WorldWideScience

Sample records for scandinavia

  1. Provincialising Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Explores Scandinavia's role historically and contemporarily in relation to the West and Europe with a particular emphasis on the relationship between the West and the Rest......Explores Scandinavia's role historically and contemporarily in relation to the West and Europe with a particular emphasis on the relationship between the West and the Rest...

  2. Scandinavia 1000-1750

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Carsten Porskrog; Myking, John Ragnar

    2010-01-01

    The article describes the distribution of property and power in rural Scandinavia (Denmark, Sweden and Norway) a.D. 1000-1750. It covers the distribution of property and structure of manors and holdings. It also looks at the structure of the peasantry, village communities, and the use of communal...

  3. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Birch Andreasen, Lars

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased....... In this chapter we will examine how higher education systems in Scandinavia are developing in relation to these challenges. To what extent has the democratic tradition had an impact on the educational systems, and what possible futures can be envisioned? In the development of higher education in Scandinavia......, there are different perspectives on education at play. One perspective sees education as a “public good” that benefits society and therefore should be free and accessible for all students who qualify to be admitted. According to this perspective, one of the main purposes of higher education is to add value to all...

  4. Higher Education in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Andreasen, Lars Birch

    2015-01-01

    Higher education systems around the world have been undergoing fundamental changes through the last 50 years from more narrow self-sustaining universities for the elite and into mass universities, where new groups of students have been recruited and the number of students enrolled has increased...... dramatically. In adjusting to the role of being a mass educational institution, universities have been challenged on how to cope with external pressures, such as forces of globalization and international markets, increased national and international competition for students and research grants, increased...... an impact on the educational systems in Scandinavia, and what possible futures can be envisioned?...

  5. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Scandinavia the study of disputes is still a relatively new topic: The papers offered here discuss how conflicts were handled in Scandinavian societies in the Middle Ages before the emergence of strong centralized states. What strategies did people use to contest power, property, rights, honour...

  6. Long Span Bridges in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gimsing, Niels Jørgen

    1998-01-01

    is found in Scandinavia - the 1210 m span of the Höga Kusten Bridge in Sweden.The Kvarnsund Bridge in Norway was at the completion in 1991 the longest cable-stayed bridge in the world, and the span of 530 m is still thge longest for cable-stayed bridges in concrete. The Øresund Bridge with its sapn of 490...... m is the longest among cable-stayed bridges for both road and railway traffic....

  7. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Scandinavia the study of disputes is still a relatively new topic: The papers offered here discuss how conflicts were handled in Scandinavian societies in the Middle Ages before the emergence of strong centralized states. What strategies did people use to contest power, property, rights, honour...... practice and process as key analytical concepts, these authors explore formal law and litigation in conjunction with non-formal legal proceedings such as out-of-court mediation, rituals, emotional posturing, and feuding. Their insights place the Northern medieval world in a European context of dispute...... studies. With introductory sections on social structure, sources materials, and the historiography of Scandinavian dispute studies....

  8. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In Scandinavia the study of disputes is still a relatively new topic: The papers offered here discuss how conflicts were handled in Scandinavian societies in the Middle Ages before the emergence of strong centralized states. What strategies did people use to contest power, property, rights, honour......, and other kinds of material or symbolic assets? Seven essays by Scandinavian scholars are supplemented by contributions from Stephen White, John Hudson and Gerd Althoff, to provide a new baseline for discussing both the strategies pursued in the political game and those used to settle local disputes. Using...

  9. Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olden-Jørgensen, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    philosophy and a sustained reception of natural law. These difference partly explain why Danish absolutism (introduced 1660) proved so very stable while Swedish absolutism (1680-1719) after a generation led to the reestablishment of (very) limited monarchy, the so called "age of freedom"....

  10. The deglaciation of Central Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkner, T. L.

    2009-12-01

    'Central Scandinavia' extends from the Norwegian coast across the Helgeland Nappe Complex to the Caledonide thrust front in Sweden (Faulkner, 2005, who studied the effects of Weichselian deglaciation on the speleogenesis of ~1000 local Caledonide marble caves). Deglaciation was driven by two summer heat fluxes: warming by the sea as it encroached up fjords and caused the icesheet margin to retreat eastwards (accompanied by deglacial seismicity) and direct solar warming that caused the icesheet to ablate from its upper surface (Grønlie, 1975; Mörner, 1979; Andersen and Karlsen, 1986; Sørensen et al., 1987; Mangerud, 1991; Bergstrøm, 1995). The melting height followed an empirical parabolic time relationship (H=0.75t2: Grønlie, 1975), based on many geomorphological observations. Faulkner (2005) reconstructed the Grønlie formula using information about the Younger Dryas (YD) isostatic uplift that increased inland as: H=1700+5(YD isobase-220)-0.75x10-4x(13500-t)2 m, where t=14Ca BP. Deglaciation was modelled by drawing deglacial maps at c. 300a intervals that show the advance of the sea, the recession of the icesheet margin, the synchronous thinning of the icesheet, and the evolution of ice-dammed lakes (IDLs), after the ice began to melt vigorously in the Bølling interstadial below the present 1700m altitude (at the 220m YD isobase at Børgefjell) that was already ice-free. After c. 11ka BP, the melting height lowered at roughly 0.5ma-1 at all isobases. The formula agrees with many marine dates to within 300a in the central and northern part of the area, but downwasting by calving was much faster along the coast, as the sea submerged large areas of the isostatically-depressed strandflat. Across the Swedish border, there is evidence that large IDLs and glaciers remained longer than predicted. Most of the area was systematically flooded by glacial meltwater for periods of 800-120014Ca during deglaciation as local IDLs lowered and coalesced (commonly at j

  11. Techniques and strategies in neurocritical care originating from southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordström, Carl-Henrik; Nielsen, Troels Halfeld; Jacobsen, Anne

    2013-01-01

    To describe innovations in neurocritical care originating from university hospitals in southern Scandinavia over a period of 50 years.......To describe innovations in neurocritical care originating from university hospitals in southern Scandinavia over a period of 50 years....

  12. Corporate Social Responsibility and Sustainability in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert; Freeman, R. Edward; Hockerts, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Scandinavia is routinely cited as a global leader in corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability. In this article, we explore the foundation for this claim while also exploring potential contributing factors. We consider the deep-seated traditions of stakeholder engagement across...... this may entail. In sum, we depict the state of the art in CSR and sustainability in Scandinavia. We intend for this to serve as a basis to help establish a globally recognized research paradigm dedicated to considering CSR and sustainability in a Scandinavian context....

  13. Scandinavian Participatory Design - Beyond Design, Beyond Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär-Ola; Georgsen, Marianne; Nyvang, Tom

    2011-01-01

    approaches, of which there are many in development research, but to a specific body of work that stems from Scandinavia. Within the research fields relating to design of ICT systems the Scandinavian countries have a rich history of incorporating disadvantaged groups in societies. This paper argues...

  14. Stone age transitions. Neolithisation in central Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Knutsson

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A summary of a series of individual research projects focused on the processes from the Mesolithic to the Late Neolithic in central Scandinavia. The projects were embeded in the "Coast to Coast project". The historicity in this process was emphasised.

  15. Iodine deficiency and nutrition in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manousou, Sofia; Dahl, Lisbeth; Heinsbaek Thuesen, Betina

    2017-01-01

    Iodine nutrition is a result of geological conditions, iodine fortification and monitoring strategies within a country together with the dietary habits of the population. This review summarizes the basis for the current iodine situation in the Scandinavian countries in order to identify gaps...... strategies have been used in Scandinavia to improve iodine nutrition. The major source of iodine is iodized salt in Sweden and from milk and dairy products in Norway. In Denmark, drinking water, milk, dairy products and iodized salt used in commercial production of bread are the important sources of iodine....... The current iodine status in Scandinavia is not optimal and action is ongoing to increase iodination in Denmark, where there is mild iodine deficiency in the general population. Data from all three countries indicate insufficient iodine nutrition during pregnancy and there is a need for data from children...

  16. Columnar aerosol characterization over Scandinavia and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; Bennouna, Y.; Berjón, A.; Torres, B.; Fuertes, D.; González, R.; de Frutos, A. M.

    2013-05-01

    An overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard was provided by Toledano et al. (2012) thanks to the collaborative effort of various research groups from different countries that maintain a number of observation sites in the European Arctic and sub-Arctic regions. The spatial coverage of this kind of data has remarkably improved in the last years, thanks, among other things, to projects carried out within the framework of the International Polar Year 2007-08. The data from a set of operational sun photometer sites belonging either to national or international measurement networks (AERONET, GAW-PFR) were evaluated. The direct sun observations provided spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE), that are parameters with sufficient long-term records for a first characterization at all sites. At the AERONET sites, microphysical properties derived from inversion of sun-sky radiance data were also examined. AOD (500nm) ranged from 0.08 to 0.10 in Arctic and sub-Arctic sites whereas the aerosol load was higher in more populated areas in Southern Scandinavia (average AOD about 0.10-0.12 at 500 nm). On the Norwegian coast, aerosols showed larger mean size than in continental areas. Columnar particle size distributions and related parameters were used to evaluate aerosol volume efficiencies. The aerosol optical depth characterization revealed that the seasonal patterns in the high Arctic (with the typical hazy spring), in the sub-Arctic region and Southern Scandinavia are all different. The clean continental, polluted continental and maritime aerosols constitute the three main aerosol types, although persistent (Asian) dust was also detected in Svalbard.

  17. Medical management of obesity in Scandinavia 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tonstad, Serena; Rössner, Stephan; Rissanen, Aila

    2016-01-01

    Background: Preventive efforts with improved diet and more exercise have at best decelerated increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity in Scandinavia, and the complications call for more effective treatments. This review is an overview of dietary supplements, medical devices (for oral use...... in the stomach and inhibit either fat or carbohydrate absorption, result in weight losses of ~2e3% over 3e6 months, and are generally well tolerated. The pharmaceutical compound orlistat (a lipase inhibitor) produces weight loss of 1e2% with low-dose (over-the-counter) and 3% with high-dose (prescription...

  18. Victim-Offender Mediation: Observations from Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Uotila

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Mediation in the aftermath of conflicts and crimes is getting more common in the European countries. This study analyses the discourse between the parties and mediator(s during mediation in three Scandinavian countries. Mediation talk is much concentrated on the crime situation, on the actions of the parties and other persons present at the time of the crime. Central to the discourse is “accounts”; an analytical term developed by Scott and Lyman in the 1960’s. Explanations of the crime are primarily found on an individual level, leaving societal issues out: A normative and evaluative inquiry of crimes and why crimes occur play a minimal (if any role in VOM in Scandinavia.DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1737385

  19. Iconography and Costume from the Late Iron Age in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mannering, Ulla

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, new ways of interpreting and evaluating costume are introduced through the analysis of iconographic sources, among others gold sheets from the Late Iron Age in Scandinavia. These sources provide information about prehistoric attitudes towards body and dress....

  20. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Scandinavia Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the Scandinavia teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal component...

  1. Patterns of Cenozoic sediment flux from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    2012-01-01

    such as tectonism, climate and climate change. Western Scandinavia, the northern British Isles and the Faeroe-Shetland Platform were significant sediment sources during the Paleocene, which is well founded in tectonic causes related to the opening of the North Atlantic. From the Eocene and onward, variations...... in the sediment flux from western Scandinavia correlate better with climate and climate change. During the Eocene, sediment production was low. From the late Eocene onward, increased seasonality may have contributed to stimulating the sediment flux. Significant climatic cooling episodes correlate with Oligocene......The significance of variations in the sediment flux from western Scandinavia during the Cenozoic has been a matter of debate for decades. Here we compile the sediment flux using seismic data, boreholes and results from other publications and discuss the relative importance of causal agents...

  2. Glacial survival of boreal trees in northern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parducci, Laura; Jørgensen, Tina; Tollefsrud, Mari Mette

    2012-01-01

    It is commonly believed that trees were absent in Scandinavia during the last glaciation and first recolonized the Scandinavian Peninsula with the retreat of its ice sheet some 9000 years ago. Here, we show the presence of a rare mitochondrial DNA haplotype of spruce that appears unique to Scandi...

  3. Interglacial temperatures in northern Scandinavia during the Last Glacial Maximum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helmens, K.F.; Bos, J.A.A.; Engels, S.; van Meerbeeck, C.J.V.C.; Bohncke, S.J.P.; Renssen, H.; Heiri, O.; Brooks, S.J.; Seppa, H.; Birks, H.J.B.; Wohlfarth, B.

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia is generally considered to have been covered extensively with ice throughout marine isotope stages (MIS) 4-2 between 75 and 10 ka. Here we present evidence for ice-free, warm conditions in the central area of the Scandinavian glaciations during MIS 3. Our multiproxy data obtained from a

  4. Eruli Influence in South Scandinavia – Migration and Remigration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertil Haggman

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The author treats the question of the influence of the Eruli in the north and their possible original home in south Scandinavia. The remigration of parts of the Erulic people from southern Europe to Thule (Scandinavia and settlement near the remaining Gauts (Goths in the beginning of the sixth century A.D., as described by historian Procopius, is reflected against traces of nomadic Eurasian horse culture in the province of Scania (the finds of Sösdala, Fulltofta and Vennebo in the 5th century. Runestones in the Swedish province of Blekinge and the runic inscriptions ek erilaR (possibly “I, the Erule” are compared to traces of Byzantine influence on the island of Öland (off the southeastern coast of Swden. The conclusion is that Erulic and other remigrators who served in the Roman armies might well have had an important influence on Iron Age society in the southern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula.

  5. The invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in Scandinavia coastal waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dolmer, Per; Holm, Mark Wejlemann; Strand, Åsa

    A massive invasion of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas , has occurred in Scandinavia during the last decade. The introduction and dispersal was described through collaboration between scientists from Sweden, Denmark and Norway. This work has been followed up by national activities that clear...... presented in this report is based on available scientific literature, expert judgments and data collected during a Nordic collaboration project on Pacific oysters in 2011 – 2013....

  6. Taxation and Market Work: Is Scandinavia an Outlier?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Rogerson

    2007-01-01

    This paper argues that it is essential to explicitly consider how the government spends tax revenues when assessing the effects of tax rates on aggregate hours of market work. Different forms of government spending imply different elasticities of hours of work with regard to tax rates. I illustrate the empirical importance of this point by addressing the issue of hours worked and tax rates in three sets of economies: the US, Continental Europe and Scandinavia. While tax rates are highest in S...

  7. Schools and Leadership in Transition ? The Case of Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf; Møller, Jorunn

    2003-01-01

    This article will set the context of democratic leadership in Scandinavian countries. This concept is being discussed in a dual perspective: On one hand there are pressures to transform the governing of the schools towards a more 'rigorous' form of New Public Management (NPM) with models...... of leadership/management from the world of business and industry. This trend is seen as an effect of economical and cultural globalisation, and the discourse of NPM seems to have a rather strong influence on how munici-palities organize and govern the schools in Scandinavia. On the other hand there is a growing...

  8. Family Formation in Scandinavia: A comparative study in family law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Kronborg

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution suggests that important historical changes in national sovereignty and territory may influence national family ideology. The study is a comparison between Denmark, Norway and Sweden and it offers an explanation as to the differences in national ideologies in Scandinavia. Denmark is liberal compared to Norway and Sweden. The objective is to develop a historical perspective in family law studies. Firstly, a simple account is given of two family law issues, prior to contextualizing them with other family law issues and public policy to suggest the influence of history as an ‘invisible power’ in family law. Hereby two disciplines are connected: family law and history.

  9. Ending War and Making Peace in Scandinavia, 1814–1848

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Morten Nordhagen

    2016-01-01

    The Napoleonic wars had a tremendous impact on the Scandinavian countries. Political and social upheaval and economic disruption ensured that ending war was no straightforward or rapid process. For traumatized veterans and those who had lost a husband or father, war never quite ended, to say...... nothing of those who remained under military occupation even after the nominal conclusion of peace. Still, the parallel process of making peace after 1815 was quite remarkable in Scandinavia, as 300 years of bitter rivalry, enmity, and perpetual conflict rapidly gave way to reconciliation to a point where...... Scandinavian union was a more likely outcome than a future Scandinavian war....

  10. Going on exchange to Scandinavia to improve language skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    Most exchange students now come to Scandinavian countries not because they are students of the languages of the countries concerned, but because they wish to experience study abroad and can do so in Scandinavia through the medium of English used as a lingua franca. This paper reports on a three-y...... for their interactions? What contributions do these exchanges make to European goals of promoting 'mother tongue plus two'? The paper sheds some light upon these questions and considers the implications of the answers found thus far....

  11. Testing of Solar Heated Domestic Hot Water System for Solahart Scandinavia ApS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1997-01-01

    The solar heating system marketed by Solahart Scandinavia ApS was tested in the Institutes test facility for SDHWsystems. The test results are described in the report.......The solar heating system marketed by Solahart Scandinavia ApS was tested in the Institutes test facility for SDHWsystems. The test results are described in the report....

  12. The development of pediatric anesthesia and intensive care in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Krister; Ekström-Jodal, Barbro; Meretoja, Olli; Valentin, Niels; Wagner, Kari

    2015-05-01

    The initiation and development of pediatric anesthesia and intensive care have much in common in the Scandinavian countries. The five countries had to initiate close relations and cooperation in all medical disciplines. The pediatric anesthesia subspecialty took its first steps after the Second World War. Relations for training and exchange of experiences between Scandinavian countries with centers in Europe and the USA were a prerequisite for development. Specialized pediatric practice was not a full-time position until during the 1950s, when the first pediatric anesthesia positions were created. Scandinavian anesthesia developed slowly. In contrast, Scandinavia pioneered both adult and certainly pediatric intensive care. The pioneers were heavily involved in the teaching and training of anesthetists and nurses. This was necessary to manage the rapidly increasing work. The polio epidemics during the 1950s initiated a combination of clinical development and technical innovations. Blood gas analyses technology and interpretation in combination with improved positive pressure ventilators were developed in Scandinavia contributing to general and pediatric anesthesia and intensive care practice. Scandinavian specialist training and accreditation includes both anesthesia and intensive care. Although pediatric anesthesia/intensive care is not a separate specialty, an 'informal accreditation' for a specialist position is obtained after training. The pleasure of working in a relatively small group of devoted colleagues and staff has persisted from the pioneering years. It is still one of the most inspiring and pleasant gifts for those working in this demanding specialty. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Changing patterns – Indian diasporic flows in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This paper explores the changing dynamics of Indian diasporic flows and mobility in Scandinavia, a rather under- explored theme. Based on quantitative background data and an empirical qualitative study conducted in Denmark, the aim is to look into the recent trends related to this migration, both...... as transformed acceptance in the country of residence. 1st may 2015 Submitted by: Dr. Rashmi SinglaAssociate ProfessorDepartment of Psychology and Educational Studies Building Roskilde UniversityDenmark...... in the country of origin and in Scandinavia. Indian diaspora, as a trans-national community across the globe comprising approximately 20-25 million have contributed to global economic, cultural and social psychological interconnections over the past few decades. In 2013, PIO (people of Indian origin) constituted...... of countries such as Mexico, China, India (Ports, 2014). An understanding of the sense of belongings and marginalities of the Indian diaspora in their country of residence in context of these transformations is also an objective of the paper.The theoretical frameworks in the paper includes subjective processes...

  14. Status of the harbour seal (Phoca vitulina in Southern Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tange Olsen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The harbour seal population in Southern Scandinavia has experienced repeated declines caused by hunting and epizootics. These events have shaped the current distribution and abundance of the population. This paper assesses the current status of the population. We estimate trends in abundance of harbour seals from long term survey data, compare these with historic trends inferred from previously published material, and discuss past and potential threats to the harbour seal population of Southern Scandinavia. It is evident that harbour seals have disappeared from haulout areas along the Danish shores of Kattegat and in the westernmost part of the Baltic Sea, where they were previously numerous. In the 1920-30s, when abundance was at its lowest, the population is estimated to have been only a fraction of its original size. Following 30 years of protection the population is currently approaching historic abundance and might have reached the carrying capacity in some areas. Further development depends largely on effects of future epizootics, anthropogenic disturbance, and availability of suitable haulout sites.

  15. The development of pediatric anesthesia and intensive care in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Krister; Ekström-Jodal, Barbro; Meretoja, Olli

    2015-01-01

    The initiation and development of pediatric anesthesia and intensive care have much in common in the Scandinavian countries. The five countries had to initiate close relations and cooperation in all medical disciplines. The pediatric anesthesia subspecialty took its first steps after the Second...... World War. Relations for training and exchange of experiences between Scandinavian countries with centers in Europe and the USA were a prerequisite for development. Specialized pediatric practice was not a full-time position until during the 1950s, when the first pediatric anesthesia positions were...... created. Scandinavian anesthesia developed slowly. In contrast, Scandinavia pioneered both adult and certainly pediatric intensive care. The pioneers were heavily involved in the teaching and training of anesthetists and nurses. This was necessary to manage the rapidly increasing work. The polio epidemics...

  16. Validation of two high‐resolution climate simulations over Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Stephanie; Maule, Cathrine Fox; Sobolowski, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    are validated with respect to timing, location and intensity of extreme events. The main objective of the RiskChange project (www.riskchange.dhigroup.com) is to establish a consistent scientifically‐based framework for risk‐based design using state‐of‐the‐art knowledge of future changes in climate extreme...... of this study is to analyse the properties of high‐resolution climate simulations over Scandinavia by testing a hypothesis that dynamic simulations are better at retaining the properties of precipitation, notably precipitation extremes than coarser simulations. When compared to statistical methods the dynamical...... season by 13‐36 % over the selected cities Bergen, Oslo and Copenhagen. The RCM simulations show a reduction of this underestimation and even indicate a sign change in some seasons/locations. A spatio‐temporal evaluation of downscaled precipitation extremes shows that both RCM downscalings are much...

  17. Tradable emission quotas in Scandinavia; Omsettelige utslippskvoter i Norden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    This report discusses the trading of emission quotas of greenhouse gases in Scandinavia. It begins with a study of the experience with quotas of SO{sub 2} and other emissions in U.S.A., with tradable fish quotas in Iceland and New Zealand and with tradable production quotas for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). It then sketches possible systems, structure and actors for a Scandinavian quota system. One of the motivations behind a Scandinavian quota system is that tradable quotas can be a cost-effective instrument and help reduce the costs of emission reductions in Scandinavia. Another motivation would be that it would help to solve the problems caused by the considerable weather-induced variation in the CO{sub 2} emissions from the power sector. Reducing the emission of greenhouse gases is a responsibility of the national governments. If it is undesirable that individual actors should trade quotas of their own accord, then intergovernmental trade with quotas may be coupled to the use of other means within each country to keep the country`s total quota within its limit. A system including private actors must meet some basic requirements to work well: (1) it must have a sufficiently large number of actors with different measure costs, (2) it must be trusted by all depending on it, (3) it must be flexible, and (4) it must impose upon the trade as few restrictions as possible. The system should include most of the greenhouse gases, not only CO{sub 2}. It may be useful, however, to start with a simple system comprising only CO{sub 2} emission and the report is essentially restricted to CO{sub 2}. Three different quota systems are discussed, their initial distribution and time horizons. The origin of a market for quota trading, control measures and management of the quota system are also discussed. 18 refs.

  18. The Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Jonas; Källman, Mikael; Östlund, Ulrika; Holgersson, Georg; Bergqvist, Michael; Bergström, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Complementary alternative medicine (CAM) is widely used among patients with cancer. This usage may have potentially harmful effects, especially when combined with anticancer drugs. However, some complementary methods may benefit patients. This review investigated the prevalence of CAM use among patients with cancer in Scandinavia and secondly studied the educational levels of CAM users compared to non-users. A systematic search of the PubMed library was carried out to locate articles published between January 2000 and October 2015 that investigated prevalence of CAM use among Scandinavian patients with cancer. Twenty-two articles were found, of which nine were included in the review. The prevalence of CAM use was 7.9% to 53%, with an average of 36.0% across all studies. Use of CAM is widespread among patients with cancer. Knowledge about CAM should be disseminated to both patients and staff in order to optimise discussions about CAM in clinical practice. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  19. Differing Procedures for Recording Mortality Statistics in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tøllefsen, Ingvild M; Hem, Erlend; Ekeberg, Øivind; Zahl, Per-Henrik; Helweg-Larsen, Karin

    2017-03-01

    There may be various reasons for differences in suicide rates between countries and over time within a country. One reason can be different registration practices. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the present procedures for mortality and suicide registration in the three Scandinavian countries and to illustrate potential sources of error in the registration of suicide. Information about registration practices and classification procedures was obtained from the cause of death registers in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. In addition, we received information from experts in the field in each country. Sweden uses event of undetermined intent more frequently than Denmark does, and Denmark more frequently than Norway. There seems to be somewhat more uncertainty among deaths classified as ill-defined and unknown cause of mortality in Norway, compared with the other two countries. Sweden performs more forensic autopsies than Norway, and Norway more than Denmark. In Denmark, in cases of a suspected unnatural manner of death, a thorough external examination of the deceased is performed. Differences in the classification of causes of death and in postmortem examinations exist in Scandinavian countries. These differences might influence the suicide statistics in Scandinavia.

  20. Transferrin variation and genetic structure of reindeer populations in Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knut H. Røed

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to analyse transferrin variation in herds of semi-domestic reindeer from Scandinavia. The results are compared with previously reported values for other populations of both semi-domestic and wild reindeer using the same techniques as in the present study. In all populations the number of alleles was high, ranging from seven to eleven, and the heterozygosity was correspondingly high, with a mean of 0.749. This high genetic variation in all populations suggests that inbreeding is not widespread among Scandinavian reindeer. The pattern of allele frequency distribution indicates a high degree of genetic heterogeneity in the transferrin locus, both between the different semi-domestic herds and between the different wild populations. The mean value of genetic distance was 0.069 between semi-domestic herds and 0.091 between wild populations. Between semi-domestic and wild populations the genetic distance was particularly high, with a mean of 0.188. This high value was mainly due to a different pattern in the distribution of the two most common transferrin alleles: Tfu was most common among semi-domestic herds, while TfEI was most common among wild populations. These differences in transferrin allele distribution are discussed in relation to possible different origins of semi-domestic and wild reindeer in Scandinavia, or alternatively, to different selection forces acting on transferrin genotypes in semi-domestic and wild populations.Transferrin-variasjon og genetisk struktur hos rein i Skandinavia.Abstact in Norwegian / Sammendrag: Transferrin-variasjon i tamreinflokker ble analysert ved hjelp av polyacrylamid gel elektroforese. Resultatene er sammenlignet med verdier som tidligere er beskrevet for både tamrein og villrein hvor det ble benyttet samme metode som i denne undersøkelsen. I alle populasjonene ble det registrert et høyt antall alleler (7-11 og heterozygositeten var tilsvarende høy med en

  1. Deep vertical propagation of mountain waves above Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörnbrack, Andreas; Gisinger, Sonja; Rapp, Markus; Witschas, Benjamin; Ehard, Benedikt; Wagner, Johannes; Achtert, Peggy; Stober, Gunter; Kivi, Rigel; Gumbel, Jörg

    2015-04-01

    The project "Investigation of the life cycle of gravity waves (GW-LCYCLE) is part of the German research initiative ROMIC (Role of the Middle atmosphere In Climate) funded by the ministry of research. In close cooperation with Scandinavian partners as the Stockholm University and the Finnish Meteorological Institute a first field phase was conducted in November/December 2013. The field program combined ground-based observations of tropospheric and lower stratospheric flow and stratospheric and mesospheric temperature by lidars and radars at Alomar (N) and at Esrange (S) with airborne and balloonborne observations. Northern Scandinavia was chosen since the westerly flow across the mountains is often aligned with the polar night jet permitting gravity waves (GWs) to propagate into the middle atmosphere. From 2 until 14 December 2013, 24 hours of the DLR Falcon flown in four intensive observing periods (IOPs) provided in-situ and remote-sensing observations of atmospheric wind, temperature, water vapour and other trace gases (e.g. CO, N2O, O3) in the vicinity of the tropopause. During three IOPs, the airborne observations were supported by 3 hourly simultaneous radiosonde launches from Andøya (N), Esrange(S) and Sodankylä (FIN). Additionally, 1.5 hourly high-frequency radiosonde launches were conducted from the Arena Arctica at Kiruna airport with two systems (Väisälä and GRAW)and different balloon fillings to obtain different ascent rates. During GW-LCYCLE, the atmospheric flow above the Scandinavian mountains was observed under distinct meteorological conditions enabling or attenuating the deep vertical propagation of mountain-induced gravity waves. The presentation juxtaposes two different cases and analyses the associated meteorological conditions. The unique combination of airborne tropospheric wind lidar measurements, flight level data, high-frequency radiosonde profiles and the ground-based lidar observations allow a comprehensive study of deeply

  2. The offshore record of variable Cenozoic sediment flux from Western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goledowski, Bartosz; Clausen, O.R.; Nielsen, S.B.

    2009-01-01

    ). This is believed mainly to be a consequence of varying erosion rates and/or changes in sediment catchments in Western Scandinavia. This has previously been interpreted in terms of variable tectonic uplift of the area caused by a hitherto unknown tectonic agent; Neither crustal shortening and thickening or magmatic......, 2005) to glacial. As, furthermore, glacial erosion (the glacial "buzzsaw" Mitchell and Montgomery, 2006; Brozovic et al., 1997; Pedersen et al, 2008) and periglacial processes (Anderson, 2002) are known to possess the potential for producing characteristic low-relief accordant landscapes at high......, given the Eocene-Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse transition, which must have increased the importance of glacial and periglacial erosion and transport processes in the highlands of western Scandinavia, a hypothesis of climate control on erosional and depositional history of western Scandinavia...

  3. The Perils of Public Anthropology? Quiescent Anthropology in Neo-Nationalist Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hervik, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Nordic anthropologists were remarkably absent from the news media in Scandinavia during the Muhammad Cartoon issue of 2005/6. This chapter discusses perils of public anthropology as seen in the research engagement with the lopsided and simplified representation of ethnic and religious minorities...... in the Scandinavia countries during the last decade. Public anthropology, it is argued, is not an obligation that is to be confused with publicity of research findings but to engage seriously as individuals and departments through research projects and investing expertise in public issues, for instance, to combat...

  4. Comparative analysis of hospital energy use: pacific northwest and scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burpee, Heather; McDade, Erin

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to establish the potential for significant energy reduction in hospitals in the United States by providing evidence of Scandinavian operational precedents with high Interior Environmental Quality (IEQ) and substantially lower energy profiles than comparable U.S. facilities. These facilities set important precedents for design teams seeking operational examples for achieving aggressive energy and interior environmental quality goals. This examination of operational hospitals is intended to offer hospital owners, designers, and building managers a strong case and concrete framework for strategies to achieve exceptionally high performing buildings. Energy efficient hospitals have the potential to significantly impact the U.S.'s overall energy profile, and key stakeholders in the hospital industry need specific, operationally grounded precedents in order to successfully implement informed energy reduction strategies. This study is an outgrowth of previous research evaluating high quality, low energy hospitals that serve as examples for new high performance hospital design, construction, and operation. Through extensive interviews, numerous site visits, the development of case studies, and data collection, this team has established thorough qualitative and quantitative analyses of several contemporary hospitals in Scandinavia and the Pacific Northwest. Many Scandinavian hospitals demonstrate a low energy profile, and when analyzed in comparison with U.S. hospitals, such Scandinavian precedents help define the framework required to make significant changes in the U.S. hospital building industry. Eight hospitals, four Scandinavian and four Pacific Northwest, were quantitatively compared using the Environmental Protection Agency's Portfolio Manager, allowing researchers to answer specific questions about the impact of energy source and architectural and mechanical strategies on energy efficiency in operational hospitals. Specific architectural, mechanical

  5. EU language policy and the language goals and gains of exchange students in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip; Caudery, Tim

    To assess whether the Erasmus student exchange program contributes to EU’s language policy aim of furthering multilingualism/plurilingualism, this presentation draws on interviews with, and tests taken by, some 50 incoming exchange students in Scandinavia and employs Bourdieu’s concept of capital...... in explaining individual variation in students’ language goals and gains....

  6. Pre-hospital critical care by anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, A J; Lossius, H M; Mikkelsen, S

    2013-01-01

    All Scandinavian countries provide anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services. Little is known of the incidence of critical illness or injury attended by these services. We aimed to investigate anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services in Scandinavia with special emphasis on incidence...

  7. Impact of an icy winter on the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas Thunberg, 1793) populations in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Åsa; Blanda, Elisa; Bodvin, Torjan

    2012-01-01

    at the sampling sites of oyster populations. Despite the severe winter conditions of 2009/2010 causing high mortality, the Pacific oyster still exists in large numbers in Scandinavia. The present investigation indicates that extreme winter conditions may result in a temporary reduction of the density...

  8. Testing EGM2008 on Leveling Data from Scandinavia, Adjacent Baltic Areas, and Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strykowski, Gabriel; Forsberg, René

    2010-01-01

    We tested EGM2008 on GPS/leveling data from Scandinavia and adjacent areas. EGM2008 performs at the same level as the best regional geoid model, NKG2004. However, the direct evaluation of EGM2008 is difficult in Greenland because no leveling data are available. Nevertheless, we show on 78 GPS-MSS...

  9. Multilingualism - a European Union goal - and incoming exchange students' language learning and language use in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    interviews and subsequent tests. Students were interviewed three times during their first semester in Scandinavia and once more if they stayed for a second semester. Each interview concluded with two tests: a picture description test and a basic vocabulary test; all interviews were recorded. Findings...

  10. Comparing contracting performance: Culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration in UK and Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian

    One key question for the last three decades of public management reforms is whether country differences between radical and modest reform approaches make a difference for performance in a reformed public sector. This paper compares differences in the implementation and performance of contracting...... out, i.e. private delivery of public services, between the United Kingdom and Scandinavia. The reform approach in the United Kingdom are argued to have generated a ‘deep’ contracting culture embedding stronger contracting institutions than the more ‘shallow’ contracting cultures in Scandinavia....... Hypotheses are suggested for the role of culture, competition, contracts, capabilities and collaboration for contracting performance between and across the countries. Arguments are tested against data from on four comparable national surveys of private delivery of park and road maintenance services in local...

  11. Sustainable Building in Scandinavia: Directions of Innovations for Supporting the Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch-Ørvad, Nina; Thuesen, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Buildings are essential for securing a sustainable society, and the Scandinavian building sector is viewed upon globally as the one to lead the way. This paper investigates in which directions sustainable building in Scandinavia is likely to move and outlines a number of areas where sustainable...... in novations are necessary for supporting this movement. The focus on innovations as essential support for the sustainable transition of the building sector derives from the Multi-Level Perspective, which has been applied to this study as a framework for understanding sustainable transitions of socio......-technical systems. The findin gs are based on twelve expert interviews with key persons from central companies, research institutions and associations in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The experts identify five directions for sustainable building in Scandinavia and list a number of innovations that will support...

  12. [Pathways and rates of Pinus sylvestris L. and Picea species recolonization into Scandinavia in Holocene].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannikov, S N; Sannikova, N S

    2015-01-01

    The results are presented of comparative analysis of pathways, rates, and timing of recolonization into Scandinavia, in Holocene, of Pinus sylvestris populations and those of Picea abies and P. obovata. The dispersion rate, starting from 12 thou years before present (BP), is calculated using palynological data from scientific literature on radiometric dating. It is found out that P sylvestris spread into Central Scandinavia from the Alps via the Danish Isthmus about 8.2 thou years BP with the speed of 500-1250 km per 1 thou years. A hypothesis is put forward suggesting that such a fast speed is due to pine seeds hydrochory, which is much faster than anemochory according to our researches. From the northern part of the East European Plain, P. sylvestris spread into Fennoscandia with lower speed (520 km per 1 thou years). Populations of Picea species dispersed from the same regions with speed (131-164 km per 1 thou years) 3-10 times lower than that of P. sylvestris. Therefore, invasion of Picea abies from the Alps into Scandinavia via the Danish Isthmus did not have time to happen before the formation of the Kattegat Strait. By circumferential pathway, through Karelia, both species of Picea reached the northern parts of Scandinavia only 3.5 thou years BP, its central parts - 2 thou years BP, and its southern parts - 1.5 thou years BP, i.e., later than P. sylvestris by 4, 6.2, and 8.5 thou years respectively. Probably, this may be explained by the fact that in pines the time to seeding is twofold shorter, while their sprouts were more tolerant to climatic extremums in periglacial habitats in middle Holocene.

  13. Changing Dynamics of Cross-Border Intimate Partnership Formations in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    Intimate partnership formations across the borders at various levels challenge stereotypes and lead to enhanced social diversity but are understudied in Scandinavia. Our workshop presents and discusses these phenomena through research, practice and policy issues from Denmark and Finland within...... interdisciplinary framework. It explores processes related to "us and them" redefinitions and minority-majority relations through focus on motivations,identity, life course,gender,family dynamics especially intergenerational conflicts, diaspora and policy effects.  ...

  14. Climate vs. tectonic induced variations in Cenozoic sediment supply from western Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    2010-01-01

    The scope of this work is the causality of sediment flux variations from western Scandinavia during the Cenozoic. Over the decades of exploration in the North Sea and in the Norwegian shelf most of these variations were given tectonic causes. During the final period of North Atlantic break-up (Paleocene-Early Eocene) this link is quite striking, especially in the northern British Isles and in the Faeroe-Shetland Platform where sediment production pulses can be correlated with well documented ...

  15. Typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution events over Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Thomas

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Characterizing typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme pollution events helps to better understand the role of local meteorology in governing the transport and distribution of pollutants in the atmosphere. The knowledge of their co-variability could further help to evaluate and constrain chemistry transport models. Hence, in this study, we investigate the statistical linkages between extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2 pollution events and meteorology over Scandinavia using observational and reanalysis data. It is observed that the south-westerly winds dominated during extreme events, accounting for 50–65 % of the total events depending on the season, while the second largest annual occurrence was from south-easterly winds, accounting for 17 % of total events. The specific humidity anomalies showed an influx of warmer and moisture-laden air masses over Scandinavia in the free troposphere. Two distinct modes in the persistency of circulation patterns are observed. The first mode lasts for 1–2 days, dominated by south-easterly winds that prevailed during 78 % of total extreme events in that mode, while the second mode lasted for 3–5 days, dominated by south-westerly winds that prevailed during 86 % of the events. The combined analysis of circulation patterns, their persistency, and associated changes in humidity and clouds suggests that NO2 extreme events over Scandinavia occur mainly due to long-range transport from the southern latitudes.

  16. Typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution events over Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Manu Anna; Devasthale, Abhay

    2017-10-01

    Characterizing typical meteorological conditions associated with extreme pollution events helps to better understand the role of local meteorology in governing the transport and distribution of pollutants in the atmosphere. The knowledge of their co-variability could further help to evaluate and constrain chemistry transport models. Hence, in this study, we investigate the statistical linkages between extreme nitrogen dioxide (NO2) pollution events and meteorology over Scandinavia using observational and reanalysis data. It is observed that the south-westerly winds dominated during extreme events, accounting for 50-65 % of the total events depending on the season, while the second largest annual occurrence was from south-easterly winds, accounting for 17 % of total events. The specific humidity anomalies showed an influx of warmer and moisture-laden air masses over Scandinavia in the free troposphere. Two distinct modes in the persistency of circulation patterns are observed. The first mode lasts for 1-2 days, dominated by south-easterly winds that prevailed during 78 % of total extreme events in that mode, while the second mode lasted for 3-5 days, dominated by south-westerly winds that prevailed during 86 % of the events. The combined analysis of circulation patterns, their persistency, and associated changes in humidity and clouds suggests that NO2 extreme events over Scandinavia occur mainly due to long-range transport from the southern latitudes.

  17. The place of Emanuel Swedenborg in the spiritual saga of Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Williams-Hogan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Between 1749 and 1771 the Swede Emanuel Swedenborg (1688–1772 wrote and published eighteen religious works in Latin that he claimed were the foundation of a new Christian religion. He wrote that he had been called by God to unlock the spiritual secrets of the Bible through the doctrine of correspondences; to reveal the nature of the spiritual world based on experience in that realm; and to explain the keys to living a heavenly life. Stating in his last work, True Christianity (paragraph no. 779 that he was called only to write and publish, Swedenborg never­ attempted to found a church. Swedenborg published his books in Amsterdam and London, and if his 1758 print runs of 1,000 for five different works are typical, he had thousands of books available to distribute throughout Europe and he did so. However, the number of books in Scandinavia at the time of his death was probably fairly small. In 1772 there were less than a dozen readers in all of Europe, and only a small handful in Scandinavia. While awareness, education, and access are necessary prerequisites to the possibility of responding to these works, interest is essential. From the beginning, and over the years since their publication, individuals motivated to explore them seem to fall into the following categories: religious virtuosi/seekers; philosophers; occultists; artists, poets, and, writers. In this article the author, after a few remarks about issues on scholarship, turns her attention to three men with three different relationships to Swedenborg‘s religious writings, they are Edvard Munch (1863–1944, Søren Kierkegaard (1813–55, and August Strindberg (1850–1912. Then she makes an assessment of Swedenborg’s contribution to Scandinavia.

  18. LANDSAT digital data for water pollution and water quality studies in Southern Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellden, U.; Akersten, I.

    1977-01-01

    Spectral diagrams, illustrating the spectral characteristics of different water types, were constructed by means of simple statistical analysis of the various reflectance properties of water areas in Southern Scandinavia as registered by LANDSAT-1. There were indications that water whose spectral reproduction is dominated by chlorophyllous matter (phytoplankton) can be distinguished from water dominated by nonchlorophyllous matter. Differences between lakes, as well as the patchiness of individual lakes, concerning secchi disc transparency could be visualized after classification and reproduction in black and white and in color by means of line printer, calcomp plotter (CRT), and ink jet plotter respectively.

  19. Bark-peeling, food stress and tree spirits - the use of pine inner bark for food in Scandinavia and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Ostlund; Lisa Ahlberg; Olle Zackrisson; Ingela Bergman; Steve Arno

    2009-01-01

    The Sami people of northern Scandinavia and many indigenous peoples of North America have used pine (Pinus spp.) inner bark for food, medicine and other purposes. This study compares bark-peeling and subsequent uses of pine inner bark in Scandinavia and western North America, focusing on traditional practices. Pine inner bark contains substances - mainly carbohydrates...

  20. Pioneering farmers cultivating new lands in the North – The expansion of agrarian societies during the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse

    2012-01-01

    Pioneering farmers cultivating new lands in the North – The expansion of agrarian societies during the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Scandinavia......Pioneering farmers cultivating new lands in the North – The expansion of agrarian societies during the Neolithic and Bronze Age in Scandinavia...

