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Sample records for scallops argopecten purpuratus

  1. Morphological alterations in cryopreserved spermatozoa of scallop Argopecten purpuratus Alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides criopreservados de concha de abanico Argopecten purpuratus

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Espinoza; Martha Valdivia; Enrique Dupré

    2010-01-01

    The present work identifies and quantifies the morphological alterations of scallop Argopecten purpuratus spermatozoa caused by long-term cryopreservation. Percentages of motility, fertilization and injured spermatozoa were quantified by optic microscopy and scanned electron microscopy. These parameters were evaluated in sperm without treatment (CTR), spermatozoa incubated in cryoprotective solution but not freezed (ICS) and freezed-thawed spermatozoa (FTS). Spermatozoa of ICS treatment remai...

  2. Genomic characterization of interspecific hybrids between the scallops Argopecten purpuratus and A. irradians irradians.

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    Liping Hu

    Full Text Available The Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus has been introduced to China and has successfully been hybridized with the bay scallop (A. irradians irradians. The F1 hybrids of these two scallops exhibited a large increase in production traits and some other interesting new characteristics. To understand the genetic basis of this heterosis, nuclear gene and partial mtDNA sequences, and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH were employed to analyze the genomic organization of the hybrids. Amplification of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS showed that the parental ITS sequences were present in all the hybrid individuals, illustrating that the hybrid offspring inherited nuclear DNA from both parents. Sequence analyses of the ITS region further confirmed that the hybrids harbored alleles from their parents; some recombinant variants were also detected, which revealed some alterations in the nuclear genetic material of the hybrids. The analysis of mitochondrial 16S rDNA showed that the hybrids possessed sequences that were identical to the 16S rDNA of the female parents, proving a matrilineal inheritance of mitochondrial genes in scallops. In addition, GISH clearly discriminated between the parental chromosomes and indicated a combination of haploid genomes of duplex parents in the hybrids. The genetic analyses in our study illustrated that the F1 hybrids inherited nuclear material from both parents and cytoplasmic genetic material maternally, and some variations occurred in the genome, which might contribute to a further understanding of crossbreeding and heterosis in scallop species.

  3. Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, Laura

    2015-12-08

    Future ocean acidification (OA) will affect physiological traits of marine species, with calcifying species being particularly vulnerable. As OA entails high energy demands, particularly during the rapid juvenile growth phase, food supply may play a key role in the response of marine organisms to OA. We experimentally evaluated the role of food supply in modulating physiological responses and biomineralization processes in juveniles of the Chilean scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, that were exposed to control (pH ~ 8.0) and low pH (pH ~ 7.6) conditions using three food supply treatments (high, intermediate, and low). We found that pH and food levels had additive effects on the physiological response of the juvenile scallops. Metabolic rates, shell growth, net calcification, and ingestion rates increased significantly at low pH conditions, independent of food. These physiological responses increased significantly in organisms exposed to intermediate and high levels of food supply. Hence, food supply seems to play a major role modulating organismal response by providing the energetic means to bolster the physiological response of OA stress. On the contrary, the relative expression of chitin synthase, a functional molecule for biomineralization, increased significantly in scallops exposed to low food supply and low pH, which resulted in a thicker periostracum enriched with chitin polysaccharides. Under reduced food and low pH conditions, the adaptive organismal response was to trade-off growth for the expression of biomineralization molecules and altering of the organic composition of shell periostracum, suggesting that the future performance of these calcifiers will depend on the trajectories of both OA and food supply. Thus, incorporating a suite of traits and multiple stressors in future studies of the adaptive organismal response may provide key insights on OA impacts on marine calcifiers.

  4. Molecular characterization and protein localization of the antimicrobial peptide big defensin from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus after Vibrio splendidus challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Roxana; Brokordt, Katherina; Cárcamo, Claudia B; Coba de la Peña, Teodoro; Oyanedel, Daniel; Mercado, Luis; Schmitt, Paulina

    2017-09-01

    Big defensins are antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) that are proposed as important effectors of the immune response in mollusks, chelicerates and chordates. At present, only two members of the big defensin family have been identified in scallop. In the present work, a cDNA sequence encoding a new big defensin homologue was characterized from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, namely ApBD1. ApBD1 cDNA sequence comprised 585 nucleotides, with an open reading frame of 375 bp and 5'- and 3'-UTRs of 41 and 167 bp, respectively. The deduced protein sequence contains 124 amino acids with a molecular weight of 13.5 kDa, showing characteristic motifs of the big defensin family and presenting 76% identity with the big defensin from the scallop A. irradians. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ApBD1 is included into the cluster of big defensins from mollusks. Tissue-specific transcript expression analysis by RT-qPCR showed that ApBD1 was present in all tissues tested from non-immune challenged scallops but it was most strongly expressed in the mantle. The transcript levels of ApBD1 were significantly up-regulated in gills at 24 and 48 h post-injection with the heat-attenuated bacteria Vibrio splendidus. Additionally, immunofluorescence analysis using a polyclonal anti-ApBD1 antibody showed that this protein was abundantly located in epithelial linings of gills and mantle; and also in digestive gland showing ApBD1-infiltrating hemocytes from immune challenged scallops. This is the first time that a big defensin is detected and located at the protein level in a mollusk. These results suggest an important role of ApBD1 in the mucosal immune response of A. purpuratus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Morphological alterations in cryopreserved spermatozoa of scallop Argopecten purpuratus Alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides criopreservados de concha de abanico Argopecten purpuratus

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    Carlos Espinoza

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work identifies and quantifies the morphological alterations of scallop Argopecten purpuratus spermatozoa caused by long-term cryopreservation. Percentages of motility, fertilization and injured spermatozoa were quantified by optic microscopy and scanned electron microscopy. These parameters were evaluated in sperm without treatment (CTR, spermatozoa incubated in cryoprotective solution but not freezed (ICS and freezed-thawed spermatozoa (FTS. Spermatozoa of ICS treatment remained motile longer than those of CTR, whereas those of FTS treatment were lowest. Morphology of the spermatozoa was affected in several ways by the freeze-thawing treatment; some had their head deformed or swollen, others had their cell membrane folded or broken; acrosome reaction; anomalous positions or absence of mitochondria as well as broken, stiff or loss of lineal structure of tail. CTR and ICS treatments had higher percentages of undamaged sperm (87.7% and 79.0% respectively, while FTS samples had 14.2% of undamaged sperm. The tail was the spermatic structure most commonly injured in FTS (77.0%, the percentage of sperm with head injury was 55.1% and with acrosome reaction was 28.7%, whereas middle piece was affected in 23.9% of sperm. Percentages of fertilization were 68.3%, 67.9% and 58.2% for CTR, ICS and FTS respectively, which were not significantly different. There was a higher correlation between injuries and motility than between injuries and fertilization success. Correlation between motility and fertilization was low (0.605 and 0.668 with motility at 5 and 30 min, respectively.El presente trabajo identifica y cuantifica las alteraciones morfológicas en espermatozoides de concha de abanico A. purpuratus causadas por la criopreservación en nitrógeno líquido. Porcentajes de motilidad, fecundación de ovocitos frescos y espermatozoides lesionados (en cabeza, acrosoma, pieza media y flagelo fueron determinados bajo microscopía óptica y electr

  6. Effect of temperature on physiological responses of Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus

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    Jhon Dionicio Acedo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of temperature on the clearance rate (CR, ingestion rate (IR and specific oxygen consumption (SOC in individuals of Argopecten purpuratus at different size groups were determined. The CR and IR tests were performed at a concentration of approximately 1x106 cel.mlL-1 of Chaetoceros calcitrans, two temperatures 17 and 22 °C were evaluated and different groups of average size were formed of 7.6 ± 0.265, and 0.058 ± 4.9 3.7 ± 0.173 cm. In SOC test the average size groups were 8.1 ± 0.351, 0.058 ± 5.6 and 4.3 ± 0.100 cm. The results show a significant effect of temperature in CR (Lh-1 and IR (cel.h-1 x 105 on the larger individuals (7.6 ± 0.265 cm, it was observed at 22 °C an average increase, about 17 °C, up to 250% to CR and 48% to IR. In addition, a direct relationship of body size with CR and IR in both temperatures was observed. The effect of temperature at 22 ° C on SOC in all groups was evaluated, with an increase of 239.8, 165.3 and 183.4% for size individuals of 8.1 ± 0.351, 0.058 ± 5.6 and 4.3 ± 0.100 respectively. Furthermore, in both evaluated temperatures, the results show an indirect relationship of body size with the SOC.

  7. Boom-to-bust. The scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) fishery in the Pisco-Paracas region, southern Peruvian coast Auge y crisis: la pesquería de la concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus) en la región Pisco-Paracas, costa sur del Perú

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo M. González Hunt

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) booms experienced in the Pisco-Paracas Region of southern Peru, triggered by the 1982-1983 and the 1997-1998 mega-El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events.The quiet fishing ports have been transformed by these booms, which have attracted outside stakeholders transforming the local society. Government institutions in their role as resource managers and environmental stewards have attempted to control access to a region that until recently c...

  8. Molecular characterization of two ferritins of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus and gene expressions in association with early development, immune response and growth rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coba de la Peña, Teodoro; Cárcamo, Claudia B; Díaz, María I; Brokordt, Katherina B; Winkler, Federico M

    2016-08-01

    Ferritin is involved in several iron homoeostasis processes in molluscs. We characterized two ferritin homologues and their expression patterns in association with early development, growth rate and immune response in the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, a species of economic importance for Chile and Peru. Two ferritin subunits (Apfer1 and Apfer2) were cloned. Apfer1 cDNA is a 792bp clone containing a 516bp open reading frame (ORF) that corresponds to a novel ferritin subunit in A. purpuratus. Apfer2 cDNA is a 681bp clone containing a 522bp ORF that corresponds to a previously sequenced EST. A putative iron responsive element (IRE) was identified in the 5'-untranslated region of both genes. The deduced protein sequences of both cDNAs possessed the motifs and domains characteristic of functional ferritin subunits. Both genes showed differential expression patterns at tissue-specific and early development stage levels. Apfer1 expression level increased 40-fold along larval developmental stages, decreasing markedly after larval settlement. Apfer1 expression in mantle tissue was 2.8-fold higher in fast-growing than in slow-growing scallops. Apfer1 increased 8-fold in haemocytes 24h post-challenge with the bacterium Vibrio splendidus. Apfer2 expression did not differ between fast- and slow-growing scallops or in response to bacterial challenge. These results suggest that Apfer1 and Apfer2 may be involved in iron storage, larval development and shell formation. Apfer1 expression may additionally be involved in immune response against bacterial infections and also in growth; and thus would be a potential marker for immune capacity and for fast growth in A. purpuratus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. First report of Vibrio tubiashii associated with a massive larval mortality event in a commercial hatchery of scallop Argopecten purpuratus in Chile

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    Rodrigo Alejandro Rojas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The VPAP30 strain was isolated as the highly predominant bacteria from an episode of massive larval mortality occurring in a commercial culture of the Chilean scallop Argopecten purpuratus. The main aims of this study were, to characterize and identify the pathogenic strain using biochemical and molecular methods to demonstrate its pathogenic activity on scallop larvae, to characterize its pathogenic properties and to describe the chronology of this pathology. The pathogenic strain was identified as Vibrio tubiashii based on its phenotypic properties and the sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA and housekeeping genes (ftsZ, gapA, gyrB, mreB, pyrH, recA, rpoA and topA. When triplicate cultures of healthy 10–day–old scallop larvae were challenged with 1×105 colony forming units (CFU mL-1 of the VPAP30 strain, percentages of larval survival of 78.87 ± 3.33%, 34.32 ± 4.94% and 0% were observed at 12, 24 and 36 h, respectively; whereas uninfected larval cultures showed survival rates of 97.4 ± 1.24% after of 48 h. Clinical symptoms exhibited by the scallop larvae infected with the VPAP30 strain include the accumulation of bacteria around the scallop larvae, velum disruption and necrosis of digestive gland. The 50% lethal dose (LD50 of VPAP30 strain at 24 and 48 h was 1.3×104 and 1.2×103 CFU mL-1, respectively. The invasive pathogenic activity of the VPAP30 strain was investigated with staining of the bacterial pathogen with 5-DTAF and analysing bacterial invasion using epifluorescence, and a complete bacterial dissemination inside the larvae at 24 h post-infection was observed. When scallop larvae were inoculated with cell-free extracellular products (ECPs of VPAP30, the larval survival rate was 59.5 ± 1.66%, significantly (P<0.001 lower than the control group (97.4 ± 1.20% whereas larvae treated with heat-treated ECPs exhibited a survival rate of 61.6 ± 1.84% after 48 h of exposure. This is the first report of the isolation of V. tubiashii

  10. Artificial collection and early growth of spat of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, in La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile

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    Miguel Avendaño D.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Artificial collection of early juveniles (“spat” of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus in Japanese-type collectors was evaluated between January 2001 and July 2002 in the La Rinconada Marine Reserve, Antofagasta, Chile. This area of Antofagasta Bay has in the past been noted for the retention of scallop larvae by local gyres, in which their numbers can vary between 89 and 34175 larvae m-3, producing larval sets of 400 to 15340 post-larvae (spat per collector. The results showed no quantitative relationship between larval abundance in the water and the spat density collected per day in the collectors, although high settlement rates were associated with high numbers of umboned larvae in the water. Allowing collectors to remain in situ for extended periods of 88 and 159 days resulted in a severe loss of seed which had settled in the collectors during the first 28 to 40 days of immersion. These losses varied between 50.9 and 99.6% of the spat collected, and were more prejudicial for the smaller cohorts that had settled in the collectors at the end of the first immersion period. The growth rates measured among different cohorts for each immersion period varied between 81.3 and 235.2 mm/day for the first cohort (C1 and between 64.0 and 167.4 mm/day for the second cohort (C2. The highest growth rates occurred in collectors containing the lowest numbers of spat after the occurrence of spat losses during the long periods of immersion. Occurrence of intraspecific competition within the collectors is discussed as potentially responsible for the decreases in spat numbers and the variations observed in their growth rates.

  11. Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification, supplement to: Ramajo, L; Marba, Núria; Prado, Luis; Peron, Sophie; Lardies, Marco A; Rodriguez-Navarro, Alejandro; Vargas, C A; Lagos, Nelson A; Duarte, Carlos M (2016): Biomineralization changes with food supply confer juvenile scallops (Argopecten purpuratus) resistance to ocean acidification. Global Change Biology, 22(6), 2025-2037

    KAUST Repository

    Ramajo, L

    2016-01-01

    Future ocean acidification (OA) will affect physiological traits of marine species, with calcifying species being particularly vulnerable. As OA entails high energy demands, particularly during the rapid juvenile growth phase, food supply may play a key role in the response of marine organisms to OA. We experimentally evaluated the role of food supply in modulating physiological responses and biomineralization processes in juveniles of the Chilean scallop, Argopecten purpuratus, that were exposed to control (pH 8.0) and low pH (pH 7.6) conditions using three food supply treatments (high, intermediate, and low). We found that pH and food levels had additive effects on the physiological response of the juvenile scallops. Metabolic rates, shell growth, net calcification, and ingestion rates increased significantly at low pH conditions, independent of food. These physiological responses increased significantly in organisms exposed to intermediate and high levels of food supply. Hence, food supply seems to play a major role modulating organismal response by providing the energetic means to bolster the physiological response of OA stress. On the contrary, the relative expression of chitin synthase, a functional molecule for biomineralization, increased significantly in scallops exposed to low food supply and low pH, which resulted in a thicker periostracum enriched with chitin polysaccharides. Under reduced food and low pH conditions, the adaptive organismal response was to trade-off growth for the expression of biomineralization molecules and altering of the organic composition of shell periostracum, suggesting that the future performance of these calcifiers will depend on the trajectories of both OA and food supply. Thus, incorporating a suite of traits and multiple stressors in future studies of the adaptive organismal response may provide key insights on OA impacts on marine calcifiers.

  12. Boom-to-bust. The scallop (Argopecten purpuratus fishery in the Pisco-Paracas region, southern Peruvian coast Auge y crisis: la pesquería de la concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus en la región Pisco-Paracas, costa sur del Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M. González Hunt

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines scallop (Argopecten purpuratus booms experienced in the Pisco-Paracas Region of southern Peru, triggered by the 1982-1983 and the 1997-1998 mega-El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO events.The quiet fishing ports have been transformed by these booms, which have attracted outside stakeholders transforming the local society. Government institutions in their role as resource managers and environmental stewards have attempted to control access to a region that until recently contained the only marine protected area of Peru.This situation has led to rapid growth in the scallop industry, the overexploitation and depletion of the shellfish, creating a sustainability crisis. Furthermore, this paper examines contradictions and relationships across local, regional, national, and international scales.Este trabajo examina los ciclos de expansión (boom de la explotación de la concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus observados en la región Pisco-Paracas del sur del Perú, resultantes de los fenómenos El Niño de 1982-1983 y 1997-1998.Los apacibles puertos de pesca han sido transformados por estos booms productivos que han atraído actores externos y han generado un impacto en la sociedad local. Las instituciones gubernamentales, en su papel de administradores de recursos y protectores del medio ambiente, han tratado de controlar el acceso a una región que hasta hace poco contenía la única área marina protegida del Perú.Esta situación ha producido un rápido crecimiento de la industria de la concha de abanico, su sobreexplotación y el agotamiento de dicho recurso, y ha producido una crisis de sostenibilidad. Asimismo, este trabajo examina las contradicciones y las relaciones entre las escalas local, regional, nacional e internacional.

  13. Asociación entre la tasa de autofecundación y la frecuencia de larvas malformadas en poblaciones cultivadas del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 Association between self-fertilization rates and the frequency of malformed larvae in farmed populations of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819

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    Christopher Concha

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available El incremento de la frecuencia de malformaciones y la reducción de la viabilidad y fecundidad suelen ser las primeras manifestaciones de la depresión por consanguinidad en animales. El ostión del norte, Argopectenpurpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, es una especie hermnafrodita funcional con autofecundación parcial y durante la reproducción artificial puede presentar altos grados de autofecundación. En este trabajo se analizó la asociación de la tasa de autofecundación con la frecuencia de larvas malformadas y la supervivencia larval. Se desovaron adultos maduros y se recogieron separadamente los gametos femeninos del 5° pulso de liberación en adelante y los masculinos. Los ovocitos fueron fecundados con espermatozoides de otro individuo, formando familias de hermanos completos. La tasa de autofecundación se verificó por la proporción de ovocitos que entra en división en una muestra de ellos sin fecundar. La tasa de autofecundación varió entre familias de 0 a 100%, con distribución de frecuencias normal. La proporción de larvas malformadas se distribuyó al azar entre las familias analizadas, pero se correlacionó negativamente, en forma moderada pero significativa, con la tasa de autofecundación y la temperatura media del cultivo. Los datos sugieren que la autofecundación en las familias de ostiones puede favorecer una mayor homeostasis del desarrollo larval.Increased frequencies of malformations and the reduction of viability and fecundity are some of the first manifestations of inbreeding depression in animals. The northern scallop, Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819, is a functional hermaphrodite species with partial self-fertilization. During artificial reproduction, this species may present high degrees of self-fertilization. In this work, the association between the selfing rate and the frequency of larval malformations and survival were analyzed. Mature adults were spawned, and female and male gametes were collected

  14. Simulation model of the scallop (Argopecten purpuratus farming in northern Chile: some applications in the decision making process Modelo de simulación para el cultivo del ostión (Argopecten purpuratus en el norte de Chile: aplicaciones para la toma de decisiones

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    Renato Molina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture farming is a complex system integrating several disciplines, including biology, engineering and economics, all which need to be correctly intertwined to have a profitable and environmentally sustainable activity. During the past recent years, scallop (Argopectenpurpuratus farmers in northern Chile have come to comprehend the hard way that aquaculture producers operate in a complex and dynamic environment where natural and economic factors are in constant change. Thus, to keep a profitable and competitive business in today's world, aquaculture farm managers are in need of relatively easy to use tools for efficient and timely decision making. Harvest size and time, mortality and growth rates, stocking rates, costs and market prices are important variables and parameters to monitor, where decisions with respect to their levels or values have to be made. In this context, non-linear and dynamic quantitative bioeconomic models should become valuable tools, for periodic decision making in the aquaculture business. This paper shows how to emulate Chilean scallop farming using a simulation model that mimics some of the industry's features. The model presented here focuses on a scallop aquaculture center that uses the common technology approach of pearl net and lanterns of the northern region of Chile, and analyses the farming strategies based on harvesting size. Also, these strategies were subject to variations in the parameters in order to identify patterns and asses the sensibility of the model to input values.La acuicultura es un sistema complejo que integra varias disciplinas, incluyendo la biología, ingeniería y economía, las cuales deben ser correctamente entrelazadas para lograr una actividad rentable y ambientalmente sostenible. Durante los últimos anos, los cultivadores del ostión del norte (Argopecten purpuratus en Chile han comprendido de la peor manera, que las actividades de acuicultura operan en un entorno complejo y din

  15. Reproductive and larval cycle of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus (Ostreoida: Pectinidae, during El Niño-La Niña events and normal weather conditions in Antofagasta, Chile

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    Miguel Avendaño

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Seasonality, amplitude, and magnitude of spawning events were determined for Argopecten purpuratus in the La Rinconada marine reserve, Antofagasta, Chile, between December 1995 and January 2004. During the same period, samples of scallop larvae were obtained in vertical plankton hauls recovered within this reserve in an area routinely exposed to circular, gyre-like currents which helped retain the larvae within the bay. The reproduction of this population in normal or cool (e.g. "La Niña", 1998-2000 years occurred throughout the year, with a more active period between September and April, declining in June and August; this contrasted with the warmer "El Niño" oceanographic period of 1997-98 in which reproductive activity was more intense and prolonged throughout the entire year. The reproductive events in this population were mostly synchronous, although one asynchronous period occurred each year following the more intense March to May spawnings. This reproductive activity generated a continuous presence of larvae in the area in which no strict relation could be found between the intensities of spawning and numbers of larvae in the water. Larval presence was, however, generally correlated with active spawning periods. Important increases in larval numbers recorded at the end of 1999 and the beginning of 2003 were correlated with census data showing a higher percentage presence of broodstock over 90 mm in shell length during these years. An adequate stock of this size class is needed for a successful seed capture program in the reserve (for mass culture. Rev. Biol. Trop. 56 (1: 121-132. Epub 2008 March 31.Entre 1995 y 2004 se determinó, con el índice gonadosomático, el ciclo reproductivo de Argopecten purpuratus en La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile. Paralelamente se realizaron muestreos larvales mediante arrastres verticales de plancton. La reproducción, en años normales y fríos (La Niña, 1998-2000, ocurre todo el año, con un período m

  16. The role of Argopecten purpuratus shells structuring the soft bottom community in shallow waters of southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomovasky, Betina J.; Gamero, Patricia A.; Romero, Leonardo; Firstater, Fausto N.; Gamarra Salazar, Alex; Hidalgo, Fernando; Tarazona, Juan; Iribarne, Oscar O.

    2015-12-01

    Accumulation of Argopecten purpuratus shells often occurs after El Niño events in shallow waters of Independencia Bay (14°17‧S-76°10‧W; Pisco, Peru). Here we experimentally investigate the effects of their shell accumulation on macrobenthos assemblages in soft bottom, shallow areas of the bay. A field experiment (from May 2006 to May 2007), including four treatments with different coverage levels of empty shells of A. purpuratus, were randomly arranged in: (1) areas devoid of shells ("Empty" treatment: experimental control), (2) 50% of the plot area covered with shells haphazardly distributed over the bottom ("medium" treatment), (3) 100% of the plot area covered with shells, forming a 10 cm valve layer ("full" treatment) and (4) "natural control". We found a total of 124 taxa throughout the experiment. Polychaetes, crustaceans and mollusks were the most abundant groups in "natural controls", dominated by the gastropod Nassarius gayi and the polychaetes Prionospio peruana, Platynereis bicanaliculata and Mediomastus branchiferus. The abundance of individuals (N) and the species richness (S) were higher in the "medium" treatment, but only in one month under positive sea bottom thermal anomalies. Similarity analysis (Bray-Curtis) showed that "natural control", "empty" and "full" treatments were more similar among them than the "medium" treatment. Multidimensional analysis showed no clear species association among treatments and a higher grouping among the samplings of Jun-06, Aug-06 and Nov-06. Our results also showed that the commercial crab Romaleon polyodon and the polyplacophora Tonicia elegans were positively affected by shell accumulations ("medium" treatment), while the limpet Fissurella crassa was negatively affected. Our study shows that directly by changing habitat structure or indirectly by changing sediment characteristics, the addition of scallop shells to the soft bottom can modify the macrobenthic assemblage; however, the seasonal oceanographic

  17. Comparación del crecimiento de Argopecten purpuratus entre cohortes obtenidas de captación de larvas en ambiente natural y de hatchery Comparison of growth among cohorts obtained Argopecten purpuratus larval recruitment in natural and hatchery

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    Eduardo P Pérez

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available En Chile los cultivos del ostión del norte Argopecten purpuratus han sido desarrollados intensivamente a partir de la captación de semillas en ambiente natural y desde principios de 1980 con semillas obtenidas en hatchery. Para aportar información sobre el desempeno de semillas de ostión del norte en este estudio se comparó, mediante ANCOVA, el crecimiento en longitud entre cohortes producidas a partir de semillas de ambiente natural y de hatchery en Tongoy, Chile. Se evaluó la consistencia de esta comparación en distintos anos y estaciones, comparándose parejas de cohortes producidas simultáneamente en los anos 2003 (primavera, 2005 (invierno y 2006 (verano. El análisis estadístico mostró que existen diferencias estadísticas significativas entre cohortes obtenidas en ambiente natural y aquellas obtenidas en hatchery. La prueba de Tukey evidenció diferencias significativas entre CN2003 y CH2003 como también entre CN2005 y CH2005, pero no así entre CN2006 y CH2006. Estas diferencias indican que las cohortes de semillas de ambiente natural crecieron más rápido que las de hatchery. La comparación interanual evidenció diferencias estadísticas significativas. Estos resultados son discutidos a la luz de dos factores: la temperatura de cultivo y la heterocigocidad de la población de cultivo.In Chile crops of the northern scallop Argopecten purpuratus have been developed intensively from seeds obtained in natural environment, and since 1980 from hatchery's seed, when this technique could be controlled and developed. In order to provide information on the performance of seeds of northern scallops in this study growth in length between cohorts produced from seeds obtained in natural environment (CN and hatchery (CH in Tongoy (Chile was compared using ANCOVA. We assessed the consistency of this comparison in different years and seasons. The compared cohorts are pairs of cohorts produced simultaneously in the years 2003 (spring, 2005

  18. Cytological comparison of gametogenesis of scallops, Argopecten irradians and Chlamys farreri

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    Dong, Xin-Hong; Liu, Bao-Zhong; Wu, Chang-Gong; Xiang, Jian-Hai

    2002-09-01

    Histological characteristics of gametogenesis of two kinds of scallops, gonochoric Chinese scallop, Chlamys farreri and hermaphroditic bay scallop, Argopecten irradians were investigated in this study. Spermatogenesis in C. farreri has different developmental stages: spermatogonia, primary spermatocyte, second spermatocyte, spermatid and spermatozoon. A large number of same developmental stage spermatic cells converge at a definite area of the testis. Premeiotic, previtellogenic and vitellogenic oocytes can be found during oogenesis in C. farreri, where oocyte distribution is obviously irregular. The A. irradians gonad consists of two different parts in one individual: one part functions as testis, the other as ovary. Between these two parts is a special appearance area, where a large number of spermatic cells are bound with two layers of acellular substance with many oocytes in it.

  19. Effect of the Algaecide Palmitoleic Acid on the Immune Function of the Bay Scallop Argopecten irradians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Palmitoleic acid (PA, an algicidal compound, is used against the toxin producing dinofagelate Alexandrium tamarense, however, its impact on the edible bay scallop (Argopecten irradians is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of effective algicidal concentrations (20, 40, and 80 mg/L of PA on immune responses in A. irradians. Various immune parameters including acid phosphatase (ACP activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD, lysozyme, phagocytic activity, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA level, and reactive oxygen species (ROS production and the expression of immune-related genes (PrxV, CLT-6, MT, and BD were measured at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-exposure (hpe to PA. Lysozyme activity was lower in scallops at 12–48 hpe to 80 mg/L. SOD, ACP activity, ROS production, the total protein, and MDA level was higher at 12 to 48 hpe with different concentrations of PA. Phagocytic activity increased at 6–12 hpe to 40–80 mg/L of PA, but decreased at 24–48 hpe. The expressions of genes PrxV, CLT-6, MT and BD down-regulated at 3 hpe were observed, while differential expressions from 6–48 hpe with different concentrations of PA. The present study demonstrated that immersing A. irradians in PA at effective concentrations could result in differential effects on non-specific immune responses and expressions of immune-related genes.

  20. Effect of the Algaecide Palmitoleic Acid on the Immune Function of the Bay Scallop Argopecten irradians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Cheng; Giri, Sib Sankar; Jun, Jin Woo; Kim, Hyoun Joong; Kim, Sang Guen; Yun, Saekil; Park, Se Chang

    2016-05-10

    Palmitoleic acid (PA), an algicidal compound, is used against the toxin producing dinofagelate Alexandrium tamarense, however, its impact on the edible bay scallop (Argopecten irradians) is still unclear. Therefore, we investigated the impacts of effective algicidal concentrations (20, 40, and 80 mg/L) of PA on immune responses in A. irradians. Various immune parameters including acid phosphatase (ACP) activity, superoxide dismutase (SOD), lysozyme, phagocytic activity, total protein, malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the expression of immune-related genes (PrxV, CLT-6, MT, and BD) were measured at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-exposure (hpe) to PA. Lysozyme activity was lower in scallops at 12-48 hpe to 80 mg/L. SOD, ACP activity, ROS production, the total protein, and MDA level was higher at 12 to 48 hpe with different concentrations of PA. Phagocytic activity increased at 6-12 hpe to 40-80 mg/L of PA, but decreased at 24-48 hpe. The expressions of genes PrxV, CLT-6, MT and BD down-regulated at 3 hpe were observed, while differential expressions from 6-48 hpe with different concentrations of PA. The present study demonstrated that immersing A. irradians in PA at effective concentrations could result in differential effects on non-specific immune responses and expressions of immune-related genes.

