criterion decision-making methods can take into account a number of aspects associated with the competitiveness factors of a system. This paper presents a multi-criterion decision-aided maintenance model with three criteria that have more influence on decision making: reliability, maintenance cost, and maintenance downtime. The Bayesian approach has been applied to confront maintenance failure data shortage. Therefore, the model seeks to make the best compromise between these three criteria and establish replacement intervals using Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluation (PROMETHEE II), integrating the Bayesian approach with regard to the preference of the decision maker to the problem. Finally, using a numerical application, the model has been illustrated, and for a visual realization and an illustrative sensitivity analysis, PROMETHEE GAIA (the visual interactive module) has been used. Use of PROMETHEE II and PROMETHEE GAIA has been made with Decision Lab software. A sensitivity analysis has been made to verify the robustness of certain parameters of the model.

  20. Making medicine; producing pleasure: A critical examination of medicinal cannabis policy and law in Victoria, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Kari; Seear, Kate; Ritter, Alison

    2017-11-01

    Several jurisdictions around the world have introduced policies and laws allowing for the legal use of cannabis for therapeutic purposes. However, there has been little critical discussion of how the object of 'medicinal cannabis' is enacted in policy and practice. Informed by Carol Bacchi's poststructuralist approach to policy analysis and the work of science and technology studies scholars, this paper seeks to problematise the object of 'medicinal cannabis' and examine how it is constituted through governing practices. In particular, we consider how the making of the object of 'medicinal cannabis' might constrain or enact discourses of pleasure. As a case example, we take the Victorian Law Reform Commission's review of law reform options to allow people in the Australian state of Victoria to be treated with medicinal cannabis. Through analysis of this case example, we find that although 'medicinal cannabis' is constituted as a thoroughly medical object, it is also constituted as unique. We argue that medicinal cannabis is enacted in part through the production of another object (so-called 'recreational cannabis') and the social and political meanings attached to both. Although both 'substances' are constituted as distinct, 'medicinal cannabis' relies on the 'absent presence' of 'recreational cannabis' to define and shape what it is. However, we find that contained within this rendering of 'medicinal cannabis' are complex enactments of health and wellbeing, which open up discourses of pleasure. 'Medicinal cannabis' appears to challenge the idea that the effects of 'medicine' cannot be understood in terms of pleasure. As such, the making of 'medicinal cannabis' as a medical object, and its invocation of broad notions of health and wellbeing, expand the ways in which drug effects can be acknowledged, including pleasurable and desirable effects, helping us to think differently about both medicine and other forms of drug use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  1. Policy, practice and decision making for zoonotic disease management: water and Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Zoë; Alcock, Ruth E; Christley, Robert M; Haygarth, Philip M; Heathwaite, A Louise; Latham, Sophia M; Mort, Maggie; Oliver, David M; Pickup, Roger; Wastling, Jonathan M; Wynne, Brian

    2012-04-01

    Decision making for zoonotic disease management should be based on many forms of appropriate data and sources of evidence. However, the criteria and timing for policy response and the resulting management decisions are often altered when a disease outbreak occurs and captures full media attention. In the case of waterborne disease, such as the robust protozoa, Cryptosporidium spp, exposure can cause significant human health risks and preventing exposure by maintaining high standards of biological and chemical water quality remains a priority for water companies in the UK. Little has been documented on how knowledge and information is translated between the many stakeholders involved in the management of Cryptosporidium, which is surprising given the different drivers that have shaped management decisions. Such information, coupled with the uncertainties that surround these data is essential for improving future management strategies that minimise disease outbreaks. Here, we examine the interplay between scientific information, the media, and emergent government and company policies to examine these issues using qualitative and quantitative data relating to Cryptosporidium management decisions by a water company in the North West of England. Our results show that political and media influences are powerful drivers of management decisions if fuelled by high profile outbreaks. Furthermore, the strength of the scientific evidence is often constrained by uncertainties in the data, and in the way knowledge is translated between policy levels during established risk management procedures. In particular, under or over-estimating risk during risk assessment procedures together with uncertainty regarding risk factors within the wider environment, was found to restrict the knowledge-base for decision-making in Cryptosporidium management. Our findings highlight some key current and future challenges facing the management of such diseases that are widely applicable to other

  2. ‘The Scandinavian Report: its origins and impact on the Kilkenny Design Workshops’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Una Walker

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The publication of Design in Ireland: Report of the Scandinavian Design Group in Ireland in 1962 has been described as providing the catalyst for change in the approach to design in Ireland. The Report was commissioned by the Irish Export Board and the Scandinavian Design Group was formed for this purpose. It stimulating protracted debate on design education in Ireland, and also afforded a reason for the establishment of the Kilkenny Design Workshops. This paper, which draws on unpublished material from a number of archives, will provide a brief overview of the Report and the rational for commissioning it, followed by an examination of government interventions to improve design standards in Ireland from the founding of the State until the 1960s. It will examine the origins of Scandinavian influence on the evolution of public policy on design in Ireland, question if the Report expanded the discourse on design in industry in Ireland and assess its influence during the early years of the Workshops.

  3. Music and dance make me feel alive: from Mandela's prison songs and dances to public policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buis, Johann S

    2013-01-01

    How is it possible for song and dance to exist in political incarceration and manifest itself later as public policy responding to apartheid atrocities? Examining the body of songs, oral history accounts, and eye-witness reports provided by fellow-prisoners of Mandela on Robben Island prison, I uncover a psychological environment mediated through music and dance--within the confines of a political prison. This source of prison music-making by political prisoners in detention, provide us with the artistic expressions of revolutionary songs, parody songs, praise songs, laments, etc. These music genres reflect ontologies embedded in Mandela's juristic imagination. My framework for explaining these ontologies is a theoretical framework I call an aesthetic of function: internal ontologies that speak to the African cultural ground against which external ontologies are expressed in the jurisprudential redress to apartheid atrocities. Examining his external (jurisprudential) ontologies through song and dance, one realizes that the best way for him to have solved the unprecedented public redress of apartheid atrocities is evident in the songs he sang in Robben Island prison. Retribution could have been a logical solution for him. Instead, he turned to truth-telling and reconciliation as public policy. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission's unprecedented breaking of social and jurisprudential boundaries, the claim of agency for both victims and perpetrators, and public policy of South Africa's first democratically elected black president, lie deeply embedded in cultural practices he testified to in his autobiography, "The Long Walk to Freedom". These cultural practices in prison were singing and dancing. This paper complements the music-as-torture trope: here music in detention carries ontological agency. Musical evidence of stylistic features, text, and contextual analyses, and related literary criticism devices, expose Mandela's embedded internal and external

  4. Statutory Regulation of Traditional Medicine Practitioners and Practices: The Need for Distinct Policy Making Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijaz, Nadine; Boon, Heather

    2018-01-23

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has called for the increased statutory regulation of traditional and complementary medicine practitioners and practices, currently implemented in about half of nations surveyed. According to recent WHO data, however, the absence of policy guidelines in this area represents a significant barrier to implementation of such professional regulations. This commentary reviews several key challenges that distinguish the statutory regulation of traditional medicine practitioners and practices from biomedical professional regulation, providing a foundation for the development of policy making parameters in this area. Foremost in this regard are the ongoing impacts of the European colonial encounter, which reinforce biomedicine's disproportionate political dominance across the globe despite traditional medicine's ongoing widespread use (particularly in the global South). In this light, the authors discuss the conceptual and historical underpinnings of contemporary professional regulatory structures, the tensions between institutional and informal traditional medicine training pathways, and the policy challenges presented by the prospect of standardizing internally diverse indigenous healing approaches. Epistemic and evidentiary tensions, as well as the policy complexities surrounding the intersection of cultural and clinical considerations, present additional challenges to regulators. Conceptualizing professional regulation as an intellectual property claim under the law, the authors further consider what it means to protect traditional knowledge and prevent misappropriation in this context. Overall, the authors propose that innovative professional regulatory approaches are needed in this area to address safety, quality of care, and accessibility as key public interest concerns, while prioritizing the redress of historical inequities, protection of diverse indigenous knowledges, and delivery of care to underserved populations.

  5. Evidence-Based Policy Making: Assessment of the American Heart Association's Strategic Policy Portfolio: A Policy Statement From the American Heart Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Goldstein, Larry B; Antman, Elliott M; Arnett, Donna K; Fonarow, Gregg C; Alberts, Mark J; Hayman, Laura L; Khera, Amit; Sallis, James F; Daniels, Stephen R; Sacco, Ralph L; Li, Suhui; Ku, Leighton; Lantz, Paula M; Robinson, Jennifer G; Creager, Mark A; Van Horn, Linda; Kris-Etherton, Penny; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Whitsel, Laurie P

    2016-05-03

    American Heart Association (AHA) public policy advocacy strategies are based on its Strategic Impact Goals. The writing group appraised the evidence behind AHA's policies to determine how well they address the association's 2020 cardiovascular health (CVH) metrics and cardiovascular disease (CVD) management indicators and identified research needed to fill gaps in policy and support further policy development. The AHA policy research department first identified current AHA policies specific to each CVH metric and CVD management indicator and the evidence underlying each policy. Writing group members then reviewed each policy and the related metrics and indicators. The results of each review were summarized, and topic-specific priorities and overarching themes for future policy research were proposed. There was generally close alignment between current AHA policies and the 2020 CVH metrics and CVD management indicators; however, certain specific policies still lack a robust evidence base. For CVH metrics, the distinction between policies for adults (age ≥20 years) and children (American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. An Assessment of National Maternal and Child Health Policy-Makers’ Knowledge and Capacity for Evidence-Informed Policy-Making in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is increasing interest globally in the use of more rigorous processes to ensure that maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) care recommendations are informed by the best available research evidence use. The purpose of this study was to engage Nigerian MNCH policy-makers and other stakeholders to consider issues around research to policy and practice interface and to assess their existing knowledge and capacity on the use of research evidence for policy-making and practice. Methods: The study design is a cross-sectional evaluation of MNCH stakeholders’ knowledge as it pertains different dimensions of research to practice. This was undertaken during a national MNCH stakeholders’ engagement event convened under the auspices of the West African Health Organization (WAHO) and the Federal Ministry of Health (FMoH) in Abuja, Nigeria. A questionnaire was administered to participants, which was designed to assess participants’ knowledge, capacity and organizational process of generation, synthesis and utilization of research evidence in policy-making regarding MNCH. Results: A total of 40 participants signed the informed consent form and completed the questionnaire. The mean ratings (MNRs) of participants’ knowledge of electronic databases and capacity to identify and obtain relevant research evidence from electronic databases ranged from 3.62-3.68 on the scale of 5. The MNRs of participants’ level of understanding of a policy brief, a policy dialogue and the role of researchers in policy-making ranged from 3.50-3.86. The MNRs of participants’ level of understanding of evidence in policy-making context, types and sources of evidence, capacity to identify, select, adapt, and transform relevant evidence into policy ranged from 3.63-4.08. The MNRs of the participants’ organization’s capacity to cover their geographical areas of operation were generally low ranging from 3.32-3.38 in terms of manpower, logistics, facilities, and external

  7. Factors affecting evidence-use in food policy-making processes in health and agriculture in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waqa, Gade; Bell, Colin; Snowdon, Wendy; Moodie, Marj

    2017-01-09

    There is limited research on the use of evidence to inform policy-making in the Pacific. This study aims to identify and describe factors that facilitate or limit the use of evidence in food-related policy-making in the Health and Agriculture Ministries in Fiji. Semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with selected policy-makers in two government ministries that were instrumental in the development of food-related policies in Fiji designed to prevent Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Snowball sampling was used to recruit, as key informants, senior policy-makers in management positions such as national advisors and directors who were based at either the national headquarters or equivalent. Interviewees were asked about their experiences in developing food-related or other policies, barriers or facilitators encountered in the policy development and implementation process and the use of evidence. Each interview lasted approximately 45-60 minutes, and was conducted in English. Audio-recorded interviews were transcribed, thematically coded and analyzed using N-Vivo 8.0 software. Thirty-one policy-makers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS n = 18) and the Ministry of Agriculture (MoA n = 13) in Fiji participated in the study. Whilst evidence is sometimes used in food-related policy-making in both the Health and Agriculture Ministries (including formal evidence such as published research and informal evidence such as personal experiences and opinions), it is not yet embedded as an essential part of the process. Participants indicated that a lack of resources, poor technical support in terms of training, the absence of clear strategies for improving competent use of evidence, procedures regarding engagement with other stakeholders across sectors, varying support from senior managers and limited consultation across sectors were barriers to evidence use. The willingness of organizations to create a culture of using evidence was

  8. Strategies to enhance the impact of research on human resources for health on policy making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghreed Adam

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite global recognition of the importance of human resources for health (HRH in achieving health system goals, very little is known about what works, for whom and under what circumstances, especially for low-income and middleincome countries. Several important events and reports have called for increased funding and capacity for HRH research in recent years and several initiatives have started as a result. Progress has been slow, however. The following strategies can be most valuable in ensuring the relevance of the generated evidence for decision making and its contribution to stronger health systems. The first is to promote national processes to set priorities for HRH research with active participation from decision makers. The second is to make conscious efforts to scale up primary research to address priority questions and to develop sustainable mechanisms to evaluate the impact of current or new HRH strategies to feed into the policy making process. The third is to invest in the development of systematic reviews to synthesize available evidence and in the adaptation of the underlying methods to make them more responsive to the type of questions and the nature of research involving HRH issues. The fourth and most important is to consistently use a systems approach in framing and addressing research questions. While a narrow approach may be more attractive and simple, health systems and the problems facing them are not. Increasing the body of evidence that takes into account the complexity of health systems, and particularly human resources for health, will advance knowledge in this area and will make big strides in the quality and usefulness of the generated evidence.

  9. Building policy-making capacity in the Ministry of Health: the Kazakhstan experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanturidze, Tata; Adams, Orvill; Tokezhanov, Bolat; Naylor, Mike; Richardson, Erica

    2015-01-20

    Recent economic growth in Kazakhstan has been accompanied by slower improvements in population health and this has renewed impetus for health system reform. Strengthening strategic planning and policy-making capacity in the Ministry of Health has been identified as an important priority, particularly as the Ministry of Health is leading the health system reform process. The intervention was informed by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) framework for capacity building which views capacity building as an ongoing process embedded in local institutions and practices. In response to local needs extra elements were included in the framework to tailor the capacity building programme according to the existing policy and budget cycles and respective competence requirements, and link it with transparent career development structures of the Ministry of Health. This aspect of the programme was informed by the institutional capability assessment model used by the United Kingdom National Health Service (NHS) which was adapted to examine the specific organizational and individual competences of the Ministry of Health in Kazakhstan. There were clear successes in building capacity for policy making and strategic planning within the Ministry of Health in Kazakhstan, including better planned, more timely and in-depth responses to policy assignments. Embedding career development as a part of this process was more challenging. This case study highlights the importance of strong political will and high level support for capacity building in ensuring the sustainability of programmes. It also shows that capacity-building programmes need to ensure full engagement with all local stakeholders, or where this is not possible, programmes need to be targeted narrowly to those stakeholders who will benefit most, for the greatest impact to be achieved. In sum, high quality tailor-made capacity development programmes should be based on thorough needs assessment of individual and

  10. Democratising education policy making or legitimising discourse? An analysis of the new Lifelong Learning Law in the Basque Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Vargas Tamez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks into the orientation and purposes of a Lifelong Learning Law that was sanctioned in the Basque Country in 2013, and whose formation process entailed a year-long consultation with different local stakeholders. Although the consideration of diverse agents - other than political players - in policy making is a very valuable element for the democratisation of public policy, grounded on examination of the Basque experience, the paper poses serious questions as to the extent to which non-state actors may take part in the policy and decision making processes, and underscores the differences in the scope and influence of their actions, perspectives and proposals. From a social construction framework, it is argued that the incorporation of experts to policy making belongs to a certain way of crafting policy, one that is top-down, while the idea of democratic policy making requires an inverse design; a bottom-up method that may enable the practitioners who implement programmes and strategies, and those receiving the educational services, to be co-participants and to share responsibility in the ideation and effectuation of education policy.

  11. The Puzzle of the Scandinavian Welfare State and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    The Scandinavian welfare model is a puzzle to economists: It works economically, even though free-riding should prevail with its explosive cocktail of high taxation and high social benefits. One overlooked solution to the puzzle could be the unique stock of social trust present in Scandinavia. Here......, the four Scandinavian countries (Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland) form the top three with scores above 60 percent social trust on a ranking that covers 94 countries from all over the world....

  12. Whole grain foods and health : a Scandinavian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Frølich, Wenche; Åman, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal) per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objective of the current paper is to clarify possible differences in nutritional and health effects of the types of whole grain grown and consumed in the Scandinavian countries. A further objective is to s...

  13. Comparing Robust Decision-Making and Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways for model-based decision support under deep uncertainty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, J.H.; Haasnoot, M.; Walker, W.E.

    2016-01-01

    A variety of model-based approaches for supporting decision-making under deep uncertainty have been suggested, but they are rarely compared and contrasted. In this paper, we compare Robust Decision-Making with Dynamic Adaptive Policy Pathways. We apply both to a hypothetical case inspired by a

  14. Use of evidence in policy making in South Africa: An exploratory study of attitudes of senior government officials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Paine Cronin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines a 2011 study commissioned by the Presidency’s Programme to Support Pro-Poor Policy Development (PSPPD which promotes evidence-based policy making (EBPM in South Africa. EBPM refers to norms, initiatives and methods aimed at improving evidence-based policy in countries from which South Africa traditionally borrows public service reforms, particularly the UK and Canada. The study provides a descriptive snapshot of attitudes to evidence-use in policy making. All 54 senior government officials interviewed felt that evidence-use is too limited to ensure relevant, effective policy responses. This includes policies on which complex results depend and those with long-term and high-resource implications. Although all respondents regarded EBPM as self-evidently desirable, there were different views on practical application. Examples provided suggest that, where evidence was used, it was very often related to a borrowed international policy without a prior evidencedrivenanalysis of successes and failures or its relevance and feasibility in terms of local issuesand context. Policy makers generally know they should be making optimal use of availableevidence, but highlighted systemic barriers beyond the influence of individual managersto resolve. The study suggests that improved use of evidence throughout the policy cycle,particularly in analysing problems and needs, is a requirement for learning through evidencebased policy development. It suggests that political and administrative leadership will need to agree on norms, ways of dealing with the barriers to effective use of evidence and on the role of each throughout the policy cycle in ensuring appropriate evidence is available and used.

  15. Methods of legitimation: how ethics committees decide which reasons count in public policy decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kyle T

    2014-07-01

    In recent years, liberal democratic societies have struggled with the question of how best to balance expertise and democratic participation in the regulation of emerging technologies. This study aims to explain how national deliberative ethics committees handle the practical tension between scientific expertise, ethical expertise, expert patient input, and lay public input by explaining two institutions' processes for determining the legitimacy or illegitimacy of reasons in public policy decision-making: that of the United Kingdom's Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) and the United States' American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM). The articulation of these 'methods of legitimation' draws on 13 in-depth interviews with HFEA and ASRM members and staff conducted in January and February 2012 in London and over Skype, as well as observation of an HFEA deliberation. This study finds that these two institutions employ different methods in rendering certain arguments legitimate and others illegitimate: while the HFEA attempts to 'balance' competing reasons but ultimately legitimizes arguments based on health and welfare concerns, the ASRM seeks to 'filter' out arguments that challenge reproductive autonomy. The notably different structures and missions of each institution may explain these divergent approaches, as may what Sheila Jasanoff (2005) terms the distinctive 'civic epistemologies' of the US and the UK. Significantly for policy makers designing such deliberative committees, each method differs substantially from that explicitly or implicitly endorsed by the institution. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Making Homes Part of the Climate Solution: Policy Options To Promote Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Dr. Marilyn Ann [Georgia Institute of Technology; Chandler, Jess [Georgia Institute of Technology; Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Ally, Moonis [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-06-01

    In the area of energy efficiency, advanced technologies combined with best practices appear to afford not only large, but also cost-effective options to conserve energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions (McKinsey & Company, 2007). In practice, however, the realization of this potential has often proven difficult. Progress appears to require large numbers of individuals to act knowledgeably, and each individual must often act with enabling assistance from others. Even when consumer education is effective and social norms are supportive, the actions of individuals and businesses can be impeded by a broad range of barriers, many of which are non-technical in nature. Title XVI of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 included a mandate to examine barriers to progress and make recommendations in this regard. A detailed report on barriers as well as the National strategy for overcoming barriers met this requirement (Brown et al, 2008; CCCSTI, 2009). Following up on this mandate, the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program (CCTP) chose to focus next on the development of policy options to improve energy efficiency in residential buildings, with supporting analysis of pros and cons, informed in part by behavioral research. While this work is sponsored by CCTP, it has been undertaken in coordination with DOE's Building Technologies Program and Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability.

  17. Making longevity in an aging society: linking Medicare policy and the new ethical field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Sharon R

    2010-01-01

    Life-extending interventions for older persons are changing medical knowledge and societal expectations about longevity. Today's consciousness about growing older is partly shaped by a new form of ethics, constituted by and enabled through the routines and institutions that comprise ordinary clinical care. Unlike bioethics, whose emphasis is on clinical decision-making in individual situations, this new form of ethics is exceptionally diffuse and can be characterized as an ethical field. It is located in and shaped by health-care policies, standard technologies, and clinical evidence, and it emerges in what patients and families come to need and want. Three developments illustrate this ethical field at work: the changing nature of disease, especially the ascent of risk awareness and risk-based strategies for life extension; the role of technology in reshaping the ends of medicine; and the role of Medicare policy in creating need and ethical necessity. Medicare's expanding criteria for payment coverage of liver transplantation and implantable cardiac devices illustrate the pervasive logic of this new form of ethics. The powerful connection between the technological imperative and its ethical necessity is rarely mentioned in Medicare reform debates.

  18. Transition in Education: Policy Making and the Key Educational Policy Areas in the Central-European and Baltic Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rado, Peter

    This report examines transition in educational systems and identifies key policy areas in Central-Eastern European countries. It summarizes policy implications of the transition process within the educational context of these countries. Chapter 1, "Transition and Education," outlines key characteristics of the transition process and…

  19. The challenge of bridging the gap between researchers and policy makers: experiences of a Health Policy Research Group in engaging policy makers to support evidence informed policy making in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzochukwu, Benjamin; Onwujekwe, Obinna; Mbachu, Chinyere; Okwuosa, Chinenye; Etiaba, Enyi; Nyström, Monica E; Gilson, Lucy

    2016-11-04

    Getting research into policy and practice (GRIPP) is a process of going from research evidence to decisions and action. To integrate research findings into the policy making process and to communicate research findings to policymakers is a key challenge world-wide. This paper reports the experiences of a research group in a Nigerian university when seeking to 'do' GRIPP, and the important features and challenges of this process within the African context. In-depth interviews were conducted with nine purposively selected policy makers in various organizations and six researchers from the universities and research institute in a Nigerian who had been involved in 15 selected joint studies/projects with Health Policy Research Group (HPRG). The interviews explored their understanding and experience of the methods and processes used by the HPRG to generate research questions and research results; their involvement in the process and whether the methods were perceived as effective in relation to influencing policy and practice and factors that influenced the uptake of research results. The results are represented in a model with the four GRIPP strategies found: i) stakeholders' request for evidence to support the use of certain strategies or to scale up health interventions; ii) policymakers and stakeholders seeking evidence from researchers; iii) involving stakeholders in designing research objectives and throughout the research process; and iv) facilitating policy maker-researcher engagement in finding best ways of using research findings to influence policy and practice and to actively disseminate research findings to relevant stakeholders and policymakers. The challenges to research utilization in health policy found were to address the capacity of policy makers to demand and to uptake research, the communication gap between researchers, donors and policymakers, the management of the political process of GRIPP, the lack of willingness of some policy makers to use

  20. Population genomics of the inbred Scandinavian wolf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagenblad, Jenny; Olsson, Maria; Parker, Heidi G; Ostrander, Elaine A; Ellegren, Hans

    2009-04-01

    The Scandinavian wolf population represents one of the genetically most well-characterized examples of a severely bottlenecked natural population (with only two founders), and of how the addition of new genetic material (one immigrant) can at least temporarily provide a 'genetic rescue'. However, inbreeding depression has been observed in this population and in the absence of additional immigrants, its long-term viability is questioned. To study the effects of inbreeding and selection on genomic diversity, we performed a genomic scan with approximately 250 microsatellite markers distributed across all autosomes and the X chromosome. We found linkage disequilibrium (LD) that extended up to distances of 50 Mb, exceeding that of most outbreeding species studied thus far. LD was particularly pronounced on the X chromosome. Overall levels of observed genomic heterozygosity did not deviate significantly from simulations based on known population history, giving no support for a general selection for heterozygotes. However, we found evidence supporting balancing selection at a number of loci and also evidence suggesting directional selection at other loci. For markers on chromosome 23, the signal of selection was particularly strong, indicating that purifying selection against deleterious alleles may have occurred even in this very small population. These data suggest that population genomics allows the exploration of the effects of neutral and non-neutral evolution on a finer scale than what has previously been possible.

  1. Insights into the government's role in food system policy making: improving access to healthy, local food alongside other priorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Jessica; Raine, Kim D; Hanning, Rhona M

    2012-11-12

    Government actors have an important role to play in creating healthy public policies and supportive environments to facilitate access to safe, affordable, nutritious food. The purpose of this research was to examine Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) as a case study for "what works" with respect to facilitating access to healthy, local food through regional food system policy making. Policy and planning approaches were explored through multi-sectoral perspectives of: (a) the development and adoption of food policies as part of the comprehensive planning process; (b) barriers to food system planning; and (c) the role and motivation of the Region's public health and planning departments in food system policy making. Forty-seven in-depth interviews with decision makers, experts in public health and planning, and local food system stakeholders provided rich insight into strategic government actions, as well as the local and historical context within which food system policies were developed. Grounded theory methods were used to identify key overarching themes including: "strategic positioning", "partnerships" and "knowledge transfer" and related sub-themes ("aligned agendas", "issue framing", "visioning" and "legitimacy"). A conceptual framework to illustrate the process and features of food system policy making is presented and can be used as a starting point to  engage multi-sectoral stakeholders in plans and actions to facilitate access to healthy food.