  1. Cross-continental differences in patterns of predation: will naive moose in Scandinavia ever learn?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Håkan; Wikenros, Camilla; Wabakken, Petter; Liberg, Olof

    2006-01-01

    Predation has been recognized as a major selective force in the evolution of behavioural characteristics of mammals. As a consequence of local predator extinction, prey may lose knowledge about natural predators but usually express behavioural adjustments after return of predators. Human harvest may replace natural predation but prey selection may differ from that of natural predators leading to a change in the behavioural response of prey. We show that hunting success (HS) of re-colonizing wolves (Canis lupus) on moose (Alces alces) in Scandinavia was higher than reported in North America, where moose have been continuously exposed to wolves and grizzly bears. We found no evidence that moose expressed behavioural adjustments that lowered the HS of wolves in territories that had been occupied by wolves for up to 21 years. Moose behaviour towards wolves and humans typically differs in Scandinavia compared to North America. We explain the differences found to be caused by variation in predation pressure by large carnivores and the rate, and mode, of human harvest during the twentieth century. PMID:16777732

  2. Home range size and choice of management strategy for lynx in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, J D; Andersen, R; Kvam, T; Andrén, H; Liberg, O; Odden, J; Moa, P F

    2001-06-01

    Annual and seasonal home ranges were calculated for 47 Eurasian lynx in four Scandinavian study sites (two in Sweden and two in Norway). The observed home ranges were the largest reported for the species, with study site averages ranging from 600 to 1,400 km2 for resident males and from 300 to 800 km2 for resident females. When home range sizes were compared to the size of protected areas (national parks and nature reserves) in Scandinavia, it was concluded that very few protected areas contained sufficient forest to provide space for more than a few individuals. As a direct consequence of this, most lynx need to be conserved in the multiuse semi-natural forest habitats that cover large areas in Scandinavia. This conservation strategy leads to a number of conflicts with some land uses (sheep and semidomestic reindeer herding, and roe deer hunters), but not all (forestry and moose harvest). Accordingly research must be aimed at understanding the ecology of these conflicts, and finding solutions.

  3. Serious complications in male infant circumcisions in Scandinavia indicate that this always be performed as a hospital-based procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edler, Gertrud; Axelsson, Inge; Barker, Gillian M; Lie, Susanne; Naumburg, Estelle

    2016-07-01

    More than 7000 male circumcisions are performed in Scandinavia every year. Circumcision is regulated in different ways in Sweden and Denmark and Norway. This study reviewed and described factors associated with complications of circumcision in infant boys in Scandinavia over the last two decades and discussed how these complications could be avoided. Data on significant complications following circumcision on boys under the age of one in Scandinavia over the last 20 years were collected. Information was retrieved from testimonies of circumcisers, witnesses, medical records and verdicts. A systematic review was performed of fatal cases in the literature. We found that 32 cases had been reported to the health authorities in the three countries, and we identified a total of 74 complications in these cases. These included four boys with severe bleeding and circulatory shock, which ended in the death of one boy. Other less serious complications may have occurred in other boys, but not been reported. Complications following male circumcision in Scandinavia were relatively rare, but serious complications did occur. Based on the analyses of the severe cases, we argue that circumcision should only be performed at hospitals with 24-hour emergency departments. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Response to Early Literacy Instruction in the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia: A Behavioral-Genetic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Wadsworth, Sally; Corley, Robin; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.

    2008-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on early reading and spelling at the end of kindergarten and Grade 1 were compared across three twin samples tested in the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia. Proportions of variance due to genetic influences on kindergarten reading were estimated at 0.84 in Australia, 0.68 in the U.S., and 0.33 in…

  5. Response to early literacy instruction in the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia: A behavioral-genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Wadsworth, Sally; Corley, Robin; Willcutt, Erik G; Defries, John C

    2008-01-01

    Genetic and environmental influences on early reading and spelling at the end of kindergarten and Grade 1 were compared across three twin samples tested in the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia. Proportions of variance due to genetic influences on kindergarten reading were estimated at .84 in Australia, .68 in the U.S., and .33 in Scandinavia. The effects of shared environment on kindergarten reading were estimated at .09 in Australia, .25 in the U.S., and .52 in Scandinavia. A similar pattern of genetic and environmental influences was obtained for kindergarten spelling. One year later when twins in all three samples had received formal literacy instruction for at least one full school year, heritability was similarly high across country, with estimated genetic influences varying between .79 and .83 for reading and between .62 and .79 for spelling. These findings indicate that the pattern of genetic and environmental influences on early reading and spelling development varies according to educational context, with genetic influence increasing as a function of increasing intensity of early instruction. Longitudinal analyses revealed genetic continuity for both reading and spelling between kindergarten and Grade 1 across country. However, a new genetic factor comes into play accounting for independent variance in reading at Grade 1 in the U.S. and Scandinavia, suggesting a change in genetic influences on reading. Implications for response-to-instruction are discussed.

  6. First Case of Liver Abscess in Scandinavia Due to the International Hypervirulent Klebsiella Pneumoniae Clone ST23

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gundestrup, Svend; Struve, Carsten; Stahlhut, Steen G

    2014-01-01

    This is the first case report from Scandinavia of a pyogenic liver abscess caused by a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate belonging to the international hyper virulent clone ST23. The patient, an 85-year old Caucasian, had no history of foreign travel or any classical predisposing factors for infection...

  7. Multilocus phylogeography and population structure of common eiders breeding in North America and Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Scribner, Kim T.; McCracken, Kevin G.

    2011-01-01

    Aim  Glacial refugia during the Pleistocene had major impacts on the levels and spatial apportionment of genetic diversity of species in northern latitude ecosystems. We characterized patterns of population subdivision, and tested hypotheses associated with locations of potential Pleistocene refugia and the relative contribution of these refugia to the post-glacial colonization of North America and Scandinavia by common eiders (Somateria mollissima). Specifically, we evaluated localities hypothesized as ice-free areas or glacial refugia for other Arctic vertebrates, including Beringia, the High Arctic Canadian Archipelago, Newfoundland Bank, Spitsbergen Bank and north-west Norway.Location  Alaska, Canada, Norway and Sweden.Methods  Molecular data from 12 microsatellite loci, the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region, and two nuclear introns were collected and analysed for 15 populations of common eiders (n = 716) breeding throughout North America and Scandinavia. Population genetic structure, historical population fluctuations and gene flow were inferred using F-statistics, analyses of molecular variance, and multilocus coalescent analyses.Results  Significant inter-population variation in allelic and haplotypic frequencies were observed (nuclear DNA FST = 0.004–0.290; mtDNA ΦST = 0.051–0.927). Whereas spatial differentiation in nuclear genes was concordant with subspecific designations, geographic proximity was more predictive of inter-population variance in mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequency. Inferences of historical population demography were consistent with restriction of common eiders to four geographic areas during the Last Glacial Maximum: Belcher Islands, Newfoundland Bank, northern Alaska and Svalbard. Three of these areas coincide with previously identified glacial refugia: Newfoundland Bank, Beringia and Spitsbergen Bank. Gene-flow and clustering analyses indicated that the Beringian refugium contributed little to common

  8. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria among patients with cystic fibrosis in Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Tavs; Gilljam, Marita; Jönsson, Bodil; Taylor-Robinson, David; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Wang, Mikala; Svahn, Anita; Kötz, Karsten; Hansson, Lennart; Hollsing, Annika; Hansen, Christine R.; Finstad, Pål L.; Pressler, Tania; Høiby, Niels; Katzenstein, Terese L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an emerging threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients but their epidemiology is not well described. Methods In this retrospective observational study we identified all Scandinavian CF patients with a positive NTM culture from airway secretions from 2000 to the end of 2012 and used national CF databases to describe microbiological and clinical characteristics. Results During the 13-year period 157 (11%) CF patients were culture positive for NTM at least once. Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC) (45%) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (32%) were the predominant species with geographical differences in distribution. Younger patients were more prone to MABSC (p Scandinavia. MABSC and MAC appear to target distinct patient groups. Having multiple positive cultures despite treatment conveys a poor outcome. PMID:25178871

  9. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria among patients with cystic fibrosis in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qvist, Tavs; Gilljam, Marita; Jönsson, Bodil; Taylor-Robinson, David; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Wang, Mikala; Svahn, Anita; Kötz, Karsten; Hansson, Lennart; Hollsing, Annika; Hansen, Christine R; Finstad, Pål L; Pressler, Tania; Høiby, Niels; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an emerging threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients but their epidemiology is not well described. In this retrospective observational study we identified all Scandinavian CF patients with a positive NTM culture from airway secretions from 2000 to the end of 2012 and used national CF databases to describe microbiological and clinical characteristics. During the 13-year period 157 (11%) CF patients were culture positive for NTM at least once. Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC) (45%) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) (32%) were the predominant species with geographical differences in distribution. Younger patients were more prone to MABSC (pScandinavia. MABSC and MAC appear to target distinct patient groups. Having multiple positive cultures despite treatment conveys a poor outcome. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Traditional farming landscapes for sustainable living in Scandinavia and Japan: global revival through the Satoyama initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, Björn E; Kitagawa, Junko; Lagerås, Per; Nakamura, Koji; Sasaki, Naoko; Yasuda, Yoshinori

    2014-09-01

    Traditional, pre-industrial farming was adapted to the natural environment-topography, geology, hydrology, climate, and biota. Traditional land use systems are still to be traced in Scandinavia as an "infield/outland landscape", and in Japan as a "Satoyama landscape." There are obvious similarities and differences in land use-the main difference being that pasturing of cattle and sheep has been less important in Japan. These land use systems can be traced back to early sedentary settlements 1500-2500 years ago. In both regions, traditional management almost ceased in the mid-twentieth century leading to afforestation and decreased biological diversity. Today, there is in Japan a growing movement for landscape restoration and promotion of a sustainable living countryside based on local agrarian and forestry production, local energy, tourism, etc. With this background, the so-called Satoyama Initiative has been organized and introduced as a global socio-ecological project with ecosystem services for human well-being.

  11. ELF Users or English Learners: the aims of exchange students in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe; Caudery, Tim; Shaw, Philip

    Traditionally, university students have gone abroad to study or learn the language of the host country. With the advent of ERASMUS in 1987 and the subsequent flows of students of areas other than language to and from all EU countries, the reasons among European university students for going......-structured individual interviews: one shortly after arrival; another after 5-6 weeks; and the third after 9-10 weeks. After each interview, the subject completed an oral picture description test. In addition to general findings on the students' motivation for study abroad and their language goals during the stay abroad...... on exchange have become much less clear. This paper draws on a three-year study of incoming exchange students in Scandinavia. The subjects were some 240 students who were not students of language or philology, and who were not native speakers of English. Each subject participated in three semi...

  12. Climate vs. tectonic induced variations in Cenozoic sediment supply from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    -22] and floral assemblages [23]. The Paleocene and Eocene epochs were times of warm climates, peaking in the Late Paleocene Thermal Maximum [21]. A rapid cooling on the Eocene-Oligocene transition changed the global conditions from ‘greenhouse’ to ‘icehouse’, resulting in glaciers reaching sea level in East......-36. 12. Riis, F., Quantification of Cenozoic vertical movements of Scandinavia by correlation of morphological surfaces with offshore data. Global and Planetary Change, 1996. 12(1-4): p. 331-357. 13. Rasmussen, E.S., The interplay between true eustatic sea-level changes, tectonics, and climatic changes...... Greenland [24] as well as in increased seasonality through colder winters [25]. After a subsequent warming in late Oligocene and Early Miocene the climate started to deteriorate after the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum towards the Pliocene when the North Hemisphere Glaciation begun and the frequency...

  13. Climate vs. tectonic induced variations in Cenozoic sediment supply from western Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gołędowski, Bartosz; Nielsen, S.B.; Clausen, O.R.

    corresponds to an increase of sediment yield from the Scandinavian shield. Furthermore, several studies show a correlation between climate fluctuations, sequence stratigraphic surfaces and lithological changes in the North Sea. We suggest that a rapid cooling at the beginning of Oligocene (Oi-1 glaciation...... topography. Therefore, a hypothesis of climate control on erosion and deposition during the Cenozoic history of western Scandinavia and adjacent sedimentary basins emerges. This theory is further supported by higher sediment input and pronounced progradation patterns of the Molo Formation (deposited during......The rates of sediment input to the North Sea and the Norwegian Shelf varied significantly during the Cenozoic. During Paleocene and Eocene times The Shetland Platform and Scottish Highlands were the main sediment sources, while with the onset of the Oligocene more sediment was coming from...

  14. Overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V. E.; Gausa, M.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; Berjón, A.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; de Frutos, A. M.; Bennouna, Y.; Blindheim, S.; Myhre, C. L.; Zibordi, G.; Wehrli, C.; Kratzer, S.; Hakansson, B.; Carlund, T.; de Leeuw, G.; Herber, A.; Torres, B.

    2012-06-01

    An overview on the data of columnar aerosol properties measured in Northern Europe is provided. Apart from the necessary data gathered in the Arctic, the knowledge of the aerosol loading in nearby areas (e.g. sub-Arctic) is of maximum interest to achieve a correct analysis of the Arctic aerosols and transport patterns. This work evaluates data from operational sites with sun photometer measurements belonging either to national or international networks (AERONET, GAW-PFR) and programs conducted in Scandinavia and Svalbard. We enumerate a list of sites, measurement type and periods together with observed aerosol properties. An evaluation and analysis of aerosol data was carried out with a review of previous results as well. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (AE) are the current parameters with sufficient long-term records for a first evaluation of aerosol properties. AOD (500 nm) ranges from 0.08 to 0.10 in Arctic and sub-Arctic sites (Ny-Ålesund: 0.09; Andenes: 0.10; Sodankylä: 0.08), and it is somewhat higher in more populated areas in Southern Scandinavia (AOD about 0.10-0.12 at 500 nm). On the Norwegian coast, aerosols show larger mean size (AE = 1.2 at Andenes) than in Finland, with continental climate (AE = 1.5 at Sodankylä). Columnar particle size distributions and related parameters derived from inversion of sun/sky radiances were also investigated. This work makes special emphasis in the joint and collaborative effort of the various groups from different countries involved in this study. Part of the measurements presented here were involved in the IPY projects Polar-AOD and POLARCAT.

  15. The Long History of Lutheranism in Scandinavia. From State Religion to the People’s Church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markkola Pirjo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As the main religion of Finland, but also of entire Scandinavia, Lutheranism has a centuries-long history. Until 1809 Finland formed the eastern part of the Swedish Kingdom, from 1809 to 1917 it was a Grand Duchy within the Russian Empire, and in 1917 Finland gained independence. In the 1520s the Lutheran Reformation reached the Swedish realm and gradually Lutheranism was made the state religion in Sweden. In the 19th century the Emperor in Russia recognized the official Lutheran confession and the status of the Lutheran Church as a state church in Finland. In the 20th century Lutheran church leaders preferred to use the concept people’s church. The Lutheran Church is still the majority church. In the beginning of 2015, some 74 percent of all Finns were members of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. In this issue of Perichoresis, Finnish historians interested in the role of church and Christian faith in society look at the religious history of Finland and Scandinavia. The articles are mainly organized in chronological order, starting from the early modern period and covering several centuries until the late 20th century and the building of the welfare state in Finland. This introductory article gives a brief overview of state-church relations in Finland and presents the overall theme of this issue focusing on Finnish Lutheranism. Our studies suggest that 16th and early 17th century Finland may not have been quite so devoutly Lutheran as is commonly claimed, and that late 20th century Finland may have been more Lutheran than is commonly realized.

  16. An evaluation of temperature and precipitation from global and regional climate models over Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Precipitation and temperature from global (GCMs) and regional (RCMs) climate models are compared with reanalysis and observations over Scandinavia. Also projections for the next 50-100 years are considered. The climate development is visualised as moving averages (1920-2100). Box plots are used to illuminate how well GCM runs capture the observed seasonal cycle. Maps show the seasonal difference between results from control runs (RCM) and observations (E-OBS dataset) for the reference period 1981-2000. Plots illustrate the RCM-representation of seasonal temperature and precipitations cycle for five locations in Norway and Sweden: Oslo, Bergen, Trondheim, Tromsoe and Oestersund. The results show rather large differences between control runs and observations, demonstrating the need for bias correction of results from climate models. To get an indicator of which GC M-RCM-combination give the best representation of present climate over Scandinavia, a model ranking is provided. The performance measure used is the root-mean-square deviation of mean monthly and seasonal values. The data is compared both in an area-weighted spatial average of the whole domain as well as for the selected locations. The results indicate that the regional models RACMO2 and RCA show the smallest deviations from observed climate. Among the top ranking GCM-RCM combinations, most were driven by the global model ECHAM5 and some by a version of HadCM3. These two GCMs are also present among the worst performing GCM-RCM combinations indicating that selection of RCMs is crucial. (Author)

  17. Oil-rich seeds from prehistoric contextsin southern Scandinavia – reflections on archaeobotanical records of fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, and corn spurrey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karg, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    plant we present is corn spurrey (Spergula arvensis L.), a formerly widespread weed on lime-poor sandy soils. Given the high frequency in the investigated archaeological sites the seeds had obviously been an important raw material in southern Scandinavia. No study has been made on the question...... as to whether corn spurrey had been a cultivar or if the seeds had been collected from wild populations. KEYWORDS: Archaeobotany, oil-rich seeds, fl ax, hemp, gold of pleasure, corn spurrey, southern Scandinavia...

  18. The Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of Individual Differences in Early Reading Growth in Australia, the United States, and Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Micaela E.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    This first cross-country twin study of individual differences in reading growth from post-kindergarten to post-2nd grade analyzed data from 487 twin pairs from the United States, 267 pairs from Australia, and 280 pairs from Scandinavia. Data from two reading measures were fit to biometric latent growth models. Individual differences for the reading measures at post-kindergarten in the U.S. and Australia were due primarily to genetic influences, and to both genetic and shared environmental influences in Scandinavia. In contrast, individual differences in growth generally had large genetic influences in all countries. These results suggest that genetic influences are largely responsible for individual differences in early reading development. In addition, the timing of the start of formal literacy instruction may affect the etiology of individual differences in early reading development, but have only limited influence on the etiology of individual differences in growth. PMID:23665180

  19. The genetic and environmental etiologies of individual differences in early reading growth in Australia, the United States, and Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher, Micaela E; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Keenan, Janice M; Pennington, Bruce; Defries, John C; Wadsworth, Sally J; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K

    2013-07-01

    This first cross-country twin study of individual differences in reading growth from post-kindergarten to post-second grade analyzed data from 487 twin pairs from the United States, 267 twin pairs from Australia, and 280 twin pairs from Scandinavia. Data from two reading measures were fit to biometric latent growth models. Individual differences for the reading measures at post-kindergarten in the United States and Australia were due primarily to genetic influences and to both genetic and shared environmental influences in Scandinavia. In contrast, individual differences in growth generally had large genetic influences in all countries. These results suggest that genetic influences are largely responsible for individual differences in early reading development. In addition, the timing of the start of formal literacy instruction may affect the etiology of individual differences in early reading development but have only limited influence on the etiology of individual differences in growth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. ‘Comparing social service system in Scandinavia and Korea and the direction of future development in Korea.’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    to service delivery, but while the traditional Scandinavian scheme emphasizes service delivery as a right irrespective of household situation and income and wealth, Korea has chosen a means tested system. Furthermore Korea relies predominantly on market providers, while in Scandinavia the emphasis has been...... of this reform was to enhance the quality of services. The paper reports the evaluation and the policy responses following the reform....

  1. A Low-velocity Finger from Iceland beneath Southern Scandinavia - the Key to Understanding Neogene Uplift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weidle, C.; Maupin, V.

    2007-12-01

    A model of upper mantle S-wave velocity beneath northwestern Europe is presented, based on a tomography of regional surface wave observations. Data from international and, more importantly, regional data archives (including temporary deployments) were used to measure group velocities for both Love and Rayleigh surface waves. The procedure for data selection, group velocity measurements and inversion for group velocity 2-D maps follows closely the one described by Levshin et al. (GJI, 170, 441-459, 2007). Our new set of group velocity maps differs significantly from global reference maps, enhancing many details and amplitudes of group velocity variations in the study region. We then apply a linear inversion scheme to invert for 1-D shear wave velocity profiles which are assembled to a 3-D model. By choosing conservative regularization parameters in the 2-D inversion we ensure the smoothness of the group velocity maps and the resulting 3-D shear wave speed model. To account for the different tectonic regimes in the study region, we compare inversions with 3 different reference models (pure 1-D, 3-D crust / 1-D mantle and pure 3-D) to investigate the sensitivity of the 1-D inversions to inaccuracies in crustal models. We find that all three models are consistent at depths below 90 km and the resulting models deviate only slightly from each other, mostly in amplitudes. We image an intriguing low-velocity anomaly extending from the Iceland plume domain across the north Atlantic beneath southern Scandinavia between 70-150 km depth. Beneath southern Norway, the negative perturbations reach a maximum of up to 13 % w.r.t. ak135 and a shallowing of the anomaly is indicated. This observation could explain the sustained uplift of southern Scandinavia in Neogene times, but the mechanisms are yet undetermined. Furthermore, our upper mantle model reveals good alignment to ancient plate boundaries and first-order crustal fronts around the triple junction of the Baltica

  2. Women's Participation in the Medical Profession: Insights from Experiences in Japan, Scandinavia, Russia, and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Sambuco, Dana

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although much literature has focused on the status of female physicians in the United States, limited English-language studies have examined the role of women in the medical profession elsewhere in the world. This article synthesizes evidence regarding the status of female physicians in three purposively selected regions outside the United States: Japan, Scandinavia, and Russia and Eastern Europe. These three regions markedly differ in the proportion of female physicians in the workforce, overall status of the medical profession, cultural views of gender roles, and workforce policies. Through a review of studies and articles published between 1992 and 2012 examining women's representation, status measures such as salary and leadership positions, and experiences of female physicians, the authors discuss potential relationships between the representation of female physicians, their status in medicine, and the overall status of the profession. The findings suggest that even when women constitute a high proportion of the physician workforce, they may continue to be underrepresented in positions of leadership and prestige. Evolving workforce policies, environments, and cultural views of gender roles appear to play a critical role in mediating the relationship between women's participation in the medical profession and their ability to rise to positions of influence within it. These insights are informative for the ongoing debates over the impact of the demographic shifts in the composition of the medical workforce in the United States. PMID:25320867

  3. Women's participation in the medical profession: insights from experiences in Japan, Scandinavia, Russia, and Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Aditi; Sambuco, Dana; Jagsi, Reshma

    2014-11-01

    Although much literature has focused on the status of female physicians in the United States, limited English-language studies have examined the role of women in the medical profession elsewhere in the world. This article synthesizes evidence regarding the status of female physicians in three purposively selected regions outside the United States: Japan, Scandinavia, and Russia and Eastern Europe. These three regions markedly differ in the proportion of female physicians in the workforce, overall status of the medical profession, cultural views of gender roles, and workforce policies. Through a review of studies and articles published between 1992 and 2012 examining women's representation, status measures such as salary and leadership positions, and experiences of female physicians, the authors discuss potential relationships between the representation of female physicians, their status in medicine, and the overall status of the profession. The findings suggest that even when women constitute a high proportion of the physician workforce, they may continue to be underrepresented in positions of leadership and prestige. Evolving workforce policies, environments, and cultural views of gender roles appear to play a critical role in mediating the relationship between women's participation in the medical profession and their ability to rise to positions of influence within it. These insights are informative for the ongoing debates over the impact of the demographic shifts in the composition of the medical workforce in the United States.

  4. Unemployment in Scandinavia during an economic crisis: cross-national differences in health selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heggebø, Kristian

    2015-04-01

    Are people with ill health more prone to unemployment during the ongoing economic crisis? Is this health selection more visible among people with low education, women, or the young? The current paper investigates these questions in the Scandinavian context using the longitudinal part of the EU-SILC data material. Generalized least squares analysis indicates that people with ill health are laid off to a higher degree than their healthy counterparts in Denmark, but not in Norway and Sweden. Additionally, young individuals (higher probability of unemployment in both Norway and Sweden, but not in Denmark. Neither women with ill health, nor individuals with low educational qualifications and ill health, are more likely to lose their jobs in Scandinavia. Individual level (and calendar year) fixed effects analysis confirms the existence of health selection out of employment in Denmark, whereas there is no suggestion of health selection in Sweden and Norway, except among young individuals. This finding could be related to the differing labor market demand the three Scandinavian countries have experienced during and preceding the study period (2007-2010). Another possible explanation for the cross-national differences is connected to the Danish "flexicurity" model, where the employment protection is rather weak. People with ill health, and hence more unstable labor market attachment, could be more vulnerable in such an arrangement. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Epidemiology of pollution-induced airway disease in Scandinavia and Eastern Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoerksten, B. [univ. Hospital, Dept. of Paediatrics, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    1997-12-31

    Several potential environmental factors, particularly air pollutants, have been implicated as causal factors for the increased prevalence of allergic disease in western industrialized countries. However, even when combined, these factors can only partly explain the increase. Differences in prevalence of allergy are apparent between urban and rural areas of industrialized countries, with positive skin prick tests being more common in children linging in urban regions. However, the prevalence of atopy is lower in children in central and Eastern Europe, where air pollution poses a major problem, than in Western Europe. Indeed, preliminary data from the International Study of Asthma and Allergy in Children (ISAAC) confirm that the prevalence of childhood atopy is lower in Eastern Europe than in Scandinavia. Althougt air pollution is undoubtedly associated with the development of allergic disease, other factors connected with western lifestyle, such as changes in diet and living conditions, may play an important role and provide a possible explanation for the higher prevalence of allergic disease in western industrialized countries. (au)

  6. Measuring and crust-correcting finite-frequency travel time residuals - application to southwestern Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolstrup, M. L.; Maupin, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a data-processing routine to compute relative finite-frequency travel time residuals using a combination of the Iterative Cross-Correlation and Stack (ICCS) algorithm and the Multi-Channel Cross-Correlation method (MCCC). The routine has been tailored for robust measurement of P- and S-wave travel times in several frequency bands and for avoiding cycle-skipping problems at the shortest periods. We also investigate the adequacy of ray theory to calculate crustal corrections for finite-frequency regional tomography in normal continental settings with non-thinned crust. We find that ray theory is valid for both P and S waves at all relevant frequencies as long as the crust does not contain low-velocity layers associated with sediments at the surface. Reverberations in the sediments perturb the arrival times of the S waves and the long-period P waves significantly, and need to be accounted for in crustal corrections. The data-processing routine and crustal corrections are illustrated using data from a~network in southwestern Scandinavia.

  7. The shellfish enigma across the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in southern Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. P.; Ryves, D. B.; Rasmussen, P.; Olsen, J.; Knudsen, K.-L.; Andersen, S. H.; Weckström, K.; Clarke, A. L.; Andrén, E.; Juggins, S.

    2016-11-01

    The well-known and widespread replacement of oysters (abundant during the Mesolithic period) by cockles and mussels in many Danish Stone Age shell middens ca. 5900 cal yrs BP coincides with the transition to agriculture in southern Scandinavia. This human resource shift is commonly believed to reflect changing resource availability, driven by environmental and/or climatic change at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition rather than cultural choice. While several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the ;Mesolithic-Neolithic oyster decline;, an explanation based on a sudden freshening of the inner Danish waters has received most attention. Here, for the first time, we test and refute this long-standing hypothesis that declining salinity explains the marked reduction in oysters identified within numerous shell middens across coastal Denmark at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition using quantitative and qualitative salinity inference from several, independent proxies (diatoms, molluscs and foraminifera) from multiple Danish fjord sites. Alternatively, we attribute the oyster decline to other environmental causes (particularly changing sedimentation), ultimately driven by external climatic forcing. Critical application of such high-quality environmental archives can reinvigorate archaeological debates and can aid in understanding and managing environmental change in increasingly impacted coastal regions.

  8. Trauma systems and early management of severe injuries in Scandinavia: review of the current state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristiansen, Thomas; Søreide, Kjetil; Ringdal, Kjetil G; Rehn, Marius; Krüger, Andreas J; Reite, Andreas; Meling, Terje; Naess, Pål Aksel; Lossius, Hans Morten

    2010-05-01

    Scandinavian countries face common challenges in trauma care. It has been suggested that Scandinavian trauma system development is immature compared to that of other regions. We wanted to assess the current status of Scandinavian trauma management and system development. An extensive search of the Medline/Pubmed, EMBASE and SweMed+ databases was conducted. Wide coverage was prioritized over systematic search strategies. Scandinavian publications from the last decade pertaining to trauma epidemiology, trauma systems and early trauma management were included. The incidence of severe injury ranged from 30 to 52 per 100,000 inhabitants annually, with about 90% due to blunt trauma. Parts of Scandinavia are sparsely populated with long pre-hospital distances. In accordance with other European countries, pre-hospital physicians are widely employed and studies indicate that this practice imparts a survival benefit to trauma patients. More than 200 Scandinavian hospitals receive injured patients, increasingly via multidisciplinary trauma teams. Challenges remain concerning pre-hospital identification of the severely injured. Improved triage allows for a better match between patient needs and the level of resources available. Trauma management is threatened by the increasing sub-specialisation of professions and institutions. Scandinavian research is leading the development of team- and simulation-based trauma training. Several pan-Scandinavian efforts have facilitated research and provided guidelines for clinical management. Scandinavian trauma research is characterised by an active collaboration across countries. The current challenges require a focus on the role of traumatology within an increasingly fragmented health care system. Regional networks of predictable and accountable pre- and in-hospital resources are needed for efficient trauma systems. Successful development requires both novel research and scientific assessment of imported principles of trauma care. (c

  9. A review of PU prevalence and incidence across Scandinavia, Iceland and Ireland (Part I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Z; Johanssen, E; van Etten, M

    2013-07-01

    To provide a critical appraisal and synthesis of the published literature pertaining to pressure ulcer (PU) prevalence, incidence and prevention practices from the context of Scandinavia, Iceland and Ireland. An integrative research review following Cooper's five stages. Studies published in peer-reviewed journals, involving any study design, but specifically exploring PU prevalence or incidence in adults or children, in any care setting, were included. Fifty-five papers were data extracted, quality appraised and included in the qualitative synthesis of the review. Mean prevalence in Norway was 17% (4.8-29%) in Ireland was 16% (4-37%), in Denmark was 15% (2.2-35.5%) and in Sweden was 25%, (0.04-42.7%). Prevalence in Iceland was 8.9%. In acute care, mean prevalence was 21% (0-42.7%) and in long stay was 12% (2.4-23.7%). Prevalence among hospice patients was 35.7%, and in community care was 0.04% and 4%. No incidence study from Iceland was identified; the single incidence study from Norway noted a figure of 16.4%. The mean incidence from Ireland was 11% (8-14.4%) from Sweden was 20% (3.1-49%) and Denmark was 1.8% (1.4-2.7%). Mean incidence in acute care setting was 17.6%, (1.4-49%); in long stay was 6.63% (3.1-8.4%). Incidence in the hospice setting was 20.4%. No study reported PU incidence figures from the community setting. Figures for both prevalence and incidence were similar in Ireland and Norway and highest in Sweden, whereas Denmark demonstrated the lowest incidence rates and Iceland demonstrated the lowest prevalence rates. Figures were consistently highest in acute care and hospice settings, and lowest in the care of the older person setting.

  10. P-wave receiver function study of crustal structure in Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makushkina, Anna; Thybo, Hans; Vinnik, Lev; Youssof, Mohammad

    2016-04-01

    In this study we present preliminary results on the structure of the continental crust in northern Scandinavia. The research area consists of three geologically different domains: the Archaean Domain in the north-east, the Palaeoproterozoic Svecofennian Domain in the east and the Caledonian Deformed Domain in the west (Gorbatschev and Bogdanova,1993). We present results based on data collected by 60 seismic stations during 2-4 years of deployment in the ScanArray experiment, which is an international collaboration between Scandinavian, German and British universities. We use the receiver function (RF) technique in the LQT ray-oriented coordinate system (Vinnik, 1977). Receiver function analysis has rather high vertical resolution of the depth to seismic discontinuities which cause transformation between P- and S-waves. The whole dataset is uniformly filtered and deconvolved records are stacked using appropriate moveout corrections. We have used events with a magnitude ≥ 5.5 Mw, with epicentral distances range from 30° to 95°. The technique allows us to constrain crustal structure and determine the Moho depth around stations by analyzing the PS converted phases generated at discontinuities in particular the Moho. We present preliminary interpretation of P-wave RF analysis in terms of the complex tectonic and geodynamic evolution of the Baltic Shield. Further studies will include joint P and S receiver function analysis of this area as well as investigations of the upper mantle. References: Vinnik L.P. (1977) Detection of waves converted from P to SV in the mantle. Phys. Earth planet. Inter. 15, 39-45 Gorbatschev R., Bogdanova, S. (1993) Frontiers in the Baltic Shield. Precambrian Res. 64, 3-21

  11. Carbon dioxide variations in the stratosphere over Japan, Scandinavia and Antarctica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Kawamura, K. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Center for Atmospheric and Oceanic Studies; Machida, T. [National Inst. for Environmental Studies, Tsukuba (Japan); Sugawara, S. [Miyagi Univ. of Education, Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Education; Morimoto, S.; Hashida, G.; Yamanouchi, T. [National Inst. of Polar Research, Tokyo (Japan); Honda, H. [Inst. of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara (Japan)

    2003-04-01

    Systematic collections of stratospheric air samples have been conducted over Japan since 1985 using a balloon-borne cryogenic sampler. The collection of stratospheric air samples was also carried out twice over Scandinavia and once over Antarctica. Vertical profiles of CO{sub 2} concentration thus obtained over these locations were quite similar to each other; CO{sub 2} concentration decreased with increasing altitude in the lower stratosphere and reached an almost constant value in the mid-stratosphere. {sup 13}C of stratospheric CO{sub 2} observed over these locations enriched with increasing altitude. A negative correlation between {sup 13}C and CO{sub 2} concentration with {sup 13}C/CO{sub 2} of 0.02 ppm was found in the lower stratosphere. Although CO{sub 2} concentration was almost constant in the mid-stratosphere, the {sup 13}C enrichment was observed in succession. {sup 18}O of stratospheric CO{sub 2} also enriched with increasing altitude. The enrichment was significant; {sup 18}O was almost 0 at the tropopause and reached a maximum value of about 11 at a layer with N{sub 2}O concentration of about 10 ppbv. A compact relation between {sup 18}O and N{sub 2}O concentration was consistently observed for these locations. Stratosperic CO{sub 2} over Japan showed a secular increase with an average rate of 1.4 ppmv/yr for the period 1985-2000. The secular increase was not constant with time, and temporal stagnation of the CO{sub 2} increase was observed in 1997.

  12. Carbon dioxide variations in the stratosphere over Japan, Scandinavia and Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.; Machida, T.; Sugawara, S.; Morimoto, S.; Hashida, G.; Yamanouchi, T.; Kawamura, K.; Honda, H.

    2003-04-01

    Systematic collections of stratospheric air samples have been conducted over Japan since 1985 using a balloon-borne cryogenic sampler. The collection of stratospheric air samples was also carried out twice over Scandinavia and once over Antarctica. Vertical profiles of CO2 concentration thus obtained over these locations were quite similar to each other; CO2 concentration decreased with increasing altitude in the lower stratosphere and reached an almost constant value in the mid-stratosphere. δ13C of stratospheric CO2 observed over these locations enriched with increasing altitude. A negative correlation between δ13C and CO2 concentration with Δδ13C/ΔCO2 of -0.02‰ ppmv-1 was found in the lower stratosphere. Although CO2 concentration was almost constant in the mid-stratosphere, the δ13C enrichment was observed in succession. δ18O of stratospheric CO2 also enriched with increasing altitude. The enrichment was significant; δ18O was almost 0‰ at the tropopause and reached a maximum value of about 11‰ at a layer with N2O concentration of about 10 ppbv. A compact relation between δ18O and N2O concentration was consistently observed for these locations. Stratosperic CO2 over Japan showed a secular increase with an average rate of 1.4 ppmv yr-1 for the period 1985-2000. The secular increase was not constant with time, and temporal stagnation of the CO2 increase was observed in 1997.

  13. Work life and mental wellbeing of single and non-single working mothers in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Torill; Mittelmark, Maurice B

    2009-08-01

    This study examined levels and predictors of mental wellbeing in Scandinavian working single and non-single mothers, with a special focus on financial stress, job characteristics and work-family conflict. The European Social Survey Round 2 (2005) provided questionnaire data from 73 single and 432 non-single working mothers in Denmark, Sweden and Norway. Respondents answered questions about the outcome variables life satisfaction, happiness, and positive affect, and predictor variables financial stress, job characteristics, work-family conflict, and social support. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to assess the relationships between predictor variables and mental wellbeing outcomes. Single working mothers scored significantly lower on life satisfaction and happiness, but not on positive affect, than did non-single mothers. Financial stress was higher in the single mother group. There were no significant differences in levels of enriching or stressful job characteristics, or in levels of social support. While financial stress and work-family conflict were important predictors in both groups, the relationship between financial stress and wellbeing was far stronger in the single mother group. Confidant support was a significant predictor only in the single mother group, and social participation only in the non-single mothers group. This study suggests that the Scandinavian welfare democracies have not yet been successful in relieving the financial pressure experienced by single working mothers. Development of efficient financial support systems should be prioritized. Ways to reduce work-family conflict in both single and non-single mothers in Scandinavia should also be given increased attention.

  14. Molecular- and pollen-based vegetation analysis in lake sediments from central Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parducci, Laura; Matetovici, Irina; Fontana, Sonia L; Bennett, K D; Suyama, Yoshihisa; Haile, James; Kjaer, Kurt H; Larsen, Nicolaj K; Drouzas, Andreas D; Willerslev, Eske

    2013-07-01

    Plant and animal biodiversity can be studied by obtaining DNA directly from the environment. This new approach in combination with the use of generic barcoding primers (metabarcoding) has been suggested as complementary or alternative to traditional biodiversity monitoring in ancient soil sediments. However, the extent to which metabarcoding truly reflects plant composition remains unclear, as does its power to identify species with no pollen or macrofossil evidence. Here, we compared pollen-based and metabarcoding approaches to explore the Holocene plant composition around two lakes in central Scandinavia. At one site, we also compared barcoding results with those obtained in earlier studies with species-specific primers. The pollen analyses revealed a larger number of taxa (46), of which the majority (78%) was not identified by metabarcoding. The metabarcoding identified 14 taxa (MTUs), but allowed identification to a lower taxonomical level. The combined analyses identified 52 taxa. The barcoding primers may favour amplification of certain taxa, as they did not detect taxa previously identified with species-specific primers. Taphonomy and selectiveness of the primers are likely the major factors influencing these results. We conclude that metabarcoding from lake sediments provides a complementary, but not an alternative, tool to pollen analysis for investigating past flora. In the absence of other fossil evidence, metabarcoding gives a local and important signal from the vegetation, but the resulting assemblages show limited capacity to detect all taxa, regardless of their abundance around the lake. We suggest that metabarcoding is followed by pollen analysis and the use of species-specific primers to provide the most comprehensive signal from the environment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Feasibility of comparing core data from existing trauma registries in scandinavia. Reaching for a Scandinavian major trauma outcome study (MTOS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringdal, K G; Lossius, H M

    2007-01-01

    The organisation of trauma care in Scandinavia has several similarities, including trauma registries, but so far there are limited amount of research on efficiency and outcome. Data and results from trauma outcome studies like the US MTOS are not fully applicable to the Scandinavian trauma population. To reveal the feasibility of using data from existing trauma registries of major hospitals in Scandinavia, for a minimal common dataset, in a joint, prospective Scandinavian MTOS. We collected data points, data point definitions, and inclusion/exclusion criteria, from the major trauma registries of the Swedish trauma registry standard, three university hospitals in Denmark, one university hospital in Finland, and the Norwegian National Trauma Registry. The collected material was compared to reveal common data points, inclusion criteria, and the compatibility of data point definitions. The median number of data points was 147 (range 71-257; interquartile range = 90-205). Most registries lacked precise data definition catalogues. Only 16 data points could be considered as common, of which just a few were core trauma data. Four data points had the same data category options but were not considered having the same data point definitions. The inclusion criteria were not uniform. Trauma registries in Scandinavia have few common core data and data point definitions. There were data points for calculating the Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS) but the inclusion criteria varied too much to ensure a valid comparison. A consensus process for a joint trauma core data set will be initiated by the Scandinavian Networking Group for Trauma and Emergency Management (SCANTEM) to increase research on trauma efficiency and outcome.

  16. The Genetic and Environmental Etiologies of Individual Differences in Early Reading Growth in Australia, the United States, and Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher, Micaela E.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Byrne, Brian; Samuelsson, Stefan; Keenan, Janice M.; Pennington, Bruce; DeFries, John C.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Willcutt, Erik; Olson, Richard K.

    2013-01-01

    This first cross-country twin study of individual differences in reading growth from post-kindergarten to post-2nd grade analyzed data from 487 twin pairs from the United States, 267 pairs from Australia, and 280 pairs from Scandinavia. Data from two reading measures were fit to biometric latent growth models. Individual differences for the reading measures at post-kindergarten in the U.S. and Australia were due primarily to genetic influences, and to both genetic and shared environmental inf...

  17. Invitation systems and identification in Late Iron Age southern Scandinavia? The gold foil figures from a new perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup, Maria Panum

    2016-01-01

    of a person’s true identity and in the dependency upon magnates in southern Scandinavia during the 6th–8th centuries AD. The gold foil figures may have been tokens issued by the magnate and served as invitations to special events, at a time when there was apparently a preoccupation with organising cult...... activities at the elite residences and restricting places at and admission to such events. The figures did not guarantee that it was the right guests who arrived on these occasions, but presenting this type of token may have minimised the risk of allowing in impostors....