  1. Crecimiento y estructura demográfica de Argopecten purpuratus en la Reserva Marina La Rinconada, Antofagasta, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los parámetros de crecimiento L∞ = 120.38 mm y K = 0.9668 para el banco de Argopecten purpuratus de la Reserva Marina La Rinconada (Antofagasta, Chile, obtenidos entre marzo de 2001 y mayo de 2003 usando métodos de marcaje y recaptura de ejemplares. La elevada recaptura de individuos marcados (60–80% indica baja mortalidad natural y una conducta sedentaria del recurso. Las evaluaciones anuales realizadas para estimar el tamaño del banco confirmaron tal conducta, encontrándose la mayoría de los individuos agregados en el centro, con densidades que variaron entre años de 9 a 14.8 ind m–2. La abundancia de ejemplares también mostró variabilidad interanual, con cifras de 10.1 × 106 en 2001, 8.2 × 106 en 2002 y 12.4 × 106 en 2003. Estas evaluaciones mostraron, además, una disminución en la talla media de la estructura demográfica del banco entre un año y otro, reduciéndose de 75.8 mm en 2001 a 62.1 mm en 2002 y a 51.7 mm en 2003. Esta disminución también ocurrió con el número de ejemplares mayores o iguales a la talla mínima legal (90 mm, reduciéndose de 2.6 × 106 ejemplares presentes en 2001 a 3.7 × 105 ejemplares en 2003. La aplicación de los parámetros de crecimiento sobre la estructura poblacional del banco entre 2002 y 2003 señaló la integración de una nueva clase anual de 6.5 × 106 de ejemplares en 2002 y de 11.2 × 106 de individuos en 2003. El descuento de estas cifras, del número total de ejemplares presentes en ambos años, demuestra una pérdida cercana a los 8.4 × 106 de ostiones en 2002 y de cerca de 7.0 × 106 de individuos en 2003. Estas pérdidas correspondieron a ejemplares con tallas superiores a los 60 mm, lo cual es corroborado con el análisis de la curva de captura realizado con el programa Fisat, cuyos resultados señalan una mortalidad Z = 2.15 en 2002 para el segmento de la población entre 67.5 y 115.5 mm, y Z = 3.08 en 2003 para el segmento de 64.3 a 112.5 mm. Los

  2. Early exposure of bay scallops (Argopecten irradians) to high CO₂ causes a decrease in larval shell growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Meredith M; McCorkle, Daniel C; Mullineaux, Lauren S; Cohen, Anne L

    2013-01-01

    Ocean acidification, characterized by elevated pCO₂ and the associated decreases in seawater pH and calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω), has a variable impact on the growth and survival of marine invertebrates. Larval stages are thought to be particularly vulnerable to environmental stressors, and negative impacts of ocean acidification have been seen on fertilization as well as on embryonic, larval, and juvenile development and growth of bivalve molluscs. We investigated the effects of high CO₂ exposure (resulting in pH = 7.39, Ω(ar) = 0.74) on the larvae of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians from 12 h to 7 d old, including a switch from high CO₂ to ambient CO₂ conditions (pH = 7.93, Ω(ar) = 2.26) after 3 d, to assess the possibility of persistent effects of early exposure. The survival of larvae in the high CO₂ treatment was consistently lower than the survival of larvae in ambient conditions, and was already significantly lower at 1 d. Likewise, the shell length of larvae in the high CO₂ treatment was significantly smaller than larvae in the ambient conditions throughout the experiment and by 7 d, was reduced by 11.5%. This study also demonstrates that the size effects of short-term exposure to high CO₂ are still detectable after 7 d of larval development; the shells of larvae exposed to high CO₂ for the first 3 d of development and subsequently exposed to ambientCO₂ were not significantly different in size at 3 and 7 d than the shells of larvae exposed to high CO₂ throughout the experiment.

  3. Early exposure of bay scallops (Argopecten irradians to high CO₂ causes a decrease in larval shell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meredith M White

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, characterized by elevated pCO₂ and the associated decreases in seawater pH and calcium carbonate saturation state (Ω, has a variable impact on the growth and survival of marine invertebrates. Larval stages are thought to be particularly vulnerable to environmental stressors, and negative impacts of ocean acidification have been seen on fertilization as well as on embryonic, larval, and juvenile development and growth of bivalve molluscs. We investigated the effects of high CO₂ exposure (resulting in pH = 7.39, Ω(ar = 0.74 on the larvae of the bay scallop Argopecten irradians from 12 h to 7 d old, including a switch from high CO₂ to ambient CO₂ conditions (pH = 7.93, Ω(ar = 2.26 after 3 d, to assess the possibility of persistent effects of early exposure. The survival of larvae in the high CO₂ treatment was consistently lower than the survival of larvae in ambient conditions, and was already significantly lower at 1 d. Likewise, the shell length of larvae in the high CO₂ treatment was significantly smaller than larvae in the ambient conditions throughout the experiment and by 7 d, was reduced by 11.5%. This study also demonstrates that the size effects of short-term exposure to high CO₂ are still detectable after 7 d of larval development; the shells of larvae exposed to high CO₂ for the first 3 d of development and subsequently exposed to ambientCO₂ were not significantly different in size at 3 and 7 d than the shells of larvae exposed to high CO₂ throughout the experiment.

  4. Evaluación en ambiente natural, del uso de biopelículas marinas en el asentamiento larval de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 Evaluation in natural environment of use of marine biofilms, in the larval settlement of Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Cantillánez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En una granja marina ubicada colindante con el área de reserva marina “La Rinconada” (Antofagasta, Chile, se evaluó el asentamiento larval del pectínido Argopecten purpuratus sobre colectores impregnados con películas multi-específicas, de las diatomeas Navicula sp. y Amphora sp., y de la cepa bacteriana NC1, aisladas desde colectores utilizados en captaciones comerciales de esta especie que presentaron altos índices de fijación, y que bajo condiciones controladas de criadero y laboratorio, han mostrando altos niveles de asentamiento larval. Los resultados obtenidos con el uso de estas biopelículas, sobre colectores instalados en forma paralela a los utilizados por la empresa para la captación de semilla con fines comerciales, no mostraron diferencias significativas entre los diferentes tratamientos probados y el control, respecto a las fijaciones ocurridas en un lapso de 30 días de inmersión. Se discute, debido a los tiempos que demandaron las larvas de la primera cohorte en asentarse sobre los colectores tratados, un posible reemplazo de las biopelículas utilizadas, por otra común en todos ellos y atractiva para el asentamiento de las larvas, como causa de la ausencia de efectos significativos de los tratamientos probados en el medio natural. Se recomienda la necesidad de establecer el tiempo de permanencia, en el ambiente natural, de las biopelículas impregnadas a los colectores en laboratorio.In a commercial farm located near the Marine Reserve “La Rinconada” (Antofagasta, Chile the larval settlement of Argopecten purpuratus on artificial collectors impregnated with multiespecific films of marine diatoms Navicula sp. and Amphora sp. and, bacterial strain NC1 were evaluated, These biofilms were isolates from artificial collector used in commercial activities with highest index of settlement in hatchery and laboratory conditions. The results to use this biofilms in collectors installed in same condition of commercial

  5. A consensus microsatellite-based linkage map for the hermaphroditic bay scallop (Argopecten irradians and its application in size-related QTL analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjun Li

    Full Text Available Bay scallop (Argopecten irradians is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. In this study, we constructed a consensus microsatellite-based genetic linkage map with a mapping panel containing two hybrid backcross-like families involving two subspecies of bay scallop, A. i. irradians and A. i. concentricus. One hundred sixty-one microsatellite and one phenotypic (shell color markers were mapped to 16 linkage groups (LGs, which corresponds to the haploid chromosome number of bay scallop. The sex-specific map was 779.2 cM and 781.6 cM long in female and male, respectively, whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 849.3 cM. The average resolution of integrated map was 5.9 cM/locus and the estimated coverage was 81.3%. The proportion of distorted markers occurred more in the hybrid parents, suggesting that the segregation distortion was possibly resulted from heterospecific interaction between genomes of two subspecies of bay scallop. The overall female-to-male recombination rate was 1.13:1 across all linked markers in common to both parents, and considerable differences in recombination also existed among different parents in both families. Four size-related traits, including shell length (SL, shell height (SH, shell width (SW and total weight (TW were measured for quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis. Three significant and six suggestive QTL were detected on five LGs. Among the three significant QTL, two (qSW-10 and qTW-10, controlling SW and TW, respectively were mapped on the same region near marker AiAD121 on LG10 and explained 20.5% and 27.7% of the phenotypic variance, while the third (qSH-7, controlling SH was located on LG7 and accounted for 15.8% of the phenotypic variance. Six suggestive QTL were detected on four different LGs. The linkage map and size-related QTL obtained in this study may facilitate marker-assisted selection (MAS in bay scallop.

  6. A scallop C-type lectin from Argopecten irradians (AiCTL5) with activities of lipopolysaccharide binding and Gram-negative bacteria agglutination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Changkao; Song, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Jianmin; Wang, Lingling; Qiu, Limei; Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Mengqiang; Song, Linsheng; Wang, Chunlin

    2012-05-01

    C-type lectins are a family of calcium-dependent carbohydrate-binding proteins. In the present study, a C-type lectin (designated as AiCTL5) was identified and characterized from Argopecten irradians. The full-length cDNA of AiCTL5 was of 673 bp, containing a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 24 bp, a 3' UTR of 130 bp with a poly (A) tail, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 519 bp encoding a polypeptide of 172 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 17 amino acids. A C-type lectin-like domain (CRD) containing 6 conserved cysteines and a putative glycosylation sites were identified in the deduced amino acid sequence of AiCTL5. AiCTL5 shared 11%-27.5% identity with the previous reported C-type lectin from A. irradians. The cDNA fragment encoding the mature peptide of AiCTL5 was recombined into pET-21a (+) with a C-terminal hexa-histidine tag fused in-frame, and expressed in Escherichia coli Origami (DE3). The recombinant AiCTL5 (rAiCTL5) agglutinated Gram-negative E. coli TOP10F' and Listonella anguillarum, but did not agglutinate Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis and Micrococcus luteus, and the agglutination could be inhibited by EDTA, indicating that AiCTL5 was a Ca(2+)-dependent lectin. rAiCTL5 exhibited a significantly strong activity to bind LPS from E. coli, which conformed to the agglutinating activity toward Gram-negative bacteria. Moreover, rAiCTL5 also agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes. These results indicated that AiCTL5 could function as a pattern recognition receptor to protect bay scallop from Gram-negative bacterial infection, and also provide evidence to understand the structural and functional diverse of lectin. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Asociación del color de la concha de reproductores de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 con la supervivencia, crecimiento y desarrollo larval de sus progenies Association between shell color of breeds (Lamarck, 1819 and the survival, growth and larval development of their progenies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo M García

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Las conchas de moluscos bivalvos marinos son extremadamente diversas en sus patrones de pigmentación y riqueza de colores. Tal diversidad se debe a factores ambientales y genéticos. En bivalvos marinos adultos, individuos con coloraciones de concha poco comunes en las poblaciones silvestres suelen presentar tasas de crecimiento y supervivencia menores que aquellos con colores de concha más frecuentes. Conociendo que la variación del color de la concha en Argopecten purpuratus está bajo control genético, en este trabajo se pone a prueba la hipótesis de que los loci responsables de dicha variación pueden afectar el crecimiento, la supervivencia y la tasa de desarrollo de las larvas de esta especie. Se estimó la supervivencia y el crecimiento en progenies de cruzamientos dirigidos entre individuos de A. purpuratus con colores de concha blanco, naranja y marrón, y se verificó la existencia de diferencias en las tasas de desarrollo. El crecimiento de las larvas producidas en cruzamientos que incluyeron individuos marrones o blancos con naranja no mostraron diferencias entre sí. En cambio, las progenies producto de autofecundaciones de individuos naranja y blancos presentaron tasas de crecimiento significativamente menores que las anteriores y distintas entre sí. Las tasas de desarrollo y de supervivencia, en cambio, no mostraron diferencias entre las progenies de los distintos tipos de cruzamientos. Los resultados sugieren que los genes que controlan la variación del color en las conchas de juveniles y adultos de A. purpuratus afectarían la tasa de crecimiento de sus larvas, pero no la tasa de desarrollo ni su supervivencia.Marine bivalve mollusks are extremely diverse in shell color and pigmentation patterns. Such diversity is affected by environmental and genetic factors. Some evidences in adult marine bivalves shows that individuals with low-frequency shell colors have lower growth rates and/or higher mortalities than those with the

  8. Sea Scallop Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The standardized NEFSC Sea Scallop Survey began in 1980 and has covered an area from Cape Hatteras to Georges Bank. The survey aims to determine the distribution and...

  9. Growth and survival larvae of Argopecten nucleus fed with different microalgae diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yenia Katerine Carreño Hernández

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the diet on larval growth of the scallops Argopecten nucleus was studied, testing six microalgae diets composed by single-algae and mixed diets of the species Isochrysis galbana, Chaetoceros calcitrans y Tetraselmis suecica, handling a concentration per mL equivalent to 40000 cells of I. galbana and the response through the variables surviving, growth, appearance of the eye spot and state of condition (full, half-full and empty larvae was measured. The diets containing I. galbana showed greater results over all the measured variables, with regard to those where it was not present. In particular, the mixed diet I. galbana + C. calcitrans presented superiority over all variables, although in the most cases was statistically similar to I. galbana + C. calcitrans + T. suecica, I. galbana + T. suecica and I. galbana alone. For the opposite, the diets with the lowest results were C. calcitrans and C. calcitrans +T. suecica. The results obtained are principally attributed to the nutritional composition mainly of high unsaturated fatty acids (HUFA of each microalgae and each mixture supply, which is discussed in detail.

  10. De novo assembly and characterization of two transcriptomes reveal multiple light-mediated functions in the scallop eye (Bivalvia: Pectinidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Autum N Pairett

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The eye has evolved across 13 separate lineages of molluscs. Yet, there have been very few studies examining the molecular machinary underlying eye function of this group, which is due, in part, to a lack of genomic resources. The scallop (Bivalvia: Pectinidae represents a compeling molluscan model to study photoreception due to its morphologically novel and separately evolved mirror-type eye. We sequenced the adult eye transcriptome of two scallop species to: 1 identify the phototransduction pathway components; 2 identify any additional light detection functions; and 3 test the hypothesis that molluscs possess genes not found in other animal lineages. RESULTS: A total of 3,039 contigs from the bay scallop, Argopecten irradians and 26,395 contigs from the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus were produced by 454 sequencing. Targeted BLAST searches and functional annotation using Gene Ontology (GO terms and KEGG pathways identified transcripts from three light detection systems: two phototransduction pathways and the circadian clock, a previously unrecognized function of the scallop eye. By comparing the scallop transcriptomes to molluscan and non-molluscan genomes, we discovered that a large proportion of the transcripts (7,776 sequences may be specific to the scallop lineage. Nearly one-third of these contain transmembrane protein domains, suggesting these unannotated transcripts may be sensory receptors. CONCLUSIONS: Our data provide the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available from a single molluscan eye type. Candidate genes potentially involved in sensory reception were identified, and are worthy of further investigation. This resource, combined with recent phylogenetic and genomic data, provides a strong foundation for future investigations of the function and evolution of molluscan photosensory systems in this morphologically and taxonomically diverse phylum.

  11. Fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quililongo C. J., Rıos-Ramırez M. A., Velásquez-Cumplido L., Morales-Mun˜oz B. and Escobar-Fica J. A. 2012 Development and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellites isolated from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus. J. Genet.

  12. Development and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellites ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Quililongo C. J., Ríos-Ramírez M. A., Velásquez-Cumplido L., Morales-Muñoz B. and Escobar-Fica J. A. 2012 Development and characterization of ten polymorphic microsatellites isolated from the scallop Argopecten purpuratus. J. Genet.

  13. An EPD/WSD motifs containing C-type lectin from Argopectens irradians recognizes and binds microbes with broad spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Mengmeng; Zhang, Huan; Jiang, Shuai; Wang, Lingling; Liu, Rui; Yi, Qilin; Song, Linsheng

    2015-03-01

    C-type lectins are a superfamily of Ca(2+)-dependent carbohydrate-recognition proteins consisting of at least one carbohydrate-recognition domain (CRD), which play significant roles in nonself-recognition and clearance of invaders. The immune function of a C-type lectin (AiCTL-7) with EPD/WSD motifs from Argopectens irradians was investigated in the present study. The recombinant protein of AiCTL-7 (rAiCTL-7) could bind LPS, PGN, mannan, yeast glucan and poly I:C in vitro, and displayed a broader microbes binding spectrum towards Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum, as well as fungi Pichia pastoris and Yarrowia lipolytica. Moreover, it could also inhibit the growth of E. coli and significantly (P EPD/WSD motifs containing lectin AiCTL-7 could serve as PRR with wider recognition spectrum, and function both as collectin and selectin participating in the immunity against invaders in scallops. It could be inferred that the diversity and complexity of motifs in Ca(2+) binding site 2 in CRDs endowed C-type lectins with comprehensive recognition spectrum and multiple immune functions against complex living environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A new fibrinogen-related protein from Argopecten irradians (AiFREP-2) with broad recognition spectrum and bacteria agglutination activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chuanyan; Wang, Leilei; Zhang, Huan; Wang, Lingling; Huang, Mengmeng; Sun, Zhibin; Sun, Ying; Song, Linsheng

    2014-05-01

    Fibrinogen-related proteins (FREPs) are a kind of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) containing fibrinogen-like (FBG) domains, and they play curial roles in the innate immune response. In the present study, a new FREP protein was identified from bay scallop Argopecten irradians (designated as AiFREP-2). The full-length cDNA of AiFREP-2 was of 1299 bp with an open reading frame of 762 bp encoding a polypeptide of 253 amino acids, including a signal sequence and an FBG domain. The FBG domain in AiFREP-2 was highly similar to those of ficolins, tenascins and other FREPs. The mRNA expression of AiFREP-2 could be detected in all the examined tissues with the highest level in gill. The mRNA expression of AiFREP-2 in hemocytes was significantly up-regulated post the stimulation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), peptidoglycan (PGN) and β-glucan (GLU) (P agglutination activity towards Gram-negative bacteria V. anguillarum and Gram positive bacteria S. aureus. The results indicated that AiFREP-2 was involved in the immune response against Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungus as a PRR in bay scallop, and the information was helpful to understand the innate immune defense mechanisms of mollusks. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A federal Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) license is required onboard any vessel deployed in scallop fisheries in Federal waters off Alaska (except for...

  16. Growth and Development of Larval Bay Scallops (Argopecten irradians) in Response to Early Exposure to High CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    coral   reefs  and  other  marine  calcifiers:  A  guide   for...unlimited. Edward A. Boyle MIT Director of Joint Program Approved for Distribution: Mark E. Hahn, Chair Department of Biology James A. Yoder WHO I Dean...CO2       by     Meredith  Megan  White     Submitted  to  the  Department  of   Biology   on  January

  17. Scalloping at the lumbosacral canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhardt, R.

    1987-07-01

    Scalloping is an indentation of the dorsal side of the vertebral body (anterior wall of the lumbosacral or sacral canal) which typically involves several adjacent lumbal vertebral body segments and the anterior wall of the canalis sacralis. Occurrence without underlying disease is rare; it occurs most frequently with chondrodystrophy, neurofibromatosis, Morquio's syndrome, Hurler's syndrome, acromegaly, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Marfan's syndrome, cysts, tumors and in peridural lipomas.

  18. king scallop (Pecten maxinus) meats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Post-rigor king scallop meats (Pecten maximus) were frozen individually for 24 h at -80°C and kept vacuum packed at -22°C for up to 301 days. Sampling was carried out on fresh meats and at days 1, 28, 91, 154, 210 and 301 of frozen storage. Tests related to muscle integrity ( -hydroxy-acyl-coenzyme –A dehydrogenase ...

  19. The sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) test and spine proteomes

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Karlheinz; Poustka Albert J; Mann Matthias

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The organic matrix of biominerals plays an important role in biomineral formation and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin, which is an important model organism for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified and characterized at the protein level. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered poss...

  20. Evaluación en ambiente natural, del uso de biopelículas marinas en el asentamiento larval de Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Marcela Cantillánez; Carlos Riquelme; Miguel Avendaño

    2010-01-01

    .... and Amphora sp. and, bacterial strain NC^sub 1^ were evaluated, These biofilms were isolates from artificial collector used in commercial activities with highest index of settlement in hatchery and laboratory conditions...

  1. Bay Scallop Spawning, Survival, Growth Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bay Scallops are selected and cultured according to criteria of growth and survival. Morphological attributes have also been selected to assess heretibility....

  2. Spatial vision in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerramilli, D; Johnsen, S

    2010-01-15

    Recent evidence that echinoids of the genus Echinometra have moderate visual acuity that appears to be mediated by their spines screening off-axis light suggests that the urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, with its higher spine density, may have even more acute spatial vision. We analyzed the movements of 39 specimens of S. purpuratus after they were placed in the center of a featureless tank containing a round, black target that had an angular diameter of 6.5 deg. or 10 deg. (solid angles of 0.01 sr and 0.024 sr, respectively). An average orientation vector for each urchin was determined by testing the animal four times, with the target placed successively at bearings of 0 deg., 90 deg., 180 deg. and 270 deg. (relative to magnetic east). The urchins showed no significant unimodal or axial orientation relative to any non-target feature of the environment or relative to the changing position of the 6.5 deg. target. However, the urchins were strongly axially oriented relative to the changing position of the 10 deg. target (mean axis from -1 to 179 deg.; 95% confidence interval +/- 12 deg.; Ptest), with 10 of the 20 urchins tested against that target choosing an average bearing within 10 deg. of either the target center or its opposite direction (two would be expected by chance). In addition, the average length of the 20 target-normalized bearings for the 10 deg. target (each the vector sum of the bearings for the four trials) were far higher than would be expected by chance (Purchin, whether it moved towards or away from the target, did so with high consistency. These results strongly suggest that S. purpuratus detected the 10 deg. target, responding either by approaching it or fleeing it. Given that the urchins did not appear to respond to the 6.5 deg. target, it is likely that the 10 deg. target was close to the minimum detectable size for this species. Interestingly, measurements of the spine density of the regions of the test that faced horizontally predicted

  3. Stock status update of Browns Bank North Scallops (Placopecten magellanicus)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Keith, David; Broome, Jeremy; Reeves, Alan; Drew, Tricia Pearo; Themelis, Daphne; Stone, Heath; Bennett, Lottie; Docherty, Verna

    2017-01-01

    .... The purpose of this report is to update the status of Browns Bank North Scallop with data from the 2016 Scallop survey and fishery to provide science advice for the management of the 2017 fishery...

  4. Lectins identify distinct populations of coelomocytes in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Yun Liao

    Full Text Available Coelomocytes represent the immune cells of echinoderms, but detailed knowledge about their roles during immune responses is very limited. One major challenge for studying coelomocyte biology is the lack of reagents to identify and purify distinct populations defined by objective molecular markers rather than by morphology-based classifications that are subjective at times. Glycosylation patterns are known to differ significantly between cell types in vertebrates, and furthermore they can vary depending on the developmental stage and activation states within a given lineage. Thus fluorescently labeled lectins that recognize distinct glycan structures on cell surface proteins are routinely used to identify discrete cell populations in the vertebrate immune system. Here we now employed a panel of fifteen fluorescently-labeled lectins to determine differences in the glycosylation features on the surface of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus coelomocytes by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Eight of the lectins (succinylated wheat germ agglutinin, Len culinaris lectin, Pisum sativum agglutinin, Saphora japonica agglutinin, Solanum tuberosum lectin, Lycopersicon esculentum lectin, Datura stramonium lectin, Vicia villosa lectin showed distinct binding patterns to fixed and live cells of three major coelomocyte classes: phagocytic cells, red spherule cells, and vibratile cells. Importantly, almost all lectins bound only to a subgroup of cells within each cell type. Lastly, we established fluorescently-labeled lectin-based fluorescence activated cell sorting as a strategy to purify distinct S. purpuratus coelomocyte (sub-populations based on molecular markers. We anticipate that this will become a routine approach in future studies focused on dissecting the roles of different coelomocytes in echinoderm immunity.

  5. Yorkie and Scalloped: partners in growth activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Jennifer L; Edgar, Bruce A

    2008-03-01

    The Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway limits organ growth in organisms from Drosophila to mammals by suppressing the activity of the transcriptional coactivator Yorkie (Yki)/YAP. The TEAD/TEF factor Scalloped (Sd) has been identified as the first known transcription factor to partner with Yki as a downstream target of Hpo signaling.

  6. Scalloped electrodes for highly sensitive electrical measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazquez Rodriguez, Patricia; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie Edith

    2011-01-01

    In this work we introduce a novel out-of-plane electrode with pronounced scalloped surface and high aspect ratio for electrical recordings of brain tissue in vitro, with the aim to reduce significantly the impedance of the measuring system. The profile and height of the structures is tailored by ...

  7. Distribution and movement of scalloped hammerhead Sphryna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Knowledge of population distribution and movement is crucial for the conservation and management of shark species occurring in coastal waters. From 1984 to 2009, 641 scalloped hammerheads Sphyrna lewini, 1 342 smooth hammerheads Sphyrna zygaena and 1 352 unspecified hammerheads Sphyrna spp. were ...

  8. Transcriptome sequencing of Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri and comparative transcriptomic analysis with Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bivalves play an important role in the ecosystems they inhabit and represent an important food source all over the world. So far limited genetic research has focused on this group of animals largely due to the lack of sufficient genetic or genomic resources. Here, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce the most comprehensive expressed sequence tag resource for Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri, and conducted the first transcriptome comparison for scallops. RESULTS: In a single 454 sequencing run, 1,033,636 reads were produced and then assembled into 26,165 contigs. These contigs were then clustered into 24,437 isotigs and further grouped into 20,056 isogroups. About 47% of the isogroups showed significant matches to known proteins based on sequence similarity. Transcripts putatively involved in growth, reproduction and stress/immune-response were identified through Gene ontology (GO and KEGG pathway analyses. Transcriptome comparison with Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis revealed similar patterns of GO representation. Moreover, 38 putative fast-evolving genes were identified through analyzing the orthologous gene pairs between the two scallop species. More than 46,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and 350 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were also detected. CONCLUSION: Our study provides the most comprehensive transcriptomic resource currently available for C. farreri. Based on this resource, we performed the first large-scale transcriptome comparison between the two scallop species, C. farreri and P. yessoensis, and identified a number of putative fast-evolving genes, which may play an important role in scallop speciation and/or local adaptation. A large set of single nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats were identified, which are ready for downstream marker development. This transcriptomic resource should lay an important foundation for future genetic or genomic studies on C. farreri.

  9. The sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) test and spine proteomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karlheinz; Poustka, Albert J; Mann, Matthias

    2008-08-11

    The organic matrix of biominerals plays an important role in biomineral formation and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin, which is an important model organism for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified and characterized at the protein level. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered possible not only the identification of possible matrix proteins at the gene level, but also the direct identification of proteins contained in matrices of skeletal elements by in-depth, high-accuracy, proteomic analysis. We identified 110 proteins as components of sea urchin test and spine organic matrix. Fourty of these proteins occurred in both compartments while others were unique to their respective compartment. More than 95% of the proteins were detected in sea urchin skeletal matrices for the first time. The most abundant protein in both matrices was the previously characterized spicule matrix protein SM50, but at least eight other members of this group, many of them only known as conceptual translation products previously, were identified by mass spectrometric sequence analysis of peptides derived from in vitro matrix degradation. The matrices also contained proteins implicated in biomineralization processes previously by inhibition studies using antibodies or specific enzyme inhibitors, such as matrix metalloproteases and members of the mesenchyme-specific MSP130 family. Other components were carbonic anhydrase, collagens, echinonectin, a alpha2-macroglobulin-like protein and several proteins containing scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains. A few possible signal transduction pathway components, such as GTP-binding proteins, a semaphorin and a possible tyrosine kinase were also identified. This report presents the most comprehensive list of sea urchin skeletal matrix proteins available at

  10. The sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus test and spine proteomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Karlheinz

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The organic matrix of biominerals plays an important role in biomineral formation and in determining biomineral properties. However, most components of biomineral matrices remain unknown at present. In sea urchin, which is an important model organism for developmental biology and biomineralization, only few matrix components have been identified and characterized at the protein level. The recent publication of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome sequence rendered possible not only the identification of possible matrix proteins at the gene level, but also the direct identification of proteins contained in matrices of skeletal elements by in-depth, high-accuracy, proteomic analysis. Results We identified 110 proteins as components of sea urchin test and spine organic matrix. Fourty of these proteins occurred in both compartments while others were unique to their respective compartment. More than 95% of the proteins were detected in sea urchin skeletal matrices for the first time. The most abundant protein in both matrices was the previously characterized spicule matrix protein SM50, but at least eight other members of this group, many of them only known as conceptual translation products previously, were identified by mass spectrometric sequence analysis of peptides derived from in vitro matrix degradation. The matrices also contained proteins implicated in biomineralization processes previously by inhibition studies using antibodies or specific enzyme inhibitors, such as matrix metalloproteases and members of the mesenchyme-specific MSP130 family. Other components were carbonic anhydrase, collagens, echinonectin, a α2-macroglobulin-like protein and several proteins containing scavenger receptor cysteine-rich domains. A few possible signal transduction pathway components, such as GTP-binding proteins, a semaphorin and a possible tyrosine kinase were also identified. Conclusion This report presents the most comprehensive

  11. The biochemical, textural and sensory properties of king scallop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Triangle sensory comparisons between fresh and frozen scallop muscles suggested that characteristic freezing times up to 555 min may not influence the sensory quality of frozen scallop meats. Freezing of meats at the short freezing time of 19 min reduced freezing and thawing weight losses compared to longer time tested ...

  12. 50 CFR 648.59 - Sea Scallop Access Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...,447 mt), after accounting for applicable set-asides and LAGC IFQ TAC. (ii) LAGC IFQ scallop vessels—(A... section. LAGC IFQ vessels will be allocated 285,423 lb (129 mt) in fishing year 2010, which is 5 percent... the Federal Register, unless transiting pursuant to paragraph (f) of this section. (C) Scallops landed...