  2. Discourse and policy making on consumer protection in the areas of mobile telecommunication and tanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Rosentreter, Michael; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Perceived health risks from electromagnetic fields in mobile telecommunication and from UV radiation in tanning have become regulation issues in Germany during the last decade. Health risk messages from government expert bodies and the main stakeholders in these areas as well as subsequent consumer protection policy making are investigated. Publications and websites of government expert bodies and the main stakeholders as well as debates in Federal Parliament were analysed to compare argumentation patterns and parliamentary decision-making processes. In both areas, the public received competing health risk messages from the industries and their critics. As a government expert body, the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) held the view that alleged health risks from electromagnetic telecommunication were not proven, and propagated the precautionary principle. This opinion did not endanger the agreement of 2001 between the government and mobile telecommunication operators. After the failure to obtain voluntary commitment from the tanning industry, by contrast, the BfS recommended stricter consumer protection legislation, which was subsequently implemented. The BfS was in a key position to demand the prerogative of interpretation concerning mutually excluding health risk messages and to provide the argumentation which led the way to non-ionic radiation health protection measures.

  3. Using economic evaluation in policy decision-making in Asian countries: mission impossible or mission probable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yothasamut, Jomkwan; Tantivess, Sripen; Teerawattananon, Yot

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an extensive review of literature and an in-depth analysis aimed at introducing potential applications of economic evaluation and at addressing the barriers that could prohibit the use or diminish the usefulness of economic evaluation in Asian settings. It also proposes the probable solutions to overcome these barriers. Potential uses of economic evaluation include the development of public reimbursement lists, price negotiation, the development of clinical practice guidelines, and communicating with prescribers. Two types of barriers to using economic evaluation, namely barriers relating to the production of economic evaluation data and decision context-related barriers, are identified. For the first sort of barrier, the development of the national guidelines, the development of economic evaluation database, planning and use of economic evaluation in a systematic manner, and prioritization of topics for assessment are recommended. Furthermore, educating potential users and the public, making the economic evaluation process transparent and participatory, and incorporating other health preferences into the decision-making framework have been promoted to conquer decision context-related barriers. It seems practically impossible to adopt other countries' approaches using economic evaluation for priority setting because of several constraints specifically related to the context of each setting. Nevertheless, given a better understanding of its resistance, and proper policies and strategies to overcome the barriers applied, it is more than probable that a method with system/mechanisms specifically designed to fit particular settings will be used.

  4. CEOS Contributions to Informing Energy Management and Policy Decision Making Using Space-Based Earth Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckman, Richard S.

    2009-01-01

    Earth observations are playing an increasingly significant role in informing decision making in the energy sector. In renewable energy applications, space-based observations now routinely augment sparse ground-based observations used as input for renewable energy resource assessment applications. As one of the nine Group on Earth Observations (GEO) societal benefit areas, the enhancement of management and policy decision making in the energy sector is receiving attention in activities conducted by the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS). CEOS has become the "space arm" for the implementation of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) vision. It is directly supporting the space-based, near-term tasks articulated in the GEO three-year work plan. This paper describes a coordinated program of demonstration projects conducted by CEOS member agencies and partners to utilize Earth observations to enhance energy management end-user decision support systems. I discuss the importance of engagement with stakeholders and understanding their decision support needs in successfully increasing the uptake of Earth observation products for societal benefit. Several case studies are presented, demonstrating the importance of providing data sets in formats and units familiar and immediately usable by decision makers. These projects show the utility of Earth observations to enhance renewable energy resource assessment in the developing world, forecast space-weather impacts on the power grid, and improve energy efficiency in the built environment.

  5. Educational Policy-Making in Post-Communist Ukraine as an Example of Emerging Governmentality: Discourse Analysis of Curriculum Choice and Assessment Policy Documents (1999-2003)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fimyar, Olena

    2008-01-01

    Educational policy-making in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) is still building upon the ambivalences and uncertainties of post-communist transformation. The international support, expertise and discourses--coupled with communist legacies, stalled democratic developments and national discourses--produce unique effects on education in…

  6. Complication with Intraosseous Access: Scandinavian Users' Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hallas

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intraosseous access (IO is indicated if vascular access cannot be quickly established during resuscitation. Complication rates are estimated to be low, based on small patient series, model or cadaver studies, and case reports. However, user experience with IO use in real-life emergency situations might differ from the results in the controlled environment of model studies and small patient series. We performed a survey of IO use in real-life emergency situations to assess users’ experiences of complications.Methods: An online questionnaire was sent to Scandinavian emergency physicians, anesthesiologists and pediatricians.Results: 1,802 clinical cases of IO use was reported by n=386 responders. Commonly reported complications with establishing IO access were patient discomfort/pain (7.1%, difficulties with penetration of periosteum with IO needle (10.3%, difficulties with aspiration of bone marrow (12.3%, and bended/broken needle (4.0%. When using an established IO access the reported complications were difficulties with injection fluid and drugs after IO insertion (7.4%, slow infusion (despite use of pressure bag (8.8%, displacement after insertion (8.5%, and extravasation (3.7%. Compartment syndrome and osteomyelitis occurred in 0.6% and 0.4% of cases respectively.Conclusion: In users’ recollection of real-life IO use, perceived complications were more frequent than usually reported from model studies. The perceived difficulties with using IO could affect the willingness of medical staff to use IO. Therefore, user experience should be addressed both in education of how to use, and research and development of IOs. [West J Emerg Med. 2013;14(5:440–443.

  7. Making Sense of Public Policy in a Fragmented World: the Search for Solutions and the Limits of Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Fenwick, John; McMillan, Janice

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores innovation, learning and change in an environment where the historical moment of ‘New Public Management’ (NPM) has given way to unprecedented fluidity in public policy and decision making. To begin, we examine key elements of the post-NPM environment, where foundational approaches (in theory and practice) can be challenged either by innovation or by default to previous positions: both trends are evident in the incoherence of policy responses to the global economic crisis. ...

  8. EU foreign policy after Lisbon - will the new high representative and the external action service make a difference?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    "The Lisbon treaty will fundamentally alter the foreign policy set-up of the European Union. Among the key innovations figure the establishment of the foreign affairs high representative and the European External Action Service (EAS). Their creation may well lead to a new era of European diplomacy, providing the Union with a genuine foreign policy chief and a full-fledged foreign service. Are these only high hopes, or will the Lisbon institutional engineering really make a difference? Will th...

  9. Voluntarism, public engagement and the role of geoscience in radioactive waste management policy-making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Nic

    2014-05-01

    In the UK, as elsewhere in Europe, there has been a move away from previous 'technocratic' approaches to radioactive waste management (RWM). Policy-makers have recognised that for any RWM programme to succeed, sustained engagement with stakeholders and the public is necessary, and any geological repository must be constructed and operated with the willing support of the community which hosts it. This has opened up RWM policy-making and implementation to a wider range of (often contested) expert inputs, ranging across natural and social sciences, engineering and even ethics. Geoscientists and other technical specialists have found themselves drawn into debates about how various types of expertise should be prioritised, and how they should be integrated with diverse public and stakeholder perspectives. They also have a vital role to play in communicating to the public the need for geological disposal of radioactive waste, and the various aspects of geoscience which will inform the process of implementing this, from identifying potential volunteer host communities, to finding a suitable site, developing the safety case, construction of a repository, emplacement of waste, closure and subsequent monitoring. High-quality geoscience, effectively communicated, will be essential to building and maintaining public confidence throughout the many decades such projects will take. Failure to communicate effectively the relevant geoscience and its central role in the UK's radioactive waste management programme arguably contributed to West Cumbria's January 2013 decision to withdraw from the site selection process, and may discourage other communities from coming forward in future. Across countries needing to deal with their radioactive waste, this unique challenge gives an unprecedented urgency to finding ways to engage and communicate effectively with the public about geoscience.

  10. Information for mental health systems: an instrument for policy-making and system service quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lora, A; Lesage, A; Pathare, S; Levav, I

    2017-08-01

    Information is crucial in mental healthcare, yet it remains undervalued by stakeholders. Its absence undermines rationality in planning, makes it difficult to monitor service quality improvement, impedes accountability and human rights monitoring. For international organizations (e.g., WHO, OECD), information is indispensable for achieving better outcomes in mental health policies, services and programs. This article reviews the importance of developing system level information with reference to inputs, processes and outputs, analyzes available tools for collecting and summarizing information, highlights the various goals of information gathering, discusses implementation issues and charts the way forward. Relevant publications and research were consulted, including WHO studies that purport to promote the use of information systems to upgrade mental health care in high- and low-middle income countries. Studies have shown that once information has been collected by relevant systems and analyzed through indicator schemes, it can be put to many uses. Monitoring mental health services, represents a first step in using information. In addition, studies have noted that information is a prime resource in many other areas such as evaluation of quality of care against evidence based standards of care. Services data may support health services research where it is possible to link mental health data with other health and non-health databases. Information systems are required to carefully monitor involuntary admissions, restrain and seclusion, to reduce human rights violations in care facilities. Information has been also found useful for policy makers, to monitor the implementation of policies, to evaluate their impact, to rationally allocate funding and to create new financing models. Despite its manifold applications, Information systems currently face many problems such as incomplete recording, poor data quality, lack of timely reporting and feedback, and limited

  11. External factors affecting decision-making and use of evidence in an Australian public health policy environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zardo, Pauline; Collie, Alex; Livingstone, Charles

    2014-05-01

    This study examined external factors affecting policy and program decision-making in a specific public health policy context: injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation in the Australian state of Victoria. The aim was twofold: identify external factors that affect policy and program decision-making in this specific context; use this evidence to inform targeting of interventions aimed at increasing research use in this context. Qualitative interviews were undertaken from June 2011 to January 2012 with 33 employees from two state government agencies. Key factors identified were stakeholder feedback and action, government and ministerial input, legal feedback and action, injured persons and the media. The identified external factors were able to significantly influence policy and program decision-making processes: acting as both barriers and facilitators, depending on the particular issue at hand. The factors with the most influence were the Minister and government, lawyers, and agency stakeholders, particularly health providers, trade unions and employer groups. This research revealed that interventions aimed at increasing use of research in this context must target and harness the influence of these groups. This research provides critical insights for researchers seeking to design interventions to increase use of research in policy environments and influence decision-making in Victorian injury prevention and rehabilitation compensation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Politics of Evidence Use in Health Policy Making in Germany-the Case of Regulating Hospital Minimum Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Stefanie

    2017-06-01

    This article examines the role of scientific evidence in informing health policy decisions in Germany, using minimum volumes policy as a case study. It argues that scientific evidence was used strategically at various stages of the policy process both by individual corporatist actors and by the Federal Joint Committee as the regulator. Minimum volumes regulation was inspired by scientific evidence suggesting a positive relationship between service volume and patient outcomes for complex surgical interventions. Federal legislation was introduced in 2002 to delegate the selection of services and the setting of volumes to corporatist decision makers. Yet, despite being represented in the Federal Joint Committee, hospitals affected by its decisions took the Committee to court to seek legal redress and prevent policy implementation. Evidence has been key to support, and challenge, decisions about minimum volumes, including in court. The analysis of the role of scientific evidence in minimum volumes regulation in Germany highlights the dynamic relationship between evidence use and the political and institutional context of health policy making, which in this case is characterized by the legislative nature of policy making, corporatism, and the role of the judiciary in reviewing policy decisions. Copyright © 2017 by Stefanie Ettelt.

  13. Problems, policies and politics: making the case for better assistive technology provision in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Natasha

    2015-05-01

    Substantial evidence supports assistive technology and environmental adaptations as key enablers to participation. In order to realise the potential of these interventions, they need to be both recognised in policy, and resourced in practice. This paper uses political theory to understand the complexities of assistive technology (AT) policy reform in Australia. AT research will not be influential in improving AT policy without consideration of political drivers. Theories of policy formation are considered, with Kingdon's (2003) theory of multiple streams identified as a useful lens through which to understand government actions. This theory is applied to the case of current AT policy reformulation in Australia. The convergence model of problem identification, policy formulation and political will is found to be an applicable construct with which to evaluate contemporary policy changes. This paper illustrates the cogency of this theory for the field of AT, in the case of Australia's recent disability and aged care reforms. Political theory provides a way of conceptualising the difficulties of consumers and AT practitioners experience in getting therapeutically valid solutions into public policy, and then getting policies prioritised and funded. It is suggested that AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice. AT practitioners generally lack political awareness or an understanding of the drivers of policy. The effectiveness of AT practitioners at a systemic level will remain limited without consideration of policy drivers. AT practitioners must comprehend and consider political factors in working towards effective policies to support their practice.

  14. Inclusive and Women-friendly in a time of Diversity? The Scandinavian citizenship regime – the ‘childcare lesson’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilie Thun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I ask: Is the Scandinavian citizenship regime inclusive and women-friendly in a time of diversity? I approach this question by addressing the intersection of gender and ethnicity in relation to social citizenship with the main concern being childcare. I emphasize Norway as a case but also see Norway in comparison with Sweden and Denmark. In comparative studies, the Scandinavian citizenship regime is presented as being the most ‘women-friendly’. However, faced with an increasingly multicultural population, a pertinent question is whether this citizenship model is able to accommodate diversity. I explore two tensions that are basic to the inclusiveness and women-friendliness of the Scandinavian citizenship regime in diverse societies: 1 The tension between principles of gender equality and cultural diversity, and 2 the tension between liberating and controlling aspects of the welfare state. This article discusses the Norwegian family policy ‘hybrid’, which combines dual-earner support with traditional breadwinner elements. One might say that the Norwegian family ‘hybrid’ can be a solution to the tension between, on the one hand, a specific gender-equality family norm, and, on the other hand, the respect for other family norms. However, I argue that there is a double standard with regard to minority women, and it can be understood in light of a discourse about Norwegianness. Parental choice is considered a good thing – as long as the mother in question is considered ‘fully’ Norwegian. However, assumed cultural and ethnic differences – often based on stereotypical collective categories of difference – are used as boundary-markers between the majority and minorities. I conclude that, despite variations, all the Scandinavian countries grapple with the same tensions, and that there is a Scandinavian double standard regarding minority women.

  15. Using Knowledge of the Past to Improve Education Today: US Education History and Policy-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinovskis, Maris A.

    2015-01-01

    Early American historians provided the public and policy-makers with information about US history that provided both entertainment and policy suggestions. As American historians became more professionalised in the early twentieth century, they concentrated more on their own scholarly concerns and less on policy-relevant writings. In recent…

  16. The Case for Economic Considerations in Language Policy Making: A Response to Michael Clyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanan, Vanithamani

    1997-01-01

    A response to an article on multiculturalism and the status of community languages in Australia looks at the situation in Singapore, in which the government created policy supporting development of selected languages, and examines the positive economic consequences of the policy. Effects on educational and manpower policy are also considered. (MSE)

  17. BSE and variant CJD: emerging science, public pressure and the vagaries of policy-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueston, William D

    2013-05-01

    Classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) was first recognized in 1987 in the United Kingdom and ultimately spread to cattle across Europe and to the Middle East, North America and Japan through the movement of infected animals and contaminated meat and bone meal. The human expression of BSE, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (vCJD), likewise was first identified in the UK and now has been observed in many countries due to human exposure to BSE contaminated products or to vCJD contaminated human tissues through transplantation and injection. BSE provides an example of an emerging infectious disease that demonstrates the challenges of policy-making in the face of rapidly changing science and public outrage pushing for action. Lessons learned through the BSE epidemic include: (1) beware of facts as new science continues to emerge; (2) complex issues rarely have simple solutions; (3) evaluate epidemics from a macro-epidemiologic perspective to understand their complexity and devise effective risk management strategies; (4) options always exist for prevention/control; (5) risk communications play a vital role before and during an emerging disease epidemic; and (6) risk management progress involves both science and politics. Adoption of One Health approaches involving systems thinking and shared leadership hold the most promise for effectively managing complex emergency global health issues like BSE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Robust climate policies under uncertainty: a comparison of robust decision making and info-gap methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jim W; Lempert, Robert J; Keller, Klaus; Hackbarth, Andrew; Mijere, Christophe; McInerney, David J

    2012-10-01

    This study compares two widely used approaches for robustness analysis of decision problems: the info-gap method originally developed by Ben-Haim and the robust decision making (RDM) approach originally developed by Lempert, Popper, and Bankes. The study uses each approach to evaluate alternative paths for climate-altering greenhouse gas emissions given the potential for nonlinear threshold responses in the climate system, significant uncertainty about such a threshold response and a variety of other key parameters, as well as the ability to learn about any threshold responses over time. Info-gap and RDM share many similarities. Both represent uncertainty as sets of multiple plausible futures, and both seek to identify robust strategies whose performance is insensitive to uncertainties. Yet they also exhibit important differences, as they arrange their analyses in different orders, treat losses and gains in different ways, and take different approaches to imprecise probabilistic information. The study finds that the two approaches reach similar but not identical policy recommendations and that their differing attributes raise important questions about their appropriate roles in decision support applications. The comparison not only improves understanding of these specific methods, it also suggests some broader insights into robustness approaches and a framework for comparing them. © 2012 RAND Corporation.

  19. Improving transportation networks: Effects of population structure and decision making policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pablo-Martí, Federico; Sánchez, Angel

    2017-07-03

    Transportation networks are one of the fundamental tools for human society to work, more so in our globalized world. The importance of a correct, efficient design of a transportation network for a given region or country cannot be overstated. We here study how network design is affected by the geography of the towns or nuclei to be connected, and also by the decision process necessary to choose which connections should be improved (in a generic sense) first. We begin by establishing that Delaunay networks provide an efficient starting point for the network design and at the same time allow us to introduce a computationally amenable model. Subsequent improvements lead to decentralized designs in geographies where towns are more or less homogeneously distributed, whereas radial designs arise when there is a core-periphery distribution of nodes. We also show that optimization of Delaunay networks outperforms that of complete networks at a lower cost, by allowing for a proper selection of the links to improve. In closing, we draw conclusions relevant to policy making applied to designing transportation networks and point our how our study can be useful to identify mechanisms relevant to the historical development of a region.

  20. Rational Risk-Benefit Decision-Making in the Setting of Military Mefloquine Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remington L. Nevin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Mefloquine is an antimalarial drug that has been commonly used in military settings since its development by the US military in the late 1980s. Owing to the drug’s neuropsychiatric contraindications and its high rate of inducing neuropsychiatric symptoms, which are contraindications to the drug’s continued use, the routine prescribing of mefloquine in military settings may be problematic. Due to these considerations and to recent concerns of chronic and potentially permanent psychiatric and neurological sequelae arising from drug toxicity, military prescribing of mefloquine has recently decreased. In settings where mefloquine remains available, policies governing prescribing should reflect risk-benefit decision-making informed by the drug’s perceived benefits and by consideration both of the risks identified in the drug’s labeling and of specific military risks associated with its use. In this review, these risks are identified and recommendations are made for the rational prescribing of the drug in light of current evidence.

  1. Undocumented Immigrants and Institutional Admission Policy Transformation in a Community College: Exploring Policy-Making and Its Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunyoung; Chambers, Jessica A.

    2015-01-01

    Much of the research on undocumented students has primarily addressed the effects of state policy on undocumented students' access to college and financial aid; it has also examined the educational experiences and challenges unique to undocumented students. However, current literature lacks a thorough investigation of how community colleges…

  2. Moderation of Policy-Making? : Science and Technology Policy Evaluation Beyond Impact Measurement—the Case of Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhlmann, Stefan

    1998-01-01

    In the field of science and technology policies, for the most part, evaluation procedures are utilized as a way of measuring the scientific and technological quality or the socio-economic impacts of publicly funded research. Beyond this practice, could evaluation procedures be used as a medium for

  3. The Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement and the ideal biomechanical requirements of ankle replacements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robati, Shibby; Salih, Alan; Ghosh, Koushik; Vinayakam, Parthiban

    2016-01-01

    The complex anatomy of the articular bone surfaces, ligaments, tendon attachments and muscles makes the ankle joint difficult to replicate in prosthetic replacements. Ever since the early 1970s, which saw the dawn of the first total ankle replacements, there have been numerous other attempts at replicating the joint, often with poor clinical outcomes. The anatomy of the ankle is discussed, followed by evidence of the normal ankle biomechanics and the ideal requirements of an ankle replacement. We focus on the Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement and evaluate whether these requirements have been met. PMID:26955224

  4. COLLABORATIVE POLICY-MAKING, LAW STUDENTS, AND ACCESS TO JUSTICE: THE REWARDS OF DESTABILIZING INSTITUTIONAL PATTERNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brea Lowenberger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Heightened concerns and dialogue about access to justice have infused the law school setting in Saskatchewan and, to varying degrees, across the country. If there ever were a time to approach social justice reform differently – to upset traditional parameters around decision making and step around older hierarchies for input and design – it would be now. This article describes the Dean’s Forum on Dispute Resolution and Access to Justice (colloquially known as the Dean’s Forum as a platform for genuine student engagement in the development of public policy in this important area. We offer our combined reflections, gathered inside our “teaching team,” about the unique pedagogical features of our experiment and its challenges. As we continue to grow with the project, we offer this Saskatchewan story as one example of institutional collaboration in a quickly evolving educational and social policy landscape.   L’accès à la justice est une préoccupation croissante et un thème de plus en plus récurrent dans les facultés de droit de la Saskatchewan et, à différents degrés, de l’ensemble du pays. Le temps est venu, semble-t-il, d’aborder la réforme de la justice sociale différemment, de bouleverser les paramètres traditionnels gravitant autour de la prise de décisions et de contourner les hiérarchies plus anciennes en ce qui concerne les données et les concepts. Cet article porte sur le forum du doyen concernant le règlement des conflits et l’accès à la justice (familièrement appelé le Dean’s Forum (forum du doyen comme plateforme pour la participation des étudiants à l’élaboration des politiques publiques dans cet important domaine. Nous présentons l’ensemble des réflexions de notre équipe d’enseignants au sujet des éléments pédagogiques uniques de notre expérience et des difficultés connexes. Nous continuons à grandir avec notre projet, mais nous souhaitions décrire dès maintenant cette

  5. Influence of institutional culture and policies on do-not-resuscitate decision making at the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzeng, Elizabeth; Colaianni, Alessandra; Roland, Martin; Chander, Geetanjali; Smith, Thomas J; Kelly, Michael P; Barclay, Stephen; Levine, David

    2015-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding whether the decision to pursue a do-not-resuscitate (DNR) order should be grounded in an ethic of patient autonomy or in the obligation to act in the patient's best interest (beneficence). To explore how physicians' approaches to DNR decision making at the end of life are shaped by institutional cultures and policies surrounding patient autonomy. We performed semistructured in-depth qualitative interviews of 58 internal medicine physicians from 4 academic medical centers (3 in the United States and 1 in the United Kingdom) by years of experience and medical subspecialty from March 7, 2013, through January 8, 2014. Hospitals were selected based on expected differences in hospital culture and variations in hospital policies regarding prioritization of autonomy vs best interest. This study identified the key influences of institutional culture and policies on physicians' attitudes toward patient autonomy in DNR decision making at the end of life. A hospital's prioritization of autonomy vs best interest as reflected in institutional culture and policy appeared to influence the way that physician trainees conceptualized patient autonomy. This finding may have influenced the degree of choice and recommendations physician trainees were willing to offer regarding DNR decision making. Trainees at hospitals where policies and culture prioritized autonomy-focused approaches appeared to have an unreflective deference to autonomy and felt compelled to offer the choice of resuscitation neutrally in all situations regardless of whether they believed resuscitation to be clinically appropriate. In contrast, trainees at hospitals where policies and culture prioritized best-interest-focused approaches appeared to be more comfortable recommending against resuscitation in situations where survival was unlikely. Experienced physicians at all sites similarly did not exclusively allow their actions to be defined by policies and institutional culture and were

  6. The Role of Indicator-Based Sustainability Assessment in Policy and the Decision-Making Process: A Review and Outlook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didem Dizdaroglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to regulate natural processes and control the scale of human activities, sustainability assessment needs to be integrated into urban planning. In this context, indicator-based sustainability assessment tools are fundamental instruments that provide information to support policy and decision-making. Indicators are necessary to monitor the implementation of the policies and provide feedback needed to accomplish the desirable state of sustainable urban development. This paper aims to explore the role of indicator-based sustainability assessment in policy and the decision-making process. Therefore, it reviews the identified sustainable development indicator initiatives and addresses the research gaps in the literature for future improvement of sustainability assessment frameworks. It concludes with a discussion that the major problem in sustainability assessment lies in the gathering of reliable and accessible data.

  7. 12 CFR 1500.6 - What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What risk management, record keeping and... Banking DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY GENERAL PROVISIONS MERCHANT BANKING INVESTMENTS § 1500.6 What risk management, record keeping and reporting policies are required to make merchant banking investments? (a) What...