  18. Molybdenite Re Os dating constrains gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen, SW Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingen, Bernard; Stein, Holly J.; Bogaerts, Michel; Bolle, Olivier; Mansfeld, Joakim

    2006-04-01

    Re-Os dating of molybdenite from small deposits is used to define crustal domains exhibiting ductile versus brittle behaviour during gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen in SW Scandinavia. A 1019 ± 3 Ma planar quartz vein defines a minimum age for brittle behaviour in central Telemark. In Rogaland-Vest Agder, molybdenite associated with deformed quartz and pegmatite veins formed between 982 ± 3 and 947 ± 3 Ma in the amphibolite-facies domain (three deposits) and between 953 ± 3 and 931 ± 3 Ma west of the clinopyroxene-in isograd (two deposits) in the vicinity of the 0.93-0.92 Ga Rogaland anorthosite complex. The data constrain the last increment of ductile deformation to be younger than 0.95 and 0.93 Ga in these two metamorphic zones, respectively. Molybdenite is the product of an equilibrium between biotite, oxide and sulfide minerals and a fluid or hydrated melt phase, after the peak of 1.03-0.97 Ga regional metamorphism. Molybdenite precipitation is locally episodic. A model for gravitational collapse of the Sveconorwegian orogen controlled by lithospheric extension after 0.97 Ga is proposed. In the west of the orogen, the Rogaland-Vest Agder sector is interpreted as a large shallow gneiss dome, formed slowly in two stages in a warm and structurally weak crust. The first stage at 0.96-0.93 Ga was associated with intrusion of the post-collisional hornblende-biotite granite suite. The second stage at 0.93-0.92 Ga, restricted to the southwesternmost area, was associated with intrusion of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite suite. Most of the central part of the orogen was already situated in the brittle upper crust well before 0.97 Ga, and did not undergo significant exhumation during collapse. In the east of the orogen, situated against the colder cratonic foreland, exhumation of high-grade rocks of the Eastern Segment occurred between 0.97 and 0.95 Ga, and included preservation of high-pressure rocks but no plutonism.

  19. Births and male:female birth ratio in Scandinavia and the United Kingdom after the Windscale fire of October 1957.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grech, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The Windscale (UK) fire of 1957 carried radioactive fallout according to the then prevailing wind patterns, in a North-Easterly direction across the Nordic countries, toward Norway. The male:female ratio at birth (M/F) is known to be increased after parental exposure to ionising radiation due to foetal losses that affect female more than male pregnancies. This study was carried out in order to ascertain whether the Windscale fire had any effects on M/F and birth rates in the United Kingdom and Scandinavia. Annual live births by gender were obtained from a World Health Organization dataset. The null hypothesis was that there were no significant changes in M/F or in births in temporal association with the 1957 Windscale event in abovementioned countries. There were no significant effects on the UK and most of Scandinavia but there was a significant rise in M/F for Norway and Finland with an aggregate deficit of around 4000 births in each country. A recent study suggests that the plume from the reactor extended further east than previously believed. This study confirms that contamination from the Windscale fire had a negligible impact on the UK (as measured by birth effects) but had a significant impact on births in Norway and Sweden.

  20. Review of: Ancient Scandinavia: An Archaeological History from the First Humans to the Vikings (Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016) T. Douglas Price

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Scandinavia is world-famous for its prehistoric archaeology, with exceptional finds of Mesolithic kitchen middens and submarine sites, Bronze Age oak-log coffins and rock carvings, Iron Age bog bodies and well-preserved settlement sites, Viking Age ships and burials, and thousands of field system...

  1. The expansion of agrarian societies towards the North – new evidence for agriculture during the Mesolithic/Neolithic transition in Southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse; Karg, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Radiocarbon dates indicate the migration of Central European farmers to Southern Scandinavia during the period 4000–3700 cal BC. ► Faunal and botanical records of these first farmers are frequent at inland sites located on easily-workable arable soils. ► Flint mining and pioneering farming...

  2. Large-scale hydrological changes in North America and Scandinavia from GRACE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Holger; Wang, Hansheng; Jia, Lulu; Wu, Patrick; Jiang, Liming; Hsu, Houtse; Xiang, Longwei; Wang, Zhiyong; Hu, Bo

    2013-04-01

    Peninsula, the mass gain is about 2.3±0.8 Gt/yr, a much lower signal than in central North America. Water-level variations from both lakes Vänern and Vättern and from groundwater well data show positive trends since the low in years 2002 and 2003 consistent with our estimated mass increase. Our presentation will show the clear identification of these current large-scale hydrological changes in GIA-affected areas with our approach. We further demonstrate the capabilities of GRACE and its follow-on missions for such studies, and also how we can help to improve global hydrology models, to investigate floods and droughts and to control water storage in large lakes. Reference Wang, H.S., L. Jia, H. Steffen, P. Wu, L. Jiang, H. Hsu, L. Xiang, Z. Wang, and B. Hu (2012): Increased water storage in North America and Scandinavia from GRACE gravity data, Nature Geosci., doi:10.1038/NGEO1652.

  3. K-Ar age constrains on chemically weathered granitic basement rocks (saprolites) in Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margreth, Annina; Fredin, Ola; Viola, Giulio; Knies, Jochen; Sørlie, Ronald; Lie, Jan-Erik; Margrethe Grandal, Else; Zwingmann, Horst; Vogt, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    Remnants of in-situ weathered bedrock, saprolite, are found in several locations in Scandinavia. Saprolites contain important information about past climate conditions and landscape evolution, although their age and genesis are commonly difficult to constrain. It is generally thought that clay-poor, coarse-grained (arêne) saprolites, mostly occurring as thin regolith blankets or in larger outcrops, formed in temperate climate during the Cenozoic, whereas clay-rich (argillic) saprolites, commonly restricted to small, fracture-bounded outcrops, formed in (sub-)tropical climate during the Mesozoic. Recent methodological and conceptual advances in K-Ar dating of illite-bearing fault rocks have been applied to date clay-rich saprolites. To test the K-Ar dating technique for saprolites, we first selected an offshore site in the Viking Graben of the North Sea, where weathered and fractured granitic basement highs have been drilled during petroleum exploration, and an abandoned kaolin mine in Southern Sweden. Both targets provide independent age control through the presence of overlying Mesozoic sedimentary rocks. Clay-rich saprolites occurring in fractured basement rocks were additionally sampled in a joint valley landscape on the southwestern coast of Norway, which can be regarded as the possible onland correlative to the offshore basement high. In order to offer a sound interpretation of the obtained K-Ar ages, the mineralogical and chemical composition of the saprolites requires a thorough characterization. Scanning electron microscopy of thin sections, integrated by XRD and XRF analysis, reveals the progressive transformation of primary granitic rock minerals into secondary clay minerals. The authigenesis of illite is particularly important to understand, since it is the only K-bearing clay mineral that can be dated by the K-Ar method. K-feldspars and mica are the common primary K-bearing minerals, from which illite can be formed. While progressive leaching of

  4. Simultaneous estimation of lithospheric uplift rates and absolute sea level change in southwest Scandinavia from inversion of sea level data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Hansen, Jens Morten; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2014-01-01

    Scandinavia from modern relative sea level data series that cover the period from 1900 to 2000. In both approaches, a priori information is required to solve the inverse problem. A priori information about the average vertical lithospheric movement in the area of interest is critical for the quality......Relative sea level curves contain coupled information about absolute sea level change and vertical lithospheric movement. Such curves may be constructed based on, for example tide gauge data for the most recent times and different types of geological data for ancient times. Correct account...... for vertical lithospheric movement is essential for estimation of reliable values of absolute sea level change from relative sea level data and vise versa. For modern times, estimates of vertical lithospheric movement may be constrained by data (e.g. GPS-based measurements), which are independent from...

  5. Evidence for effects of solar forcing and North Atlantic circulation on the climate of continental Scandinavia during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Launonen, I.; Ojala, A.; Holmström, L.; Tiljander, M.

    2014-12-01

    Nearly 10 000-year-long varved sediment records from Lakes Nautajärvi and Korttajärvi, Finland, analyzed using digital image analysis techniques, provide evidence of climate and environment oscillation at multi-decadal to millennial timescales. We used two independent methods, the REDFIT periodogram analysis and the Posterior Singular Spectrum Analysis, to extract the periodic features of time series from clastic laminae and assess their statistical reliability. The analyses revealed that seasonal sediment fluxes correspond with environmental changes with significant periodicities of 1500-1800, 1000, 600-800, nearly 300, nearly 200, 150-170, nearly 90 and 47 years, showing variable coherency with different climate forcing factors and other palaeoproxy records in the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicate that the Holocene winter climate in continental Scandinavia was forced by a combination of several factors, at least by solar variability and the North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere circulation patterns, with a varying influence through time.

  6. The ability of cover crops to reduce nitrogen and phosphorus losses from arable land in southern Scandinavia and Finland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aronsson, H.; Hansen, Elly Møller; Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes current knowledge from the literature and experimental studies on the role of cover crops (CCs) in reducing nitrogen (N) leaching and phosphorus (P) losses to waters under the marine and humid continental climate conditions of southern Scandinavia and Finland. Field leaching......]). The data indicate that CCs do not substantially reduce total P losses by runoff and leaching. The effects of CCs on total P leaching varied between a relative increase of 86% and a decrease of 43%. Climate conditions involving freezing-thawing during winter increased the risk of losses of dissolved P from...... distribution of CCs on different soils and regions with respect to required reductions in N leaching and P losses. For this, more knowledge is required, especially about the effect of CCs on P losses (e.g., the effect of species with different partitioning between shoot and root biomass and the effects of CC...

  7. Anticyclonic atmospheric circulation as an analogue for the warm and dry mid-Holocene summer climate in central Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Antonsson

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Climate reconstructions from central Scandinavia suggest that annual and summer temperatures were rising during the early Holocene and reached their maximum after 8000 cal yr BP. The period with highest temperatures was characterized by increasingly low lake-levels and dry climate, with driest and warmest conditions at about 7000 to 5000 cal yr BP. We compare the reconstructed climate pattern with simulations of a climate model for the last 9000 years and show that the model, which is predominantly driven by solar insolation patterns, suggests less prominent mid-Holocene dry and warm period in Scandinavia than the reconstructions. As an additional explanation for the reconstructed climate, we argue that the trend from the moist early Holocene towards dry and warm mid-Holocene was caused by a changing atmospheric circulation pattern with a mid-Holocene dominance of summer-time anticyclonic circulation. An extreme case of the anticyclonic conditions is the persistent blocking high, an atmospheric pressure pattern that at present often causes long spells of particularly dry and warm summer weather, or "Indian summers". The argument is tested with daily instrumental temperature and precipitation records in central Sweden and an objective circulation classification based on surface air pressure over the period 1900–2002. We conclude that the differences between the precipitation and temperature climates under anticyclonic and non-anticyclonic conditions are significant. Further, warm and dry combination, as indicated by mid-Holocene reconstructions, is a typical pattern under anticyclonic conditions. These results indicate that the presented hypothesis for the mid-Holocene climate is likely valid.

  8. Work life and mental well-being: single and coupled employed mothers in Southern Europe and Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Torill

    2009-09-01

    Many European mothers, single and coupled, combine work outside the home and family life. The effects of this on their mental well-being may vary depending on the level of support available from the State's welfare system, since welfare may buffer working mothers from some of the stress that can arise from trying to manage significant responsibilities on the job and at home. Welfare may be especially important for single working mothers, for whom the burden of multiple roles may be even heavier. The present study assessed levels and predictors of well-being of single and coupled employed mothers in Greece, Portugal and Spain, where welfare support is relatively limited. Results were compared to a parallel study with data from Denmark, Norway and Sweden, where welfare support is relatively comprehensive. Coupled mothers in Scandinavia had significantly lower financial hardship, longer education, higher life satisfaction, more enriching jobs, practical support, financial support and social participation than coupled mothers in the Southern European sample. On the other hand, the Scandinavian coupled mothers had higher levels of work family conflict than coupled mothers in Southern Europe. Single mothers in Scandinavia, compared to single mothers in Southern Europe, had significantly longer education, higher life satisfaction and positive affect, more enriching jobs, confidant support, practical support, financial support and social participation. Level of job stress was the same for all mother groups. All groups differed significantly from each other in level of financial hardship, with Scandinavian coupled mothers being best off, followed by Scandinavian single mothers, Southern European coupled mothers, and Southern European single mothers. The regional differences suggest that single motherhood per se need not be a risk factor for poorer well-being, and that welfare policies may have a protective effect for the mental well-being of single mothers.

  9. 'Whither am I wandering?' A journey into the Self – Mary Wollstonecraft’s travels in Scandinavia, 1795

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Beard

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available To place the letters written by Mary Wollstonecraft from Scandinavia to her lover, Gilbert Imlay, besides the journal in epistolary form that she published on her return to England, is to discern something of the complexity of Wollstonecraft’s personality. The two sets of documents, each of distinctive interest, reveal by their juxtaposition the struggle of an intelligent woman to reconcile her feelings and her reason as she strives to pursue a trajectory towards the emotional and financial independence that she had claimed for women in her polemical work A Vindication of the Rights of Woman. The comparison between the two sets of documents also demonstrates the ways in which the characteristics of the letter – its potentiality for immediacy, for the expression of the self and the emotions – are consciously shaped in the published Letters. Such strategies are designed for the perceived reader in each case: on the one hand, Imlay himself and, on the other, all those readers likely to purchase a work from the imprint of Joseph Johnson.

  10. Case study of stratospheric gravity waves of convective origin over Arctic Scandinavia. VHF radar observations and numerical modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rechou, A. [La Reunion Univ., St. Denis Messag, Ile de La Reunion (France). Lab. de l' Atmosphere et des Cyclones; Arnault, J.; Dalin, P.; Kirkwood, S. [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna (Sweden)

    2013-03-01

    Orography is a well-known source of gravity and inertia-gravity waves in the atmosphere. Other sources, such as convection, are also known to be potentially important but the large amplitude of orographic waves over Scandinavia has generally precluded the possibility to study such other sources experimentally in this region. In order to better understand the origin of stratospheric gravity waves observed by the VHF radar ESRAD (Esrange MST radar) over Kiruna, in Arctic Sweden (67.88 N, 21.10 E), observations have been compared to simulations made using the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) with and without the effects of orography and clouds. This case study concerns gravity waves observed from 00:00 UTC on 18 February to 12:00 UTC on 20 February 2007. We focus on the wave signatures in the static stability field and vertical wind deduced from the simulations and from the observations as these are the parameters which are provided by the observations with the best height coverage. As is common at this site, orographic gravity waves were produced over the Scandinavian mountains and observed by the radar. However, at the same time, southward propagation of fronts in the Barents Sea created short-period waves which propagated into the stratosphere and were transported, embedded in the cyclonic winds, over the radar site. (orig.)

  11. Genetic determinants of facial clefting: analysis of 357 candidate genes using two national cleft studies from Scandinavia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanand Jugessur

    Full Text Available Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark: 235 case-parent triads.We used two complementary statistical methods, TRIMM and HAPLIN, to look for associations across these two national samples. TRIMM tests for association in each gene by using multi-SNP genotypes from case-parent triads directly without the need to infer haplotypes. HAPLIN on the other hand estimates the full haplotype distribution over a set of SNPs and estimates relative risks associated with each haplotype. For isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (I-CL/P, TRIMM and HAPLIN both identified significant associations with IRF6 and ADH1C in both populations, but only HAPLIN found an association with FGF12. For isolated cleft palate (I-CP, TRIMM found associations with ALX3, MKX, and PDGFC in both populations, but only the association with PDGFC was identified by HAPLIN. In addition, HAPLIN identified an association with ETV5 that was not detected by TRIMM.Strong associations with seven genes were replicated in the Scandinavian samples and our approach effectively replicated the strongest previously known association in clefting--with IRF6. Based on two national cleft cohorts of similar ancestry, two robust statistical methods and a large panel of SNPs in the most promising cleft candidate genes to date, this study identified a previously unknown association with clefting for ADH1C and provides additional candidates and analytic approaches to advance the field.

  12. X-linked genes and risk of orofacial clefts: evidence from two population-based studies in Scandinavia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanand Jugessur

    Full Text Available Orofacial clefts are common birth defects of complex etiology, with an excess of males among babies with cleft lip and palate, and an excess of females among those with cleft palate only. Although genes on the X chromosome have been implicated in clefting, there has been no association analysis of X-linked markers.We added new functionalities in the HAPLIN statistical software to enable association analysis of X-linked markers and an exploration of various causal scenarios relevant to orofacial clefts. Genotypes for 48 SNPs in 18 candidate genes on the X chromosome were analyzed in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (562 Norwegian and 235 Danish case-parent triads. For haplotype analysis, we used a sliding-window approach and assessed isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (iCL/P separately from isolated cleft palate only (iCPO. We tested three statistical models in HAPLIN, allowing for: i the same relative risk in males and females, ii sex-specific relative risks, and iii X-inactivation in females. We found weak but consistent associations with the oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 (OFD1 gene (formerly known as CXORF5 in the Danish iCL/P samples across all models, but not in the Norwegian iCL/P samples. In sex-specific analyses, the association with OFD1 was in male cases only. No analyses showed associations with iCPO in either the Norwegian or the Danish sample.The association of OFD1 with iCL/P is plausible given the biological relevance of this gene. However, the lack of replication in the Norwegian samples highlights the need to verify these preliminary findings in other large datasets. More generally, the novel analytic methods presented here are widely applicable to investigations of the role of X-linked genes in complex traits.

  13. X-Linked Genes and Risk of Orofacial Clefts: Evidence from Two Population-Based Studies in Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Rolv T.; Wilcox, Allen J.; Christensen, Kaare; Christiansen, Lene; Nguyen, Truc Trung; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Gjessing, Håkon K.

    2012-01-01

    Background Orofacial clefts are common birth defects of complex etiology, with an excess of males among babies with cleft lip and palate, and an excess of females among those with cleft palate only. Although genes on the X chromosome have been implicated in clefting, there has been no association analysis of X-linked markers. Methodology/Principal Findings We added new functionalities in the HAPLIN statistical software to enable association analysis of X-linked markers and an exploration of various causal scenarios relevant to orofacial clefts. Genotypes for 48 SNPs in 18 candidate genes on the X chromosome were analyzed in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (562 Norwegian and 235 Danish case-parent triads). For haplotype analysis, we used a sliding-window approach and assessed isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (iCL/P) separately from isolated cleft palate only (iCPO). We tested three statistical models in HAPLIN, allowing for: i) the same relative risk in males and females, ii) sex-specific relative risks, and iii) X-inactivation in females. We found weak but consistent associations with the oral-facial-digital syndrome 1 (OFD1) gene (formerly known as CXORF5) in the Danish iCL/P samples across all models, but not in the Norwegian iCL/P samples. In sex-specific analyses, the association with OFD1 was in male cases only. No analyses showed associations with iCPO in either the Norwegian or the Danish sample. Conclusions The association of OFD1 with iCL/P is plausible given the biological relevance of this gene. However, the lack of replication in the Norwegian samples highlights the need to verify these preliminary findings in other large datasets. More generally, the novel analytic methods presented here are widely applicable to investigations of the role of X-linked genes in complex traits. PMID:22723972

  14. Hydroclimate variability in Scandinavia over the last millennium - insights from a climate model-proxy data comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seftigen, Kristina; Goosse, Hugues; Klein, Francois; Chen, Deliang

    2017-12-01

    The integration of climate proxy information with general circulation model (GCM) results offers considerable potential for deriving greater understanding of the mechanisms underlying climate variability, as well as unique opportunities for out-of-sample evaluations of model performance. In this study, we combine insights from a new tree-ring hydroclimate reconstruction from Scandinavia with projections from a suite of forced transient simulations of the last millennium and historical intervals from the CMIP5 and PMIP3 archives. Model simulations and proxy reconstruction data are found to broadly agree on the modes of atmospheric variability that produce droughts-pluvials in the region. Despite these dynamical similarities, large differences between simulated and reconstructed hydroclimate time series remain. We find that the GCM-simulated multi-decadal and/or longer hydroclimate variability is systematically smaller than the proxy-based estimates, whereas the dominance of GCM-simulated high-frequency components of variability is not reflected in the proxy record. Furthermore, the paleoclimate evidence indicates in-phase coherencies between regional hydroclimate and temperature on decadal timescales, i.e., sustained wet periods have often been concurrent with warm periods and vice versa. The CMIP5-PMIP3 archive suggests, however, out-of-phase coherencies between the two variables in the last millennium. The lack of adequate understanding of mechanisms linking temperature and moisture supply on longer timescales has serious implications for attribution and prediction of regional hydroclimate changes. Our findings stress the need for further paleoclimate data-model intercomparison efforts to expand our understanding of the dynamics of hydroclimate variability and change, to enhance our ability to evaluate climate models, and to provide a more comprehensive view of future drought and pluvial risks.

  15. Integrated seismic analysis of the Chalk Group in eastern Denmark—Implications for estimates of maximum palaeo-burial in southwest Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars; Boldreel, Lars Ole; Hansen, Thomas Mejer

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the topography of southwest Scandinavia is subject to discussion. Analysis of borehole seismic velocity has formed the basis for interpretation of several hundred metres of Neogene uplift in parts of Denmark.Here, refraction seismic data constrain a 7.5km long P-wave velocity model...... Group. The sonic velocities are consistent with the overall seismic layering, although they show additional fine-scale layering. Integration of gamma and sonic log with porosity data shows that seismic velocity is sensitive to clay content. In intervals near boundaries of the refraction model, moderate...

  16. Effects of a bio-invasion of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) in five shallow water habitats in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stein; Bodvin, Torjan; Strand, Åsa

    2017-01-01

    mediated vectors and by natural dispersal. The species is now spreading in Scandinavia. In order to optimize the management of the oyster, including targeted monitoring and mitigation activities, knowledge on the present and future distribution and impact on the ecosystem is important. The development...... as the habitat type at risk of the largest ecosystem effects as high densities of oysters already exist in these areas, and the densities are expected to increase rapidly until reaching a threshold density. Low energy rock and Littoral sandand mud were assessed as being subjected to moderate to high ecosystem...

  17. Surface wave tomography across the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, SW Scandinavia, using ambient noise and earthquake data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Andreas; Maupin, Valérie; Balling, Niels

    2015-10-01

    We produce a S-wave velocity model of the crust and upper mantle around the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, southern Scandinavia, by analysing ambient seismic noise and earthquake recordings on temporary and permanent regional network stations. In a first step, we perform tomographical inversion of surface wave dispersion data from seismic noise to obtain Rayleigh and Love wave phase-velocity maps from 3 to about 30 s period. Local dispersion curves are then combined with regionally averaged surface wave velocities from earthquake data measured between 15 and about 100 s period. Dispersion curves are jointly inverted for a 3-D model of the S-wave velocity and radial velocity anisotropy by using a combined Monte Carlo and linearized inversion approach. Results reveal significant crustal as well as uppermost mantle velocity variations at all depth levels. Upper crustal structural variations are mainly controlled by the thick sedimentary Danish Basin with both low S-wave velocities and high anisotropy. Despite of the known limited capability of surface wave inversion to constrain interface depths and model parameter trade-offs, obtained Moho depths are in good agreement with previous studies in the region. Marked crustal thinning is clearly revealed beneath the Danish Basin with a narrow transition to the thicker crust in Swedish shield areas. Despite very different crustal and morphological structures, Denmark and southern Norway both have similar well-defined upper-mantle low-velocity zones, interpreted as asthenosphere, starting a depth of about 100 km. Compared with southern Sweden, showing high upper-mantle velocities, characteristic for shields, velocities are reduced by 0.30-0.40 km s-1 (6-8 per cent) at the depth levels of 140-200 km and radial anisotropy of 2-4 per cent is observed. Our study confirms the importance of the Sorgenfrei-Tornquist Zone, as a very deep structural boundary, separating old, thick, cratonic Baltica lithosphere in southern Sweden from

  18. What is known about the health and living conditions of the indigenous people of northern Scandinavia, the Sami?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per Sjölander

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Sami are the indigenous ethnic population of northern Scandinavia. Their health condition is poorly known, although the knowledge has improved over the last decade.The aim was to review the current information on mortality, diseases, and risk factor exposure in the Swedish Sami population.Health-related research on Sami cohorts published in scientific journals and anthologies was used to compare the health condition among the Sami and the majority non-Sami population. When relevant, data from the Sami populations in Swedish were compared with corresponding data from Norwegian and Finnish Sami populations.Life expectancy and mortality patterns of the Sami are similar to those of the majority population. Small differences in incidences of cancer and cardiovascular diseases have been reported. The traditional Sami lifestyle seems to contain elements that reduce the risk to develop cancer and cardiovascular diseases, e.g. physical activity, diet rich in antioxidants and unsaturated fatty acids, and a strong cultural identity. Reindeer herding is an important cultural activity among the Sami and is associated with high risks for accidents. Pain in the lower back, neck, shoulders, elbows, and hands are frequent among both men and women in reindeer-herding families. For men, these symptoms are related to high exposure to terrain vehicles, particularly snowmobile, whereas for women psychosocial risk factors seem to more important, e.g. poor social support, high effort, low reward, and high economical responsibilities.Although the health condition of the Sami population appears to be rather similar to that of the general Swedish population, a number of specific health problems have been identified, especially among the reindeer-herding Sami. Most of these problems have their origin in marginalization and poor knowledge of the reindeer husbandry and the Sami culture in the majority population. It is suggested that the most sustainable measure to

  19. Single particle analysis of ice crystal residuals observed in orographic wave clouds over Scandinavia during INTACC experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Targino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual ice crystal residual particles collected over Scandinavia during the INTACC (INTeraction of Aerosol and Cold Clouds experiment in October 1999 were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM equipped with Energy-Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDX. Samples were collected onboard the British Met Office Hercules C-130 aircraft using a Counterflow Virtual Impactor (CVI. This study is based on six samples collected in orographic clouds. The main aim of this study is to characterize cloud residual elemental composition in conditions affected by different airmasses. In total 609 particles larger than 0.1 μm diameter were analyzed and their elemental composition and morphology were determined. Thereafter a hierarchical cluster analysis was performed on the signal detected with SEM-EDX in order to identify the major particle classes and their abundance. A cluster containing mineral dust, represented by aluminosilicates, Fe-rich and Si-rich particles, was the dominating class of particles, accounting for about 57.5% of the particles analyzed, followed by low-Z particles, 23.3% (presumably organic material and sea salt (6.7%. Sulfur was detected often across all groups, indicating ageing and in-cloud processing of particles. A detailed inspection of samples individually unveiled a relationship between ice crystal residual composition and airmass origin. Cloud residual samples from clean airmasses (that is, trajectories confined to the Atlantic and Arctic Oceans and/or with source altitude in the free troposphere were dominated primarily by low-Z and sea salt particles, while continentally-influenced airmasses (with trajectories that originated or traveled over continental areas and with source altitude in the continental boundary layer contained mainly mineral dust residuals. Comparison of residual composition for similar cloud ambient temperatures around –27°C revealed that supercooled clouds are more likely to persist in conditions where

  20. Market leaders in Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lochmaier, L.

    2005-07-01

    State-of-the-art power station technologies and high environmental standards are Finland's trademarks. But Sweden and Denmark are also setting themselves ambitious targets for expanding the share of bioenergy in combined heat and power generation. (orig.)

  1. Productions, modern (Scandinavia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lech, Marcel Lysgaard

    2017-01-01

    Greek comedy has never been as popular on the modern Scandinavian scene as Greek tragedy, but one play stands out among them all as a modern classic, Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, which has inspired many adaptations not only on the stage, but also in radio and cinema....

  2. Industrial Economics in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Møllgaard, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Based on diverse research methods, we trace and map industrial economics research in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the periode of 1880 to 1908. After describing this research in terms of key contributors, we argue that industrial economics developed rather unevenly in the Scandinavian countries....... Danish research was mainly theoretical and strongly oriented towards the international context, whereas Norwegian research was largely industry analysis with a strong leaning towards managerial economics. Swedish research in industrial economics is very scant until the end of the 1960s.JEL Code: B1, B2...

  3. Eocene to mid-Pliocene landscape evolution in Scandinavia inferred from offshore sediment volumes and pre-glacial topography using inverse modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Vivi K.; Braun, Jean; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2018-02-01

    The origin of high topography in Scandinavia is highly debated, both in terms of its age and the underlying mechanism for its formation. Traditionally, the current high topography is assumed to have formed by several Cenozoic (mainly Neogene) phases of surface uplift and dissection of an old peneplain surface. These same surface uplift events are suggested to explain the increased deposition observed in adjacent offshore basins on the Norwegian shelf and in the North Sea. However, more recently it has been suggested that erosion and isostatic rock uplift of existing topography may also explain the recent evolution of topography in Scandinavia. For this latter view, the increased sedimentation towards the present is assumed to be a consequence of a climate related increase in erosion. In this study we explore whether inverse modelling of landscape evolution can give new insight into Eocene to mid-Pliocene (54-4 Ma) landscape evolution in the Scandinavian region. We do this by combining a highly efficient forward-in-time landscape evolution model (FastScape) with an optimization scheme suitable for non-linear inverse problems (the neighbourhood algorithm - NA). To limit our approach to the fluvial regime, we exclude the most recent mid-Pliocene-Quaternary time period where glacial erosion processes are expected to dominate landscape evolution. The "goodness" of our landscape evolution models is evaluated using i) sediment fluxes based on decompacted offshore sediment volumes and ii) maximum pre-glacial topography from a mid-Pliocene landscape, reconstructed using geophysical relief and offshore sediment volumes from the mid-Pliocene-Quaternary. We find several tested scenarios consistent with the offshore sediment record and the maximum elevation for our reconstructed pre-glacial (mid-Pliocene) landscape reconstruction, including: I) substantial initial topography ( 2 km) at 54 Ma and no induced tectonic rock uplift, II) the combination of some initial topography ( 1

  4. Fetal genetic risk of isolated cleft lip only versus isolated cleft lip and palate: A subphenotype analysis using two population-based studies of orofacial clefts in scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cleft lip only (CLO) and cleft lip and palate (CLP) are commonly regarded as variants of the same defect and are traditionally combined to form the single group of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) prior to analysis. However, recent data have suggested that at least...... a subgroup of isolated CLO may be etiologically distinct from isolated CLP. METHODS: To explore fetal genetic risk of isolated CLO separately from isolated CLP, we performed a subphenotype analysis using two population-based studies of clefts in Scandinavia. One hundred twenty-one isolated CLO, 190 isolated...... CLP, and 592 control triads were available from Norway (1996-2001), and a further 76 isolated CLO and 107 isolated CLP triads were available from Denmark (1991-2001). Genotypes for 1315 SNPs in 334 autosomal cleft candidate genes were analyzed using two complementary statistical methods, Triad Multi...

  5. Engaging local industry in the development of basic research infrastructure and instrumentation - The case of HIE-ISOLDE and ESS Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahlander, Claes

    2016-07-01

    Two world-class research facilities, the European Spallation Source, ESS, and the light-source facility MAX-IV, are being built in southern Sweden. They will primarily, when completed, be used for research in the fields of material sciences, life sciences, medicine and pharmacology. Their construction and the operation and maintenance of them for many years will create new business opportunities for companies in Europe in general and in Sweden, Denmark and Norway in particular in many different sectors. A project, CATE, Cluster for Accelerator Technology, was set up with the aim to strengthen the skills of companies in the Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak region in Scandinavia in the field of accelerator technology such that they will become competitive and be able to take advantage of the potential of these two research facilities. CATE was strategically important and has helped to create partnerships between companies and new business opportunities in the region.

  6. Engaging local industry in the development of basic research infrastructure and instrumentation – The case of HIE-ISOLDE and ESS Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fahlander, Claes, E-mail: claes.fahlander@nuclear.lu.se [Department of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, SE-22100, Lund (Sweden)

    2016-07-07

    Two world-class research facilities, the European Spallation Source, ESS, and the light-source facility MAX-IV, are being built in southern Sweden. They will primarily, when completed, be used for research in the fields of material sciences, life sciences, medicine and pharmacology. Their construction and the operation and maintenance of them for many years will create new business opportunities for companies in Europe in general and in Sweden, Denmark and Norway in particular in many different sectors. A project, CATE, Cluster for Accelerator Technology, was set up with the aim to strengthen the skills of companies in the Öresund-Kattegat-Skagerrak region in Scandinavia in the field of accelerator technology such that they will become competitive and be able to take advantage of the potential of these two research facilities. CATE was strategically important and has helped to create partnerships between companies and new business opportunities in the region.

  7. Regional response of the mesosphere lower thermosphere dynamics over Scandinavia to solar proton events and geomagnetic storms in late October 2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pancheva, D.; Singer, W.; Mukhtarov, P.

    2007-07-01

    The short-term regional responses of the mesosphere lower thermosphere (MLT) dynamics over Scandinavia to the exceptionally strong solar storms with their accompanying solar proton fluxes on the Earth in late October 2003 have been investigated using radar measurements at Andenes (69°N, 16°E) and Esrange (68°N, 21°E). Several solar activity storms resulted in solar proton events (SPEs) at this time, but a particularly active period of high proton fluxes occurred between 28 and 31 October 2003. The significant temperature drop (˜25 K), detected by the meteor radar at Andenes at altitude ˜90 km, was in line with the enhancement of the proton fluxes and was caused by the dramatic reduction of the ozone in the high-latitude middle atmosphere monitored by satellite measurements. This exceptionally strong phenomenon in late October 2003 was composed of three geomagnetic storms, with the first one occurring in the daytime of 29 October and the other two storms in the nighttime of 29 and 30 October, respectively. The responses of the prevailing wind and the main tides (24- and 12-h tides) were studied in detail. It was found that the response of the MLT dynamics to the first geomagnetic storm occurring in the daytime and accompanied by solar proton fluxes is very different from those to the second and third geomagnetic storms with onsets during the nighttime. Some physical mechanisms have been suggested in order to explain the observed short-term variability of the MLT dynamics. This case study revealed the impact of the SPEs observed in late October 2003 and the timing of the geomagnetic storms on the MLT neutral wind responses observed over Scandinavia.

  8. Pre-hospital critical care by anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services in Scandinavia: a prospective population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, A J; Lossius, H M; Mikkelsen, S; Kurola, J; Castrén, M; Skogvoll, E

    2013-10-01

    All Scandinavian countries provide anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services. Little is known of the incidence of critical illness or injury attended by these services. We aimed to investigate anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services in Scandinavia with special emphasis on incidence and severity. This population-based, prospective study recorded activity in 16 anaesthesiologist-staffed pre-hospital services in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden serving half of the Scandinavian population. We calculated population incidence of medical conditions, and the proportion of patients with severely deranged vital signs and/or receiving advanced therapy. Four thousand two hundred thirty-six alarm calls were recorded during 4 weeks. Two thousand two hundred fity-six alarms resulted in a patient encounter. The population incidence varied from 74.9 missions per 10,000 person-years (Denmark), followed by Finland with 14.6, Norway with 11, and Sweden with 5. Medical aetiology was most frequent (14.9 missions per 10,000 person-years, 95% CI: 14.2-15.8). Trauma was second (5.6 missions per 10,000 person-years, 95%CI: 5.12-6.09). Twenty-three per cent of patients had severely deranged vital functions, and advanced emergency medical procedures were performed in every four to twelve encounters (Denmark 8%, Sweden 15%, Norway 23%, and Finland 25%). The probability that the patient was physiologically deranged, received advanced medication, or procedure was 35%. Critical illness or injury occured at a rate of 25-30 per 10,000 person-years. The incidence of pre-hospital anaesthesiologist patient encounters in Scandinavia varies. Medical aetiology is most frequent. Almost one-quarter of patients presents with deranged vital functions requiring emergency measures. The Scandinavian pre-hospital population incidence of critical illness and injury is 25-30 per 10,000 person-years. © 2013 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Regional occurrence, high frequency but low diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup d1 suggests a recent dog-wolf hybridization in Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klütsch, C F C; Seppälä, E H; Fall, T; Uhlén, M; Hedhammar, Å; Lohi, H; Savolainen, P

    2011-01-01

    The domestic dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-gene pool consists of a homogenous mix of haplogroups shared among all populations worldwide, indicating that the dog originated at a single time and place. However, one small haplogroup, subclade d1, found among North Scandinavian/Finnish spitz breeds at frequencies above 30%, has a clearly separate origin. We studied the genetic and geographical diversity for this phylogenetic group to investigate where and when it originated and whether through independent domestication of wolf or dog-wolf crossbreeding. We analysed 582 bp of the mtDNA control region for 514 dogs of breeds earlier shown to harbour d1 and possibly related northern spitz breeds. Subclade d1 occurred almost exclusively among Swedish/Finnish Sami reindeer-herding spitzes and some Swedish/Norwegian hunting spitzes, at a frequency of mostly 60–100%. Genetic diversity was low, with only four haplotypes: a central, most frequent, one surrounded by two haplotypes differing by an indel and one differing by a substitution. The substitution was found in a single lineage, as a heteroplasmic mix with the central haplotype. The data indicate that subclade d1 originated in northern Scandinavia, at most 480–3000 years ago and through dog-wolf crossbreeding rather than a separate domestication event. The high frequency of d1 suggests that the dog-wolf hybrid phenotype had a selective advantage. PMID:20497152

  10. Regional occurrence, high frequency but low diversity of mitochondrial DNA haplogroup d1 suggests a recent dog-wolf hybridization in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klütsch, C F C; Seppälä, E H; Fall, T; Uhlén, M; Hedhammar, A; Lohi, H; Savolainen, P

    2011-02-01

    The domestic dog mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)-gene pool consists of a homogenous mix of haplogroups shared among all populations worldwide, indicating that the dog originated at a single time and place. However, one small haplogroup, subclade d1, found among North Scandinavian/Finnish spitz breeds at frequencies above 30%, has a clearly separate origin. We studied the genetic and geographical diversity for this phylogenetic group to investigate where and when it originated and whether through independent domestication of wolf or dog-wolf crossbreeding. We analysed 582 bp of the mtDNA control region for 514 dogs of breeds earlier shown to harbour d1 and possibly related northern spitz breeds. Subclade d1 occurred almost exclusively among Swedish/Finnish Sami reindeer-herding spitzes and some Swedish/Norwegian hunting spitzes, at a frequency of mostly 60-100%. Genetic diversity was low, with only four haplotypes: a central, most frequent, one surrounded by two haplotypes differing by an indel and one differing by a substitution. The substitution was found in a single lineage, as a heteroplasmic mix with the central haplotype. The data indicate that subclade d1 originated in northern Scandinavia, at most 480-3000 years ago and through dog-wolf crossbreeding rather than a separate domestication event. The high frequency of d1 suggests that the dog-wolf hybrid phenotype had a selective advantage. © 2010 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2010 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  11. High burden of iron deficiency and different types of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease outpatients in Scandinavia: a longitudinal 2-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bager, Palle; Befrits, Ragnar; Wikman, Ola; Lindgren, Stefan; Moum, Bjørn; Hjortswang, Henrik; Dahlerup, Jens F

    2013-11-01

    The prevalence of anemia in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been broadly described. The recurrence, type and burden of anemia remain unenlightened. The primary objective was to describe this. The secondary objective was to evaluate the implementation of European guidelines. This longitudinal follow-up study included 300 IBD outpatients from six centers in Scandinavia. Patients were enrolled in a research cohort, in which each center included 5% of their IBD cohort. The study was prospectively planned, while data were retrospectively collected. The burden of anemia was calculated as number of months with anemia. A Markov model was used to calculate the probabilities of transitioning between stages. The European guidelines were used as the standard for anemia management. Anemia affected > 50% of IBD outpatients during the 2-year observation period. Totally, 20% of the total observation time was spent in anemia. Over the 7200 months of observation, anemia was found in 1410 months. The most frequent type was combined anemia (63%). Combined anemia covers both anemia of chronic disease (ACD) and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA). Pure ACD was present in 21% of burden time, while pure IDA was present in 16% of burden time. The European guidelines have mainly been implemented. Anemia affected a majority of the IBD outpatients. One in five months, the patients were anemic. Anemia related to inflammation dominated the different types of anemia. Pure IDA was found in for 16%. These findings, despite a fair implementation of guidelines.

  12. First direct evidence of meso-scale variability on ion-neutral dynamics using co-located tristatic FPIs and EISCAT radar in Northern Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Aruliah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first direct empirical evidence that mesoscale variations in ion velocities must be taken into consideration when calculating Joule heating and relating it to changes in ion temperatures and momentum transfer to the neutral gas. The data come from the first tristatic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI measurements of the neutral atmosphere co-located with tristatic measurements of the ionosphere made by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar which were carried out during the nights of 27-28 February 2003 and 28 February until 1 March 2003. Tristatic measurements mean that there are no assumptions of uniform wind fields and ion drifts, nor zero vertical winds. The independent, tristatic, thermospheric measurements presented here should provide unambiguous vector wind information, and hence reduce the need to supplement observations with information obtained from models of the neutral atmosphere, or with estimates of neutral parameters derived from ionospheric measurements. These new data can also test the assumptions used in models and in ion-neutral interactions. The FPIs are located close to the 3 radars of the EISCAT configuration in northern Scandinavia, which is a region well covered by a network of complementary instruments. These provide a larger scale context within which to interpret our observations of mesoscale variations on the scales of tens of kilometres spatially and minutes temporally. Initial studies indicate that the thermosphere is more dynamic and responsive to ionospheric forcing than expected. Calculations using the tristatic volume measurements show that the magnitude of the neutral wind dynamo contribution was on average 29% of Joule heating during the first night of observation. At times it either enhanced or reduced the effective electric field by up to several tens of percent. The tristatic experiment also presents the first validation of absolute temperature measurements from a common

  13. First direct evidence of meso-scale variability on ion-neutral dynamics using co-located tristatic FPIs and EISCAT radar in Northern Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. L. Aruliah

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the first direct empirical evidence that mesoscale variations in ion velocities must be taken into consideration when calculating Joule heating and relating it to changes in ion temperatures and momentum transfer to the neutral gas. The data come from the first tristatic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (FPI measurements of the neutral atmosphere co-located with tristatic measurements of the ionosphere made by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar which were carried out during the nights of 27-28 February 2003 and 28 February until 1 March 2003. Tristatic measurements mean that there are no assumptions of uniform wind fields and ion drifts, nor zero vertical winds. The independent, tristatic, thermospheric measurements presented here should provide unambiguous vector wind information, and hence reduce the need to supplement observations with information obtained from models of the neutral atmosphere, or with estimates of neutral parameters derived from ionospheric measurements. These new data can also test the assumptions used in models and in ion-neutral interactions. The FPIs are located close to the 3 radars of the EISCAT configuration in northern Scandinavia, which is a region well covered by a network of complementary instruments. These provide a larger scale context within which to interpret our observations of mesoscale variations on the scales of tens of kilometres spatially and minutes temporally. Initial studies indicate that the thermosphere is more dynamic and responsive to ionospheric forcing than expected. Calculations using the tristatic volume measurements show that the magnitude of the neutral wind dynamo contribution was on average 29% of Joule heating during the first night of observation. At times it either enhanced or reduced the effective electric field by up to several tens of percent. The tristatic experiment also presents the first validation of absolute temperature measurements from a common

  14. H2moves.eu Scandinavia. ''Experience from operating a 70 MPa hydrogen refuelling station in Oslo''. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloth, M.