  13. Growth and survival of the South African scallop Pecten ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grow-out studies of the scallop Pecten sulcicostatus, endemic to the South African coast, contribute to an investigation of the suitability of this species for commercial culture. Hatchery-reared juvenile scallops were placed in a suspended culture system at 5 m depth in Saldanha Bay on the west coast of South Africa.

  14. A Vestigial:Scalloped TEA domain chimera rescues the wing phenotype of a scalloped mutation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ajay; MacKay, Julie O; Bell, John B

    2002-05-01

    The development of the Drosophila wing requires both scalloped and vestigial functions. Using a fusion between full-length Vestigial and the Scalloped TEA domain, the fusion protein can rescue scalloped wing mutations because within wing development, Scalloped and Vestigial cooperatively act as a transcription complex. Scalloped provides the necessary DNA binding function via the TEA domain and Vestigial promotes the activation of target genes. We also demonstrate that the putative nuclear localization signal contained in the TEA domain of Scalloped is likely responsible for the nuclear localization of Vestigial. The fusion protein is also capable of activating a known target gene of the native complex and thus represents a tool that will be helpful in rapidly identifying target genes of the Sd/Vg complex that are involved in wing differentiation. The functionality of the fusion suggests that only the TEA domain of Scalloped is critical for wing development and the rest of the protein (about 70%) is dispensable. This result is novel and should stimulate further studies of sd in other tissues in view of the fact that scalloped is a vital gene in Drosophila. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. Application of monoclonal antibody against granulocytes of scallop Chlamys farreri on granulocytes occurrence at different developmental stages and antigenic cross-reactivity of granulocytes in five other bivalve species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Jing; Tang, Xiaoqian; Ni, Yongqing; Zhan, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb) 6H7 raised specifically against granulocytes of scallop (Chlamys farreri) was employed to observe granulocyte occurrence successively in blastulae, gastrulae, trochophore larvae, D-shape larvae, umbo-veliger larvae and creeping larvae of C. farreri by immunohistochemistry assay contrasted with H&E stain using semi-thin sections. Moreover, the reactivity of the MAb with granulocytes of C. farreri, Bay scallop Argopecten irradians, Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, Blue mussel Mytilus edulis, Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas and Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, was detected by immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with differential interference contrast and fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometric immunofluorescence assay (FCIFA). The results showed that positive signals were first observed at D-shape larval stage, about 28 h post fertilization, after that, umbo-veliger larvae exhibited the positive cells with a diameter of 3-5 μm distributed in velum, digestive gland and esophagus. Then in creeping larvae, the number of positive cells increased with average diameter of 5-7 μm, and widely distributed in foot, digestive gland, gills and adductor muscles. No positive signal was found in blastulae, gastrulae and trochophore larvae. The results of IFA and FCIFA showed MAb 6H7 reacted to granulocytes of C. farreri, A. irradians, P. yessoensis and C. gigas, and the positive percentage reactivity were 53 ± 2.5%, 15 ± 2.5%, 12 ± 2.1% and 19 ± 2.1%, respectively, however, no cross-reaction was detected in hemocytes of R. philippinarum and M. edulis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Preoperative scallop-by-scallop assessment of mitral prolapse using 2D-transthoracic echocardiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonetti Stefania

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was conducted to assess the accuracy of harmonic imaging 2D-transthoracic echocardiography (2D-TTE segmental analysis compared to surgical findings, in degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR. Methods Seventy-seven consecutive patients with severe degenerative MR were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative 2D-TTE with precise localization of prolapsing or flailing scallops/segments was performed. All patients underwent mitral valve surgical repair. Surgical reports (SR, including valve description, were used as references for comparisons. A postoperative control 2D-TTE was performed. Results Out of 462 scallops/segments studied, surgical inspection identified 102 prolapses or flails (22%, 92 of which had previously been detected by 2D-TTE (90.2% sensitivity, 100% specificity. Agreement between preoperative 2D-TTE segmental analysis and SR was 97.8% (k = 0.93; p Conclusions 2D-TTE, performed by an experienced echo-lab, has very good diagnostic accuracy in localizing the scallops/segments involved in degenerative MR, particularly for the middle ones (P2-A2, which represent almost the totality of prolapses. More invasive, time consuming and expensive exams should be reserved to selected cases.

  17. Diet of scalloped hammerhead shark in eastern Gulf of Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks, Sphyrna lewini, were collected in northwest Florida to examine foraging ecology, bioenergetics, and trophic level (30-60 cm FL...

  18. The biochemical, textural and sensory properties of king scallop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-07-12

    Jul 12, 2010 ... cellular water formed by melting of the inter-cellular ice in the inter-cellular spaces was free to escape from the inter-cellular spaces before it could be reabsorbed by the fibres. Scallop meats frozen at a 'fast' characteristic freezing time (tc) of 19 min would have intra-cellular ice crystals. These ice crystals ...

  19. A genetic linkage map of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A genetic linkage map of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis was constructed based on 302 markers, including 263 amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and 39 microsatellite (SSR) markers. The two parental maps were constructed according to the double pseudo-test cross strategy with an ...

  20. Assessment of vertebral scalloping in neurofibromatosis type 1 with plain radiography and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsirikos, A.I.; Ramachandran, M.; Lee, J.; Saifuddin, A. E-mail: asaifuddin@aol.com

    2004-11-01

    AIM: To evaluate vertebral scalloping in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF-1) and spinal deformity using plain radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to determine the possible aetiological association with neurofibromas, dural ectasia and lateral meningocoeles. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Nineteen patients with NF-1, who had full spine radiographs and whole-spine MRI, were retrospectively reviewed. Dystrophic features and their relationship to the curve were recorded from radiographs. A comparison was then made between the dystrophic features evident on radiographs and adjacent soft-tissue abnormalities identified on MRI. RESULTS: Dystrophic changes were documented in 16 patients on plain radiographs and in all patients on MRI. Rib pencilling was the most common finding on radiographs. In 80% of the cases with scoliosis, scalloping was seen on the concavity of the curvature. In all patients with kyphoscoliosis, scalloping was contiguous to the apex of kyphosis. Twenty-four areas of scalloping were identified on MRI. Scalloping usually developed in the concavity of the scoliotic curve or at levels unrelated to the curve. Scalloping was evident in combination with dural ectasia or neurofibroma in 15 cases. The presence of dural ectasia was confirmed in 75% of the cases of posterior scalloping and in 25% of those of lateral scalloping. The presence of neurofibromas was recognized in 25% of the cases of anterior or lateral scalloping. Dural ectasia was identified in two patients without associated scalloping. Lateral meningocoeles were not related to the development of scalloping. CONCLUSION: Whereas posterior scalloping was commonly associated with dural ectasia, anterior and lateral scalloping were commonly the result of primary mesodermal dysplasia.

  1. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement) is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement), i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA), a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD) during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. Conclusions We conclude that HA is a modulator

  2. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutherby Josh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement, i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA, a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Results Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. Conclusions We

  3. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherby, Josh; Giardini, Jamie-Lee; Nguyen, Julia; Wessel, Gary; Leguia, Mariana; Heyland, Andreas

    2012-04-27

    A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement) is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval state until suitable settlement sites are encountered, at which point the larvae settle in response to settlement cues. The mechanistic basis for metamorphosis (the morphogenetic transition from a larva to a juvenile including settlement), i.e. the molecular and cellular processes underlying metamorphosis in marine invertebrate species, is poorly understood. Histamine (HA), a neurotransmitter used for various physiological and developmental functions among animals, has a critical role in sea urchin fertilization and in the induction of metamorphosis. Here we test the premise that HA functions as a developmental modulator of metamorphic competence in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Our results provide strong evidence that HA leads to the acquisition of metamorphic competence in S. purpuratus larvae. Pharmacological analysis of several HA receptor antagonists and an inhibitor of HA synthesis indicates a function of HA in metamorphic competence as well as programmed cell death (PCD) during arm retraction. Furthermore we identified an extensive network of histaminergic neurons in pre-metamorphic and metamorphically competent larvae. Analysis of this network throughout larval development indicates that the maturation of specific neuronal clusters correlates with the acquisition of metamorphic competence. Moreover, histamine receptor antagonist treatment leads to the induction of caspase mediated apoptosis in competent larvae. We conclude that HA is a modulator of metamorphic competence in S

  4. Association of myostatin variants with growth traits of Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Guo, Huihui; Feng, Liying; Li, Xue; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2016-02-01

    Scallop is a popular sea food and an important aquaculture shellfish. Identification of genes and genetic variants relating to scallop growth could benefit high-yielding scallop breeding. Myostatin ( MSTN) is a conservative regulator of muscle growth, and has become one of the most important target genes for genetic improvement of the production of farmed animals. In this study, four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in the 5' flanking region of MSTN gene ( CfMSTN) in Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri). The association of these SNPs with scallop growth traits, including shell length, shell height, body weight and striated muscle weight was analyzed. The SNP g-1162Gscallops showed significantly higher trait values than those of GT type, and the GG type individuals exhibited median values. On the contrary, significantly more CfMSTN transcripts were detected in the striated muscle of GT type scallops than in those of TT and GG type ones. Our results suggested that CfMSTN might regulate the scallop muscle growth negatively, and SNP g-1162Gscallop.

  5. Production of Chitosan from Amusium sp Scallop Shell Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokhati, Nur; Istirokhatun, Titik; Titik Apriyanti, Dwi; Susanto, Heru

    2017-02-01

    Chitosan is one of the natural polysaccharides, which is produced from chitin by deacetylation process. In this study, chitosan was produced from Amusium sp scallop shell waste. First, chitin was isolated by extraction via deproteinization using alkaline solution followed by demineralization using acid solution. Thereafter, chitosan was resulted from deacetylation of chitin using a high concentration of alkaline solution. The chemical structure of chitin and chitosan products was characterized using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR).

  6. Phosphoproteomes of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus shell and tooth matrix: identification of a major acidic sea urchin tooth phosphoprotein, phosphodontin

    OpenAIRE

    Mann Matthias; Poustka Albert J; Mann Karlheinz

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Sea urchin is a major model organism for developmental biology and biomineralization research. However, identification of proteins involved in larval skeleton formation and mineralization processes in the embryo and adult, and the molecular characterization of such proteins, has just gained momentum with the sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome and the introduction of high-throughput proteomics into the field. Results The present report contains the deter...

  7. Ocean acidification research in the 'post-genomic' era: Roadmaps from the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Tyler G; Padilla-Gamiño, Jacqueline L; Kelly, Morgan W; Pespeni, Melissa H; Chan, Francis; Menge, Bruce A; Gaylord, Brian; Hill, Tessa M; Russell, Ann D; Palumbi, Stephen R; Sanford, Eric; Hofmann, Gretchen E

    2015-07-01

    Advances in nucleic acid sequencing technology are removing obstacles that historically prevented use of genomics within ocean change biology. As one of the first marine calcifiers to have its genome sequenced, purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) have been the subject of early research exploring genomic responses to ocean acidification, work that points to future experiments and illustrates the value of expanding genomic resources to other marine organisms in this new 'post-genomic' era. This review presents case studies of S. purpuratus demonstrating the ability of genomic experiments to address major knowledge gaps within ocean acidification. Ocean acidification research has focused largely on species vulnerability, and studies exploring mechanistic bases of tolerance toward low pH seawater are comparatively few. Transcriptomic responses to high pCO₂ seawater in a population of urchins already encountering low pH conditions have cast light on traits required for success in future oceans. Secondly, there is relatively little information on whether marine organisms possess the capacity to adapt to oceans progressively decreasing in pH. Genomics offers powerful methods to investigate evolutionary responses to ocean acidification and recent work in S. purpuratus has identified genes under selection in acidified seawater. Finally, relatively few ocean acidification experiments investigate how shifts in seawater pH combine with other environmental factors to influence organism performance. In S. purpuratus, transcriptomics has provided insight into physiological responses of urchins exposed simultaneously to warmer and more acidic seawater. Collectively, these data support that similar breakthroughs will occur as genomic resources are developed for other marine species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization and expression analysis of Galnts in developing Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber L Famiglietti

    Full Text Available Mucin-type O-glycosylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification in which N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc is added to the hydroxyl group of select serine or threonine residues of a protein by the family of UDP-GalNAc:Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts; EC 2.4.1.41. Previous studies demonstrate that O-glycosylation plays essential roles in protein function, cell-cell interactions, cell polarity and differentiation in developing mouse and Drosophila embryos. Although this type of protein modification is highly conserved among higher eukaryotes, little is known about this family of enzymes in echinoderms, basal deuterostome relatives of the chordates. To investigate the potential role of GalNAc-Ts in echinoderms, we have begun the characterization of this enzyme family in the purple sea urchin, S. purpuratus. We have fully or partially cloned a total of 13 genes (SpGalnts encoding putative sea urchin SpGalNAc-Ts, and have confirmed enzymatic activity of five recombinant proteins. Amino acid alignments revealed high sequence similarity among sea urchin and mammalian glycosyltransferases, suggesting the presence of putative orthologues. Structural models underscored these similarities and helped reconcile some of the substrate preferences observed. Temporal and spatial expression of SpGalnt transcripts, was studied by whole-mount in situ hybridization. We found that many of these genes are transcribed early in developing embryos, often with restricted expression to the endomesodermal region. Multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH demonstrated that transcripts encoding SpGalnt7-2 co-localized with both Endo16 (a gene expressed in the endoderm, and Gcm (a gene expressed in secondary mesenchyme cells at the early blastula stage, 20 hours post fertilization (hpf. At late blastula stage (28 hpf, SpGalnt7-2 message co-expresses with Gcm, suggesting that it may play a role in secondary mesenchyme development. We

  9. Response to selection for shell length in the noble scallop, Chlamys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The noble scallop, Chlamys nobilis is one of the most economically important fishery and aquaculture species in the southern coast of China. In the present study, we conducted a one generation mass selection for shell length in a cultured noble scallop stock with a selection intensity of 1.732, to examine their response to ...

  10. 50 CFR 648.60 - Sea scallop area access program requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Management Measures for the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery § 648.60 Sea scallop area access program....83(a)(1), and the additional restrictions for Atlantic cod, haddock, and yellowtail flounder... (d)(4). (A) Atlantic cod. Such vessel may bring onboard and possess only up to 100 lb (45.4 kg) of...

  11. 76 FR 40674 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Scallops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-11

    ... prevent overfishing in the target fishery for weathervane scallops. Implementing these measures would... estimate of spawning biomass for weathervane scallops, the overfishing level (OFL) is specified as the MSY...-Stevens Act relative to preventing overfishing and establishing an ABC and ACL. The following is a summary...

  12. 76 FR 23794 - Stock Status Determination for Atlantic Highly Migratory Scalloped Hammerhead Shark

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-28

    ... Scalloped Hammerhead Shark AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... an Atlantic highly migratory species (HMS) scalloped hammerhead shark, and the stock is overfished... sharks in U.S. waters. Based on this paper, in 2005, the population was estimated to be at 45 percent of...

  13. Spatial and temporal variation in results of purple urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) toxicity tests with zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, B.M.; Anderson, B.S.; Hunt, J.W. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Inst. of Marine Sciences

    1998-03-01

    Purple urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) were maintained in year-round spawning condition in the laboratory for use in fertilization and larval development experiments designed to assess temporal variability in response to zinc. Results of these tests were compared to those from tests using gametes obtained from a field-collected population. Fertilization and larval development tests were also conducted comparing field-collected purple urchins from three geographically distinct groups on the West Coast of the United States. Fertilization tests conducted to assess temporal variability produced variable median effects concentrations (EC50s) ranging from 4.1 to >100 {micro}g/L zinc. Larval development tests did not demonstrate significant differences in response to zinc between geographically distinct purple urchin populations. Fertilization test variability was examined in terms of sperm concentration and sperm collection method during two seasons. Reduced variability was found with dry sperm collection in tests conducted in March 1995 but increased again in tests conducted in June 1995, regardless of sperm collection method. Increased variability in response to zinc may be caused by seasonal temperature effects.

  14. Genetic analysis of the purplish Washington clam (Saxidomus purpuratus Sowerby) of Korean coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eun-Seob; Seo, Young-Il; Suh, Young-Sang

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the genetic structure of the purplish Washington clam population, Saxidomus purpuratus Sowerby, in Korea. A portion of mitochondrial COI gene sequences (605 bp) for phylogenetic comparison was determined. Sequence analysis of 62 individuals collected from six regions revealed 13 haplotypes. Phylogenetic analysis using Phylogeny Inference Package (PHYLIP) subdivided the purplish Washington clam into two clades (termed clade A and B), weak supported groups (Yeosu, Samcheonpo, Jubyeon and Geojedo, and the other at Sineju. Population genetic analysis subdivided these two population groups with a geographic distance (d = 0.431, p = 0.379). Furthermore, in the Sineju population, the maximum sequence divergence (2.67%) and minimum nucleotide diversity (0.0012426) were shown in which might be reflective of a relatively small population size and the geographical isolation of the population as compared with other populations. However, a very high migration rate (N(m) = 59.62-infinite) and a very low level of geographic distance (F(ST) = -0.076-0.055) were noted to exist among the South and East Sea populations, suggesting that individuals between populations should show a significantly active genetic mixing and migration regardless of geography. These findings allowed us to conclude that the purplish Washington clam populations occurring in the South and East Sea were formed with randomly dispersed individuals.

  15. Effects of Seawater Acidification on Cell Cycle Control Mechanisms in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Place, Sean P.; Smith, Bryan W.

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have shown fertilization and development of marine species can be significantly inhibited when the pH of sea water is artificially lowered. Little mechanistic understanding of these effects exists to date, but previous work has linked developmental inhibition to reduced cleavage rates in embryos. To explore this further, we tested whether common cell cycle checkpoints were involved using three cellular biomarkers of cell cycle progression: (1) the onset of DNA synthesis, (2) production of a mitotic regulator, cyclin B, and (3) formation of the mitotic spindle. We grew embryos of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, in seawater artifically buffered to a pH of ∼7.0, 7.5, and 8.0 by CO2 infusion. Our results suggest the reduced rates of mitotic cleavage are likely unrelated to common cell cycle checkpoints. We found no significant differences in the three biomarkers assessed between pH treatments, indicating the embryos progress through the G1/S, G2/M and metaphase/anaphase transitions at relatively similar rates. These data suggest low pH environments may not impact developmental programs directly, but may act through secondary mechanisms such as cellular energetics. PMID:22479526

  16. Meat Composition and Quality Assessment of King Scallops (Pecten maximus and Frozen Atlantic Sea Scallops (Placopecten magellanicus on a Retail Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Manthey-Karl

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available An enlarged range of scallop products on the market allows the consumer to buy lower priced alternatives, which often raises the question of quality and control. Frozen meat of king scallops (Pecten maximus and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus were purchased on the German market and compared with fresh shell-on king scallops of various origin. The approximate composition, inclusive citric acid and phosphates, minerals, free amino acids (FAA and fatty acid profiles were examined in the muscle to identify changes as a result of processing. The FAA glycine and taurine as well the fatty acids 20:5n-3 (EPA and 22:6n-3 (DHA were the most abundant, but were reduced in processed samples. Di- and triphosphate contents were not detectable (<0.01 g·kg−1 in untreated meats. Most frozen scallop products contained added citrates and polyphosphates and had distinctly higher water contents (up to 89% and an increased moisture to protein ratio (M/P (up to 9 compared with the fresh king scallops (78%, M/P < 5. Labelling of species, verified by PCR-based DNA analysis, and ingredients were not correct in each case. Overall results indicated no relevant differences in mineral content, except high sodium contents, resulting from additives. Labelling does not readily allow the consumer to recognize the extent of processing effects.

  17. Purification, characterization, and assembly properties of tubulin from unfertilized eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detrich, H W; Wilson, L

    1983-05-10

    Tubulin was purified from unfertilized eggs of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus by chromatography of an egg supernatant fraction on DEAE-Sephacel or DEAE-cellulose followed by cycles of temperature-dependent microtubule assembly and disassembly in vitro. After two assembly cycles, the microtubule protein consisted of the alpha- and beta-tubulins (greater than 98% of the protein) and trace quantities of seven proteins with molecular weights less than 55 000; no associated proteins with molecular weights greater than tubulin were observed. When analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis on urea-polyacrylamide gradient gels, the alpha- and beta-tubulins did not precisely comigrate with their counterparts from bovine brain. Two-dimensional electrophoresis revealed that urchin egg tubulin contained two major alpha-tubulins and a single major beta species. No oligomeric structures were observed in tubulin preparations maintained at 0 degrees C. Purified egg tubulin assembled efficiently into microtubules when warmed to 37 degrees C in a glycerol-free polymerization buffer containing guanosine 5'-triphosphate. The critical concentration for assembly of once- or twice-cycled egg tubulin was 0.12-0.15 mg/mL. Morphologically normal microtubules were observed by electron microscopy, and these microtubules were depolymerized by exposure to low temperature or to podophyllotoxin. Chromatography of a twice-cycled egg tubulin preparation on phosphocellulose did not alter its protein composition and did not affect its subsequent assembly into microtubules. At concentrations above 0.5-0.6 mg/mL, a concentration-dependent "overshoot" in turbidity was observed during the assembly reaction. These results suggest that egg tubulin assembles into microtubules in the absence of the ring-shaped oligomers and microtubule-associated proteins that characterize microtubule protein from vertebrate brain.

  18. Paradoxical scalloped placenta with polyhydramnios in twin-twin transfusion syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmait, Ramen H; Rossi, A Cristina; Quintero, Rubén A

    2007-01-01

    To describe the paradoxical occurrence of a scalloped placenta in the presence of polyhydramnios and assess its clinical significance in pregnancies complicated by twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) treated with laser therapy. All patients who underwent laser therapy for TTTS between January 2003 and April 2004 were studied. TTTS was diagnosed and staged using the Quintero staging system. Normally the placenta is characterized by undulations of the fetal-placental surface visible by ultrasound (scalloped placenta). Patients with polyhydramnios will typically have a flattened, smooth, non-scalloped placenta. Operative tapes were reviewed and placental type assigned. Pre-, intra-, and postoperative characteristics of each study patient were obtained. Fifteen of 120 patients (12.5%) were noted to have a scalloped placenta despite having polyhydramnios. There was no difference in mean gestational age at laser treatment (20.3+/-0.5 vs. 19.6+/-0.6 weeks, p=0.66) or in stage (p=0.07) between the two groups. The median and range preoperative maximum vertical pocket (MVP) in the recipient gestational sac differed significantly between the scalloped and non-scalloped patients (8.3 (8-12) vs. 10.5 (8-17), p=0.001). All 15 patients (100%) with a scalloped placenta required an amnioinfusion to expose all vascular anastomoses, while amnioinfusion was necessary in only 28 of the 105 patients (26.7%, por=8 cm in the recipient sac. Most patients will have a flattened placenta as a result of polyhydramnios in this sac. Our data show that a paradoxical scalloped placenta may still be present in approximately 12.5% of patients. This preoperative sonographic finding alerts to the potential need for amnioinfusion during laser therapy for TTTS to disclose all vessels to avoid missing placental vascular anastomoses. Amniocenteses should be avoided if possible in patients considering laser therapy to minimize the likelihood of iatrogenic placental scalloping.

  19. Scallop genome reveals molecular adaptations to semi-sessile life and neurotoxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yuli Li; Xiaoqing Sun; Xiaoli Hu; Xiaogang Xun; Jinbo Zhang; Ximing Guo; Wenqian Jiao; Lingling Zhang; Weizhi Liu; Jing Wang; Ji Li; Yan Sun; Yan Miao; Xiaokang Zhang; Taoran Cheng; Guoliang Xu; Xiaoteng Fu; Yangfan Wang; Xinran Yu; Xiaoting Huang; Wei Lu; Jia Lv; Chuang Mu; Dawei Wang; Xu Li; Yu Xia; Yajuan Li; Zhihui Yang; Fengliang Wang; Lu Zhang; Qiang Xing; Huaiqian Dou; Xianhui Ning; Jinzhuang Dou; Yangping Li; Dexu Kong; Yaran Liu; Zhi Jiang; Ruiqiang Li; Shi Wang; Zhenmin Bao

    2017-01-01

    .... Here, we investigate the genome, various transcriptomes, and proteomes of the scallop Chlamys farreri, a semi-sessile bivalve with well-developed adductor muscle, sophisticated eyes, and remarkable...

  20. Antibacterial characteristics of heated scallop-shell nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Fujimoto, Riku; Sawai, Jun; Kikuchi, Mikio; Yahata, Shinya; Satoh, Susumu

    2014-01-01

    Heated scallop-shell (HSS) nano-particles, prepared using a wet grinding mill, and microparticles were examined for their antibacterial activity against vegetative bacterial cells and spores. The median diameters of the nano-particles and micro-particles were approximately 20 nm and 30 µm, respectively. The antibacterial activity of HSS against Escherichia coli increased with an increase in concentration, regardless of particle size; however, the antibacterial activity of the nano-particles was much higher than that of micro-particles. The sporicidal activity of the nano-particles was also much higher than that of micro-particles, with HSS nano-particles able to kill Bacillus subtilis spores. A reduction of more than three orders of magnitude for B. subtilis spores was confirmed following a 30 min treatment at 5 mg/ml and 60℃, showing that the combination of HSS nano-particle treatment with mild heating was particularly effective for controlling bacterial spores.

  1. Is an Apicomplexan Parasite Responsible for the Collapse of the Iceland Scallop (Chlamys islandica) Stock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristmundsson, Árni; Erlingsdóttir, Ásthildur; Freeman, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Due to the total and unexpected collapse of the Iceland scallop, Chlamys islandica, stocks around Iceland during the 2000s, a commercial fishing ban has been imposed on this valuable resource since 2003. Following the initial identification of an apicomplexan parasite in the scallops, a long-term surveillance program was established to evaluate the effect of the parasite on the population. The infections were highly prevalent in all shell sizes throughout the study. However, the parasite only impacts mature scallops where they cause severe macroscopic changes, characterized by an extensively diminished and abnormally coloured adductor muscle. A highly significant relationship was observed between infection intensity and gonad and adductor muscle indices. The first four years of the study, were characterized by high infection intensity and very poor condition of the adductor muscle and gonads, whilst during subsequent years, infections gradually decreased and the condition of the scallops improved. Histopathological changes were restricted to the presence of apicomplexan zoites which were widely distributed, causing varying degrees of pathology in all organs. In heavy infections, muscular and connective tissues were totally necrotized, destroying significant parts of numerous organs, especially the adductor muscle, digestive gland and gonads. The progression of the disease was in good synchrony with the mortality rates and the subsequent decline observed in the scallop stock and recruitment indices. Our findings strongly suggest that the apicomplexan parasite played a major role in the collapse of the Iceland scallop stock in Breidafjordur. In addition to causing mortality, the infections significantly impact gonad development which contributes further to the collapse of the stock in the form of lower larval recruitment. Furthermore, compelling evidence exists that this apicomplexan pathogen is causing serious disease outbreaks in other scallop populations. Similar

  2. Habitat characteristics predicting distribution and abundance patterns of scallops in D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendo, Tania; Lyle, Jeremy M; Moltschaniwskyj, Natalie A; Tracey, Sean R; Semmens, Jayson M

    2014-01-01

    Habitat characteristics greatly influence the patterns of distribution and abundance in scallops, providing structure for the settlement of spat and influencing predation risk and rates of survival. Establishing scallop-habitat relationships is relevant to understanding the ecological processes that regulate scallop populations and to managing critical habitats. This information is particularly relevant for the D'Entrecasteaux Channel, south-eastern Tasmania (147.335 W, 43.220 S), a region that has supported significant but highly variable scallop production over many years, including protracted periods of stock collapse. Three species of scallops are present in the region; the commercial scallop Pecten fumatus, the queen scallop Equichlamys bifrons, and the doughboy scallop Mimachlamys asperrima. We used dive surveys and Generalized Additive Modelling to examine the relationship between the distribution and abundance patterns of each species and associated habitat characteristics. The aggregated distribution of each species could be predicted as a function of sediment type and species-specific habitat structural components. While P. fumatus was strongly associated with finer sediments and E. bifrons with coarse grain sediments, M. asperrima had a less selective association, possibly related to its ability to attach on a wide range of substrates. Other habitat characteristics explaining P. fumatus abundance were depth, Asterias amurensis abundance, shell and macroalgae cover. Equichlamys bifrons was strongly associated with macroalgae and seagrass cover, whereas M. asperrima abundance was greatly explained by sponge cover. The models define a set of relationships from which plausible hypotheses can be developed. We propose that these relationships are mediated by predation pressure as well as the specific behavioural characteristics of each species. The findings also highlight the specific habitat characteristics that are relevant for spatial management and habitat

  3. Habitat characteristics predicting distribution and abundance patterns of scallops in D'Entrecasteaux Channel, Tasmania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Mendo

    Full Text Available Habitat characteristics greatly influence the patterns of distribution and abundance in scallops, providing structure for the settlement of spat and influencing predation risk and rates of survival. Establishing scallop-habitat relationships is relevant to understanding the ecological processes that regulate scallop populations and to managing critical habitats. This information is particularly relevant for the D'Entrecasteaux Channel, south-eastern Tasmania (147.335 W, 43.220 S, a region that has supported significant but highly variable scallop production over many years, including protracted periods of stock collapse. Three species of scallops are present in the region; the commercial scallop Pecten fumatus, the queen scallop Equichlamys bifrons, and the doughboy scallop Mimachlamys asperrima. We used dive surveys and Generalized Additive Modelling to examine the relationship between the distribution and abundance patterns of each species and associated habitat characteristics. The aggregated distribution of each species could be predicted as a function of sediment type and species-specific habitat structural components. While P. fumatus was strongly associated with finer sediments and E. bifrons with coarse grain sediments, M. asperrima had a less selective association, possibly related to its ability to attach on a wide range of substrates. Other habitat characteristics explaining P. fumatus abundance were depth, Asterias amurensis abundance, shell and macroalgae cover. Equichlamys bifrons was strongly associated with macroalgae and seagrass cover, whereas M. asperrima abundance was greatly explained by sponge cover. The models define a set of relationships from which plausible hypotheses can be developed. We propose that these relationships are mediated by predation pressure as well as the specific behavioural characteristics of each species. The findings also highlight the specific habitat characteristics that are relevant for spatial

  4. Manipulation of Developing Juvenile Structures in Purple Sea Urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) by Morpholino Injection into Late Stage Larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Sea urchins have been used as experimental organisms for developmental biology for over a century. Yet, as is the case for many other marine invertebrates, understanding the development of the juveniles and adults has lagged far behind that of their embryos and larvae. The reasons for this are, in large part, due to the difficulty of experimentally manipulating juvenile development. Here we develop and validate a technique for injecting compounds into juvenile rudiments of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We first document the distribution of rhodaminated dextran injected into different compartments of the juvenile rudiment of sea urchin larvae. Then, to test the potential of this technique to manipulate development, we injected Vivo-Morpholinos (vMOs) designed to knock down p58b and p16, two proteins involved in the elongation of S. purpuratus larval skeleton. Rudiments injected with these vMOs showed a delay in the growth of some juvenile skeletal elements relative to controls. These data provide the first evidence that vMOs, which are designed to cross cell membranes, can be used to transiently manipulate gene function in later developmental stages in sea urchins. We therefore propose that injection of vMOs into juvenile rudiments, as shown here, is a viable approach to testing hypotheses about gene function during development, including metamorphosis. PMID:25436992

  5. Manipulation of developing juvenile structures in purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus by morpholino injection into late stage larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Heyland

    Full Text Available Sea urchins have been used as experimental organisms for developmental biology for over a century. Yet, as is the case for many other marine invertebrates, understanding the development of the juveniles and adults has lagged far behind that of their embryos and larvae. The reasons for this are, in large part, due to the difficulty of experimentally manipulating juvenile development. Here we develop and validate a technique for injecting compounds into juvenile rudiments of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We first document the distribution of rhodaminated dextran injected into different compartments of the juvenile rudiment of sea urchin larvae. Then, to test the potential of this technique to manipulate development, we injected Vivo-Morpholinos (vMOs designed to knock down p58b and p16, two proteins involved in the elongation of S. purpuratus larval skeleton. Rudiments injected with these vMOs showed a delay in the growth of some juvenile skeletal elements relative to controls. These data provide the first evidence that vMOs, which are designed to cross cell membranes, can be used to transiently manipulate gene function in later developmental stages in sea urchins. We therefore propose that injection of vMOs into juvenile rudiments, as shown here, is a viable approach to testing hypotheses about gene function during development, including metamorphosis.