  8. Factors That Influence School Board Policy Making: The Political Context of Student Diversity in Urban-Suburban Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diem, Sarah; Frankenberg, Erica; Cleary, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines factors that affect school board policy making about student diversity within two southern urban-suburban school districts experiencing changing demographics: Jefferson County Public Schools and the Wake County Public School System. Both districts have a history of voluntary integration efforts, and research shows…

  9. Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnhoven, T.M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Trudy M.A. Wijnhoven Overweight and obesity in primary-school children: a surveillance system for policy-making in Europe from 2007 onwards.   Background As a follow-up to the European Ministerial Conference on Counteracting Obesity convened in

  10. Nation-Building without Mortar? Public Participation in Higher Education Policy-Making in South Africa. Research Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Teresa

    2006-01-01

    This article tests a case study of public participation in the decision-making about restructuring South Africa's large cohort of higher education institutions, as inherited in 1994, against theories of South Africa's new democracy. It shows that people formally outside the higher education policy sector--students, academics, parents and the…

  11. The Impact of the New Nationalism and Identity Politics on Cultural Policy-Making In Europe and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Fuelled by factors such as globalisation, European integration and migration, there is evidence of a resurgence of nationalism in Europe and beyond. This trend is being increasingly revitalised in national and regional cultural policy-making, often linked to a new focus on politics of national...

  12. Dark Matter: The "Gravitational Pull" of Maternalist Discourses on Politicians' Decision Making for Early Childhood Policy in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances

    2011-01-01

    The article reports on a study investigating influences on Australian politicians' decision making for early childhood education and care (ECEC) policy. The astronomical concept of dark matter is utilised as a metaphor for considering normalising, and therefore frequently difficult to detect and disrupt, influences implicated in politicians'…

  13. Health policy making under information constraints: an evaluation of the policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goranitis, Ilias; Siskou, Olga; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos

    2014-09-01

    Cost consolidation in the highly fragmented and inefficient Greek health care system was necessary. However, policies introduced were partly formed in a context of insufficient information. Expenditure data from a consumption point of view were lacking and the depth of the political and structural problems was of unknown magnitude to the supervisory authorities. Drawing upon relevant literature and evidence from the newly implemented OECD System of Health Accounts, the paper evaluates the health policy responses to the economic crisis in Greece. The discussion and recommendations are also of interest to other countries where data sources are not reliable or decisions are based on preliminary data and projections. Between 2009 and 2012, across-the-board cuts have resulted in a decline in public health expenditure for inpatient care by 8.6%, for pharmaceuticals by 42.3% and for outpatient care by 34.6%. Further cuts are expected from the ongoing reforms but more structural changes are needed. Cost-containment was not well targeted and expenditure cuts were not always addressed to the real reasons of the pre-crisis cost explosion. Policy responses were restricted to quick and easy fiscal adjustment, ignoring the need for substantial structural reforms or individuals' right to access health care irrespective of their financial capacity. Developing appropriate information infrastructure, restructuring and consolidating the hospital sector and moving toward a tax-based national health insurance could offer valuable benefits to the system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Policy Making, Industrial Structure and Economic Growth in a Dual Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xun

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses a new growth mode, a country with a dual economic structure in which each economic sector will receive different government policies such as financial and fiscal policies. Firstly It obtains the economic growth rate and the growth rate of per capita output in the balanced growth path. Secondly it shows how different policy allocations and current industrial structure influence the economic growth. This model also reveals several other factors such as technology progress a...

  15. Evidence for Policy Making: Clinical Appropriateness Study of Lumbar Spine MRI Prescriptions Using RAND Appropriateness Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Yousefi Manesh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available MRI is a new and expensive diagnostic technology, which has been used increasingly all over the world. Low back pain is a worldwide prevalent disorder and MRI technique is one of the several ways to diagnose it. This paper aims to identify the appropriateness of lumbar spine MRI prescriptions in Shiraz teaching hospitals using standardized RAND Appropriateness Method (RAM criteria. Methods This study consisted of two phases. The first phase involved a qualitative enquiry and the second phase had a quantitative cross-sectional nature. In the first phase RAM was used for developing lumbar spine MRI indications and scenarios. In the second phase, the finalized scenarios were compared with the history and physical examination of 300 patients with low back pain. The rate of appropriateness of lumbar spine MRI prescription was then calculated. Results Of 300 cases of lumbar spine MRI prescriptions, approximately 167 (56% were considered inappropriate, 72 (24% were uncertain, and 61 (20% were deemed to be appropriate. The economic burden of inappropriate prescriptions was calculated at 88,009,000 Rials. In addition, the types of expertise and physical examination were considered as related factors to appropriateness of prescriptions. Conclusion In conclusion, a large proportion of lumbar spine MRI prescriptions, which result in financial burden on the insurance companies and the patients alike is unnecessary. This study suggests that policy makers consider this evidence while decision-making. Our findings highlight the imperative role of Health Technology Assessment (HTA and Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs. As a result, developing local clinical guidelines may create the commitment needed in physicians in prescribing appropriate prescriptions within the health sector. The study further recommends that appropriate scenarios should be considered as a criterion for payment and reimbursement.

  16. Nation-building in the Scandinavian Welfare State: The Immigration Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Brochmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scandinavia represents a particular type of welfare state, characterized by institutionalized social rights, universal access, generous benefits, a high degree of public involvement and comparatively high levels of redistribution. The basically tax-based system, which was designed to constitute a basic safety net for all citizens from cradle to grave, has been remarkably generous - and thereby also costly. It is thus vulnerable in relation to newcomers who cannot support themselves economically. In all of Scandinavia, the welfare state was from the beginning the self-evident instrument for incorporation of newcomers. Gradually, this instrument has turned more controversial, in parallel with general processes of social reform, in which the restructuring of policies has been regarded as necessary in order to avoid dependency traps and "overconsumption". This article spells out the historical background for the specific Scandinavian approach to immigration, and discusses the current dilemmas attached to this normatively complicated policy field.

  17. Including values in evidence-based policy making for breast screening: An empirically grounded tool to assist expert decision makers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lisa

    2017-07-01

    Values are an important part of evidence-based decision making for health policy: they guide the type of evidence that is collected, how it is interpreted, and how important the conclusions are considered to be. Experts in breast screening (including clinicians, researchers, consumer advocates and senior administrators) hold differing values in relation to what is important in breast screening policy and practice, and committees may find it difficult to incorporate the complexity and variety of values into policy decisions. The decision making tool provided here is intended to assist with this process. The tool is modified from more general frameworks that are intended to assist with ethical decision making in public health, and informed by data drawn from previous empirical studies on values amongst Australian breast screening experts. It provides a structured format for breast screening committees to consider and discuss the values of themselves and others, suggests relevant topics for further inquiry and highlights areas of need for future research into the values of the public. It enables committees to publicly explain and justify their decisions with reference to values, improving transparency and accountability. It is intended to act alongside practices that seek to accommodate the values of individual women in the informed decision making process for personal decision making about participation in breast screening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Who Is a Stream? Epistemic Communities, Instrument Constituencies and Advocacy Coalitions in Public Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishani Mukherjee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available John Kingdon’s Multiple Streams Framework (MSF was articulated in order to better understand how issues entered onto policy agendas, using the concept of policy actors interacting over the course of sequences of events in what he referred to as the “problem”, “policy” and “politics” “streams”. However, it is not a priori certain who the agents are in this process and how they interact with each other. As was common at the time, in his study Kingdon used an undifferentiated concept of a “policy subsystem” to group together and capture the activities of various policy actors involved in this process. However, this article argues that the policy world Kingdon envisioned can be better visualized as one composed of distinct subsets of actors who engage in one specific type of interaction involved in the definition of policy problems: either the articulation of problems, the development of solutions, or their enactment. Rather than involve all subsystem actors, this article argues that three separate sets of actors are involved in these tasks: epistemic communities are engaged in discourses about policy problems; instrument constituencies define policy alternatives and instruments; and advocacy coalitions compete to have their choice of policy alternatives adopted. Using this lens, the article focuses on actor interactions involved both in the agenda-setting activities Kingdon examined as well as in the policy formulation activities following the agenda setting stage upon which Kingdon originally worked. This activity involves the definition of policy goals (both broad and specific, the creation of the means and mechanisms to realize these goals, and the set of bureaucratic, partisan, electoral and other political struggles involved in their acceptance and transformation into action. Like agenda-setting, these activities can best be modeled using a differentiated subsystem approach.

  19. Schooling Transnational Speakers of the Societal Language: Language Variation Policy-Making in Madrid and Toronto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schecter, Sandra R.; García Parejo, Isabel; Ambadiang, Théophile; James, Carl E.

    2014-01-01

    A cross-national comparative study in Toronto, Ontario, Canada and Madrid, Spain examines educational policies and practices that target immigrant students for whom the language variety normally spoken in the host country represents a second dialect. Policy contexts and schooling environments of the two urban centres were analyzed to gain deeper…

  20. Singapore's "Global Assemblage": Digging into the Culture of Education Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    As a meta-concept, "globalization" has the tendency to create master categories such as an emergent global/izing education policy. This paper critiques the thinking and assumptions that underpin a global education policy. The paper proposes that "global assemblage" is a more helpful conceptual thinking about the way education…

  1. Public health policy research: making the case for a political science approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernier, Nicole F; Clavier, Carole

    2011-03-01

    The past few years have seen the emergence of claims that the political determinants of health do not get due consideration and a growing demand for better insights into public policy analysis in the health research field. Several public health and health promotion researchers are calling for better training and a stronger research culture in health policy. The development of these studies tends to be more advanced in health promotion than in other areas of public health research, but researchers are still commonly caught in a naïve, idealistic and narrow view of public policy. This article argues that the political science discipline has developed a specific approach to public policy analysis that can help to open up unexplored levers of influence for public health research and practice and that can contribute to a better understanding of public policy as a determinant of health. It describes and critiques the public health model of policy analysis, analyzes political science's specific approach to public policy analysis, and discusses how the politics of research provides opportunities and barriers to the integration of political science's distinctive contributions to policy analysis in health promotion.

  2. A New Equity Deal for Schools: A Case Study of Policy-Making in Queensland, Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Parlo; Taylor, Sandra

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we draw on concepts from policy sociology to analyse the new equity deal for schools in Queensland, Australia. We examine this "new deal" through an analysis of the language of "inclusion" and "educational risk" in key policy documents associated with a major reform of public education in Queensland. In…

  3. Studying Absenteeism in Principles of Macroeconomics: Do Attendance Policies Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Sharmistha

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this article is to see if and how attendance policy influences class attendance in undergraduate-level principles of macroeconomics classes. The second objective, which is related to the first, is to examine whether the nature of the attendance policy matters in terms of its impact on class attendance behavior. The results…

  4. Making the most of open windows: establishing health in all policies in South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickbusch, Ilona; Williams, Carmel; Lawless, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Significant improvements in population health are likely to arise when the social determinants ofhealth are addressed. This creates a challenge for health systems, as the policy levers to influence the determinants largely lie outside of their direct control. Health agencies have been attempting to develop responses that affect these policy levers with mixed success. Success often requires particular conditions or "windows of opportunity" to be present before even small systemic change can be made. The government of South Australia has developed a practical, policy-oriented response to address the determinants of health--Health in All Policies--and has been successfully working across government for the past five years, using a policy learning process to implement this approach. This article will focus on how the South Australian Health in All Policies initiative started and the conditions that enabled South Australia to establish a centralized governance structure, harness a group of cross-sector policy entrepreneurs, and conduct health lens projects across a range of policy issues. The authors will comment on the nature of these conditions and their relevance for other governments struggling to reduce the burden of chronic disease and growing health budgets by addressing the social determinants of health.

  5. Greening Governance : An Evolutionary Approach to Policy Making for a Sustainable Built Environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bueren, E.M.

    2009-01-01

    After twenty years of sustainable building policies, the issue of environmental impact of buildings and urban environments remains. Policy makers still have difficulties addressing the ambiguous, contested and dynamic goals encapsulated in the term ‘sustainable development’. How to decide between

  6. Credit Card Solicitation Policies in Higher Education: Does "Protecting" Our Students Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Mary Beth; Parente, Diane H.; Palmer, Todd S.

    2001-01-01

    Reports on a study that investigated the effect of a university's solicitation policy on students' acquisition and usage of credit cards. Attempts by universities to limit access to and use of credit cards appear to be ineffective. Suggests alternative policies be constructed around teaching students sound money management skills. (Author/JDM)

  7. Book Review: "The Honest Broker: Making Sense of Science in Policy and Politics"

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Honest Broker is a must-read for any scientist with even a modest interest in environmental policy or politics, and I recommend it especially to scientists unfamiliar with the continuing controversy over how scientists misuse science in environmental policy and politics. The ...

  8. Bridging the gap between evidence and policy for infectious diseases: How models can aid public health decision-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenan M. Knight

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The dominant approach to decision-making in public health policy for infectious diseases relies heavily on expert opinion, which often applies empirical evidence to policy questions in a manner that is neither systematic nor transparent. Although systematic reviews are frequently commissioned to inform specific components of policy (such as efficacy, the same process is rarely applied to the full decision-making process. Mathematical models provide a mechanism through which empirical evidence can be methodically and transparently integrated to address such questions. However, such models are often considered difficult to interpret. In addition, models provide estimates that need to be iteratively re-evaluated as new data or considerations arise. Using the case study of a novel diagnostic for tuberculosis, a framework for improved collaboration between public health decision-makers and mathematical modellers that could lead to more transparent and evidence-driven policy decisions for infectious diseases in the future is proposed. The framework proposes that policymakers should establish long-term collaborations with modellers to address key questions, and that modellers should strive to provide clear explanations of the uncertainty of model structure and outputs. Doing so will improve the applicability of models and clarify their limitations when used to inform real-world public health policy decisions.

  9. Undocumented Immigrants and Access to Health Care: Making a Case for Policy Reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Jean

    2014-02-01

    The growth in undocumented immigration in the United States has garnered increasing interest in the arenas of immigration and health care policy reform. Undocumented immigrants are restricted from accessing public health and social service as a result of their immigration status. The Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act restricts undocumented immigrants from participating in state exchange insurance market places, further limiting them from accessing equitable health care services. This commentary calls for comprehensive policy reform that expands access to health care for undocumented immigrants based on an analysis of immigrant health policies and their impact on health care expenditures, public health, and the role of health care providers. The intersectional nature of immigration and health care policy emphasizes the need for nurse policymakers to advocate for comprehensive policy reform aimed at improving the health and well-being of immigrants and the nation as a whole. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  10. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SCANDINAVIAN AND ETHIOPIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    housing policies to the social, economic, cultural ideas, and institutional set ups in each country and, in retrospect .... problems. caught in a culture of poverty [7]. Such views encouraged an abolishinist approach and ...... includes Finland, Iceland and Faeroe Islands. For the purpose of this paper Scandinavia denote the first ...

  11. Risk and Rationality in Adolescent Decision Making: Implications for Theory, Practice, and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyna, Valerie F; Farley, Frank

    2006-09-01

    Crime, smoking, drug use, alcoholism, reckless driving, and many other unhealthy patterns of behavior that play out over a lifetime often debut during adolescence. Avoiding risks or buying time can set a different lifetime pattern. Changing unhealthy behaviors in adolescence would have a broad impact on society, reducing the burdens of disease, injury, human suffering, and associated economic costs. Any program designed to prevent or change such risky behaviors should be founded on a clear idea of what is normative (what behaviors, ideally, should the program foster?), descriptive (how are adolescents making decisions in the absence of the program?), and prescriptive (which practices can realistically move adolescent decisions closer to the normative ideal?). Normatively, decision processes should be evaluated for coherence (is the thinking process nonsensical, illogical, or self-contradictory?) and correspondence (are the outcomes of the decisions positive?). Behaviors that promote positive physical and mental health outcomes in modern society can be at odds with those selected for by evolution (e.g., early procreation). Healthy behaviors may also conflict with a decision maker's goals. Adolescents' goals are more likely to maximize immediate pleasure, and strict decision analysis implies that many kinds of unhealthy behavior, such as drinking and drug use, could be deemed rational. However, based on data showing developmental changes in goals, it is important for policy to promote positive long-term outcomes rather than adolescents' short-term goals. Developmental data also suggest that greater risk aversion is generally adaptive, and that decision processes that support this aversion are more advanced than those that support risk taking. A key question is whether adolescents are developmentally competent to make decisions about risks. In principle, barring temptations with high rewards and individual differences that reduce self-control (i.e., under ideal

  12. The Negative Impact of Legislation Pitfalls on Meaningful Public Participation, Efficient Policy-Making and Effective Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana ALMĂȘAN

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on emphasizing howa variety of apparently irrelevant legislationimperfections may induce significant misunderstandingsregarding the real spirit of democraticgovernance, corrupting the practice of activecitizenship in the policy-making processes anddepriving the Romanian public administration ofan important and valuable instrument for efficientgovernance and implementation of sustainabledecisions. The authors chose to analyze aspectsof the related legislation, as it represents afundamental element needed for the developmentof active citizenship. This article is the result of alarger on-going research on the phenomena ofpublic participation and policy dialogue that aimsto provide a more accurate understanding ofactive citizenship mechanisms and to investigatethe existence of a deliberative conscience at thelevel of the Romanian society.

  13. Preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Fluid resuscitation is a frequent intervention in intensive care. Colloids are widely used, but recent data suggest harm by some of these solutions. This calls for more clinical studies on this matter, but the current preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units (ICUs...

  14. [Scandinavian guidelines for prehospital management of severe traumatic brain injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollid, S.; Sundstrom, T.; Kock-Jensen, C.

    2008-01-01

    . Evidence-based guidelines already exist that focus on all steps in the process. In the present article members of the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee present recommendations on prehospital management of traumatic brain injury adapted to the infrastructure of the Nordic region Udgivelsesdato: 2008/6/26...

  15. Whole grain foods and health - A Scandinavian perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølich, Wenche; Aman, Per; Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal) per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objec...

  16. Scandinavian Approaches to Gender Equality in Academia: A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates how Denmark, Norway, and Sweden approach issues of gender equality in research differently. Based on a comparative document analysis of gender equality activities in six Scandinavian universities, together with an examination of the legislative and political frameworks surrounding these activities, the article provides new…

  17. The Ethical Dimensions of Curriculum Leadership in Scandinavian Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norberg, Katarina; Johansson, Olof

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Schooling is a significant tool for fostering future generations, which, in turn, implies that the curriculum is an ethical document. It mirrors the society's notion of what is valuable, useful and necessary from a societal and individual perspective. The purpose of this paper is to address the Scandinavian curricula's ethical framework,…

  18. Null Objects under Coordination in Yiddish and Scandinavian

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikner, Sten

    2003-01-01

    appear at first glance. I shall however try to show that this might provide support for what I take to be a more basic difference between Yiddish on one hand and the Scandinavian languages on the other, namely that Yiddish is an OV-language like German and Dutch, not a VO-language like English...

  19. Assisted Reproductive Technologies in Alberta: An Economic Analysis to Inform Policy Decision-Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Anil; Stafinski, Tania; Nardelli, Alexa; Motan, Tarek; Menon, Devidas

    2015-12-01

    Regulation and public funding of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) vary across the Canadian provinces. In Alberta, neither of these exists. We conducted this study to evaluate the cost effectiveness and budget impact of providing ARTs in Alberta under three different policy scenarios (a "restrictive" policy, a policy based on Quebec's model, and a "permissive" policy) in comparison with the status quo. To predict the cost effectiveness and budget impact of three policy options for publicly funded ARTs in Alberta, we developed an economic model by combining a state transition Markov model and a decision tree. The primary outcome was cost per healthy singleton. Probabilistic and one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted. The restrictive policy was the most cost effective option for two subgroups of age (model showed the cost savings of $8.33 million for the restrictive policy for the model results were robust. This economic modelling study shows that publicly funded and scientifically regulated ARTs could provide treatment access and save health care expenditures for the province.

  20. Make

    CERN Document Server

    Frauenfelder, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The first magazine devoted entirely to do-it-yourself technology projects presents its 29th quarterly edition for people who like to tweak, disassemble, recreate, and invent cool new uses for technology. MAKE Volume 29 takes bio-hacking to a new level. Get introduced to DIY tracking devices before they hit the consumer electronics marketplace. Learn how to build an EKG machine to study your heartbeat, and put together a DIY bio lab to study athletic motion using consumer grade hardware.

  1. Scientific literacy and environmental policy: The missing prerequisite for sound decision making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howell, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since World War II, two trends in public policy have been much in evidence: the increasing importance of science and technology and the increasing role of public participation. This book discusses the problem that an errant, even if well intentioned, public may demand government policies that fly in the face of scientific reality and that render useless results. The first four chapters provide a general background to the policy process and emphasize regulation in particular. Chapters five through eight discuss the main problems of scientific illiteracy and public participation, using two cases: FDA approval of drugs and government regulation of recombinant DNA research.

  2. Comparative analysis of Scandinavian and Ethiopian approaches to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mode of production, owning and disposal of houses involves the making of policies regarding property rights and the establishment of institutions that facilitate implementation. This paper deals with a ... It is hoped the issues raised in this paper will contribute to the debate on housing. Furthermore, it will show the merits ...

  3. Migrations in Norway and in Other Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Olav Ǿstrem

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The article gives an overview of migration movements in Norway and other Scandinavian countries. The overview most of all focuses on history, but gives also comments on the present situation. The quantitative dimension of Norwegian and Scandinavian emigration in different periods is dealt with, but the article also discusses cultural circumstances in connection with emigration from and immigration to this north European region. Emigration started earlier in Norway than in the other Scandinavian or Nordic countries. Of the Scandinavian countries, “it was only from Norway that emigration to America took place on a larger scale during the 1850s”. Sweden and Denmark “during the 1860s … entered a stage of massive emigration which culminated during the 1880s”. Emigration from Iceland started later, but the country experienced “a veritable flood during the 1880s”, at the same time as Eastern and Western Europe. Finland did not reach “great numbers until the initial decades of the 20th century.” The reasons for emigration from the Scandinavian countries have in traditional migration studies been linked to economic and social factors. In this article, based on the author’s thesis on emigration from the local parish Skjold in Rogaland county, Norway, from 1837 to 1914, the focus is on the cultural factor when discussing underlying causes of Nordic mass emigration. By using the term emigrant culture – a personification of the migrants – a way to employ the individual psychological or motive factor is attempted. Considering migration a process of two sides also strengthens the cultural or psychological individual factor.

  4. MYTH-MAKING, MORAL COMMUNITIES, AND POLICY FAILURE IN SOLVING THE RADIOACTIVE WASTE PROBLEM. (R823191)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  5. Synthetic Economies: The Application of Distributed Interactive Computing Environments-for Policy and Management Decision Making

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    White, Richard

    1997-01-01

    .... The military's use of computer generated synthetic battlefields for training is the metaphor; the creation of synthetic economies within which to practice policy and management prerogatives is the goal...

  6. Psychosocial Risks: Is Risk Management Strategic Enough in Business and Policy Making?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa K. Langenhan

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: The study found that there is a need to close the gap between policy and practice on a number of levels. Future recommendations comprise a policy framework and infrastructure underpinned by educational initiatives, partnerships, and networks to drive a shift in attitudes toward recognizing the duality of the concept of risk (including both potential negative and positive outcomes and moving beyond simple regulatory compliance.

  7. School Sun-Protection Policies--Does Being SunSmart Make a Difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Denise; Harrison, Simone L.; Buettner, Petra; Nowak, Madeleine

    2014-01-01

    Evaluate the comprehensiveness of primary school sun-protection policies in tropical North Queensland, Australia. Pre-determined criteria were used to assess publicly available sun-protection policies from primary schools in Townsville (latitude 19.3°S; n = 43), Cairns (16.9°S; n = 46) and the Atherton Tablelands (17.3°S; n = 23) during 2009-2012.…

  8. How Did Youth Mental Health Make It Onto Australia’s 2011 Federal Policy Agenda?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harvey A. Whiteford

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 Australian federal budget included a large investment in youth mental health and early intervention services. In this article, we focus on the critical role of agenda setting in the preceding 4 years to examine how and why these services were given such a high priority at this time. We undertook a systematic review of relevant literature, including parliamentary Hansard transcripts from the House of Representatives and Senate, the final reports of all available parliamentary committees, government policy documents, other pertinent documents held by the Commonwealth Department of Health and Aging, and media reports from five widely circulated Australian publications/news outlets. We used Kingdon’s multiple streams framework to structure analysis. We highlight three factors that were influential in getting youth mental health issues onto the policy agenda: (a the strategic use of quantitative evidence to create a publicly visible “problem,” (b the marshalling of the “public” to create pressure on government, and (c the role of serendipity. Overall, we found the decision to prioritize youth mental health resulted from a combination of advocacy for a well-articulated policy solution by high-profile, influential policy entrepreneurs, and political pressure caused by an up swell of national support for mental health reform. Our findings highlight the socio-political factors that influence agenda setting and health policy formulation. They raise important ethical and strategic issues in utilizing research evidence to change policy.

  9. Modeling hourly electricity dynamics for policy making in long-term scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, Andre, E-mail: andre.pina@ist.utl.pt [Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research - IN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); MIT-Portugal Program, Sustainable Energy Systems Focus Area (Portugal); Silva, Carlos [IDMEC, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal); MIT-Portugal Program, Sustainable Energy Systems Focus Area (Portugal); Ferrao, Paulo [Center for Innovation, Technology and Policy Research - IN, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); MIT-Portugal Program, Sustainable Energy Systems Focus Area (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    Energy policies are often related to the global effort in reducing greenhouse gas emissions through increased use of renewable energies in electricity production. The impact of these policies is usually calculated by energy planning tools. However, the modeling methodologies most currently used are not adequate to simulate long-term scenarios while considering the hourly dynamics of supply and demand. This paper presents an extension of the TIMES energy planning tool for investment decisions in electricity production that considers seasonal, daily and hourly supply and demand dynamics. The inclusion of these dynamics enables the model to produce more accurate results in what concerns the impact of introducing energy efficiency policies and the increased use of renewable energies. The model was validated in Sao Miguel (Azores, Portugal) for the years 2006-2009, where a comparison with real data showed that the model can simulate the supply and demand dynamics. Further, the long-term analysis shows that the inclusion of these dynamics contributes to a better assessment of the renewable energy potential, suggests the postponement of investments in new generation capacity, and demonstrates that using fine time resolution modeling is very valuable for the design of effective policy measures under high renewable penetration energy systems. - Highlights: > We develop a high temporal resolution TIMES model for long-term policy analysis. > The model is capable of considering hourly electricity supply and demand dynamics. > Lower resolution models can overestimate the optimum amount of renewable energies. > Modeling hourly dynamics of policies can help avoid non cost-effective investments.