    2013-02-15

    As part of the H2MOVES Scandinavia project H2 Logic were to construct a large scale hydrogen refuelling station (HRS) in Oslo providing hydrogen for FCEV's from Daimler and Hyundai in the project. The effort has provided extensive results and lessons learned across the entire process from site selection, HRS design and manufacturing to the final installation and operation. An extensive site screening of more than 30 sites in Oslo was firstly conducted to identify the most optimal location for the HRS. A suitable site was identified at the research organisation SINTEF in Gaustad in the western part of Oslo. The location was strategically well located with regards to the other HRS's in the city ensuring good refuelling coverage in Oslo. The HRS was manufactured, installed and operated by H2 Logic based on the company's H2Station technology. The HRS provides 70MPa refuelling in accordance with the SAE J2601, and operation results have confirmed refuelling times consistently below four minutes for a full tank. The HRS includes onsite electrolysis production providing a 20kg/day base load supply, with potentially additional trucking-in of hydrogen up to a total capacity of 200kg/day. The installation of the HRS took in total 10 days, from arrival at site, until first refuelling was conducted. This included local inspection by third parties and authorities as well as several days of hydrogen production and compression to reach the necessary refuelling pressure. Before opening a refuelling recommendation process was successfully conducted by Daimler. The HRS opened on 21st November 2011 and has been operated for 13,5 months during the remainder project period (ending December 2012). The HRS is expected to continue operation beyond the project. Below are shown the major operation results from the HRS during the project: 1) 701 kg dispensed; 2) 313 refueling's conducted; 3) Average availability of 97% during first half of 2012; 4) 53% of all down

  15. New theoretical discourses in the discussion of the Neolithisation process in South Scandinavia during the late 5th and early 4th millennium BC – an identification of learning processes, communities of practise and migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasse Sørensen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, it is argued that agriculture is a very complex technology, which takes a long time to learn, thus making it very difficult for agrarian practises to spread as ideas. Instead, based on a detailed survey of primary agrarian evidence (direct 14C dates of cereals and domesticated animals and secondary evidence of material culture (polished axes and pottery, it is claimed that the expansions of agrarian practises in South Scandinavia are associated with the migration of farmers who were related to the Michelsberg Culture. These incoming farmers had the appropriate skills and the ability to teach the indigenous hunter-gatherer populations about agriculture by establishing communities of practice, a fact which supports the theory of integrationism. The engagement in these communities of practise changed the identity and material culture of the immigrating farmers, as well as the indigenous hunter-gatherers, thus creating new agrarian societies in South Scandinavia which were interconnected in a regional as well as larger European network.

  16. Determining FDI Flows into Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kottaridi, Constantina; Bernhard Nielsen, Bo

    2003-01-01

    use a panel data set covering FDI inflows to Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland for the period 1979-2000. Results suggest that, in addition to traditional determinants of FDI, technological advantages of the region are of particular importance for foreign investors. Thus, evidence is provided...... for the changing pattern of international production indicating strategic needs for MNCs to acquire assets and technology that are specific to particular locations....

  17. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orning, Hans Jacob

    practice and process as key analytical concepts, these authors explore formal law and litigation in conjunction with non-formal legal proceedings such as out-of-court mediation, rituals, emotional posturing, and feuding. Their insights place the Northern medieval world in a European context of dispute...

  18. ICU-recovery in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Risom, Signe S; Thomsen, Thordis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to describe and compare models of intensive care follow-up in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to help inform clinicians regarding the establishment and continuation of ICU aftercare programmes.......The aim of our study was to describe and compare models of intensive care follow-up in Denmark, Norway and Sweden to help inform clinicians regarding the establishment and continuation of ICU aftercare programmes....

  19. South Asian Diaspora in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2005-01-01

    like forming relationships across ethnic borders, youth organisations, and media consumption. Intergenerational relationships indicate negotiations for most, combining individualization with interdependency, but with serious conflicts for some. The conclusions pin point the challenges for Scandinavian...

  20. Early School Leaving in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Vibeke; Bäckman, Olof; Lorentzen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The article explores the extent to which the organization of vocational tracks in upper secondary school affects the labour market risks associated with early school exit. The Nordic countries share many features, but the upper secondary school systems differ significantly in how their vocational...... tracks are organized. Denmark and Norway have dual vocational tracks, that is, they combine school-based education and workplace apprenticeships, whereas in Finland and Sweden they are primarily school based. We analyse administrative longitudinal data from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s in the four...... countries and find the highest vocational track dropout rates in Norway and the lowest in Finland. The results indicate that the relative labour market effect of dropping out from a vocational track is most detrimental in Norway. It is also in Norway that we find the greatest gender differences...

  1. Disputing strategies in medieval Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , and other kinds of material or symbolic assets? Seven essays by Scandinavian scholars are supplemented by contributions from Stephen White, John Hudson and Gerd Althoff, to provide a new baseline for discussing both the strategies pursued in the political game and those used to settle local disputes. Using...

  2. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    marketization, welfare criticism and internationalization. The aim is to provide outside readers a theoretically guided empirical insight into Scandinavian social housing policy. The paper first lines up the core of the inbuilt argument of historical institutionalism in housing policy. Secondly, it briefly...... the past quarter of a decade. The third section then concentrates on the differences between Denmark, Sweden and Norway in which social housing is, our was originally, embedded in a universal welfare policy targeting the general level of housing quality for the entire population. Differences stand out...... of the governance model of social housing policy in which the housing associations are conceived of as 'dialogue partners' in the local housing policy, expected to create solutions to, rather than produce problems in social housing areas. The reform testifies to the strategic ability of the Danish social housing...

  3. Evropejskaja ideja v Central'noj Evrope i Skandinavii kak chast' politiki bezopasnosti i mirnogo sosushhestvovanija v ramkah poslevoennogo planirovanija [The European idea in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a part of the security and peaceful co-existence policy in the framework of the postwar planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshev Yevgeny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to the development of European unity in Central Europe and Scandinavia as a mechanism of collective security and intergovernmental cooperation development. The cultural and historical features of Central Europe and Scandinavia emphasize the need for a comparative study into the European idea. This article considers the tendencies and factors which affected the development of the European idea in the framework of the post-war planning. This research sets out to compare and identify similar or analogous features and elements of the theoretical bases of movements for European unity in Central and Northern Europe. The author comes to the conclusion about the correlation between the “Europe of regions” model and the European unity concept. The ideas of Scandinavian and Central European integration rested on national, cultural and historical connections of the neighbouring countries were expected to constitute such formations, which contradicted and were opposed to by the theoretical framework of Western European integration. On the other hand, regional integration implied that a federation or union of the neighbouring states could be considered a step towards a more universal organisation, which would not mean the isolation of Scandinavia and Central Europe from the rest of the world. The theoretical and practical significance of this work lies in the comparative approach to the analysis of the phenomena which have been considered individually in the framework of historiography. It is the major contribution of the article to the research on history of ideas and European diplomacy. Moreover, the subject of research is immediately connected to the problem of security in the Baltic region and the Soviet factor, as well as political stereotypes produced in this field. The author employed historical comparative and inductive types of the historical typological method.

  4. Conceptual design of the ESS-SCANDINAVIA

    CERN Document Server

    Peggs, S; Duperrier, R; Stovall, J; Eshraqi, M; Plewinski, F; Lindroos, M; Papotti, G; Jansson, A

    2010-01-01

    The con­cep­tu­al de­sign of the Eu­ro­pean Spal­la­tion Source-Scan­di­navia (ESS-S) is pre­sent­ed. The ac­cel­er­a­tor sys­tem base­line draws heav­i­ly on state-of-the-art ma­ture tech­nolo­gies that are being em­ployed in the CERN Linac4 and SPL pro­jects, al­though ad­vances with spoke res­onator and sput­tered su­per­con­duct­ing cav­i­ties are also being eval­u­at­ed for re­li­able per­for­mance. Ir­ra­di­a­tion dam­age due to pro­ton beam loss­es is a key issue for linac and tar­get com­po­nents. Their op­ti­mized de­sign is per­formed from an en­gi­neer­ing per­spec­tive, using the last up­dat­ed ver­sions of me­chan­i­cal de­sign codes which were al­ready qual­i­fied for ir­ra­di­at­ed com­po­nents. Fi­nal­ly, fu­ture up­grades of power and in­ten­si­ty of the pro­ton linac are con­sid­ered, in­clud­ing the de­sign op­ti­miza­tion of the Tar­get Sta­tion (pro­ton/neu­tron con­ver­tor), with the pos­s...

  5. How Did Trade Norms Evolve in Scandinavia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2016-01-01

    with the risk of being cheated. In contrast to similar cases like the famous medieval Maghribi traders who counted on writing (Greif 1989), the punishment of cheaters could not be supported by written documents such as legal documents and letters, as the large majority of Vikings were non-literate. If a trader...

  6. Psychosocial aspects of 'mixedness' in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    , characterised by ambivalence and exclusion of ethnic diversity. The theoretical framework combines transnationalism, narrative approach and life-course understandings. The project is conducted through statistical exploration and in-depth interviews. Discussing the concept of mixed race/ethnicity, some results...

  7. Upper Cambrian (Furongian) biostratigraphy in Scandinavia revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj; Weidner, Thomas; Terfelt, Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    subzonation) introduced by Terfelt et al. (2008). Formal definition of the superzones is outlined including designation of stratotype sections. The superzones are each defined by the FAD of a characterizing species group and upwards delimited by the base of the succeeding superzone. The long used Olenus...

  8. Three decades of heart transplantation in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellgren, Göran; Geiran, Odd; Lemström, Karl

    2013-01-01

    ± 16 years, range 0-70, 78% male). The main indications for HTx were non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy (50%), ischaemic cardiomyopathy (34%), valvular cardiomyopathy (3%), congenital heart disease (7%), retransplantation (2%), and miscellaneous (4%). The registry consists of pre-operative data from...... diagnosis (P = 0.001), and era of transplantation (P

  9. The Unheard Avant-garde in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten

    2012-01-01

    normally find things; by looking for something until we recognize it. This is a particularly successful strategy when we are allowed to organize ourselves spatially, but becomes ineffective as the data increases. CHAOS App's solution to this, here greatly simplified, is to combine the spatial advantages...... to this matter will be a part of the presentation as well as some statistics of the use.   The CHAOS App – making a sub media systems design Presenter: Matteo Sartori, Kolding Design University The CHAOS App is, at its core, a software application for organizing data. The data it organizes consists primarily...... it ensures the persistence of data and the users' peace of mind. The CHAOS App was conceived as a solution to a problem faced by those researchers, artists and students who, having gathered a certain amount of disparate material, were unable to organize it in a way that properly reflected their many...

  10. Parliamentary Democracy in Scandinavia / David Arter

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arter, David

    2004-01-01

    Põhjamaade poliitika võrdlus Westminster-stiilis majoritaarse süsteemiga, seadusandlike ja täidesaatvate institutsioonide suhted; rahvusparlamentide suhteline suletus avalikkuse ees (eriti komisjonid)

  11. Forest School: Reclaiming It from Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Polly

    2010-01-01

    "Forest schools" are an increasingly well-known feature of the educational landscape, having been adopted by many local authorities across the United Kingdom in an effort to build children's confidence and self-esteem through learning outdoors in a woodland setting. Their origins are usually described as deriving from a Scandinavian…

  12. Astrophysics with small satellites in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2003-01-01

    The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Creating the Creative Urban Waterfront in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel

    2017-01-01

    - ative users and inhabitants. The overall questions of this chapter are how these urban spaces become creative and how their creativity changes across the phase of deindustrialisation. How is the multitude of the industrial har- bour giving way to an intended or planned creative space? Conceptualising......For decades now, the waterfront areas of industrial harbour cities of Europe have been among the prime spots for large-scale redevelopment. The classic freight harbour gives way to the mechanised container terminal, and the remaining spaces are redeveloped, very often with a clear reference to cre...

  14. Intensive care patient diaries in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egerod, Ingrid; Storli, Sissel Lisa; Åkerman, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Critical illness and intensive care therapy are often followed by psychological problems such as nightmares, hallucinations, delusions, anxiety, depression, and symptoms of posttraumatic stress. Intensive care patient diaries have been kept by nurses and the patients' family since the early 1990s...... in the Scandinavian countries to help critically ill patients come to terms with their illness after hospital discharge. The aim of the study was to describe and compare the emergence and evolution of intensive care patient diaries in Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. The study had a comparative international design using...... secondary analysis of qualitative data generated by key-informant telephone interviews with intensive care nurses (n=114). The study showed that diaries were introduced concurrently in the three Scandinavian countries as a grass-roots initiative by mutual cross-national inspiration. The concept has evolved...

  15. Ethnic and Cultural diversity in Contemporary Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    -political processes in handling the challenges of cultural globalisation, and insights into the dynamics of shame among immigrant women through a pioneer longitudinal study. While the last two papers delineate communication between immigrants and health workers, and identity negotiation processes among the ethnically...... to the above consequences through relatively under- researched phenomena: societal responses to immigrants, their psychological health across time, interethnic health communication, ‘mixing’ dynamics in intermarried couples, in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The first two papers enrich about the ppsycho...

  16. Sacral rulers in pre-Christian Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Simon

    2016-01-01

    This article offers a new perspective on the century-old discussion of sacral rulers in the history of religions generally and pre-Christian Scandinavian religions specifically, namely the application of a cultural evolutionary theoretical framework based on the work of Robert N. Bellah. In doing...

  17. The Influence of English in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Bent

    2010-01-01

    Discussion of: Margrethe Heidemann Andersen. 2004. Engelsk i dansk: Sprogholdninger i Danmark. Helt vildt sjovt eller wannabeagtigt og ejendomsmæglerkækt. [English in Danish: Language attitudes in Denmark]. Copenhagen: Dansk Sprognævns Skrifter [Publications of the Danish Language Council], no. 33....... 254 pp. including summary in English. ISBN 87-89410-15-7. Pia Jarvad. 2001. Det danske sprogs status i 1990'erne - med særligt henblik på domæne­tab. København [The Status of the Danish Language in the 1990s, with special reference to domain loss]. Copenhagen: Dansk Sprognævns Skrifter [Publications...... of the Danish Language Council] no. 32. 170 pp. ISBN 87-89410-11-4. Stig Johansson & Anne-Line Graedler. 2002. Rocka, hipt og snacksy: om engelsk i norsk språk og samfunn. [Rocka, hipt og snacksy: English in Norwegian language and society]. Kristiansand: Høyskoleforlaget. 318 pp. ISBN 82-7634-452-6....

  18. Approaches to Political Commentary in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Political commentary is a contested genre that has attracted a great deal of attention in the Scandinavian public debate, whereas the scholarly literature on it is still in an initial phase. In order to strengthen future research, the present paper suggests a two-dimensional matrix indexing the r...

  19. Dramatic Aspects of Medieval Magic in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Leif

    2011-01-01

    The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn.......The arcle deal with the performative aspects of medieval spells and rituals. The most important spells are cited in extenso and commented uopn....

  20. The Holocaust and Collective Memory in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lammers, Karl Christian

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen behandler Holocaust's plads i den kollektibve erindring i Skandinavien, og den viser hvorledes den "gode historie": redningen af de danske jøder i oktober 1943 i lang tid bestemte omgangen med Holocaust.......Artiklen behandler Holocaust's plads i den kollektibve erindring i Skandinavien, og den viser hvorledes den "gode historie": redningen af de danske jøder i oktober 1943 i lang tid bestemte omgangen med Holocaust....

  1. Marketization of welfare services in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Ole Helby; Hjelmar, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Scandinavian welfare states are undergoing a gradual transformation towards a more market-based mode of public service delivery. The results of these marketization reforms are, however, insufficiently documented in terms of their consequences for the price and quality of welfare services....... This article presents the findings of a systematic review of Danish and Swedish experiences with private provision of welfare services within three areas: home care for the elderly, provision of child care, and the operation of nursing homes. The research shows that there is no general evidence in support...... of improved cost effectiveness or enhanced service quality within these three welfare areas. A part of the reason for this is that many studies are characterized by lack of data and insufficient methodological designs. The article concludes that more and better studies are needed in order to broaden...

  2. Downscaling of GCM forecasts to streamflow over Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, P.; Uvo, C.B.; Landman, W.A.

    2008-01-01

    A seasonal forecasting technique to produce probabilistic and deterministic streamflow forecasts for 23 basins in Norway and northern Sweden is developed in this work. Large scale circulation and moisture fields, forecasted by the ECHAM4.5 model 4 months in advance, are used to forecast spring fl...

  3. Attitudes Toward Same-Sex Marriage: The Case of Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes ...

  4. Attitudes toward same-sex marriage: the case of Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, Niklas; Kotsadam, Andreas; Jakobsson, Siri Støre

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the variables that explain attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Using recently collected Scandinavian data (from Norway and Sweden) with a high response rate, this study shows that gender, regular participation in religious activities, political ideology, education, whether the respondent lived in the capital city, and attitudes toward gender equality were important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Age and income were not important for attitudes toward same-sex marriage. Although both Norwegians and Swedes clearly favor same-sex marriage, Swedes are significantly more positive than Norwegians.

  5. Design for All in Scandinavia - a strong concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendixen, Karin; Benktzon, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Design for All is more than an appealing point of view. It is a concept that offers a set of challenges capable of generating innovation and giving design added value and weight. In the Scandinavian tradition, the concept has developed from a purely social dimension to a design topic that is discussed both in terms of its business potential and in relation to Corporate Social Responsibility, CSR. This article gives a State of the Art of the development of Design for All in the Scandinavian countries: Denmark, Norway, Sweden and Finland during the past 15 years, beginning with a common review and joint Scandinavian projects, followed by an overall review country by country which include selected case studies over the past 15 years. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Rethinking National Literatures and the Literary Canon in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heede, Dag

    Anthology exploring the concept of "The Nordic" and their literary canons, national self-understanding and identity......Anthology exploring the concept of "The Nordic" and their literary canons, national self-understanding and identity...

  7. What's that smell? Hydrogen sulphide transport from Bardarbunga to Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahn, Håkan; von Schoenberg, Pontus; Brännström, Niklas

    2015-09-01

    On Sep 9 2014 several incidences of foul smell (rotten eggs) were reported on the coast of Norway (in particular in the vicinity of Molde) and then on Sep 10 in the interior parts of county Västerbotten, Sweden. One of the theories that were put forward was that the foul smell was due to degassing of the Bardarbunga volcano on Iceland. Using satellite images (GOME-1,-2) of the sulphur dioxide, SO2, contents in the atmosphere surrounding Iceland to estimate flux of SO2 from the volcano and an atmospheric transport model, PELLO, we vindicate this theory: we argue that the cause for the foul smell was hydrogen sulphide originating from Bardarbunga. The model concentrations are also compared to SO2 concentration measurements from Muonio, Finland.

  8. Economic Conditions affect Support for Prime Minister Parties in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Vinæs

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has not been able to identify a relationship between objective economic indicators and support for governing parties in the Scandinavian countries. This is potentially problematic, as it suggests that political leaders are not held electorally accountable for the economic...... between unemployment, economic growth and support for prime minister parties is re-examined in two datasets. The first is a dataset of Scandinavian elections, and the second is a yearly Danish vote function, which was constructed using election polls. Across both datasets, it is found that if one simply...... correlates support for the prime minister's party with economic conditions, there is no relationship; however, if one specifies a statistical model, which takes the Scandinavian context into account, it is possible to identify a statistically significant effect of economic conditions on electoral support...

  9. Smart Aarhus: Participatory Digital City Development in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brynskov, Martin

    areas, the waterfront, an entire hospital city, large housing areas, as well as suburban areas. Aarhus has a dual purpose for its digital agenda: First, ICT (Information & Communication Technologies) will be a cornerstone in the coming transformation of the city and the region, with a focus on serving......This talk will present and discuss some of the most prominent opportunities and challenges facing cities with an ambition to leverage the potential of digital technologies. The perspective is that of Aarhus, Denmark, a Scandinavian city situated in Nothern Europe in a conurbanized area...... of approximately one million people. Aarhus has recently announced a digital agenda, the Smart Aarhus Initiative. It will be formulated and implemented alongside unprecedented urban developments over the coming decade, the largest, relatively speaking, in the region, encompassing new constructions in central urban...

  10. Women's death in Scandinavia--what makes Denmark different?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Rune; Von Euler, My; Osler, Merete

    2004-01-01

    -2000, and born 1900-1950. OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative risks and 95% confidence intervals for deaths. RESULTS: The high risk of dying among Danish women was associated with being born between the two World Wars, and that a similar pattern was not found for women in Norway and Sweden. A tendency of a cohort effect...... was observed for Swedish women born around 1940. CONCLUSIONS: The currently low life expectancy of Danish women compared with that of women in Norway and Sweden is partly a transitional phenomenon caused by excessive death rates for women born between the two World Wars. Data on smoking prevalence by birth...

  11. A Critical Approach towards Jade Axes in Southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    Southern Scandinavian jade axes have been interpreted as items of prestigious exchange illustrating contact with the agrarian societies of Central Europe and reflecting agrarian ideas and ideology. They are therefore important in the discussion concerning the process of neolithisation in Northern...

  12. Ending War and Making Peace in Scandinavia, 1814–1848

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Morten Nordhagen

    2016-01-01

    The Napoleonic wars had a tremendous impact on the Scandinavian countries. Political and social upheaval and economic disruption ensured that ending war was no straightforward or rapid process. For traumatized veterans and those who had lost a husband or father, war never quite ended, to say...

  13. Differing Procedures for Recording Mortality Statistics in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøllefsen, Ingvild M.; Hem, Erlend; Ekeberg, Øivind

    2017-01-01

    in the three Scandinavian countries and to illustrate potential sources of error in the registration of suicide. Method: Information about registration practices and classification procedures was obtained from the cause of death registers in Norway, Sweden, and Denmark. In addition, we received information...... from experts in the field in each country. Results: Sweden uses event of undetermined intent more frequently than Denmark does, and Denmark more frequently than Norway. There seems to be somewhat more uncertainty among deaths classified as ill-defined and unknown cause of mortality in Norway, compared...... with the other two countries. Sweden performs more forensic autopsies than Norway, and Norway more than Denmark. In Denmark, in cases of a suspected unnatural manner of death, a thorough external examination of the deceased is performed. Conclusion: Differences in the classification of causes of death...

  14. Spectrum of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Ichthyosis in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellström Pigg, Maritta; Bygum, Anette; Gånemo, Agneta

    2016-01-01

    -100%). A scoring (0-4) of ichthyosis/ery-thema past infancy showed widely different mean values in the subgroups: HI (3.2/3.1), LI (2.4/0.6), CIE (1.8/1.6), PI (1.1/0.3). Novel or recurrent mutations were found in 113 patients: TGM1 (n = 56), NIPAL4 (n = 15), ALOX12B (n = 15), ABCA12 (n = 8), ALOXE3 (n = 9), SLC27...... ichthyosis (PI), characterized by marked skin changes at birth and subsequently mild symptoms. In nationwide screenings of suspected cases of ARCI in Denmark and Sweden, we identified 132 patients (age range 0.1-86 years) classified as HI (n = 7), LI (n = 70), CIE (n = 17) and PI (n = 38). At birth......, a collodion membrane or similar severe hyperkeratosis was reported in almost all patients with HI and LI, and in nearly half of patients with CIE and PI. Persistent ectropion was more common in HI (85%) and LI (57%), than in CIE (35%) and PI (5%). Anhidrosis was a frequent problem in all 4 groups (58...

  15. The Copyright/Design Interface in Denmark (and Scandinavia)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Rosenmeier, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the interface in copyright and design law in Denmark and with accounts also for Norway and Sweden. It is pointed out how Scandinavian courts have historically employed several strategies to limit copyright protection of works of applied art including 1) “raising the bar......” to keep works with “clear functional intentions” out of copyright (as seen in Norway and until recently also in Sweden) and 2) narrowing the scope of protection (seen in all three nations). It is finally pointed out how, presently, it is doubtful to what extent the de-velopment in EU law will allow...

  16. Post-Malthusian Dynamics in Pre-Industrial Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klemp, Marc; Møller, Niels Framroze

    2016-01-01

    that England was characterized by post-Malthusian dynamics preceding the Industrial Revolution. However, given England's special position as the forerunner of the Industrial Revolution, it is unclear if a transitory post-Malthusian period is a general phenomenon. Using data from Denmark, Norway and Sweden......Theories of economic growth hypothesize that the transition from pre-industrial stagnation to sustained growth is associated with a post-Malthusian phase in which technological progress raises income and spurs population growth while offsetting diminishing returns to labor. Evidence suggests...

  17. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in gray wolves in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkman, C; Jakubek, E-B; Arnemo, J M; Malmsten, J

    2010-10-11

    Transmission of the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum between wild and domestic animals has gained some interest during recent years. Because of the close relationship between gray wolf (Canis lupus) and dog it has been suggested that gray wolf is a definitive host for the parasite. The aim of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of N. caninum in Scandinavian gray wolves and to investigate any geographical patterns of the infection. The investigation was based on blood samples collected from 109 wolves between 1998 and 2009 within the Scandinavian wolf project Skandulv. They were analysed by N. caninum iscom ELISA and those with absorbance values exceeding 0.20 were also analysed by immunoblotting. Samples that were positive in both tests were deemed positive. Four (3.7%) wolves were positive at the first sampling. They were all sampled 2005 at different locations, and were both females and males. From one male wolf three samples were collected over a 7-year period. No antibodies were detected at the first sampling in 1998 when he was approximately 8 months old but when he was sampled again 5 and 7 years later the ELISA and immunoblotting were positive. The results indicate that N. caninum infection is present in Scandinavian wolves. It is unclear how the wolves acquired the infection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. IgA deficiency in wolves from Canada and Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankowiack, Marcel; Olsson, Mia; Cluff, H Dean; Evans, Alina L; Hellman, Lars; Månsson, Johan; Arnemo, Jon M; Hammarström, Lennart

    2015-05-01

    Immunoglobulin A deficiency (IgAD) is the most common primary immunodeficiency in both humans and selected breeds of domestic dogs. In both species, IgAD is associated with recurrent infections and immune mediated diseases. Previous results imply that IgAD is also common in the wild ancestor of domestic dogs, the gray wolf. Here, we report that serum IgA concentrations are significantly different in Scandinavian and Canadian wolves (p = 3.252e-15) with an increased prevalence for IgAD in Scandinavian wolves (60%), which is as high as those found in high-risk dog breeds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. From Viking to Crusader. Scandinavia and Europe 800-1200

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1st edtion in Danish: Viking og Hvidekrist. Norden og Europa 800-1200, 1992; 2nd edition 1993. Swedish edition: Från Vikingar till Korsfarare, 1992. German edition: Wikinger Waräger Normannen. Die Skandinavier und Europa 800-1200, 1992. French edition with J.-P. Mohen & F.-X. Dillmann: Les Viking...

  20. Translating public diplomacy and nation branding in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cassinger, Cecilia; Merkelsen, Henrik; Eksell, Jörgen

    2016-01-01

    Nation branding has been criticised for leading to the homogenisation and depoliticisation of national interest and identity. This study examines the politics of nation branding in relation to its configuration with public diplomacy and the institutional policy context in which they are embedded....... Informed by Scandinavian institutionalism and the analytical concept of translation, the study reveals that the way that nation branding relates to public diplomacy within an institutional context sets the frame for its politicisation. Translation enables the understanding of nation branding as a dynamic...

  1. Who farted? Hydrogen sulphide transport from Bardarbunga to Scandinavia

    CERN Document Server

    Grahn, Håkan; Brännström, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    On September 9 2014 several incidences of foul smell (rotten eggs) were reported on the coast of Norway (in particular in the vicinity of Molde) and then on September 10 in the interior parts of county V\\"asterbotten, Sweden. One of the theories that were put forward was that the foul smell was due to degassing of the Bardarbunga volcano on Iceland. Using satellite images (GOME-1,-2) of the sulphur dioxide, SO_2, contents in the atmosphere surrounding Iceland to estimate flux of SO_2 from the volcano and an atmospheric transport model, PELLO, we vindicate this theory: we argue that the cause for the foul smell was hydrogen sulphide originating from Bardarbunga. The model concentrations are also compared to SO_2 concentration measurements from Muonio, Finland.

  2. One approach for Management by Objectives and Results in Scandinavia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Mads Bøge

    2016-01-01

    differences and similarities in the design and use of MBOR across the countries (within each of the different tasks), and within each of the three countries (across the three tasks). The paper finds that it is difficult to identify one Scandinavian approach to MBOR, as variations in MBOR are observed across...

  3. Scandinavia and the European Union: pragmatic functionalism reconsidered

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2018-01-01

    This chapter compares the European policies of the Nordic countries. The authors identify the similarities and differences in Nordic approaches to the EU and argue that Nordic policies towards the EU can be explained in terms of pragmatic functionalism seeking to protect the welfare state....

  4. Psychosocial Intervention with ethnic minority families in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    This session focusses on broad, inclusive family intervention in contrast to the narrow, individual oriented intervention. The target group for intervention includes diasporic- well as refugee families, which have received help due to psychosocial problems. The latest family research indicates th...

  5. [Climatic changes in Scandinavia--consequences for public health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanestrøm, I

    1999-01-30

    Atmospheric composition and climate conditions are of great importance for health. Increasing consumption of fossil fuels ever since the industrial revolution has resulted in higher contents of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Primarily, this will increase the global temperature. Secondarily, it may change the patterns of precipitation and droughts. Higher extreme temperatures will have a negative effect on health. Climate changes can also change the living conditions of undesirable insects and microbes. The ozone gas in the atmosphere acts as a shield against the harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Chlorofluorocarbons contribute to reduction of the ozone layer and increase ultraviolet radiation. Increased exposure of the skin to this radiation may cause damage such as sunburn and skin cancer. In order to avoid damage, it is of importance to wear protective clothing or use effective sunshades.

  6. Testing OSL failures against a regional glaciation chronology from southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmark-Nielsen, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Middle Weichselian periglacial strata and Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) ice proximal deposits showing pre-LGM ages. Suggestions are given as to how the depositional environment may influence the dating results. Even though independent dating anchors the marine Cyprina clay and last interglacial peat bogs...

  7. The role of government in collective bargaining: Scandinavia and the low countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, A.M.B.; Michels, Ank; Slomp, Hans

    1990-01-01

    This article compares the role of government in collective bargaining in five small West European countries. For the period until the second half of the 1970s, a distinction is made between countries in which government often interfered in wage bargaining, e. g. Denmark and The Netherlands, and

  8. Effectiveness of the ketogenic diet used to treat resistant childhood epilepsy in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallböök, Tove; Sjölander, Arvid; Åmark, Per; Miranda, Maria; Bjurulf, Björn; Dahlin, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This Scandinavian collaborative retrospective study of children treated with ketogenic diet (KD) highlights indications and effectiveness over two years follow-up. Five centres specialised in KD collected data retrospectively on 315 patients started on KD from 1999 to 2009. Twenty-five patients who stopped the diet within four weeks because of compliance-problems and minor side-effects were excluded. Seizure-type(s), seizure-frequency, anti-epileptic drugs and other treatments, mental retardation, autism-spectrum disorder and motor-dysfunction were identified and treatment-response was evaluated. An intention-to-treat analysis was used. Responders (>50% seizure-frequency reduction) at 6, 12 and 24 months were 50%, 46% and 28% respectively, seizure-free were 16%, 13% and 10%. Still on the diet were 80%, 64% and 41% after 6, 12 and 24 months. No child had an increased seizure-frequency. The best seizure outcome was seen in the group with not-daily seizures at baseline (n = 22), where 45%, 41% and 32% became seizure-free at 6, 12 and 24 months A significant improvement in seizure-frequency was seen in atonic seizures at three months and secondary generalised seizures at three and six months. Side-effects were noted in 29 subjects; most could be treated and only two stopped due to hyperlipidaemia and two due to kidney-stones. In 167 patients treated with potassium-citrate, one developed kidney-stones, compared with six of 123 without potassium-citrate treatment (relative risk = 8.1). As the first study of implementing KD in children in the Scandinavian countries, our survey of 290 children showed that KD is effective and well tolerated, even in such severe patients with therapy-resistant epilepsy, more than daily seizures and intellectual disability in the majority of patients. Long-term efficacy of KD was comparable or even better than reported in newer AEDs. Addition of potassium citrate reduced risk of kidney-stones. Our data indicate that the response might be predicted by seizure-frequency before initiation of the diet but not by age, seizure-type or aetiology. Copyright © 2014 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Breast feeding and the sudden infant death syndrome in Scandinavia, 1992–95

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, B; Wennergren, G; Norvenius, S; Skjaerven, R; Lagercrantz, H; Helweg-Larsen, K; Irgens, L

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess the effects of breast feeding habits on sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Methods: The analyses are based on data from the Nordic Epidemiological SIDS Study, a case–control study in which parents of SIDS victims in the Scandinavian countries between 1 September 1992 and 31 August 1995 were invited to participate, each with parents of four matched controls. The odds ratios presented were computed by conditional logistic regression analysis. Results: After adjustment for smoking during pregnancy, paternal employment, sleeping position, and age of the infant, the adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) was 5.1 (2.3 to 11.2) if the infant was exclusively breast fed for less than four weeks, 3.7 (1.6 to 8.4) for 4–7 weeks, 1.6 (0.7 to 3.6) for 8–11 weeks, and 2.8 (1.2 to 6.8) for 12–15 weeks, with exclusive breast feeding over 16 weeks as the reference. Mixed feeding in the first week post partum did not increase the risk. Conclusions: The study is supportive of a weak relation between breast feeding and SIDS reduction. PMID:12023166

  10. Structural violence in long-term, residential care for older people: Comparing Canada and Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Albert; Daly, Tamara; Armstrong, Pat; Szebehely, Marta; Armstrong, Hugh; LaFrance, Stirling

    2014-01-01

    Canadian frontline careworkers are six times more likely to experience daily physical violence than their Scandinavian counterparts. This paper draws on a comparative survey of residential careworkers serving older people across three Canadian provinces (Manitoba, Nova Scotia, Ontario) and four countries that follow a Scandinavian model of social care (Denmark, Finland, Norway, Sweden) conducted between 2005 and 2006. Ninety percent of Canadian frontline careworkers experienced physical violence from residents or their relatives and 43 percent reported physical violence on a daily basis. Canadian focus groups conducted in 2007 reveal violence was often normalized as an inevitable part of elder-care. We use the concept of “structural violence” (Galtung, 1969) to raise questions about the role that systemic and organizational factors play in setting the context for violence. Structural violence refers to indirect forms of violence that are built into social structures and that prevent people from meeting their basic needs or fulfilling their potential. We applied the concept to long-term residential care and found that the poor quality of the working conditions and inadequate levels of support experienced by Canadian careworkers constitute a form of structural violence. Working conditions are detrimental to careworker’s physical and mental health, and prevent careworkers from providing the quality of care they are capable of providing and understand to be part of their job. These conditions may also contribute to the violence workers experience, and further investigation is warranted. PMID:22204839

  11. Inventing Homo gardarensis: Prestige, Pressure and Human Evolution in Interwar Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Peter C.

    2014-01-01

    fossil evidence available and the idea of a Missing Link as a crucial piece of evidence in human evolution still intact, many actors participated in the scientific race to identify the human ancestor. The curious case of Homo gardarensis serves as an example of how personal ambitions and national pride...

  12. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Weber, C.; Barth, R.

    2009-01-01

    and will therefore influence the operational costs induced by wind power production. A method is applied for calculating the change in operational costs due to wind power production using a stochastic optimisation model covering the power systems in Germany and the Nordic countries. Two cases of alternative...

  13. Management of early onset neonatal sepsis differs in the north and south of Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Drageset, Martin; Fjalstad, Jon Widding; Mortensen, Sven

    2017-01-01

    AIM: This study compared the management and outcomes of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) in two tertiary neonatal units in Denmark and Norway. METHODS: We retrospectively studied all infants diagnosed with EONS between April 2010 and March 2013 and managed at Odense University Hospital, Denmark...... blood cultures had higher C-reactive protein levels than patients with negative blood cultures and higher sepsis-attributable mortality. Lumbar punctures were performed more frequently in Denmark. CONCLUSION: There were marginal differences in the management of EONS between units in Denmark and Norway...

  14. Dormancy in reproductive vegetative buds in creeping perennials dominating the agricultural weed flora in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    Liew, Josefine

    2013-01-01

    Dormancy, which is the inability to initiate normal growth under otherwise favourable conditions, is an adaptation to escape sprouting prior to seasonal cold temperatures and/or drought in areas where winters are harsh or summers dry. Dormancy in woody perennials of northern temperate areas is, in general, induced by photoperiodic and/or temperature changes, and released after prolonged exposure to chilling. Besides being species specific, northern ecotypes are usually more sensitive to induc...

  15. Legitimizing policies: How policy approaches to irregular migrants are formulated and legitimized in Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bak Jørgensen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on representations of irregular migration in a Scandinavian context and how irregular migrants are constructed as a target group. A common feature in many (Western-European states is the difficult attempt to navigate between an urge for control and respecting, upholding and promoting humanitarian aspects of migration management. Legitimizing policies therefore become extremely important as governments have to appease national voters to remain in power and have to respect European regulations and international conventions. Doing so raises questions of social, political and economic rights, of moral obligations, of sovereignty, and of equity, as well as of how to define target groups and legal and categorical statuses into the debates. Having a backdrop in the theoretical framework of Carol Bacchi, Anne Schneider and Helen Ingram and Giorgio Agamben, this article looks at how policy problematizations and constructions of target populations guide and legitimize particular policy approaches and may end up marginalizing and excluding groups in society and ultimately become a challenge for democracy.Dansk abstract: Legitimering af politik: Hvordan politiske tilgange til irregulære indvandrere formuleres og legitimeres i SkandinavienFokus i denne artikel er på repræsentationer af irregulær migration i en skandinavisk kontekst og hvordan illegale indvandrere er konstrueret som målgruppe. Et fælles træk i mange vesteuropæiske nationalstater er det svære forsøg på at navigere mellem kontrol og samtidig respektere, forsvare og fremme humanitære aspekter af migrationsstyringen. At legitimere den givne politik er derfor blevet særdeles vigtigt fordi regeringerne er nødt til at formilde de nationale indvandringsskeptiske vælgere for at forblive ved magten og er nødsaget til at respektere europæiske regler og internationale konventioner. Dette italesætter en diskussion om sociale, politiske og økonomiske rettigheder, af moralske forpligtelser, af suverænitet, af at definere målgrupper og juridiske statuskategorier i debatterne. Artiklen har baggrund i en teoretisk ramme som er udstukket af Carol Bacchi, Anne Schneider, Helen Ingram og Giorgio Agamben. Artiklen ser på, hvordan politiske problematiseringer og konstruktioner af målgrupper vejleder og legitimerer bestemte politiske strategier og kan ende med at marginalisere og udelukke grupper i samfundet og i sidste ende blive en udfordring for demokratiske principper som sådan.Keywords: policy making, irregulær indvandring, målgrupper, medborgerskab, demokrati, kategoriseringer, Skandinavienhttp://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v6i2.1784

  16. Sustainable Transitions on the Move - Guiding Visions for a Circular Bioeconomy in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røste, Rannveig; Gregg, Jay Sterling; Coenen, Lars

    actor constellations that include a larger variety of actors, and consider new roles for traditional actors (Kuhlmann and Rip 2014). Even if policies start to be aimed at addressing these challenges, this new framing of research and innovation policies is still under-developed and it remains unclear how......Grand societal challenges such as climate change, ageing population and food security feature increasingly on the agenda of policymakers at all scales. While traditional mission-oriented research and innovation policies were largely framed in technical terms, challenge-based policies claim...

  17. Molecular- and pollen-based vegetation analysis in lake sediments from central Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parducci, Laura; Matetovici, Irina; Fontana, Sonia L.

    2013-01-01

    Plant and animal biodiversity can be studied by obtaining DNA directly from the environment. This new approach in combination with the use of generic barcoding primers (metabarcoding) has been suggested as complementary or alternative to traditional biodiversity monitoring in ancient soil sedimen...

  18. Laughables as a resource for foregrounding shared knowledge and shared identities in intercultural interactions in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranekjær, Louise

    2017-01-01

    to propose co-membership (Erickson and Schultz 1982) and that epistemics (Heritage 2012b;Stivers et al 2011) are central to this process. While previous studies have documented the interrelation of professional and other social categories, this chapter shows that laughables are used by participants......This paper employs Membership Categorization Analysis to illustrate how laughables are used as a resource for establishing co-membership and identification with professional and ‘other’ social identities within a range of different work-places in Denmark and Norway. Conversation analytical studies...... have previously shown how laughables and laughter attend to a range of social functions such as affiliation (Glenn 2010), seeking intimacy and handling ‘troubles talk’ (Jefferson 1984;Jefferson et al. 1987). This paper focuses on the former of these functions and argues that laughables are a resource...

  19. Atmospheric heavy metal deposition accumulated in rural forest soils of southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovmand, Mads Frederik; Kemp, Kaare; Kystol, J.

    2008-01-01

    in two depths, 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm, at eight forest sites at the island were used to determine the increase in HM content in the eolian deposited top soils of the plantation. Concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), vanadium (V), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As) were determined...

  20. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin E Gangaas

    Full Text Available Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine. The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country, they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents. We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale patterns in social dynamics of human-wildlife conflicts.

  1. Treatment of Acute Achilles Tendon Rupture in Scandinavia Does Not Adhere to Evidence-based Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Kristoffer W; Nielsen, Fredrik; Helander, Katarina N

    2013-01-01

    recommended surgical treatment (p countries in the educational level......The best treatment of acute Achilles tendon rupture has been discussed for decades. During the past half decade, evidence has increased in favor of nonoperative treatment and dynamic and weightbearing rehabilitation. We hypothesized that the treatment strategies would show great variation...

  2. Women-friendly policy paradoxes?! Child Care policies and gender equality visions in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borchorst, Anette

    2006-01-01

    The chapter focuses on the political construction of the equality-difference dilemma in Scandinavian welfare policies. Different policy logics of childcare policies in Sweden, Norway and Denmark are addressed and the visions of gender equality underpinning them are analyzed....