  6. Substratum cavities affect growth-plasticity, allometry, movement and feeding rates in the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, J C; Russell, M P

    2010-02-01

    We assessed the influence of rock cavities, or pits, on the growth dynamics and behavior of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. In a paired-designed, laboratory experiment, sea urchins were assigned to sandstone blocks that were either 'Flat' or had a 'Pit' drilled into the center. At the start, both groups were approximately the same shape and size. In just 2 months, the shapes of the tests were significantly different between the two treatments, with the Pit urchins having an increased height:diameter profile. This result demonstrates the plastic nature of the sea urchin test and that, despite its apparent rigidity, it is capable of deforming during growth. In addition, the presence of pits modified behavior and food consumption as well as allometric growth of the test and Aristotle's lantern. Sea urchins on Pit sandstone blocks tended to stay in the cavities and not move about the flat areas, whereas individuals on Flat blocks changed position. Sea urchins in the Pit treatment consumed less food and had relatively larger demipyramids (the 'jaw' ossicle in Aristotle's lantern). These morphological and allometric changes occurred over a short time-period (8-20 weeks). We conclude that microhabitat is an important factor in controlling the behavior and growth dynamics of the bioeroding sea urchin S. purpuratus.

  7. A de novo transcriptome of the noble scallop, Chlamys nobilis, focusing on mining transcripts for carotenoid-based coloration

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Helu; Zheng, Huaiping; Zhang, Hongkuan; Deng, Longhui; Liu, Wenhua; Wang, Shuqi; Meng, Fang; Wang, Yajun; Guo, Zhicheng; Li, Shengkang; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-01-01

    Background The noble scallop Chlamys nobilis Reeve displays polymorphism in shell and muscle colors. Previous research showed that the orange scallops with orange shell and muscle had a significantly higher carotenoid content than the brown ones with brown shell and white muscle. There is currently a need to identify candidate genes associated with carotenoid-based coloration. Results In the present study, 454 GS-FLX sequencing of noble scallop transcriptome yielded 1,181,060 clean sequence r...

  8. Changes in trophic flow structure of Independence Bay (Peru) over an ENSO cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marc H.; Wolff, Matthias; Mendo, Jaime; Yamashiro, Carmen

    2008-10-01

    During the strong warm El Niño (EN) that occurred in 1997/98, Independence Bay (14°S, Peru) showed a ca. 10 °C increase in surface temperatures, higher oxygen concentrations, and clearer water due to decreased phytoplankton concentrations. Under these quasi-tropical conditions, many benthic species suffered (e.g. macroalgae, portunid crabs, and polychaetes) while others benefited (e.g. scallop, sea stars, and sea urchins). The most obvious change was the strong recruitment success and subsequent proliferation of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, whose biomass increased fiftyfold. To understand these changes, steady-state models of the bay ecosystem trophic structure were constructed and compared for a normal upwelling year (1996) and during an EN (1998), and longer-term dynamics (1996-2003) were explored based on time series of catch and biomass using Ecopath with Ecosim (EwE) software. Model inputs were based on surveys and landings data collected by the Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE). Results indicate that while ecosystem size (total throughput) is reduced by 18% during EN, mainly as a result of decreased total primary production, benthic biomass remains largely unchanged despite considerable shifts in the dominant benthic taxa (e.g. scallops replace polychaetes as secondary consumers). Under normal upwelling conditions, predation by snails and crabs utilize the production of their prey almost completely, resulting in more efficient energy flow to higher trophic levels than occurs during EN. However during EN, the proliferation of the scallop A. purpuratus combined with decreased phytoplankton increased the proportion of directly utilized primary production, while exports and flows to detritus are reduced. The simulations suggest that the main cause for the scallop outburst and for the reduction in crab and macroalgae biomass was a direct temperature effect, whereas other changes are partially explained by trophic interactions. The simulations suggest

  9. Phosphoproteomes of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus shell and tooth matrix: identification of a major acidic sea urchin tooth phosphoprotein, phosphodontin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Karlheinz; Poustka, Albert J; Mann, Matthias

    2010-02-08

    Sea urchin is a major model organism for developmental biology and biomineralization research. However, identification of proteins involved in larval skeleton formation and mineralization processes in the embryo and adult, and the molecular characterization of such proteins, has just gained momentum with the sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome and the introduction of high-throughput proteomics into the field. The present report contains the determination of test (shell) and tooth organic matrix phosphoproteomes. Altogether 34 phosphoproteins were identified in the biomineral organic matrices. Most phosphoproteins were specific for one compartment, only two were identified in both matrices. The sea urchin phosphoproteomes contained several obvious orthologs of mammalian proteins, such as a Src family tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C-delta 1, Dickkopf-1 and other signal transduction components, or nucleobindin. In most cases phosphorylation sites were conserved between sea urchin and mammalian proteins. However, the majority of phosphoproteins had no mammalian counterpart. The most interesting of the sea urchin-specific phosphoproteins, from the perspective of biomineralization research, was an abundant highly phosphorylated and very acidic tooth matrix protein composed of 35 very similar short sequence repeats, a predicted N-terminal secretion signal sequence, and an Asp-rich C-terminal motif, contained in [Glean3:18919]. The 64 phosphorylation sites determined represent the most comprehensive list of experimentally identified sea urchin protein phosphorylation sites at present and are an important addition to the recently analyzed Strongylocentrotus purpuratus shell and tooth proteomes. The identified phosphoproteins included a major, highly phosphorylated protein, [Glean3:18919], for which we suggest the name phosphodontin. Although not sequence-related to such highly phosphorylated acidic mammalian dental phosphoproteins as phosphoryn or

  10. Phosphoproteomes of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus shell and tooth matrix: identification of a major acidic sea urchin tooth phosphoprotein, phosphodontin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Matthias

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sea urchin is a major model organism for developmental biology and biomineralization research. However, identification of proteins involved in larval skeleton formation and mineralization processes in the embryo and adult, and the molecular characterization of such proteins, has just gained momentum with the sequencing of the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome and the introduction of high-throughput proteomics into the field. Results The present report contains the determination of test (shell and tooth organic matrix phosphoproteomes. Altogether 34 phosphoproteins were identified in the biomineral organic matrices. Most phosphoproteins were specific for one compartment, only two were identified in both matrices. The sea urchin phosphoproteomes contained several obvious orthologs of mammalian proteins, such as a Src family tyrosine kinase, protein kinase C-delta 1, Dickkopf-1 and other signal transduction components, or nucleobindin. In most cases phosphorylation sites were conserved between sea urchin and mammalian proteins. However, the majority of phosphoproteins had no mammalian counterpart. The most interesting of the sea urchin-specific phosphoproteins, from the perspective of biomineralization research, was an abundant highly phosphorylated and very acidic tooth matrix protein composed of 35 very similar short sequence repeats, a predicted N-terminal secretion signal sequence, and an Asp-rich C-terminal motif, contained in [Glean3:18919]. Conclusions The 64 phosphorylation sites determined represent the most comprehensive list of experimentally identified sea urchin protein phosphorylation sites at present and are an important addition to the recently analyzed Strongylocentrotus purpuratus shell and tooth proteomes. The identified phosphoproteins included a major, highly phosphorylated protein, [Glean3:18919], for which we suggest the name phosphodontin. Although not sequence-related to such highly phosphorylated

  11. Electroreception in juvenile scalloped hammerhead and sandbar sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiura, Stephen M; Holland, Kim N

    2002-12-01

    The unique head morphology of sphyrnid sharks might have evolved to enhance electrosensory capabilities. The 'enhanced electroreception' hypothesis was tested by comparing the behavioral responses of similarly sized carcharhinid and sphyrnid sharks to prey-simulating electric stimuli. Juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini and sandbar sharks Carcharhinus plumbeus oriented to dipole electric fields from the same maximum distance (approximately 30 cm) and thus demonstrated comparable behavioral-response thresholds (hammerheads typically demonstrated a pivot orientation in which the edge of the cephalofoil closest to the dipole remained stationary while the shark bent its trunk to orient to the center of the dipole. By contrast, sandbars swam in a broader arc towards the center of the dipole. The different orientation patterns are attributed to the hydrodynamic properties of the cephalofoil, which enables the hammerheads to execute sharp turns at high speed. The greater trunk width of the sandbar sharks prevented them from demonstrating the same degree of flexibility. Therefore, although the sphyrnid head morphology does not appear to confer a greater sensitivity to prey-simulating dipole electric fields, it does provide (1). a greater lateral search area, which may increase the probability of prey encounter, and (2). enhanced maneuverability, which may aid in prey capture.

  12. Global phylogeography of the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, K M; Martin, A P; Bowen, B W; DE Couet, H G

    2006-07-01

    Large marine fishes typically have little population genetic structure. The exceptions are associated with sedentary behaviour, disjunct distributions, or reproductive philopatry. Scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) incorporate the contrasting traits of oceanic habitat (usually associated with high dispersal) and possible fidelity to nursery grounds (for reproductive females). To evaluate the expectations of these contrasting behaviours, we examined the global genetic structure of S. lewini based on collections (n = 271 individuals) from 20 nursery areas. A 548-bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA control region revealed 22 polymorphic sites, 24 haplotypes, and three lineages distinguished by 2.56-3.77% sequence divergence. Coalescence analyses based on a provisional molecular clock indicate an origin in the Indo-West Pacific with late Pleistocene radiations into the central Pacific (Hawaii) and eastern Pacific (Central America), as well as recent interchange between oceans via southern Africa. Population subdivisions are strong (overall Phi(ST) = 0.749, P 10). We conclude that nursery populations linked by continuous coastline have high connectivity, but that oceanic dispersal by females is rare. Although we cannot rule out philopatry to natal nurseries, oceanic barriers appear to have a much stronger influence on the genetic architecture of this species and may indicate a mechanism for recent evolutionary radiations in the genus Sphyrna.

  13. Kinematics and critical swimming speed of juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe

    1996-01-01

    Kinematics and critical swimming speed (Ucrit) of juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini were measured in a Brett-type flume (635 l). Kinematic parameters were also measured in sharks swimming in a large pond for comparison with those of sharks swimming in the flume. Sharks in the flume exhibited a mean Ucrit of 65±11 cm s-1 (± s.d.) or 1.17±0.21 body lengths per second (L s-1), which are similar to values for other species of sharks. In both the flume and pond, tailbeat frequency (TBF) and stride length (LS) increased linearly with increases in relative swimming speed (Urel=body lengths traveled per second). In the flume, tailbeat amplitude (TBA) decreased with increasing speed whereas TBA did not change with speed in the pond. Differences in TBF and LS between sharks swimming in the flume and the pond decreased with increases in Urel. Sharks swimming at slow speeds (e.g. 0.55 L s-1) in the pond had LS 19 % longer and TBF 21 % lower than sharks in the flume at the same Urel. This implies that sharks in the flume expended more energy while swimming at comparable velocities. Comparative measurements of swimming kinematics from sharks in the pond can be used to correct for effects of the flume on shark swimming kinematics and energetics.

  14. Insular dentin formation pattern in human odontogenesis in relation to the scalloped dentino-enamel junction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radlanski, Ralf J; Renz, Herbert

    2007-01-01

    This study is a first report on the modality of early dentin formation in respect to the scalloped pattern of the dentino-enamel junction (DEJ). We applied scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), histological serial sections, and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions. TEM and SEM showed scallops and secondary scallops on the DEJ of deciduous dental primordia and on deciduous teeth with the enamel cap removed. This peculiar outline of the DEJ requires a specific dentin formation pattern; histological sections showed that dentin formation began at the brims of the scallops, seen as triangular spikes in serial sections. The dentin formation front was not uniform; instead, it was characterized by multiple, insular forming centers, as revealed by our 3D reconstructions. As thicker dentin layers formed, the islands became confluent. Factors are discussed, which may lead to crimpling of the inner enamel epithelium, and maintained as the scalloped pattern of the DEJ develops. Signaling patterns in accordance with the insular dentin formation are unknown so far.

  15. Species Profiles. Life Histories and Environmental Requirements of Coastal Fishes and Invertebrates (Mid-Atlantic). BAY SCALLOP,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    bottom was probably Maritime waters. Robert (1978) caused by heavy siltation of holding recommended that if scallops were cages at that depth; many...1961. Studies on the grass. Ecology 28: 321-322. bay scallop in Alligator Harbour , Florida. Ph.D. Thesis. Florida Marshall, N. 1960. Studies of the

  16. Effect of ultrasound pretreatment on hot air drying rate of scallop muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yaxiang; Fan, Xuejie; Bi, Yujing

    2017-05-01

    To improve the drying rate and to reduce the energy consumption of aquatic product, scallop muscles were treated by ultrasonic with different frequency, time and different temperature. The hot air drying rate of treated scallop muscles was determined, and, meanwhile, several quality parameters such as the shrinkage and rehydration rate of samples with pretreatment were determined to compare with those of untreated samples. The results indicated that the drying rate of scallop muscles can be improved by the ultrasonic pretreatment without affecting the quality. Under a 70 kHz for 30min at 25°C, the drying rate of pretreatments is 1.29 times higher compared with that of the control group.

  17. Caracterización de algunas técnicas de inmunofluorescencia y de fluorescencia en mejillones chilenos Perumytilus purpuratus y Semimytilus algosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Garrido

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gametos y estadios larvales de los mejillones P. purpuratus y S. algosus fueron tratados in vitro con técnicas de fluorescencia y no fluorescencia a fin de detectar microfilamentos, DNA y gránulos corticales involucrados con estadios de la reproducción como fertilización y clivaje. En P. purouratus se detectó tubulina a nivel de los cilios y el velum; asimismo, la actina fue detectada desde el estadio de fertilización a los estadios de desarrollo tanto en P purpuratus como en S. algosus, lo que sugiere que no son descartados durante el proceso de fertilización. Los microfilamentos detectados en ambos mejillones sugieren que ellos juegan un rol importante como integrante del citoesqueleto durante el desarrollo.

  18. A de novo transcriptome of the noble scallop, Chlamys nobilis, focusing on mining transcripts for carotenoid-based coloration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Helu; Zheng, Huaiping; Zhang, Hongkuan; Deng, Longhui; Liu, Wenhua; Wang, Shuqi; Meng, Fang; Wang, Yajun; Guo, Zhicheng; Li, Shengkang; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-02-05

    The noble scallop Chlamys nobilis Reeve displays polymorphism in shell and muscle colors. Previous research showed that the orange scallops with orange shell and muscle had a significantly higher carotenoid content than the brown ones with brown shell and white muscle. There is currently a need to identify candidate genes associated with carotenoid-based coloration. In the present study, 454 GS-FLX sequencing of noble scallop transcriptome yielded 1,181,060 clean sequence reads, which were assembled into 49,717 isotigs, leaving 110,158 reads as the singletons. Of the 159,875 unique sequences, 11.84% isotigs and 9.35% singletons were annotated. Moreover, 3,844 SSRs and over 120,000 high confidence variants (SNPs and INDELs) were identified. Especially, one class B scavenge receptor termed SRB-like-3 was discovered to express only in orange scallops and absent in brown ones, suggesting a significant association with high carotenoid content. Down-regulation of SRB-like-3 mRNA by RNA interference remarkably decreased blood carotenoid, providing compelling evidence that SRB-like-3 is an ideal candidate gene controlling carotenoid deposition and determining orange coloration. Transcriptome analysis of noble scallop reveals a novel scavenger receptor significantly associated with orange scallop rich in carotenoid content. Our findings pave the way for further functional elucidation of this gene and molecular basis of carotenoid deposition in orange scallop.

  19. Efecto de dietas con diferentes concentraciones de lactobacilos sp sobre el crecimiento y supervivencia de alevines de oreochromis niloticus

    OpenAIRE

    Saldan?a R., Guillermo B.; Fukushima N., Manuel M.

    2013-01-01

    Se evaluo? el efecto de dietas conteniendo 2, 4 y 8% de lactobacilos sp enriquecido con protei?na hidrolizada de vi?sceras de Argopecten purpuratus, sobre el crecimiento y supervivencia de alevines de Oreochromis niloticus en laboratorio.

  20. 78 FR 73499 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Atlantic Sea Scallops Amendment 10 Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... Sea Scallops Amendment 10 Data Collection AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... regulations implementing the FMP are at 50 CFR Part 648. To successfully implement and administer components...; broken trip adjustment and access area trip exchange, 10 minutes; VMS purchase and installation, 2 hours...

  1. 75 FR 36559 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... full-time vessel had an unused 9,000-lb (4,082-kg) NLAA compensation trip (half of the full possession...: Total allowable catch (TAC); open area days-at-sea (DAS) and Sea Scallop Access Area (access area) trip... F target (0.24), in addition to the revised DAS model, would better achieve OY while also being...

  2. 77 FR 52 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... scallop gear as well. Overall, data suggest that sea turtles are most likely to be present in areas that... cutting bar and the top of the dredge frame must be less than or equal to 45 degrees. (3) All bale bars... reduce the likelihood of a sea turtle passing under the dredge frame when the gear is on the seafloor...

  3. 76 FR 43773 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... calculate each vessel's IFQ for a given FY. For the LA fleet, Amendment 15 set a management uncertainty... Framework Adjustment 22 (Framework 22) to the Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery Management Plan (FMP), which was developed and adopted by the New England Fishery Management Council (Council). The specifications in...

  4. Variability in multiple paternity rates for grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) and scalloped hammerheads (Sphyrna lewini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M E; Appleyard, S A; White, W; Tracey, S; Ovenden, J

    2017-05-08

    This study assessed the presence and prevalence of multiple paternity (MP) in litters of grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos) and scalloped hammerheads (Sphyrna lewini) opportunistically caught in Papua New Guinea (PNG). Litter size between species were significantly different with an average of 3.3 pups for grey reef sharks and 17.2 pups for scalloped hammerhead. Using 14 and 10 microsatellite loci respectively, we identified MP in 66% of grey reef sharks (4 out of 6 litters) and 100% MP in scalloped hammerheads (5 litters). We found high paternal skew (the uneven contribution of sires per litter) and a positive correlation between female adult size and litter size in scalloped hammerheads but not in grey reef sharks. Differences in the frequency of MP between species and the identification of paternal skew may be linked with mating strategies and post-copulatory mechanisms. Multiple paternity is thought to benefit populations by enhancing genetic diversity therefore increasing the population's genetic resilience to extrinsic pressures. The identification of MP in two shark species reported here, further elucidates the complex breeding strategies elasmobranchs undertake.

  5. Response to selection for shell length in the noble scallop, Chlamys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    2012-05-03

    May 3, 2012 ... rising consumption of scallop products and the decline of natural resource have led to increasing aquaculture practices and stock transfer of this species (Ma and Yu,. 2009). At present, genetic improvement of cultured populations to obtain new strains suitable for culture. (example strains with higher growth ...

  6. 76 FR 61996 - Fishery Management Plan for the Scallop Fishery Off Alaska; Amendment 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ...) and accountability measures (AMs) to prevent overfishing in the target fishery for weathervane... absence of a statewide estimate of spawning biomass for weathervane scallops, the overfishing level (OFL... the Magnuson-Stevens Act relative to preventing overfishing and establishing an ABC and ACL. The...

  7. Hydrolysates from scallop and squid processing byproducts as specialty aquafeed ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Around 9,000 MT of squid (Loligo pealei) is landed annually in Rhode Island, USA, most of which is processed resulting in 40-50% unutilized byproducts (about 3,500 MT). On the other hand, the sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) resource off New England is currently at historic high levels of 22,7...

  8. The immunomodulation of acetylcholinesterase in zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Shi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Acetycholinesterase (AChE; EC 3.1.1.7 is an essential hydrolytic enzyme in the cholinergic nervous system, which plays an important role during immunomodulation in vertebrates. Though AChEs have been identified in most invertebrates, the knowledge about immunomodulation function of AChE is still quite meagre in invertebrates. METHODOLOGY: A scallop AChE gene was identified from Chlamys farreri (designed as CfAChE, and its open reading frame encoded a polypeptide of 522 amino acids. A signal peptide, an active site triad, the choline binding site and the peripheral anionic sites (PAS were identified in CfAChE. The recombinant mature polypeptide of CfAChE (rCfAChE was expressed in Pichia pastoris GS115, and its activity was 71.3±1.3 U mg(-1 to catalyze the hydrolysis of acetylthiocholine iodide. The mRNA transcripts of CfAChE were detected in haemocytes, hepatopancreas, adductor muscle, mantle, gill, kidney and gonad, with the highest expression level in hepatopancreas. The relative expression level of CfAChE mRNA in haemocytes was both up-regulated after LPS (0.5 mg mL(-1 and human TNF-α (50 ng mL(-1 stimulations, and it reached the highest level at 12 h (10.4-fold, P<0.05 and 1 h (3.2-fold, P<0.05, respectively. After Dichlorvos (DDVP (50 mg L(-1 stimulation, the CfAChE activity in the supernatant of haemolymph decreased significantly from 0.16 U mg(-1 at 0 h to 0.03 U mg(-1 at 3 h, while the expression level of lysozyme in the haemocytes was up-regulated and reached the highest level at 6 h, which was 3.0-fold (P<0.05 of that in the blank group. CONCLUSIONS: The results collectively indicated that CfAChE had the acetylcholine-hydrolyzing activity, which was in line with the potential roles of AChE in the neuroimmune system of vertebrates which may help to re-balance the immune system after immune response.

  9. Protein tyrosine and serine–threonine phosphatases in the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus: Identification and potential functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrum, C.A.; Walton, K.D.; Robertson, A.J.; Carbonneau, S.; Thomason, R.T.; Coffman, J.A.; McClay, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    Protein phosphatases, in coordination with protein kinases, play crucial roles in regulation of signaling pathways. To identify protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) and serine–threonine (ser–thr) phosphatases in the Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genome, 179 annotated sequences were studied (122 PTPs, 57 ser–thr phosphatases). Sequence analysis identified 91 phosphatases (33 conventional PTPs, 31 dual specificity phosphatases, 1 Class III Cysteine-based PTP, 1 Asp-based PTP, and 25 ser–thr phosphatases). Using catalytic sites, levels of conservation and constraint in amino acid sequence were examined. Nine of 25 receptor PTPs (RPTPs) corresponded to human, nematode, or fly homologues. Domain structure revealed that sea urchin-specific RPTPs including two, PTPRLec and PTPRscav, may act in immune defense. Embryonic transcription of each phosphatase was recorded from a high-density oligonucleotide tiling microarray experiment. Most RPTPs are expressed at very low levels, whereas nonreceptor PTPs (NRPTPs) are generally expressed at moderate levels. High expression was detected in MAP kinase phosphatases (MKPs) and numerous ser–thr phosphatases. For several expressed NRPTPs, MKPs, and ser–thr phosphatases, morpholino antisense-mediated knockdowns were performed and phenotypes obtained. Finally, to assess roles of annotated phosphatases in endomesoderm formation, a literature review of phosphatase functions in model organisms was superimposed on sea urchin developmental pathways to predict areas of functional activity. PMID:17087928

  10. Developmental expression of a cell surface protein involved in sea urchin skeleton formation. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus; Lytechinus pictus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farach, M.C.; Valdizan, M.; Park, H.R.; Decker, G.L.; Lennarz, W.J.

    1986-05-01

    The authors have previously used a monoclonal antibody (1223) to identify a 130 Kd cell surface protein involved in skeleton formation is sea urchin embryos. In the current study the authors have examined the expression of the 1223 antigen over the course of development of embryos of two species, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and Lytechinus pictus. The 130 Kd protein is detected in S. purp eggs on immunoblots. Labeling with (/sup 3/H) leucine and immunoaffinity chromatography show that it also is synthesized shortly after fertilization. Immunofluroescence reveals that at this early stage the 1223 antigen is uniformly distributed on all of the cells. Synthesis decreases to a minimum by the time of hatching (18 h), as does the total amount of antigen present in the embryo. A second period of synthesis commences at the mesenchyme blastula stage, when the spicule-forming primary mesenchyme cells (PMCs) have appeared. During this later stage, synthesis and cell surface expression are restricted to the PMCs. In contrast to S. purp., in L. pictus the 130 Kd protein does not appear until the PMCs are formed. Hybrid embryos demonstrate a pattern of expression of the maternal species. These results suggest that early expression of 1223 antigen in S. purp. is due to utilization of maternal transcripts present in the egg. In both species later expression in PMCs appears to be the result of cell-type specific synthesis, perhaps encoded by embryonic transcripts.

  11. Multiple field-based methods to assess the potential impacts of seismic surveys on scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przeslawski, Rachel; Huang, Zhi; Anderson, Jade; Carroll, Andrew G; Edmunds, Matthew; Hurt, Lynton; Williams, Stefan

    2017-10-30

    Marine seismic surveys are an important tool to map geology beneath the seafloor and manage petroleum resources, but they are also a source of underwater noise pollution. A mass mortality of scallops in the Bass Strait, Australia occurred a few months after a marine seismic survey in 2010, and fishing groups were concerned about the potential relationship between the two events. The current study used three field-based methods to investigate the potential impact of marine seismic surveys on scallops in the region: 1) dredging and 2) deployment of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) were undertaken to examine the potential response of two species of scallops (Pecten fumatus, Mimachlamys asperrima) before, two months after, and ten months after a 2015 marine seismic survey; and 3) MODIS satellite data revealed patterns of sea surface temperatures from 2006-2016. Results from the dredging and AUV components show no evidence of scallop mortality attributable to the seismic survey, although sub-lethal effects cannot be excluded. The remote sensing revealed a pronounced thermal spike in the eastern Bass Strait between February and May 2010, overlapping the scallop beds that suffered extensive mortality and coinciding almost exactly with dates of operation for the 2010 seismic survey. The acquisition of in situ data coupled with consideration of commercial seismic arrays meant that results were ecologically realistic, while the paired field-based components (dredging, AUV imagery) provided a failsafe against challenges associated with working wholly in the field. This study expands our knowledge of the potential environmental impacts of marine seismic survey and will inform future applications for marine seismic surveys, as well as the assessment of such applications by regulatory authorities. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Effect of helical angle on path scallop calculation of flat-end cutter in multi axis milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriko, Hendriko

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents an analytical method to calculate path scallop height of flat-end cutter during free-form surface machining. In this study the effect of helical angle of cutting edge was taken into consideration in the calculation. The scallop height was determined from the coordinate of the path intersection point. Path intersection point is an intersection between the cutting tool of the current tooth path and the previous tooth path. One model part with free-form surface was tested to verify the applicability of the proposed method. The scallop height obtained using the tool with helical angle and the one without helical angle were compared. The result showed that the helical angle tend to decrease the scallop height. The verification test to check the accuracy of the proposed method was performed. The result proved that the method was accurate.

  13. De novo assembly and characterization of two transcriptomes reveal multiple light-mediated functions in the scallop eye (Bivalvia: Pectinidae)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pairett, Autum N; Serb, Jeanne M

    2013-01-01

    ... of this group, which is due, in part, to a lack of genomic resources. The scallop (Bivalvia: Pectinidae) represents a compeling molluscan model to study photoreception due to its morphologically novel and separately evolved mirror-type eye...

  14. Hooking mortality of scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini and great hammerhead Sphyrna mokarran sharks caught on bottom longlines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gulak, SJB; de Ron Santiago, AJ; Carlson, JK

    2015-01-01

    The scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini and the great hammerhead S. mokarran are typically caught as bycatch in a variety of fisheries and are listed as globally Endangered by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature...

  15. Data on color and chemical composition of dried scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis produced in different areas of Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisaki Enda

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Dried scallop is used in Chinese, Japanese, and French cuisines for its unique flavor and taste. The quality of dried scallop is rated according to its clear, shiny brown color, developed by the Maillard reaction between sugars and amino acids. This article reports the colors, represented by L* and a* values, and chemical composition (water, salinity, Brix, proteins, and amino acids of dried scallop products. The dried scallops were produced in Tokoro, Sarufutsu, and Saroma in Hokkaido, Japan. The color of the dried scallops had values of 45.7–52.0 for L* and 2.31–5.08 for a*. The salinity of the products was 15.1–17.7%. The amino acid contents were 1350.8–1668.6 mg/100 g. The data collected here are provided in table format. The data can serve as a reference for commercial dried scallop products to determine product quality.