  10. Development and case study of a science-based software platform to support policy making on air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yun; Lao, Yanwen; Jang, Carey; Lin, Chen-Jen; Xing, Jia; Wang, Shuxiao; Fu, Joshua S; Deng, Shuang; Xie, Junping; Long, Shicheng

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development and implementations of a novel software platform that supports real-time, science-based policy making on air quality through a user-friendly interface. The software, RSM-VAT, uses a response surface modeling (RSM) methodology and serves as a visualization and analysis tool (VAT) for three-dimensional air quality data obtained by atmospheric models. The software features a number of powerful and intuitive data visualization functions for illustrating the complex nonlinear relationship between emission reductions and air quality benefits. The case study of contiguous U.S. demonstrates that the enhanced RSM-VAT is capable of reproducing the air quality model results with Normalized Mean Bias quality policy making in near real time. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. The Europeanization of German energy and climate policies. New forms of policy-making and EU multi-level-governance; Die Europaeisierung der deutschen Energie- und Klimapolitik. Neue Formen der Politikgestaltung und Steuerung im EU-Mehrebenensystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, Severin

    2015-01-23

    The Energy Transition (''Energiewende'') is one of the hot topics of the political debate in Germany for some years. As a consequence of ongoing European integration, EU level politics have gained growing importance. The focus of this study is on the interaction of German and EU energy and climate policies. How have German actors influenced EU policy-making processes and in how far are EU policies relevant for national policy-making in Germany? Three case studies look at processes in the fields of electricity market regulation, renewable energy policy and climate protection between 2007 and 2013.

  12. Network Governance and the Making of Brazil's Foreign Policy Towards China in the 21st Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Cardoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Driven by China's increasing global influence, China-Brazil relations have deepened significantly in the 21st century; for Brazil, this bilateral relationship has become one of the most important aspects of its foreign relations. This article aims at analysing how Brazil's foreign policy towards China was made and implemented during the eight years of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva's presidency, and the first four years of Dilma Rousseff's presidency. While scholars agree that the Ministry of Foreign Affairs did not exclusively dominate this policy, little is known about which state and non-state actors were involved, how and why they interacted, and how their interactions influenced policy choices. The article starts by identifying the actors that played a significant role in formulating Brazil's China policy. Next, drawing on the concept of network governance, it explores the processes and mechanisms that governed the interactions among them. It concludes with an assessment of the democratic quality of this policy area.

  13. Making health an imperative of foreign policy: The value of a human rights approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustreo, Flavia; Doebbler, Curtis F J

    2010-06-15

    Health is increasingly seen as relevant to foreign policy; nevertheless, it remains subordinate to other interests. In particular, the interests of security and economics are often presented as more critical than health. This is due to a failure to sufficiently recognize the legal obligations that states have undertaken to ensure the human right to health. This article argues that health should be an imperative of foreign policy, equally valid, and prioritized in resource allocation. We suggest application of the human rights approach with attention to the legal duty of cooperation and the necessity of ensuring broad participation. We suggest that the human rights approach to health can contribute to achieving this result and is compatible with, and beneficial to, other foreign policy concerns. Finally, we conclude that the human rights approach to health requires that health be an imperative in foreign policymaking processes.

  14. The transnational grip on Scandinavian education reforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krejsler, John B.; Olsson, Ulf; Petersson, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    of the political technologies (standards, performance indicators, scorecards, best practices) that are instrumental in fashioning reforms. This template commits countries in consensus-making ways to comparison, and normalizes the competitive incentive of mutual peer pressure. The authors draw on post...

  15. Making sense of polarities in health organizations for policy and leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carmel M

    2010-10-01

    Making sense of complex adaptive clinical practice and health systems is a pressing challenge as health services continue to struggle to adapt to changing internal and external constraints. In this Forum, we begin with Dervin's Sense-Making theories and research in communications. This provides a conceptual and theoretical context for this editions research on comparative complexity of family medicine consultations in the USA, models for adaptive leadership in clinical care and social networking to make sense of health promotion challenges for young people. Finally, a Sense-Making schema is proposed. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Bioenergy production and sustainable development: science base for policy-making remains limited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robledo-Abad, Carmenza; Althaus, H.J.; Berndes, G.

    2017-01-01

    substitution of GHG emission from fossil fuel). More focused and transparent research is needed to validate these patterns and develop a strong science underpinning for establishing policies and governance agreements that prevent/mitigate negative and promote positive impacts from bioenergy production....

  17. Gender in the New Education Policy 2016 in the Making: Process and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanana, Karuna

    2017-01-01

    There is no doubt that until now significant progress has been made to include gender in the Indian education policy. Further, it is also recognized that investment in the education of both boys and girls with focus on equity is consistently the most powerful and important indicator of national development, as well as being a vehicle for the…

  18. Re-Thinking the Relevance of Philosophy of Education for Educational Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Morwenna

    2014-01-01

    The overall question addressed in this article is,"What kind of philosophy of education is relevant to educational policy makers?" The article focuses on the following four themes: The meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by philosophers themselves; the meanings attached to the term philosophy (of education) by policy…

  19. Thinking Whimsically: Queering the Study of Educational Policy-Making and Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugg, Catherine A.; Murphy, Jason P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses employing queer theory (QT) and queer legal theory (QLT) for critical policy analysis as applied to education. In doing so, the authors will highlight how both QT and QLT can empower analyses to look beyond the identity politics of a particular time period or space and toward potential reforms in curriculum, pedagogy, and…

  20. Making Observation Count: Key Design Elements for Meaningful Teacher Observation. Policy Brief 13-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Teacher evaluation has emerged as a potentially powerful policy lever in state and federal debates about how to improve public education. The role of student test scores and "value-added" measures in teacher evaluation has generated intense public controversy, but other approaches to evaluation including especially classroom observations…

  1. A resource for developing an evidence synthesis report for policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eklund Karlsson, Leena; Takahashi, Ryoko

    to public health questions by summarizing the best available global and local findings from peer-reviewed and grey literature, as well as policy options, and proposes general directions, strategies and actions for consideration. This resource has been developed to outline key approaches, methods...

  2. Language Policy-Making in Multilingual Education: Mass Media and the Framing of Medium of Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollefson, James W.

    2015-01-01

    In some settings, medium of instruction (MOI) policies in multilingual education break out into public debates in mass media involving politicians, business leaders, government officials, parents, and school children. These public discussions of MOI often index struggles over the distribution of political power and economic resources, and issues…

  3. Valuation of Drug Abuse: A Review of Current Methodologies and Implications for Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schori, Maayan

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews the use of several valuation methods as they relate to drug abuse and places them within the context of U.S. policy. First, cost-of-illness (COI) studies are reviewed and their limitations discussed. Second, three additional economic methods of valuing drug abuse are reviewed, including cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA),…

  4. HIV/AIDS in Cameroon: Rising gender issues in policy-making matters

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This literature review investigated gender differentials in HIV/AIDS in Cameroon and to which extent gender was taken into account in the country's current policy on. HIV/AIDS. The review found that in Cameroon women were at increased risk of being infected with HIV/AIDS compared to men and that apart from biological ...

  5. Towards a Capability-Based Theory of Social Justice for Education Policy-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Melanie

    2006-01-01

    Increasingly there is interest in development studies and specifically in the field of education in taking up Amartya Sen's capability approach as a framework for theorizing, implementing and evaluating education policy as a matter of social justice. This paper sets out to contribute to the emerging debate and to show how the capability approach…

  6. Youth, Privacy and Online Media: Framing the right to privacy in public policy-making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Gry; Jørgensen, Rikke Frank

    2015-01-01

    The right to privacy is a fundamental human right defined in international and regional human rights instruments. As such it has been included as a core component of key legislature and policy proceedings throughout the brief history of the World Wide Web. While it is generally recognized in public...

  7. Regional Integrated Assessments in Support of Decision-making: Process, Product, and Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luers, A. L.; Hayhoe, K.

    2006-12-01

    Regional integrated climate assessments are increasingly viewed as critical for informing sound climate policy. Yet, the scientific information in many assessments often is not effectively transformed in to policies to protect the environment. Why are some assessments more effective at informing policies than others? We will provide some insight into this question by describing the lessons learned from a series of regional assessments organized by the Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS). Working with independent experts in the global change research community, UCS has produced assessments in three regions of the US California, the Great Lakes, and the Gulf Coast. The reports from each of these assessments continue to be used by local, state and regional decision-makers in related management and policy initiatives. We attribute the success of these assessments in motivating and supporting climate-related decisions to four factors: (1) credibility, attained both through scientific peer-review and by engaging local scientific and community leaders; (2) regional relevance of assessment focus areas; (3) accessible presentation of the results to non-technical audiences; and (4) wide communication and distribution of the report to the media, the public, civic groups, and public officials.

  8. To Know Ourselves? Research, Data and Policy-Making in the Scottish Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howieson, Cathy; Croxford, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This paper considers the role of independent research in helping an education and training system "know itself", illustrating this through the experience of the Centre for Educational Sociology (CES) of which David Raffe was a member and director. It highlights the tensions in the research-policy relationship arising from the different…

  9. Preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A.; Aneman, A.; Guttormsen, A.B.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fluid resuscitation is a frequent intervention in intensive care. Colloids are widely used, but recent data suggest harm by some of these solutions. This calls for more clinical studies on this matter, but the current preferences for colloid use in Scandinavian intensive care units...... (ICUs) are unknown. METHODS: In March-May 2007, 120 Scandinavian ICUs were invited to answer a web-based survey consisting of 18 questions on types of colloids, indications, contraindications and rationale of use. RESULTS: Seventy-three ICUs, of which 31 were university hospital units, answered...... the questionnaire. Most ICUs used both synthetic and natural colloids, and hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4 was the preferred colloid in 59 units. Eleven ICUs had protocols for colloid use. The most frequent indication was second-line fluid for hypovolaemia, but one in three ICUs used colloids as first-line fluid...

  10. Benzodiazepine prescribing patterns in a high-prescribing Scandinavian community

    OpenAIRE

    Ekedahl, Anders; Lidbeck, Jan; Lithman, T; Noreen, D; Melander, Arne

    1993-01-01

    Sales statistics indicate large variations in benzodiazepine consumption between the Scandinavian countries: the current difference between Denmark (highest) and Sweden (lowest) is almost two-fold. There are also large within-country variations: e.g. benzodiazepine sales in the Swedish city of Helsingborg, which is close to Denmark, were at the average Danish level and were the highest in Sweden. Repeated prescription analyses were carried out in Helsingborg, and register data were used to co...

  11. Applying Critical Scandinavian ISD research principles in an African Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mengiste, Shegaw Anagaw; Tjørnehøj, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    IT-driven organizational changes through information systems development and implementation (ISD&I) is highly challenging because of high complexity and many stakeholders and even more so in developing countries, where the failure rates are higher than elsewhere. Unfortunately, since these countr...... we think the Scandinavian approaches to ISD&I can be useful for the African context and in developing countries in general....

  12. IVF policy and global/local politics: the making of multiple-embryo transfer regulation in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chia-Ling

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the regulatory trajectory of multiple-embryo transfer in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) in Taiwan. Taking a latecomer to policy-making as the case, it argues the importance of conceptualizing the global/local dynamics in policy-making for assisted reproductive technology (ART). The conceptual framework is built upon recent literature on standardization, science policy, and global assemblage. I propose three interrelated features that reveal the "global in the local": (1) the power relationships among stakeholders, (2) the selected global form that involved actors drew upon, and (3) the re-contextualized assemblage made of local networks. Data included archives, interviews, and participant observation. In different historical periods the specific stakeholders selected different preferred global forms for Taiwan, such as Britain's code of ethics in the 1990s, the American guideline in the early 2000s, and the European trend in the mid-2000s. The global is heterogeneous. The failure to transfer the British regulation, the revision of the American guideline by adding one more embryo than it specified, and the gap between the cited European trend and the "no more than four" in Taiwan's 2007 Human Reproduction Law all show that the local network further transforms the selected global form, confining it to rhetoric only or tailoring it to local needs. Overall, Taiwanese practitioners successfully maintained their medical autonomy to build a 'flexible standardization'. Multiple pregnancy remains the most common health risk of IVF in Taiwan. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Review of life-cycle approaches coupled with data envelopment analysis: launching the CFP + DEA method for energy policy making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rowe, Ian; Iribarren, Diego

    2015-01-01

    Life-cycle (LC) approaches play a significant role in energy policy making to determine the environmental impacts associated with the choice of energy source. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) can be combined with LC approaches to provide quantitative benchmarks that orientate the performance of energy systems towards environmental sustainability, with different implications depending on the selected LC + DEA method. The present paper examines currently available LC + DEA methods and develops a novel method combining carbon footprinting (CFP) and DEA. Thus, the CFP + DEA method is proposed, a five-step structure including data collection for multiple homogenous entities, calculation of target operating points, evaluation of current and target carbon footprints, and result interpretation. As the current context for energy policy implies an anthropocentric perspective with focus on the global warming impact of energy systems, the CFP + DEA method is foreseen to be the most consistent LC + DEA approach to provide benchmarks for energy policy making. The fact that this method relies on the definition of operating points with optimised resource intensity helps to moderate the concerns about the omission of other environmental impacts. Moreover, the CFP + DEA method benefits from CFP specifications in terms of flexibility, understanding, and reporting.

  14. Protecting national parks from air pollution effects: Making sausage from science and policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Jill S.; Blett, Tamara; Malm, William C.; Alexander, Ruth; Doremus, Holly

    2016-01-01

    The story of air pollution research, policy development, and management in national parks is a fascinating blend of cultural change, vision, interdisciplinary and interagency collaboration, and science-policy-management-stakeholder collaborations. Unable to ignore the loss of iconic vistas from regional haze and loss of fish from acid rain in the 1980s, the National Park Service (NPS) embraced an obligation to protect resources from threats originating outside park boundaries. Upholding the Organic Act requirement for parks to remain "unimpaired" for the enjoyment of future generations, and using the Clean Air Act statement that NPS has an “affirmative responsibility” to protect park resources, NPS has supported, and effectively used, research as a means to protect lands, waters, and vistas from a mostly unseen threat. Using visibility and atmospheric nitrogen deposition as examples, we will illustrate some success stories where NPS led the way to benefit not only parks, but the Nation.

  15. The role of international development strategies in making regional development policies: Hokkaido as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Saunavaara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available During the past decades, national governments and international institutions have both searched for ways to equalise disparities and revitalise lagging regions. Although ideas and examples of the most effective ways to achieve these goals originate in various places, their influence is inclined to permeate elsewhere. Therefore, the processes involved in policy transfers are highly relevant from the perspective of regional development. This study approaches these processes through the case study of post-war Hokkaido and pays special attention to the role of three international development strategies: the Tennessee Valley Authority model, the Growth Pole Theory and the Industrial Cluster Theory. As a result, this research shows the wide variety of agents involved in policy transfer, analyses the processes of incorporating exogenous ideas into regional development polices and demonstrates the variety of sources from which different agents can draw lessons.

  16. Beyond the Community Method: Why the Open Method of Coordination Was Introduced to EU Policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Schäfer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the introduction of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC to EU policy-making. This new mode of governance has been developed over the last decade and has received considerable attention in the literature. However, much of this writing fails to put the OMC into the broader context of EMU; in contrast, this paper links the Amsterdam employment title to the prior Maastricht decision to form a monetary union. It seeks to contribute to the literature on European integration in two ways: First, this paper offers three refinements to Pierson's historical institutionalist account of European integration. Second, it thus provides an alternative to functional explanations of the OMC. In brief the argument is that a conservative-liberal coalition at Maastricht created hard law in fiscal and monetary policy to constrain its successors, while the social democratic majority at Amsterdam relied on soft law to promote its goals in employment and social policy. While the former effectively limited later policy-choices, the latter largely avoids sovereignty losses for national governments. The contents of the Employment Title were determined by EMU, its form the OMC by social democratic reluctance to transfer power to the EU.

  17. Beyond the Community Method: Why the Open Method of Coordination Was Introduced to EU Policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Schäfer

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper looks at the introduction of the Open Method of Coordination (OMC to EU policy-making. This new mode of governance has been developed over the last decade and has received considerable attention in the literature. However, much of this writing fails to put the OMC into the broader context of EMU; in contrast, this paper links the Amsterdam employment title to the prior Maastricht decision to form a monetary union. It seeks to contribute to the literature on European integration in two ways: First, this paper offers three refinements to Pierson's historical institutionalist account of European integration. Second, it thus provides an alternative to functional explanations of the OMC. In brief the argument is that a conservative-liberal coalition at Maastricht created hard law in fiscal and monetary policy to constrain its successors, while the social democratic majority at Amsterdam relied on soft law to promote its goals in employment and social policy. While the former effectively limited later policy-choices, the latter largely avoids sovereignty losses for national governments. The contents of the Employment Title were determined by EMU, its form – the OMC – by social democratic reluctance to transfer power to the EU.

  18. The challenge of contributing to policy making in primary care: the gendered experiences and strategies of nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Alison

    2010-11-01

    This paper explores nurses' experiences as members of primary care organisations set up to develop and commission health services for local communities. Nurses, alongside GPs and other health professionals, were given a place on the governing bodies (boards) of Local Health Groups - a move widely welcomed by the nursing profession as long overdue recognition of the important contribution nurses and nursing could bring to the policy arena. Nurse board members faced a number of challenges in their attempts to contribute to and influence local health policy. This ethnographic study (which involved non-participant observation of 33 board meetings and interviews with 29 board members including nurses) suggests that medical authority and control, and hierarchical power relations between doctors and nurses on the board, were seen by nurses as significant obstacles to their participation in this new policy arena. In response to their perceived lack of power and subordinate status, nurses employed a number of strategies to negotiate their participation as board members - these included 'getting it right', 'achieving the right balance', 'self-presentation' and 'unassertiveness'. These strategies reflected and reproduced gendered identities and relations of power and raise important questions regarding the influence of nurses and nursing within policy making. © 2010 The Author. Sociology of Health & Illness © 2010 Foundation for the Sociology of Health & Illness/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Whole grain foods and health – a Scandinavian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Frølich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The food-based dietary guidelines in the Scandinavian countries that recommend an intake of minimum 75 g whole grain per 10 MJ (2,388 kcal per day are mainly derived from prospective cohort studies where quantitative but little qualitative details are available on whole grain products. The objective of the current paper is to clarify possible differences in nutritional and health effects of the types of whole grain grown and consumed in the Scandinavian countries. A further objective is to substantiate how processing may influence the nutritional value and potential health effects of different whole grains and whole grain foods. The most commonly consumed whole grain cereals in the Scandinavian countries are wheat, rye, and oats with a considerable inter-country variation in the consumption patterns and with barley constituting only a minor role. The chemical composition of these different whole grains and thus the whole grain products consumed vary considerably with regard to the content of macro- and micronutrients and bioactive components. A considerable amount of scientific substantiation shows that processing methods of the whole grains are important for the physiological and health effects of the final whole grain products. Future research should consider the specific properties of each cereal and its processing methods to further identify the uniqueness and health potentials of whole grain products. This would enable the authorities to provide more specific food-based dietary guidelines in relation to whole grain to the benefit of both the food industry and the consumer.

  20. Local Energy Advising in Sweden: Historical Development and Lessons for Future Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are E. Kjeang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In Sweden, energy-consulting services, here referred to as local energy advising (LEA, have traditionally contributed to improving household energy efficiency. The aim of this article is to analyze the development of this service from the 1970s, when the consultancy came into being, to the present day, through a review of documents and published literature. The analysis enables the understanding of the evolution of local energy advising as a policy instrument, and provides valuable insights for the future. Local energy advising has often been subsidized by the Swedish government and used as a state policy measure rather than a municipal one. As a policy measure, the function of the service has changed over time. In the early period, the oil crisis was a fact and the local advisers were used to inform households. In the 1980s, however, the task of energy-advising was taken over by the energy companies in the spirit of market liberalization. In the 1990s, Sweden became a member of the European Union, and the emphasis was put on general information campaigns. Recently, the development of decentralized energy systems (including micro-energy systems has necessitated targeting individuals with information. One important lesson to learn from the historical development of LEA is the imperativeness of providing energy advising at the local rather than the state level for better efficiency.

  1. Legislating Weight Loss: Are Antiobesity Public Health Policies Making an Impact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essington, Malana; Hertelendy, Attila J

    2016-06-01

    Obesity affects America's children both in childhood and into their adult years. Unfortunately, a long history of public policy has done little to effectively reduce obesity among children. Federal programs including the National School Lunch Program, School Breakfast Program, and the School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children have proven to be less than effective in reducing obesity rates among school-aged children. Studies find that children participating in these programs are more likely to be overweight than their brown-bag peers while nutritional targets are missed. Various iterations of school-based nutrition programs have proven to be ineffective and wasteful, yet policy leaders continue to consume tax dollars with their implementation. Although strict guidelines for evaluating scientific evidence were historically used to ensure rigorous reviews were conducted, recent relaxation of those guidelines jeopardizes the integrity of the scientific platform. Consequently, recommendations that were once rooted in science may be less reliable due to a compromise of the scientific literature review process, and the conclusions drawn by the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee may be somewhat questionable. Public policy must be augmented by scientific evidence and any further obesity reduction initiatives must be well-grounded in research that has been rigorously reviewed and evaluated. Copyright © 2016 by Duke University Press.

  2. Optimising reverse logistics network to support policy-making in the case of Electrical and Electronic Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achillas, Ch; Vlachokostas, Ch; Aidonis, D; Moussiopoulos, N; Iakovou, E; Banias, G

    2010-12-01

    Due to the rapid growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) volumes, as well as the hazardousness of obsolete electr(on)ic goods, this type of waste is now recognised as a priority stream in the developed countries. Policy-making related to the development of the necessary infrastructure and the coordination of all relevant stakeholders is crucial for the efficient management and viability of individually collected waste. This paper presents a decision support tool for policy-makers and regulators to optimise electr(on)ic products' reverse logistics network. To that effect, a Mixed Integer Linear Programming mathematical model is formulated taking into account existing infrastructure of collection points and recycling facilities. The applicability of the developed model is demonstrated employing a real-world case study for the Region of Central Macedonia, Greece. The paper concludes with presenting relevant obtained managerial insights. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Through the looking glass: making the design and output of economic models useful for setting medical policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollendorf, Daniel A; Pearson, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    Economic modeling has rarely been considered to be an essential component of healthcare policy-making in the USA, due to a lack of transparency in model design and assumptions, as well as political interests that equate examination of cost with unfair rationing. The Institute for Clinical and Economic Review has been involved in several efforts to bring economic modeling into public discussion of the comparative value of healthcare interventions, efforts that have evolved over time to suit the needs of multiple public forums. In this article, we review these initiatives and present a template that attempts to 'unpack' model output and present the major drivers of outcomes and cost. We conclude with a series of recommendations for effective presentation of economic models to US policy-makers.

  4. Baltic Eye: Focusing on Science and Communication to Improve Policy Making for the Baltic Sea Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrackin, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    In order to better communicate relevant scientific knowledge to policy- and decision makers, Stockholm University and the Baltic Sea 2020 Foundation partnered to create Baltic Eye in 2014. Seven scientists and two communicators constitute the core team of this initiative. The team integrates communications with scientific analysis and synthesis of Baltic Sea environmental issues. In the past year, the team has focused on two main issues: fisheries management and microplastics. Baltic Sea cod stocks are in poor condition, with large numbers of small individuals. Baltic Eye recommended improvements to the European Union's multiannual fisheries plan to better align with ecosystem-based management principles: prioritization of cod stock recovery, greater consideration of natural variability of temperature and salinity (which affects cod spawning success), and inclusion of mechanisms to adjust quotas in the event of major environmental changes. Communications included policy briefs and debate articles targeted to the European Parliament, national government ministries, and non-governmental organizations. Every year, up to 40 tons of microplastics from personal care products are released in the Baltic Sea catchment. Baltic Eye raised awareness of the issue and made recommended ways to reduce microplastic emissions. Communications included a public presentation to journalists, politicians, and representatives of Swedish government ministries. A policy brief was provided Heads of Delegates of the Helsinki Commission (for protrection of the Baltic Sea environment) in advance of a meeting to develop a plan of action for marine litter. Researchers were interviewed for radio, TV, and print media in Sweden, Finland, and Germany. Next steps are to engage with multinational manufacturers about plans to voluntarily phase out microplastics in personal care products.