  3. Very high-resolution regional climate simulations over Scandinavia-present climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ole B.; Christensen, Jens H.; Machenhauer, Bennert

    1998-01-01

    The hydrological cycle on a regional scale is poorly represented with a present-day coarse resolution general circulation model (GCM). With a dynamical downscaling technique, in which a regional higher-resolution climate model (RCM) is nested into the GCM, this starts to become feasible. Here...... the authors go one step further with a double nesting approach, applying an RCM at 19-km horizontal resolution nested into an RCM at 57-km resolution over an area covering the Scandinavian Peninsula. A 9-yr-long time-slice simulation is performed with the driving boundary conditions taken from a fully coupled...... simulated in the high-resolution simulation. It does, however, inherit certain large-scale systematic errors from the driving GCM. In many cases these errors increase with increasing resolution. Model verification of near-surface temperature and precipitation is made using a new gridded climatology based...

  4. Bayesian radiocarbon models for the cultural transition during the Allerød in southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riede, Felix; Edinborough, Kevan

    2012-01-01

    by a restricted territorial range, loss of bow-arrow technology, and a general reduction in material culture complexity. Different hypotheses for the origin of the Bromme culture have been put forward, variously stressing local continuity or discontinuity. Different environmental and cultural factors have been...... suggested to force the observed changes, but crucially their precise timing remains elusive. Here, we review competing hypotheses for this cultural transition, and evaluate them using an audited regional database of the available 14C dates. We construct a series of Bayesian calibration models using...... the IntCal09 calibration curve to clarify timings of cultural continuity/discontinuity, probable duration of different techno-complexes, and relationships between environmental changes and material culture transitions. Our models suggest that the Bromme culture emerged late in the Aller...

  5. Test of a small SDHW-system form the company Solahart Scandinavia ApS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the project is to verify the thermal performance of the tested SDHW system as well as to investigate whether changes in the system parameters or operation conditions will improve the thermal performance. The SDHW system is tested during a winter- and a sommerperiod. A validated compute...

  6. Lateral, radial and temporal variations in upper mantle viscosity and rheology under Scandinavia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barnhoorn, A.; Wal, W. van der; Vermeersen, L.L.A.; Drury, M.R.

    2011-01-01

    The viscosity of the upper mantle has a large control on the dynamics of plate tectonic processes or the response of the Earth's crust after a period of glaciation. Temperature variations within the upper mantle, time-dependent stress changes due to glaciations, and/or variations in the

  7. Massive settlements of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in Scandinavia : Original paper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Valero, Johanna; Harkestad, Lisbeth S.

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is an important aquaculture species world-wide. Due to its wide environmental tolerance and high growth rate, it has also become a successful invader in many areas, leading to major ecosystem changes. Low water temperatures were previously believed to restrict...

  8. Similar views on rehabilitation following hip arthroscopy among physiotherapists and surgeons in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wörner, T; Thorborg, K; Moksnes, H

    2017-01-01

    mostly rated physiotherapy as very or extremely important in the rehabilitation process. The majority advocated criteria-based or combined criteria- and time-based progression. Expected rehabilitation timelines were reported with large intra-professional variation but general inter-professional agreement...

  9. Urban qualities of life in the new urban districts in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønlund, Bo

    An investigation of urbanity in Egebjerggård/Ballerup, Høje Tåstrup and Skarpnäck/Stockholm with tentative conclusions on different kinds and levels of urbanity.......An investigation of urbanity in Egebjerggård/Ballerup, Høje Tåstrup and Skarpnäck/Stockholm with tentative conclusions on different kinds and levels of urbanity....

  10. Calibrating n-alkane Sphagnum proxies in sub-Arctic Scandinavia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Jorien E.; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2009-01-01

    Moss covered, high latitude wetlands hold large amounts of terrestrial organic matter (OM), which may be vulnerable to expected climate warming. Molecular analysis of fluvially transported material from these regions can distinguish between different sources of terrestrial OM. Sphagnum moss may

  11. Diagnoses of Patients with Severe Subjective Health Complaints in Scandinavia: A Cross Sectional Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maeland, Silje; Werner, Erik L.; Rosendal, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Patienter med symptomer, der ikke umiddelbart passer med en kendt medicinsk diagnose, er hyppige i almen praksis. Praktiserende læger blev i denne undersøgelse bedt om at sætte en diagnosekode på disse patienter, og der viste sig at være en meget stor variation i valget med op til 31 forskellige ...

  12. Inventory of demonstration and trail projects in sustainable energy and transport in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Per Dannemand; Cramer-Petersen, Claus Lundgaard; Harnes, Kristian N.

    This report documents the work of work package 2 of the InnoDemo research project funded by the Research Council of Norway. Partners in the project are The Nordic Institute for Studies in Innovation, Research and Education (NIFU) (project leader), DTU Management Engineering at Technical University...... of Denmark, and CIRCLE at Lund’s University. From a state-of-the-art study in the project’s work package 1, a set of characteristics have been specified to be collected in an inventory of demonstration projects and funding programmes. This data was collected in parallel in Denmark, Norway and Sweden...

  13. Massive settlements of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in Scandinavia : Invasion note

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wrange, Anna-Lisa; Valero, Johanna; Harkestad, Lisbeth S.

    2010-01-01

    The Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) is an important aquaculture species world-wide. Due to its wide environmental tolerance and high growth rate, it has also become a successful invader in many areas, leading to major ecosystem changes. Low water temperatures were previously believed to restrict...... settlement in 2006, and in Norway, populations are established along the southwest coast to 60A degrees N....

  14. Where is the refrigerator? A spatial approach to wolverine (Gulo gulo) food hoarding behavior in Scandinavia

    OpenAIRE

    van der Veen, Bert

    2017-01-01

    Food hoarding helps animals to maintain their physical condition during times of food scarcity. Wolverines (Gulo gulo) inhabitat mostly environments of low productivity, and are known to hoard food for long-term periods, to store a single food item per food cache, and to spatially spread their food caches across their home range. Few studies have been dedicated to describing the wolverine’s food hoarding behavior. We identified 303 caches from 38 individuals in four study areas...

  15. Exploring compatibility between subjective well-being and sustainable living in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Karsten Bruun

    2015-01-01

    to be in place: subjective well-being (Subjective well-being comprises in this paper; (1) “hedonic well-being”, characterized by materialistic oriented values, such as; material possessions, -pleasure, -comfort and positive emotions, and (2) “eudaimonic well-being”, such as; meaning in life, feelings of vitality......, personal flourishing, and social relations.) in Sweden, for example, has stagnated for the well-off middle and upper classes since the 1980s. In some of the most affluent welfare societies in the world, well-off persons have trouble finding meaning in life, eudaimonic well-being (EWB), although levels...... of hedonic well-being have grown continuously. Apparently economic prosperity is not a key factor providing meaning and personal flourishing. Based on social constructivist theory, this paper reveals leisure time as a important sources providing EWB in terms of shaping frames for existential meaning...

  16. The 2003 proposal for a directive on Takeover Bids - Impact on the regulation in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2003-01-01

    The article analysis the exspected impact of the proposed directive on takeover bids in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The article focus on the impact on the duties of managers and of the 'mini breack-through rule'.......The article analysis the exspected impact of the proposed directive on takeover bids in Denmark, Norway and Sweden. The article focus on the impact on the duties of managers and of the 'mini breack-through rule'....

  17. Effectiveness of the ketogenic diet used to treat resistant childhood epilepsy in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallböök, Tove; Sjölander, Arvid; Åmark, Per

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: This Scandinavian collaborative retrospective study of children treated with ketogenic diet (KD) highlights indications and effectiveness over two years follow-up. METHODS: Five centres specialised in KD collected data retrospectively on 315 patients started on KD from 1999 to 2009....... Twenty-five patients who stopped the diet within four weeks because of compliance-problems and minor side-effects were excluded. Seizure-type(s), seizure-frequency, anti-epileptic drugs and other treatments, mental retardation, autism-spectrum disorder and motor-dysfunction were identified and treatment......-response was evaluated. RESULTS: An intention-to-treat analysis was used. Responders (>50% seizure-frequency reduction) at 6, 12 and 24 months were 50%, 46% and 28% respectively, seizure-free were 16%, 13% and 10%. Still on the diet were 80%, 64% and 41% after 6, 12 and 24 months. No child had an increased seizure...

  18. Geo-spatial aspects of acceptance of illegal hunting of large carnivores in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangaas, Kristin E; Kaltenborn, Bjørn P; Andreassen, Harry P

    2013-01-01

    Human-carnivore conflicts are complex and are influenced by: the spatial distribution of the conflict species; the organisation and intensity of management measures such as zoning; historical experience with wildlife; land use patterns; and local cultural traditions. We have used a geographically stratified sampling of social values and attitudes to provide a novel perspective to the human - wildlife conflict. We have focused on acceptance by and disagreements between residents (measured as Potential Conflict Index; PCI) towards illegal hunting of four species of large carnivores (bear, lynx, wolf, wolverine). The study is based on surveys of residents in every municipality in Sweden and Norway who were asked their opinion on illegal hunting. Our results show how certain social values are associated with acceptance of poaching, and how these values differ geographically independent of carnivore abundance. Our approach differs from traditional survey designs, which are often biased towards urban areas. Although these traditional designs intend to be representative of a region (i.e. a random sample from a country), they tend to receive relatively few respondents from rural areas that experience the majority of conflict with carnivores. Acceptance of poaching differed significantly between Norway (12.7-15.7% of respondents) and Sweden (3.3-4.1% of respondents). We found the highest acceptance of illegal hunting in rural areas with free-ranging sheep and strong hunting traditions. Disagreements between residents (as measured by PCI) were highest in areas with intermediate population density. There was no correlation between carnivore density and either acceptance of illegal hunting or PCI. A strong positive correlation between acceptance of illegal hunting and PCI showed that areas with high acceptance of illegal hunting are areas with high potential conflict between people. Our results show that spatially-stratified surveys are required to reveal the large scale patterns in social dynamics of human-wildlife conflicts.

  19. Now and Then - Diasporic Identity Processes among South Asian Young Adults in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores some social-psychological aspects for South Asian Young Adults in Denmark such as identity processes through social relations across the geographical borders and psychological diaspora consciousness and is a follow up of the project conducted in the mid-nineties, in Denmark (N...

  20. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meibom, P. [Risoe National Lab., DTU, System Analysis Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Weber, C. [Univ. Duisburg-Essen, Chai og Energy Management (Germany); Barth, R.; Brand, H. [Univ. of Stuttgart, Inst. of Energy Economics and the Rational Use of Energy (Germany)

    2007-05-15

    Adding wind power generation in a power system changes the operational patterns of the existing units due to the variability and unpredictability of wind power production. For large amounts of wind power production the expectation is that the operational costs of the other power plants will increase due to more operation time in part-load and more start-ups. The change in operational costs induced by the wind power production can only be calculated by comparing the operational costs in two power system configurations: with wind power production and with alternative production having properties like conventional production, i.e. being predictable and less variable. The choice of the characteristics of the alternative production is not straight forward and will therefore influence the operational costs induced by wind power production. This paper presents a method for calculating the change in operational costs due to wind power production using a stochastic optimization model covering the power systems in Germany and the Nordic countries. Two cases of alternative production are used to calculate the change in operational costs namely perfectly predictable wind power production enabling calculation of the costs connected to unpredictability, and constant wind power production enabling calculation of the operational costs connected to variability of wind power production. A 2010 case with three different wind power production penetration levels is analysed in the paper. (au)

  1. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria among patients with cystic fibrosis in Scandinavia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Qvist, Tavs; Gilljam, Marita; Jönsson, Bodil; Taylor-Robinson, David; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Wang, Mikala; Svahn, Anita; Kötz, Karsten; Hansson, Lennart; Hollsing, Annika; Hansen, Christine R; Finstad, Pål L; Pressler, Tania; Høiby, Niels; Katzenstein, Terese L

    2015-01-01

    .... In this retrospective observational study we identified all Scandinavian CF patients with a positive NTM culture from airway secretions from 2000 to the end of 2012 and used national CF database...

  2. Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement; Jespersen, Per Homann; Lohse, Sandrina

    2012-01-01

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  3. Treatment of basal cell carcinoma in Scandinavia: evidence or eminence based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helsing, Per; Gjersvik, Petter; Tarstedt, Mikael

    2015-09-01

    Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is a locally destructive form of skin cancer, mainly affecting Caucasians. There are multiple treatment options for BCC, with excisional surgery being most widely used. Choice of treatment may be dependent on clinical guidelines, local therapeutic traditions, and/or personal experience. Sweden is the only Scandinavian country with treatment guidelines for BCC. Eighty-six dermatologists from Sweden, Denmark, and Norway that were attending a meeting on photodynamic therapy were presented case history and clinical photographs of nine different BCCs and asked to select their treatment of choice among multiple options by the use of an electronic audience response system. Treatment of choice differed substantially between dermatologists from the three countries. Swedish dermatologists more often chose excisional surgery (median 50%, range 0-90%) than their Danish (median 19%, range 0-44%) and Norwegian (median 35%, range 0-65%) colleagues. Very few Swedish dermatologists chose radiation therapy in the four cases where this was an option. Photodynamic therapy was more often selected by Norwegian dermatologists compared to Swedish and Danish dermatologists. The treatment choices of Swedish dermatologists in cases of BCC are generally in line with Swedish treatment guidelines. National treatment guidelines for BCC should be established in all countries, including Denmark and Norway. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  4. From Gutenberg to Luther - Transnational Print Cultures in Scandinavia 1450-1525

    OpenAIRE

    Undorf, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this thesis are the infrastructural, bibliographical and physical dimensions of Scandinavian print culture between the contradictory contexts of the Late Middle Ages and the Early Modern Period, scholasticism and humanism, late Catholicism and the dawn of the Reformation. Its theoretical point of point of origin is the awareness of the importance of the connection and interplay of Scandinavian pre-Reformation book culture with its contemporary continental counterpart for a deep...

  5. Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria among patients with cystic fibrosis in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvist, Tavs; Gilljam, Marita; Jönsson, Bodil

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are an emerging threat to cystic fibrosis (CF) patients but their epidemiology is not well described. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study we identified all Scandinavian CF patients with a positive NTM culture from airway secretions from...

  6. The long distance transport (LDT) of Ambrosia pollen from the Pannonian Plain to Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šikoparija, B..; Skjøth, C. A.; Alm Kübler, K.; Dahl, A.; Radišić, P.; Sommer, J.; Grewling, Ł.; Smith, M.

    2012-04-01

    Ragweed (Ambrosia spp.) pollen grains are important aeroallergens that cause seasonal allergic rhinitis and asthma to sensitive individuals. This study describes the conditions required for the LDT of ragweed pollen from the Pannonian Plain (PP) to Sweden on the 27- 28 August 2011, using a combination of daily and bi-hourly pollen count data, the overall synoptic weather situation, 3D analysis of the regional scale orography using Digital Elevation Models, surface meteorological data, satellite observations, and air mas trajectories calculated using the HYSPLIT model. During the episode, high pressure (1024-1028 hPa) situated over European Russia and the Black Sea to the east and deep low pressure (~990 hPa) over the British Isles in the northwest resulted in a general southeast-northwest movement of air, and the occurrence of the jet-effect Kosava wind in the PP. This dry and gusty wind caused ragweed pollen release on the PP and pollen to be transported to the northwest. A foehn wind that governs air movement down leeward slopes into the PP was also active. The 24 and 25 August 2011 were very hot and caused large amounts of ragweed pollen to be released and taken high up in the atmosphere through convection. Such conditions also resulted in high Planetary Boundary Layers over the entire area, conditions that facilitated the transport of pollen over areas of low elevation on the Western Carpathians (i.e. the Moravian Gate or Low Baskid passes) northward into Poland and beyond.

  7. Measures to enhance mobility among older people in Scandinavia. A literature review of best practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levin, Lena; Ulleberg, Pål; Siren, Anu Kristiina

    as possible rather than in a care home. There have been attempts to implement measures aimed at increasing older people’s mobility in accordance with various modes of transport, e.g. travelling by private car, by public transport, walking, cycling (the unprotected road users). However, very little research...

  8. Temporal and spatial variation in harbor seal (Phoca vitulina L.) roar calls from southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sabinsky, Puk Faxe; Larsen, Ole Næsbye; Wahlberg, Magnus

    2017-01-01

    Male harbor seals gather around breeding sites for competitive mating displays. Here, they produce underwater vocalizations possibly to attract females and/or scare off other males. These calls offer prospects for passive acoustic monitoring. Acoustic monitoring requires a good understanding...... of natural variation in calling behavior both temporally and among geographically separate sites. Such variation in call structure and calling patterns were studied in harbor seal vocalizations recorded at three locations in Danish and Swedish waters. There was a strong seasonality in the calls from end...... biological differences when comparing harbor seal roars among recording sites and between years....

  9. Morphological and molecular identification of species of the Obsoletus group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    After the introduction of bluetongue in northern Europe in 2006, populations of Culicoides have been monitored in many European countries. Large quantities of Culicoides specimens shall be determined to species, and it is thus important to find reliable morphological characters that are visualize...

  10. A core undergraduate curriculum in plastic surgery - a Delphi consensus study in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeland, Stian K; Lindford, Andrew; Berg, Jais Oliver

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: In recent years, undergraduate medical education has undergone a transition from a speciality-based to a more competence-based training system. Consequently, whilst medical knowledge is rapidly expanding, time for teaching of the surgical specialties is decreasing. Thus......, there appears to be a need to define the core competences that are to be taught. The aim of this study was to establish a Scandinavian core undergraduate curriculum of competences in plastic surgery, using scientific methods. METHODS: The Delphi technique for group consensus was employed. An expert panel.......00 on a 1-4 Likert scale. Final agreement in the third round resulted in a list of 68 competences with agreement above 80% (31 skills and 37 knowledge items). CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes the first scientifically developed undergraduate core curriculum in plastic surgery. It comprises of a consensus...

  11. The Times They Are A-Changin': Declining Immigrant Employment Opportunities in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Michael; Husted, Leif; Scott, Kirk

    2006-01-01

    This article compares and contrasts male immigrant labor market experiences in Sweden and Denmark during the period 1985-1995. Using register-based panel data sets from Sweden and Denmark, a picture of the employment assimilation process of immigrants from Norway, Poland, and Turkey is presented....

  12. Identifying added value in high-resolution climate simulations over Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Stephania; Fox Maule, Cathrine; Sobolowski, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    be capable of capturing the timing, intensity and location of short-duration extreme events, in particular precipitation. In this respect, both models outperform the reanalysis over the city of Copenhagen, where recent pluvial floods led to costly damages to infrastructure.......High-resolution data are needed in order to assess potential impacts of extreme events on infrastructure in the mid-latitudes. Dynamical downscaling offers one way to obtain this information. However, prior to implementation in any impacts assessment scheme, model output must be validated......-based station observations. In addition to the canonical variables of daily precipitation and temperature, winds were also investigated. The models exhibit systematic cold and wet biases on seasonal time scales (−1 K and +50–100%, respectively). However, frequency-based skill scores for daily precipitation...

  13. On the History of Words in Scandinavia: Researching the Culture of Proto-Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr P. Chruszczewski

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available By the year 800 A.D. Scandinavian speech communities were forming a new cultural and linguistic entity which had fossilized and considerably expanded by the end of the Viking Age. The conversion to Christianity was connected with abandoning the worship of pagan gods and the acquisition of new cultural values which at that time could not have been more foreign to the mainstream Vikings. Thanks to the runic notations one can trace the passage from paganism to Christianity. There were many attempts to define what the book is. In one of the attempts at such a definition it is claimed that it is the book which materializes in a graphic form the essence of culture in which the book is produced. Book production materials depend to a large extent on the historical and cultural circumstances of the epoch in which the book is produced. What is more, books are supposed to meet social expectations of their time, and fulfill a series of utilitarian functions. Runic inscriptions, functioning as indispensable tools of social communication fulfilled the information-warning function; they also served the function of intergenerational links which have the potential to last for a very long time in extremely adverse conditions. The paper argues in favor of understanding a certain number of runic inscriptions carved on stone as culture-dependent instances of Scandinavian proto-books, for they fulfill precisely the same functions as contemporary books.

  14. The Role of Perceived Substitution and Individual Culture in the Adoption of Electronic Newspapers in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pogrebnyakov, Nicolai; Buchmann, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Introduction:This paper explores the factors behind the adoption of electronic newspapers. Adoption is hypothesized to be driven by attributes of the electronic newspaper artefact (expressed by perceived substitution) and individual cultural characteristics of potential adopters. Perceived...... was used to test hypotheses. Results: The results indicate that perceived substitution explains the adoption of electronic newspapers well, while most cultural factors did not show a significant effect on adoption. Conclusion: These results add to research on how perceived substitutive functionality of one...... technology over another may lead to adoption, as well as to studies that investigate the role of individual cultural characteristics in the adoption of information and communication technologies....

  15. Transcultural Nursing in Scandinavia: the nurses perspective - A qualitative meta-synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Anette Fløe; Haahr, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To aggregate, interpret and synthesize findings form qualitative studies of Scandinavian nurse’s experiences of providing caring to patients who are immigrant from non-western countries. Background: The number of people with ethnic, cultural and religious background other than Western......, it is interesting and important to examine transcultural nursing in that context. Design: The meta-synthesis approach was based on the guidelines by Sandelowski and Barroso. Data sources: Literature searches were conducted in the database SveMed+, CINAHL Complete, PsycInfo, Academic Search Premier, PubMed, covering...... to diagnoses or cause for receiving nursing care. Review methods: Data were analyzed into meta-summary and meta-synthesis. The meta-synthesis included, qualitative content analysis inspired by Graneheim and Lundman, taxonomy of findings and Constant Targeted Comparison....

  16. Downscaling atmospheric patterns to multi-site precipitation amounts in southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gelati, Emiliano; Christensen, O.B.; Rasmussen, P.F.

    2010-01-01

    A non-homogeneous hidden Markov model (NHMM) is applied for downscaling atmospheric synoptic patterns to winter multi-site daily precipitation amounts. The implemented NHMM assumes precipitation to be conditional on a hidden weather state that follows a Markov chain, whose transition probabilitie...... depend on current atmospheric information. The gridded atmospheric fields are summarized through the singular value decomposition (SVD) technique. SVD is applied to geopotential height and relative humidity at several pressure levels, to identify their principal spatial patterns co...... products of bivariate distributions. Conditional on the weather state, precipitation amounts are modelled separately at each gauge as independent gamma-distributed random variables. This modelling approach is applied to 51 precipitation gauges in Denmark and southern Sweden for the period 1981...

  17. Overview of sun photometer measurements of aerosol properties in Scandinavia and Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toledano, C.; Cachorro, V.E.; Gausa, M.; Stebel, K.; Aaltonen, V.; Berjón, A.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J.P.; Frutos, A.M. de; Bennouna, Y.; Blindheim, S.; Myhre, C.L.; Zibordi, G.; Wehrli, C.; Kratzer, S.; Hakansson, B.; Carlund, T.; Leeuw, G. de; Herber, A.; Torres, B.

    2012-01-01

    An overview on the data of columnar aerosol properties measured in Northern Europe is provided. Apart from the necessary data gathered in the Arctic, the knowledge of the aerosol loading in nearby areas (e.g. sub-Arctic) is of maximum interest to achieve a correct analysis of the Arctic aerosols and

  18. Reflectance measurements of zooclasts and solid bitumen in Lower Paleozoic shales, southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Henrik I.; Schovsbo, Niels H.; Nielsen, Arne Thorshøj

    2013-01-01

    Reflectance measurements have been carried out on zooclasts (graptolites, chitinozoans, and vase-shaped microfossils) and other organic particles (vitrinite-like particles, porous/granular vitrinite-like particles, and solid bitumen) in Middle Cambrian to Upper Silurian shales from central and so...... to that of graptolites at the same level of maturity. Reflectance measurements of solid bitumen are a poor maturity indicator, probably because bitumen can have various origins and morphologies and it may not be indigenous to the host rock. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  19. Autoimmune diseases in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, Anna Sällfors; Olsen, Jørgen H; Mellemkjaer, Lene; Garwicz, Stanislaw; Hjorth, Lars; Moëll, Christian; Månsson, Bengt; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Hasle, Henrik; Winther, Jeanette Falck

    2016-09-01

    The pattern of autoimmune diseases in childhood cancer survivors has not been investigated previously. We estimated the risk for an autoimmune disease after childhood cancer in a large, population-based setting with outcome measures from comprehensive, nationwide health registries. From the national cancer registries of Denmark, Iceland and Sweden, we identified 20 361 1-year survivors of cancer diagnosed before the age of 20 between the start of cancer registration in the 1940s and 1950s through 2008; 125 794 comparison subjects, matched by age, gender and country, were selected from national population registers. Study subjects were linked to the national hospital registers. Standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (SHRRs) and absolute excess risks (AERs) were calculated. Childhood cancer survivors had a significantly increased SHRR of 1.4 (95% CI 1.3 to 1.5) of all autoimmune diseases combined, corresponding to an AER of 67 per 100 000 person-years. The SHRRs were significantly increased for autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (16.3), Addison's disease (13.9), polyarteritis nodosa (5.8), chronic rheumatic heart disease (4.5), localised scleroderma (3.6), idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (3.4), Hashimoto's thyroiditis (3.1), pernicious anaemia (2.7), sarcoidosis (2.2), Sjögren's syndrome (2.0) and insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (1.6). The SHRRs for any autoimmune disease were significantly increased after leukaemia (SHRR 1.6), Hodgkin's lymphoma (1.6), renal tumours (1.6) and central nervous system neoplasms (1.4). Childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for certain types of autoimmune diseases. These findings underscore the need for prolonged follow-up of these survivors. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  20. From Scandinavia to Spain: a Viking-Age reliquary in León and its meaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else

    2010-01-01

    Presentation and discussion of a small box, which is highly decorated in the Scandinavian Mammen style and preserved in the treasury of the Church of San Isodoro in León, in northern Spain. This is the only Viking objects so far identified in Spain. The box, which is from the late 10th century an...

  1. Are Right Wing Extremists in Scandinavia a Threat to Government Personnel and the Societal Mainstream? A Prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-04-12

    Öhman, was killed by a handful of immigrants, and almost at the same time neo-Nazis killed a punk , Ronny Landin. The persons convicted of killing the...terms the person killing the neo-Nazi, while doing the opposite concerning the neo-Nazi killing the punk . In other words, in one case the perpetrators...can hardly be picked up and polished as a new alternative for the future, which will surely become far more alarming and oppressive times.” http

  2. MM98.52 - An industrial comparison of coordinate measuring machines in Scandinavia with focus on uncertainty statements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Chiffre, Leonardo De

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes an industrial comparison of coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) carried out in the Scandinavian countries from October 1994 to May 1996. Fifty-nine industrial companies with a total of 62 CMMs participated in the project and measured a comparison package with five items chosen...... to represent a variety of dimensions, angles, and other geometrical quantities. A tool holder, two gauge blocks, a straightedge, and a ring together with instructions on how to measure the items were produced and sent to each participant. Simple measurement tasks were observed to be carried out with good...... results for the majority of the participants; whereas, increasing the level of difficulty from simple length measurements to more complex geometrical quantities gave severe problems for some of the companies. This occurred even though the participants measured according to prescribed procedures...

  3. Hospital volume and 1-year mortality after treatment of intracranial aneurysms: a study based on patient registries in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindekleiv, Haakon; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B; Førde, Olav H; Wilsgaard, Tom; Ingebrigtsen, Tor

    2015-09-01

    The object of this study was to examine the relationship between hospital volume and long-term mortality after treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The authors identified patients treated for intracranial aneurysms between 2002 and 2010 from patient registries of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden, and linked to data on 1-year mortality from the population registry of each country. Cox regression models were used to relate hospital volume to the risk of death and adjusted for potential confounders (age, sex, year of treatment, Charlson comorbidity index, country, and surgical treatment). The authors identified 5773 patients with ruptured and 1756 patients with unruptured intracranial aneurysms, treated at 15 hospitals. One-year mortality rates were 15.6% for patients with ruptured aneurysms and 2.7% for patients with unruptured aneurysms. No consistent relationship was found between hospital volume and 1-year mortality for ruptured aneurysms in the unadjusted analyses, but higher hospital volume was associated with increased mortality in the analyses adjusted for potential confounders (hazard ratio [HR] per 10-patient increase 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.07). There was a trend toward a lower mortality rate in higher-volume hospitals after treatment for unruptured intracranial aneurysms, but this was not statistically significant after adjustment for potential confounders (HR per 10-patient increase 0.69, 95% CI 0.42-1.10). There were large variations in mortality after treatment for both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms across hospitals and between the Scandinavian countries (p < 0.01). The findings in this study did not confirm a relationship between higher hospital volume and reduced long-term mortality after treatment of ruptured intracranial aneurysms. Prospective registries for evaluating outcomes after aneurysm treatment are highly warranted.

  4. 'The ball and the rhythm in her blood'. Racialised imaginaries and football migration from Nigeria to Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engh, Mari Haugaa; Settler, Federico; Agergaard, Sine

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of how Nigerian women migrants are represented and constructed as racial others by officials in the Scandinavian football clubs that recruit and employ them. Situated against scholarship on race, gender, and sport, within and outside the Scandinavian region, we...... highlight consistencies in stereotypical representations of black athletes. We use theories of racialisation to draw attention to how ideas about race and gender are mutually imbricated in shaping Scandinavian representations of Nigerian women football migrants. Based on interviews with Scandinavian...

  5. Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany - Workshop Protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement; Jespersen, Per Homann; Lohse, Sandrina

    2012-01-01

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  6. Evaluating GOCE data near a mid-ocean ridge and possible application to crustal structure in Scandinavia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Wal, W.; Wang, L.; Visser, P.N.A.M.; Sneeuw, N.; Vermeersen, L.L.A.

    2011-01-01

    GOCE gravity fields are assessed in an area around Reykjanes Ridge. Ship gravity measurements were found to be to inaccurate to determine possible improvement of GOCE gravity field models compared to the best available GRACE gravity field model. Differences between the GOCE gravity field models and

  7. Biology and distribution of hemichordates (Enteropneusta) with emphasis on Harrimaniidae and description of Protoglossus bocki sp. nov. from Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cedhagen, Tomas; Hansson (†), Hans G.

    2013-01-01

    A new species of the genus Protoglossus is described from the west coast of the Scandinavian Penin- sula. It lives buried in clay bottoms below the halocline where the salinity is at least 33–34 psu. Body small, esti- mated maximal length 1.5 cm. Collar broader than long, with a forward inclination...

  8. Arrowheads as indicators of interpersonal violence and group identity among the Neolithic Pitted Ware hunters of southwestern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    millennium BC. Based on a study of more than 1500 arrowheads from Denmark and western Sweden, this paper explains the stylistic variation of the Pitted Ware arrowheads as functional determined representing two main categories: relatively short and wide hunting arrowheads (type A) and long and slender war...

  9. Strange VLF bursts in northern Scandinavia: case study of the afternoon "mushroom-like" hiss on 8 December 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Manninen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a non-typical very low frequency (VLF 1–4 kHz hiss representing a sequence of separated noise bursts with a strange "mushroom-like" shape in the frequency–time domain, each one lasting several minutes. These strange afternoon VLF emissions were recorded at Kannuslehto (KAN, ϕ = 67.74° N, λ = 26.27° E; L ∼ 5.5 in northern Finland during the late recovery phase of the small magnetic storm on 8 December 2013. The left-hand (LH polarized 2–3 kHz "mushroom caps" were clearly separated from the right-hand (RH polarized "mushroom stems" at the frequency of about 1.8–1.9 kHz, which could match the lower ionosphere waveguide cutoff (the first transverse resonance of the Earth–ionosphere cavity. We hypothesize that this VLF burst sequence could be a result of the modulation of the VLF hiss electron–cyclotron instability from the strong Pc5 geomagnetic pulsations observed simultaneously at ground-based stations as well as in the inner magnetosphere by the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms mission probe (THEMIS-E; ThE. This assumption is confirmed by a similar modulation of the intensity of the energetic (1–10 keV electrons simultaneously observed by the same ThE spacecraft. In addition, the data of the European Incoherent Scatter Scientific Association (EISCAT radar at Tromsø show a similar quasi-periodicity in the ratio of the Hall-to-Pedersen conductance, which may be used as a proxy for the energetic particle precipitation enhancement. Our findings suggest that this strange mushroom-like shape of the considered VLF hiss could be a combined mutual effect of the magnetospheric ULF–VLF (ultra low frequency–very low frequency wave interaction and the ionosphere waveguide propagation.

  10. Allometric Biomass, Biomass Expansion Factor and Wood Density Models for the OP42 Hybrid Poplar in Southern Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Tærø; Nord-Larsen, Thomas; Stupak, Inge

    2015-01-01

    for predicting total aboveground leafless, stem and branch biomass included dbh and tree height as predictor variables and explained more than 97 % of the total variation. The BEF was approaching 2.0 for the smallest trees but declined with increasing tree size and stabilized around 1.2 for trees with dbh >10 cm......Biomass and biomass expansion factor functions are important in wood resource assessment, especially with regards to bioenergy feedstocks and carbon pools. We sampled 48 poplar trees in seven stands with the purpose of estimating allometric models for predicting biomass of individual tree...

  11. Modelling risk of tick exposure in southern Scandinavia using machine learning techniques, satellite imagery, and human population density maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Lene Jung; Korslund, L.; Kjelland, V.

    Vector-borne diseases such as Lyme disease and tick-borne encephalitis have become more common in recent decades and present a real health problem in many parts of Europe. Risk assessment, control, and prevention of these diseases require a better understanding of vector abundance as well as risk...... factors determining human exposure to ticks. There is a great need for analyses and models that can predict how vectors and their associated diseases are distributed and how this relates to high risk areas for human exposure.As a part of the ScandTick Innovation project, we surveyed ticks at approximately...... from these models help us pinpoint areas with high risk of exposure to ticks and thus potentially tick-borne diseases....

  12. Analysis of Drugs of Abuse in Anonymously Collected Urine and Soil samples from a Music Festival in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardal, Marie; Ramin, Pedram; Plósz, Benedek G.

    -MS Results: In the urine samples, the following compounds (and their metabolites) could be detected: cocaine (in 13 samples), levamisole (11), MDMA (9), amphetamine (2), and methamphetamine (2). Furthermore, therapeutic drugs such as metoprolol, carbamazepine, citalopram, quetiapine, methylphenidate...

  13. Contagion and Cultural Perceptions of Accepted Behaviour : Tuberculosis and Venereal Diseases in Scandinavia c.1900–c.1950

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blom, Ida

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article compares legislation in the three Scandinavian countries on tuberculosis and venereal disease during the first half of the twentieth century. It attempts to highlight what was perceived as unacceptable behaviour that might cause disease and consequently legitimise public coercion. According to the letter of the laws all citizens should be treated in the same way. But in the case of tuberculosis unacceptable behaviour exposing an individual to public coercion was found with the poor population: Where venereal disease was concerned extra-marital sex was seen as the risk factor for all citizens. Still, the primary target groups were prostitutes and certain groups of young women. It is suggested that, pending further comparative research, national differences in legal provisions may be explained by the prevalence of the disease, by political and economic circumstances, and in the case of tuberculosis by different perceptions of the contagious nature of the disease.

  14. Design of evidence-based gardens and garden therapy for neurodisability in Scandinavia: data from 14 sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Josephine Anne

    2016-04-01

    A total of 14 Scandinavian therapy gardens were visited and data collected on plantings, therapeutic activities and assessment of effectiveness in Spring 2014. Data were gathered by a questionnaire and by interviewing staff in Sweden, Denmark and Norway. The data collection structured proforma used the post-occupation assessment method. Gardening promoted physical movement, presented cognitive challenges and provided opportunities for social participation. Half the gardens were enclosed with sensory plants and 85% were adapted for wheelchairs. A total of 57% of gardens visited had simple designs with flowers, shrubs, lawns and trees. A social center was important especially for dementia clients. Planted pots were used in 79% of gardens. The effectiveness of therapy gardens was assessed at 71% of sites.

  15. Investigations into shaking mink syndrome: an encephalomyelitis of unknown cause in farmed mink (Mustela vison) kits in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavier-Widen, Dolores; Brojer, Caroline; Dietz, Hans Henrik

    2004-01-01

    An apparently novel neurological disease clinically characterized by shaking, tremors, seizures, staggering gait, and ataxia was first observed in farmed mink kits in Denmark in 2000 and subsequently in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in 2001, and again in Denmark in 2002. Lymphoplasmacytic encephal......An apparently novel neurological disease clinically characterized by shaking, tremors, seizures, staggering gait, and ataxia was first observed in farmed mink kits in Denmark in 2000 and subsequently in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in 2001, and again in Denmark in 2002. Lymphoplasmacytic...

  16. The Holocene Great Belt connection to the southern Kattegat, Scandinavia: Ancylus Lake drainage and Early Littorina Sea transgression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carina; Jensen, Jørn B.; Boldreel, Lars Ole

    2017-01-01

    located at the mouth of the channels. Both channels drained fresh water from south to north. The PG III, that is younger than 9.8 cal. ka BP, represents the threshold marine flooding at the southeastern branch of the palaeo-Great Belt channel. At 9.3 cal. ka BP, fully marine conditions were established......, shortly before the flooding of the threshold to the northern part of the Great Belt. These early Holocene spits and sand bars are preserved as features on the present seabed, probably as a result of the rapid sea-level rise that led to back-stepping of the early Holocene palaeo-coast system. This study...

  17. Upper-mantle P- and S-wave velocities below Scandinavia and East Greenland from teleseismic traveltime tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejrani, Babak

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation deals with the resolution of P- and S-velocity variations in the upper mantle (down to 600 km) using teleseismic P- and S-wave arrival times. The natural laboratory is the land areas bordering the North Atlantic; the Scandinavian and East Greenland Caledonides and the Northern...... improved resolution when stations follow profiles. The method was tested on the SCANLIPS array across the Scandinavian Peninsula (Paper I). On the data side, I performed a complete reorganization of the in-house MATLAB-based system (Medhus et al., 2012a,b) for handling event extraction, filtering, cross....../VS put important constraints on the required compositional differences in mantle lithosphere and asthenosphere in the region. Second study focused on the Scandinavian Caledonides, using a dense network south of Trondheim (including SCANLIPS profile) and more sparse station coverage to the north. The UMVB...

  18. Targeting khat or targeting Somalis? A discourse analysis of project evaluations on khat abuse among Somali immigrants in Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nordgren Johan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND – In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the use of the psychoactive plant khat is widely seen as a social and health problem exclusively affecting the Somali immigrant population. Several projects by governmental and municipal bodies and agencies have been initiated to reduce khat use and abuse within this target population.

  19. Incoming exchange students' learning and use of lingua franca English and local languages in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    if they stayed for a second semester. Each interview concluded with two tests: a picture description test and a basic vocabulary test; all interviews were recorded. Findings relating to the interviewees' language goals, interaction with others and language use in such interaction will be presented and discussed...

  20. Nordic Moral Climates. Value Continuities and Discontinuities in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondeson, Ulla V.

    Morality, Crime and Punishment, Legal Sociology, Legal Philosophy, Politology, Scandinavia, Comparatilve Studies, Criminology......Morality, Crime and Punishment, Legal Sociology, Legal Philosophy, Politology, Scandinavia, Comparatilve Studies, Criminology...

  1. Delineation of Culicoides species by morphology and barcode exemplified by three new species of the subgenus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Kristensen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) cause biting nuisance to livestock and humans and are vectors of a range of pathogens of medical and veterinary importance. Despite their economic significance, the delineation and identification of species where only morphology is co...

  2. Land-Bridge Calibration of Molecular Clocks and the Post-Glacial Colonization of Scandinavia by the Eurasian Field Vole Microtus agrestis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jeremy S.; McDevitt, Allan D.; Kawałko, Agata; Jaarola, Maarit; Wójcik, Jan M.; Searle, Jeremy B.

    2014-01-01

    Phylogeography interprets molecular genetic variation in a spatial and temporal context. Molecular clocks are frequently used to calibrate phylogeographic analyses, however there is mounting evidence that molecular rates decay over the relevant timescales. It is therefore essential that an appropriate rate is determined, consistent with the temporal scale of the specific analysis. This can be achieved by using temporally spaced data such as ancient DNA or by relating the divergence of lineages directly to contemporaneous external events of known time. Here we calibrate a Eurasian field vole (Microtus agrestis) mitochondrial genealogy from the well-established series of post-glacial geophysical changes that led to the formation of the Baltic Sea and the separation of the Scandinavian peninsula from the central European mainland. The field vole exhibits the common phylogeographic pattern of Scandinavian colonization from both the north and the south, however the southernmost of the two relevant lineages appears to have originated in situ on the Scandinavian peninsula, or possibly in the adjacent island of Zealand, around the close of the Younger Dryas. The mitochondrial substitution rate and the timescale for the genealogy are closely consistent with those obtained with a previous calibration, based on the separation of the British Isles from mainland Europe. However the result here is arguably more certain, given the level of confidence that can be placed in one of the central assumptions of the calibration, that field voles could not survive the last glaciation of the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Furthermore, the similarity between the molecular clock rate estimated here and those obtained by sampling heterochronous (ancient) DNA (including that of a congeneric species) suggest that there is little disparity between the measured genetic divergence and the population divergence that is implicit in our land-bridge calibration. PMID:25111840

  3. Design and rationale of the HITTS randomized controlled trial: Effect of High-intensity Interval Training in de novo Heart Transplant Recipients in Scandinavia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nytrøen, Kari; Yardley, Marianne; Rolid, Katrine; Bjørkelund, Elisabeth; Karason, Kristjan; Wigh, Julia Philip; Dall, Christian Have; Arora, Satish; Aakhus, Svend; Lunde, Ketil; Solberg, Ole Geir; Gustafsson, Finn; Prescott, Eva Irene Bossano; Gullestad, Lars

    2016-02-01

    There is no consensus on how, when, and at what intensity exercise should be performed and organized after heart transplantation (HTx). Most rehabilitation programs are conducted in HTx centers, which might be impractical and costly. We have recently shown that high-intensity interval training (HIT) is safe, well tolerated, and efficacious in maintenance HTx recipients, but there are no studies among de novo patients, and whether HIT is feasible and superior to moderate training in HTx recipients is unclear. A total of 120 clinically stable HTx recipients older than 18 years will be recruited from 3 Scandinavian HTx centers. Participants are randomized to HIT or moderate training, shortly after surgery. All exercises are supervised in the patients' local communities. Testing at baseline and follow-up includes the following: VO2peak (primary end point), muscle strength, body composition, quality of life, myocardial performance, endothelial function, biomarkers, and progression of cardiac allograft vasculopathy. A subgroup (n = 90) will also be tested at 3-year follow-up to assess long-term effects of exercise. So far, the HIT intervention is well tolerated, without any serious adverse events. We aim to test whether decentralized HIT is feasible, safe, and superior to moderate training, and whether it will lead to significant improvement in exercise capacity and less long-term complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Sex Differences in Left-Handedness Are Also Evident in Scandinavia and in Twins: Comment on Papadatou-Pastou, Martin, Munafo, and Jones (2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuoksimaa, Eero; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2010-01-01

    The lack of sex difference in left-handedness in Scandinavian countries reported by Papadatou-Pastou, Martin, Munafo, and Jones (2008) is questioned. We investigated the sex difference in left-handedness in two Finnish, one Norwegian, and one Swedish population-based sample not included in the Papadatou-Pastou et al. (2008) meta-analysis. The…

  5. The Dangers of Being a Small, Oligotrophic and Light Demanding Freshwater Plant across a Spatial and Historical Eutrophication Gradient in Southern Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj Sand-Jensen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available European freshwater habitats have experienced a severe loss of plant diversity, regionally and locally, over the last century or more. One important and well-established driver of change is eutrophication, which has increased with rising population density and agricultural intensification. However, reduced disturbance of lake margins may have played an additional key role. The geographical variation in water chemistry, which has set the scene for – and interacted with – anthropogenic impact, is much less well understood. We took advantage of some recently completed regional plant distribution surveys, relying on hundreds of skilled citizen scientists, and analyzed the hydrophyte richness to environment relations in five contiguous South-Scandinavian regions. For three of the regions, we also assessed changes to the freshwater flora over the latest 50–80 years. We found a considerable variation in background total phosphorus concentrations and alkalinity, both within and between regions. The prevalence of functional groups differed between regions in accordance with the environmental conditions and the species’ tolerance to turbid waters. Similarly, the historical changes within regions followed the same trend in correspondence to the altered environmental conditions over time. Small submerged species decreased relative to tall submerged and floating-leaved species along the regional and historical eutrophication gradients. These changes were accompanied by systematically greater relative abundance of species of higher phosphorus prevalence. We conclude that species traits in close correspondence with anthropogenic impacts are the main determinants of local, regional and historical changes of species distribution and occupancy, while pure biogeography plays a minor role. Conservation measures, such as re-oligotrophication and re-established disturbance regimes through grazing and water level fluctuations, may help reduce the tall reed vegetation, restore the former richness of the freshwater flora and safeguard red-listed species, although extended time delays are anticipated in nutrient-rich regions, in which species only survive at minute abundance in isolated refugia.