  16. Development of method to remove weld scallop and ceramic backing material of wedge type and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sung-Koo; Yang, Jong-Soo; Kim, Ho-Kyung

    2015-06-01

    The weld scallop has been used for joining T-bars. There are a lot of weld scallops in shipbuilding. It is difficult to perform scallop welding due to the inconvenient welding position. This results in many problems such as porosity, slag inclusion, etc. In this study, a new method is devised to remove weld scallops by incorporating a Ceramic Backing Material (CBM). The weld scallop is removed by an elongation of the v groove. In order to insert a CBM into the groove without a weld scallop, a wedge-shaped CBM is developed. The top side of the developed CBM is similar to the shape of a general back bead. The bottom surface has a saw-toothed shape for cutting at a suitable length. This can be attached to the root side of a face plate using adhesive tape, just like a general CBM. Welding experiments in normal and abnormal conditions are carried out and the possibility of burn-through is examined. This CBM's applicability to shipbuilding is verified.

  17. Development of method to remove weld scallop and ceramic backing material of wedge type and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Koo Kang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The weld scallop has been used for joining T-bars. There are a lot of weld scallops in shipbuilding. It is difficult to perform scallop welding due to the inconvenient welding position. This results in many problems such as porosity, slag inclusion, etc. In this study, a new method is devised to remove weld scallops by incorporating a Ceramic Backing Material (CBM. The weld scallop is removed by an elongation of the v groove. In order to insert a CBM into the groove without a weld scallop, a wedge-shaped CBM is developed. The top side of the developed CBM is similar to the shape of a general back bead. The bottom surface has a saw-toothed shape for cutting at a suitable length. This can be attached to the root side of a face plate using adhesive tape, just like a general CBM. Welding experiments in normal and abnormal conditions are carried out and the possibility of burn-through is examined. This CBM’s applicability to shipbuilding is verified.

  18. Effects of increased pCO2 and geographic origin on purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite elemental composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; Gaylord, B.; Russell, A. D.; Lenz, E. A.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Young, M. K.

    2012-12-01

    Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (such as Mg and Sr) into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore the effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2) on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low to high magnesium calcites. Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions along the US west coast (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California). Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg/Ca or Sr/Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 ppm; pH = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD). However, when reared under elevated CO2 (900 ppm; pH = 7.72 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1), skeletal Sr/Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California) did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr incorporation under elevated CO2 (Sr/Ca = 2

  19. The effects of copper and nickel on the embryonic life stages of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellis, Margaret S; Lauer, Mariana M; Nadella, Sunita; Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to generate data on the mechanisms of toxicity of copper [Cu (4-12 µg/L)] and nickel [Ni (33-40 µg/L)] during continuous sublethal exposure in seawater (32 ppt, 15 °C) in a sensitive test organism (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) at its most sensitive life stage (developing embryo). Whole-body ions [calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg)], metal burdens, Ca uptake, and Ca ATPase activity were measured every 12 h during the first 72-84 h of development. Ionoregulatory disruption was clearly an important mechanism of toxicity for both metals and occurred with minimal metal bioaccumulation. Most noteworthy was a significant disruption of Ca homeostasis, which was evident from an inhibition of unidirectional Ca uptake rates, whole-body Ca accumulation, and Ca ATPase activity intermittently during 72-84 h of development. At various times, Cu- and Ni-exposed embryos also displayed lower levels of K and increased levels of Na suggesting inhibition of Na/K ATPase activity. Greater levels of Mg during initial stages of development in Cu-exposed embryos were also observed and were considered a possible compensatory mechanism for disruptions to Ca homeostasis because both of these ions are important constituents of the developing spicule. Notably, most of these effects occurred during the initial stages of development but were reversed by 72-84 h. We therefore propose that it is of value to study the toxic impacts of contaminants periodically during development before the traditional end point of 48-72 h.

  20. Effects of five southern California macroalgal diets on consumption, growth, and gonad weight, in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Matthew C; Byrnes, Jarrett E K; Reed, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera), but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time, and the extent to which urchins can use alternate species of algae or a mixed diet of multiple algal species to maintain fitness when giant kelp is unavailable is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of single and mixed species diets on consumption, growth and gonad weight in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Urchins were fed single species diets consisting of one of four common species of macroalgae (the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica, and the red algae Chondracanthus corymbiferus and Rhodymenia californica (hereafter referred to by genus)) or a mixed diet containing all four species ad libitum over a 13-week period in a controlled laboratory setting. Urchins fed Chondracanthus, Macrocystis and a mixed diet showed the highest growth (in terms of test diameter, wet weight and jaw length) and gonad weight, while urchins fed Pterygophora and Rhodymenia showed the lowest. Urchins consumed their preferred food, Macrocystis, at the highest rate when offered a mixture, but consumed Chondracanthus or Macrocystis at similar rates when the two algae were offered alone. The differences in urchin feeding behavior and growth observed between these diet types suggest the relative availability of the algae tested here could affect urchin populations and their interactions with the algal assemblage. The fact that the performance of urchins fed Chondracanthus was similar or higher than those fed the preferred Macrocystis suggests that the availability of the former could could sustain growth and reproduction of purple sea urchins during times of low Macrocystis abundance as is common following

  1. Effects of an oil production effluent on gametogenesis and gamete performance in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, P.R. (Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States). Dept. of Biological Sciences)

    1994-07-01

    Adult organisms subjected to chronic discharges from a point source of pollution may exhibit several sublethal responses. One such response is the impairment of gamete production. This may be expressed in the amount and/or quality of gametes produced by adults. In this study the effects of chronic exposure to produced water (an oil production effluent) on the gametogenesis and gamete performance of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Stimpson) were examined using an in situ caging experiment. Adult purple sea urchins were kept in benthic cages arrayed down-field from a discharging diffuser at 13 sites, with distances ranging from 5 to 1,000 m. Cage exposures were maintained in the field for eight weeks, and each cage held 25 animals. Gametogenesis was examined for each sex by comparing a size-independent measure of relative gonads ass as determined by analysis of covariance. Results showed that there was a significant negative relationship between these estimates of relative gonad mass and distance from the outfall for both sexes, indicating that sea urchins living closer to the outfall produced significantly larger gonads. Gamete performance was measured through a fertilization kinetics bioassay that held the concentration of eggs constant and varied the amount of sperm added. The proportion of eggs fertilized under each sperm concentration was determined and the response fit to a model of fertilizability showed a positive relationship with distance away from the outfall. These findings indicate that although adult sea urchins exposed to a produced water outfall exhibit larger gonads, they suffer a marked decrease in a gamete performance.

  2. A pancreatic exocrine-like cell regulatory circuit operating in the upper stomach of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus larva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perillo, Margherita; Wang, Yue Julia; Leach, Steven D; Arnone, Maria Ina

    2016-05-26

    Digestive cells are present in all metazoans and provide the energy necessary for the whole organism. Pancreatic exocrine cells are a unique vertebrate cell type involved in extracellular digestion of a wide range of nutrients. Although the organization and regulation of this cell type is intensively studied in vertebrates, its evolutionary history is still unknown. In order to understand which are the elements that define the pancreatic exocrine phenotype, we have analyzed the expression of genes that contribute to specification and function of this cell-type in an early branching deuterostome, the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We defined the spatial and temporal expression of sea urchin orthologs of pancreatic exocrine genes and described a unique population of cells clustered in the upper stomach of the sea urchin embryo where exocrine markers are co-expressed. We used a combination of perturbation analysis, drug and feeding experiments and found that in these cells of the sea urchin embryo gene expression and gene regulatory interactions resemble that of bona fide pancreatic exocrine cells. We show that the sea urchin Ptf1a, a key transcriptional activator of digestive enzymes in pancreatic exocrine cells, can substitute for its vertebrate ortholog in activating downstream genes. Collectively, our study is the first to show with molecular tools that defining features of a vertebrate cell-type, the pancreatic exocrine cell, are shared by a non-vertebrate deuterostome. Our results indicate that the functional cell-type unit of the vertebrate pancreas may evolutionarily predate the emergence of the pancreas as a discrete organ. From an evolutionary perspective, these results encourage to further explore the homologs of other vertebrate cell-types in traditional or newly emerging deuterostome systems.

  3. Effects of five southern California macroalgal diets on consumption, growth, and gonad weight, in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew C. Foster

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumer growth and reproductive capacity are direct functions of diet. Strongylocentrotid sea urchins, the dominant herbivores in California kelp forests, strongly prefer giant kelp (Macrocystis pyrifera, but are highly catholic in their ability to consume other species. The biomass of Macrocystis fluctuates greatly in space and time, and the extent to which urchins can use alternate species of algae or a mixed diet of multiple algal species to maintain fitness when giant kelp is unavailable is unknown. We experimentally examined the effects of single and mixed species diets on consumption, growth and gonad weight in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Urchins were fed single species diets consisting of one of four common species of macroalgae (the kelps Macrocystis pyrifera and Pterygophora californica, and the red algae Chondracanthus corymbiferus and Rhodymenia californica (hereafter referred to by genus or a mixed diet containing all four species ad libitum over a 13-week period in a controlled laboratory setting. Urchins fed Chondracanthus, Macrocystis and a mixed diet showed the highest growth (in terms of test diameter, wet weight and jaw length and gonad weight, while urchins fed Pterygophora and Rhodymenia showed the lowest. Urchins consumed their preferred food, Macrocystis, at the highest rate when offered a mixture, but consumed Chondracanthus or Macrocystis at similar rates when the two algae were offered alone. The differences in urchin feeding behavior and growth observed between these diet types suggest the relative availability of the algae tested here could affect urchin populations and their interactions with the algal assemblage. The fact that the performance of urchins fed Chondracanthus was similar or higher than those fed the preferred Macrocystis suggests that the availability of the former could could sustain growth and reproduction of purple sea urchins during times of low Macrocystis abundance as is

  4. Formation and Evolution of Scalloped Depressions on Malea Planum and the southern rim of the Hellas Basin, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, M.; Hiesinger, H.; Reiss, D.; Neukum, G.

    2008-09-01

    Introduction: Scalloped depressions are an erosional surface morphology characterized as a type of dissected mantle terrain by Milliken and Mustard [1]. They are identified by their asymmetrical north-south profile which shows a steep pole-facing scarp, a flat floor, and a gentle equator-facing slope which grades into the surrounding terrain [1]. They are found in latitudedependent, ice-rich surface mantles in both the northern and southern hemispheres [1]. The mantle material is presumably composed of atmospherically derived dust and water ice, and is thought to be related to obliquity-driven ice activity as recently as 2.1-0.4 Myr ago [3]. Previous researchers, [e.g. 1,2,4-7] have attributed the formation of scallops to the sublimation of interstitial ice. Morgenstern et al. [6] suggested that the asymmetric profile of scallops can be explained by enhanced solar insolation on the equator-facing slope which leads to enhanced sublimation of interstial ice and thereby increases the area of the depression. By this process they can also grow and coalesce to form large degraded areas [6]. Building on our previous work [7], we investigate this hypothesis using HiRISE and THEMIS-IR images. We also propose a hypothesis for the nucleation and evolution of scallops. Previous Work: Our previous work surveyed the southern hemisphere using HRSC images for the presence of scalloped terrain, and revealed that almost all scalloped terrains are in the Malea Planum region near the southern wall of the Hellas basin [7]. We mapped the distribution of scalloped terrain between 50° and 70° E and 50° and 70° S. The results of the map showed that the scalloped terrains contour the southern wall of the Hellas basin between the elevations of 1000 m and -2000 m, and that the icerich mantle is thickest in this region [7]. Data and Methods: High resolution HiRISE images of the scalloped terrain of Malea Planum were used to investigate small scale features. Daytime infrared images from

  5. Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for Zhikong Scallop Chlamys farreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Scheuring, Chantel F.; Zhang, Hongbin; Li, Fuhua; Xiang, Jianhai

    2008-05-01

    Two Large-insert genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries of Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri were constructed to promote our genetic and genomic research. High-quality megabase-sized DNA was isolated from the adductor muscle of the scallop and partially digested by BamH I and Mbo I, respectively. The BamH I library consisted of 53 760 clones while the Mbo I library consisted of 7 680clones. Approximately 96 % of the clones in BamH I library contained nuclear DNA inserts in average size of 100 kb, providing a coverage of 5.3 haploid genome equivalents. Similarly, the Mbo I library with an average insert of 145 kb and no insert-empty clones, thus providing a genome coverage of 1.1 haploid genome equivalents.

  6. Scallop-Inspired DNA Nanomachine: A Ratiometric Nanothermometer for Intracellular Temperature Sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Nuli; Huang, Jin; Yang, Xiaohai; He, Xiaoxiao; Liu, Jianbo; Huang, Jiaqi; Fang, Hongmei; Wang, Kemin

    2017-11-21

    Accurate measurement of intracellular temperature is of great significance in biology and medicine. With use of DNA nanotechnology and inspiration by nature's examples of "protective and reversible responses" exoskeletons, a scallop-inspired DNA nanomachine (SDN) is desgined as a ratiometric nanothermometer for intracellular temperature sensing. The SDN is composed of a rigid DNA tetrahedron, where a thermal-sensitive molecular beacon (MB) is embedded in one edge of the DNA tetrahedron. Relying on the thermal-sensitive MB and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) signaling mechanism, the "On" to "Off" signal is reversibly responding to "below" and "over" the melting temperature. Mimicking the functional anatomy of a scallop, the SDN exhibits high cellular permeability and resistance to enzymatic degradation, good reversibility, and tunable response range. Furthermore, FRET ratiometric signal that allows the simultaneous recording of two emission intensities at different wavelengths can provide a feasible approach for precise detection, minimizing the effect of system fluctuations.

  7. Processing Sliding Mosaic Mode Data with Modified Full-Aperture Imaging Algorithm Integrating Scalloping Correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Tuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we present a modified full-aperture imaging algorithm that includes scalloping correction and spike suppression for sliding-Mosaic-mode Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR. It is innovational to correct the azimuth beam-pattern weighting altered by radar antenna rotation in the azimuth during the deramping preprocessing operation. The main idea of spike suppression is to substitute zeros between bursts with linear-predicted data extrapolated from adjacent bursts to suppress spikes caused by multiburst processing. We also integrate scalloping correction for the sliding mode into this algorithm. Finally, experiments are performed using the C-band airborne SAR system with a maximum bandwidth of 200 MHz to validate the effectiveness of this approach.

  8. Reproductive biology of the scalloped Hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini (Chondrichthyes: Sphyrnidae) off southwest Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Bejarano-Álvarez, Marcela; Galván Magaña, Felipe; Ochoa Báez, Rosa Isabel

    2011-01-01

    The scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini is the most important species in the artisanal shark fishery in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico. The knowledge about their reproductive biology in the area is nonexistent, despite their being listed worldwide as endangered by the IUCN. To determine the basic biology of reproduction in this shark would give important data to establish management or conservation plans for this species in Mexico. Samples were collected of 991 hammerhead sharks (342 f...

  9. Molecular and functional analysis of scalloped recessive lethal alleles in Drosophila melanogaster.

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, Ajay; Simmonds, Andrew J.; Garg, Ankush; Fossheim, Leif; Campbell, Shelagh D.; Bell, John B.

    2004-01-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster scalloped (sd) gene is a homolog of the human TEF-1 gene and is a member of the TEA/ATTS domain-containing family of transcription factors. In Drosophila, sd is involved in wing development as well as neural development. Herein, data are presented from a molecular analysis of five recessive lethal sd alleles. Only one of these alleles complements a viable allele associated with an sd mutant wing phenotype, suggesting that functions important for wing development ar...

  10. The modulation of catecholamines on immune response of scallop Chlamys farreri under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huan; Zhou, Zhi; Yue, Feng; Wang, Lingling; Yang, Chuanyan; Wang, Mengqiang; Song, Linsheng

    2014-01-01

    Catecholamines (CAs) play key roles in mediating the physiological responses to various stresses. In the present study, the expression of CA-related genes were examined in the hemocytes of scallop Chlamys farreri under heat stress, and several immune or metabolism-related parameters were investigated after heat stress and adrenoceptor antagonist stimulation. After the scallops were cultured at 28°C, the mRNA expression level of dopa decarboxylase (CfDDC) and α-adrenoceptor (CfαAR) increased significantly (P<0.01), whereas that of monoamine oxidase (CfMAO) was down-regulated in the first 6h (P<0.05), and then up-regulated to the maximum level at 24h (P<0.01). In the hemocytes of scallops injected with adrenoceptor antagonist, the expression levels of peptidoglycan-recognition protein (CfPGRP-S1) and C-type lectin (CfLec-1) began to increase significantly at 2 and 3h post propranolol and high temperature treatment, respectively (P<0.01). While the up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (CfHSP70) post heat stress was significantly inhibited by prazosin injection (P<0.01), and that of hexokinase (CfHK) was inhibited by both prazosin and propranolol injection (P<0.01). Moreover, the remarkable increase of relative specific activity of SOD in the hemolymph post heat stress (P<0.01) was further up-regulated early after prazosin or propranolol injection (P<0.01), while that of the relative anti-bacterial ability was down-regulated by prazosin or propranolol treatment (P<0.01). These results collectively indicated that the catecholaminergic neuroendocrine system in scallop could be activated by heat stress to release CAs, which subsequently modulated the immune response and energy metabolism via α- and β-adrenoceptors. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. A BAC-based physical map of Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri Jones et Preston.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Zhang

    Full Text Available Zhikong scallop (Chlamys farreri is one of the most economically important aquaculture species in China. Physical maps are crucial tools for genome sequencing, gene mapping and cloning, genetic improvement and selective breeding. In this study, we have developed a genome-wide, BAC-based physical map for the species. A total of 81,408 clones from two BAC libraries of the scallop were fingerprinted using an ABI 3130xl Genetic Analyzer and a fingerprinting kit developed in our laboratory. After data processing, 63,641 (∼5.8× genome coverage fingerprints were validated and used in the physical map assembly. A total of 3,696 contigs were assembled for the physical map. Each contig contained an average of 10.0 clones, with an average physical size of 490 kb. The combined total physical size of all contigs was 1.81 Gb, equivalent to approximately 1.5 fold of the scallop haploid genome. A total of 10,587 BAC end sequences (BESs and 167 markers were integrated into the physical map. We evaluated the physical map by overgo hybridization, BAC-FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization, contig BAC pool screening and source BAC library screening. The results have provided evidence of the high reliability of the contig physical map. This is the first physical map in mollusc; therefore, it provides an important platform for advanced research of genomics and genetics, and mapping of genes and QTL of economical importance, thus facilitating the genetic improvement and selective breeding of the scallop and other marine molluscs.

  12. Conectividad genética del bioingeniero Perumytilus purpuratus al norte de la discontinuidad ecológica de los 32ºS

    OpenAIRE

    Briones, C; Presa, P; Pérez, M.; Pita, A.; Guiñez, R. (Ricardo)

    2013-01-01

    La conectividad es el intercambio de individuos entre poblaciones, la que ocurre durante los estadíos larvarios de muchas especies animales marinas bentónicas, y depende cuasi-deterministicamente de la dinámica oceanográfica. En este trabajo caracterizamos el patrón de conectividad genética en Perumytilus purpuratus entre los 23ºS y 33ºS, usando 5 marcadores moleculares microsatélites. Nos interesó poner a prueba si la discontinuidad ecológica reportada para muchos taxa en los32ºS se reflejab...

  13. Isolation and characterization of melanin pigment from yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiujun; Wu, Biao; Zhou, Liqing; Liu, Zhihong; Dong, Yinghui; Yang, Aiguo

    2017-04-01

    Melanin is one of the essential compounds in the pigments of molluscan shells. However, the effects of melanin on color variations in molluscs are largely unknown. Our previous study suggests that Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis might contain melanin pigment in the dark brown shell. We therefore isolated melanin from the pigmented shells using hydrochloric acid method, and characterized the types of melanin pigments by spectrophotometry. The purified melanin, which was verified by spectrophotometry scanning and HPLC analysis, showed the typical characteristics of melanin absorption spectra and HPLC chromatograms. The contents of pheomelanin and eumelanin in pigmented shells, which were determined by the linear standard curve of melanin at 405 nm and 350 nm absorbance, were 48.23 ± 1.350 and 157.65 ± 5.905 mg, respectively. The present results indicate that the brown-pigmented shells of scallops comprise approximately 76.6% of eumelanin and 23.4% of pheomelanin, which supports the presence of eumelanin-rich pigment in scallop shells. Therefore, the combination of hydrochloric acid extraction and spectrophotometric quantification is a rapid and efficient method to isolate and quantify melanin in shells. This will facilitate the melanin studies related to shell color polymorphism and the selective breeding of bivalves with different shell colors.

  14. SpSM30 gene family expression patterns in embryonic and adult biomineralized tissues of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, Christopher E; Croker, Lindsay; Wilt, Fred H

    2010-01-01

    The SpSM30 gene family of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, is comprised of six members, designated SpSM30A through SpSM30F (Livingston et al., 2006). The SpSM30 proteins are found uniquely in embryonic and adult mineralized tissues of the sea urchin. Previous studies have revealed that SpSM30 proteins are occluded within the embryonic endoskeleton and adult mineralized tissues (Killian and Wilt, 1996; Mann et al., 2008a,b; Urry et al., 2000). Furthermore, some of the SpSM30 proteins are among the most abundant of the approximately four-dozen integral matrix proteins of the larval spicule (Killian and Wilt, 1996). The amino acid sequence, protein domain architecture, and contiguity within the genome strongly support the supposition that the six genes constitute a gene family. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is used in the present study to describe the time course of expression of the family members during embryonic development, and their expression in adult tissues. SpSM30A, B, C and E are expressed, albeit at different levels, during overt spicule deposition in the embryo with some differences in the precise timing of expression. SpSM30D is not expressed in the embryo, and SpSM30F is expressed transiently and at low levels just prior to overt spicule formation. Whole mount in situ hybridization studies show that SpSM30A, B, C, and E are expressed exclusively in primary mesenchyme (PMC) cells and their descendants. In addition, tissue fractionation studies indicate that SpSM30F expression is highly enriched in PMCs. Each adult tissue examined expresses a different cohort of the SpSM30 family members at varying levels: SpSM30A mRNA is not expressed in adult tissues. Its expression is limited to the embryo. Conversely, SpSM30D mRNA is not expressed in the embryo, but is expressed in adult spines and teeth. SpSM30B and SpSM30C are expressed at modest levels in all mineralized adult tissues; SpSM30E is expressed highly in tooth and

  15. Seasonal variation of biochemical components in clam ( Saxidomus purpuratus Sowerby 1852) in relation to its reproductive cycle and the environmental condition of Sanggou Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Jinhong; Li, Qi; Zhang, Xinjun; Zhang, Zhixin; Tian, Jinling; Xu, Yushan; Liu, Wenguang

    2016-04-01

    Seasonal variation of biochemical components in clam ( Saxidomus purpuratus Sowerby 1852) was investigated from March 2012 to February 2013 in relation to environmental condition of Sanggou Bay and the reproductive cycle of clam. According to the histological analysis, the reproductive cycle of S. purpuratus includes two distinctive phases: a total spent and inactive stage from November to January, and a gametogenesis stage, including ripeness and spawning, during the rest of the year. Gametes were generated at a low temperature (2.1°C) in February. Spawning took place once a year from June to October. The massive spawning occurred in August when the highest water temperature and chlorophyll a level could be observed. The key biochemical components (glycogen, protein and lipid) in five tissues (gonad, foot, mantle, siphon and adductor muscle) were analyzed. The glycogen content was high before gametogenesis, and decreased significantly during the gonad development in the gonad, mantle and foot of both females and males, suggesting that glycogen was an important energy source for gonad development. The protein and lipid contents increased in the ovary during the gonad development, demonstrating that they are the major organic components of oocytes. The lipid and protein contents decreased in the testis, implying that they can provide energy and material for spermatogenesis. The results also showed that protein stored in the mantle and foot could support the reproduction after the glycogen was depleted.

  16. The subcellular fate of cadmium and zinc in the scallop Chlamys nobilis during waterborne and dietary metal exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan Ke [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong [Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: wwang@ust.hk

    2008-12-11

    Subcellular metal distribution has received increasing attention in aquatic toxicology studies, but the relationship between metal distribution and metal biokinetics remains largely unexplored. A series of short-term experiments on different concentrations of dissolved and dietary metals and on metal elimination were conducted to investigate the dynamics of subcellular distribution of Cd and Zn in the scallop Chlamys nobilis, a bivalve species that is known to accumulate very high concentrations of Cd and Zn in its tissues. Our results showed that, in general, both Cd and Zn were sequestered in insoluble forms (organelles, metal-rich granules, and cellular debris). The main binding pool for the newly acquired metals was organelles for Cd and cellular debris for Zn. Metallothionein-like protein (MTLP) was the most important storage pool for Cd in the scallops. Storage in the non-toxic form both in organelles and MTLP instead of through exocytosis was the major detoxification strategy to control Cd and accounted for the low efflux rate of Cd from scallops. In contrast to Cd, the main binding pool for Zn was cellular debris. Significant changes were found in the scallops when they were challenged with different concentrations of metals in the aqueous and food phases. Such changes provide important information on how scallops handle metals when there is increasing metal uptake. The redistribution of Zn among each subcellular compartment was much faster than the redistribution of Cd, suggesting an effective regulation mechanism for Zn in scallops. Thus, knowing subcellular metal distribution helps in studying the toxicity of both waterborne and dietborne metals.

  17. Purification and Identification of Antioxidant Peptides from Protein Hydrolysate of Scalloped Hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini Cartilage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Rong Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to purify and identify peptides with antioxidant properties from protein hydrolysate of scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini cartilage. Cartilaginous proteins of the scalloped hammerhead were extracted by guanidine hydrochloride, and three antioxidant peptides, named enzymolysis peptide of scalloped hammerhead cartilage A (SCPE-A, SCPE-B and SCPE-C, were subsequently isolated from the hydrolysate of the cartilaginous proteins using ultrafiltration and chromatography. The amino acid sequences of SCPE-A, SCPE-B and SCPE-C were identified as Gly-Pro-Glu (GPE, Gly-Ala-Arg-Gly-Pro-Gln (GARGPQ, and Gly-Phe-Thr-Gly-Pro-Pro-Gly-Phe-Asn-Gly (GFTGPPGFNG, with molecular weights of 301.30 Da, 584.64 Da and 950.03 Da, respectively. As per in vitro activity testing, SCPE-A, SCPE-B and SCPE-C exhibited strong scavenging activities on 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radicals (DPPH• (half elimination ratio (EC50 2.43, 2.66 and 1.99 mg/mL, hydroxyl radicals (HO• (EC50 0.28, 0.21 and 0.15 mg/mL, 2,2′-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid radicals (ABTS+• (EC50 0.24, 0.18 and 0.29 mg/mL, and superoxide anion radicals ( O 2 − • (EC50 0.10, 0.14 and 0.11 mg/mL. In addition, SCPE-A showed inhibition activity similar to butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT in lipid peroxidation in a linoleic acid model system. The amino acid residues of Gly, Pro and Phe could positively influence the antioxidant activities of GPE, GARGPQ and GFTGPPGFNG. These results suggested that GPE, GARGPQ and GFTGPPGFNG might serve as potential antioxidants and be used as food additives and functional foods.

  18. Effects of fouling on the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis (Jay) in Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabaev, D. D.

    2013-03-01

    A valuable mariculture object, the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten (= Patinopevten) yessoensis (Jay), after six hours long transportation by air and sowing on the bottom is fouled greater by epi- and endolythical organisms than the members of the native population. It is likely that the fouling negatively affects the specimens, those that were the largest before the sowing at the bottom were not found among those that reached puberty. The results of the effects of the endolythic polychaete Polydora brevipalpa and the barnacle Hesperibalanus hesperius on the growth rate of the Japanese scallop cultivated on the bottom of Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan) are provided in this paper.

  19. Scallop protein with endogenous high taurine and glycine content prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity and improves plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Keenan, Alison H.; Madsen, Lise

    2014-01-01

    -sucrose diets with protein sources of increasing endogenous taurine content, i.e., chicken, cod, crab and scallop, for 6 weeks. The energy intake was lower in crab and scallop-fed mice than in chicken and cod-fed mice, but only scallop-fed mice gained less body and fat mass. Liver mass was reduced in scallop......-fed mice, but otherwise no changes in lean body mass were observed between the groups. Feed efficiency and apparent nitrogen digestibility were reduced in scallop-fed mice suggesting alterations in energy utilization and metabolism. Overnight fasted plasma triacylglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids...

  20. Conservation Genetics of the Scalloped Hammerhead Shark in the Pacific Coast of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla, Sonia; Gómez, Alberto; Mariño-Ramírez, Camila; Sorzano, Carolina; Bessudo, Sandra; Soler, German; Bernal, Jaime E; Caballero, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the population genetics of the scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific have lacked information about nursery areas. Such areas are key to promoting conservation initiatives that can protect young sharks from threats such as overfishing. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity, phylogeography, and connectivity of S. lewini found in 3 areas of Colombia's Pacific coast: around Malpelo Island and in 2 National Natural Parks on the Colombian Pacific mainland (Sanquianga and Ensenada de Utría). We analyzed mtDNA control region (CR) sequences and genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in 137 samples of adults and juveniles. The mtDNA analyses showed haplotypes shared between the Colombian Pacific individuals sampled in this investigation and other areas in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Indo-Pacific, and with sequences previously reported in Colombia (Buenaventura Port), as well as 4 unique haplotypes. Population assignment and paternity analyses detected 3 parent-offspring pairs between Malpelo and Sanquianga and 1 between Malpelo and Utría. These results indicate high genetic connectivity between Malpelo Island and the Colombian Pacific coast, suggesting that these 2 areas are nurseries for S. lewini. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of nursery areas identified for the scalloped hammerhead shark anywhere in the world. Additional conservation planning may be required to protect these nursery habitats of this endangered shark species. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Development of 101 novel EST-derived single nucleotide polymorphism markers for Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiqin; Bao, Zhenmin; Li, Ling; Wang, Xiaojian; Wang, Shi; Hu, Xiaoli

    2013-09-01

    Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri) is an important maricultured species in China. Many researches on this species, such as population genetics and QTL fine-mapping, need a large number of molecular markers. In this study, based on the expressed sequence tags (EST), a total of 300 putative single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected and validated using high resolution melting (HRM) technology with unlabeled probe. Of them, 101 (33.7%) were found to be polymorphic in 48 individuals from 4 populations. Further evaluation with 48 individuals from Qingdao population showed that all the polymorphic loci had two alleles with the minor allele frequency ranged from 0.046 to 0.500. The observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.000 to 0.925 and from 0.089 to 0.505, respectively. Fifteen loci deviated significantly from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and significant linkage disequilibrate was detected in one pair of markers. BLASTx gave significant hits for 72 of the 101 polymorphic SNP-containing ESTs. Thirty four polymorphic SNP loci were predicted to be non-synonymous substitutions as they caused either the change of codons (33 SNPs) or pretermination of translation (1 SNP). The markers developed can be used for the population studies and genetic improvement on Zhikong scallop.