  5. How Can Data Drive Policy and Practice in Child Welfare? Making the Link in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallon, Barbara; Filippelli, Joanne; Black, Tara; Trocmé, Nico; Esposito, Tonino

    2017-10-14

    Formal university-child welfare partnerships offer a unique opportunity to begin to fill the gaps in the child welfare knowledge base and link child welfare services to the realities of practice. With resources from a knowledge mobilization grant, a formal partnership was developed between the University of Toronto, clinicians, policy analysts, and researchers from child welfare agencies across Ontario. The key objectives of the grant included: (1) enhancing the capacity of service providers to access and analyze child welfare data to inform service and policy decisions; (2) integrating clinical expertise in service and policy decisions; and (3) developing a joint research agenda addressing high-priority knowledge gaps. This partnership was an opportunity to advance the evidence base with respect to service provision in Ontario and to create a culture of knowledge and evidence that would eventually support more complex research initiatives. Administrative data was analyzed for this partnership through the Ontario Child Abuse and Neglect Data System (OCANDS)-the first child welfare data system in Ontario to track child welfare-involved children and their families. Child welfare agencies identified recurrence as an important priority and agency-driven analyses were subsequently conducted on OCANDS generated recurrence Service Performance Indicators (SPI's). Using an urgent versus chronic investigative taxonomy for analyses, findings revealed that the majority of cases did not recur within 12 months and cases identified as chronic needs are more likely to return to the attention of child welfare authorities. One of the key outcomes of the partnership - helping agencies to understand their administrative data is described, as are considerations for next steps for future partnerships and research.

  6. Women-friendly policy paradoxes?! Child Care policies and gender equality visions in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchorst, Anette

    2006-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the political construction of the equality-difference dilemma in Scandinavian welfare policies. Different policy logics of childcare policies in Sweden, Norway and Denmark are addressed and the visions of gender equality underpinning them are analyzed....

  7. Making it happen: the programme. Developing a gender policy with partner organisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ticehurst, S

    1996-10-01

    Oxfam staff in Latin America and partner women's organizations were brought together through the Women's Linking Project (WLP) Conference in Thailand to discuss gender. The presence of partner organizations and experts at the conference helped to overcome impasses on theory and provided a wealth of practical experiences. The WLP consultative methodology was introduced in El Salvador, with Oxfam establishing a consultative group to ensure a broad and representative input to the formulation of policy and practice. A number of key individuals and groups were the change agents through which Oxfam UK/Ireland developed a gender policy fitting to the Salvadoran context. Organizational strategy aimed to strengthen the autonomy, organization, and capacity of the women's movement; contribute to the struggle against violence against women; promote research on the situation and condition of women; train women's grassroots leaders; introduce a gender focus as a criteria for the formulation and selection of projects with both women's and mixed organizations; establish a permanent consultation mechanism with women's organizations; and work with other international agencies on gender issues.

  8. The plethora of publics and their participation in policy making: How can they properly participate?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnes, S.A.

    1995-07-01

    This paper examines the theoretical bases of publics and stakeholder participation in decision making, with special attention to mixed issues, including federal government actions such as remedial action programs and hazardous facility sitings. Empowerment associated with participation is addressed, focusing on differences between power and authority.

  9. Corporate social responsibility and policy making: what role does communication play?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, A.

    2007-01-01

    Communication is of central importance for business and public authorities to make substantial progress on the sustainability ladder. Corporate social responsibility (CSR) is about the contribution of business to sustainability, and stakeholder theory is an integral concept of CSR. The literature

  10. A Scandinavian Public Transport Model? Reform Changes in Denmark, Sweden and Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Lisa; Lissandrello, Enza; Næss, Petter

    2017-01-01

    model of public transport. The findings are based on public documents, reform evaluations, and statistics. This is the first paper focusing on Scandinavian public transport systems and their governing models per se, taking into account the considerable reforms of the 2000s. The results provide......Scandinavian public transport, especially aspects of how the Scandinavian countries (i.e., Sweden, Denmark, and Norway) have created governing structures for a cohesive public transport system, is often cited positively in international research. Scandinavia is often treated as a homogeneous unit...... in public transport research, which sometimes refers to the “Scandinavian model of public transport”. It is not uncommon for conclusions regarding Scandinavian countries to be based on analyses of just one country. Is there actually such a thing as a Scandinavian model of public transport? All around Europe...

  11. Data policy and availability supporting global change research, development, and decision-making: An information perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Bonnie C.; Jack, Robert F.; Cotter, Gladys A.

    1990-01-01

    An explosion of information has created a crisis for today's information age. It has to be determined how to use the best available information sources, tools, and technology. To do this it is necessary to have leadership at the interagency level to promote a coherent information policy. It is also important to find ways to educate the users of information regarding the tools available to them. Advances in technology resulted in efforts to shift from Disciplinary and Mission-oriented Systems to Decision Support Systems and Personalized Information Systems. One such effort is being made by the Interagency Working Group on Data Management for Global Change (IAWGDMGC). Five federal agencies - the Department of Commerce (DOC), Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Library of Medicine (NLM), and Department of Defense (DOD) - have an on-going cooperative information management group, CENDI (Commerce, Energy, NASA, NLM, and Defense Information), that is meeting the challenge of coordinating and integrating their information management systems. Although it is beginning to be technically feasible to have a system with text, bibliographic, and numeric data online for the user to manipulate at the user's own workstation, it will require national recognition that the resource investment in such a system is worthwhile, in order to promote its full development. It also requires close cooperation between the producers and users of the information - that is, the research and policy community, and the information community. National resources need to be mobilized in a coordinated manner to move people into the next generation of information support systems.

  12. Making Longevity in an Aging Society: Linking Medicare policy and the new ethical field

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufman, Sharon R.

    2010-01-01

    Life-extending interventions for older persons are changing medical knowledge and societal expectations about longevity. Today’s consciousness about growing older is partly shaped by a new form of ethics, constituted by and enabled through the routines and institutions that comprise ordinary clinical care. Unlike bioethics, whose emphasis is on clinical decision-making in individual situations, this new form of ethics is exceptionally diffuse and can be characterized as an ethical field. It i...

  13. Corporate coalitions and policy making in the European Union: how and why British American Tobacco promoted "Better Regulation".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Katherine Elizabeth; Fooks, Gary; Gilmore, Anna B; Collin, Jeff; Weishaar, Heide

    2015-04-01

    Over the past fifteen years, an interconnected set of regulatory reforms, known as Better Regulation, has been adopted across Europe, marking a significant shift in the way that European Union policies are developed. There has been little exploration of the origins of these reforms, which include mandatory ex ante impact assessment. Drawing on documentary and interview data, this article discusses how and why large corporations, notably British American Tobacco (BAT), worked to influence and promote these reforms. Our analysis highlights (1) how policy entrepreneurs with sufficient resources (such as large corporations) can shape the membership and direction of advocacy coalitions; (2) the extent to which "think tanks" may be prepared to lobby on behalf of commercial clients; and (3) why regulated industries (including tobacco) may favor the use of "evidence tools," such as impact assessments, in policy making. We argue that a key aspect of BAT's ability to shape regulatory reform involved the deliberate construction of a vaguely defined idea that could be strategically adapted to appeal to diverse constituencies. We discuss the theoretical implications of this finding for the Advocacy Coalition Framework, as well as the practical implications of the findings for efforts to promote transparency and public health in the European Union. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  14. A Drought Cyberinfrastructure System for Improving Water Resource Management and Policy Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    AghaKouchak, Amir

    2015-04-01

    Development of reliable monitoring and prediction indices and tools are fundamental to drought preparedness, management, and response decision making. This presentation provides an overview of the Global Integrated Drought Monitoring and Prediction System (GIDMaPS) which offers near real-time drought information using both remote sensing observations and model simulations. Designed as a cyberinfrastructure system, GIDMaPS provides drought information based on a wide range of model simulations and satellite observations from different space agencies. Numerous indices have been developed for drought monitoring based on various indicator variables (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture, water storage). Defining droughts based on a single variable (e.g., precipitation, soil moisture or runoff) may not be sufficient for reliable risk assessment and decision making. GIDMaPS provides drought information based on multiple indices including Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) and the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI) which combines SPI and SSI probabilistically. In other words, MSDI incorporates the meteorological and agricultural drought conditions for overall characterization of droughts, and better management and distribution of water resources among and across different users. The seasonal prediction component of GIDMaPS is based on a persistence model which requires historical data and near-past observations. The seasonal drought prediction component is designed to provide drought information for water resource management, and short-term decision making. In this presentation, both monitoring and prediction components of GIDMaPS will be discussed, and the results from several major droughts including the 2013 Namibia, 2012-2013 United States, 2011-2012 Horn of Africa, and 2010 Amazon Droughts will be presented. The presentation will highlight how this drought cyberinfrastructure system can be used to improve water

  15. Participation and coordination in Dutch health care policy-making. A network analysis of the system of intermediate organizations in Dutch health care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamping, A.J.; Raab, J.; Kenis, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the system of intermediate organizations in Dutch health care as the crucial system to understand health care policy-making in the Netherlands. We argue that the Dutch health care system can be understood as a system consisting of distinct but inter-related policy domains. In

  16. An analytical understanding of how external sources inform and impact upon Somaliland’s national education and teacher education policy making processes

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Hassan Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. This thesis investigates how external sources inform and impact Somaliland’s national teacher education policy making processes. In this research, external factor is mainly constituted by INGOs that are helping Somaliland’s education and teacher education re-construction which are considered to be part of wider global-national interactions. The conceptual frameworks of policy making process...

  17. [The role of science in policy making--EuSANH-ISA project, framework for science advice for health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciara, Dorota; Piotrowicz, Maria; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena; Wysocki, Mirosław J

    2012-01-01

    Governments and other authorities (including MPs) should be well informed on issues of science and technology. This is particularly important in the era of evidence-based practice. This implies the need to get expert advice. The process by which scientific knowledge is transmitted, along with proposals how to solve the problem, is called science advice. The main aim of the article is to discuss the issue of science advice--definitions, interaction between science and policymaking, and its position in contemporary policies. The second aim is to present European Science Advisory Network for Health (EuSANH), EuSANH-ISA project, and framework for science advice for health which was developed by participants. Furthermore, the role of civil society in decision-making process and science advice is also discussed. Interaction between scientists and policy-makers are described in terms of science-push approach (technocratic model), policy-pull (decisionistic) and simultaneous push-pull approach (pragmatic). The position of science advice is described in historical perspective from the 50s, especially in the last two decades. Description relies to USA, Canada and UK. Principles of scientific advice to government (Government Office for Science, UK) are quoted. Some important documents related to science advice in EU and UN are mentioned. EuSANH network is described as well as EuSANH-ISA project, with its objectives and outcomes. According to findings of this project, the process of science advice for health should follow some steps: framing the issue to be covered; planning entire process leading to the conclusion; drafting the report; reviewing the report and revision; publishing report and assessing the impact on policy.

  18. Assessment of policy makers' individual and organizational capacity to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for maternal and child health policy making in Nigeria: a cross-sectional quantitative survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Sombie, Issiaka; Keita, Namoudou; Lokossou, Virgil; Johnson, Ermel; Ongolo-Zogo, Pierre; Uro-Chukwu, Henry Chukwuemeka

    2017-09-01

    Throughout the world, there is increasing awareness and acknowledgement of the value of research evidence in the development of effective health policy and in quality health care practice and administration. Among the major challenges associated with the lack of uptake of research evidence into policy and practice in Nigeria is the capacity constraints of policymakers to use research evidence in policy making. To assess the capacity of maternal and child health policy makers to acquire, access, adapt and apply available research evidence. This cross-sectional quantitative survey was conducted at a national maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) stakeholders' engagement event. An evidence to policy self-assessment questionnaire was used to assess the capacity of forty MNCH policy makers to acquire, assess, adapt and apply research evidence for policy making. Low mean ratings were observed ranging from 2.68-3.53 on a scale of 5 for knowledge about initiating/conducting research and capacity to assess authenticity, validity, reliability, relevance and applicability of research evidence and for organizational capacity for promoting and using of research for policy making. There is need to institute policy makers' capacity development programmes to improve evidence-informed policymaking.

  19. Framework for Informed Policy Making Using Data from National Environmental Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, B.; Taylor, J. R.; Poinsatte, J.

    2012-12-01

    Large-scale environmental changes pose challenges that straddle environmental, economic, and social boundaries. As we design and implement climate adaptation strategies at the Federal, state, local, and tribal levels, accessible and usable data are essential for implementing actions that are informed by the best available information. Data-intensive science has been heralded as an enabler for scientific breakthroughs powered by advanced computing capabilities and interoperable data systems. Those same capabilities can be applied to data and information systems that facilitate the transformation of data into highly processed products. At the interface of scientifically informed public policy and data intensive science lies the potential for producers of credible, integrated, multi-scalar environmental data like the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and its partners to capitalize on data and informatics interoperability initiatives that enable the integration of environmental data from across credible data sources. NSF's large-scale environmental observatories such as NEON and the Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) are designed to provide high-quality, long-term environmental data for research. These data are also meant to be repurposed for operational needs that like risk management, vulnerability assessments, resource management, and others. The proposed USDA Agriculture Research Service (ARS) Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) network is another example of such an environmental observatory that will produce credible data for environmental / agricultural forecasting and informing policy. To facilitate data fusion across observatories, there is a growing call for observation systems to more closely coordinate and standardize how variables are measured. Together with observation standards, cyberinfrastructure standards enable the proliferation of an ecosystem of applications that utilize diverse, high-quality, credible data. Interoperability

  20. Making policy decisions about population screening for breast cancer: the role of citizens' deliberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Charlotte; Nicholls, Rachel; Priest, Patricia; McGee, Rob

    2008-03-01

    To test a method of assessing whether a community of interest - when well informed - would be prepared to support or reject a public policy decision about cancer screening. In particular, whether the New Zealand government should offer free mammography screening to all women aged 40-49 years. Eleven women aged from 40 to 49 years, randomly selected from the electoral roll, agreed to participate in trial of a citizens' jury: a deliberative method of gathering the views of the public. Only selected aspects of the jury method were trialled. Participants met over a day and a half to hear evidence from expert witnesses with differing views and to deliberate the verdict. All but one woman changed their minds during the jury process, and voted against government provision of mammography screening in this age group. The main reasons reported were the inaccuracy of the test and the potential for harm, and the lack of firm evidence of saving lives in this age group. A deliberative 'citizens' jury' approach is a feasible way of eliciting a well informed, considered community view about screening or other population health initiatives. Pro-screening views of affected populations may change when individuals are given accurate information and enabled to deliberate about benefits and harms. This method could be used to determine how complex benefits and harms are weighed by affected populations, particularly where experts and advocacy groups disagree.

  1. Require safer substitutes and solutions: making the substitution principle the cornerstone of sustainable chemical policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Beverley; Rossi, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Currently, chemical regulations in the United States do not prioritize the production and use of inherently safe chemicals. At present, when regulations get passed to target a chemical for control, safer substitutes are not the goal nor are there specific guidelines or tools used to achieve Green Chemistry, Clean Production, or sustainable product design. In most cases, the replacement is often just as hazardous or simply a reduction of the quantity or concentration of the toxic substance that has been targeted. In contrast, by placing the Substitution Principle at the heart of new chemical policies and regulations, hazardous chemicals would be replaced with less hazardous alternatives or preferably alternatives for which no hazards can be identified. This would hasten the uptake of Green Chemistry, or environmentally benign chemical synthesis. Substituting hazardous chemicals goes beyond finding a drop-in chemical alternative and can include systems, materials or process changes. Regulatory drivers include a clear timeline for phase out of priority chemicals based on their inherent hazard, mandatory substitution planning for hazardous chemicals, financial and technical support for companies to find safer materials, and increased funding for green chemistry development and uptake by companies.

  2. Rapid molecular TB diagnosis: evidence, policy making and global implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Karin; Mirzayev, Fuad; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Van Gemert, Wayne; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Zignol, Matteo; Floyd, Katherine; Centis, Rosella; Cirillo, Daniela M; Tortoli, Enrico; Gilpin, Chris; de Dieu Iragena, Jean; Falzon, Dennis; Raviglione, Mario

    2013-07-01

    If tuberculosis (TB) is to be eliminated as a global health problem in the foreseeable future, improved detection of patients, earlier diagnosis and timely identification of rifampicin resistance will be critical. New diagnostics released in recent years have improved this perspective but they require investments in laboratory infrastructure, biosafety and staff specialisation beyond the means of many resource-constrained settings where most patients live. Xpert MTB/RIF, a new assay employing automated nucleic acid amplification to detect Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as well as mutations that confer rifampicin resistance, holds the promise to largely overcome these operational challenges. In this article we position Xpert MTB/RIF in today's TB diagnostic landscape and describe its additional potential as an adjunct to surveillance and surveys, taking into account considerations of pricing and ethics. In what could serve as a model for the future formulation of new policy on diagnostics, we trace the unique process by which the World Health Organization consulted international expertise and systematically assessed published evidence and freshly emerging experience from the field ahead of its endorsement of the Xpert MTB/RIF technology in 2010, summarise subsequent research findings and guidance on who to test and how, and provide perspectives on scaling up the new technology.

  3. Making the case for human rights in global health education, research and policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    If the 2010 CPHA conference is a bellwether of mainstream Canadian public and global health practice, its dearth of human rights papers suggests that, outside a small scholarly cohort, human rights remain marginal therein. This potential 'rights gap' conflicts with growing recognition of the relationship between health and human rights and ergo, the importance of human rights education for health professionals. This gap not only places Canadian health research outside the growing vanguard of academic research on health and human rights, but also ignores a potentially influential tool for achieving health equity. I suggest that human rights make a distinctive contribution to such efforts not replicated within other social justice and equity approaches, making human rights education a crucial complement to other ethical training. These contributions are evident in the normative specificity of the right to health in international law and its legally binding nature, in the success of litigation, the successful advocacy for AIDS treatment and the growing adoption of rights-based approaches to health. Canadian academic and research institutions should take up their rightful place within health and human rights research, education and practice globally, including by ramping up human rights-oriented education for health professionals within Canadian universities.

  4. Clustering of affective categories in Scandinavian and Romance languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauciuc, Gabriela-Alina

    communication), this study focuses on levels and patterns of categorization in the domain of affectivity. Cross-cultural comparable data collected in several Romance (Spanish, Italian, Romanian) and Scandinavian (Danish, Swedish, Norwegian) languages with the help of a series of experiments inspired by Fehr...... categorizations in the 6 languages, with the Romance languages and Norwegian having 2, and Danish and Swedish only 1. Special attention is devoted, not as much to frequency of mention, order of mention and indexes of salience - parameters that are usually discussed in categorization and cultural domain studies...

  5. Methods and validity of dietary assessments in four Scandinavian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, S; Wiggins, H S; Englyst, H

    1982-01-01

    the survey, thereby implying that dietary habits had not changed as a result of the investigative technique. It is concluded that the dietary data are indicative of current patterns of food consumption and are sufficiently valid for comparison with data on cancer risk in the 4 areas.......Average intakes of nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber), foods, and nutrients were measured in representative samples of 30 men aged 50-59 in 4 Scandinavian populations with a 3-4 fold difference in risk for large bowel cancer. The assessment technique, a 4-day weighed record of food consumed...

  6. Scandinavian clinical practice guidelines on general anaesthesia for emergency situations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard Jensen, Anders; Callesen, T; Hagemo, J S

    2010-01-01

    Emergency patients need special considerations and the number and severity of complications from general anaesthesia can be higher than during scheduled procedures. Guidelines are therefore needed. The Clinical Practice Committee of the Scandinavian Society of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care...... influence on intubation conditions, and should be chosen on other grounds. Ketamine should be considered in haemodynamically compromised patients. Opioids may be used to reduce the stress response following intubation. For optimal intubation conditions, succinylcholine 1-1.5 mg/kg is preferred. Outside...

  7. Methods and validity of dietary assessments in four Scandinavian populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bingham, S; Wiggins, H S; Englyst, H

    1982-01-01

    Average intakes of nonstarch polysaccharides (dietary fiber), foods, and nutrients were measured in representative samples of 30 men aged 50-59 in 4 Scandinavian populations with a 3-4 fold difference in risk for large bowel cancer. The assessment technique, a 4-day weighed record of food consume...... the survey, thereby implying that dietary habits had not changed as a result of the investigative technique. It is concluded that the dietary data are indicative of current patterns of food consumption and are sufficiently valid for comparison with data on cancer risk in the 4 areas....

  8. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, J; Hietanen, J

    2012-01-01

    as new approaches, treatments and diagnostic possibilities develop. Likewise, the role of the dentist in the community changes and may vary in different countries. As members of the Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine and subject representatives of oral pathology and oral...... medicine, we feel obliged to contribute to the discussion of how the guidelines of the dental curriculum support the highest possible standards of dental education. This article is meant to delineate a reasonable standard of oral pathology and oral medicine in the European dental curriculum and to guide...... subject representatives in curriculum development and planning. We have created an advisory topic list in oral pathology and oral medicine....

  9. Proceedings of the 39th Scandinavian Symposium on Physical Acoustics

    CERN Document Server

    Viggen, Erlend Magnus

    2016-01-01

    The 39th Scandinavian Symposium on Physical Acoustics was held at Geilo, Norway from January 31 to February 3, 2016. It was arranged by the Acoustics and Optics group of the Norwegian Physical Society, and was coordinated by Ulf Kristiansen and Erlend Magnus Viggen. This year, there were 48 participants, holding a total of 31 presentations on various topics in physical acoustics, such as ultrasonics, underwater sound propagation, waves in solids, flow acoustics, and sonar. After the conference, 9 of these presentations were submitted as papers to these proceedings.

  10. Aerobic exercise capacity at sea level and at altitude in Kenyan boys, junior and senior runners compared with Scandinavian runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltin, B; Larsen, H; Terrados, N; Bangsbo, J; Bak, T; Kim, C K; Svedenhag, J; Rolf, C J

    1995-08-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize Kenyan runners in regard to their oxygen uptake and blood and ammonia responses when running. Untrained Kenyan boys (14.2 +/- 0.2 years) and Scandinavian runners were included for comparison. The studies were performed at altitude (approximately 2.000 m.a.s.l.) and, for several Kenyan and Scandinavian runners, at sea level as well. At altitude sedentary adolescent Kenyan boys had a mean maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) of 47 (44-51) ml.kg-1.min-1, whereas similarly aged boys regularly walking or running but not training for competition reached above 62 (58-71) ml.kg-1.min-1 in VO2max. Kenyan runners in active training had 68 +/- 1.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 at altitude and 79.9 +/- 1.4 ml.kg-1.min-1 at sea level, with individuals reaching 85 ml.kg-1.min-1. The best Scandinavian runners were not significantly different from the Kenyan runners in VO2max both at altitude and at sea level, but none of the Scandinavians reached as high individual values as observed for some Kenyan runners. The running efficiency, determined as the oxygen cost at a given running speed, was less in the Kenyan runners, and the difference became more pronounced when body weight was expressed in ml.kg-0.75 min-1. Blood lactate concentration was in general lower in the Kenyan than in the Scandinavian runners, and the Kenyans also had extremely low ammonia accumulation in the blood even at very high exercise intensities. It is concluded that it is the physical activity during childhood, combined with intense training as teenagers that brings about the high VO2max observed in some Kenyan runners. Their high aerobic capacity, as well as their good running economy, makes them such superior runners. In addition, their low blood lactate and ammonia accumulation in blood when running may also be contributing factors.

  11. Supporting Building Portfolio Investment and Policy Decision Making through an Integrated Building Utility Data Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Azizan [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lasternas, Bertrand [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Alschuler, Elena [US DOE; View Inc; Loftness, Vivian [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Haopeng [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Mo, Yunjeong [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Wang, Ting [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Zhang, Chenlu [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sharma, Shilpi [Carnegie Mellon; Stevens, Ivana [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-03-18

    The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act stimulus funding of 2009 for smart grid projects resulted in the tripling of smart meters deployment. In 2012, the Green Button initiative provided utility customers with access to their real-time1 energy usage. The availability of finely granular data provides an enormous potential for energy data analytics and energy benchmarking. The sheer volume of time-series utility data from a large number of buildings also poses challenges in data collection, quality control, and database management for rigorous and meaningful analyses. In this paper, we will describe a building portfolio-level data analytics tool for operational optimization, business investment and policy assessment using 15-minute to monthly intervals utility data. The analytics tool is developed on top of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Standard Energy Efficiency Data (SEED) platform, an open source software application that manages energy performance data of large groups of buildings. To support the significantly large volume of granular interval data, we integrated a parallel time-series database to the existing relational database. The time-series database improves on the current utility data input, focusing on real-time data collection, storage, analytics and data quality control. The fully integrated data platform supports APIs for utility apps development by third party software developers. These apps will provide actionable intelligence for building owners and facilities managers. Unlike a commercial system, this platform is an open source platform funded by the U.S. Government, accessible to the public, researchers and other developers, to support initiatives in reducing building energy consumption.

  12. The for-profit sector in humanitarian response: integrating ethical considerations in public policy decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckel Schneider, Carmen; Negin, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The engagement of the for-profit private sector in health, social and humanitarian services has become a topic of keen interest. It is particularly contentious in those instances where for-profit organizations have become recipients of public funds, and where they become key decision-makers in terms of how, and to whom, services are provided. We put forward a framework for identifying and organizing the ethical questions to be considered when contracting government services to the for-profit sector, specifically in those areas that have traditionally remained in the public or not-for-profit spheres. The framework is designed to inform both academic debate and practical decision-making regarding the acceptability, feasibility and legitimacy of for-profit organizations carrying out humanitarian work. First, we outline the importance of posing ethical questions in government contracting for-profit vs. not-for-profit organizations. We then outline five key areas to be considered before then examining the extent to which ethics concerns are warranted and how they may be safeguarded.

  13. Influence of Policy Making in the Profitability of Forage Production Irrigated with Reclaimed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Pino Palacios-Diaz

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The limited availability of water at low prices and the current scheme for specific supply arrangements (SSA/REA, both determined at the political level, explain that the goal of being self-sufficient in terms of forage consumption is currently unattainable in the Canaries. The “PFORCA” Plan aims to counteract this reality and increase their level of self-sufficiency. The financial aid relating to the REA reduces the amount payable for the imported fodder (annual 83,000 t versus local product, which influences the decision making by farmers. According to calculations, performed by reusing the water instead of discharging, Maralfalfa production could be competitive against imports, being financially viable with water prices in a range of 0.20–0.30 €/m3 (prices perfectly acceptable for reclaimed water with low levels of treatment, but fulfilling requirements reuse of Spanish law, RD 1620/2007. The economic contribution of forage crops could represent the creation of 640 new jobs, the enhancement of land currently abandoned, plus an increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP of the archipelago on more than 23 million € (M€, product of the substitution of imports by local production. Also, it would help to save the REA’s aid (6 M€.