  6. Hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS): a population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Fine Licht, Sofie; Winther, Jeanette Falck; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pattern of endocrine disorders in long-term survivors of childhood cancer has not been investigated comprehensively. Here, we aimed to assess the lifetime risk of these disorders in Nordic survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: From the national cancer registries of Denmark...... were linked to the national hospital registries, and observed numbers of first-time hospital contacts for endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood cancer were compared with the expected numbers derived from the population comparison cohort. We calculated the absolute excess risks attributable...... to status as a childhood cancer survivor and standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (SHRRs). FINDINGS: Of the childhood cancer survivors, 3292 had contact with a hospital for an endocrine disorder, yielding a SHRR of 4·8 (95% CI 4·6-5·0); the highest risks were in survivors of leukaemia (SHRR 7·3 [95% CI...

  7. Predicting the potential demographic impact of predators on their prey: a comparative analysis of two carnivore–ungulate systems in Scandinavia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervasi, Vincenzo; Nilsen, Erlend B; Sand, Håkan; Panzacchi, Manuela; Rauset, Geir R; Pedersen, Hans C; Kindberg, Jonas; Wabakken, Petter; Zimmermann, Barbara; Odden, John; Liberg, Olof; Swenson, Jon E; Linnell, John D C

    2012-01-01

    1. Understanding the role of predation in shaping the dynamics of animal communities is a fundamental issue in ecological research. Nevertheless, the complex nature of predator–prey interactions often prevents researchers from modelling them explicitly. 2. By using periodic Leslie–Usher matrices and a simulation approach together with parameters obtained from long-term field projects, we reconstructed the underlying mechanisms of predator–prey demographic interactions and compared the dynamics of the roe deer–red fox–Eurasian lynx–human harvest system with those of the moose–brown bear–gray wolf–human harvest system in the boreal forest ecosystem of the southern Scandinavian Peninsula. 3. The functional relationship of both roe deer and moose λ to changes in predation rates from the four predators was remarkably different. Lynx had the strongest impact among the four predators, whereas predation rates by wolves, red foxes, or brown bears generated minor variations in prey population λ. Elasticity values of lynx, wolf, fox and bear predation rates were −0·157, −0·056, −0·031 and −0·006, respectively, but varied with both predator and prey densities. 4. Differences in predation impact were only partially related to differences in kill or predation rates, but were rather a result of different distribution of predation events among prey age classes. Therefore, the age composition of killed individuals emerged as the main underlying factor determining the overall per capita impact of predation. 5. Our results confirm the complex nature of predator–prey interactions in large terrestrial mammals, by showing that different carnivores preying on the same prey species can exert a dramatically different demographic impact, even in the same ecological context, as a direct consequence of their predation patterns. Similar applications of this analytical framework in other geographical and ecological contexts are needed, but a more general evaluation of the subject is also required, aimed to assess, on a broader systematic and ecological range, what specific traits of a carnivore are most related to its potential impact on prey species. PMID:22077484

  8. Political participation of older adults in Scandinavia - the civic voluntarism model revisited? A multi-level analysis of three types of political participatio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Nygård

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article examines political participation among older adults in Österbotten, Finland, and Västerbotten, Sweden. Two specific hypotheses are tested. First, we anticipate that older adults are loyal voters but less avid in engaging in politics between elections. Second, we expect individuallevel resources to explain why older people participate in politics. The article offers two contributions to the literature on political participation of older adults. First, it corroborates earlier findings by showing that older adults indeed have a higher inclination to vote than to engage in political activities between elections, but it also shows that the latter engagement is more diversified than one could expect. Second, although the findings largely support the resource model, they suggest that we need to consider also other factors such as the overall attitude towards older people.

  9. Ethical formation in the meeting with vulnerability and suffering from the perspective of nursing students in Scandinavia: A qualitative, empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Sivonen, Kerstin

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how nursing students’ ethical formation is affected by their meeting with vulnerability and suffering in clinical practice. Background In clinical practice the students can learn authentic, caring, and respectful nursing adjusted...... to the patients’ situation and the practice of distant and general nursing. Reflective processes can support the ethical dimension of nursing, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning the source of students’ ability to maintain and develop their moral integrity. Methods Twenty-four students were interviewed...... for their ethical formation but the students’ ethical formation may decline in the course of clinical practice. Conclusion Nursing students possess moral sensitivity which is challenged when they meet a clinical practice culture that is incongruent with their ethical ideals. In clinical practice the students seek...

  10. Land-bridge calibration of molecular clocks and the post-glacial Colonization of Scandinavia by the Eurasian field vole Microtus agrestis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy S Herman

    Full Text Available Phylogeography interprets molecular genetic variation in a spatial and temporal context. Molecular clocks are frequently used to calibrate phylogeographic analyses, however there is mounting evidence that molecular rates decay over the relevant timescales. It is therefore essential that an appropriate rate is determined, consistent with the temporal scale of the specific analysis. This can be achieved by using temporally spaced data such as ancient DNA or by relating the divergence of lineages directly to contemporaneous external events of known time. Here we calibrate a Eurasian field vole (Microtus agrestis mitochondrial genealogy from the well-established series of post-glacial geophysical changes that led to the formation of the Baltic Sea and the separation of the Scandinavian peninsula from the central European mainland. The field vole exhibits the common phylogeographic pattern of Scandinavian colonization from both the north and the south, however the southernmost of the two relevant lineages appears to have originated in situ on the Scandinavian peninsula, or possibly in the adjacent island of Zealand, around the close of the Younger Dryas. The mitochondrial substitution rate and the timescale for the genealogy are closely consistent with those obtained with a previous calibration, based on the separation of the British Isles from mainland Europe. However the result here is arguably more certain, given the level of confidence that can be placed in one of the central assumptions of the calibration, that field voles could not survive the last glaciation of the southern part of the Scandinavian peninsula. Furthermore, the similarity between the molecular clock rate estimated here and those obtained by sampling heterochronous (ancient DNA (including that of a congeneric species suggest that there is little disparity between the measured genetic divergence and the population divergence that is implicit in our land-bridge calibration.

  11. Application of whole-exome sequencing to direct the specific functional testing and diagnosis of rare inherited bleeding disorders in patients from the Öresund Region, Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leinøe, Eva; Zetterberg, Eva; Kinalis, Savvas

    2017-01-01

    Rare inherited bleeding disorders (IBD) are a common cause of bleeding tendency. To ensure a correct diagnosis, specialized laboratory analyses are necessary. This study reports the results of an upfront diagnostic strategy using targeted whole exome sequencing. In total, 156 patients....... Moreover, 34% (20/59) were assigned as novel class 4 or 5 variants upon targeted functional testing. A class 4 or 5 variant was identified in 30% of patients with thrombocytopenia (14/47) versus 11% of patients with a normal platelet count (12/109) (P diagnosis has a major clinical impact...

  12. We Wanted More Arne Jacobsen Chairs but All We Got Was Boxes – Experiences from the Protection of Designs in Scandinavia from 1970 till the Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Teilmann-Lock, Stina

    2016-01-01

    by the Design Act considering also the development in copyright law. It is concluded that the designers thanks to whom there was ‘Danish Design’ made no or only marginal use of the registered designs system which had been put in place for them. The reasons for the failure are discussed and attributed...

  13. The Jurassic of Denmark and Greenland: Late Triassic – Jurassic development of the Danish Basin and the Fennoscandian Border Zone, southern Scandinavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen, Lars Henrik

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available The continental to marine Upper Triassic – Jurassic succession of the Danish Basin and the Fennoscandian Border Zone is interpreted within a sequence stratigraphic framework, and the evolution of the depositional basin is discussed. The intracratonic Permian–Cenozoic Danish Basin was formed by Late Carboniferous – Early Permian crustal extension followed by subsidence governed primarily by thermal cooling and local faulting. The basin is separated from thestable Precambrian Baltic Shield by the Fennoscandian Border Zone, and is bounded by basement blocks of the Ringkøbing–Fyn High towards the south. In Late Triassic – Jurassic times, the basin was part of the epeiric shallow sea that covered most of northern Europe. The Upper Triassic – Jurassic basin-fill is subdivided into two tectono-stratigraphic units by a basinwide intra-Aalenian unconformity. The Norian – Lower Aalenian succession was formed under relative tectonic tranquillity and shows an overall layer-cake geometry, except for areas with local faults and salt movements.Deposition was initiated by a Norian transgression that led to shallow marine deposition and was accompanied by a gradual climatic change to more humid conditions. Extensive sheets of shoreface sand and associated paralic sediments were deposited during short-lived forced regressions in Rhaetian time. A stepwise deepening and development of fully marine conditions followed in the Hettangian – Early Sinemurian. Thick uniform basinwide mud blankets weredeposited on an open storm-influenced shelf, while sand was trapped at the basin margins. This depositional pattern continued until Late Toarcian – Early Aalenian times when the basin became restricted due to renewed uplift of the Ringkøbing–Fyn High. In Middle Aalenian – Bathonian times, the former basin area was subjected to deep erosion, and deposition became restricted to the fault-bounded Sorgenfrei–Tornquist Zone. Eventually the fault margins were overstepped,and paralic–marine deposition gradually resumed in most of the basin in Late Jurassic time. Thus, the facies architecture of the Norian – Lower Aalenian succession reflects eustatic or large-scale regional sea-level changes, whereas the Middle Aalenian – Volgian succession reflects a strong tectonic control that gradually gave way to more widespread and sea-level controlled sedimentation.The uplift of the Ringkøbing–Fyn High and most of the Danish Basin occurred concurrently with the uplift of the North Sea and a wide irregular uplifted area was formed, which differs significantly from the postulated domal pattern.

  14. Disease progression among 446 children with newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes located in Scandinavia, Europe, and North America during the last 27 yr

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Marie Louise Max; Nielsen, Lotte B; Svensson, Jannet

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To clarify whether the rate of decline in stimulated C-peptide (SCP) from 2 to 15 months after diagnosis has changed over an interval of 27 yr. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The rate of decline in SCP levels at 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 months after diagnosis was compared in four...... are still significant (p = 0.039). The rate of decline in SCP was negatively associated with age (p IA) (p = 0.003), and glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD65A) (p = 0.03) initially with no statistically significant effect of body mass index (BMI) Z-score at 3 months. Also......, at 3 months the time around partial remission, the effect of age on SCP was significantly greater in children ≤5 yr compared with older children (p ≤ 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: During the past 27 yr, initial C-peptide as well as the rate of C-peptide decline seem to have increased. The rate of decline...

  15. Workshop Protocol 5.1 “Developing infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor between Southern Scandinavia and Germany”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guasco, Clement Nicolas

    and academic institutions. A strategy for the development of infrastructure for electric passenger-cars in the corridor was formed using the “Future Creating” methodology. The workshop was part of the SCANDRIA Action Programme and pointed towards ways for e-mobility in the region. The workshop also provided...

  16. Liver diseases in Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS): A population-based cohort study of 32,839 one-year survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnesen, Trine Gade; Winther, Jeanette F; Andersen, Klaus K; Asdahl, Peter H; de Fine Licht, Sofie; Gudmundsdottir, Thorgerdur; Sällfors Holmqvist, Anna; Madanat-Harjuoja, Laura-Maria; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Wesenberg, Finn; Heilmann, Carsten; Olsen, Jørgen H; Hasle, Henrik

    2017-10-11

    Information on late onset liver complications after childhood cancer is scarce. To ensure an appropriate follow-up of childhood cancer survivors and reducing late liver complications, the need for comprehensive and accurate information is presented. We evaluate the risk of liver diseases in a large childhood cancer survivor cohort. We included all 1-year survivors of childhood cancer treated in the five Nordic countries. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hospitalisation rate (hazard) ratios (HRs) for each liver outcome according to type of cancer. We used the risk among survivors of central nervous system tumour as internal reference. With a median follow-up time of 10 years, 659 (2%) survivors had been hospitalised at least once for a liver disease. The risk for hospitalisation for any liver disease was high after hepatic tumour (HR = 6.9) and leukaemia (HR = 1.7). The Danish sub-cohort of leukaemia treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation had a substantially higher risk for hospitalisation for all liver diseases combined (HR = 3.8). Viral hepatitis accounted for 286 of 659 hospitalisations corresponding to 43% of all survivors hospitalised for liver disease. The 20-year cumulative risk of viral hepatitis was 1.8% for survivors diagnosed with cancer before 1990 but only 0.3% for those diagnosed after 1990. The risk of liver disease was low but significantly increased among survivors of hepatic tumours and leukaemia. Further studies with focus on the different treatment modalities are needed to further strengthen the prevention of treatment-induced late liver complications. © 2017 UICC.

  17. Relics of a Benedictine Legendary in Scandinavia? Notes on fragments nos. 527-529 from the Royal Library and no. 8302 from the Danish National Archives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsgård, Christian

    2007-01-01

    This article testifies to the advantages of publishing lists and images of medieval manuscripts and manuscript fragments on the internet. By searching such on-line publications, fragments nos. 527-529 from the Royal Library and no. 8302 from the Danish National Archives have been recognised...

  18. First evidence of lime burning in southern Scandinavia: lime kilns found at the royal residence on the west bank of Lake Tissø

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Peter Steen; Holst, Sandie

    2015-01-01

    . This corresponds well with the dating of the erection of the hall in the third construction phase at Fugledegård. Finds of mud-and-wattle with whitewashing show that the lime was used to whitewash the halls at Tissø in both the Germanic Iron Age and the Viking Age. Analyses of lime from the lime kilns...

  19. Maternal genes and facial clefts in offspring: a comprehensive search for genetic associations in two population-based cleft studies from Scandinavia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astanand Jugessur

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Fetal conditions can in principle be affected by the mother's genotype working through the prenatal environment.Genotypes for 1536 SNPs in 357 cleft candidate genes were available from a previous analysis in which we focused on fetal gene effects. After data-cleaning, genotypes for 1315 SNPs in 334 autosomal genes were available for the current analysis of maternal gene effects. Two complementary statistical methods, TRIMM and HAPLIN, were used to detect multi-marker effects in population-based samples from Norway (562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads and Denmark (235 case-parent triads. We analyzed isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (iCL/P and isolated cleft palate only (iCP separately and assessed replication by looking for genes detected in both populations by both methods. In iCL/P, neither TRIMM nor HAPLIN detected more genes than expected by chance alone; furthermore, the selected genes were not replicated across the two methods. In iCP, however, FLNB was identified by both methods in both populations. Although HIC1 and ZNF189 did not fully satisfy our stringency criterion for replication, they were strongly associated with iCP in TRIMM analyses of the Norwegian triads.Except for FLNB, HIC1 and ZNF189, maternal genes did not appear to influence the risk of clefting in our data. This is consistent with recent epidemiological findings showing no apparent difference between mother-to-offspring and father-to-offspring recurrence of clefts in these two populations. It is likely that fetal genes make the major genetic contribution to clefting risk in these populations, but we cannot rule out the possibility that maternal genes can affect risk through interactions with specific teratogens or fetal genes.

  20. Genetics Home Reference: myotonia congenita

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... worldwide. This condition is more common in northern Scandinavia, where it occurs in approximately 1 in 10, ... mutations in patients with myotonia congenita in Northern Scandinavia. Eur J Hum Genet. 2001 Dec;9(12): ...

  1. Sex Education in Multicultural Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartz, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Scandinavia has long been admired by American liberals and sex education advocates who cite comparable rates of adolescent sexuality, yet lower rates of teenage pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases and abortion in Scandinavia. The United States has, however, two variables with which Scandinavia in general, and Norway in particular, has not…

  2. Long-term inpatient disease burden in the Adult Life after Childhood Cancer in Scandinavia (ALiCCS study: A cohort study of 21,297 childhood cancer survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofie de Fine Licht

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Survivors of childhood cancer are at increased risk for a wide range of late effects. However, no large population-based studies have included the whole range of somatic diagnoses including subgroup diagnoses and all main types of childhood cancers. Therefore, we aimed to provide the most detailed overview of the long-term risk of hospitalisation in survivors of childhood cancer.From the national cancer registers of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden, we identified 21,297 5-year survivors of childhood cancer diagnosed with cancer before the age of 20 years in the periods 1943-2008 in Denmark, 1971-2008 in Finland, 1955-2008 in Iceland, and 1958-2008 in Sweden. We randomly selected 152,231 population comparison individuals matched by age, sex, year, and country (or municipality in Sweden from the national population registers. Using a cohort design, study participants were followed in the national hospital registers in Denmark, 1977-2010; Finland, 1975-2012; Iceland, 1999-2008; and Sweden, 1968-2009. Disease-specific hospitalisation rates in survivors and comparison individuals were used to calculate survivors' standardised hospitalisation rate ratios (RRs, absolute excess risks (AERs, and standardised bed day ratios (SBDRs based on length of stay in hospital. We adjusted for sex, age, and year by indirect standardisation. During 336,554 person-years of follow-up (mean: 16 years; range: 0-42 years, childhood cancer survivors experienced 21,325 first hospitalisations for diseases in one or more of 120 disease categories (cancer recurrence not included, when 10,999 were expected, yielding an overall RR of 1.94 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.91-1.97. The AER was 3,068 (2,980-3,156 per 100,000 person-years, meaning that for each additional year of follow-up, an average of 3 of 100 survivors were hospitalised for a new excess disease beyond the background rates. Approximately 50% of the excess hospitalisations were for diseases of the nervous system (19.1% of all excess hospitalisations, endocrine system (11.1%, digestive organs (10.5%, and respiratory system (10.0%. Survivors of all types of childhood cancer were at increased, persistent risk for subsequent hospitalisation, the highest risks being those of survivors of neuroblastoma (RR: 2.6 [2.4-2.8]; n = 876, hepatic tumours (RR: 2.5 [2.0-3.1]; n = 92, central nervous system tumours (RR: 2.4 [2.3-2.5]; n = 6,175, and Hodgkin lymphoma (RR: 2.4 [2.3-2.5]; n = 2,027. Survivors spent on average five times as many days in hospital as comparison individuals (SBDR: 4.96 [4.94-4.98]; n = 422,218. The analyses of bed days in hospital included new primary cancers and recurrences. Of the total 422,218 days survivors spent in hospital, 47% (197,596 bed days were for new primary cancers and recurrences. Our study is likely to underestimate the absolute overall disease burden experienced by survivors, as less severe late effects are missed if they are treated sufficiently in the outpatient setting or in the primary health care system.Childhood cancer survivors were at increased long-term risk for diseases requiring inpatient treatment even decades after their initial cancer. Health care providers who do not work in the area of late effects, especially those in primary health care, should be aware of this highly challenged group of patients in order to avoid or postpone hospitalisations by prevention, early detection, and appropriate treatments.

  3. New theoretical discourses in the discussion of the neolithisation process in South Scandinavia during the late 5th and early 4th millennium BC - an identification of learning processes, communities of practice and migrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, it is argued that agriculture is a very complex technology, which takes a long time to learn, thus making it very difficult for agrarian practises to spread as ideas. Instead, based on a detailed survey of primary agrarian evidence (direct 14C dates of cereals and domesticated...... and the ability to teach the indigenous hunter-gatherer populations about agriculture by establishing communities of practice, a fact which supports the theory of integrationism. The engagement in these communities of practise changed the identity and material culture of the immigrating farmers, as well...

  4. The Nordic Mobile Telecommunication Cluster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    A study of the historic role of the Nordic mobile telephone and telecommunications cluster and its background in both coordinated innovation policies and societal developments in Scandinavia.......A study of the historic role of the Nordic mobile telephone and telecommunications cluster and its background in both coordinated innovation policies and societal developments in Scandinavia....

  5. Design law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This book chapter describes, analyses and discusses the development of and the challenges to the legal protection og designs in Scandinavia and the EU......This book chapter describes, analyses and discusses the development of and the challenges to the legal protection og designs in Scandinavia and the EU...

  6. Current use of nitrous oxide in public hospitals in Scandinavian countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husum, Bent; Stenqvist, O; Alahuhta, S

    2013-01-01

    The use of nitrous oxide in modern anaesthesia has been questioned. We surveyed changes in use of nitrous oxide in Scandinavia and its justifications during the last two decades.......The use of nitrous oxide in modern anaesthesia has been questioned. We surveyed changes in use of nitrous oxide in Scandinavia and its justifications during the last two decades....

  7. Material culture - artefacts and daily life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Verhaeghe, Frans

    2011-01-01

    A survey of main groups of medieval portable artefacts, with a focus on north-western and central Europe (including Scandinavia), and a discussion of methods and interpretations in artefact studies......A survey of main groups of medieval portable artefacts, with a focus on north-western and central Europe (including Scandinavia), and a discussion of methods and interpretations in artefact studies...

  8. Evaluation of recomBead Borrelia. Quantitative analysis using 13 antigens for IgM and IgG. Do Borrelia IgM antibodies have diagnostic use in Northern Scandinavia? - A comparison of sero-reactivity of samples from Åland and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dessau, Ram; Møller, Jens Kjølseth

    2012-01-01

    Evaluering af recomBead borrelia. Ny multiplex metode. Der blev præsenteret overvejelser om hvordan man skal score den den store mængde resultater for at opnå optimal diagnostisk diskriminations evne. Disse metode overvejelser er var vigtige, da det samme kit afprøves både to steder i Sverige også...

  9. President Ilves avas Pärnus voodivabriku / Kalev Vilgats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vilgats, Kalev

    2009-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilves viibis 16. novembril 2009 Pärnus Trading House Scandinavia AB kontserni kuuluva OÜ Stram voodivabriku avamisel. Riigipea tunnustas ettevõtte omanikku Peter Hunti uute töökohtade loomise eest

  10. Adverse health outcomes in offspring of mothers with cosmetic breast implants : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kjoller, Kim; Friis, Soren; Lipworth, Loren; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Olsen, Jorgen H.

    2007-01-01

    Background: To assess whether maternal cosmetic breast implants are associated with adverse health outcomes among offspring, the authors examined published findings of epidemiologic studies that addressed this hypothesis. Methods: Four epidemiologic studies, ail from Scandinavia, were identified.

  11. A new Middle Pleistocene interglacial record from Denmark: Chronostratigraphic correlation, palaeovegetation and fire dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuneš, Petr; Kjærsgaard Sørensen, Malene; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Previously only three terrestrial interglacial periods were known from southern Scandinavia, all of which could be relatively easily correlated within the central European stratigraphical framework. Here, we present a new interglacial–interstadial pollen, plant macrofossil and charcoal record from...

  12. Northern lights

    OpenAIRE

    Bodman, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    Sarah Bodman surveys the diversity of artists' books being made in Scandinavia today and the organizations that help promote them, as she looks ahead to a major book arts' festival in Denmark this spring.

  13. Trends and Perspective in Industrial Maintenance Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luxhoj, James T.; Thorsteinsson, Uffe; Riis, Jens Ove

    1997-01-01

    increased attention. Trends and perspective in industrial maintenance are presented. The result of benchmarking studies from Scandinavia and United States are also presented and compared. Case studies that examine maintenance methods, knowledge, organization and information systems in three Danish...

  14. Strong E region ionization caused by the 1767 trail during the 2002 Leonids

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pellinen‐Wannberg, Asta K; Häggström, Ingemar; Carrillo Sánchez, Juan Diego; Plane, John M. C; Westman, Assar

    2014-01-01

    ...) UHF radar during the 2002 Leonids meteor shower maximum. The level of global geomagnetic disturbance as well as the local geomagnetic and auroral activity in northern Scandinavia were low during the event...

  15. Latitude is significantly associated with the prevalence of multiple sclerosis: a meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Simpson, Jr, Steve; Blizzard, Leigh; Otahal, Petr; Van der Mei, Ingrid; Taylor, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    There is a striking latitudinal gradient in multiple sclerosis (MS) prevalence, but exceptions in Mediterranean Europe and northern Scandinavia, and some systematic reviews, have suggested that the gradient may be an artefact...

  16. REVIEW: E-book about E-learning Online Education and Learning Management Systems-Global E-learning in a Scandinavian Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Demiray, Reviewed By Prof. Dr. Ugur

    2015-01-01

    Prior to year 2000 Scandinavian universities offered selected online courses attracting a few pioneering students. Today, even primary schools offer online services to students, teachers and parents. Online education is becoming mainstream education in Scandinavia.

  17. Commons, Sustainability, Democratization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In nine chapters practical-conceptual drafts of action reserach in relation to sustainability are presented and examples of action research in Scandinavia, England, Nicaragua and Mozambique are described and analyzed....

  18. Seismic Surveillance. Nuclear Test Ban Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-26

    as the Horn Graben. RFH appears to have been elevated in the Carboniferous while taphrogenesis has been related to the late Carboniferous - early...SCANDINAVIA: CARBONIFEROUS TO PRESENT The western part of S. Scandinavia has experienced volcanic activity as shown in Fig. 8. Paleozoic magmatism is...with age ranges from Permian to Tertiary. In summary, evidence of volcanic activity throughout Carboniferous to present have been found and is

  19. Local Food Movements and the Politics of Boundary-Making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Anders Riel

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes an analytical framework for comparative studies of local food movements in Scandinavia and East Asia. The framework takes it point of departure in studying local food movements as engaging in political struggles over defining scales. The framework draws on political and economic......, and the economy bound by time and context. Finally, the paper provide examples of how such an analysis may be used to compare the politics of local food movements in Scandinavia and East Asia....

  20. Culture, gender and locus of control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina Lundsgaard; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study is a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender differences in personal goals and how goals are affected by locus of control.......The current study is a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender differences in personal goals and how goals are affected by locus of control....

  1. Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, G; Nockert, M; Holst, B

    2013-10-18

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: nettle, hemp and flax. It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles (i.e. rope and sailcloth). Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. We show that 4 textiles, including two pieces of the famous Överhogdal Viking wall-hanging are in fact made with hemp (in three cases hemp and flax are mixed). This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

  2. From Copenhagen to the consulting room: Pauli and Jung in Copenhagen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gieser, Suzanne

    2014-04-01

    In this paper the city of Copenhagen is used as a starting point to highlight some critical historical events, both concerning the exchange of ideas between the physicist Wolfgang Pauli and C.G. Jung and the history of psychotherapy in Scandinavia. Pauli's years in Copenhagen under the influence of Niels Bohr and his philosophy prepared him mentally to receiveC.G. Jung's ideas. The paper also recounts the one occasion that Jung was in Scandinavia, attending the 9th conference of the General Medical Society for Psychotherapy in Copenhagen, just before going to New York in 1937 to give his final seminars on Pauli's dreams. The reason for focusing on these particular events is that they also constitute part of the history of the reception of psychodynamic psychology in Sweden and Scandinavia. © 2014, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  3. A Model of Social Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom-Jensen, Byron Zachary

    2017-01-01

    This essay provides historical perspective to Senator Bernie Sanders’ appropriation of elements of the Nordic model in the 2016 campaign by studying how Scandinavia was used as a political image in 1930s United States. Departing from previous scholarship, this essay argues that accounts of Scandi......This essay provides historical perspective to Senator Bernie Sanders’ appropriation of elements of the Nordic model in the 2016 campaign by studying how Scandinavia was used as a political image in 1930s United States. Departing from previous scholarship, this essay argues that accounts...... of Scandinavian achievements were variable in their ideological outlook and sometimes deliberately challenged the existence and goals of New Deal policies. Moreover, this essay explores the usage of Scandinavia in New Deal social legislation by examining the policymaking rhetoric of the Social Security Act...

  4. Getting “China Ready”. Challenging static and practice based configurations of the Chinese tourist

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Matias Thuen; Ren, Carina

    2015-01-01

    Lately, the Scandinavian tourism sector has identified the Chinese market as attractive, but difficultly accessible. As a consequence, initiatives have been undertaken in order to make Scandinavia ‘China ready’. In this article, we use an extensive literature review, an example of such an initiat......Lately, the Scandinavian tourism sector has identified the Chinese market as attractive, but difficultly accessible. As a consequence, initiatives have been undertaken in order to make Scandinavia ‘China ready’. In this article, we use an extensive literature review, an example...... people into stale and stereotypical representations and takes an important step towards getting truly ‘China ready’....

  5. Getting “China Ready”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Matias Thuen; Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2015-01-01

    Lately, the Scandinavian tourism sector has identified the Chinese market as attractive, but difficultly accessible. As a consequence, initiatives have been undertaken in order to make Scandinavia ‘China ready’. In this article, we use an extensive literature review, an example of such an initiat......Lately, the Scandinavian tourism sector has identified the Chinese market as attractive, but difficultly accessible. As a consequence, initiatives have been undertaken in order to make Scandinavia ‘China ready’. In this article, we use an extensive literature review, an example...... people into stale and stereotypical representations and takes an important step towards getting truly ‘China ready’....

  6. Changes of flora-information over time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib

    2014-01-01

    to the Linnaean methods, but these methods were also applied to the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea before the end of the 18th century. An intensive activity involving floristic and taxonomic changes took place in Ethiopia and Eritrea in the 19th century, particularly before ca. 1850, after which a period....... Recent studies of the Orchidaceae family in Scandinavia has demonstrated considerable changes in our information about that family in Scandinavia during the last 50 years, both real, floristic and taxonomic changes. Similar, or even greater, changes are to be expected in the flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  7. Promoting lingua franca English in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caudery, Tim; Petersen, Margrethe; Shaw, Philip

    traditional ones and two specialised ones. Data collection spanned the period from August 2005 to May 2007 and involved three individual interviews with each subject at regular intervals over his/her study abroad period. The subjects were some 240 students who volunteered for the project and whose first...... to multilingualism among exchange students coming to Scandinavia. The paper is based on a longitudinal study of factors influencing the local language learning and the improvement in English language proficiency among exchange students coming to Scandinavia. The study included four Scandinavian universities: two...

  8. Olika förklaringar till lägre straffnivåer i de nordiska länderna jämfört med övriga europeiska

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondeson, Ulla V.

    2007-01-01

    ", which appeared in Pratt et al.'s The New Punitiveness (2005). We both begin with the assumption that Scandinavia's low rate of criminality can not, on its own, explain its low rate of imprisonment. Both of us point to public opinion, fear of crime and the influence of the media as causal variables...... of imprisonment - also in the Nordic countries - I conclude by questioning the rationality of the welfare state in the area of criminal policy and advocate more evidence-based research to underpin policy decisions in Scandinavia....

  9. Beyond the Neolithic transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    2013-01-01

    In South Scandinavia, the Funnel Beaker culture is synonymous with the emergence of Neolithic societies (c 4000 BC), the construction of megalithic monuments and agricultural lifestyle. After c 1300 years of existence the Funnel Beaker culture ceased and a culturally blurred period began. In the ......In South Scandinavia, the Funnel Beaker culture is synonymous with the emergence of Neolithic societies (c 4000 BC), the construction of megalithic monuments and agricultural lifestyle. After c 1300 years of existence the Funnel Beaker culture ceased and a culturally blurred period began...

  10. Looking for Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøge, Ask Risom; Lauritsen, Peter

    Trust and surveillance are often seen as opposites. Trust is regularly characterized as the glue that holds society together, while surveillance is seen as corrosive. However, in Scandinavia high levels of trust and surveillance coexist. It is therefore interesting to investigate if there is a co......Trust and surveillance are often seen as opposites. Trust is regularly characterized as the glue that holds society together, while surveillance is seen as corrosive. However, in Scandinavia high levels of trust and surveillance coexist. It is therefore interesting to investigate...

  11. Successes and failures of inclusive education of youth from migrant backgrounds: The Turkish second generation in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crul, M.R.J.; Schnell, Ph.; Schiff, C.; Szalai, J.

    2014-01-01

    This book compares the educational experiences of adolescents from a variety of 'visible' ethnic minority groups such as Roma in Central Europe, post-colonial minorities in France and England, Turks and Arabs in Germany, and recent immigrants in Scandinavia. Focusing on underprivileged urban

  12. Cold tolerance and freeze-induced glucose accumulation in three terrestrial slugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slotsbo, Stine; Hansen, Lars Monrad; Jordaens, Kurt

    2012-01-01

    Cold tolerance and metabolic responses to freezing of three slug species common in Scandinavia (Arion ater, Arion rufus and Arion lusitanicus) are reported. Autumn collected slugs were cold acclimated in the laboratory and subjected to freezing conditions simulating likely winter temperatures...

  13. Early menarche, nulliparity and the risk for premature and early natural menopause

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishra, Gita D; Pandeya, Nirmala; Dobson, Annette J

    2017-01-01

    studies in the UK, Scandinavia, Australia and Japan that contribute to the International collaboration for a Life course Approach to reproductive health and Chronic disease Events (InterLACE). PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: Age at menarche (categorized as ≤11, 12, 13, 14 and 15 or more years...

  14. Kalcificeret amorf tumor i hjertet som årsag til nærsynkoper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pallisgaard, Jannik Langtved; Buch, Torben Nicolai; Søndergaard, Eva Bjerre

    2012-01-01

    Calcified amorphoeus tumour of the heart (cardiac CAT) is a rare non-neoplastic tumour of the heart. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of cardiac CAT in Scandinavia. The patient was a 55-year-old woman with obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, a history of smoking...

  15. Nationalism, Gender and Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    Feminist scholars have pointed out that constructions of gender and gender equality are embedded in national narratives and politics of belonging (Yuval-Davis 2011; Siim & Mokre 2013). This paper aims to explore gendered approaches to nationalism and to discuss how nationalism in Scandinavia is a...

  16. Models for Multi-Purpose Community Information Centres (MPCICs)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falch, Morten

    1998-01-01

    A number of different models for development of MPCICs have been applied in different parts Western Europe. The first centers established in Scandinavia had much focus on provision of IT facilities and dissemination of knowledge on the technology. Training is also a major part of the activities...

  17. Culture and Contract Laws

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Ole

    2007-01-01

    In the article it is argued that the wish to preserve the cultural values of national law should not prevent the EU from preparing a Code or an Optional Instrument. The no-code countries on the British Isles and in Scandinavia are the most ardent opponents to the idea of unifying European Contract...

  18. Genetic variation and associations involving Fusarium head blight and deoxynivalenol accumulation in cultivated oat (Avena sativa L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance in oats (Avena sativa L.) to infection by Fusarium graminearum was assessed in field trials in 2011-12 including 424 spring oat lines from North America and Scandinavia. Traits measured were Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), deoxynivalenol (DON) content, days to flowering (DTF) and days to matu...

  19. Demystifying LiDAR technologies for temperate rainforest in the Pacific Northwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhonda Mazza; Demetrios Gatziolis

    2013-01-01

    Light detection and ranging (LiDAR), also known as airborne laser scanning, is a rapidly emerging technology for remote sensing. Used to help map, monitor, and assess natural resources, LiDAR data were first embraced by forestry professionals in Scandinavia as a tool for conducting forest inventories in the mid to late 1990s. Thus early LiDAR theory and applications...

  20. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine : guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragelund, C.; Reibel, J.; Hietanen, J.; Hadler-Olsen, E.; Johannessen, A. C.; Kenrad, B.; Nylander, K.; Puranen, M.; Salo, T.; Syrjanen, S.; Soland, T. M.; van der Waal, I.; van der Wal, J. E.; Warfvinge, G.

    2012-01-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must

  1. More than Twenty Years of Svensén's Handbook

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pálfi, Loránd-Levente

    2010-01-01

    years (i.e. in different editions/versions) and because it is - especially in Scandinavia - a quite well-known work, Svensén's handbook is an important publication. In this review article, I will consider what the critics have written over the years (i.e. on the different editions/versions of Svensén...

  2. The Nordic Welfare Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neergaard, Helle; Thrane, Claus

    2011-01-01

    The welfare states of Scandinavia have been regarded as pioneers of gender equality, but structural barriers to women’s participation in the labour market may inadvertently discriminate against women and create opportunity costs delimiting women’s career choices. Family policies are defined...

  3. Waiting for physics? An inquiry into first year physics students’ experience of a traditionel science curriculum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johannsen, Bjørn Friis; Rump, Camilla Østerberg

    Studies of attrition in science education show that students who leave are often extrinsically motivated, whereas students who stay are often intrinsically motivated. Furthermore, students (in Scandinavia) tend to use an introvert discourse when explaining their motives for leaving. A longitudinal...

  4. Forest School in an Inner City? Making the Impossible Possible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Heather

    2015-01-01

    The Forest School approach to Early Years education, originally developed in Scandinavia, is influencing learning outside the classroom in England. An inner city primary school in Yorkshire investigated the nature and purpose of Forest Schools in Denmark, through a study visit, prior to developing their own Forest School in the midst of an urban…

  5. Adapting and Implementing Open Dialogue in the Scandinavian Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Niels; Bikic, Aida; Jacobsen, Elise Kragh

    2017-01-01

    Open Dialogue is a resource-oriented mental health approach, which mobilises a crisis-struck person's psychosocial network resources. This scoping review 1) identifies the range and nature of literature on the adoption of Open Dialogue in Scandinavia in places other than the original sites...

  6. A multipoint study of a substorm occurring on 7 December, 1992, and its theoretical implications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, N.J.; Cowley, S.W.H.; Davda, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    array in Scandinavia and the two Greenland chains, the auroral distribution observed by Freja and the substorm cycle observations by the SABRE radar, the SAMNET magnetometer array and LANL geosynchronous satellites. Data from Galileo Earth-encounter II are used to estimate the IMF B-z component...

  7. Intercontinental divergence in the Populus-associated ectomycorrhizal fungus, Tricholoma populinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    L.C. Grubisha; N. Levsen; M.S. Olson; D.L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

    The ectomycorrhizal fungus Tricholoma populinum is host-specific with Populus species. T. populinum has wind-dispersed progagules and may be capable of long-distance dispersal. In this study, we tested the hypothesis of a panmictic population between Scandinavia and North America. DNA sequences from five...

  8. We Can Recite It in Chorus Now!: An Interactionist Approach to the Teacher-Student Relationship and Teachers' Relational Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspelin, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A growing body of international research demonstrates that supportive teacher-student relationships have multiple positive educational effects. In Scandinavia, the concept of relational competence is increasingly used to define the teacher's ability to develop "good"relationships. The overall purpose of this article is to contribute to…

  9. Od folklivsforskning k evropské etnologii, antropologii a zpět: švédská etnologie v 19. až 21. století

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Woitsch, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2017), s. 224-235 ISSN 0862-8351 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-03754S Institutional support: RVO:68378076 Keywords : European ethnology * history of ethnology * cultural studies * Sweden * Scandinavia * Sigurd Erixon Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  10. Inland Ertebølle culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente

    The Ertebølle culture is a late-Mesolithic hunter-gatherer-fisher culture in Southern Scandinavia, Northern Germany and Poland. Archaeological finds as well as scientific analyses of humans and their artefacts indicate the great importance of aquatic resources for this culture. This applies both...

  11. The Struggle for Comprehensive Education in the Netherlands: The Representation of Secondary School Innovation in Dutch Newspaper Articles in the 1970s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Greveling, Linda; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how Dutch newspapers represented the debate in the Netherlands in the 1970s on comprehensive education and thus influenced the Dutch Middle School experiment. Wiborg's identification of key factors of success in Scandinavia was used as a point of reference. The article shows that these key factors did not exist in the…

  12. Doing Poorly: The Real Income of American Children in a Comparative Perspective. Luxembourg Income Study. Working Paper No. 127.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Lee; Smeeding, Timothy M.

    This paper investigates the real living standards and poverty status of U.S. children in the 1990s compared to the children in 17 other nations, including Europe, Scandinavia, Canada, and Australia. The analysis is based on the Luxembourg Income Study database. It was found that American children have lower real spendable income than do comparable…

  13. Are Literary Translators (still) Lone Wolves?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    of a questionnaire on collaboration within literary translation in Scandinavia. Concepts from Community Studies, such as generalized reciprocity, interpersonal trust and active participation, are employed to discuss whether literary translators feel like members of a community, lone wolves, or simply lonely....

  14. Dentists' use of caries risk assessment in children: findings from the Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riley, Joseph L; Qvist, Vebeke; Fellows, Jeffrey L

    2010-01-01

    This study surveyed Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) member dentists (from four regions in the U.S. and Scandinavia) who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment in patients aged 6 to 18. Among respondents, 73...

  15. Between Representation and Eternity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atzbach, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    . At death, an indi- vidual’s corpse and burial primarily reflect the social act of representation during the funeral. The position of the arms, which have incorrectly been used as a chronological tool in Scandinavia, may indicate an evolution from a more collective act of prayer up to the eleventh century...