  2. Formation of membrane ridges and scallops by the F-BAR protein Nervous Wreck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becalska, Agata N; Kelley, Charlotte F; Berciu, Cristina; Stanishneva-Konovalova, Tatiana B; Fu, Xiaofeng; Wang, Shiyu; Sokolova, Olga S; Nicastro, Daniela; Rodal, Avital A

    2013-08-01

    Eukaryotic cells are defined by extensive intracellular compartmentalization, which requires dynamic membrane remodeling. FER/Cip4 homology-Bin/amphiphysin/Rvs (F-BAR) domain family proteins form crescent-shaped dimers, which can bend membranes into buds and tubules of defined geometry and lipid composition. However, these proteins exhibit an unexplained wide diversity of membrane-deforming activities in vitro and functions in vivo. We find that the F-BAR domain of the neuronal protein Nervous Wreck (Nwk) has a novel higher-order structure and membrane-deforming activity that distinguishes it from previously described F-BAR proteins. The Nwk F-BAR domain assembles into zigzags, creating ridges and periodic scallops on membranes in vitro. This activity depends on structural determinants at the tips of the F-BAR dimer and on electrostatic interactions of the membrane with the F-BAR concave surface. In cells, Nwk-induced scallops can be extended by cytoskeletal forces to produce protrusions at the plasma membrane. Our results define a new F-BAR membrane-deforming activity and illustrate a molecular mechanism by which positively curved F-BAR domains can produce a variety of membrane curvatures. These findings expand the repertoire of F-BAR domain mediated membrane deformation and suggest that unique modes of higher-order assembly can define how these proteins sculpt the membrane.

  3. Oxidative and interactive challenge of cadmium and ocean acidification on the smooth scallop Flexopecten glaber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardi, Alessandro; Benedetti, Maura; Fattorini, Daniele; Regoli, Francesco

    2018-03-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) may affect sensitivity of marine organisms to metal pollution modulating chemical bioavailability, bioaccumulation and biological responsiveness of several cellular pathways. In this study, the smooth scallop Flexopecten glaber was exposed to various combinations of reduced pH (pH/pCO 2 7.4/∼3000 μatm) and Cd (20 μg/L). The analyses on cadmium uptake were integrated with those of a wide battery of biomarkers including metallothioneins, single antioxidant defenses and total oxyradical scavenging capacity in digestive gland and gills, lysosomal membrane stability and onset of genotoxic damage in haemocytes. Reduced pH slightly increased concentration of Cd in scallop tissues, but no effects were measured in terms of metallothioneins. Induction of some antioxidants by Cd and/or low pH in the digestive gland was not reflected in variations of the total oxyradical scavenging capacity, while the investigated stressors caused a certain inhibition of antioxidants and reduction of the scavenging capacity toward peroxyl radical in the gills. Lysosomal membrane stability and onset of genotoxic damages showed high sensitivity with possible synergistic effects of the investigated factors. The overall results suggest that indirect effects of ocean acidification on metal accumulation and toxicity are tissue-specific and modulate oxidative balance through different mechanisms. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stability of lipids rich in EPA and DHA extracted from fermented scallop ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaoka, Naohiro; Shimajiri, Junki; Abe, Masayuki; Hosokawa, Masashi; Miyashita, Kazuo

    2013-09-01

    A novel seafood paste was developed by the fermentation of scallop ovary using rice malt (koji) and yeast culture. Chemical analysis of the product showed the formation of high level of free amino acids and organic acids during the fermentation. The product color and flavor resembled to Japanese traditional soybean miso. The contents of total lipids (TLs) extracted from the fermented products were ranged from 9.18% to 11.59% or 11.38% to 13.57%/dry sample weight. Although the TL was rich in oxidatively unstable polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), little decrease was found in these PUFAs during the fermentation, showing the high oxidative stability of the TL from the fermented scallop ovary. Moreover, the oxidative stability of the TL extracted from the fermented products increased with increasing the fermentation time. This would be mainly due to the formation of lipid soluble antioxidants such as tocopherols, which might be derived from yeast used for fermentation. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Space utilisation patterns of bryozoans on the Patagonian scallop Psychrochlamys patagonica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan López Gappa

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the bryozoan assemblage encrusting valves of the Patagonian scallop, Psychrochlamys patagonica, in 4 beds distributed along the continental shelf off Argentina to analyse (a the distribution pattern of bryozoan colonies in different zones of the valves, (b the influence of interspecific competition on assemblage composition, (c whether encrusting species display different space utilisation strategies, and (d whether bryozoan species richness and number of colonies vary in relation to host size. The assemblage was composed of 22 taxa and was dominated by Arachnopusia monoceros and Osthimosia eatonensis, which were at least one order of magnitude more abundant than any other species. Multivariate analyses based on coverage data of multiserial bryozoans separated the beds according to species richness rather than to geographic proximity and showed significant differences in assemblage structure between upper (left and lower (right valves and among beds. Competitive interactions occurred almost exclusively on lower valves, and more frequently in peripheral zones than in central zones of these valves. Correlations between valve area and number of bryozoan colonies, coverage and species richness were low but significant. Bryozoans were significantly more frequent, larger, and taxonomically diverse on lower valves than on upper valves. The uniserial colonies of Neothoa cf. chiloensis, the weakest bryozoan competitor, were as frequent in central zones as they were in peripheral zones, and usually spread out along channels on the scallop surface. This fugitive species was partially covered by multiserial colonies, but managed to persist even in peripheral areas of the lower valves.

  6. An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and Warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah R; Rheuban, Jennie E; Hart, Deborah R; Luu, Victoria; Glover, David M; Hare, Jonathan A; Doney, Scott C

    2015-01-01

    Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus) supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM) that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean warming increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the effect of ocean

  7. An Integrated Assessment Model for Helping the United States Sea Scallop (Placopecten magellanicus Fishery Plan Ahead for Ocean Acidification and Warming.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah R Cooley

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification, the progressive change in ocean chemistry caused by uptake of atmospheric CO2, is likely to affect some marine resources negatively, including shellfish. The Atlantic sea scallop (Placopecten magellanicus supports one of the most economically important single-species commercial fisheries in the United States. Careful management appears to be the most powerful short-term factor affecting scallop populations, but in the coming decades scallops will be increasingly influenced by global environmental changes such as ocean warming and ocean acidification. In this paper, we describe an integrated assessment model (IAM that numerically simulates oceanographic, population dynamic, and socioeconomic relationships for the U.S. commercial sea scallop fishery. Our primary goal is to enrich resource management deliberations by offering both short- and long-term insight into the system and generating detailed policy-relevant information about the relative effects of ocean acidification, temperature rise, fishing pressure, and socioeconomic factors on the fishery using a simplified model system. Starting with relationships and data used now for sea scallop fishery management, the model adds socioeconomic decision making based on static economic theory and includes ocean biogeochemical change resulting from CO2 emissions. The model skillfully reproduces scallop population dynamics, market dynamics, and seawater carbonate chemistry since 2000. It indicates sea scallop harvests could decline substantially by 2050 under RCP 8.5 CO2 emissions and current harvest rules, assuming that ocean acidification affects P. magellanicus by decreasing recruitment and slowing growth, and that ocean warming increases growth. Future work will explore different economic and management scenarios and test how potential impacts of ocean acidification on other scallop biological parameters may influence the social-ecological system. Future empirical work on the

  8. 76 FR 72891 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife; 90-Day Finding on a Petition To List the Scalloped Hammerhead...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... standards on extinction risk and impacts or threats discussed above. Distribution and Life History of the... WildEarth Guardians and Friends of Animals to list the scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) as..., or DPS is ``endangered'' if it is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of...

  9. A new species of living scallop of the genus Anguipecten (Bivalvia, Pectinidae) from the tropical Indo-Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2002-01-01

    Introduction During the Indonesian-French Karubar cruise to eastern Indonesia a new scallop was found near the Kai Islands, which was provisionally identified by Dijkstra & Kastoro(1997: 279, figs 156-159), based on a few dead specimens from the upper bathyal depths. Subsequently, more material was

  10. Seasonal variability of Protoceratium reticulatum and yessotoxins in Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis in northern Yellow Sea of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Wei, Ning; Gou, Yuxiao; Li, Dongmei; Liang, Yubo; Xu, Daoyan; Liu, Renyan; Sui, Shifeng; Jiang, Tianjiu

    2017-12-01

    This paper reports a toxic strain of Protoceratium reticulatum, its morphology, phylogeny, yessotoxins (YTXs) production and abundance in northern Yellow Sea of China from 2011 to 2015 was investigated. YTXs in hepatopancreas and edible parts of bottom sowing cultured Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis in this sea area were determined weekly for 5 years. Other potential producers of YTXs, Gonyaulax spinifera and Lingulodinium polyedrum, were also investigated. Results revealed that Protoceratium reticulatum strain from the northern Yellow Sea belongs to a geographically widely distributed species. Motile cells of Protoceratium reticulatum contribute to YTXs in Japanese scallop, and G. spinifera may also be a potential contributor. Resting cysts of Protoceratium reticulatum, G. spinifera, and L. polyedrum in sediments were possibly important origins of YTXs in scallop cultured at sea bottom. YTXs in scallop decreased from 2011 to 2015, most toxins were concentrated in hepatopancreas, while a small portion in edible parts which was safe for consumption the whole year around. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Assessing PAHs pollution in Qingdao coastal area (China) by the combination of chemical and biochemical responses in scallops, Chlamys farreri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qian; Pan, Luqing; Liu, Dong; Hu, Fengxiao; Xiu, Meng

    2014-12-15

    The PAHs concentrations in seawater and tissues from the scallop Chlamys farreri were detected in three sites in Qingdao, China in 2011. The PAHs concentrations in seawater ranged from 25.32 ng/L to 314.62 ng/L. There were significant differences (ppollution status in Qingdao, China. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Breaking out of the comfort zone: El Niño-Southern Oscillation as a driver of trophic flows in a benthic consumer of the Humboldt Current ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riascos, José M; Solís, Marco A; Pacheco, Aldo S; Ballesteros, Manuel

    2017-06-28

    The trophic flow of a species is considered a characteristic trait reflecting its trophic position and function in the ecosystem and its interaction with the environment. However, climate patterns are changing and we ignore how patterns of trophic flow are being affected. In the Humboldt Current ecosystem, arguably one of the most productive marine systems, El Niño-Southern Oscillation is the main source of interannual and longer-term variability. To assess the effect of this variability on trophic flow we built a 16-year series of mass-specific somatic production rate (P/B) of the Peruvian scallop (Argopecten purpuratus), a species belonging to a former tropical fauna that thrived in this cold ecosystem. A strong increase of the P/B ratio of this species was observed during nutrient-poor, warmer water conditions typical of El Niño, owing to the massive recruitment of fast-growing juvenile scallops. Trophic ecology theory predicts that when primary production is nutrient limited, the trophic flow of organisms occupying low trophic levels should be constrained (bottom-up control). For former tropical fauna thriving in cold, productive upwelling coastal zones, a short time of low food conditions but warm waters during El Niño could be sufficient to waken their ancestral biological features and display massive proliferations. © 2017 The Author(s).

  13. Importance of kelp-derived organic carbon to the scallop Chlamys farreri in an integrated multi-trophic aquaculture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiang; Gao, Fei; Yang, Hongsheng

    2016-03-01

    Bivalves and seaweeds are important cleaners that are widely used in integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems. A beneficial relationship between seaweed and bivalve in the seaweed-based IMTA system has been confirmed, but the trophic importance of seaweed-derived particulate organic materials to the co-cultured bivalve is still unclear. We evaluated the trophic importance of the kelp Saccharina japonica to the co-cultured scallop Chlamys farreri in a typical IMTA farm in Sungo Bay (Weihai, North China). The dynamics of detritus carbon in the water were monitored during the culturing period. The proportion of kelp-derived organic matter in the diet of the co-cultured scallop was assessed via the stable carbon isotope method. Results showed that the detritus carbon in the water ranged from 75.52 to 265.19 μg/L, which was 25.6% to 73.8% of total particulate organic carbon (TPOC) during the study period. The amount of detritus carbon and its proportion in the TPOC changed throughout the culture cycle of the kelp. Stable carbon isotope analysis showed that the cultured scallop obtained 14.1% to 42.8% of its tissue carbon from the kelp, and that the percentages were closely correlated with the proportion of detritus carbon in the water ( F =0.993, P= 0.003). Evaluation showed that for 17 000 tons (wet weight) of annual scallop production, the kelp contributed about 139.3 tons of carbon (535.8 tons of dry mass). This confirms that cultured kelp plays a similar trophic role in IMTA systems as it does in a natural kelp bed. It is a major contributor to the detritus pool and supplies a vital food source to filter-feeding scallops in the IMTA system, especially during winter and early spring when phytoplankton are scarce.

  14. Antagonizing scalloped with a novel vestigial construct reveals an important role for scalloped in Drosophila melanogaster leg, eye and optic lobe development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Ankush; Srivastava, Ajay; Davis, Monica M; O'Keefe, Sandra L; Chow, Leola; Bell, John B

    2007-02-01

    Scalloped (SD), a TEA/ATTS-domain-containing protein, is required for the proper development of Drosophila melanogaster. Despite being expressed in a variety of tissues, most of the work on SD has been restricted to understanding its role and function in patterning the adult wing. To gain a better understanding of its role in development, we generated sd(47M) flip-in mitotic clones. The mitotic clones had developmental defects in the leg and eye. Further, by removing the VG domains involved in activation, we created a reagent (VGDeltaACT) that disrupts the ability of SD to form a functional transcription factor complex and produced similar phenotypes to the flip-in mitotic clones. The VGDeltaACT construct also disrupted adult CNS development. Expression of the VGDeltaACT construct in the wing alters the cellular localization of VG and produces a mutant phenotype, indicating that the construct is able to antagonize the normal function of the SD/VG complex. Expression of the protein:protein interaction portion of SD is also able to elicit similar phenotypes, suggesting that SD interacts with other cofactors in the leg, eye, and adult CNS. Furthermore, antagonizing SD in larval tissues results in cell death, indicating that SD may also have a role in cell survival.

  15. Seasonal influence of scallop culture on nutrient flux, bacterial pathogens and bacterioplankton diversity across estuaries off the Bohai Sea Coast of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yaodong; Sen, Biswarup; Shang, Junyang; He, Yike; Xie, Ningdong; Zhang, Yongfeng; Zhang, Jianle; Johnson, Zackary I; Wang, Guangyi

    2017-11-15

    In this study, we investigated the environmental impacts of scallop culture on two coastal estuaries adjacent the Bohai Sea including developing a quantitative PCR assay to assess the abundance of the bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. Scallop culture resulted in a significant reduction of nitrogen, Chlorophyll a, and phosphorous levels in seawater during summer. The abundance of bacteria including V. parahaemolyticus varied significantly across estuaries and breeding seasons and was influenced by nitrate as well as nutrient ratios (Si/DIN, N/P). Bacterioplankton diversity varied across the two estuaries and seasons, and was dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes. Overall, this study suggests a significant influence of scallop culture on the ecology of adjacent estuaries and offers a sensitive tool for monitoring scallop contamination. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. De Novo Assembly and Characterization of Two Transcriptomes Reveal Multiple Light-Mediated Functions in the Scallop Eye (Bivalvia: Pectinidae): e69852

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Autum N Pairett; Jeanne M Serb

    2013-01-01

    ... function of this group, which is due, in part, to a lack of genomic resources. The scallop (Bivalvia: Pectinidae) represents a compeling molluscan model to study photoreception due to its morphologically novel and separately evolved mirror-type eye...

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of the scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini (Carcharhiniformes: Sphyrnidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao; Xiang, Dan; Xu, Yuziwei; Shi, Xiaofang

    2015-08-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the endangered scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini was firstly determined in this study. It is 16,726 bp in length with the typical gene composition and orders in vertebrates. The overall base composition is 31.4% A, 26.3% C, 13.2% G and 29.1% T. Two start codon (ATG and GTG) and three stop codon (TAG, AGA and TAA/TA/T) patterns were found in protein-coding genes. Except for the tRNA-Ser2, the remaining 21 tRNAs can be folded into the typical cloverleaf structure. The control region possess the highest A + T content (66.1%) and lowest G content (12.6%) among all mitochondrial partitions.

  18. New microsatellite loci for the endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Holly A; Daly-Engel, Toby S; Marko, Peter B

    2009-05-01

    We isolated 15 microsatellite markers for the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Loci were tested on 80 specimens of S. lewini from four Eastern Pacific samples. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 31 (mean = 14). Observed and expected levels of heterozygosity per locus ranged from 0.39 to 0.91 (mean = 0.70) and from 0.54 to 0.90 (mean = 0.76), respectively. No pairs of loci were in gametic disequilibrium after Bonferroni correction of α. One locus showed significantly lower heterozygosity than expected under Hardy-Weinberg proportions in two populations, possibly caused by null alleles. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Biomarker modulation associated with marine diesel contamination in the Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milinkovitch, Thomas; Geraudie, Perrine; Camus, Lionel; Huet, Valérie; Thomas-Guyon, Hélène

    2015-12-01

    The decrease of ice cover in the Arctic will lead to an increase of ship traffic in the upcoming decades. Consequently, oil pollution is expected. In this context, the goals of this study were to evaluate the biological impact of marine diesel contamination and, on this basis, to determine analytical tools of interest (biomarkers) for future biomonitoring of diesel spills. Using a 7-day contamination protocol, this study investigated biochemical modulations in the digestive gland of the Iceland scallop (Chlamys islandica). Incorporation of contaminants was verified assessing haemolymph metabolites. Results showed a response of glutathione-S-transferase to contamination suggesting detoxification processes and the suitability of such a tool for diesel spill biomonitoring. The lack of modulation of superoxide dismutase activity and lipid peroxidation suggests no oxidative stress and the unsuitability of these molecular tools for biomonitoring.

  20. Maternal offloading of organochlorine contaminants in the yolk-sac placental scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Kady; Adams, Douglas H

    2015-04-01

    Elasmobranchs are a group of animals that typically occupy upper trophic levels in food webs and have a propensity to accumulate high contaminant concentrations. To date, few studies have investigated maternal offloading processes in sharks, despite the fact that this process represents a substantial source of exposure for young sharks and is a significant pathway for contaminant redistribution within marine ecosystems. Comparable to mammalian systems, scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) utilize a yolk-sac placental strategy to nourish young in utero, which may allow females to transfer contaminants to young. Organic contaminants (PCBs and chlorinated pesticides) were measured in livers of both females and males from several age classes that were collected from U.S. Atlantic waters, including two near-term pregnant females and their embryos. Adult female hammerheads (n = 3) were found to have lower levels of PCBs compared to the younger, adult male (mean ± SD, 11.1 ± 1.0 vs. 22.8 μg g(-1) lw), but had substantially higher concentrations of pesticides (4.1 ± 0.9 vs. 1.9 μg g(-1) lw). Embryos from the two litters (n = 36) had similar levels of summed organic contaminant concentrations (4.6 ± 0.9 μg g(-1) lw) and pregnant females were estimated to offload approximately 0.03-2.3% of their hepatic contaminant load to offspring. While the potential health impacts of these transferred contaminants is unknown, this is the first study to demonstrate that scalloped hammerheads are exposed to a substantial amount of contaminants prior to birth and document maternal offloading of organochlorines in a pseudo-placental shark species. Therefore, future research should continue to investigate the potential adverse effects these contaminants have on elasmobranch physiology.

  1. Fertilization and cytogenetic examination of interspecific reciprocal hybridization between the scallops, Chlamys farreri and Mimachlamys nobilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoting; Bi, Ke; Hu, Liping; Sun, Yan; Lu, Wei; Bao, Zhenmin

    2011-01-01

    Crossbreeding is a powerful tool for improving productivity and profitability in aquaculture. We conducted a pilot study of an artificial cross between two important cultivated scallops in China, Chlamys farreri and Mimachlamys nobilis, to test the feasibility of interspecific hybridization. Reciprocal hybridization experiments were performed using a single-pair mating strategy (M. nobilis ♀ × C. farreri ♂ and C. farreri ♀ × M. nobilis ♂). The fertilization of each pair was tracked using fluorescence staining of the gametes, and the chromosomes of the F1 hybrid larvae were examined via conventional karyotyping and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). We observed moderate fertilization success in both interspecific crosses, although the overall fertilization was generally less rapid than that of intraspecific crosses. Conventional karyotyping showed that 70.4% of the viable F1 larvae in M. nobilis ♀ × C. farreri ♂ and 55.4% in C. farreri ♀ × M. nobilis ♂ comprised hybrid karyotypes (2n = 35 = 6m+5sm+11st+13t), and the results were further confirmed by GISH. Interestingly, we detected a few F1 from the M. nobilis ♀ × C. farreri ♂ cross that appeared to have developed gynogenetically. In addition, chromosome fragmentations, aneuploids and allopolyploids were observed in some F1 individuals. Our study presents evidence that the artificial cross between M. nobilis and C. farreri is experimentally possible. Further investigations of the potential heterosis of the viable F1 offspring at various developmental stages should be conducted to obtain a comprehensive evaluation of the feasibility of crossbreeding between these two scallop species.

  2. Feeding and energetics of the great scallop, Pecten maximus, through a DEB model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavaud, Romain; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Jean, Fred; Emmery, Antoine; Strand, Øivind; Kooijman, Sebastiaan A. L. M.

    2014-11-01

    We developed a full life-cycle bioenergetic model for the great scallop Pecten maximus relying on the concepts of the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) theory. The covariation method was implemented to estimate the parameters of a standard DEB model. Such models are able to predict various metabolic processes from a food availability marker and temperature in the environment. However, suspension-feeders are likely to feed on various trophic sources, from microalgae cells to detritus. They are also able to sort and select food particles very efficiently, depending on their size, energetic value or quality. The present model includes a mechanistic description of the feeding processes, based on Kooijman's Synthesizing Unit principle which allows to deal with several food sources. Moreover we tested the hypothesis of a differential selectivity between two potential substrates (phytoplankton cell and the remaining particulate organic matter). Simulations of shell length, daily shell growth rate, dry weight and gonado-somatic index (GSI) variations were realized and compared to field data from a monitoring conducted in the Bay of Brest (Brittany, France) for six years. The model shows its capacity to efficiently reproduce all life history traits of the wild great scallops. Predicted length data were estimated to the nearest millimeter. The fit of simulated weights to observed data was very satisfactory. GSI predictions were also in accordance with observations but improvements are required to better capture the sharp increase of gametogenesis at the beginning of the year. Finally, results bring evidences that P. maximus is actually preferentially feed on living algae cells rather than on the rest of organic particles.

  3. Pre- And Postharvest Nutritional Value And Storage Ability Of Scallop Squash Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbierz Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Scallop squash fruit may be harvested and supplied to the fresh market at different stages of maturity. However, small size and immature fruit, preferred by the consumers and food industry, have only a limited storage life, which duration, among others, depends on cultivar characteristic. The objective of the study was to evaluate the storage ability and pre- and postharvest nutritional value of small size fruit of ‘Disco’, ‘Polo F1’, ‘Sunny Delight F1’, ‘Gagat’ and ‘Okra’ scallop squash cultivars. Fruit with diameter 3-6 cm, harvested at the time of maximum fruiting, were placed in the storage room with temperature 7 ºC, and relative humidity > 95% for the period of 1 or 2 weeks. Results of the study showed that prolonged up to 14 days period of fruit storage caused a drastic, within 9.95% – 13.95% weight loss, which was associated with visual symptoms of wilting and significant decrease of dry matter, sugars, vitamin C, carotenoids and nitrates contents. Among examined cultivars, the best suitable for the short storage, lasted no longer than 7 days, appeared to be ‘Disco’ and ‘Okra’. ‘Sunny Delight F1’, the only one cultivar with yellow color of skin, containing high amounts of vitamin C and polyphenols and showing low tendency to nitrates accumulation, similarly as ‘Gagat’ and ‘Polo F1’, were less suitable for short period of cold storage.

  4. Sex Reversal and Analyses of Possible Involvement of Sex Steroids in Scallop Gonadal Development in Newly Established Organ-Culture Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Ayano; Nakajima, Tadaaki; Okumura, Tomomi; Fujii, Shiro; Tomooka, Yasuhiro

    2017-04-01

    Many molluscs perform sex reversal, and sex hormones may be involved in the process. In adult scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, gonadotropin releasing hormone and 17β-estradiol (E 2 ) are involved in male sexual maturation, however, little is known about the effects of E 2 and testosterone (T) on the gonadal differentiation in young scallops. In the present study, scallop gonadal development was analyzed to determine the sex reversal stage in Funka bay, and effects of E 2 and T were examined. In Funka bay, almost all scallops were male at month 12. Scallops equipped with ambiguous gonads were 61.1% at month 16 and disappeared at month 18. Therefore, sex reversal in Funka bay occurs at around month 16. For establishment of organ culture systems for bivalves, Manila clam gonads were cultured in 15% L-15 medium diluted with HBSS containing 10% KSR on agarose gel at 10°C, and the gonads survived for 14 days. Scallop gonads were also able to be cultured in 30% L15 medium diluted with ASW containing 10% KSR on agarose gel for seven days. At mature stage, Foxl2 and Tesk were predominantly expressed in ovary and testis, respectively. When scallop gonads at sex reversal stage were organ-cultured, sex steroid treatment decreased Tesk expression in the majority of scallop gonads at sex reversal stage. However, no obvious change in Foxl2 and Tesk expression was detected in mature gonads in response to either E 2 or T in culture, suggesting sex steroid treatment might affect gonadal development at sex reversal stage.

  5. Fisheries Closed Areas Strengthen Scallop Larval Settlement and Connectivity Among Closed Areas and Across International Open Fishing Grounds: A Model Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Kimberley T A; Gentleman, W C; DiBacco, C; Johnson, C L

    2015-09-01

    This study examined whether a measured increase in average body size of adult sea scallops inside three fishery closed areas on Georges Bank (GB), United States (US), was sufficient to increase larval supply to closed areas and open fishing areas in both US and Canadian areas of the Bank. The effects of adult scallop density-at-size and fecundity-at-size on egg production were compared among open and closed fishery areas, countries, and time periods before and after the closed areas were established. Estimated egg production was then used to define spawning conditions in a coupled biological-physical larval tracking model that simulated larval development, mortality, and dispersal. Results showed that order of magnitude increases in larval settlement after closure were facilitated by increases in size-dependant egg production inside and dispersal from Closed Areas I and II, but not Nantucket Lightship Closed Area. The distributions of both egg production and larval settlement became more uniform across the Bank, causing the relative contribution of Canadian larvae to US scallop aggregations to decrease after establishment of Closed Areas I and II. Decreases in small and medium-sized scallop density in Canada and decreases in large scallops over the US-Southern Flank after closure caused local declines in egg production but were not sufficient to negatively affect larval settlement at the regional scale. Our model suggests that the establishment of fishery closed areas on GB considerably strengthened larval supply and settlement within and among several adult scallop aggregations.

  6. BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIEGATED SCALLOP Chlamys varia (LINNAEUS, 1758. – AS THE BASIS FOR FARMING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Antolović

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Pectinides are a highly regarded sea product among the consumers. Huge efforts are being made for the development of farming technology. All around the world the local species of the Pectinidae family are being consumed along with some newly introduced species as for example Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis Jay, 1858. Althougt there are 16 species of shellfish from eastern Adriatic that are offered in Croatian markets, only two species are being farmed. Chlamys varia (variegated scallop is often found in many locations, most often where the s alredy egsist shellfish farming. Many authors believe that farming must be conducted in the hatcheries since the spat settlement on the collectors has proven unsuccessful and dependent of many environmental factors. The research of hatchery cultivation of this species has been described. In most areas where the reproductive cycle has been studied there appear to be two main periods of spawning each year, but the timing can differ between areas, and between years.

  7. Regional variation in undulatory kinematics of two hammerhead species: the bonnethead (Sphyrna tiburo) and the scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Sarah L; Warren, Steven M; Porter, Marianne E

    2017-09-15

    Hammerhead sharks (Sphyrnidae) exhibit a large amount of morphological variation within the family, making them the focus of many studies. The size of the laterally expanded head, or cephalofoil, is inversely correlated with pectoral fin area. The inverse relationship between cephalofoil and pectoral fin size in this family suggests that they might serve a complementary role in lift generation. The cephalofoil is also hypothesized to increase olfaction, electroreception and vision; however, little is known about how morphological variation impacts post-cranial swimming kinematics. Previous studies demonstrate that the bonnethead and scalloped hammerhead have significantly different yaw amplitude, and we hypothesized that these species utilize varied frequency and amplitude of undulation along the body. We analyzed video of free-swimming sharks to examine kinematics and 2D morphological variables of the bonnethead and scalloped hammerhead. We also examined the second moment of area along the length of the body and over a size range of animals to determine whether there were shape differences along the body of these species and whether those changed over ontogeny. We found that both species swim with the same standardized velocity and Strouhal number, but there was no correlation between two-dimensional morphology and swimming kinematics. However, the bonnethead has a dorso-ventrally compressed anterior trunk and undulates with greater amplitude, whereas the scalloped hammerhead has a laterally compressed anterior trunk and undulates with lower amplitude. We propose that differences in cross-sectional trunk morphology account for interspecific differences in undulatory amplitude. We also found that for both species, undulatory frequency is significantly greater in the anterior body compared with all other body regions. We hypothesize that the bonnethead and scalloped hammerhead swim with a double oscillation system. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Feeding strategy of the night shark (Carcharhinus signatus) and scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) near seamounts off northeastern Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Teodoro Vaske Júnior; Carolus Maria Vooren; Rosangela Paula Lessa

    2009-01-01

    A total of 425 stomachs of night shark (Carcharhinus signatus), and 98 stomachs of scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini), from longline and surface gillneters near seamounts off northeastern Brazil, were analysed between 1992 and 1999. Both predators prey upon reef and benthopelagic fishes, migrant cephalopods and deep water crustaceans, showing similar feeding niches (Schoener Index T=0.75). The great prey richness of the diets may reflect the fact that the marine food web for these sp...