  14. From Binary Features to Elements: The Case of Scandinavian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tifrit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we show how the Contrastivist Hypothesis (Hall 2007, Dresher 2008 can be amended using Element Theory (KLV 1988; Angoujard 1997; Scheer 1999; Backley 2011 and Government Phonology (KLV 1990; Lowenstamm 1996; Scheer 2004. Given the richness of the phenomenology of Nordic languages, this family constitutes our testing ground. While one might expect five different hierarchies, given that Scandinavian languages are distinct languages, what we actually find is one unique hierarchy where the same features are used in the same order. However, if we want a full understanding of the Nordic phenomenology and if we maintain the hierarchy exactly as it is, two difficulties appear: the first one involves motivation, the second one naturalness. In order to overcome the two kinds of difficulties mentioned above, we aim to develop a representation of the obstruent inventory based on unary primes using Element Theory and Government Phonology. The results we get from this hierarchy cannot be considered independently from the syllabic structure. Therefore, we propose a rereading of the phenomenology of Nordic that connects the new elementary representations that we posit to the syllabic constraints. As a consequence, we explore new hypotheses concerning the phonological activity in Scandinavian languages.

  15. National Advisory Groups and their role in immunization policy-making processes in European countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohynek, H; Wichmann, O; D Ancona, F

    2013-12-01

    During the twenty-first century, the development of national immunization programmes (NIP) has matured into robust processes where evidence-based methodologies and frameworks have increasingly been adopted. A key role in the decision-making and recommending processes is played by National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups (NITAGs). In a survey performed among European Union member states, Norway and Iceland, in February 2013, 85% of the 27 responding countries reported having established a NITAG, and of these, 45% have formal frameworks in place for the systematic development of vaccination recommendations. Independent of whether a formal framework is in place, common key factors are addressed by all NITAGs and also in countries without NITAGs. The four main factors addressed by all were: disease burden in the country, severity of the disease, vaccine effectiveness or efficacy, and vaccine safety at population level. Mathematical modelling and cost-effectiveness analyses are still not common tools. Differences in the relative weighting of these key factors, differences in data or assumptions on country-specific key factors, and differences in existing vaccination systems and financing, are likely to be reasons for differences in NITAG recommendations, and eventually NIPs, across Europe. Even if harmonization of NIPs is presently not a reasonable aim, systematic reviews and the development of mathematical/economic models could be performed at supranational level, thus sharing resources and easing the present work-load of NITAGs. Nevertheless, it has been argued that harmonization would ease central purchase of vaccines, thus reducing the price and increasing access to new vaccines. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. The Border-making Policy of the European Union: Eastern Enlargement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lika Mkrtchyan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Having no internal borders, what is a border for the European Union (EU? Which criteria does this powerful organization pursue in its decision-making on further expansion: geographical, political, cultural, economic or all of these? What is the profi t of the Union in advancing its external borders to the east? And why to the east and not the south or west across the Atlantic? Does it still mean that there is the reason for enlarging eastward based on the geographical belonging to Europe? This paper discusses the expansion of the European Union to the east with the main focus on its political and economic aspects of integration. The fi rst part includes introduction to the concept of Europe, historic background about the formation of the united Europe in terms of geography, culture, politics and economy, juxtaposing opinions and viewpoints of different experts and political scientists on “what is Europe?” and what are the core issues of its enlargement. The second and third parts are dedicated to the advantages and disadvantages of European Integration for both parties concerned – the EU and the candidate/member state, in the case of the former having its own “demarcation policy” towards certain regions of the continent when it comes to unifi cation. And the fourth part is about the communication and miscommunication of the informative bodies of the European Union that are responsible for public awareness on any process that goes on within the European family. The lack of information results in the ignorance of citizens of European and partner countries, which, of course, refl ects on the further processes of expansion on the political level and cultural perception and mentality on the social level. The conclusion sums up the research, and the bibliography lists the books, articles, monographs and Internet sources used in the course of the study.

  17. What do we need to learn for policy decision-making on sexually transmitted infections prevention and treatment in Israel?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemtob, D; Zenilman, J M; Gandacu, D

    2012-09-01

    The rising trend of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) reported in several western countries has also affected Israel. To review epidemiological trends and to address additional issues needed for a wider overview on STIs in Israel, we analysed notified data on infectious syphilis, gonorrhoea, Chlamydia trachomatis and HIV/AIDS during 1998-2007, by age groups, and each available publication on STIs in Israel. The trend of each disease had a unique pattern, probably influenced by different screening procedures, case definition, mix of populations and better access to care for high-risk populations. Higher rates were found among patients aged 25-34 years. Rates found in different peak years for gonorrhoea, HIV, chlamydia and infectious syphilis reached 43.6, 18.9, 10.8 and 8.1 cases per 100,000 population, respectively. We compare trends to those of countries from World Health Organization (WHO) European Region and discuss interventions for subpopulations on which additional data are needed for evidence-based policy-making. Incidence rates of syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia and HIV/AIDS are still low in Israel. We propose additional components needed for a more comprehensive evidence-based policy on STIs.

  18. [Making progress in the use of health policies and practices informed by evidence: the Piripiri-Piauí experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Jorge Otávio Maia; Souza, Nathan Mendes

    2013-01-01

    Evidence-informed decision making (EIDM) can optimize health services and systems. EIDM involves defining problems, identifying measures to tackle them, assessing the quality of global and local evidence and translating it for the main stakeholders in line with social values and laws. Brazil encourages the use of EIDM in health policy in Piripiri, a municipality of 61,840 inhabitants in the country's poorest region, and launched Brazil's first Evidence Use in Health Care (NEv) center in 2010. The development and preliminary results of the NEv center are reported and its vision, composition, mandate, and activities are presented. The NEv center experience has the support of the Evidence-Informed Policy Network, the Latin American and Caribbean Center of Information on Health Sciences and federal and municipal governments. The decentralization of financing and the provision of healthcare services, the expansion of EIDM in management, and the local political context illustrate the progress of the experiment. Its activities include the production and dissemination of deliberative briefs and dialogues with opinion shapers, workers and health service users. Monitoring and evaluation are underway and the results will help to broaden the scale of activities in Brazil and abroad.

  19. Object shift in the Scandinavian languages : syntax, information structure, and intonation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosono, Mayumi

    2013-01-01

    The thesis discusses Object Shift, weak pronoun shift in the Scandinavian languages, from the intonational perspective, by presenting experimental data from all the Scandinavian languages. It is shown that downstep typically occurs in the Object Shift construction but does not occur in the

  20. Is gastronomy a new tourism lure of Scandinavian countries? : An exploratory study on Chinese tourists

    OpenAIRE

    Xin, Jin

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study initially attempts to generate basic understanding regarding how do Chinese tourists evaluate the importance of Scandinavian gastronomies when holidaying the countries. And it further judge the states could whether implement gastronomical development strategy. Additionally, the study generally explores Chinese tourists’ food behavior, motivation and preference in a culturally different environment when holidaying in Scandinavian countries. The study also provides a deta...

  1. "Folkbildning" through Hip-Hop: How the Ideals of Three Rappers Parallel a Scandinavian Educational Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderman, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to show how the rappers' talk about hip-hop and its connection to pedagogy and social activism parallel the Scandinavian tradition of folkbildning. Scandinavian folkbildning can be seen as a movement to provide voluntary education for the general population. It can also be the name of the process of learning in which…

  2. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness among 9980 Scandinavian adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hesgaard, Helena; Vinding, Troels; La Cour, Morten

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the age-specific prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in an epidemiologic study of an adult Scandinavian population.......To investigate the age-specific prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in an epidemiologic study of an adult Scandinavian population....

  3. Writing in the literacy era: Scandinavian teachers’ notions of writing in mother tongue education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Abstract This study is part of a Scandinavian research project, Nordfag.net, that investigates Scandinavian mother tongue teachers’ didactic profiles and conceptions of the mother tongue education (MTE) subject through an ethnographic approach. The purpose of the present study is to discuss...

  4. The impact of political institution and structure on health policy making and implementation: Nigeria as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewole, D A

    2015-03-01

    Typical of the political structure of the United States of America, Nigeria operates a federal presidential system of government. Political power is shared between the three levels of Federal, State and the Local Governments. The political affairs of the country at these levels are determined by elected politicians from different political parties, with different political and developmental ideologies. This scenario has implications on policy making and implementation especially in the health sector. This paper sought to discuss the type of political structures and institutions and, the effect of these on health policy implementation in selected countries, with emphasis on Nigeria. CURRENT STATUS OF FINANCING HEALTH CARE: The National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) was launched almost a decade ago but currently covers an estimated four percent of the population, majority of which are in the formal sector. The poor coverage of the scheme in Nigeria has been attributed to the type of political institution and structure it operates. This is evident with examples of some countries in the world; whereas, the scheme in Nigeria was implemented almost at the same time like in neighbouring Ghana, the scheme in Ghana has made a considerable progress. Likewise, prepayment scheme for health in Britain has been in practice for decades, the U.S.A. is just currently making progress in the implementation of a nationwide prepayment scheme despite several years of efforts. It is important to note that Nigeria and the U.S.A. has similar political institution and structure different from what Ghana and Britain have in common. The current low level of coverage of the NHIS in Nigeria is largely due to the type of adopted political institution and structure. The implications of this on the health status of the people and national development cannot be overemphasized.

  5. Water Quality and Quantity Modeling for Hydrologic and Policy Decision Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubiano, J.; Giron, E.; Quintero, M.; O'Brien, R.

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a research project that elucidate the excesses of nitrogen and phosphorous using a spatial-temporal modeling approach. The project uses the approach of integrating biophysical and socio-economic knowledge to offer sound solution to multiple stakeholders within a watershed context. The aim is to promote rural development and solve environmental conflicts by focusing on the internalization of externalities derived from watershed management, triggering the transference of funding from urban to rural populations, making the city invest in environmental goods or services offered by rural environments. The integrated modeling is focused towards identifying causal relationships between land use and management on the one hand, and water quantity/quality and sedimentation downstream on the other. Estimation of the amount of contaminated sediments transported in the study area and its impact is also studied here. The soil runoff information within the study area is obtained considering the characteristics of erosion using a MUSLE model as a sub-model of SWAT model. Using regression analysis, mathematical relationships between rainfall and surface runoff and between land use or management practices and the measured nitrate and phosphate load are established. The methodology first integrates most of the key spatial information available for the site to facilitate envisioning different land use scenarios and their impacts upon water resources. Subsequently, selected alternatives scenarios regarding the identified externalities are analyzed using optimization models. Opportunities for and constraints to promoting co-operation among users are exposed with the aid of economic games in which more sustainable land use or management alternatives are suggested. Strategic alliances and collective action are promoted in order to implement those alternatives that are environmentally sound and economically feasible. Such options are supported by co

  6. A Qualitative Assessment of the Evidence Utilization for Health Policy-Making on the Basis of SUPPORT Tools in a Developing Country

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan Imani-Nasab

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background SUPPORT tools consist of 18 articles addressing the health policy-makers so that they can learn how to make evidence-informed health policies. These tools have been particularly recommended for developing countries. The present study tries to explain the process of evidence utilization for developing policy documents in the Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MoHME and to compare the findings with those of SUPPORT tools. Methods A qualitative research was conducted, using the framework analysis approach. Participants consisted of senior managers and technicians in MoHME. Purposeful sampling was done, with a maximum variety, for the selection of research participants: individuals having at least 5 years of experience in preparing evidence-based policy documents. Face-to-face interviews were conducted for data collection. As a guideline for the interviews, ‘the Utilization of Evidence in Policy Making Organizations’ procedure was used. The data were analyzed through the analysis of the framework method using MAXQDA 10 software. Results The participants acquired the research evidence in a topic-based form, and they were less likely to search on the basis of the evidence pyramid. To assess the quality of evidence, they did not use standard critical tools; to adapt the evidence and interventions with the local setting, they did not use the ideas and experiences of all stakeholders, and in preparing the evidence-based policy documents, they did not take into consideration the window of opportunity, did not refrain from using highly technical terms, did not write user-friendly summaries, and did not present alternative policy options. In order to develop health policies, however, they used the following innovations: attention to the financial burden of policy issues on the agenda, sensitivity analysis of the preferred policy option on the basis of technical, sociopolitical, and economic feasibility, advocacy from other

  7. Ending War and Making Peace in Scandinavia, 1814–1848

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Morten Nordhagen

    2016-01-01

    The Napoleonic wars had a tremendous impact on the Scandinavian countries. Political and social upheaval and economic disruption ensured that ending war was no straightforward or rapid process. For traumatized veterans and those who had lost a husband or father, war never quite ended, to say...... nothing of those who remained under military occupation even after the nominal conclusion of peace. Still, the parallel process of making peace after 1815 was quite remarkable in Scandinavia, as 300 years of bitter rivalry, enmity, and perpetual conflict rapidly gave way to reconciliation to a point where...... Scandinavian union was a more likely outcome than a future Scandinavian war....

  8. Insights into the Government’s Role in Food System Policy Making: Improving Access to Healthy, Local Food Alongside Other Priorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Jessica; Raine, Kim D.; Hanning, Rhona M.

    2012-01-01

    Government actors have an important role to play in creating healthy public policies and supportive environments to facilitate access to safe, affordable, nutritious food. The purpose of this research was to examine Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada) as a case study for “what works” with respect to facilitating access to healthy, local food through regional food system policy making. Policy and planning approaches were explored through multi-sectoral perspectives of: (a) the development and adoption of food policies as part of the comprehensive planning process; (b) barriers to food system planning; and (c) the role and motivation of the Region’s public health and planning departments in food system policy making. Forty-seven in-depth interviews with decision makers, experts in public health and planning, and local food system stakeholders provided rich insight into strategic government actions, as well as the local and historical context within which food system policies were developed. Grounded theory methods were used to identify key overarching themes including: “strategic positioning”, “partnerships” and “knowledge transfer” and related sub-themes (“aligned agendas”, “issue framing”, “visioning” and “legitimacy”). A conceptual framework to illustrate the process and features of food system policy making is presented and can be used as a starting point to engage multi-sectoral stakeholders in plans and actions to facilitate access to healthy food. PMID:23202834

  9. Insights into the Government’s Role in Food System Policy Making: Improving Access to Healthy, Local Food Alongside Other Priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim D. Raine

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Government actors have an important role to play in creating healthy public policies and supportive environments to facilitate access to safe, affordable, nutritious food. The purpose of this research was to examine Waterloo Region (Ontario, Canada as a case study for “what works” with respect to facilitating access to healthy, local food through regional food system policy making. Policy and planning approaches were explored through multi-sectoral perspectives of: (a the development and adoption of food policies as part of the comprehensive planning process; (b barriers to food system planning; and (c the role and motivation of the Region’s public health and planning departments in food system policy making. Forty-seven in-depth interviews with decision makers, experts in public health and planning, and local food system stakeholders provided rich insight into strategic government actions, as well as the local and historical context within which food system policies were developed. Grounded theory methods were used to identify key overarching themes including: “strategic positioning”, “partnerships” and “knowledge transfer” and related sub-themes (“aligned agendas”, “issue framing”, “visioning” and “legitimacy”. A conceptual framework to illustrate the process and features of food system policy making is presented and can be used as a starting point to  engage multi-sectoral stakeholders in plans and actions to facilitate access to healthy food.

  10. Considering economic analyses in the revision of the preventive vaccination law: a new direction for health policy-making in Japan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akazawa, Manabu; Yongue, Julia; Ikeda, Shunya; Satoh, Toshihiko

    2014-10-01

    Evidence of a significant vaccine policy shift can be witnessed not only in the number of new vaccines available in Japan but also in the way that vaccine policy is being formulated. In 2010, policy makers decided for the first time ever to commission economic analyses as a reference in their consideration of subsidy allocation. This research offers a first hand account of the recent changes in vaccine policies by examining the decision-making process from the perspective of the researchers commissioned to perform the economic evaluations. In order to understand the vaccine policy-making process, a review was made of all the documents that were distributed and discussed during the government committee meetings from February 2010 when the revision of the Preventive Vaccination Law was initially proposed to May 2012 when the final recommendations were made. Economic evaluations were conducted for seven vaccines under consideration in the routine immunization program (Haemophilus influenzae type b or Hib, pneumococcal disease for children and adults, human papillomavirus, varicella, mumps, and hepatitis B). All were cost-effective options, except the Hib and hepatitis B vaccines. Nonetheless, all the vaccines were recommended equally for inclusion in the routine immunization program. While it is significant that policy-makers decided to commission economic assessments at all, various issues remain regarding the influence of external pressure, the choice of evaluation methods and the implications of using cost-effectiveness analyses on the future of Japanese health policy-making. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Openness in participation, assessment, and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health: a review of literature and recent project results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjola, Mikko V; Tuomisto, Jouni T

    2011-06-16

    Issues of environment and environmental health involve multiple interests regarding e.g. political, societal, economical, and public concerns represented by different kinds of organizations and individuals. Not surprisingly, stakeholder and public participation has become a major issue in environmental and environmental health policy and assessment. The need for participation has been discussed and reasoned by many, including environmental legislators around the world. In principle, participation is generally considered as desirable and the focus of most scholars and practitioners is on carrying out participation, and making participation more effective. In practice also doubts regarding the effectiveness and importance of participation exist among policy makers, assessors, and public, leading even to undermining participatory practices in policy making and assessment.There are many possible purposes for participation, and different possible models of interaction between assessment and policy. A solid conceptual understanding of the interrelations between participation, assessment, and policy making is necessary in order to design and implement effective participatory practices. In this paper we ask, do current common conceptions of assessment, policy making and participation provide a sufficient framework for achieving effective participation? This question is addresses by reviewing the range of approaches to participation in assessment and policy making upon issues of environment and environmental health and some related insights from recent research projects, INTARESE and BENERIS.Openness, considered e.g. in terms of a) scope of participation, b) access to information, c) scope of contribution, d) timing of openness, and e) impact of contribution, provides a new perspective to the relationships between participation, assessment and policy making. Participation, assessment, and policy making form an inherently intertwined complex with interrelated objectives and

  12. Key factors that influence government policies and decision making about healthcare priorities: Lessons for the field of eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteford, Harvey; Weissman, Ruth Striegel

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, the demand for healthcare exceeds what individuals and governments are able to afford. Priority setting is therefore inevitable, and mental health services have often been given low priority in the decision-making process. Drawing on established economic criteria, and specifically the work of Philip Musgrove, key factors which influence government decision-making about health priorities are reviewed. These factors include the size of the health burden, the availability of cost-effective interventions to reduce the burden, whether private markets can provide the necessary treatment efficiently, whether there are "catastrophic costs" incurred in accessing treatment, whether negative externalities arise from not providing care, and if the "rule of rescue" applies. Beyond setting priorities for resource allocation, governments also become involved where there is a need for regulation to maintain quality in the delivery of healthcare. By providing field-specific examples for each factor, we illustrate how advocates in the eating disorder field may use evidence to inform government policy about resource allocation and regulation in support of individuals with an eating disorder. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Applying decision-making tools to national e-waste recycling policy: an example of Analytic Hierarchy Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hsu; Wen, Lihchyi; Tsai, Yue-Mi

    2010-05-01

    As policy making is in essence a process of discussion, decision-making tools have in many cases been proposed to resolve the differences of opinion among the different parties. In our project that sought to promote a country's performance in recycling, we used the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluate the possibilities and determine the priority of the addition of new mandatory recycled waste, also referred to as Due Recycled Wastes, from candidate waste appliances. The evaluation process started with the collection of data based on telephone interviews and field investigations to understand the behavior of consumers as well as their overall opinions regarding the disposal of certain waste appliances. With the data serving as background information, the research team then implemented the Analytic Hierarchy Process using the information that formed an incomplete hierarchy structure in order to determine the priority for recycling. Since the number of objects to be evaluated exceeded the number that the AHP researchers had suggested, we reclassified the objects into four groups and added one more level of pair-wise comparisons, which substantially reduced the inconsistency in the judgment of the AHP participants. The project was found to serve as a flexible and achievable application of AHP to the environmental policy-making process. In addition, based on the project's outcomes derived from the project as a whole, the research team drew conclusions regarding the government's need to take back 15 of the items evaluated, and suggested instruments that could be used or recycling regulations that could be changed in the future. Further analysis on the top three items recommended by the results of the evaluation for recycling, namely, Compact Disks, Cellular Phones and Computer Keyboards, was then conducted to clarify their concrete feasibility. After the trial period for recycling ordered by the Taiwan Environmental Protection Administration, only Computer

  14. Gender Equality a case study of Sweden : Gender Equality Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal.

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan, Tipu

    2010-01-01

    The paper analyses Gender Equality, Gender Equity and policies of combating inequality at workplace to make the society equal as a case study of Sweden. The aim of paper is see the gender equality, gender equity, discrimination against women at workplace and to describe the policies combating inequality in the welfare state of Sweden. This work highlights the gender equality in terms of institutionalizing gender equality, gender equity, gender and pay gap, parental leave, gender and the pensi...

  15. Cryptic population structuring in Scandinavian lynx: reply to Pamilo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorde, P E; Rueness, E K; Stenseth, N C; Jakobsen, K S

    2006-04-01

    In a recent Commentary in this journal, Pamilo (2004) criticized our analysis of the spatial genetic structure of the Eurasian lynx in Scandinavia (Rueness et al. 2003). The analyses uncovered a marked geographical differentiation along the Scandinavian peninsula with an apparent linear gradient in the north-south direction. We used computer simulations to check on the proposition that the observed geographical structure could have arisen by genetic drift and isolation by distance in the approximate 25 generations that have passed since the last bottleneck. Pamilo disapproved of our choice of population model and also how we compared the outcome of the simulations with data. As these issues should be of interest to a wider audience we discuss them in some detail.

  16. The Mediatization of Politics in Contemporary Scandinavian Film and Television

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2015-01-01

    The increased mediatization of society since 1960 has lead to a discussion of the mediatization of politics and the role of media for political debate and democracy. Habermas as early as 1962 discussed the rise and potential decline of the public sphere. The role of media in general was central...... in this debate, and the rise of the internet in modern societies has increased the analysis and theories of the mediatization of politics in theories of democracy and in media sociology. Audio–visual media and the new digital media have increased the visibility of all parts of private and public life and changed...... the relation between media, public figures and the citizen. In this article, I will discuss main positions in theories on the mediatization of politics. I will also discuss and analyse three types of film and television genres that reflect this mediatization of politics in Scandinavian film and television...

  17. Inbreeding and relatedness in Scandinavian grey wolves Canis lupus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellegren, H

    1999-01-01

    Management of small and threatened populations may require detailed knowledge about the genetic status of individuals and the genetic relatedness between individuals. I show here that individual heterozygosity at a set of 29 microsatellite loci correlates closely to the degree of inbreeding in a captive grey wolf population. Microsatellite allele sharing similarly correlates closely to known relatedness between pairs of individuals. Genotyping the same markers in a small (60-70 individuals) natural population of grey wolves in Sweden, low individual heterozygosities and high values of allele sharing between some animals were found. Since inbreeding depression has been documented in a captive grey wolf population of Scandinavian origin, the results point out an additional risk for the small Swedish wild population.

  18. Usability and Interaction Design - New Challenges for the Scandinavian Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Sundblad, Yngve

    2008-01-01

    , augmented reality, small interfaces, tangible interfaces, etc. are dramatically changing the nature of HCI (human-computer interaction). We witness the creation of ad hoc configurations of large and small user interfaces. The new interfaces are moveable and used in changing locations and contexts; different......Computer use and interaction possibilities are changing quickly, while use contexts and application types are radically broadening. Technology no longer consists of static tools belonging only to the workplace but permeates work on the move, homes and everyday lives. Pervasive technologies...... understanding of usability and interaction design. In particular, we discuss how the Scandinavian tradition of user involvement in development is facing up with the challenges of new work and of non-work contexts. There is a tendency that much recent investigations into non-work settings get stuck in a divide...

  19. Thrombolytic treatment for stroke in the Scandinavian countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slot, K.B.; Murray, V.; Boysen, G.

    2009-01-01

    (85%) felt that its risks were acceptable. Main barriers were: unawareness of stroke symptoms among patients (82%) and their failure to respond adequately (54%); ambulance services not triaging acute stroke as urgent (23%); and insufficient in-hospital routines (15%). The respondents suggested......Objective - We wanted to describe the use of thrombolytic treatment for stroke in Scandinavia, to assess stroke doctors' opinions on this treatment, to identify barriers against treatment, and to suggest improvements to overcome these barriers. Methods - We sent questionnaires to 493 Scandinavian...... doctors, who were involved in acute stroke care. Results - We received 453 (92%) completed questionnaires. Overall, 1.9% (range per hospital 0-13.9%) of patients received thrombolytic treatment. A majority (94%) of the respondents was convinced of the beneficial effects of thrombolytic treatment and many...