  16. Evaluation of the Massage in Schools Programme in One Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Lesley J.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses the potential benefits of the Massage in Schools Programme (MISP), a programme originating in Scandinavia, which has been introduced into schools in the United Kingdom (UK) since 2001. Meeting four out of five outcomes of the Every Child Matters agenda, the review of the literature aims to separate anecdotal and media…

  17. Mapping the specialist medical workforce for Southern Sudan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Angel_D

    postgraduate or accredited training in a speciality), we (MA & DL) set out to establish the numbers of trained doctors in various specialities in South. Sudan, North Sudan, East and Central Africa,. Australia, Canada, United States, United Kingdom,. Ireland and Scandinavia. The aim of this study is to identify those doctors.

  18. Salmiakspiritusætsning i øjnene er let at overse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajari, Javad; Lindegaard, Jens; Boberg-Ans, Gøril

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of eye injuries caused by ammonia burns have been observed at two Danish major hospitals. In other countries the number of assaults using chemicals as weapons seems to be growing, but to our knowledge, this is not described in Scandinavia. Immediate irrigation...

  19. Ulcerative colitis in a Nigerian child: case report | Ekanem | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic re-occuring inflammatory disease affecting mainly the colon. It is more prevalent in the United Kingdom, North America Scandinavia and less common in southern Europe, Asia and Africa. Commonly, UC is suspected in patients presenting with bloody diarrhoea, tenesmus, abdominal pain, ...

  20. Coping on the Front-line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This article investigates how front-line employees respond to English language policies implemented by the management of three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data the article examines the ways in which front-line employees cross lan...

  1. The Prosimetrum: Orally Derived Literature?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Sabine Heidi

    2009-01-01

    In: Agneta Ney, Henrik Williams und Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist (Hg.): Á austrvega. Saga and East Scandinavia. Preprint papers of The 14th International Saga Conference, Uppsala 9th - 15th August 2009. Gävle: University fo Gävle (Papers from the Department of Humanities and Social Sciences, 14...

  2. Genomic epidemiology of a major Mycobacterium tuberculosis outbreak: Retrospective cohort study in a low incidence setting using sparse time-series sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folkvardsen, Dorte Bek; Norman, Anders; Andersen, Åse Bengård

    2017-01-01

    Since 1992, Denmark has documented the largest outbreak of tuberculosis in Scandinavia ascribed to a single genotype, termed 'C2/1112-15'. As of spring 2017, the International Reference Laboratory of Mycobacteriology in Copenhagen has collected and identified isolates from more than a thousand...

  3. Future developments and applications of nitrogen-bearing steels ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M. Senthilkumar (Newgen Imaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The utilization of austenitic and duplex ferritic–austenitic HNS grades in Austria,. France, Germany, India, Japan, Scandinavia, should permit exceeding the threshold under which potential users are subject to some inhibition regarding HNS suppliers. It should also be noticed that in case of very specific applications of HNS ...

  4. Was there ever a Single Grave culture in East Denmark?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    2016-01-01

    The 3rd millennium BC in South Scandinavia was characterised by a sizable cultural heterogeneity covering differences in the use of material culture, burial practices and subsistence economic strategies. In the first half of the 3rd millennium BC, four archaeologically-defined cultural groups...... material elements were obtained and fitted into existing Funnel Beaker traditions forming a heterogeneous cultural expression....

  5. Cykelhjelm forebygger hjerneskade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsse, Axel; Eskesen, Vagn; Springborg, Jacob Bertram

    2015-01-01

    The relatively small and declining incidence of traffic-related death accidents in Scandinavia is a result of targeted infra-structural measures and policies. Bicycle accidents represent a large fraction of the total traffic accident load and are often underreported in statistics. We argue...

  6. The Intelligence of the Hands: Studying the Origin of Pedagogical Craft Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olafsson, Brynjar; Thorsteinsson, Gisli

    2012-01-01

    Pedagogical craft was established in the Scandinavia around 1950 under the name Sloyd. The ideology was developed by European educators from 16th and 17th century. Sloyd aimed to educate children holistically via a carefully structured system for teaching craft. The child became the centre of the educational activities and the development of the…

  7. Ethnic Heritage Studies: Northern European Foods. Experimental Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freepartner, Susan

    This teaching guide focuses on the Northern European food heritage. It is part of the Louisville Area Ethnic Heritage Studies Project described in ED 150 043. The materials are designed to foster communication across intercultural/ethnic lines. The objective of this unit is to gain familiarity with and appreciate foods from Scandinavia, the Soviet…

  8. Edible North

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Anders Kristian

    2012-01-01

    for articulating concerns about (and discuss solutions for) more divisive or contentious topics like the lack of development in peripheral Scandinavia, the relationship between diet and disease, or the sustainability of our food production system. From an STS perspective it is interesting to contemplate how...

  9. Evaluation of genetic diversity of Portuguese Pinus sylvestris L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Okhotsk Sea in eastern Siberia, and from beyond the sub- arctic forests of northern Scandinavia to arid, mountain- ous southern areas of Spain (Labra et al. 2006; Pyhäjärvi et al. ... in light of global climatic changes. Keywords. genetic diversity; ISSR; RAPD; Pinus sylvestris L. Journal of Genetics Vol. 92, Online Resources.

  10. Erosion of mountain plateaus along Sognefjord, Norway, constrained by cosmogenic nuclides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jane Lund; Egholm, David Lundbek; Knudsen, Mads Faurschou

    –climate–erosion) hypothesis. Journal of Geodynamics 47(2), 72-95, 2009. Steer et al. Bimodal Plio-Quaternary glacial erosion of fjords and low-relief surfaces in Scandinavia. Na- ture Geoscience 5(9), 635-639, 2012. Egholm et al. The periglacial engine of mountain erosion – Part 2: Modelling large-scale landscape evolu- tion...

  11. Glacial isostatic uplift of the European Alps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mey, Jürgen; Scherler, Dirk; Wickert, Andrew D.; Egholm, David L.; Tesauro, Magdala; Schildgen, Taylor F.; Strecker, Manfred R.

    2016-01-01

    Following the last glacial maximum (LGM), the demise of continental ice sheets induced crustal rebound in tectonically stable regions of North America and Scandinavia that is still ongoing. Unlike the ice sheets, the Alpine ice cap developed in an orogen where the measured uplift is potentially

  12. Studies on Solid Wood. IV. Comparison of Nordic Pine Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørkmann, Anders

    2002-01-01

    The methods developed previously for measuring stiffness, creep, and axial compression of solid wood have been used for a comparative study of three specimens of pine (Pinus silvestris), collected at different latitudes in Scandinavia (North Sweden, South Finland and Denmark). Axial samples taken...

  13. Social Perspectives on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Drewes Nielsen, Lise

    interdisciplinary theoretical approaches with empirical case studies analysing and appraising innovative policies from Scandinavia, this volume demonstrates that mobility research is a key issue within social enquiry. It addresses three broad themes. Firstly, mobility as a constructed social reality, examining how...... for both research and policy. In the final section of the book new visions for research into sustainability and mobility are laid out....

  14. Baltimaad 1900-1914 / Jaanus Arukaevu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arukaevu, Jaanus

    1992-01-01

    Rets.: The Baltic Countries 1900-1914 : proceedings from the 9th conference on baltic studies in Scandinavia, Stockholm, June 3-6, 1987. Ed. Aleksander Loit. (Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis. Studia Baltica Stockholmiensia 5:1-2). Uppsala, 1990Red terror in Estonia 1918-1919 : sources and major problems. Lk. 96

  15. Urban Crafts and Oval Brooches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses technological and stylistic variations in copper-alloy workshops in Viking Age towns. In the decades around year 800 a cluster of new technologies, art styles and object types, including the characteristic oval brooches, were adopted across Scandinavia. Shared details of tech...

  16. Scandinavian Fellowship for Oral Pathology and Oral Medicine: guidelines for oral pathology and oral medicine in the dental curriculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kragelund, C.; Reibel, J.; Hietanen, J.; Hadler-Olsen, E.; Johannessen, A.C.; Kenrad, B.; Nylander, K.; Puranen, M.; Salo, T.; Syrjänen, S.; Søland, T.M.; van der Waal, I.; van der Wal, J.E.; Warfvinge, G.

    2012-01-01

    In Scandinavia, as in many European countries, most patients consult their general dentist once a year or more. This gives the dentist a unique opportunity and an obligation to make an early diagnosis of oral diseases, which is beneficial for both the patient and the society. Thus, the dentist must

  17. Emerging multiethnolects in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nortier, J.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074734644; Adger, David; Cheshire, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the results of research carried out in the last ten years or so in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Germany, France and the UK, on new forms and styles of language that have emerged in multilingual areas of European cities. We discuss the problematic nature of the term multiethnolect, and

  18. Organizing and Managing Transition to Sustainable Urban Districts and Housing Structures. A Comparative Study of Swedish and Danish Cases of Current Urban Planning Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jacob Norvig

    In Scandinavia baby boomers coming of age in 1960s, in combination with a massive migration from rural to urban areas, caused a massive demand for new housing. Public authority responded by soliciting to social housing associations to construct a huge number of dwellings within a short time span....

  19. Prevalence of tonsillar human papillomavirus infections in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rusan, M; Klug, Tejs Ehlers; Henriksen, Jens-Jacob Mølby

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of tonsillar carcinomas associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection has increased dramatically over the last three decades. In fact, currently in Scandinavia, HPV-associated cases account for over 80 % of tonsillar carcinoma cases. Yet, the epidemiology and natural history...

  20. Building new Knowledge Networks: A Europe–China Perspective on R&D Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harryson, Sigvald; Søberg, Peder Veng; Åkerman, Niklas

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores how offshoring of R&D affects innovation performance based on three recent cases of R&D transfer from Scandinavia to China. One globally leading packaging company moved R&D to China and immediately arranged innovation competitions between three selected universities in order...

  1. Support or Barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte

    This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices emplo...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....

  2. Woonerven en enkele andere experimenten in Nederland. Artikel verschenen in De Europeese Gemeente, Vol. 21 , No. 2 (maart/april), p. 47-51.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Ideas about the layout of residential areas and urban centres are always changing. After World War II a number of"New towns" were built in England, in which traffic was very much restrained. Western Germany introduced a traffic-free city, and in Scandinavia the SCAFT-guidelines were introduced. In

  3. Mapping and appraisal of Scandinavian research in early childhood institutions in 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bente

    In Scandinavia almost all children from age 3 to 5 and a significant majority of children from 1 to 3 are spending the main part of their every day life in Kindergartens and the quality of these institutions has been positively evaluated by international assessment (OECD, 2006). However a systema...

  4. Bullying: A Handbook for Educators and Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivers, Ian; Duncan, Neil; Besag, Valerie E.

    2009-01-01

    "Bullying: A Handbook for Educators and Parents" offers a comprehensive exploration of the bullying within public schools, drawing upon research conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, Scandinavia, and Canada. It offers insights into the immediate and long-term impact bullying can have upon the lives of students, their families,…

  5. A Scandinavian approach to designing with children in a developing country - Exploring the applicability of participatory methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakil, Nahid; Dalsgaard, P.

    2013-01-01

    the challenges that arise from employing participatory methods in a different socio-cultural setting with participants who have had comparatively limited exposure to digital technologies. We offer a comparative study of two PD projects carried out with school classes in Scandinavia and India. While the setup...

  6. ‘Between the Devil and the Deep Blue Sea’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dvinge, Anne

    2013-01-01

    In 1940, three young Afro-Danes came together to form what was to become one of the most popular swing bands in Scandinavia, the Harlem Kiddies. This essay seeks to investigate the performance and reception history of the orchestra, especially during the years of the German occupation. This essay...

  7. The struggle for comprehensive education in the Netherlands : the representation of secondary school innovation in Dutch newspaper articles in the 1970s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amsing, Hilda T. A.; Greveling, Linda; Dekker, Jeroen J. H.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on how Dutch newspapers represented the debate in the Netherlands in the 1970s on comprehensive education and thus influenced the Dutch Middle School experiment. Wiborg's identification of key factors of success in Scandinavia was used as a point of reference. The article shows

  8. Shallow freshwater ecosystems of the circumpolar Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rautio, Milla; Dufresne, France; Laurion, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    This review provides a synthesis of limnological data and conclusions from studies on ponds and small lakes at our research sites in Subarctic and Arctic Canada, Alaska, northern Scandinavia, and Greenland. Many of these water bodies contain large standing stocks of benthic microbial mats that gr...

  9. Images of Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderberg, Birgitte

    2016-01-01

    Images of Women, which took place in Copenhagen in March 1970, at the same time as the first political interventions of the feminist movement, the "Redstockings", was the first feminist art exhibition in Scandinavia. The essay analyses the content of this collaborative project and demonstrates how...

  10. Is the Scandinavian Way of Organizing Challenged by the Growing Chinese Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westenholz, Ann

    2012-01-01

    The institutional order of organizing in working life is very different in Scandinavia and China. When Scandinavian and Chinese managers and employees meet in concrete work relations they not only work together on a product they also become engaged in institutional work dealing with the inconsist...

  11. Can Schools Save Indigenous Languages? Policy and Practice on Four Continents: Palgrave Studies in Minority Languages and Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornberger, Nancy H., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume offers a close look at four cases of indigenous language revitalization: Maori in Aotearoa/New Zealand, Sami in Scandinavia, Hnahno in Mexico and Quechua and other indigenous languages in Latin America. Essays by experts from each case are in turn discussed in international perspective by four counterpart experts. This book is divided…

  12.  Zwischen Mission und Markt - Ansgars Kirchen im Norden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: Between Mission and Market – Ansgar’s Churches in the North. An Interdisciplinary Examination of the Continental Mission in 9th Century Scandinavia Historic and archaeological scholarship traditionally viewed the missionary endeavours of the Archbishopric of Hamburg-Bremen in Scandinavi...

  13. Monitoring of noble, signal and narrow-clawed crayfish using environmental DNA from freshwater samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agersnap, Sune; Larsen, William Brenner; Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm

    2017-01-01

    For several hundred years freshwater crayfish (Crustacea-Decapoda-Astacidea) have played an important ecological, cultural and culinary role in Scandinavia. However, many native populations of noble crayfish Astacus astacus have faced major declines during the last century, largely resulting from...

  14. Sustainable Industrial Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Irene

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this case is to create awareness about a somewhat unfamiliar industry that accounts for over €3 billion in Scandinavia and £5,6 billion in the UK, the Metals recycling industry. The case features a Scandinavian Company and includes several perspectives from managerial disciplines...

  15. Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lings, Kristina; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LAD) is an autoimmune, chronic bullous disease affecting primarily young children and adults. Studies on LAD are relatively sparse and from Scandinavia we could only find a few case reports. Therefore we decided to conduct a retrospective investigation of patients...

  16. Contact sensitization to calocephalin, a sesquiterpene lactone of the guaianolide type from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii, Compositae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Hindsén, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Cushion bush [Leucophyta brownii Cass. = Calocephalus brownii (Cass.) F. Muell.] is an Australian Compositae shrub that has been introduced into Scandinavia as a pot plant. The first case of sensitization occurred in a gardener, and the main allergen was identified as the guaianolide calocephalin....

  17. Big-Men and Small Chiefs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    2017-01-01

    Scandinavia with a certain focus on Denmark. The assumption is that the creation of Bronze Age societies must be understood as a long formative process that partly originated in the culturally-heterogeneous Middle Neolithic. Four aspects seem to have been essential to this process: the rise of the warrior...

  18. Participatory Design in the Developing World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Messeter, Jörn; Claassen, Hester; Finnan, Craig

    In the field of participatory design originating in Scandinavia, where approaches are developed for actively engaging local stakeholders in change processes, a major part of the research has been confined to Western contexts. The need to study participatory design in broader settings outside West...

  19. A centennial record of fluvial organic matter input from the discontinuous permafrost catchment of Lake Tornetrsk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, Jorien E.; Alling, Vanja; Rahm, Lars; Mrth, Carl Magnus; Humborg, Christoph; Gustafsson, Örjan

    2012-01-01

    High-latitude regions are underlain by the most organic carbon (OC)-rich soils on earth and currently subject to intense climate warming, potentially increasing remobilization and mineralization of soil OC. Sub-Arctic Scandinavia is located on the 0C mean annual isotherm and is therefore

  20. Upper-mantle velocity structure beneath Jutland, Denmark and northern Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejrani, Babak; Jacobsen, B. H.; Balling, N.

    Several temporary seismological arrays have probed the crust and lithosphere in northern Germany and southern Scandinavia (Tor, CALAS, MAGNUS and TopoScandiaDeep, see e.g. Medhus et al., 2012). In 2011-12 we measured the Jutland-Lower Saxony (JULS) profile as collaboration between Aarhus University...

  1. Cabotagestudien

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sternberg, Henrik; Holmberg, Andreas; Lindqvist, Gustaf

    of previous research on road freight transport deregulation, a data collection of the movements of international trucks in Scandinavia, method validation and statistical comparison Parts of the data collection presented in this report are based on an innovative app for truck counting that registers vehicle...

  2. Long range transport of air pollutants in Europe and acid precipitation in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack Nordo

    1976-01-01

    Observations show that pollutants from large emission sources may cause significant air concentrations 500 to 1000 miles away. Very acid precipitation occurs in such periods. The scavenging is often intensified by the topography. Case studies will be presented, with special emphasis on acid precipitation in Scandinavia. Large scale dispersion models have been developed...

  3. Acid precipitation and its effects on freshwater ecosystems: an annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Wright

    1976-01-01

    It is especially difficult to obtain an overview of the literature on acid precipitation and its effects on freshwater ecosystems because this research covers disciplines in meteorology, chemistry, biology, geology, and hydrology. In addition, much of the work done in Scandinavia is not published in international journals and thus not included by major abstract...

  4. Impact of acid precipitation on freshwater ecosystems on Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard F. Wright; Torstein Dale; Egil T. Gjessing; George R. Hendrey; Arne Henriksen; Merete Johannessen; Ivar P. Muniz

    1976-01-01

    Extensive studies of precipitation chemistry during the last 20 years have clearly shown that highly polluted precipitation falls over large areas of Scandinavia, and that this pollution is increasing in severity and geographical extent. Precipitation in southern Norway, Sweden, and Finland contains large amounts of H+, SO4...

  5. A seismic tomography study of lithospheric structure under the Norwegian Caledonides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hejrani, Babak; Jacobsen, B. H.; Balling, N.

    2012-01-01

    towards the north along the Caledonian Mountains or not? For this purpose we present new results of relative P-wave tomography for the northern SCANLIPS (SCANdinavia Lithosphere ProfileS) profile across the northern part of the Caledonides combined with data from permanent seismological stations...

  6. Evaluation of linkage of breast cancer to the putative BRCA3 locus on chromosome 13q21 in 128 multiple case families from the Breast Cancer Linkage Consortium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thompson, Deborah; Szabo, Csilla I.; Mangion, Jon; Oldenburg, Rogier A.; Odefrey, Fabrice; Seal, Sheila; Barfoot, Rita; Kroeze-Jansema, Karin; Teare, Dawn; Rahman, Nazneen; Renard, Hélène; Mann, Graham; Hopper, John L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Andrulis, Irene L.; Senie, Ruby; Daly, Mary B.; West, Dee; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Offit, Ken; Peretz, Tamar; Osorio, Ana; Benitez, J.; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Sinilnikova, Olga M.; Olàh, Edith; Bignon, Yves-Jean; Ruiz, Pablo; Badzioch, Michael D.; Vasen, Hans F. A.; Futreal, Andrew P.; Phelan, Catherine M.; Narod, Steven A.; Lynch, Henry T.; Ponder, Bruce A. J.; Eeles, Ros A.; Meijers-Heijboer, Hanne; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Couch, Fergus J.; Eccles, Diana M.; Evans, D. Gareth; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Lenoir, Gilbert; Weber, Barbara L.; Devilee, Peter; Easton, Douglas F.; Goldgar, David E.; Stratton, Michael R.

    2002-01-01

    The known susceptibility genes for breast cancer, including BRCA1 and BRCA2, only account for a minority of the familial aggregation of the disease. A recent study of 77 multiple case breast cancer families from Scandinavia found evidence of linkage between the disease and polymorphic markers on

  7. Free space in the processes of action research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mette; Nielsen, Kurt Aagaard

    2013-01-01

    In Scandinavia there exists an action research tradition called critical utopian action research (CUAR). Within CUAR, criticism and utopia is a core activity in the methods used and in the research as such. The utopian concept in this tradition should be understood as a productive concept, and thus...

  8. A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF SCANDINAVIAN AND ETHIOPIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    housing policies to the social, economic, cultural ideas, and institutional set ups in each country and, in retrospect .... problems. caught in a culture of poverty [7]. Such views encouraged an abolishinist approach and ...... includes Finland, Iceland and Faeroe Islands. For the purpose of this paper Scandinavia denote the first ...

  9. Strategic Assurance and Signaling in the Baltics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-06

    deterrence. As Adam Lowther puts it: “understanding the culture , interests, and objectives of adversaries has the potential to decrease the number...Finland could ensure supplies could still reach the Baltics from Scandinavia. An article released by the five Scandinavian countries of Iceland

  10. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...

  11. Identifying and Comparing Scandinavian Ethnography: Comparisons and Influences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant growth in the volume of research production in education ethnography in Scandinavia due partly to a regionally financed network. The present article makes some comparisons between Scandinavian and other education research contexts in relation to aspects of general ethnographic design to try to analyse…

  12. Ancient DNA reveals lack of continuity between neolithic hunter-gatherers and contemporary Scandinavians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, Helena; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Thomas, Mark G; Brandström, Mikael; Storå, Jan; Molnar, Petra; Andersen, Pernille K; Bendixen, Christian; Holmlund, Gunilla; Götherström, Anders; Willerslev, Eske

    2009-11-03

    The driving force behind the transition from a foraging to a farming lifestyle in prehistoric Europe (Neolithization) has been debated for more than a century [1-3]. Of particular interest is whether population replacement or cultural exchange was responsible [3-5]. Scandinavia holds a unique place in this debate, for it maintained one of the last major hunter-gatherer complexes in Neolithic Europe, the Pitted Ware culture [6]. Intriguingly, these late hunter-gatherers existed in parallel to early farmers for more than a millennium before they vanished some 4,000 years ago [7, 8]. The prolonged coexistence of the two cultures in Scandinavia has been cited as an argument against population replacement between the Mesolithic and the present [7, 8]. Through analysis of DNA extracted from ancient Scandinavian human remains, we show that people of the Pitted Ware culture were not the direct ancestors of modern Scandinavians (including the Saami people of northern Scandinavia) but are more closely related to contemporary populations of the eastern Baltic region. Our findings support hypotheses arising from archaeological analyses that propose a Neolithic or post-Neolithic population replacement in Scandinavia [7]. Furthermore, our data are consistent with the view that the eastern Baltic represents a genetic refugia for some of the European hunter-gatherer populations.

  13. Disability, sameness, and equality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mik-Meyer, Nanna

    2017-01-01

    This article contributes to research examining the work situations of employees with disabilities. This is performed by demonstrating how able-bodied norms affect the work lives of employees with cerebral palsy in Danish work organizations. Thus, this article investigates how able-bodied managers......’. These two narratives relate to the highly praised value of equality in Scandinavia....

  14. Enter the Gripping Beast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    , which allows us to chart this innovation process and to point out some of the locations where this development took place; the reception of the mew motif is traced in grave finds across Scandinavia. This allows us to follow an early medieval innovation through the human-material interactions of an actor-network....

  15. Genetic determinants of facial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark...

  16. A Model of Social Security?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rom-Jensen, Byron Zachary

    2017-01-01

    of Scandinavian achievements were variable in their ideological outlook and sometimes deliberately challenged the existence and goals of New Deal policies. Moreover, this essay explores the usage of Scandinavia in New Deal social legislation by examining the policymaking rhetoric of the Social Security Act...

  17. Vegetation fires, smoke emissions, and dispersion of radionuclides in the chernobyl exclusion zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei Min Hao; Oleg O. Bondarenko; Sergiy Zibtsev; Diane. Hutton

    2009-01-01

    The accident of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant (ChNPP) in 1986 was probably the worst environmental disaster in the past 30 years. The fallout and accumulation of radionuclides in the soil and vegetation could have long-term impacts on the environment. Radionuclides released during large, catastrophic vegetation fires could spread to continental Europe, Scandinavia...

  18. The Barbarian North in Medieval Imagination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen-Rix, Robert William

    This book examines the sustained interest in legends of the pagan and peripheral North, tracing and analyzing the use of an ‘out-of-Scandinavia’ legend (Scandinavia as an ancestral homeland) in a wide range of medieval texts from all over Europe, with a focus on the Anglo-Saxon tradition. The pag...

  19. Perception of future goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottsen, Christina L.; Berntsen, Dorthe

    The current study: a cross-cultural comparison between the Middle East and Scandinavia. Two societies that offer a unique opportunity to examine gender and cultural differences in perception of personal goals. Previous studies show that imagined future events are affected by memories of personal...

  20. Nurses' Competency and Challenges in Enteral feeding in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    needs, and the characteristics of the nurse and patient synergise, optimal patient outcomes can ... All 53 nurses working in the intensive care unit (ICU) and high dependency unit (HDU) were recruited to ..... attitudes among doctors and nurses in Scandinavia: A questionnaire based survey. Clinical Nutrition, 2006; 25, ...

  1. Salmiakspiritusætsning i øjnene er let at overse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajari, Javad Sanye; Lindegaard, Jens; Boberg-Ans, Gøril

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of eye injuries caused by ammonia burns have been observed at two Danish major hospitals. In other countries the number of assaults using chemicals as weapons seems to be growing, but to our knowledge, this is not described in Scandinavia. Immediate irrigation...... is the most important therapy in order to reduce damages after ammonia burns....

  2. Ulcerative colitis in a Nigerian child: case report

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-02

    Jun 2, 2016 ... It is more prevalent in the United Kingdom, North. America Scandinavia and less common in southern Europe, Asia and Africa. Commonly, UC is suspected in patients presenting with bloody diarrhoea, tenesmus, abdominal pain, and, when se- vere, weight loss, fatigue, and vomiting. Perhaps one child so ...

  3. How current assessments of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge legitimacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Thomas

    the Economist (2013) turn to Scandinavia as having the solutions to some of the global sustainability-related challenges, it might also be worth reversing the optics. One approach could be to take a closer look at whether this high level of support for the UNGC translates to a high level of Sustainability...... Performance? And how the current assessment of Sustainability Performance by Best Practice in the UN Global Compact challenge the legitimacy of both the corporation, the UNGC and governments attempting to facilitate sustainability and CSR engagement? Best Practice is a concept frequently used by authorities......The Scandinavian countries have been strong supporters of the UN Global Compact (UNGC) since the official launch in year 2000. This is best evidenced by the level of adoption of the UNGC, which is the most widely adopted broad sustainability-reporting standard in Scandinavia (Kjaergaard, submitted...

  4. Biometric characters of seeds and wings as markers of geographical differentiation between European scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. provenances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lech Urbaniak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biometric characters of seeds and wings served to describe interprovenance differentiation of Scots pine in Europe. Grouping analysis was applied, Mahalanobis distances were calculated as well as Hotellings T2 statistics were applied. The similarity of East European and Finnish provenances was conspicuous. The provenance from Scotland proved to be similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia. On the other hand, two southern provenances 54(Rychtal, Poland and 55(Luboml, Ukraine, were also found similar to provenances originating from the region of Scandinavia (western Norway. The obtained pattern of reciprocal relations may indicate pathways of Scots pine migration in the postglacial period or may be a result of adaptation to certain similar environmental conditions. No relations were detected between size of seeds and geographic origin of provenances.

  5. Investigating Neanderthal dispersal above 55°N in Europe during the Last Interglacial Complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Trine Kellberg; Benito, Blas M.; Svenning, Jens Christian

    2017-01-01

    When dealing with the northern boundary of Neanderthals (Homo neanderthalensis) and the question of whether or not they dispersed into Southern Scandinavia, two contradictory hypotheses can be identified. The first, and also the most widely endorsed, hereafter, hypothesis A, argues primarily...... that Neanderthals did not occupy regions above 55°N because of 1) climatic constraints and 2) dispersal barriers. The second, hypothesis B, argues that they possibly occasionally dispersed above 55°N, but that factors such as 1) research- and/or 2) taphonomic bias are responsible for their archaeological...... to the two hypotheses. Our results are inconsistent with the claim that climatic constraint and/or a lack of suitable habitats can fully explain the absence of Neanderthals in Southern Scandinavia during the Eemian Interglacial and Early Weichselian Glaciation. We do, however, find evidence that a geographic...

  6. PR, Lobbyism and Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørsten, Mark; Willig, Ida; Pedersen, Leif Hemming

    2017-01-01

    The growth of PR in Scandinavia is linked both to the mediatization of politics and to the decline of corporatism. Studies in Sweden and Norway suggest that one consequence of these changes is the increasing number of politicians who find new careers as lobbyists in the private sector. In this st......The growth of PR in Scandinavia is linked both to the mediatization of politics and to the decline of corporatism. Studies in Sweden and Norway suggest that one consequence of these changes is the increasing number of politicians who find new careers as lobbyists in the private sector....... In this study, we have constructed a data set of all members of the Danish Parliament who have left politics from 1981 to 2015 (n= 613) and identified the number and type of job positions they have taken up subsequently (n= 1094). We find that especially from the 1990s we can register revolving door activity...

  7. Musikpedagogik i ett kulturhistoriskt perspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uddholm, Mats

    2004-01-01

    and psychological ideas could contribute to music pedagogical discourse in Scandinavia. The overall conclusion was that Vygotsky’s theory could be a big opportunity considering problemizing music pedagogy. In the thesis postulates that music can describes as a sort of language that characterizes by its “synthesis...... to Vygotsky’s concept of “The zone of proximal development”. In the article reaches the question whether the “confrontation” of different theories can qualify the relation between music pedagogy as a science, and the practice of music education, in Scandinavia.......This article is a follow-up of a thesis from September 2003, where the subject was how music education could be understood from a “culture historical” point of view. The purpose of the this research was to find out if, and in that case in what way, Lev Semonëvic Vygotsky’s pedagogical...

  8. Terrorism, Trust and Tourism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Susanne; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2017-01-01

    How does terrorism affect social trust and tourism? The rising number of terrorist attacks in Western Europe has caused safety problems not only for local citizens but also for tourists. In fact, terrorists challenge the formal violence monopoly of the state thus creating a sense of anarchy...... and distrust. Social trust is about trusting strangers, so when less predictable behaviour occurs in, a given country, people become more careful as they tend to trust most other people less. An interesting case for future research is Scandinavia as the level of terrorism is still low and, at the same time......, Scandinavia can record most social trust in the world meaning a competitive advantage when attracting tourists. Arguably, a double dividend is created from fighting terrorism, namely more social trust accumulated and more tourists attracted. Future research should therefore try to further test our model...

  9. Is ERASMUS furthering multilingualism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Margrethe

    One aim of the ERASMUS program is the furthering of multilingualism in Europe. This paper examines under what conditions the aim is achieved in the case of non-language exchange students coming to Scandinavia. The paper draws on a longitudinal study involving interviews with, and tests done by, 2...... exchange students during their study-abroad period. The paper relates successful cases to factors such as motivation, interaction and institutional language policies.......One aim of the ERASMUS program is the furthering of multilingualism in Europe. This paper examines under what conditions the aim is achieved in the case of non-language exchange students coming to Scandinavia. The paper draws on a longitudinal study involving interviews with, and tests done by, 240...

  10. Contextual influences on reverse knowledge transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    2010-01-01

    Further development of theories about how contextual factors influence the beneficial reverse knowledge transfer from subsidiary to head quarters in disparate national country contexts, is the aim of our study. Earlier studies do not fully capture the different effects national country cultures can...... have on reverse knowledge transfer as opposed to their influence on primary knowledge transfer. The study is an in-depth, interview based, multiple case study in Scandinavia and China focusing on R&D transfer to China within two Scandinavia-based MNCs, which are leading within their industries....... A proposition model is developed where the dependent variable is beneficial reverse knowledge transfer. The independent variables are: higher relative knowledge level in subsidiaty than in HQ, authority respect, activity fit with contextual learning preference. The conclusion suggest that different contexts...

  11. Scandinavian guidelines for initial management of minor and moderate head trauma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrand, Ramona; Rosenlund, Christina; Undén, Johan

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The management of minor and moderate head trauma in children differs widely between countries. Presently, there are no existing guidelines for management of these children in Scandinavia. The purpose of this study was to produce new evidence-based guidelines for the initial management...... of head trauma in the paediatric population in Scandinavia. The primary aim was to detect all children in need of neurosurgical intervention. Detection of any traumatic intracranial injury on CT scan was an important secondary aim. METHODS: General methodology according to the Appraisal of Guidelines...... or early discharge, and suggestions for monitoring routines and discharge advice for children and guardians. The guidelines separate mild head trauma patients into high-, medium- and low-risk categories, favouring observation for mild, low-risk patients as an attempt to reduce CT scans in children...

  12. Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi; Fabricius, Anne Sophie; Holm, Anne

    with the countries of origin, combining individualisation with interconnectedness. The results indicate three emergent forms of socioeconomic strategies among South Asian youth in Denmark: 1) individual strategies involving professional, business related investment and direct remittances, 2) awareness of parents......Changing Identities and Socio Economic Strategies: South Asian Diasporic Youth in Scandinavia   Rashmi Singla,  Anne Sophie Fabricius & Anne Holm This paper throws light on the rapid cultural transformations as well as continuity among the South Asian youth in Scandinavia, primarily in Denmark....... Based on two interdisciplinary empirical studies, it investigates some socioeconomic aspects of the South Asian diaspora in Denmark. The first longitudinal study explored young adults’ economic strategies in relation to their country of origin. The first wave investigation was conducted in the mid-1990s...

  13. Nation-building in the Scandinavian Welfare State: The Immigration Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Brochmann

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Scandinavia represents a particular type of welfare state, characterized by institutionalized social rights, universal access, generous benefits, a high degree of public involvement and comparatively high levels of redistribution. The basically tax-based system, which was designed to constitute a basic safety net for all citizens from cradle to grave, has been remarkably generous - and thereby also costly. It is thus vulnerable in relation to newcomers who cannot support themselves economically. In all of Scandinavia, the welfare state was from the beginning the self-evident instrument for incorporation of newcomers. Gradually, this instrument has turned more controversial, in parallel with general processes of social reform, in which the restructuring of policies has been regarded as necessary in order to avoid dependency traps and "overconsumption". This article spells out the historical background for the specific Scandinavian approach to immigration, and discusses the current dilemmas attached to this normatively complicated policy field.

  14. International Assessment of Research and Development in Catalysis by Nanostructured Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    1 Remarks by the President on May 10, 1950, on the occasion of the signing of the law that created the National...Scandinavia-based Neste Oil Corporation and Stora Enso Group (a forest products company) have signed an agreement to develop liquid biofuels by FTS...with defined porosity and composition are useful in drug delivery, as light-emitting devices, or for controlling release of semiotic compounds

  15. The Global Punk Reader

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Alastair; Dines, Mike; Guerra, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Edited collection of academic research articles on global punk culture Approaching its fortieth anniversary, punk culture has now spread across the planet. Indeed, most western cities and urban connotations are home to a competing range of diverse and original punk scenes. Long standing diverse punk scenes are to be found in Japan, South East Asia, China, The Middle East, Scandinavia, East and Western Europe, Russia, Australia, India and Africa. Each scene, rather than adopting traditiona...

  16. Disseminated histoplasmosis in a Danish patient with AIDS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, E; Franzmann, M; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt

    1989-01-01

    We present the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in an AIDS patient in Europe, a 33-year-old Danish homosexual man, and recommend a detailed travel history in HIV-positive patients presenting with fever, weight loss and organomegaly. In Scandinavia disseminated histoplasmosis is rare...... but should be kept in mind as the disease is a major opportunistic infection in patients with AIDS. Treatment with amphotericin B followed by fluconazole was effective....

  17. Urine Diversion & Reuse in Australia : A homeless paradigm or sustainable solution for the future?

    OpenAIRE

    Cordell, Dana

    2006-01-01

    Diverting urine from faeces or mixed wastewater and reusing it to fertilize crops, is a traditional method used in Asia. It is also a contemporary approach to sustainable nutrient and water management in Scandinavia and other parts of Europe. Urine diversion and reuse is a proven socio-technical system that has significant potential benefits on both a local and global scale, such as recirculating scarce plant nutrients like phosphorus back to agriculture, reducing eutrophication of waterways ...

  18. The dialectical movement between deprivation and preservation of a person's life space: A question of nursing home residents' dignity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sæteren, Berit; Tolo Heggestad, Anne Kari; Høy, B.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to answer the question "What do nursing home residents do themselves in order to maintain their dignity?" Twenty-eight residents, 8 men and 20 women, aged 62 to 103 years, from 6 different nursing homes in Scandinavia were interviewed. The results showed that the residen...... tried to expand their life space, both physical and ontological, in order to experience health and dignity....

  19. M & C Aspects of the EGNOS Ground Segment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A.

    EGNOS is the European Augmentation of GPS and GLONASS, and when operational will provide high performance navigation data to users such as the airlines. EGNOS contains a distributed ground segment stretching from the eastern shores of North America to Singapore, and from South Africa to Northern Scandinavia. The processing, monitoring and control portions are however located in Europe and for these Science Systems is developing important Monitoring and Control components.

  20. The Puzzle of the Scandinavian Welfare State and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2015-01-01

    The Scandinavian welfare model is a puzzle to economists: It works economically, even though free-riding should prevail with its explosive cocktail of high taxation and high social benefits. One overlooked solution to the puzzle could be the unique stock of social trust present in Scandinavia. Here......, the four Scandinavian countries (Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland) form the top three with scores above 60 percent social trust on a ranking that covers 94 countries from all over the world....

  1. Systemic combination treatment for psoriasis: a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Skov, Lone; Zachariae, Claus

    2010-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease, which affects approximately 2.6% of the population in Northern Europe and Scandinavia. In order to achieve disease control, combinations of systemic treatments are sometimes needed for variable time periods. However, no evidence-based guidelines e...... treatments. The most thoroughly investigated combination was retinoid and phototherapy. Further controlled research is needed to define the safest and most effective combination regimens....

  2. Linx individual B132 from north-eastern Switzerland sighted in Trentino (northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brugnoli A

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A subadult lynx was caught in February 2008 in the Swiss National Park, fitted with a Gps-Gsm radio-collar and later genetically identified as B132 - i.e., a male born in 2006 in North-Eastern Switzerland -. B132 is at present located in the western Trentino region, more than 200 km away from his mother's home range. This is the furthest dispersal ever documented outside of Scandinavia for a Eurasian lynx.

  3. Allozyme diversity and geographic variation in the widespread coastal sedge, Carex arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Jonsson, Olle B; Prentice, Honor C

    2000-01-01

    Allozyme electrophoresis was used to investigate the structure of genetic variation in the rhizomatous coastal sedge, Carex arenaria, throughout its European range — from the SW Iberian peninsula to the Baltic region. Material was sampled from 77 sites in five geographic regions. Nine of the 13 investigated loci were polymorphic in the total material and there were interregional differences in the number of polymorphic loci per site and the percentage of variable sites. In the Scandinavia/Bal...

  4. Tunga penetrans in a young dog imported to Denmark from Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loft, K. Earl; Nissen, Merete Holst

    2009-01-01

    The number of people who travel internationally with their pets is increasing. Consequently, veterinarians around the world are more likely to encounter parasitic diseases formerly restricted to certain geographical locations. The purpose of this report is to describe a case of tungiasis, a disea...... caused by the sand flea Tunga penetrans, in a dog imported from Brazil to Denmark. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of canine T. penetrans infestation in Scandinavia....

  5. Commodity tax competition – purchases of spirits in the Scandinavian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Nygård, Odd Erik

    2009-01-01

    A simulation model consisting of a representative consumer for each Scandinavian country is constructed and calibrated, in which consumers consume two goods: spirits and 'other goods'. Spirits is exposed to cross-border shopping, and the countries engage in tax competition. The equilibrium tax rates show large price differentials on spirits in Scandinavia. The findings also suggest that Norway and Denmark pay more attention to cross-border shopping and tax competition when setting the tax rat...

  6. Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) new for the fauna of Norway, Part 5

    OpenAIRE

    RIEDEL, Matthias; Hansen, Lars Ove

    2012-01-01

    The family Ichneumonidae represents a very species-rich family of parasitoid Hymenoptera. In Norway, 1583 different Ichneumonid species have been reported so far. The present survey gives distributional records for 98 additional species of the family Ichneumonidae (Hymenoptera) previously not known from Norway. 21 of them have hitherto not been reported from Scandinavia, including the first Palaearctic record of Syrphophilus tricinctus (Ashmead, 1902). Posted here with permission from the...

  7. Cyber Harassment and Quality of Life

    OpenAIRE

    Thorvaldsen, Steinar; Stenseth, Anna-Maria Helena; Egeberg, Gunstein; Pettersen, Geir Olaf; Rønning, John Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Research on bullying and harassment in Scandinavia has been going on for several decades, and is appearing in new frameworks and forms since the new categories of “cyber harassment” or “cyberbullying” has been introduced. Bullying is a phenomenon of great importance, as it seems to affect persons negatively in their everyday functioning. We designed a questionnaire on cyber harassment, which was answered by pupils, at five schools in Tromsø (N=878). This questionnaire included a section o...

  8. Reframing Nationalism, Citizenship and Gender

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siim, Birte; Stoltz, Pauline

    2018-01-01

    Abstract: The growth of nationalism and nativist parties and movements has raised political and scholarly debates about the future viability of European welfare states and democracies. These projects are sparkled by reactions to the global war on terror and the economic and financial crises...... in Scandinavia. It proposes that in order to overcome exclusive notions of nationalism and formulate more inclusive notions of justice one strategy could be to rethink citizenship beyond the nation state....

  9. Behavioural evaluation of workers exposed to mixtures of organic solvents.

    OpenAIRE

    Maizlish, N A; Langolf, G D; Whitehead, L W; Fine, L. J.; Albers, J W; Goldberg, J; Smith, P.

    1985-01-01

    Reports from Scandinavia have suggested behavioural impairment among long term workers exposed to solvents below regulatory standards. A cross sectional study of behavioural performance was conducted among printers and spray painters exposed to mixtures of organic solvents to replicate the Scandinavian studies and to examine dose-response relationships. Eligible subjects consisted of 640 hourly workers from four midwestern United States companies. Of these, 269 responded to requests to partic...