  9. The modulation of catecholamines to the immune response against bacteria Vibrio anguillarum challenge in scallop Chlamys farreri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Shi, Xiaowei; Zhang, Huan; Gao, Yang; Wang, Mengqiang; Kong, Pengfei; Qiu, Limei; Song, Linsheng

    2011-12-01

    Catecholamines are pivotal signal molecules in the neuroendocrine-immune regulatory network, and implicated in the modulation of immune response. In the present study, the activities of some immune-related enzymes and the concentration of catecholamines were determined in circulating haemolymph of scallops Chlamys farreri after bacteria Vibrio anguillarum challenge. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and lysozyme (LYZ) increased significantly and reached 610 U mg(-1) at 12 h, 37.6 U mg(-1) at 6 h and 261.5 U mg(-1) at 6 h after bacteria challenge, respectively. The concentration of norepinephrine, epinephrine and dopamine also increased significantly and reached 114.9 ng mL(-1) at 12 h, 86.9 ng mL(-1) at 24 h and 480.4 pg mL(-1) at 12 h after bacteria challenge, respectively. Meanwhile, the activities of these immune-related enzymes in haemolymph were monitored in those scallops which were challenged by bacteria V. anguillarum and stimulated simultaneously with norepinephrine, epinephrine and adrenoceptor antagonist. The injection of norepinephrine and epinephrine repressed significantly the induction of bacteria challenge on the activities of immune-related enzymes, and they were reduced to about half of that in the control groups. The blocking of α and β-adrenoceptor by antagonist only repressed the increase of CAT and LYZ activities significantly, while no significant effect was observed on the increase of SOD activities. The collective results indicated that scallop catecholaminergic neuroendocrine system could be activated by bacteria challenge to release catecholamines after the immune response had been triggered, and the immune response against bacteria challenge could been negatively modulated by norepinephrine, epinephrine, and adrenoceptor antagonist. This information is helpful to further understand the immunomodulation of catecholamines in scallops. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. BIOLOGICAL AND ECOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIEGATED SCALLOP Chlamys varia (LINNAEUS, 1758.) – AS THE BASIS FOR FARMING

    OpenAIRE

    Nenad Antolović; Mara Antolović

    2012-01-01

    Pectinides are a highly regarded sea product among the consumers. Huge efforts are being made for the development of farming technology. All around the world the local species of the Pectinidae family are being consumed along with some newly introduced species as for example Japanese scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis Jay, 1858). Althougt there are 16 species of shellfish from eastern Adriatic that are offered in Croatian markets, only two species are being farmed. Chlamys varia (variegated sca...

  11. A Marriage Of Larval Modeling And Empirical Data: Linking Adult, Larval And Juvenile Scallops In An Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayer, S.; Wahle, R.; Brooks, D. A.; Brady, D. C.

    2016-02-01

    The giant sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, is a commercially valuable sedentary broadcast spawner that occupies offshore banks and coastal bays and estuaries in the Northwest Atlantic. Although area closures have helped repopulate depleted scallop populations, little is known about whether populations at densities that yield larvae supply local or distant populations. Surveying scallop populations in the Damariscotta River estuary in Maine during the 2013 and 2014 spawning seasons, and settling out spat bags to collect settling larvae along the gradient of the estuary, we were able to compare adult densities to newly settled juvenile (`spat') abundance. Using the location where we found a high density of adults, we incorporated previously published behavior, pelagic larval duration, wind and current data into a particle dispersal model within the estuary to determine likely sinks for larvae from the 2013 and 2014 spawning seasons. Preliminary model simulations demonstrate where in the estuary swimming is effective in affecting water column position for larvae, and that most larvae are retained much closer to the mouth of the estuary than previously expected. Combining larval dispersal modeling with empirical data on adult densities and spat settlement on the scale of an embayment or estuary may be helpful in determining sources, sinks and areas that are both sources and sinks for shellfish species that are endangered or economically critical. This may aid in determining small area closures or Marine Protected Areas along coastal regions in the Gulf of Maine and beyond.

  12. Genetic Differentiation between Natural and Hatchery Stocks of Japanese Scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis as Revealed by AFLP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan-Jiang Liu

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis is a cold-tolerant bivalve that was introduced to China for aquaculture in 1982. In this study, amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP markers were used to investigate levels of genetic diversity within M. yessoensis cultured stocks and compare them with wild populations. Six pairs of primer combinations generated 368 loci among 332 individuals, in four cultured and three wild populations. High polymorphism at AFLP markers was found within both cultured and wild M. yessoensis populations. The percentage of polymorphic loci ranged from 61.04% to 72.08%, while the mean heterozygosity ranged from 0.2116 to 0.2596. Compared with wild populations, the four hatchery populations showed significant genetic changes, such as lower expected heterozygosity and percentage of polymorphic loci, and smaller frequency of private alleles, all indicative of a reduction in genetic diversity. Some genetic structures were associated with the geographical distribution of samples; with all samples from Dalian and Japan being closely related, while the population from Russia fell into a distinct clade in the phylogenetic analysis. The genetic information derived from this study indicated that intentional or accidental release of selected Japanese scallops into natural sea areas might result in disturbance of local gene pools and loss of genetic variability. We recommend monitoring the genetic variability of selected hatchery populations to enhance conservation of natural Japanese scallop resources.

  13. A small-scale comparison of Iceland scallop size distributions obtained from a camera based autonomous underwater vehicle and dredge survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Warsha; Örnólfsdóttir, Erla B; Stefansson, Gunnar

    2014-01-01

    An approach is developed to estimate size of Iceland scallop shells from AUV photos. A small-scale camera based AUV survey of Iceland scallops was conducted at a defined site off West Iceland. Prior to height estimation of the identified shells, the distortions introduced by the vehicle orientation and the camera lens were corrected. The average AUV pitch and roll was 1.3 and 2.3 deg that resulted in <2% error in ground distance rendering these effects negligible. A quadratic polynomial model was identified for lens distortion correction. This model successfully predicted a theoretical grid from a frame photographed underwater, representing the inherent lens distortion. The predicted shell heights were scaled for the distance from the bottom at which the photos were taken. This approach was validated by height estimation of scallops of known sizes. An underestimation of approximately 0.5 cm was seen, which could be attributed to pixel error, where each pixel represented 0.24 x 0.27 cm. After correcting for this difference the estimated heights ranged from 3.8-9.3 cm. A comparison of the height-distribution from a small-scale dredge survey carried out in the vicinity showed non-overlapping peaks in size distribution, with scallops of a broader size range visible in the AUV survey. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate any underlying bias and to validate how representative these surveys are of the true population. The low resolution images made identification of smaller scallops difficult. Overall, the observations of very few small scallops in both surveys could be attributed to low recruitment levels in the recent years due to the known scallop parasite outbreak in the region.

  14. A small-scale comparison of Iceland scallop size distributions obtained from a camera based autonomous underwater vehicle and dredge survey.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warsha Singh

    Full Text Available An approach is developed to estimate size of Iceland scallop shells from AUV photos. A small-scale camera based AUV survey of Iceland scallops was conducted at a defined site off West Iceland. Prior to height estimation of the identified shells, the distortions introduced by the vehicle orientation and the camera lens were corrected. The average AUV pitch and roll was 1.3 and 2.3 deg that resulted in <2% error in ground distance rendering these effects negligible. A quadratic polynomial model was identified for lens distortion correction. This model successfully predicted a theoretical grid from a frame photographed underwater, representing the inherent lens distortion. The predicted shell heights were scaled for the distance from the bottom at which the photos were taken. This approach was validated by height estimation of scallops of known sizes. An underestimation of approximately 0.5 cm was seen, which could be attributed to pixel error, where each pixel represented 0.24 x 0.27 cm. After correcting for this difference the estimated heights ranged from 3.8-9.3 cm. A comparison of the height-distribution from a small-scale dredge survey carried out in the vicinity showed non-overlapping peaks in size distribution, with scallops of a broader size range visible in the AUV survey. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate any underlying bias and to validate how representative these surveys are of the true population. The low resolution images made identification of smaller scallops difficult. Overall, the observations of very few small scallops in both surveys could be attributed to low recruitment levels in the recent years due to the known scallop parasite outbreak in the region.

  15. Journal of Genetics | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Characterization of novel polymorphic microsatellite markers from the cDNA library of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis and cross-species amplification in bay scallop Argopecten irradians · Xiang Ying Meng Xiu Li Wang Xiao Li Guo Meng Chen Ying Ming Zhang Hong Yue Wang Ya Qing Chang Xue Mei Qiu.

  16. Survival, growth and immune activity of scallop Chlamys farreri cultured at different depths in Haizhou Bay (Yellow Sea, China) during hot season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zonghe; Yang, Hongsheng; Liu, Baozhong; Xing, Kun; Zhang, Libin; Xu, Qiang

    2010-05-01

    Survival, growth and immune response of the scallop, Chlamys farreri, cultured in lantern nets at five different depths (2, 5, 10, 15, and 20 m below the sea surface) were studied in Haizhou Bay during the hot season (summer and autumn) of 2007. Survival and growth rates were quantified bimonthly. Immune activities in hemolymph (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and acid phosphatase (ACP)) were measured to evaluate the health of scallops at the end of the study. Environmental parameters at the five depths were also monitored during the experiment. Mortalities mainly occurred during summer. Survival of scallops suspended at 15 m (78.0%) and 20 m (86.7%) was significantly higher than at 2 m (62.9%), 5 m (60.8%) or 10 m (66.8%) at the end of the study. Mean shell height grew significantly faster at 10 m (205.0 μm/d) and 20 m (236.9 μm/d) than at 2, 5 or 15 m in summer (July 9 to September 1); however, shell growth rate at 20 m was significantly lower than at the other four depths in autumn (September 2 to November 6). In contrast to summer, scallops at 5 m grew faster (262.9 μm/d) during autumn. The growth of soft tissue at different depths showed a similar trend to the shell. Growth rates of shell height and soft tissue were faster in autumn than in summer, with the exception of shell height at 20 m. SOD activity of scallops increased with depth, and ACP activity was significantly higher at 15 and 20 m than at other depths, which suggests that scallops were healthier near the bottom. Factors explaining the depth-related mortality and growth of scallops are also discussed. We conclude that the mass mortality of scallop, C. farreri, during summer can be prevented by moving the culture area to deeper water and yield can be maximized by suspending the scallops in deep water during summer and then transferring them to shallow water in autumn.

  17. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. LaVigne

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2 on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California. Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD. However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1, skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  18. The elemental composition of purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) calcite and potential effects of pCO2 during early life stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVigne, M.; Hill, T. M.; Sanford, E.; Gaylord, B.; Russell, A. D.; Lenz, E. A.; Hosfelt, J. D.; Young, M. K.

    2013-06-01

    Ocean acidification will likely have negative impacts on invertebrates producing skeletons composed of calcium carbonate. Skeletal solubility is partly controlled by the incorporation of "foreign" ions (e.g. magnesium) into the crystal lattice of these skeletal structures, a process that is sensitive to a variety of biological and environmental factors. Here we explore effects of life stage, oceanographic region of origin, and changes in the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in seawater (pCO2) on trace elemental composition in the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus). We show that, similar to other urchin taxa, adult purple sea urchins have the ability to precipitate skeleton composed of a range of biominerals spanning low- to high-Mg calcites. Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca ratios were substantially lower in adult spines compared to adult tests. On the other hand, trace elemental composition was invariant among adults collected from four oceanographically distinct regions spanning a range of carbonate chemistry conditions (Oregon, Northern California, Central California, and Southern California). Skeletons of newly settled juvenile urchins that originated from adults from the four regions exhibited intermediate Mg / Ca and Sr / Ca between adult spine and test endmembers, indicating that skeleton precipitated during early life stages is more soluble than adult spines and less soluble than adult tests. Mean skeletal Mg / Ca or Sr / Ca of juvenile skeleton did not vary with source region when larvae were reared under present-day, global-average seawater carbonate conditions (400 μatm; pHT = 8.02 ± 0.03 1 SD; Ωcalcite = 3.3 ± 0.2 1 SD). However, when reared under elevated pCO2 (900 μatm; pHT = 7.73 ± 0.03; Ωcalcite = 1.8 ± 0.1), skeletal Sr / Ca in juveniles exhibited increased variance across the four regions. Although larvae from the northern populations (Oregon, Northern California, Central California) did not exhibit differences in Mg or Sr

  19. Asymmetric hemoglobins, their thiol content, and blood glutathione of the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dafré, A L; Reischl, E

    1997-03-01

    Starch gel electrophoresis pH 8.6, or PAGE pH 8.9, of the scalloped hammerhead shark hemolysates showed three hemoglobins (Hb). An additional Hb between the two most mobile electrophoretic components was seen in starch gel electrophoresis, pH 8.1, and also in highly loaded PAGE gels. The relative concentration of these Hbs was variable among individuals, when accessed at pH 8.1. Dilution of hemolysates led to a redistribution of the Hb tetramer subunits. Under denaturing conditions, the unfractionated hemolysate was resolved in 3 Hb subunits. Isolated Hbs, named SL I-SL IV, showed unusual subunit compositions: SL I, the least mobile, is "b3c"; SL II is "a2bc"; SL III and SL IV are composed only by "a" subunits. Hemoglobins in the whole hemolysate have an average of two reactive cysteines per tetramer, which were not easily S-thiolated by glutathione, as is the case for related species. After hemoglobin denaturation, six additional -SH groups were titrated by Ellman's reagent. Methemoglobin content was low in the erythrocytes of nine examined specimens, 1.13 +/- 1.90%. High values for total erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) were found: 4.5 +/- 0.7 mM; n = 7. The ratio of 1.4 +/- 0.4 GSH/Hb is higher than usually reported for mammalians.

  20. Molecular and functional analysis of scalloped recessive lethal alleles in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ajay; Simmonds, Andrew J; Garg, Ankush; Fossheim, Leif; Campbell, Shelagh D; Bell, John B

    2004-04-01

    The Drosophila melanogaster scalloped (sd) gene is a homolog of the human TEF-1 gene and is a member of the TEA/ATTS domain-containing family of transcription factors. In Drosophila, sd is involved in wing development as well as neural development. Herein, data are presented from a molecular analysis of five recessive lethal sd alleles. Only one of these alleles complements a viable allele associated with an sd mutant wing phenotype, suggesting that functions important for wing development are compromised by the noncomplementing alleles. Two of the wing noncomplementing alleles have mutations that help to define a VG-binding domain for the SD protein in vivo, and another noncomplementing allele has a lesion within the TEA DNA-binding domain. The VG-binding domain overlaps with a domain important for viability of the fly, since two of the sd lethal lesions are located there. The fifth lethal affects a yet undefined motif lying just outside the VG-binding domain in the C-terminal direction that affects both wing phenotype and viability. This is the first example linking mutations affecting specific amino acids in the SD protein with phenotypic consequences for the organism.

  1. Adaptive scallop height tool path generation for robot-based incremental sheet metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seim, Patrick; Möllensiep, Dennis; Störkle, Denis Daniel; Thyssen, Lars; Kuhlenkötter, Bernd

    2016-10-01

    Incremental sheet metal forming is an emerging process for the production of individualized products or prototypes in low batch sizes and with short times to market. In these processes, the desired shape is produced by the incremental inward motion of the workpiece-independent forming tool in depth direction and its movement along the contour in lateral direction. Based on this shape production, the tool path generation is a key factor on e.g. the resulting geometric accuracy, the resulting surface quality, and the working time. This paper presents an innovative tool path generation based on a commercial milling CAM package considering the surface quality and working time. This approach offers the ability to define a specific scallop height as an indicator of the surface quality for specific faces of a component. Moreover, it decreases the required working time for the production of the entire component compared to the use of a commercial software package without this adaptive approach. Different forming experiments have been performed to verify the newly developed tool path generation. Mainly, this approach serves to solve the existing conflict of combining the working time and the surface quality within the process of incremental sheet metal forming.

  2. Expression pattern of phb2 and its potential function in spermatogenesis of scallop ( Chlamys farreri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Tiantian; Ma, Xiaoshi; Liang, Shaoshuai; Gao, Beibei; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2015-12-01

    Prohibitin (PHB) participates in several biological processes including apoptosis, transcription regulation and suppression of cell proliferation in mammals. In this study, we cloned the full-length cDNA of prohibitin 2 ( Cf-phb2) from the testis of scallop ( Chlamys farreri). The deduced amino acid sequence presented a characteristic of PHB family with the PHB domain, and clustered with PHB2 of other species. Temporal and spatial expression of Cf-phb2 in testis during the reproductive cycle was detected by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and in situ hybridization. The expression of Cf-phb2 in the testis increased when testis developed from the resting stage to mature stage. The mRNA abundance of Cf-phb2 was the highest at mature stage, which was about 15-fold higher than that at proliferative stage. The expression of Cf-phb2 could be detected by in situ hybridization in all types of germ cells in testis, including spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. The intensity of the signal increased with the spermatogenesis and was the highest in spermatids, which suggested that CF-PHB2 might affect the spermatogenesis of C. farreri.

  3. Genomic consequences of background effects on scalloped mutant expressivity in the wing of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dworkin, Ian; Kennerly, Erin; Tack, David; Hutchinson, Jennifer; Brown, Julie; Mahaffey, James; Gibson, Greg

    2009-03-01

    Genetic background effects contribute to the phenotypic consequences of mutations and are pervasive across all domains of life that have been examined, yet little is known about how they modify genetic systems. In part this is due to the lack of tractable model systems that have been explicitly developed to study the genetic and evolutionary consequences of background effects. In this study we demonstrate that phenotypic expressivity of the scalloped(E3) (sd(E3)) mutation of Drosophila melanogaster is background dependent and is the result of at least one major modifier segregating between two standard lab wild-type strains. We provide evidence that at least one of the modifiers is linked to the vestigial region and demonstrate that the background effects modify the spatial distribution of known sd target genes in a genotype-dependent manner. In addition, microarrays were used to examine the consequences of genetic background effects on the global transcriptome. Expression differences between wild-type strains were found to be as large as or larger than the effects of mutations with substantial phenotypic effects, and expression differences between wild type and mutant varied significantly between genetic backgrounds. Significantly, we demonstrate that the epistatic interaction between sd(E3) and an optomotor blind mutation is background dependent. The results are discussed within the context of developing a complex but more realistic view of the consequences of genetic background effects with respect to mutational analysis and studies of epistasis and cryptic genetic variation segregating in natural populations.

  4. Alternative requirements for Vestigial, Scalloped, and Dmef2 during muscle differentiation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Hua; Hughes, Sarah C; Bell, John B; Simmonds, Andrew J

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrate development requires the activity of the myocyte enhancer factor 2 (mef2) gene family for muscle cell specification and subsequent differentiation. Additionally, several muscle-specific functions of MEF2 family proteins require binding additional cofactors including members of the Transcription Enhancing Factor-1 (TEF-1) and Vestigial-like protein families. In Drosophila there is a single mef2 (Dmef2) gene as well single homologues of TEF-1 and vestigial-like, scalloped (sd), and vestigial (vg), respectively. To clarify the role(s) of these factors, we examined the requirements for Vg and Sd during Drosophila muscle specification. We found that both are required for muscle differentiation as loss of sd or vg leads to a reproducible loss of a subset of either cardiac or somatic muscle cells in developing embryos. This muscle requirement for Sd or Vg is cell specific, as ubiquitous overexpression of either or both of these proteins in muscle cells has a deleterious effect on muscle differentiation. Finally, using both in vitro and in vivo binding assays, we determined that Sd, Vg, and Dmef2 can interact directly. Thus, the muscle-specific phenotypes we have associated with Vg or Sd may be a consequence of alternative binding of Vg and/or Sd to Dmef2 forming alternative protein complexes that modify Dmef2 activity.

  5. Further developmental roles of the Vestigial/Scalloped transcription complex during wing development in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Ajay; Bell, John B

    2003-05-01

    The Drosophila homologue of the human TEF-1 gene, scalloped (sd), is required for wing development. The SD protein forms part of a transcriptional activation complex with the protein encoded by vestigial (vg) that, in turn, activates target genes important for wing formation. One sd function involves a regulatory feedback loop with vg and wingless (wg) that is essential in this process. The dorsal-ventral (D/V) margin-specific expression of wg is lost in sd mutant wing discs while the hinge-specific expression appears normal. In the context of wing development, a VG::sdTEA domain fusion produces a protein that mimics the wild-type SD/VG complex and restores the D/V boundary-specific expression of wg in a sd mutant background. Further, targeted expression of wg at the D/V boundary in the wing disc was able to partially rescue the sd mutant phenotype. This infers that sd could function in either the maintenance or induction of wg at the D/V border. Another functional role for sd is the establishment of sensory organ precursors (SOP) of the peripheral nervous system at the wing margin. Thus, the relationship between sd and senseless (sens) in the development of these cells is also examined, and it appears that sd must be functional for proper sens expression, and ultimately, for sensory organ precursor development.

  6. Specific interactions between vestigial and scalloped are required to promote wing tissue proliferation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumard-Rigal, S; Zider, A; Vaudin, P; Silber, J

    1998-10-01

    The two genes vestigial (vg) and scalloped (sd) are required for wing development in Drosophila melanogaster. They present similar patterns of expression in second and third instar wing discs and similar wing mutant phenotypes. vg encodes a nuclear protein without any recognized nucleic acid-binding motif. Sd is a transcription factor homologous to the human TEF-1 factor whose promoter activity depends on cell-specific cofactors. We postulate that Vg could be a cofactor of Sd in the wing morphogenetic process and that, together, they could constitute a functional transcription complex. We investigated genetic interactions between the two genes. We show here that vg and sd co-operate in vivo in a manner dependent on the structure of the Vg protein. We ectopically expressed vg in the patch (ptc) domains. We show evidence that wing-like outgrowths induced by ectopic expression of vg are severely reduced in vg or sd mutant backgrounds. Accordingly, we demonstrate that ptc-GAL4-driven expression of vg induces both expressions of the endogenous vg and sd genes and that the two Vg and Sd proteins have to be produced together to promote wing proliferation. Furthermore, we show an interaction between the two proteins by double hybrid experiments in yeast. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that Sd and Vg directly interact in vivo to form a complex regulating the proliferation of wing tissue.

  7. Isolation, characterization, and multiplexing of novel microsatellite markers for the tropical scalloped spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delghandi, M; Goddard, S; Jerry, D R; Dao, H T; Afzal, H; Al-Jardani, S S

    2015-12-29

    Of the various spiny lobster species in the tropical and subtropical Indo-West Pacific region, the tropical scalloped spiny lobster (Panulirus homarus) supports one of the most commercially valuable fishery resources in many coastal African and Asian countries. The last decade has witnessed a serious decline in the wild populations of this species. Knowledge of the genetic basis of spiny lobster population structure is a prerequisite to achieve a sustainable fisheries management for this species. Here, we describe 13 novel polymorphic microsatellite markers developed for P. homarus, using a cross-species primer design strategy based on P. ornatus Roche 454 shot-gun generated sequencing. Microsatellite polymorphisms were assessed in 96 unrelated P. homarus individuals of a natural population, with the number of alleles per locus varying from 2 to 14, the observed and expected heterozygosity from 0.00 to 0.78 and from 0.03 to 0.79, respectively, and with only four loci (Pho-G27, Pho-G32, Pho-G36, and Pho-G58) deviating from Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. Genetic linkage disequilibrium analysis between all pairs of the loci showed significant departure from the null hypothesis between loci Pho-G22 - Pho-G30, and Pho-G30 - Pho-G35. The successful cross amplification of these microsatellites highlights the potential of the developed microsatellites for future population genetic research within the different Panulirus species.

  8. Effects of produced water on reproduction and early life stages of the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus): Field and laboratory tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, P.R.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the effects of produced water (an oil-production effluent) on reproduction in the purple sea urchin (Strongy-locentrotus purpuratus) using both field and laboratory experiments. The author investigated the effects of chronic exposure to produced water on the gametogenesis and gamete performance using an in-situ caging experiment. He found a significant negative relationship between gonad mass and cage distance for both sexes, indicating that urchins living closer to the outfall produced significantly larger gonads. He also found significant differences in the fertilizability of eggs between cages and this showed a positive relationship with distance from the outfall. These findings indicate that while urchins exposed to a produced water outfall produce large gonads, they suffer a marked decrease in gamete performance. In a subsequent study the author explored whether and how brief exposure to a range of concentrations of produced water affected gametes and early larval stages of the purple sea urchin. Specifically, he exposed separately and together, eggs, sperm, and zygotes to ascertain the relative sensitivities of these life stages to produced water at durations and concentrations realistic to each state. He also explored the nature of the biological responses, and the potential for delayed expression. I found that both apparent fertilization and embryonic developmental success showed decreased performance with increasing produced water concentrations. Produced water exposure effectively slowed embryological developmental rates, but did not affect embryo survivorship. The spatial and temporal variability in toxicity of receiving waters was addressed using a fertilization bioassay. Receiving waters were collected along a transect down-field from the discharge on three dates while the outfall was actively discharging, and on one date while the plant was not discharging.

  9. Trophic and environmental drivers of the Sechura Bay Ecosystem (Peru) over an ENSO cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Marc H.; Wolff, Matthias; Vadas, Flora; Yamashiro, Carmen

    2008-03-01

    Interannual environmental variability in Peru is dominated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The most dramatic changes are associated with the warm El Niño (EN) phase (opposite the cold La Niña phase), which disrupts the normal coastal upwelling and affects the dynamics of many coastal marine and terrestrial resources. This study presents a trophic model for Sechura Bay, located at the northern extension of the Peruvian upwelling system, where ENSO-induced environmental variability is most extreme. Using an initial steady-state model for the year 1996, we explore the dynamics of the ecosystem through the year 2003 (including the strong EN of 1997/98 and the weaker EN of 2002/03). Based on support from literature, we force biomass of several non-trophically-mediated ‘drivers’ (e.g. Scallops, Benthic detritivores, Octopus, and Littoral fish) to observe whether the fit between historical and simulated changes (by the trophic model) is improved. The results indicate that the Sechura Bay Ecosystem is a relatively inefficient system from a community energetics point of view, likely due to the periodic perturbations of ENSO. A combination of high system productivity and low trophic level target species of invertebrates (i.e. scallops) and fish (i.e. anchoveta) results in high catches and an efficient fishery. The importance of environmental drivers is suggested, given the relatively small improvements in the fit of the simulation with the addition of trophic drivers on remaining functional groups’ dynamics. An additional multivariate regression model is presented for the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, which demonstrates a significant correlation between both spawning stock size and riverine discharge-mediated mortality on catch levels. These results are discussed in the context of the appropriateness of trophodynamic modeling in relatively open systems, and how management strategies may be focused given the highly environmentally influenced marine

  10. Asimetría bilateral de la forma de las valvas y posición espacial en matrices del chorito Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae Bilateral asymmetry of shell shape and spatial position in matrices of the mussel Perumytilus purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 (Bivalvia: Mytilidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAROLINA BRIONES

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available De las distintas formas de la asimetría bilateral, la asimetría direccional (AD ha recibido considerablemente menos atención en la literatura que la asimetría fluctuante (AF. Si bien existen buenos ejemplos de AD conspicua en algunos grupos de moluscos (e.g., Ostreidae y Pectinidae, para otros como los mitílidos la AD no ha sido reportada. En matrices del chorito Perumytilus purpuratus de tres localidades del intermareal rocoso de Chile norte y central, comparando individuos de los estratos superior e inferior, y usando dos índices de forma de la valva, reportamos evidencia de AD en relación con la forma de las valvas, tendiendo la derecha a ser consistentemente más elongada que la valva izquierda. Sin embargo, no solo en estratos inferiores de la matriz los choritos tienden a tener valvas menos elongadas sino que también tienden a ser más asimétricas, en relación con el estrato superior. Los resultados sugieren que el cambio de forma y de asimetría podría estar siendo modulado por la densidad o la estratificación. Las explicaciones causales de este fenómeno están abiertas a la investigaciónIn the literature, less attention has been paid to the study of directional asymmetry (DA than fluctuating asymmetry (FA. Although there are good examples of DA in mollusks (e.g., Ostreidae and Pectinidae, for some taxa, such as mussels, DA has not been reported. We examined asymmetry in two shell shape traits of the mussel Perumytilus purpuratus, in the rocky intertidal zone of three localities in central and northern Chile. We compared shell asymmetry between mussels occupying different positions in the matrices or mussel beds (i.e., upper versus lower stratum. We observed shell shape DA for mussels occupying both strata, with the right valve being consistently less elongated than the left valve. However, for individuals in the lower strata the mussel valves tended to be more elongated, and also more asymmetrical, relative to mussels from

  11. Potentially toxic filamentous fungi associated to the economically important Nodipecten nodosus (Linnaeus, 1758) scallop farmed in southeastern Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Antônia; Hauser-Davis, Rachel Ann; Santos, Manoel José Soares; De Simone, Salvatore Giovani

    2017-02-15

    Numerous countries have been confronted with infectious diseases in mariculture activities, including fungi infections, although reports in scallops are scarce. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the occurrence of filamentous fungi in Nodipecten nodosus specimens from three marine farms in Southeastern Brazil. Eight fungi genera were observed in the branchial arches, intestine and muscle tissue of the scallop specimens. These include potentially toxin-producing species, such as Aspergillus, Penicillium and Fusarium. Their presence may lead to potential public health concerns, since all sampling sites showed the presence of fungi in all scallop organs, with special concern regarding edible muscle tissue. A significant number of species was observed at one of the study areas, which could indicate a previously unknown source of contamination, since increases in fungi species richness in polluted coastal waters have been reported. This is also, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of Pestalotiopsis in shellfish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The comparative proteomics analysis revealed the modulation of inducible nitric oxide on the immune response of scallop Chlamys farreri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhibin; Jiang, Qiufen; Wang, Lingling; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Mengqiang; Yi, Qilin; Song, Linsheng

    2014-10-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important gasotransmitter which plays a key role on the modulation of immune response in all vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, the modulation of inducible NO on immune response of scallop Chlamys farreri was investigated via proteomic analysis. Total proteins from hepatopancreas of scallops treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and/or the inhibitor of vertebrate inducible NO synthase (S-methylisothiourea sulfate, SMT) for 12 h were analyzed via 2-D PAGE and ImageMaster 2D Platinum. There were 890, 1189 and 1046 protein spots detected in the groups treated by phosphate buffered saline (PBS), LPS and LPS+SMT, respectively, and 26 differentially expressed protein spots were identified among them. These proteins were annotated with binding or catalytic activity, and most of them were involved in metabolic or cellular processes. Some immune-related or antioxidant-related molecules such as single Ig IL-1-related receptor, guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-like protein and peroxiredoxin were identified, and the changes of their expression levels in LPS group were intensified significantly after adding SMT. The decreased expression level of tyrosinase and increased level of glutathione S-transferase 4 in LPS group were diametrically reversed by appending SMT. Moreover, interferon stimulated exonuclease gene 20-like protein and copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase were only induced by LPS+SMT stimulation but not by LPS stimulation. These data indicated that NO could modulate many immunity processes in scallop, such as NF-κB transactivation, cytoskeleton reorganization and other pivotal processes, and it was also involved in the energy metabolism, posttranslational modification, detoxification and redox balance during the immune response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies the Genomic Region Associated with Shell Color in Yesso Scallop, Patinopecten yessoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Liang; Li, Yangping; Li, Yajuan; Yu, Jiachen; Liao, Huan; Wang, Shuyue; Lv, Jia; Liang, Jun; Huang, Xiaoting; Bao, Zhenmin

    2017-06-01

    The shell color polymorphism widely exists in economic shellfish, which not only results in a better visual perception but also shows great value as an economic trait for breeding. Small numbers of reddish-orange shell Yesso scallops, Patinopecten yessoensis, were found in cultured populations compared to the brown majority. In this study, a genome-wide association study was conducted to understand the genetic basis of shell color. Sixty-six 2b-RAD libraries with equal numbers of reddish-orange and brown shell individuals were constructed and sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. A total of 322,332,684 high-quality reads were obtained, and the average sequencing depth was 18.4×. One genomic region on chromosome 11 that included 239 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was identified as significantly associated with shell color. After verification by high-resolution melting in another population, two SNPs were selected as specific loci for reddish-orange shell color. These two SNPs could be used to improve the selective breeding progress of true-breeding strains with complete reddish-orange scallops. In addition, within the significantly associated genomic region, candidate genes were identified using marker sequences to search the draft genome of Yesso scallop. Three genes (LDLR, FRIS, and FRIY) with known functions in carotenoid metabolism were identified. Further study using high-performance liquid chromatography proved that the relative level of carotenoids in the reddish-orange shells was 40 times higher than that in the brown shells. These results suggested that the accumulation of carotenoids contributes to the formation of reddish-orange shells.