  20. Sarcoptic mange in the Scandinavian wolf Canis lupus population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Boris; Zimmermann, Barbara; Wabakken, Petter; Bornstein, Set; Månsson, Johan; Evans, Alina L; Liberg, Olof; Sand, Håkan; Kindberg, Jonas; Ågren, Erik O; Arnemo, Jon M

    2016-07-27

    Sarcoptic mange, a parasitic disease caused by the mite Sarcoptes scabiei, is regularly reported on wolves Canis lupus in Scandinavia. We describe the distribution and transmission of this parasite within the small but recovering wolf population by analysing 269 necropsy reports and performing a serological survey on 198 serum samples collected from free-ranging wolves between 1998 and 2013. The serological survey among 145 individual captured Scandinavian wolves (53 recaptures) shows a consistent presence of antibodies against sarcoptic mange. Seropositivity among all captured wolves was 10.1 % (CI. 6.4 %-15.1 %). Sarcoptic mange-related mortality reported at necropsy was 5.6 % and due to secondary causes, predominantly starvation. In the southern range of the population, seroprevalence was higher, consistent with higher red fox densities. Female wolves had a lower probability of being seropositive than males, but for both sexes the probability increased with pack size. Recaptured individuals changing from seropositive to seronegative suggest recovery from sarcoptic mange. The lack of seropositive pups (8-10 months, N = 56) and the occurrence of seropositive and seronegative individuals in the same pack indicates interspecific transmission of S. scabiei into this wolf population. We consider sarcoptic mange to have little effect on the recovery of the Scandinavian wolf population. Heterogenic infection patterns on the pack level in combination with the importance of individual-based factors (sex, pack size) and the north-south gradient for seroprevalence suggests low probability of wolf-to-wolf transmission of S. scabiei in Scandinavia.

  1. Integrated agro-hydrological modelling and economic analysis of BMPs to support decision making and policy design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroy, E.; Rousseau, A. N.; Hallema, D. W.

    2012-12-01

    With recent efforts and increasing control over point source pollution of freshwater, agricultural non-point pollution sources have become responsible for most of sediment and nutrient loads in North American water systems. Environmental and agricultural agencies have recognised the need for reducing eutrophication and have developed various policies to compel or encourage producers to best management practices (BMPs). Addressing diffuse pollution is challenging considering the complex and cumulative nature of transport processes, high variability in space and time, and prohibitive costs of distributed water quality monitoring. Many policy options exist to push producers to adopt environmentally desirable behaviour while keeping their activity viable, and ensure equitable costs to consumers and tax payers. On the one hand, economic instruments (subsidies, taxes, water quality markets) are designed to maximize cost-effectiveness, so that farmers optimize their production for maximum profit while implementing BMPs. On the other hand, emission standards or regulation of inputs are often easier and less costly to implement. To study economic and environmental impacts of such policies, a distributed modelling approach is needed to deal with the complexity of the system and the large environmental and socio-economic data requirements. Our objective is to integrate agro-hydrological modelling and economic analysis to support decision and policy making processes of BMP implementation. The integrated modelling system GIBSI was developed in an earlier study within the Canadian WEBs project (Watershed Evaluation of BMPs) to evaluate the influence of BMPs on water quality. The case study involved 30 and 15 year records of discharge and water quality measurements respectively, in the Beaurivage River watershed (Quebec, Canada). GIBSI provided a risk-based overview of the impact of BMPs (including vegetated riparian buffer strips, precision slurry application, conversion to

  2. Making health policy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buse, Kent; Mays, Nicholas; Walt, Gill

    2012-01-01

    ... understanding of the inevitable limits of individual health care and of the need to complement such services with effective public health strategies. Major improvements in people's health will come from controlling communicable diseases, eradicating environmental hazards, improving people's diets and enhancing the availability and qua...

  3. Clinical validation of a public health policy-making platform for hearing loss (EVOTION): protocol for a big data study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dritsakis, Giorgos; Kikidis, Dimitris; Koloutsou, Nina; Murdin, Louisa; Bibas, Athanasios; Ploumidou, Katherine; Laplante-Lévesque, Ariane; Pontoppidan, Niels Henrik; Bamiou, Doris-Eva

    2018-02-15

    The holistic management of hearing loss (HL) requires an understanding of factors that predict hearing aid (HA) use and benefit beyond the acoustics of listening environments. Although several predictors have been identified, no study has explored the role of audiological, cognitive, behavioural and physiological data nor has any study collected real-time HA data. This study will collect 'big data', including retrospective HA logging data, prospective clinical data and real-time data via smart HAs, a mobile application and biosensors. The main objective is to enable the validation of the EVOTION platform as a public health policy-making tool for HL. This will be a big data international multicentre study consisting of retrospective and prospective data collection. Existing data from approximately 35 000 HA users will be extracted from clinical repositories in the UK and Denmark. For the prospective data collection, 1260 HA candidates will be recruited across four clinics in the UK and Greece. Participants will complete a battery of audiological and other assessments (measures of patient-reported HA benefit, mood, cognition, quality of life). Patients will be offered smart HAs and a mobile phone application and a subset will also be given wearable biosensors, to enable the collection of dynamic real-life HA usage data. Big data analytics will be used to detect correlations between contextualised HA usage and effectiveness, and different factors and comorbidities affecting HL, with a view to informing public health decision-making. Ethical approval was received from the London South East Research Ethics Committee (17/LO/0789), the Hippokrateion Hospital Ethics Committee (1847) and the Athens Medical Center's Ethics Committee (KM140670). Results will be disseminated through national and international events in Greece and the UK, scientific journals, newsletters, magazines and social media. Target audiences include HA users, clinicians, policy-makers and the

  4. Factors that encourage and discourage policy-making to prevent childhood obesity: Experience in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkow, Lainie; Jones-Smith, Jesse; Walters, Hannah J; O'Hara, Marguerite; Bleich, Sara N

    2016-12-01

    Policy-makers throughout the world seek to address childhood obesity prevention, yet little is known about factors that influence policy-makers' decisions on this topic. From September 2014 to April 2015, we conducted 43 semi-structured interviews about factors that encourage and discourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies. We interviewed policy-makers (n = 12) and two other groups engaged with childhood obesity prevention policies: representatives of non-governmental organizations (n = 24) and academics (n = 7). Factors that encourage policy-makers' support for childhood obesity prevention policies included: positive impact on government finances, an existing evidence base, partnerships with community-based collaborators, and consistency with policy-makers' priorities. Factors that discourage policy-makers' support included the following: perceptions about government's role, food and beverage industry opposition, and policy-makers' beliefs about personal responsibility. As public health practitioners, advocates, and others seek to advance childhood obesity prevention in the U.S. and elsewhere, the factors we identified offer insights into ways to frame proposed policies and strategies to influence policy-makers.

  5. Making and Becoming in the Undocumented Student Policy Regime: A Post-Qualitative [Discourse] Analysis of U.S. Immigration and Higher Education Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gildersleeve, Ryan Evely

    2017-01-01

    This paper discursively analyzes the public conversation around immigration as it intrasects with state and federal policy, particularly in relation to higher education. I take in-state resident tuition policy as a departure point for an effort to explain how "undocumented" and "illegal" subject positions are produced through…

  6. The Economy of Scandinavian-American Exchange: Donations and Scholarships in the American-Scandinavian Foundation, 1912–1995

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christin Mays

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The importance of philanthropy for academic exchange cannot be overestimated. Especially in the first half of the twentieth century, scholarships for academic exchange originated from the private sector instead of the state. But what is the relationship between academic exchange and the donations which finance scholarships? How can specific donations and the restrictions placed on them change the flow of exchange? This article investigates donation and scholarship praxis within the American-Scandinavian Foundation (ASF from 1912–1995, a philanthropic organisation devoted to academic exchange between Scandinavia and the United States. The period, 1912–1944, is characterised by various small donations and few scholarships to mostly American fellows. The second period, 1945–1995, represents an era of economic growth created from a surge in large, restricted donations invested in scholarship funds. This led to an increased number of scholarships to a more geographically diverse population.

  7. Interdisciplinary Approach to the Study of Evolution of Humanities : Reviewing The History of Translation Movement in the Context of Public Policy-making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Shah Abadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available It is about forty years that some of Iran’s policy makers and experts in social and human sciences are of the opinion that there should be an evolution in humanities. They are of the view that principles and basic assumptions of current humanities are in conflict with Islamic framework and consequently these doctrines are not appropriate to address local issues of Islamic countries. Since the Islamic Revolution of Iran of 1979, any change in these doctrines has been a matter of debate. But we need a new plan for making a change in our policies. Applying interdisciplinary approach permit us to find a new way for policy making in society. History is full of lessons to guide us in our present situations. Therefore, by taking into account, the sociology of science and issues of policy-making, we study the Translation Movement. This article shows the transfer and transformation of Greek philosophy to Islamic philosophy in 7- 10 A.D. in Islamic civilization and also proposes an alternative approach for the policy makers. We identify actors of transferring knowledge, scientific translators and the Abbasid State. Research model of this paper has been chosen from the sociology of science and also makes use of "Implication Research Methodology” with regard to history. Our suggestion is "Transformational Translation (Transforlation " that includes selecting best texts, translations, correction, explanation, criticism and innovation. Accordingly, policies should be revised after identifying discipline on Transforlation Chain and structures and human resources have to be formalized on the basis of revised policies.

  8. A Social Poetics of Documentary: Grierson and the Scandinavian Documentary Tradition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2014-01-01

    This article deals with the influence of John Grierson on the development of the Scandinavian documentary film and television movement. Grierson's poetic for a new documentary had a strong influence on the Scandinavian documentary movement from the 1930s and on. The combination of a documentary f...... format that combined a new aesthetic form with a social vision was developed in the early British class society but pointed towards a more democratic wellfare society. Key Scandinavian figures and institutions in this development of a modern, documentary movement is analysed....

  9. Oligoclonal band status in Scandinavian multiple sclerosis patients is associated with specific genetic risk alleles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mero, Inger-Lise; Gustavsen, Marte W; Sæther, Hanne S

    2013-01-01

    The presence of oligoclonal bands (OCB) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a typical finding in multiple sclerosis (MS). We applied data from Norwegian, Swedish and Danish (i.e. Scandinavian) MS patients from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to search for genetic differences in MS relating...... to OCB status. GWAS data was compared in 1367 OCB positive and 161 OCB negative Scandinavian MS patients, and nine of the most associated SNPs were genotyped for replication in 3403 Scandinavian MS patients. HLA-DRB1 genotypes were analyzed in a subset of the OCB positive (n = 2781) and OCB negative (n...

  10. Do stronger school smoking policies make a difference? Analysis of the health behaviour in school-aged children survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallingberg, B; Fletcher, A; Murphy, S; Morgan, K; Littlecott, H J; Roberts, C; Moore, G F

    2016-12-01

    Associations of the strength of school smoking policies with cigarette, e-cigarette and cannabis use in Wales were examined. Nationally representative cross-sectional survey of pupils aged 11-16 years (N=7376) in Wales. Senior management team members from 67 schools completed questionnaires about school smoking policies, substance use education and tobacco cessation initiatives. Multi-level, logistic regression analyses investigated self-reported cigarette, e-cigarette and cannabis use, for all students and those aged 15-16 years. Prevalence of current smoking, e-cigarette use and cannabis use in the past month were 5.3%, 11.5% and 2.9%, respectively. Of schools that provided details about smoking policies (66/67), 39.4% were strong (written policy applied to everyone in all locations), 43.9% were moderate (written policy not applied to everyone in all locations) and 16.7% had no written policy. There was no evidence of an association of school smoking policies with pupils' tobacco or e-cigarette use. However, students from schools with a moderate policy [OR = 0.47; 95% (confidence interval) CI: 0.26-0.84] were less likely to have used cannabis in the past month compared to schools with no written policy. This trend was stronger for students aged 15-16 years (moderate policy: OR = 0.42; 95% CI: 0.22-0.80; strong policy: OR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.23-0.87). School smoking policies may exert less influence on young people's smoking behaviours than they did during times of higher adolescent smoking prevalence. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the potential influence of school smoking policies on cannabis use and mechanisms explaining this association. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association.

  11. Making Whole-Child Education the Norm: How Research and Policy Initiatives Can Make Social and Emotional Skills a Focal Point of Children's Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Emma; Weiss, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    The importance of so-called noncognitive skills--which include abilities and traits such as critical thinking skills, problem solving skills, social skills, persistence, creativity, and self-control--manifests itself in multiple ways throughout life. This policy brief, which focuses on a set of skills that can and should be taught in schools, is…

  12. Mitigating Evidentiary Bias in Planning and Policy-Making Comment on "Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Justin

    2016-07-20

    The field of cognitive psychology has increasingly provided scientific insights to explore how humans are subject to unconscious sources of evidentiary bias, leading to errors that can affect judgement and decision-making. Increasingly these insights are being applied outside the realm of individual decision-making to the collective arena of policy-making as well. A recent editorial in this journal has particularly lauded the work of the World Bank for undertaking an open and critical reflection on sources of unconscious bias in its own expert staff that could undermine achievement of its key goals. The World Bank case indeed serves as a remarkable case of a global policy-making agency making its own critical reflections transparent for all to see. Yet the recognition that humans are prone to cognitive errors has been known for centuries, and the scientific exploration of such biases provided by cognitive psychology is now well-established. What still remains to be developed, however, is a widespread body of work that can inform efforts to institutionalise strategies to mitigate the multiple sources and forms of evidentiary bias arising within administrative and policy-making environments. Addressing this gap will require a programme of conceptual and empirical work that supports robust development and evaluation of institutional bias mitigation strategies. The cognitive sciences provides a scientific basis on which to proceed, but a critical priority will now be the application of that science to improve policy-making within those agencies taking responsibility for social welfare and development programmes. © 2017 The Author(s); Published by Kerman University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

  13. Mitigating Evidentiary Bias in Planning and Policy-Making; Comment on “Reflective Practice: How the World Bank Explored Its Own Biases?”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Parkhurst

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The field of cognitive psychology has increasingly provided scientific insights to explore how humans are subject to unconscious sources of evidentiary bias, leading to errors that can affect judgement and decision-making. Increasingly these insights are being applied outside the realm of individual decision-making to the collective arena of policy-making as well. A recent editorial in this journal has particularly lauded the work of the World Bank for undertaking an open and critical reflection on sources of unconscious bias in its own expert staff that could undermine achievement of its key goals. The World Bank case indeed serves as a remarkable case of a global policy-making agency making its own critical reflections transparent for all to see. Yet the recognition that humans are prone to cognitive errors has been known for centuries, and the scientific exploration of such biases provided by cognitive psychology is now well-established. What still remains to be developed, however, is a widespread body of work that can inform efforts to institutionalise strategies to mitigate the multiple sources and forms of evidentiary bias arising within administrative and policy-making environments. Addressing this gap will require a programme of conceptual and empirical work that supports robust development and evaluation of institutional bias mitigation strategies. The cognitive sciences provides a scientific basis on which to proceed, but a critical priority will now be the application of that science to improve policy-making within those agencies taking responsibility for social welfare and development programmes.

  14. What the Inbred Scandinavian Wolf Population Tells Us about the Nature of Conservation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannikke Räikkönen

    Full Text Available The genetic aspects of population health are critical, but frequently difficult to assess. Of concern has been the genetic constitution of Scandinavian wolves (Canis lupus, which represent an important case in conservation. We examined the incidence of different congenital anomalies for 171 Scandinavian wolves, including the immigrant founder female, born during a 32-year period between 1978 and 2010. The incidence of anomalies rose from 13% to 40% throughout the 32-year study period. Our ability to detect this increase was likely facilitated by having considered multiple kinds of anomaly. Many of the found anomalies are likely associated with inbreeding or some form of genetic deterioration. These observations have implications for understanding the conservation needs of Scandinavian wolves. Moreover, these observations and the history of managing Scandinavian wolves focus attention on a broader question, whether conservation is merely about avoiding extinction of remnant populations, or whether conservation also entails maintaining genetic aspects of population health.

  15. Experiences of Scandinavian nurses in discussing sexuality with patients, clients and residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Birgitte Schantz; Rasmussen, Philippa; Conroy, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this review is to critically appraise, synthesize, and present the best available evidence to address the question: How do Scandinavian nurses experience discussing sexual issues with patients, residents and clients?......REVIEW QUESTION/OBJECTIVE:: The objective of this review is to critically appraise, synthesize, and present the best available evidence to address the question: How do Scandinavian nurses experience discussing sexual issues with patients, residents and clients?...

  16. A Scandinavian Experience of Register Collaboration: The Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelin, Leif I; Robertsson, Otto; Fenstad, Anne M

    2011-01-01

    The Nordic (Scandinavian) countries have had working arthroplasty registers for several years. However, the small numbers of inhabitants and the conformity within each country with respect to preferred prosthesis brands and techniques have limited register research.......The Nordic (Scandinavian) countries have had working arthroplasty registers for several years. However, the small numbers of inhabitants and the conformity within each country with respect to preferred prosthesis brands and techniques have limited register research....

  17. Dress in Scandinavian Iconography of the 5-10th centuries AD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla

    2004-01-01

    In the Scandinavian Late Iron Age costume studies plays an important role. The many new finds of gold sheet images comprise an until now unexploited source that can enlight the often fragmented and degraded textile remains.......In the Scandinavian Late Iron Age costume studies plays an important role. The many new finds of gold sheet images comprise an until now unexploited source that can enlight the often fragmented and degraded textile remains....

  18. Red Resurrection : The Challenges Faced by Scandinavian Vendors when Marketing the Menstrual Cup

    OpenAIRE

    Coe-Björsell, Emily; Jansson, Linn

    2015-01-01

    It is argued in this thesis that the stigmatization of menstruation and the atypical product features of the menstrual cup constitute a unique marketing challenge for vendors of the menstrual cup. The purpose of this study is therefore to investigate these issues and the ways in which Scandinavian vendors approach them. Further, the possible effects of this approach on the rate of adoption of the menstrual cup are analyzed. In order to do so, interviews with four Scandinavian vendors of the m...

  19. From Thoughts To Action - Linking Practice, Science, Policy And Decision Making: Dissemination Activities Of The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stal, Marc; Sutter, Corina; Ammann, Walter

    2010-05-01

    The world's growing population in combination with expanding urbanisation, globalisation and climate change has greatly aggravated the risk potential to all communities and nations. These increasing risks imply the intensification of worldwide disasters, hence collaborations and worldwide knowledge exchange to mitigate these negative impacts is mandatory. How can these exchange and collaboration activities take place? The Global Risk Forum, GRF Davos addresses the variety of risks that face communities with a special focus on climate change, natural hazards, environmental degradation as well as technical, biological risks, pandemics and terrorism - all across different political institutions, national and international organisations, countries and business sectors. One of GRF's main goals is to bridge the gap between science and practice and to promote and accelerate the worldwide exchange of know-how and experience. GRF Davos aims at targeting solutions and promoting good practice in integral risk management and climate change adaptation.. The Forum also provides and manages a network for decision-makers, practitioners and experts from politics, government, IGOs, business, science, NGOs, media and the public and works on maintaining and expanding these networks constantly to enable the dissemination of disaster and risk reduction techniques. In order to link practice, science, policy and decision making, GRF Davos has three pillars, the Risk Academy, the International Disaster and Risk Conferences and Workshops (IDRC) as well as the online Platform for Networks. With its pillars, the GRFs aims at reducing vulnerability for all types of risks and disasters to protect life, property, environment, critical infrastructure and all means of business for the worldwide community on a sustainable basis.

  20. Scandinavian Oncophorus (Bryopsida, Oncophoraceae: species, cryptic species, and intraspecific variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Hedenäs

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Scandinavian members of the acrocarpous moss genus Oncophorus were revised after field observations had suggested unrecognized diversity. Based on molecular (nuclear: internal transcribed spacers 1 and 2, ITS; plastid: trnGUCC G2 intron, trnG, rps4 gene + trnS-rps4 spacer, rps4 and morphological evidence, four morphologically distinguishable species are recognized, Oncophorus elongatus (I.Hagen Hedenäs, O. integerrimus Hedenäs sp. nov. (syn. O. virens var. elongatus Limpr., O. virens (Hedw. Brid., and O. wahlenbergii Brid. (O. sardous Herzog, syn. nov.. Oncophorus elongatus was earlier recognized, but much of its variation was hidden within O. wahlenbergii. Its circumscription is here expanded to include plants with long leaves having mostly denticulate or sharply denticulate upper margins and with long and narrow marginal cells in the basal portion of the sheathing leaf lamina. The new species O. integerrimus sp. nov. differs from O. virens in having more loosely incurved leaves and entire or almost entire upper leaf margins. Besides these characters, the species in the respective pairs differ in quantitative features of the leaf lamina cells. Several cryptic entities were found, in several cases as molecularly distinct as some of the morphologically recognizable species, and phylogeographic structure is present within O. elongatus and O. virens.

  1. The Supreme Court, Civil Rights, and Preference Policies: Judicial Decision Making Processes in the United States and India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Sunita

    1990-01-01

    Presents a comparative analysis of the U.S. and Indian Supreme Courts' roles in civil rights and preference policies. Despite structural and historical differences, similarities exist in the development of such policies. Both are more concerned with fidelity to constitutional and statutory interpretations than to personal ideological viewpoints.…

  2. HIV/AIDS Policy Making Process in Iran: Analysis of HIV/AIDS Agenda Setting Based on Kingdon's Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Khodayari Zarnaq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Agenda setting is the process by which certain issues come onto the policy agenda from the much larger number of issues potentially worthy of attention by policy makers. The aim of this study was to deeply understand about how AIDS entered to health policy agenda in Iran. Material and Methods: An exploratory qualitative retrospective study based on multiple streams framework to analyze AIDS agenda setting process, 32 semi-structured interviews were conducted with key informants and stakeholders in Iran and 30 policy documents were reviewed. Data were analyzed using framework analysis method and MAXQDA software. Results : Problem, policy and politics, the three streams of HIV/AIDS in context of Iran were identified and the advent and continuity of multiple streams and their interactions and combination by policy entrepreneurs in couple of streams in policy windows were explained. Conclusion: In this study, the assumption of independence of three streams from each other was doubted. Also, framework has ambiguities in explaining entrepreneurs' act when opening policy windows. Other researchers can modify the framework by learning-by-doing.

  3. Neoliberalism and the Marginalisation of Social Justice: The Making of an Education Policy to Combat Social Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaldi, Emiliano

    2012-01-01

    The paper analyses how the establishment of neoliberalism, as the new global orthodoxy, in the field of education implies a substantial subjugation and marginalisation of policies and practices informed by the values of social justice and equity. The evidence from a case study on an inclusive education policy enacted to combat social exclusion and…

  4. Privatizing Schooling and Policy Making: The American Legislative Exchange Council and New Political and Discursive Strategies of Education Governance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gary L.; Donchik, Liliana Montoro

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we examine the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC) as an example of a unique node within larger policy networks composed of new policy entrepreneurs (e.g., venture philanthropists, think tanks, private "edubusinesses" and their lobbyists, advocacy organizations, and social entrepreneurs). These new policy…

  5. Incorporating GIS data into an agent-based model to support planning policy making for the development of creative industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Helin; Silva, Elisabete A.; Wang, Qian

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents an extension to the agent-based model "Creative Industries Development-Urban Spatial Structure Transformation" by incorporating GIS data. Three agent classes, creative firms, creative workers and urban government, are considered in the model, and the spatial environment represents a set of GIS data layers (i.e. road network, key housing areas, land use). With the goal to facilitate urban policy makers to draw up policies locally and optimise the land use assignment in order to support the development of creative industries, the improved model exhibited its capacity to assist the policy makers conducting experiments and simulating different policy scenarios to see the corresponding dynamics of the spatial distributions of creative firms and creative workers across time within a city/district. The spatiotemporal graphs and maps record the simulation results and can be used as a reference by the policy makers to adjust land use plans adaptively at different stages of the creative industries' development process.

  6. Mesopause dynamics from the scandinavian triangle ofradars within the PSMOS-DATAR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Scandinavian Triangle" is a unique trio of radars within the DATAR Project (Dynamics and Temperatures from the Arctic MLT (60–97km region: Andenes MF radar (69°N, 16°E; Tromsø MF radar (70°N, 19°E and Esrange "Meteor" radar (68°N, 21°E. The radar-spacings range from 125-270km, making it unique for studies of wind variability associated with small-scale waves, comparisons of large-scale waves measured over small spacings, and for comparisons of winds from different radar systems. As such it complements results from arrays having spacings of 25km and 500km that have been located near Saskatoon. Correlation analysis is used to demonstrate a speed bias (MF smaller than the Meteor between the radar types, which varies with season and altitude. Annual climatologies for the year 2000 of mean winds, solar tides, planetary and gravity waves are presented, and show indications of significant spatial variability across the Triangle and of differences in wave characteristics from middle latitudes.

    Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides: instrument and techniques

  7. Mesopause dynamics from the scandinavian triangle of radars within the PSMOS-DATAR Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Manson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The "Scandinavian Triangle" is a unique trio of radars within the DATAR Project (Dynamics and Temperatures from the Arctic MLT (60–97km region: Andenes MF radar (69°N, 16°E; Tromsø MF radar (70°N, 19°E and Esrange "Meteor" radar (68°N, 21°E. The radar-spacings range from 125-270km, making it unique for studies of wind variability associated with small-scale waves, comparisons of large-scale waves measured over small spacings, and for comparisons of winds from different radar systems. As such it complements results from arrays having spacings of 25km and 500km that have been located near Saskatoon. Correlation analysis is used to demonstrate a speed bias (MF smaller than the Meteor between the radar types, which varies with season and altitude. Annual climatologies for the year 2000 of mean winds, solar tides, planetary and gravity waves are presented, and show indications of significant spatial variability across the Triangle and of differences in wave characteristics from middle latitudes. Key words: Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; waves and tides: instrument and techniques

  8. Mesopause dynamics from the scandinavian triangle ofradars within the PSMOS-DATAR Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manson, A.; Meek, C.; Hall, C.; Nozawa, S.; Mitchell, N.; Pancheva, D.; Singer, W.; Hoffmann, P.