  10. VFT insulation coordination study of a 400 kV GIS

    OpenAIRE

    Olason, Daniel; Ebdrup, Thomas; Bak, Claus Leth; Silva, Filipe Faria Da

    2014-01-01

    In November 2008 the Danish government decided that all overhead lines below 400 kV should be replaced by underground cables. This is due to a demand of reducing the overall visibility of the transmission system, sometimes referred to as the beautification of the transmission system. The agreement furthermore included to reinforce some of the existing 400 kV transmission lines. This is due to both increasing wind penetration and power flow between Scandinavia, Germany and possible future conn...

  11. Historical Skolt Sami music and two types of melodic structures in leu ́dd tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Jouste, M. (Marko)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Sami are an indigenous people living in Scandinavia, northern Fennoscandia, and the Kola Peninsula. The land of the Sami is located on the territories of Norway, Sweden, Finland, and Russia. Due to the fact that the Skolt Sami have always lived in a multicultural environment, their musical tradition is inherently multi-layered and the Skolt Sami have adopted a significant amount of shared traditions from the northeast of Russia into their own musical culture. However, the Skol...

  12. Life-threatening MRSA sepsis with bilateral pneumonia, osteomyelitis, and septic arthritis of the knee in a previously healthy 13-year-old boy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardgrib, Nina; Wang, Michala; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2016-01-01

    The incidence and severity of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections are increasing and cause high mortality and morbidity. We describe the first pediatric case in Scandinavia with Panton-Valentine leucocidin (PVL) positive MRSA septicemia who developed bilateral pneumonia...... and antimicrobial combination therapy. The outcome was a healthy patient without sequelae, a favorable course unlike those previously described in the literature. This case underlines the necessity of a close interdisciplinary cooperation in children with severe MRSA infection encompassing pneumonia, septic...

  13. Multidrug-resistant Bacteroides fragilis group on the rise in Europe?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmeyer, G N; Sóki, J; Nagy, E

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of multidrug-resistance (MDR) in a strain of Bacteroides fragilis from a blood culture and abdominal fluid in a Danish patient. The patient had not been travelling for several years and had not received antibiotics prior to the present case. We also summarize the cases that have...... been reported to date of MDR B. fragilis group in Europe. As far as we know, a case like this with MDR B. fragilis has not been described in Scandinavia before....

  14. Implementation Issues of Cross-border Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid; Kuada, John

    This study investigates the impacts of main implementation activities on the success of cross-border acquisitions (CBAs) using the survey data from a sample of 103 CBAs conducted by the companies in Scandinavia. The results of regression analysis indicate that due diligence, integration extent......, while acquisition experience exerts negative effect. However, the evidence does not support that planning and coordination will contribute to CBA performance....

  15. TRB Megalithic Tombs and Long Barrows in Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaniszewski, Stanisław

    In general, most Funnel-necked Beaker Culture (TRB) dolmens, passage graves, and long unchambered barrows were roughly oriented along the east-west axis with deviations located within the solar arc and out to the lunar major standstill limits. Though TRB sites are dispersed in North European Plain and southern Scandinavia and their locations are adapted to the local environment, it appears that some similar worldview and calendrical concepts were laid at the roots of their setting and alignment.

  16. Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lings, Kristina; Bygum, Anette

    2015-01-01

    Linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LAD) is an autoimmune, chronic bullous disease affecting primarily young children and adults. Studies on LAD are relatively sparse and from Scandinavia we could only find a few case reports. Therefore we decided to conduct a retrospective investigation of patients s...... is a rare but characteristic condition which in most cases can be effectively treated with dapsone or sulphapyridine....

  17. Interpretation of ionospheric F-region structures in the vicinity of ionisation troughs observed by satellite radio tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Aladjev, G. A.; Evstafiev, O. V.; Mingalev, V. S.; G. I. Mingaleva; E. D. Tereshchenko; Khudukon, B. Z.

    2001-01-01

    Tomographic images of the spatial distribution of electron density in the ionospheric F-region are presented from the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE) in November 1993 as well as from campaigns carried out in northern Scandinavia in November 1995 and in Russia in April 1990. The reconstructions selected display the ionisation troughs above the tomographic chains of receivers during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Two mathematical models of the high-latitude ionospher...

  18. Thalassaemia and pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luk'yanenko, Viktoriya; Droogh, Marjoes; Overgaard, Ulrik Malthe

    2017-01-01

    Global migration has resulted in a larger geographical spread of people with risk of hereditary anaemias. This leads to an increased incidence of pregnant women with rare diseases, including thalassaemia also in Scandinavia. Thalassaemia can cause severe anaemia and other complications during pre...... pregnancy, like risk of miscarriage, intrauterine fetal death, abruptio, intrauterine growth retardation, hypertension, gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia. In this article, we focus on the aetiology, assessment, antenatal care and treatment of pregnant women with thalassaemia....

  19. Pholcodine consumption and immunoglobulin E-sensitization in atopics from Australia, Korea, and Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Katelaris, Constance H.; Kurosawa, Motohiro; Moon, Hee-Bom; Borres, Magnus; Florvaag, Erik; Johansson, Stig Gunnar Olof

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating data indicates that pholcodine (PHO)-consuming countries have higher sero-prevalences of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-antibodies to PHO and suxamethonium (SUX) and increased frequencies of IgE-mediated anaphylaxis to neuromuscular blocking agents (NMBAs) than nonconsuming. Withdrawing PHO-containing cough syrups resulted in a significant decrease of cases with anaphylaxis in Scandinavia. Nevertheless, the European Medicines Agency in 2011 advised to continue the unrestricted...

  20. Differences in prevalence and treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis centres in Denmark, Norway and Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Per Kristian; Olesen, Hanne V; Hoiby, Niels

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) infection causes increased morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF). This study aimed to answer the following questions: Does the prevalence of chronic infection with PA differ between the CF centres in Scandinavia? Which differences exist......) (p=0.037). The pulmonary function was similar. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to maintain a very low prevalence of chronic PA infection in CF patients

  1. A Regional Model of Long-Term Wetland-Forest Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Antonovsky, M.Y.; Glebov, F.Z.; Korzukin, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Wetland-forest dynamics is a subject of great theoretical and practical interest, particularly with respect to the boreal forest in the USSR. Scandinavia and Canada. Under current hydrological conditions, the characteristic time for succession from forest to bog (or vice versa) is about 100 years. But with greenhouse-gas warming of the atmosphere during the next 50 years, succession rates may be considerably altered, and this might have significant impact on the forest sector. It is therefore...

  2. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Pusl, Thomas; Beuers, Ulrich

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP) is a cholestatic disorder characterized by (i) pruritus with onset in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, (ii) elevated serum aminotransferases and bile acid levels, and (iii) spontaneous relief of signs and symptoms within two to three weeks after delivery. ICP is observed in 0.4–1% of pregnancies in most areas of Central and Western Europe and North America, while in Chile and Bolivia as well as Scandinavia and the Baltic states r...

  3. ‘‘We are like lemmings’’: making sense of the cultural meaning(s) of suicide among the indigenous Sami in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Stoor, Jon Petter A.; Niclas Kaiser; Lars Jacobsson; Ellinor Salander Renberg; Anne Silviken

    2015-01-01

    Background. Suicide is a widespread problem among indigenous people residing in the circumpolar Arctic. Though the situation among the indigenous Sami in northern Scandinavia is better than among some other indigenous people, suicide is still regarded as a major public health issue. To adapt prevention strategies that are culturally attuned one must understand how suicide is understood within context. That is, the cultural meaning(s) of suicide. Objective. To explore and make s...

  4. Long-term changes in acidification and recovery at nine calibrated catchments in Norway, Sweden and Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Moldan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available International agreements to reduce the emissions of acidifying pollutants have resulted in major changes in deposition of sulphur and nitrogen in southern Scandinavia over the past 25 years. Long-term monitoring of deposition and run-off chemistry over the past 12-25 years at nine small calibrated catchments in Finland, Norway and Sweden provide the basis for analysis of trends with special attention to recovery in response to decreased sulphur and nitrogen deposition in the 1980s and 1990s. During the 1980s and 1990s sulphate deposition in the region decreased by 30 to 60%, whereas inorganic nitrogen deposition showed very little change until the mid-1990s. Deposition of non-marine base cations (especially calcium declined in the 1990s most markedly in southern Finland. Run-off response to these changes in deposition has been rapid and clear at the nine catchments. Sulphate and base cations (mostly calcium concentrations declined and acid neutralising capacity increased. Occasional years with unusually high inputs of sea-salt confound the general trends. Trends at all the catchments show the same general picture as that from small lakes in Scandinavia and in acid-sensitive waters elsewhere in Europe. Keywords: acidification, recovery, Scandinavia, catchment, trend analysis

  5. Spatial patterns of North Atlantic Oscillation influence on mass balance variability of European glaciers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Marzeion

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We present and validate a set of minimal models of glacier mass balance variability. The most skillful model is then applied to reconstruct 7735 individual time series of mass balance variability for all glaciers in the European Alps and Scandinavia. Subsequently, we investigate the influence of atmospheric variability associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO on the glaciers' mass balances.

    We find a spatial coherence in the glaciers' sensitivity to NAO forcing which is caused by regionally similar mechanisms relating the NAO forcing to the mass balance: in southwestern Scandinavia, winter precipitation causes a correlation of mass balances with the NAO. In northern Scandinavia, temperature anomalies outside the core winter season cause an anti-correlation between NAO and mass balances. In the western Alps, both temperature and winter precipitation anomalies lead to a weak anti-correlation of mass balances with the NAO, while in the eastern Alps, the influences of winter precipitation and temperature anomalies tend to cancel each other, and only on the southern side a slight anti-correlation of mass balances with the NAO prevails.

  6. Fight back and adapt: Industry perspectives on the management of the invasive Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, in the Limfjord, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Dan Dodensig; Hegland, Troels Jacob

    2018-01-01

    further in Scandinavia. Of particular concern in the Limfjord, the strait separating the northern part of the Jutland peninsula from the rest, is the fact that Pacific oyster competes with blue mussels, Mytilus Edulis, (as well as European oyster) for food and space (Troost 2010). This article aims 1...... by means of stakeholder input from the mussel fishery industry. The article is concluded with a discussion of a possible multi-faceted strategy for simultaneously fighting the spread of Pacific oyster and adapting to it as a new resource....

  7. Women’s football migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agergaard, Sine

    What is intriguing about women’s football as a cultural phenomenon is that unlike men’s football the finances and media interest for the game are sparse. Nevertheless we have found that migration of female football players is growing steadily and women’s football is becoming global in nature....... The question is then what drives this globalization process? According to our study of women’s football migration into Scandinavia, one of the centers of women’s football, transnational networks play a crucial role in mobilizing global migratory moves. Using the concept of friends-of-friends networks from Bale...

  8. Horizontale und vertikale Achsen in der vorchristlichen skandinavischen Kosmologie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Peter Schjødt

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the cosmology of Old Norse religion before the arrival of Christianity to Scandinavia and strives to illuminate the image of the world upheld in this context on the basis of the scarce source material that is available. Special attention is given to the relationship between the so-called vertical and horizontal sub-systems included in the spatial model for understanding Scandinavian religion, proposed by E. M. Meletinskij. The article discusses the dichotomies of culture and nature, cosmos and chaos that are often alluded to in the source texts and their interpretation as symbols for order/un-order on the basis of a structuralist analysis.

  9. Trust, Social Capital and the Scandinavian Welfare State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gunnar Lind Haase; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    personality is characterized both by cooperation in everyday life and the numerous ‘hard-riders’ who make extraordinary contributions. Applying Bourdieuconomics, the authors focus on contemporary case studies to explain how social capital and trust are used to counteract free-riding and enable the flight......Denmark exemplifies the puzzle of socioeconomic success in Scandinavia. Populations are thriving despite the world’s highest levels of tax and generous social benefits. Denmark would appear to be a land of paradise for free-riders and those who want ‘money for nothing’. However, the national...

  10. The Danish urban system pre-1800

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Søren Bitsch; Mikkelsen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    In Denmark, the first actual towns can be dated to the eighth and ninth centuries. The establishment of towns became more significant in the eleventh and twelfth centuries in connection with the state-building process, and these towns were distinctly consumer towns serving as administrative......, religious and military centres. From 1200 to 1350 Denmark, similar to the German area, underwent considerable urbanization; a large number of market towns were created, and in contrast to the older ones they were mercantile towns. Denmark thus clearly became the most urbanized country in Scandinavia...

  11. Danish resonances and repercussions in the life and work of William H. Johnson

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    William H. Johnson was an outstanding African-American artist, represented with hundreds of works in the Smithsonian Museum of American Art’s collection, but he was also a resident of Denmark for the better part of the 1930s, and again for a brief spell after WWII. While studying art in Paris...... and the rest of Scandinavia in that period. I shall take a look at the reception of his work (and that of Holcha Krake) in all three Scandinavian countries (they both spent considerable time in Norway and Sweden as well as in Holcha’s native Denmark) which routinely exoticizes Johnson and his art in language...

  12. Subspecialist training in surgical gynecological oncology in the nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antonsen, Sofie L; Avall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Salvesen, Helga B

    2011-01-01

    To survey the centers that can provide subspecialty surgical training and education in gynecological oncology in the Nordic countries we developed an online questionnaire in cooperation with the Nordic Society of Gynecological Oncology. The link to the survey was mailed to 22 Scandinavian...... (74%) centers were interested in being listed for exchange of fellows. Our data show a large Nordic potential and interest in improving the gynecologic oncology standards and can be used to enhance the awareness of gynecological oncology training in Scandinavia and to facilitate the exchange...

  13. The Scandinavian Value Nihilists. The Crisis of Democracy in the 1930s and 1940s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johan Strang

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In the 1930s and 40s many theories were raised about some kind of connection between relativistic or nihilistic moral theories and the rise of totalitarianism in Europe. In Scandinavia these allegations were directed at the adherents of the value nihilistic theory of Axel Hägerström.This article explores the ways in which three democratically-minded followers of Hägerström (Ingemar Hedenius, Herbert Tingsten and Alf Ross struggled to overcome these charges and to reconcile their democratic convictions with Hägerström’s value nihilistic theory.

  14. The many outcomes from contracting out: The voice of public managers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholst, Andrej Christian; Hansen, Morten Balle; Randrup, Thomas Barfoed

    2017-01-01

    for gaining deeper, more detailed insights. The public manager perspective is explored in an inductive analysis of answers to open-ended survey questions collected from public managers with contracting experience within the context of municipal park management in Scandinavia. The emerging managerial...... of some specific outcomes (e.g. learning) complements existing research themes. Our findings sustain the initial argument, demonstrating how the stakeholder approach can produce new insights. A key implication is that future research can benefit from assessing contracting outcomes by providing voice...

  15. NORPIE 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    NORPIE 2008 is organized by the Department of Electrical Engineering, Helsinki University of Technology. The main objective of NORPIE is to give post graduate students in the Nordic countries an opportunity to exchange scientific experiences. The conference is open for any interested in the field of power electronics in countries outside Scandinavia as well. The workshop includes the following topics: Power electronic converters; Power electronic devices; Power electronic systems; Power electronics in power systems; Electrical machines; Electric drives; Control of power electronics and electrical machines; Robotics; Industrial applications; Renewable energy systems; Wind Energy; Distributed generation; Electric and hybrid vehicles; Modeling and simulation; Teaching power electronics and related subjects

  16. Leishmaniasis isoleret til larynx som årsag til kronisk laryngitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Mikkel; Munch-Petersen, Helga Richert; Møller, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Mucosal leishmaniasis is uncommon outside Central and South America, where it is commonly caused by Leishmania (L.) braziliensis. We present a case of isolated laryngeal leishmaniasis detected in a 78-year-old male, who presented with chronic hoarseness. Histologic examination of biopsies taken...... from the larynx showed L. amastigotes. An L.-specific indirect fluorescent antibody test was positive. Polymerase chain reaction showed infection with L. donovani, L. infantum or L. tropica, species which do not normally cause isolated mucosal infection. This is the first reported case from Scandinavia....

  17. I named my Guinea pig after Mopper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvik, Kjetil; Christensen, Dorthe Refslund

    the biggest boobs in Scandinavia, for one thing); Mopper’s granddaughter Stephanie, known as ’Gekko’ and her boyfriend, Cengiz and their one year old daughter Alba); her approach to her family and life and the world in general. On November 21st, Linse posted the sad message of Mopper’s death on her Facebook...... did they share? Which cultural ressources (songs, poetry, hymns, film lines etc) did they quote? In this paper, we’ll present some preliminary findings in an analysis of the spontaneous grief community of fans on Linse’s Facebook wall. These condolences is an example of how the death of a celebrity...

  18. Scandinavian Model of Welfare

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamson, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Within the so-called welfare modeling business Scandinavia stands out as a space with a particular welfare regime. It is a peculiar combination of market, state, and civil societal interventions into people's social life, that define this welfare regime. The particular welfare mix emphasizes...... universal public interventions and a high degree of employment in the formal labor market for all. The thesis promoted in this paper is, that the Scandinavian welfare regime ought to be highly desirable elsewhere, but unfortunately rather difficult to replicate, because it is premised upon a set...

  19. Ambient temperature effects on photo induced gonadal cycles and hormonal secretion patterns in Great Tits from three different breeding latitudes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverin, Bengt; Wingfield, John; Stokkan, Karl-Arne; Massa, Renato; Järvinen, Antero; Andersson, Nils-Ake; Lambrechts, Marcel; Sorace, Alberto; Blomqvist, Donald

    2008-06-01

    The present study determines how populations of Great Tits (Parus major) breeding in southern, mid and northern European latitudes have adjusted their reproductive endocrinology to differences in the ambient temperature during the gonadal cycle. A study based on long-term breeding data, using the Colwell predictability model, showed that the start of the breeding season has a high predictability ( approximately 0.8-0.9) at all latitudes, and that the environmental information factor (I(e)) progressively decreased from mid Italy (I(e)>4) to northern Finland (I(e)photoperiodic initial predictive information (day length), becomes progressively more important in maintaining the predictability of the breeding season with decreasing latitude. This hypothesis was verified by exposing photosensitive Great Tits from northern Norway, southern Sweden and northern Italy to sub-maximal photo-stimulatory day lengths (13L:11D) under two different ambient temperature regimes (+4 degrees C and +20 degrees C). Changes in testicular size, plasma levels of LH and testosterone were measured. The main results were: (1) Initial testicular growth rate, as well as LH secretion, was affected by temperature in the Italian, but not in birds from the two Scandinavian populations. (2) Maximum testicular size, maximum LH and testosterone levels were maintained for a progressively shorter period of time with increasing latitude, regardless of whether the birds were kept on a low or a high ambient temperature. (3) In birds from all latitudes, the development of photorefractoriness, as indicated by testicular regression and a decrease in plasma levels of LH and testosterone, started much earlier (with the exception for LH Great Tits from northern Scandinavia) when kept on +20 degrees C than when kept on +4 degrees C. The prolonging effects of a low temperature was more pronounced in Mediterranean birds, than in birds from Scandinavia, and more pronounced in Great Tits from southern Scandinavia than

  20. E-Learning Course Design from a Cross Cultural Perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fahmy, Sandra Safwat Youssef

    in the three countries under study in this research. The results of this study aim at helping exporting educational institutions to understand how these differences in learning practices affect students' approach to learning and consequently their acceptance of new tools used for learning as e-learning.......This industrial PhD research is a study that is co-funded by the Danish Agency For Science Technology and Innovation and International Business School of Scandinavia. The main problem area addressed in this study is the challenges faced in the export of blended learning educational programs across...

  1. Overall and cause-specific mortality in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Tine; Gamborg, Michael; Munkholm, Pia

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: It remains debated whether patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) are at greater risk of dying and whether a possible alteration in mortality can be attributed to specific causes of death. We aimed to clarify this issue by conducting a meta-analysis of population-based inception cohort...... estimate was 1.1 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.9-1.2, P= 0.42). However, greater risk of dying was observed during the first years of follow-up, in patients with extensive colitis, and in patients from Scandinavia. Metaregression analysis showed an increase in SMR by increasing cohort size. UC...

  2. Another sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carleheden, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    During the second half of the 20th century, sociology as a social technology in service of the welfare state has been the predominant form, especially in Scandinavia. The crisis of the welfare state has led this form of sociology into a crisis as well. Instead, I argue for a critical sociology...... contributing dianostics of the social pathologies of the modern state. Such an approach can find inspiration in classical sociology, but it is also important to realize that, today, we are living in another modernity. A liberation from social technology must thus include a liberation from objectivistic methods....

  3. Fostering dignity in the care of nursing home residents through slow caring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lohne, Vibeke; Høy, Bente; Lillestø, Britt

    2017-01-01

    Background: Physical impairment and dependency on others may be a threat to dignity. Research questions: The purpose of this study was to explore dignity as a core concept in caring, and how healthcare personnel focus on and foster dignity in nursing home residents. Research design: This study has...... a hermeneutic design. Participants and research context: In all, 40 healthcare personnel from six nursing homes in Scandinavia participated in focus group interviews in this study. Ethical considerations: This study has been evaluated and approved by the Regional Ethical Committees and the Social Science Data...... personnel, maintaining human dignity requires slow caring in nursing homes, as an essential approach....

  4. Bronze Age Acrobats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Rune

    2014-01-01

    A Danish eighteenth-century find of some bronze figurines tells the story of the practising of similar ritual performances across Bronze Age Europe from Egypt to Scandinavia. The Danish figurines, as well as Swedish rock carvings, show backwards-bending female acrobats doing backward handsprings...... of the immaterial, ritual and cosmological exchange that characterized the second and early firstmillennium BC.Beliefs and ritual practices went hand in hand with the adoption of a series of elite items and an aristocratic lifestyle, thereby creating a unique and fascinating European Bronze Age....

  5. Social Origin and Graduation Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960–1975. These are cohorts for whom university...... attendance increased steeply. Contrary to recent findings on educational attainment in Scandinavia, the analyses show that the economic capital of the family of origin plays a somewhat greater role than does the cultural capital of the family of origin for getting their offspring through higher education...

  6. Exploring Managerial Mechanisms That Influence Innovative Work Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Rune; Jespersen, Kristina Risom

    2014-01-01

    Increasing employees’ innovative work behaviour is a complex process of developing an internal climate supportive of idea generation and realization through use of financial, participative, and decentralization mechanisms. This article investigates the effectiveness of these managerial mechanisms...... in a public versus private context. In a survey in Scandinavia, 8,310 full-time employees were split into public and private employees and analysed with regression models for differences in effectiveness. From the results, two distinct perceptions emerged. Public employees perceive innovative work behaviour...... as extra-role behaviour to be compensated for. Private employees recognize innovative work behaviour as necessary behaviour for career advancement....

  7. Nordisk katolicism : katolsk mission och konversion i Danmark i ett nordiskt perspektiv

    OpenAIRE

    Werner, Yvonne Maria

    2005-01-01

    This book, which is the result of my work within the project Conversion and Change of Confession, deals with Catholic mission and conversion in Scandinavia in the 19th and 20th cetries. I focus on Denmark, but the Danish situation is studied in a comparative Nordic pespective and against the background of the general religious, ideological and church-political development at the time. Up to the Second Vatican Council (1962-65), the Catholic Church strongly emphasised its claim to be the only ...

  8. Recent Methodological Developments in Magnitude Determination and Yield Estimation with Applications to Semipalatinsk Explosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-16

    0.093 -159.773 -21.212 Rarotonga , Cook Islands region RCD 0.370 -0.217 -0.139 -103.208 44.075 Rapid city, South Dakota RIV 0.300 151.158 -33.829...posi- tive in shields regions such as Australia, India, Canada, and Scandinavia; and they are negative in the east Africa rift valleys, island arcs...For instance, Pacific island arcs are believed to have high attenuation, low Pn velocities as well as negative station terms. However, North’s (1977

  9. Social Perspectives on Mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uth Thomsen, Thyra; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Drewes Nielsen, Lise

    Globalisation is heavily dependent on physical transport, as people and goods travel over longer distances and with higher frequency. Movement and mobility have become integrated parts of late modern identity and practice, and a state of flux can be sensed everywhere. Bringing together the latest...... interdisciplinary theoretical approaches with empirical case studies analysing and appraising innovative policies from Scandinavia, this volume demonstrates that mobility research is a key issue within social enquiry. It addresses three broad themes. Firstly, mobility as a constructed social reality, examining how...

  10. Comparing public and private sector employees' innovative behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bysted, Rune; Hansen, Jesper Rosenberg

    2015-01-01

    Innovation is argued to be of key importance in the public sector. Little is known about possible sector differences in innovative behaviour. The stereotype in literature is that public employees are less innovative. We analyse whether sector is associated with innovative behaviour...... the importance of understanding the major differences in innovative behaviour between different subsectors/industries and job types....... and the influence of job/organizational characteristics. We test this by using a three-country representative survey in Scandinavia with 8,310 respondents. We control for subsectors/industries and job functions. We do not find that public employees are less innovative. Furthermore, the study emphasizes...

  11. Analyses of possible changes in intense and extreme wind speeds over northern Europe under climate change scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, Sara; Barthelmie, Rebecca Jane; Clausen, Niels-Erik

    2012-01-01

    Dynamical downscaling of ECHAM5 using HIRHAM5 and RCA3 for a northern European domain focused on Scandinavia indicates sustained extreme wind speeds with long recurrence intervals (50 years) and intense winds are not likely to evolve out of the historical envelope of variability until the end of C......%) in the southwest of the domain and across the central Baltic Sea by the end of the current century. As in prior downscaling of ECHAM4, dynamical downscaling of ECHAM5 indicates a tendency towards increased energy density and thus wind power generation potential over the course of the C21st. However, caution should...

  12. The cuisine of the Pitted Ware Culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philippsen, Bente; Persson, Per

    The Pitted Ware Culture is a Middle Neolithic culture in southwestern Scandinavia. It appears about thousand years after the introduction of agriculture to this area. In some regions, it is characterized by an almost fully “Mesolithic” economy with a heavy reliance on seal hunting. In Djursland, ...... sample types. At some of the West Swedish sites, food residues on pottery are the only datable material. Therefore, the reconstruction of ingredients by stable isotope analysis is vital to assess the risk of radiocarbon reservoir effects....

  13. The Chief Officer of Corporate Social Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Robert

    2013-01-01

    I present a review of the top management teams (TMTs) of the largest public corporations in the U.S. and Scandinavia (one thousand in total) to identify corporations that have a TMT position with ‘‘corporate social responsibility’’ (CSR) or a ‘‘CSR synonym’’ like sustainability or citizenship...... these findings include exploring whether explicit attention to CSR by the corporation is indicative of a longer term trend that has to do with attention to responsible business and whether a move away from the expression ‘CSR’ toward the expression ‘sustainability’ is underway and what this may entail....

  14. How transfer of R&D to emerging markets nurtures global innovation performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harryson, Sigvald; Søberg, Peder Veng

    2009-01-01

    In the context of global R&D, we connect literature on knowledge management to a network-based theoretical framework helpful to explain the impact of R&D globalisation on innovation performance. This framework is applied to two case companies, both global leaders within their respective industries......, in order to analyse the extent to which their strategic globalisation of R&D activities, from Scandinavia to China, has contributed to increased innovation performance. Our findings suggests that close interaction and cross-fertilisation with local knowledge networks are of eminent importance for newly...

  15. Viking stranger kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dobat, Andres S.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on both historical and archaeological evidence, this paper investigates the significance of the foreign, and in particular the ‘stranger king’ concept in Viking Age Scandinavia. Focussing on the case of the Danish Jelling dynasty, the monumental complex at Jelling is reinterpreted...... as a materialization of a stranger king myth, with the ship‐setting reproducing the narrative of the founding of the dynasty by an immigrant forefather, and the burial mounds conveying the idea of the foreign king taking possession of the locals’ land. In a broader erspective, the stranger king concept and the special...

  16. Modelling tick abundance using machine learning techniques and satellite imagery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Lene Jung; Korslund, L.; Kjelland, V.

    satellite images to run Boosted Regression Tree machine learning algorithms to predict overall distribution (presence/absence of ticks) and relative tick abundance of nymphs and larvae in southern Scandinavia. For nymphs, the predicted abundance had a positive correlation with observed abundance...... the predicted distribution of larvae was mostly even throughout Denmark, it was primarily around the coastlines in Norway and Sweden. Abundance was fairly low overall except in some fragmented patches corresponding to forested habitats in the region. Machine learning techniques allow us to predict for larger...... the collected ticks for pathogens and using the same machine learning techniques to develop prevalence maps of the ScandTick region....

  17. The Medical ANtiarrhythmic Treatment or Radiofrequency Ablation in Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation (MANTRA-PAF) trial: clinical rationale, study design, and implementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jons, Christian; Hansen, Peter Steen; Johannessen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    (MANTRA-PAF) trial is a randomized, controlled, parallel group, multicentre study designed to test whether catheter-based RFA is superior to optimized AAD therapy in suppressing relapse within 24 months of symptomatic and/or asymptomatic AF in patients with paroxysmal AF without prior AAD therapy...... centres in Scandinavia and Germany are participating in the study. Enrolment was started in 2005 and as of November 2008, 260 patients have been enrolled into the study. It is expected that enrolment will end by March 2009, when 300 patients have been included. CONCLUSION: The MANTRA-PAF trial...

  18. Interpretation of ionospheric F-region structures in the vicinity of ionisation troughs observed by satellite radio tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Aladjev

    Full Text Available Tomographic images of the spatial distribution of electron density in the ionospheric F-region are presented from the Russian-American Tomography Experiment (RATE in November 1993 as well as from campaigns carried out in northern Scandinavia in November 1995 and in Russia in April 1990. The reconstructions selected display the ionisation troughs above the tomographic chains of receivers during geomagnetically quiet and disturbed periods. Two mathematical models of the high-latitude ionosphere developed in the Polar Geophysical Institute have been applied for interpretation of the observed tomographic images.

    Key words. Ionosphere (electric fields and currents; ion chemistry and composition; plasma convection

  19. Challenging Identities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    , cultural, and political practices. Notions of national identity and national politics are challenged by European integration, as well as by increasing demographic heterogeneity due to migration, and migrants experience conflicts of identification stemming from clashes between cultural heritage...... and the cultures of the new habitat. European horizons—frames of mind, historical memories, and expectations at the level of groups or communities, at the national level, and at the general European level—are at odds. Analyzing a series of issues in European countries from Turkey to Spain and from Scandinavia...

  20. Case study on the components of an innovative region: Öresund Region (Denmark-Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei Ştefan Săbău

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available How can one describe the components of an innovative region? What characterizes a region as being innovative? This paper presents the close relationship between innovation and regional development in an empirical analysis of the Öresund Region (the south-western part of Scandinavia: Sweden and Denmark, arguing the role of the universities, public institutions and R&D companies in placing the Öresund Region on the map as a world-leading player in providing biotech and medical technology.

  1. Audiobooks between libraries and market

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe-Schmidt, Lisbeth

    are not sold in bookstores to end-users but lent by a modern form of rental library. In Scandinavia, a rather special situation exists since a very large proportion of e-books and audiobooks is disseminated through public libraries. Strangely, while the lending of digital e-books caused a veritable war between...... eReolen (a common platform for lending digital e-books and audiobooks for Danish public libraries) and the large Danish publishers, the lending of digital audiobooks never created insurmountable disagreements between the parties. The aim of this paper is to understand not just how but why technology...

  2. Denmark: Welfare Society, Social Justice and the Role of Career Guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Rie

    Denmark: Welfare Society, Social Justice and the Role of Career Guidance Dr. Rie Thomsen, Aarhus University in Copenhagen, Denmark Denmark is a welfare state in Scandinavia and amongst the most equal countries in the world but it has dropped from being the most equal country in the world to number...... 11 in 10 years. This presentation considers what social justice means for educational and vocational guidance in Denmark. It covers the development in the Danish career guidance system for young people and show how the service has become more targeted towards marginalised youth. Finally different...... targeting strategies and modes of delivery are discussed in relation to social justice....

  3. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshøj, Charlotte Margaret

    2002-01-01

    4. Diet and Predatory Behavior of Lynx in Sweden CHARLOTTE MOSHØJ1,2 1University of Copenhagen Department of Population Ecology, Zoological Institute Universitetsparken 15 DK-2100 Copenhagen Denmark cmmoshoj@zi.ku.dk 2Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences Department of Conservation Biology...... behavior and hunting success. Securing knowledge on lynx predation and impact on prey populations may aid in balancing conflicting concerns in management strategies for viable lynx populations and desired level of prey densities, in the multi-use semi-natural forest habitats of Scandinavia....

  4. Post-lobotomy epilepsy illustrated by the story of Ellinor Hamsun, the daughter of the famous Norwegian author Knut Hamsun.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuft, Mia; Nakken, Karl O

    2017-01-01

    In Scandinavia, at least 11.500 people were lobotomized in the period 1939-1983. Beside grave personality changes, the surgery caused epilepsy in 10-35% of the patients. Moreover, many died due to perioperative bleedings, convulsive status epilepticus or SUDEP. Most of the stories of these people are anonymous and their post-lobotomy lives are scarcely documented. If it was not for the fact that Ellinor Hamsun (1916-1987) was the daughter of the famous Nobel Prize winning Norwegian author Knut Hamsun, her lobotomy story and the subsequent iatrogenic epilepsy would probably have remained unknown.

  5. Maintaining dignity. The perspective of nursing home residents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høy, Bente

    2014-01-01

    body image; feeling recognised and valued as a person of worth; Abilities and opportunities for changing of lifevalues; to exert control; to form and maintain meaningful relationships and to participation in meaningful activity. Conclusion. Although there is no one way to maintain dignity, the themes...... the perspective of the nursing home residents. Method. This qualitative study has an explorative design, based on qualitative individual research interviews. Twenty-eight nursing home residents were included from six nursing homes in Scandi-navia. A phenomenological-hermeneutic approach, inspired by Ricoeur...

  6. Elu Sõna: päästmine, tervenemine ja edukus

    OpenAIRE

    Tuija Hovi

    2000-01-01

    The author provides an overview of the predecessors of the new religious group Word of Life(the healing-revival of the Pentecostal Church in the 1950s and other Charismatic Ministries), its emergence in the United States and spreading to Scandinavia, incl. Finland. The paper presents a more detailed account of the versatile activities of the «Elämän Sana» congregation in Turku.The author also observes the so-called 'success theology' from the historical aspect and its manifestations in denomi...

  7. Prevention of overweight in the school arena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lissau, Inge

    2007-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of studies with the main purpose to intervene against obesity in children at the school arena. Through databases and Cochrane reviews, 14 studies fulfilled the criteria for inclusion. Most of the studies are American and none were performed in Scandinavia. The European...... studies were performed in Germany and in the United Kingdom. The studies, which had a significant effect on overweight were 'Dance for Health', 'Planet Health', 'San Jose Study', 'Kiel Obesity Prevention Study', 'Healthy Schools' programme, 'El Paso Catch', and 'Medical College of Georgia FitKid Project...

  8. Ritual Slaughter in the Modern Constitutional State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    In this proposed presentation I intend to give a historical overview of the political and constitutional debates in selected European countries – including Germany, France, Great Britain, Holland and Scandinavia – from the nineteenth century to the present day, paying special attention to the shi....... Similar in nature if not necessarily in intensity to questions of forced and/or underage marriage, male circumcision and female genital mutilation, the commitment of the secular state to animal welfare cannot summarily be rejected by demands for religious freedom....

  9. Ritual Slaughter in the Modern Constitutional State: A Brief History of the European Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2016-01-01

    In this proposed presentation I intend to give a historical overview of the political and constitutional debates in selected European countries – including Germany, France, Great Britain, Holland and Scandinavia – from the nineteenth century to the present day, paying special attention to the shi....... Similar in nature if not necessarily in intensity to questions of forced and/or underage marriage, male circumcision and female genital mutilation, the commitment of the secular state to animal welfare cannot summarily be rejected by demands for religious freedom....

  10. Tokyo Jane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austin, Robert D.; Minbaeva, Dana; Schafer, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Tokyo Jane is an accessible fashion jewelry company that makes and markets its products as “luxury for less” by designing, importing and selling fashion jewelry pieces that look luxurious but cost only a fraction of the high-priced items that inspired them. Finished products are air......-shipped to company headquarters in Copenhagen, Denmark from factories in China, stocked in the head office and delivered to 400 retail partners —small fashion boutiques, big department stores and online shops — who then sell to consumers in Europe, Scandinavia, the United Kingdom and Canada. The two partners who...

  11. Key Aspects of the History of the Information Systems Discipline in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Clarke

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The Information Systems discipline is 40 years old, in Australia, as in Scandinavia, the U.S.A., the U.K. and Germany. This paper presents what may be the first formally published attempt at a history of the discipline in this country. It identifies the precursors to the discipline, and its emergence in colleges and universities. It identifies institutions and individuals who were present at the birth, and traces key steps in organisational and political history. More controversially, it provides interpretations of the nature of the discipline and its key intellectual themes, and identifies threats to its survival.

  12. Ergonomics in design or design in ergonomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binder, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Design in Scandinavia has a long tradition of participation in the development of society. Designers in the Nordic countries have taken pride in concerning themselves with problems of everyday living and the design communities at large have been committed proponents of a socially responsible...... of modern production, over a subsequent embrace of the opportunities that the industrialized society could bring to all, designers have over the last decades shared with many others an ambiguity towards what design can bring to a society less defined. Like in the early days where designers...

  13. Seventh Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik Hautop; Mayoh, Brian Henry; Perram, John

    2001-01-01

    The book covers the seventh Scandinavian Conference on Artificial Intelligence, held at the Maersk Mc-Kinney Moller Institute for Production Technology at the University of Southern Denmark during the period 20-21 February, 2001. It continues the tradition established by SCAI of being one...... of the most important regional AI conferences in Europe, attracting high quality submissions from Scandinavia and the rest of the world, including the Baltic countries. The contents include robotics, sensor/motor intelligence, evolutionary robotics, behaviour-based systems, multi-agent systems, applications...

  14. EFFICIENCY AND LIFETIME OF SOLAR COLLECTORS FOR SOLAR HEATING PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Jianhua; Chen, Ziqian; Furbo, Simon; Perers, Bengt; Karlsson, Björn

    2009-01-01

    The 12.5 m² flat plate solar collector HT, today marketed by Arcon Solvarme A/S, has been used in solar heating plants in Scandinavia since 1983. The collector is designed to operate in a temperature interval between 40°C and 90°C. The efficiency of the collector has been strongly improved since it was introduced on the market. The paper will present the increase of the efficiency of the collector due to technical improvements since 1983. Further, measurements from the spring of 2009 of the e...

  15. [How an outbreak of MRSA in Gothenburg was eliminated: by strict hygienic routines and massive control-culture program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeberg, Staffan; Larsson, Leif; Welinder-Olsson, Christina; Sandberg, Torsten; Skyman, Eva; Bresky, Bo; Lindqvist, Anna; van Raalte, Margaretha

    2002-08-08

    The largest single-strain outbreak of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in Scandinavia so far occurred at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Western Sweden 1997-2000. The strain identified was identical to the UK EMRSA-16 strain. 147 patients at 36 different wards became colonised or infected. Established routines for infection control had to be revised. The endemic situation necessitated an MRSA screening programme in October 1999 for all former hospital patients on re-admission. Since May 2000 no patient has been found with the outbreak strain at Sahlgrenska University Hospital.

  16. Rodavaldandi geislar solarinnar og pyding peirra

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurgeirsson, Bardur; Wulf, Hans Christian

    2011-01-01

    The UV-index is an international standard measurement of the strength of erythemogenic ultraviolet radiation. It is often published in the media and then refers to the highest expected UV radiation for that day. The highest UV-index value measured in Iceland is seven. Although this is similar...... to the maximum values from southern Scandinavia, the average UV-index is lower in Iceland compared to other Nordic countries. Around solar noon the UV index is roughly equivalent to the Standard Erythema Dose (SED). During a bright summer day in Iceland the number of Standard Erythema doses can go as high as 32...

  17. Legal Origin and Social Solidarity: The Continued Relevance of Durkheim to Comparative Institutional Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Phil; Brookes, Michael; Wood, Geoffrey; Brewster, Chris

    2017-06-01

    By using the classic works of Durkheim as a theoretical platform, this research explores the relationship between legal systems and social solidarity. We found that certain types of civil law system, most notably those of Scandinavia, are associated with higher levels of social capital and better welfare state provision. However, we found the relationship between legal system and societal outcomes is considerably more complex than suggested by currently fashionable economistic legal origin approaches, and more in line with the later writings of Durkheim, and, indeed, the literature on comparative capitalisms. Relative communitarianism was strongly affected by relative development, reflecting the complex relationship between institutions, state capabilities and informal social ties and networks.

  18. mtDNA analysis of human remains from an early Danish Christian cemetery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudbeck, Lars; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2005-01-01

    One of Denmark's earliest Christian cemeteries is Kongemarken, dating to around AD 1000-1250. A feature of early Scandinavian Christian cemeteries is sex segregation, with females buried on the northern sides and males on the southern sides. However, such separation was never complete; in the few...... early Christian cemeteries excavated in Scandinavia, there were always a few males placed on the north side, and some females on the south side. At Kongemarken, several males with juxtaposed females were found on the north side of the cemetery. Thus, to evaluate possible kinship relationships, and more...

  19. The presence of comorbidity in Tourette syndrome increases the need for pharmacological treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Debes, Nanette M M M; Hjalgrim, Helle; Skov, Liselotte

    2009-01-01

    to a better insight into the common practice in Scandinavia. Furthermore, we wanted to elaborate the influence of the presence of comorbidities and of the severity of tics on pharmacological treatment. We have examined the frequency, art, and reason for pharmacological treatment in a Danish clinical cohort...... of 314 children with Tourette syndrome. In total, 60.5% of the children once had received pharmacological treatment. Mostly, the treatment was started because of tics or ADHD. If ADHD or obsessive-compulsive disorder were present, more children received pharmacological treatment and more different agents...... were tried. The children who received pharmacological treatment had more severe tics than those without medication....

  20. Control challenges in domestic heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thybo, Honglian; Larsen, Lars F. S.; Weitzmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze domestic heating applications and identify unfavorable building constructions and control challenges to be addressed by high performance heating control systems. Heating of domestic houses use a large amount of the total energy consumption in Scandinavia....... Hence the potential of reducing energy consumption by applying high performance control is vast. Indoor climate issues are becoming more in focus, which also leads to a demand for high performance heating systems. The paper presents an analysis of how the building elements of today's domestic houses...... with water based floor heating affect the control challenge. The analysis is documented with simulation results....