    2004-02-01

    . The ``Scandinavian Triangle" is a unique trio of radars within the DATAR Project (Dynamics and Temperatures from the Arctic MLT (60-97km) region): Andenes MF radar (N, E); Tromsø MF radar (N, E) and Esrange ``Meteor" radar (N, E). The radar-spacings range from 125-270km, making it unique for studies of wind variability associated with small-scale waves, comparisons of large-scale waves measured over small spacings, and for comparisons of winds from different radar systems. As such it complements results from arrays having spacings of 25km and 500km that have been located near Saskatoon. Correlation analysis is used to demonstrate a speed bias (MF smaller than the Meteor) between the radar types, which varies with season and altitude. Annual climatologies for the year 2000 of mean winds, solar tides, planetary and gravity waves are presented, and show indications of significant spatial variability across the Triangle and of differences in wave characteristics from middle latitudes.

  9. Contextual Analysis of Hong Kong Education Policy in 20 Years: The Intention of Making Future Citizens in Political Conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Chung Fun Hung

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Originally, the capitalist society in Hong Kong under communism is exceptional, but the “one country, two systems” formula was a makeshift stratagem by the Communist Chinese government. The twenty years of history witnessed the tension of ruling and policy implementation. Education policy in political conflicts is, of course, the other arena in the Hong Kong context which reveals competitions, controversies and struggles among the cultural hegemonic engineering. This paper can contribute to enigmatic understanding and interpretation of generating educational reform and implementing education policy in this twenty-year history of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region.

  10. Evidences of Silurian dextral transpression in the Scandinavian Caledonides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torgersen, Espen; Viola, Giulio

    2017-04-01

    The Scandinavian Caledonides are classically interpreted as a fold and thrust belt resulting from the collision between Laurentia and Baltica during the Silurian, which involved the up-to-400 km ESE-wards translation of nappes onto the Baltoscandian platform. It has been suggested that the Caledonian fold and thrust belt formed through several distinct orogenic episodes, from early shortening in the Late Ordovician to orogenic collapse in the Devonian. The classic Caledonian, orogen-perpendicular ESE-ward nappe transport is constrained by abundant and consistently oriented stretching lineations across the entire orogen and unambiguous kinematic indicators. However, there is also a large number of NW-SE-trending and roughly orogen-parallel lineations, particularly in the upper ophiolite- and eclogite-bearing nappes, which are more challenging to interpret with the traditional orogeny evolution model. The analysis of the areal extent, spatial distribution and geometrical relationships of the Caledonian nappes in southern and central Norway, however, offers new insights and allows for new constraints on the bulk kinematic framework of the shortening history of the belt. Here we present new, first-order geological observations that demonstrate a two-fold compressional history and associated strain partitioning during Caledonian convergence. More specifically, we propose that Late Ordovician NNW-SSE shortening caused early compression, followed by WNW-ESE Early Silurian shortening, which resulted in strain partitioning along the planar fabrics and discontinuities from the earlier event. In detail, orogen-parallel dextral wrench tectonics caused significant lateral displacement along at least three, orogen-scale NE-SW striking corridors, wherein the nappes appear to be consistently displaced in a dextral fashion. We propose that the Møre-Trøndelag Fault Complex, which accommodated significant sinistral displacements during the later Devonian orogenic collapse

  11. What should the government do regarding health policy-making to develop community health care in Shanghai?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yun; Sun, Xiaoming; Zhuang, Yuehong; Dong, Xuefen; Liu, Hongwei; Jiang, Ping; Yu, Zhoudong; Zhang, Yin

    2011-01-01

    The traditional three-stratum healthcare system, within which municipal, district and community hospitals all paid great attention to improving medical treatment service by developing medical technology, is no longer able to meet the current health needs in Shanghai. In 1997, the Chinese government called for the development of community health services to serve as a basic platform to provide public health service and basic medical cure. However, because the market-oriented economic reform was based on a fee-for-service mechanism (without a strict monitoring system), most community health centers (CHCs) still put great effort into developing medical services geared to profit, rather than to provide proper medical service for all and a "quality" public health service. To try to solve the problem, some government-controlled payment (GCP) system has been implemented in CHCs gradually in districts of Shanghai. The study intended to evaluate the impact of GCP solutions already implemented, as well as the impact of the standardized GCP system with supplementary solutions, in enabling CHCs to focus on providing quality public health services and appropriate medical treatment, rather than focusing on profit and loss, in order to meet the health needs aroused by major socioeconomic transition in Shanghai. In order to make a systematic assessment, a standardized form of GCP was piloted for 6 months in Changning, Zhabei, and Songjiang districts, representing rich urban, poor urban and rich rural districts, respectively. We employed an evaluation index system with 26 indicators, based on a systematic review of literature and two rounds of Delphi consultation. The evaluation index system investigates four main themes of the reform: the government's role, the reform measures, the performance of CHC services and satisfaction with CHC services. We conducted an evaluation of the impact of both various types of GCP implemented in recent years and the standardized GCP system used

  12. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza, Roberto; Velazquez-Angulo, Gilberto; Flores-Tavizón, Edith; Romero-González, Jaime; Huertas-Cardozo, José Ignacio

    2016-04-27

    This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  13. The Role of Science in Advising the Decision Making Process: A Pathway for Building Effective Climate Change Mitigation Policies in Mexico at the Local Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Barraza

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines a pathway for building urban climate change mitigation policies by presenting a multi-dimensional and transdisciplinary approach in which technical, economic, environmental, social, and political dimensions interact. Now, more than ever, the gap between science and policymaking needs to be bridged; this will enable judicious choices to be made in regarding energy and climate change mitigation strategies, leading to positive social impacts, in particular for the populations at-risk at the local level. Through a case study in Juarez, Chihuahua, Mexico, we propose a multidimensional and transdisciplinary approach with the role of scientist as policy advisers to improve the role of science in decision-making on mitigation policies at the local level in Mexico.

  14. Contextually tailored interventions can increase evidence-informed policy-making on health-enhancing physical activity: the experiences of two Danish municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Maja; Loncarevic, Natasa; Radl-Karimi, Christina; Thøgersen, Malene; Skovgaard, Thomas; Aro, Arja R

    2018-02-21

    The present study aims to test out contextually tailored interventions to increase evidence-informed health-enhancing physical activity policy-making in two Danish municipalities. The study was performed as experiments in natural settings. Based on results from a pre-intervention study defining the needs and contexts of the two settings, the interventions were developed based on logical models. The interventions aimed at increasing the use of knowledge in policy-making, primarily via strengthening intersectoral collaboration. The interventions were evaluated via pre-, post- and 12-month follow-up questionnaires and qualitative interviews were carried out prior to the intervention start. The use of knowledge changed in several ways. In one municipality, the use of stakeholder and target group knowledge increased whereas, in the other municipality, the use of research knowledge increased. In both municipalities, the ability to translate knowledge to local context, the political request and the organisational procedures for use of knowledge increased during the interventions. There was some variation between the two settings, which shows the importance of tailoring to context. Most of the changes were diminished at the 12-month follow-up. Contextually tailored interventions have the potential to increase evidence-informed policy-making on health-enhancing physical activity. However, this finding needs to be tested in larger samples and its sustainability must be strengthened.

  15. Matching humanitarian norms with cold, hard interests: the making of refugee policies in Mexico and Honduras, 1980-89.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartigan, K

    1992-01-01

    Humanitarian norms and institutions should be considered when analyzing the development and state of national policy. Mexico and Honduras, for example, have provided physical security, health care, and education to most Guatemalans and Salvadorans seeking asylum. In neither case, however, are Mexico's and Honduras' economic and political interests being best served. National interest initially forced the deportation or massacre of these refugees, in the case of Honduras, in the early 1980s. In the absence of change in neither national interests nor attitude, these refugees owe their current treatment to the Office of United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees. These cases support this paper's argument that national policy is shaped over time by interaction with international norm-promoting institutions. In the interest of minimizing costs and risk, policymakers and governments tend to adapt institutionally developed and internationally accepted policies to suit their needs. National policy is not developed solely on the basis of calculations of national interest outside of internationally accepted norms. This paper demonstrates the ability to empirically test the nature of forces guiding the development of national policy.

  16. CrowdHEALTH: Holistic Health Records and Big Data Analytics for Health Policy Making and Personalized Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, Dimosthenis; Autexier, Serge; Brondino, Iván; Boniface, Michael; Donat, Lucas; Engen, Vegard; Fernandez, Rafael; Jimenez-Peris, Ricardo; Jordan, Blanca; Jurak, Gregor; Kiourtis, Athanasios; Kosmidis, Thanos; Lustrek, Mitja; Maglogiannis, Ilias; Mantas, John; Martinez, Antonio; Mavrogiorgou, Argyro; Menychtas, Andreas; Montandon, Lydia; Nechifor, Cosmin-Septimiu; Nifakos, Sokratis; Papageorgiou, Alexandra; Patino-Martinez, Marta; Perez, Manuel; Plagianakos, Vassilis; Stanimirovic, Dalibor; Starc, Gregor; Tomson, Tanja; Torelli, Francesco; Traver-Salcedo, Vicente; Vassilacopoulos, George; Wajid, Usman

    2017-01-01

    Today's rich digital information environment is characterized by the multitude of data sources providing information that has not yet reached its full potential in eHealth. The aim of the presented approach, namely CrowdHEALTH, is to introduce a new paradigm of Holistic Health Records (HHRs) that include all health determinants. HHRs are transformed into HHRs clusters capturing the clinical, social and human context of population segments and as a result collective knowledge for different factors. The proposed approach also seamlessly integrates big data technologies across the complete data path, providing of Data as a Service (DaaS) to the health ecosystem stakeholders, as well as to policy makers towards a "health in all policies" approach. Cross-domain co-creation of policies is feasible through a rich toolkit, being provided on top of the DaaS, incorporating mechanisms for causal and risk analysis, and for the compilation of predictions.

  17. Curbing the lifestyle disease pandemic: making progress on an interdisciplinary research agenda for law and policy interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Brigit; Hesselman, Marlies; van Dijk, Jitse P; Herman, Joost

    2017-09-18

    By 2030, noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) will be the leading cause of death in every region in the world. While law and policy have an important role to play in curbing this pandemic, our current understanding of how they can most effectively be used is still limited. This contribution identifies a number of gaps in current research and insists on an interdisciplinary research agenda between law, health science and international relations aimed at designing concrete proposals for laws and policies to curb the NCD pandemic, both globally and domestically.

  18. Achieving a Risk-Informed Decision-Making Environment at NASA: The Emphasis of NASA's Risk Management Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfuli, Homayoon

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the evolution of risk management (RM) at NASA. The aim of the RM approach at NASA is to promote an approach that is heuristic, proactive, and coherent across all of NASA. Risk Informed Decision Making (RIDM) is a decision making process that uses a diverse set of performance measures along with other considerations within a deliberative process to inform decision making. RIDM is invoked for key decisions such as architecture and design decisions, make-buy decisions, and budget reallocation. The RIDM process and how it relates to the continuous Risk Management (CRM) process is reviewed.

  19. Power and Politics in the Global Health Landscape: Beliefs, Competition and Negotiation Among Global Advocacy Coalitions in the Policy-Making Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, Lori

    2016-01-30

    Advocacy coalitions play an increasingly prominent role within the global health landscape, linking actors and institutions to attract political attention and resources. This paper examines how coalitions negotiate among themselves and exercise hidden forms of power to produce policy on the basis of their beliefs and strategic interests. This paper examines the beliefs and behaviours of health advocacy coalitions using Sabatier's Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) as an informal theoretical lens. Coalitions are further explored in relation to the concept of transnational advocacy networks (Keck and Sikkink) and of productive power (Shiffman). The ACF focuses on explaining how policy change takes place when there is conflict concerning goals and technical approaches among different actors. This study uses participant observation methods, self-reported survey results and semi-structured qualitative interviews to trace how a major policy project of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) era, the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health, was constructed through negotiations among maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) and sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) advocacy coalitions. The Global Strategy represented a new opportunity for high-level political attention. Despite differing policy beliefs, MNCH and SRHR actors collaborated to produce this strategy because of anticipated gains in political attention. While core beliefs did not shift fundamentally and collaboration was primarily a short-term tactical response to a time-bound opportunity, MNCH actors began to focus more on human rights perspectives and SRHR actors adopted greater use of quantifiable indicators and economic argumentation. This shift emphasises the inherent importance of SRHR to maternal and child health survival. As opportunities arise, coalitions respond based on principles and policy beliefs, as well as to perceptions of advantage. Global health policy-making is an arena of

  20. Shared Decision Making in Intensive Care Units: An American College of Critical Care Medicine and American Thoracic Society Policy Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Alexander A.; Davidson, Judy E.; Morrison, Wynne; Danis, Marion; White, Douglas B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Shared decision-making (SDM) is endorsed by critical care organizations, however there remains confusion about what SDM is, when it should be used, and approaches to promote partnerships in treatment decisions. The purpose of this statement is to define SDM, recommend when SDM should be used, identify the range of ethically acceptable decision-making models, and present important communication skills. Methods The American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCM) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) Ethics Committees reviewed empirical research and normative analyses published in peer-reviewed journals to generate recommendations. Recommendations approved by consensus of the full Ethics Committees of ACCM and ATS were included in the statement. Main Results Six recommendations were endorsed: 1) Definition: Shared decision-making is a collaborative process that allows patients, or their surrogates, and clinicians to make health care decisions together, taking into account the best scientific evidence available, as well as the patient’s values, goals, and preferences. 2) Clinicians should engage in a SDM process to define overall goals of care (including decisions regarding limiting or withdrawing life-prolonging interventions) and when making major treatment decisions that may be affected by personal values, goals, and preferences. 3) Clinicians should use as their “default” approach a SDM process that includes three main elements: information exchange, deliberation, and making a treatment decision. 4) A wide range of decision-making approaches are ethically supportable including patient- or surrogate-directed and clinician-directed models. Clinicians should tailor the decision-making process based on the preferences of the patient or surrogate. 5) Clinicians should be trained in communication skills. 6) Research is needed to evaluate decision-making strategies. Conclusions Patient and surrogate preferences for decision-making roles regarding value

  1. Education policy and school segregation of migrant students in Catalonia: the politics of non-decision-making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonal, X.

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how the Catalan government has not developed an agenda to tackle school segregation despite the growing number of migrant pupils who arrived over the course of the last decade. Education policy has explicitly disregarded the possibilities of improving the regulatory framework for

  2. 41 CFR 102-75.1195 - What is the policy concerning making public the notice of determination?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... all properties reviewed, including a description of the property, its address, and classification. The... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the policy... Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT...

  3. Hegemony and the Politics of Policy Making for Education for Sustainable Development: A Case Study of Vietnam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Stefan Lars

    2016-01-01

    Assumptions are readily made about the global nature and discourse of education for sustainable development. This study challenges assumptions made about structural power as expressed through Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) policy and politics of education. Focusing on the concept of sustainable development (SD) and ESD, the research…

  4. Ecological-economic modelling to support multi-objective policy making: a farming systems approach implemented for Tuscany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacini, G.C.; Wossink, G.A.A.; Giesen, G.W.J.; Huirne, R.B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Currently, there is a major concern regarding agri-environmental issues. Farmers are viewed not only as food suppliers but also as the custodians of the countryside. This role of farmers has been officially acknowledged in the EU Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) through a number of regulations that

  5. Making an impact. The influence of policies to reduce emissions from aviation on the business travel patterns of individual corporations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, Zoe G.; Armsworth, Paul R. [Biodiversity and Macroecology Group, Department of Animal and Plant Sciences, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S10 2TN (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    The contribution of aviation to global carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions is projected to triple by 2050. As nations strive to meet CO{sub 2} reduction targets, policy interventions to manage the growth of emissions arising from air travel are likely. Here, we investigate the potential influence of aviation emissions reduction policies on the business travel patterns of individual corporations. Using travel data from six UK-based companies, we find that increased ticket prices can deliver substantial emissions cuts, particularly on premium class flights, and may provide strong financial incentives to seek modal and/or technological alternatives to flying. We also find that corporations from different business sectors vary in their responsiveness to a range of policy options. Finally, we examine questionnaire data to determine whether companies more broadly are going beyond compliance to mitigate their environmental impact by managing travel-related emissions voluntarily. Although many corporations are measuring and reporting emissions, only a limited number are willing to implement in-house reduction policies prior to regulation. (author)

  6. From National Policy-Making to Global Edu-Business: Swedish Edu-Preneurs on the Move

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rönnberg, Linda

    2017-01-01

    This study explores the movements of some Swedish former education policy-makers that are currently active as commercial edu-business actors with the ambition to expand in the Global Education Industry (GEI). The aim is to map and analyze how a selection of Swedish edu-preneurs affiliated with a particular Swedish school chain enter the GEI and…

  7. Schools for European and Eurasian Children in India: Making of the Official Policy in Colonial India and Its Contemporary Significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Heeral

    2015-01-01

    The history of education in India has been looked into with a view which has been narrow in its expanse, often missing out on many social categories which had a relatively limited, yet important, presence in colonial India. Sufficient attention has been paid to the official policies of the British Indian government (starting from Macaulay's…

  8. Education Policy and School Segregation of Migrant Students in Catalonia: The Politics of Non-Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonal, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    This article shows how the Catalan government has not developed an agenda to tackle school segregation despite the growing number of migrant pupils who arrived over the course of the last decade. Education policy has explicitly disregarded the possibilities of improving the regulatory framework for tackling segregation; it has exercised…

  9. Strategies for successful evaluation and policy-making toward health care technology on the move : The case of medical lasers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banta, H.D.; Vondeling, H.

    1994-01-01

    Evaluating new health care technology that is rapidly diffusing is one of the greatest challenges to researchers and policy-makers. If no evaluation is done until the technology is mature, evaluation will not influence processes of diffusion. If evaluation is done early, it may be irrelevant when it

  10. Developing a long-term global tourism transport model using a behavioural approach: implications for sustainable tourism policy making.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, P.M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the creation and use of a long-term global tourism transport model for private and public sector tourism policy makers. Given that technology is unlikely to reduce tourism transport's impact on climate change sufficiently to avoid serious dangers, behavioural change is necessary.

  11. Shared decision making as part of value based care: New U.S. policies challenge our readiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spatz, E.S.; Elwyn, G.; Moulton, B.W.; Volk, R.J.; Frosch, D.L.

    2017-01-01

    Shared decision making in the United States is increasingly being recognized as part of value-based care. During the last decade, several state and federal initiatives have linked shared decision making with reimbursement and increased protection from litigation. Additionally, private and public

  12. Provincial prenatal record revision: a multiple case study of evidence-based decision-making at the population-policy level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olson Joanne

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a significant gap in the knowledge translation literature related to how research evidence actually contributes to health care decision-making. Decisions around what care to provide at the population (rather than individual level are particularly complex, involving considerations such as feasibility, cost, and population needs in addition to scientific evidence. One example of decision-making at this "population-policy" level involves what screening questions and intervention guides to include on standardized provincial prenatal records. As mandatory medical reporting forms, prenatal records are potentially powerful vehicles for promoting population-wide evidence-based care. However, the extent to which Canadian prenatal records reflect best-practice recommendations for the assessment of well-known risk factors such as maternal smoking and alcohol consumption varies markedly across Canadian provinces and territories. The goal of this study is to better understand the interaction of contextual factors and research evidence on decision-making at the population-policy level, by examining the processes by which provincial prenatal records are reviewed and revised. Methods Guided by Dobrow et al.'s (2004 conceptual model for context-based evidence-based decision-making, this study will use a multiple case study design with embedded units of analysis to examine contextual factors influencing the prenatal record revision process in different Canadian provinces and territories. Data will be collected using multiple methods to construct detailed case descriptions for each province/territory. Using qualitative data analysis techniques, decision-making processes involving prenatal record content specifically related to maternal smoking and alcohol use will be compared both within and across each case, to identify key contextual factors influencing the uptake and application of research evidence by prenatal record review

  13. Networked Intermedia Agenda Setting: The Geography of a Hyperlinked Scandinavian News Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøvaag, Helle; Stavelin, Eirik; Karlsson, Michael

    How does agenda setting work within the hyperlinked Scandinavian news ecology? This paper investigates intermedia agenda setting within and between the local, regional, national and supra-national levels in Sweden, Denmark and Norway; analyses the center/periphery dimensions of hyperlink connecti......How does agenda setting work within the hyperlinked Scandinavian news ecology? This paper investigates intermedia agenda setting within and between the local, regional, national and supra-national levels in Sweden, Denmark and Norway; analyses the center/periphery dimensions of hyperlink...... between news agendas in the three countries, and c) the connectedness enabled by size, resources and central location in the Scandinavian hyperlinked information structure. The network analysis provides new insights into the relationship between centralized political structures, media ownership dispersal...

  14. Cynical or Deliberative? An Analysis of the European Commission’s Public Communication on Its Use of Expertise in Policy-Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Holst

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Commission has faced increasing criticism that its use of expertise in policy-making is undemocratic and politicized. In response to critics, the Commission has produced a number of publicly available documents where its expert policies and practices are outlined and discussed. Cynics view public communications of this nature with skepticism, as organizations tend to adopt “smooth talk” and cosmetic rhetoric designed to placate critics and create a façade of compliance aimed at decreasing external pressure. An alternative deliberative approach, would expect the Commission to engage in a relatively open, reflective and reason-based interchange. The article’s main aim is to assess the relative merits of these two approaches in capturing the Commission’s framing of its public communication. Cynical expectations, prevalent among Commission critics, are confirmed by the Commission’s silence on unpleasant topics including the undemocratic nature of existing expertise arrangements and the strategic uses of knowledge in EU policy-making. However, firm regulatory initiatives and the Commission’s critical engagement with democratization demands and possible goal conflicts within their critics’ agenda give significant leverage to a deliberative approach.

  15. Using experiential marine debris education to make an impact: Collecting debris, informing policy makers, and influencing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Katharine A

    2018-02-01

    The Shore to Statehouse project supported the creation of an open-source, replicable, undergraduate experiential course on marine debris. Funded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the course allowed undergraduate students in Connecticut, USA, to collect marine debris locally, then create a policy report for state legislators. Here we share the results of the project including data on four accumulation surveys on the Long Island Sound, as well as the impact on student motivation, attitudes, and behavior levels. Results include finding over 1600 individual pieces of debris totaling 19.4kg (42.8lb). In addition, the students experienced statistically significant improvements in knowledge and behavior scores. This open-source course can be replicated, empowering students to remove debris, provide important information to local policy makers, and improve knowledge and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The new immigration contestation: social movements and local immigration policy making in the United States, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steil, Justin Peter; Vasi, Ion Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Analyzing oppositional social movements in the context of municipal immigration ordinances, the authors examine whether the explanatory power of resource mobilization, political process, and strain theories of social movements' impact on policy outcomes differs when considering proactive as opposed to reactive movements. The adoption of pro-immigrant (proactive) ordinances was facilitated by the presence of immigrant community organizations and of sympathetic local political allies. The adoption of anti-immigrant (reactive) ordinances was influenced by structural social changes, such as rapid increases in the local Latino population, that were framed as threats. The study also finds that pro-immigrant protest events can influence policy in two ways, contributing both to the passage of pro-immigrant ordinances in the locality where protests occur and also inhibiting the passage of anti-immigrant ordinances in neighboring cities.

  17. The importance of systematizing migration information for making policy: recent initiatives and possibilities for Latin America and the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguid, A

    1993-12-01

    The case is made for developing a reliable system of data on international migration in Latin America and the Caribbean which would enable countries in the region to develop appropriate migration policies. The author describes the systems that currently exist in Europe and Latin America and "explores the possibility of implementing a regional registry and information system for migrations in the region." Locating the proposed system within the UN regional operation in Santiago, Chile, is proposed. excerpt

  18. The challenge of contributing to policy making in primary care: The gendered experiences and strategies of nurses

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores nurses’ experiences as members of primary care organizations set up to develop and commission health services for local communities. Nurses, alongside GPs and other health professionals, were given a place on the governing bodies (boards) of Local Health Groups – a move widely welcomed by the nursing profession as long overdue recognition of the important contribution nurses and nursing could bring to the policy arena. \\ud \\ud Nurse board members faced a number of challeng...

  19. A Few More Laps to Go: Tobacco Industry Political Influence, Public Health Advocacy and Tobacco Control Policy Making in Indiana

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenbaum, Daniel J. BA; Barnes, Richard L. JD; Glantz, Stanton A. PhD

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco policy has been an issue in Indiana since 1893, when the legislature passed a law prohibiting selling tobacco to people under 16. Beginning as early as 1969, Indiana General Assembly members and tobacco control advocates launched uncoordinated efforts to pass a law restricting smoking in government buildings. The tobacco industry responded with a well-financed and well-connected network of lobbyists, campaign contributions and third-party allies which's lobbyists that defeated every s...

  20. The role of civil society in health policy making in South Africa: a review of the strategies adopted by the Treatment Action Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabi, Stella C; Rieker, Mark

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of AIDS in 1982 in South Africa was followed by a rapid rise in the number of people living with the virus and dying from AIDS-related illnesses. The 2016 report by the Statistics South Africa indicated that about 7.03 million South Africans were infected with HIV/AIDS - the highest rate in the world. Despite the emergence of effective drugs in the mid-1990s, medical treatment remained unavailable in South Africa, particularly in public hospitals. This prompted civil society groups to establish platforms to discuss health policy change in South Africa. Prominent among these was the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), formed in 1998, which aimed to advocate for improved HIV/AIDS health service delivery. The efforts succeeded in shaping the current HIV/AIDS policy through various initiatives such as the use of constitutional law in legal action against profiteering drug companies. This paper examines the role of civil society, and particularly the TAC engagement with the state in health policy making, and the subsequent implementation of health policy on HIV/AIDS in post-apartheid South Africa.