  14. Distribution and spatial trends of PCBs in commercial scallops from Galician littoral (NW, Spain). Possible influence of biometric parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, N; García, I; Ignacio, M; Mouteira, A

    2012-04-01

    Levels and profiles of 10 individual congeners of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were studied in 3 species of commercial scallops (Pecten maximus, Chlamys varia, and Chlamys opercularis) from several Rías in Galician littoral (NW, Spain). ΣPCBs levels ranged from 2.21 to 41.0 ng/g wet weight for P. maximus, from 13.9 to 24.9 ng/g wet weight for C. varia, and from 1.58 to 24.3 ng/g wet weight for C. opercularis. The possible influence between biometric parameters (lipid content, condition index, and shell size) and PCBs levels were studied using statistical analysis (ANOVA). No relationship between biometric parameters could be established in the studied samples. Multivariate analysis showed there were differences in bioaccumulation of some PCBs congeners. Principal component analysis classifies clearly the 3 studied Rías (Ría de Ferrol, Ría de Arousa, and Ría de Vigo) taking into account PCBs levels found in the shellfish. We investigated levels and profiles of 10 congeners of PCBs in 3 commercial scallop species from the Galician littoral zone. The influence of 3 biometric parameters on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) levels was also studied in order to assess results from the monitoring programs of production areas. According to PCBs levels, geographical differences were observed in commercial scallops from the 3 studied estuarine bays (Ría de Ferrol, Ría de Arousa, and Ría de Vigo). © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. [Comparison of the fungal complexes of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis (Jay, 1856) from different areas of the Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzykh, O G; Zvereva, L V

    2014-01-01

    Mycological investigation of the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis (Jay) (Bivalvia) collected in different areas of the Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan, was carried out. A total of 72 species of filamentous fungi belonging to 30 genera of ascomycetes, anamorphous fungi, and zygomycetes was isolated from the internal organs of the scallop. The species.diversity of mycelial fungi in the internal organs, especially of members of the generaAspergillus, Penicillium, Cladosporium, and Chaetomium, was found to increase in polluted coastal waters.

  16. Soybean oil methanolysis over scallop shell-derived CaO prepared via methanol-assisted dry nano-grinding

    OpenAIRE

    Panjaitan, Frisda R.; Yamanaka, Shinya; Kuga, Yoshikazu

    2017-01-01

    Calcium oxides with a specific surface area between 4.5 m2g-1 and 62.5 m2g-1 were obtained by calcination of scallop shells, following by methanol-assisted dry nano-grinding. Three distinct phases are formed on the surface of these catalysts during nano-grinding: calcium methoxide, calcium hydroxide, and calcium oxide. The effects of specific surface area and active surface phase composition on the catalytic activity of calcium oxide during methanolysis of soybean oil were investigated. The p...

  17. Demographic processes underlying subtle patterns of population structure in the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nance, Holly A; Klimley, Peter; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Martínez-Ortíz, Jimmy; Marko, Peter B

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity (θ), effective population size (N(e)), and contemporary levels of gene flow are important parameters to estimate for species of conservation concern, such as the globally endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S. lewini across its Eastern Pacific (EP) range by applying classical and coalescent population genetic methods to a combination of 15 microsatellite loci and mtDNA control region sequences. In addition to significant population genetic structure and isolation-by-distance among seven coastal sites between central Mexico and Ecuador, the analyses revealed that all populations have experienced a bottleneck and that all current values of θ are at least an order of magnitude smaller than ancestral θ, indicating large decreases in N(e) (θ = 4N(e)μ), where μ is the mutation rate. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IM) model showed modest but significant genetic connectivity between most sampled sites (point estimates of Nm = 0.1-16.7), with divergence times (t) among all populations significantly greater than zero. Using a conservative (i.e., slow) fossil-based taxon-specific phylogenetic calibration for mtDNA mutation rates, posterior probability distributions (PPDs) for the onset of the decline in N(e) predate modern fishing in this region. The cause of decline over the last several thousand years is unknown but is highly atypical as a post-glacial demographic history. Regardless of the cause, our data and analyses suggest that S. lewini was far more abundant throughout the EP in the past than at present.

  18. Demographic processes underlying subtle patterns of population structure in the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly A Nance

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity (θ, effective population size (N(e, and contemporary levels of gene flow are important parameters to estimate for species of conservation concern, such as the globally endangered scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini. Therefore, we have reconstructed the demographic history of S. lewini across its Eastern Pacific (EP range by applying classical and coalescent population genetic methods to a combination of 15 microsatellite loci and mtDNA control region sequences. In addition to significant population genetic structure and isolation-by-distance among seven coastal sites between central Mexico and Ecuador, the analyses revealed that all populations have experienced a bottleneck and that all current values of θ are at least an order of magnitude smaller than ancestral θ, indicating large decreases in N(e (θ = 4N(eμ, where μ is the mutation rate. Application of the isolation-with-migration (IM model showed modest but significant genetic connectivity between most sampled sites (point estimates of Nm = 0.1-16.7, with divergence times (t among all populations significantly greater than zero. Using a conservative (i.e., slow fossil-based taxon-specific phylogenetic calibration for mtDNA mutation rates, posterior probability distributions (PPDs for the onset of the decline in N(e predate modern fishing in this region. The cause of decline over the last several thousand years is unknown but is highly atypical as a post-glacial demographic history. Regardless of the cause, our data and analyses suggest that S. lewini was far more abundant throughout the EP in the past than at present.

  19. Molecular cloning and characterization of SoxB2 gene from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yan; Bao, Zhenmin; Guo, Huihui; Zhang, Yueyue; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Jingjie; Hu, Xiaoli

    2013-11-01

    The Sox proteins play critical roles during the development of animals, including sex determination and central nervous system development. In this study, the SoxB2 gene was cloned from a mollusk, the Zhikong scallop ( Chlamys farreri), and characterized with respect to phylogeny and tissue distribution. The full-length cDNA and genomic DNA sequences of C. farreri SoxB2 ( Cf SoxB2) were obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends and genome walking, respectively, using a partial cDNA fragment from the highly conserved DNA-binding domain, i.e., the High Mobility Group (HMG) box. The full-length cDNA sequence of Cf SoxB2 was 2 048 bp and encoded 268 amino acids protein. The genomic sequence was 5 551 bp in length with only one exon. Several conserved elements, such as the TATA-box, GC-box, CAAT-box, GATA-box, and Sox/sry-sex/testis-determining and related HMG box factors, were found in the promoter region. Furthermore, real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays were carried out to assess the mRNA expression of Cf SoxB 2 in different tissues. SoxB2 was highly expressed in the mantle, moderately in the digestive gland and gill, and weakly expressed in the gonad, kidney and adductor muscle. In male and female gonads at different developmental stages of reproduction, the expression levels of Cf SoxB2 were similar. Considering the specific expression and roles of SoxB 2 in other animals, in particular vertebrates, and the fact that there are many pallial nerves in the mantle, cerebral ganglia in the digestive gland and gill nerves in gill, we propose a possible essential role in nervous tissue function for Sox B 2 in C. farreri.

  20. Identification of a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal in the Drosophila TEA/ATTS protein scalloped.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam C Magico

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster wing development has been shown to rely on the activity of a complex of two proteins, Scalloped (Sd and Vestigial (Vg. Within this complex, Sd is known to provide DNA binding though its TEA/ATTS domain, while Vg modulates this binding and provides transcriptional activation through N- and C-terminal activation domains. There is also evidence that Sd is required for the nuclear translocation of Vg. Indeed, a candidate sequence which shows consensus to the bipartite family of nuclear localization signals (NLSs has been identified within Sd previously, though it is not known if it is functional, or if additional unpredicted signals that mediate nuclear transport exist within the protein. By expressing various enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP tagged constructs within Drosophila S2 cells, we demonstrate that this NLS is indeed functional and necessary for the proper nuclear localization of Sd. Additionally, the region containing the NLS is critical for the wildtype function of ectopically expressed Sd, in the context of wing development. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified a group of five amino acids within this NLS which is critical for its function, as well as another group of two which is of lesser importance. Together with data that suggests that this sequence mediates interactions with Importin-α3, we conclude that the identified NLS is likely a classical bipartite signal. Further dissection of Sd has also revealed that a large portion of the C-terminal domain of the protein is required its proper nuclear localization. Finally, a Leptomycin B (LB sensitive signal which appears to facilitate nuclear export is identified, raising the possibility that Sd also contains a nuclear export signal (NES.

  1. Identification of a classical bipartite nuclear localization signal in the Drosophila TEA/ATTS protein scalloped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magico, Adam C; Bell, John B

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster wing development has been shown to rely on the activity of a complex of two proteins, Scalloped (Sd) and Vestigial (Vg). Within this complex, Sd is known to provide DNA binding though its TEA/ATTS domain, while Vg modulates this binding and provides transcriptional activation through N- and C-terminal activation domains. There is also evidence that Sd is required for the nuclear translocation of Vg. Indeed, a candidate sequence which shows consensus to the bipartite family of nuclear localization signals (NLSs) has been identified within Sd previously, though it is not known if it is functional, or if additional unpredicted signals that mediate nuclear transport exist within the protein. By expressing various enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) tagged constructs within Drosophila S2 cells, we demonstrate that this NLS is indeed functional and necessary for the proper nuclear localization of Sd. Additionally, the region containing the NLS is critical for the wildtype function of ectopically expressed Sd, in the context of wing development. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we have identified a group of five amino acids within this NLS which is critical for its function, as well as another group of two which is of lesser importance. Together with data that suggests that this sequence mediates interactions with Importin-α3, we conclude that the identified NLS is likely a classical bipartite signal. Further dissection of Sd has also revealed that a large portion of the C-terminal domain of the protein is required its proper nuclear localization. Finally, a Leptomycin B (LB) sensitive signal which appears to facilitate nuclear export is identified, raising the possibility that Sd also contains a nuclear export signal (NES).

  2. Ability of scalloped deletion constructs to rescue sd mutant wing phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, Leola; Berube, Joel; Fromont, Alice; Bell, John B

    2004-10-01

    Scalloped (SD) and Vestigial (VG) proteins physically interact to form a selector complex that activates genes involved in wing development in Drosophila melanogaster. SD belongs to a conserved family of transcription factors containing the TEA/ATTS DNA-binding motif. VG is also a nuclear protein providing the activator function for the SD VG complex. The TEA DNA-binding domain and the VG interacting domain (VID) of SD have been previously identified and described. However, they, and possibly other functional domains of SD, have not been thoroughly characterized in vivo. Herein, transgenic constructs encoding various truncations of SD were used to assess their respective ability to rescue the mutant wing phenotype of two viable sd recessive mutations (sd(ETX4) and sd(58d)). The transgenic strains produced were also tested for the ability to induce further sd expression, an ability possessed by full length SD. The functional dissection of SD confirms that specific regions are necessary for wing development and provides further information as to how the SD VG complex functions to promote wing fate. Previous experiments have shown that expression of full length SD can cause a dominant negative wing phenotype. We show that expression of constructs that delete the SD DNA-binding domain can also cause a dominant negative phenotype in a background with either of the two tester sd strains. In contrast, SD constructs that delete the VID have no effect on the wing phenotype in either tester background. Finally, a significant portion of SD at the N-terminal end appears to be dispensable with respect to normal wing development, as this construct behaves the same as full length SD in our assays.

  3. Inheritance pattern of microsatellite loci and their use for kinship analysis in the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kefeng; Li, Qi

    2009-06-01

    The inheritance mode of seven microsatellite markers was investigated in Patinopecten yessoensis larvae from four controlled crosses, and the feasibility of using these markers for kinship estimation was also examined. All the seven microsatellite loci were compatible with Mendelian inheritance. Neither sex-linked barriers to transmission nor major barriers to fertilization between gametes from the parents were evident. Two of the seven loci showed the presence of null alleles in two families, suggesting the need to conduct comprehensive species-specific inheritance studies for microsatellite loci used in population genetic studies. However, even if the null allele heterozygotes were considered as homozygotes in the calculation of genetic distance, offspring from four families were all unambiguously discriminated in the neighbor-joining dendrogram. This result indicates that the microsatellite markers used may be capable of discriminating between related and unrelated scallop larvae in the absence of pedigree information, and of investigating the effective number of parents contributing to the hatchery population of the Japanese scallop.

  4. The genetic diversity of the noble scallop (Chlamys nobilis, Reeve 1852) in China assessed using five microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanhong; Fu, Dingkun; Xia, Jianjun

    2013-03-01

    Five highly variable microsatellite loci were used to investigate the genetic diversity and population structure of the noble scallop Chlamys nobilis, in the South China Sea. A total of 200 individual scallops from 4 populations were genotyped. All of the 5 microsatellite loci screened in this study showed polymorphism. A total of 32 different alleles were observed over all loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 12. The average allelic number of these polymorphic markers was 6.4. The averages of observed (Ho) and expected heterozygosity (He) ranged from 0.07 to 0.32 and from 0.119 to 0.459, respectively. A highly significant deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg Law, owing primarily to heterozygote deficiency, was found in all populations studied. The Nanao population exhibited more genetic diversity than the other three populations in terms of allele richness and observed and expected heterozygosity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Accumulation of nine metals and one metalloid in the tropical scallop Comptopallium radula from coral reefs in New Caledonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metian, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco); Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217, CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de La Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)], E-mail: mametian@gmail.com; Bustamante, P. [Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217, CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de La Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)], E-mail: pbustama@univ-lr.fr; Hedouin, L. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco) and Centre de Recherche sur les Ecosystemes Littoraux Anthropises, UMR 6217, CNRS-IFREMER-Universite de La Rochelle, 22 avenue Michel Crepeau, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France) and IRD-Centre de Noumea, BP A5, 98848 Noumea Cedex, New Caledonia; Warnau, M. [International Atomic Energy Agency - Marine Environment Laboratories, 4 Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000 Monaco (Monaco)], E-mail: m.warnau@iaea.org

    2008-04-15

    Uptake of waterborne Cd, Co, Mn and Zn was determined in laboratory experiments using radiotracer techniques ({sup 109}Cd, {sup 57}Co, {sup 54}Mn and {sup 65}Zn). Labelled Zn was mainly accumulated in the digestive gland (65%) and Co in kidneys (81%); Cd and Mn were similarly distributed in digestive gland and gills. In a complementary field study, Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, and Zn were analysed in scallops collected at two stations showing different contamination levels. Digestive gland and kidneys displayed the highest concentrations. Ag, As, Cd, and Fe differed in soft tissues from the two stations, suggesting that Comptopallium radula could be a valuable local biomonitor species for these elements. Low Mn and Zn concentrations found in kidneys suggest that their content in calcium-phosphate concretions differs from the other pectinids. Preliminary risk considerations suggest that As would be the only element potentially leading to exposure of concern for seafood consumers. - This study investigates metal accumulation behaviour in the tropical scallop Comptopallium radula and preliminary risk assessment for consumers.

  6. A coupled biophysical model for the distribution of the great scallop Pecten maximus in the English Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Goff, Clément; Lavaud, Romain; Cugier, Philippe; Jean, Fred; Flye-Sainte-Marie, Jonathan; Foucher, Eric; Desroy, Nicolas; Fifas, Spyros; Foveau, Aurélie

    2017-03-01

    In this paper we used a modelling approach integrating both physical and biological constraints to understand the biogeographical distribution of the great scallop Pecten maximus in the English Channel during its whole life cycle. A 3D bio-hydrodynamical model (ECO-MARS3D) providing environmental conditions was coupled to (i) a population dynamics model and (ii) an individual ecophysiological model (Dynamic Energy Budget model). We performed the coupling sequentially, which underlined the respective role of biological and physical factors in defining P. maximus distribution in the English Channel. Results show that larval dispersion by hydrodynamics explains most of the scallop distribution and enlighten the main known hotspots for the population, basically corresponding to the main fishing areas. The mechanistic description of individual bioenergetics shows that food availability and temperature control growth and reproduction and explain how populations may maintain themselves in particular locations. This last coupling leads to more realistic densities and distributions of adults in the English Channel. The results of this study improves our knowledge on the stock and distribution dynamics of P. maximus, and provides grounds for useful tools to support management strategies.

  7. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid by Enterococcus avium 9184 in scallop solution in a two-stage fermentation strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Haoyue; Xing, Ronge; Hu, Linfeng; Liu, Song; Li, Pengcheng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, a new bacterial strain having a high ability to produce γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) was isolated from naturally fermented scallop solution and was identified as Enterococcus avium. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to prove that E. avium possesses glutamate decarboxylase activity. The strain was then mutagenized with UV radiation and was designated as E. avium 9184. Scallop solution was used as the culture medium to produce GABA. A two-stage fermentation strategy was applied to accumulate GABA. In the first stage, cell growth was regulated. Optimum conditions for cell growth were pH, 6.5; temperature, 37°C; and glucose concentration, 10 g·L(-1) . This produced a maximum dry cell mass of 2.10 g·L(-1) . In the second stage, GABA formation was regulated. GABA concentration reached 3.71 g·L(-1) at 96 h pH 6.0, 37°C and initial l-monosodium glutamate concentration of 10 g·L(-1) . Thus, compared with traditional one-stage fermentation, the two-stage fermentation significantly increased GABA accumulation. These results provide preliminary data to produce GABA using E. avium and also provide a new approach to process and utilize shellfish. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Novel 14-nm Scallop-Shaped FinFETs (S-FinFETs) on Bulk-Si Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Weijia; Yin, Huaxiang; Ma, Xiaolong; Hong, Peizhen; Xu, Miao; Meng, Lingkuan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, novel p-type scallop-shaped fin field-effect transistors (S-FinFETs) are fabricated using an all-last high-k/metal gate (HKMG) process on bulk-silicon (Si) substrates for the first time. In combination with the structure advantage of conventional Si nanowires, the proposed S-FinFETs provide better electrostatic integrity in the channels than normal bulk-Si FinFETs or tri-gate devices with rectangular or trapezoidal fins. It is due to formation of quasi-surrounding gate electrodes on scalloping fins by a special Si etch process. The entire integration flow of the S-FinFETs is fully compatible with the mainstream all-last HKMG FinFET process, except for a modified fin etch process. The drain-induced barrier lowering and subthreshold swing of the fabricated p-type S-FinFETs with a 14-nm physical gate length are 62 mV/V and 75 mV/dec, respectively, which are much better than those of normal FinFETs with a similar process. With an improved short-channel-effect immunity in the channels due to structure modification, the novel structure provides one of possibilities to extend the FinFET scalability to sub-10-nm nodes with little additional process cost.

  9. Characterization, expression and function analysis of DAX1 gene of scallop ( Chlamys farreri jones and preston 1904) during its gametogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Liu, Jianguo; Huang, Xiaoting; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Zhifeng

    2014-08-01

    DAX1, a member of nuclear receptor superfamily, has a function in the sex determination and gonadal differentiation of several vertebrate species. However, little information about DAX1 of invertebrates is available. Here we cloned a homolog of scallop ( Chlamys farreri Jones and Preston 1904) dax1, Cf-dax1, and determined its expression characteristics at mRNA and protein levels. The cDNA sequence of Cf-dax1 was 2093 bp in length, including 1404 bp open reading frame (ORF) encoding 467 amino acids. Unlike those of vertebrates, no conserved LXXLL-related motif was found in the putative DNA binding region of Cf-DAX1. Fluorescence in situ hybridization showed that Cf-dax1 located on the short arm of a pair of subtelocentric chromosomes. Tissue distribution analysis using semi-quantitative RT-PCR revealed that Cf-dax1 expressed widely in adult scallop tissues, with the highest expression level found in adductor muscle, moderate level in mantle, gill and testis, and low level in kidney, ovary and hepatopancreas. The result of quantitative real-time PCR indicated that the expression of Cf-dax1 was significantly higher ( Pgametogenesis of bivalves.

  10. SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SCALLOPED HAMMERHEAD SHARKS (Sphyrna lewini Griffith & Smith, 1834 CAUGHT FROM COASTAL FISHERIES IN THE EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umi Chodrijah

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia has the largest chondrichthyan fishery in the world, with a reported of 105,000 and 118,000 tonnes landed in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Scalloped hammerhead shark was either targeted or by-catch from this fishery, mostly for its fins. Despite of the growing concern around the world, the availability of biological data of this species, especially in the Eastern Indian Ocean is still lacking. The objectives of this paper are to present some biological information (size composition and sex ratio of the scalloped hammerhead, from coastal fisheries in Eastern Indian Ocean. The data used for the analysis comprised of two components, i.e. survey data in 2010 (February, March, June, August, October and December and data from daily monitoring shark landing in 2013 (January to December. Substantially lower mean size, more immature sharks and more frequent of female caught over years showed that scalloped hammerhead shark in the Eastern Indian Ocean are facing intensive fishing pressure which could lead to overfishing. This could harm the sustainability of scalloped hammerhead shark resource in the long run. The relationship between clasper length and total length was positively correlated where every 5 cmTL increment on clasper length adding 51 cmTL on total length.

  11. Age, growth and maturity of the pelagic thresher Alopias pelagicus and the scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drew, M; White, W T; Dharmadi; Harry, A V; Huveneers, C

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia has the greatest reported chondrichthyan catches worldwide, with c.110,000 t caught annually. The pelagic thresher (Alopias pelagicus) and scalloped hammerhead (Sphryna lewini) together comprise about 25% of the total catches of sharks landed in Indonesia. Age and growth parameters were estimated for A. pelagicus and S. lewini from growth-band counts of thin-cut vertebral sections. Alopias pelagicus (n = 158) and S. lewini (n = 157) vertebrae were collected from three Indonesian fish markets over a 5 year period. A multi-model analysis was used to estimate growth parameters for both species. The models of best fit for males and females for A. pelagicus was the three-parameter logistic (L∞ = 3169 mm LT , k = 0·2) and the two-parameter von Bertalanffy models (L∞ = 3281 mm LT , k = 0·12). Age at maturity was calculated to be 10·4 and 13·2 years for males and females, respectively, and these are the oldest estimated for this species. The samples of S. lewini were heavily biased towards females, and the model of best fit for males and females was the three-parameter Gompertz (L∞ = 2598 mm LT , k = 0·15) and the two-parameter Gompertz (L∞ = 2896 mm LT , k= 0·16). Age at maturity was calculated to be 8·9 and 13·2 years for males and females, respectively. Although numerous age and growth studies have previously been undertaken on S. lewini, few studies have been able to obtain adequate samples from all components of the population because adult females, adult males and juveniles often reside in different areas. For the first time, sex bias in this study was towards sexually mature females, which are commonly lacking in previous biological studies on S. lewini. Additionally, some of the oldest aged specimens and highest age at maturity for both species were observed in this study. Both species exhibit slow rates of growth and late age at maturity, highlighting the need for a re-assessment of the relative resilience of these two

  12. Extensive use of mesopelagic waters by a Scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Spät, Julia L.Y.

    2017-09-06

    Background Despite being frequently landed in fish markets along the Saudi Arabian Red Sea coast, information regarding fundamental biology of the Scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini) in this region is scarce. Satellite telemetry studies can generate important data on life history, describe critical habitats, and ultimately redefine management strategies for sharks. To better understand the horizontal and vertical habitat use of S. lewini in the Red Sea and to aid with potential future development of zoning and management plans for key habitats, we deployed a pop-up satellite archival transmitting tag to track a single female specimen (240 cm total length) for a tracking period of 182 days. Results The tag was physically recovered after a deployment period of 6 months, thus providing the complete archived dataset of more than one million depth and temperature records. Based on a reconstructed, most probable track, the shark travelled a circular distance of approximately 1000 km from the central Saudi Arabian Red Sea southeastward into Sudanese waters, returning to the tagging location toward the end of the tracking period. Mesopelagic excursions to depths between 650 and 971 m occurred on 174 of the 182 days of the tracking period. Intervals between such excursions were characterized by constant oscillatory diving in the upper 100 m of the water column. Conclusions This study provides evidence that mesopelagic habitats might be more commonly used by S. lewini than previously suggested. We identified deep diving behavior throughout the 24-h cycle over the entire 6-month tracking period. In addition to expected nightly vertical habitat use, the shark exhibited frequent mesopelagic excursions during daytime. Deep diving throughout the diel cycle has not been reported before and, while dive functionality remains unconfirmed, our study suggests that mesopelagic excursions may represent foraging events within and below deep scattering layers. Additional research

  13. Multi-biomarker approach in the scallop Chlamys farreri to assess PAHs pollution in Qingdao coastal areas of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Luqing; Zhang, Mengyu; Jin, Qian; Ji, Rongwang

    2017-11-15

    A multi-biomarker approach was conducted in the scallop Chlamys farreri from three sites, denoted here as S1, S2, and S3, in Qingdao coastal areas of China in March, June, September and December 2014 to assess pollution from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and to select appropriate biomarkers. A suite of biological responses of the gills and digestive glands of the scallops was assayed, including: (i) phase I detoxification enzymes of 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD), epoxide hydrolase (EH), and dihydrodiol dehydrogenase (DD) and phase II detoxification enzymes of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and sulfotransferase (SULT); (ii) antioxidant enzymes: catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx); (iii) oxidative damage parameters: lipid peroxidation (LPO) expressed by malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, protein carbonylation (PC) and DNA damage (F value); and (iv) the metabolism-related genes of EH, DD, GST, SULT and SOD. Simultaneously, the concentrations of total PAHs along with 16 types of PAHs previously identified by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and environmental parameters, including temperature and salinity together with pH, were measured. Using Principle Component Analysis (PCA), it was revealed that S2 was the most PAH-contaminated site, while S1 was identified as the least PAH-polluted site, which was consistent with the results utilizing the Biomarker Response Index (BRI); in other words, the biological health status of S2 was worse than S1 and S3. Moreover, the most suitable biomarkers to assess PAH pollution in Qingdao coastal areas proved to be DD mRNA expression and the F value in both the gills and digestive glands for the total PAHs, DD activity and PC contents or PC and MDA contents in the gills or digestive glands for 5 + 6 rings PAHs and DD mRNA expression in both the gills and digestive glands for 2 + 3 rings and 4 rings PAHs. Moreover, this study highlighted the possible use of the

  14. Fusarium solani fungal infection of the lateral line canal system in captive scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crow, G L; Brock, J A; Kaiser, S

    1995-10-01

    Two of five scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) captured May 1987 in Hawaii (USA) developed granulomatous exudative mycotic dermatitis localized in the lateral line canal system. The lesion initially was noted in the cephalic canals, but over a period of months extended into the lateral canal. Fusarium solani and Vibrio spp. were isolated from the canal exudate of both sharks. Bacterial colonies were not observed in the canal walls or surrounding tissues. Fusarium solani infection resulted in a chronic physical and behavioral deterioration of the two sharks; one shark was euthanized in September 1988 and the other in July 1989. This is the first report of Fusarium solani infection in the lateral line canal system and the third account in hammerhead sharks.

  15. Quality and shelf life of the gonad of lion's paw scallop transported and stored whole in refrigeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Ocaño-Higuera

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The effect of refrigerated 48h transport and 4 days storage on the quality and shelf life of the whole lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus gonad was evaluated. Proximal composition, adenosine 5´triphosphate (ATP and related products, K-value, total volatile bases (TVB-N, trimethylamine (TMA-N, pH, fatty acid profile and microbiological analyses were quantified. Gonad holds a significant composition of essential fatty acids while levels of gonadal ATP were initially low; moreover, K-value of the gonad remained constant. With respect to TVB-N and TMA-N, only the former exceeded allowed limits. The pH level showed no significant variation during storage and, despite the high level of TVB-N, according to the TMA-N as well as microbiological analyses it was demonstrated innocuity after 4 days under the transportation and storage conditions utilized.

  16. Vestigial and scalloped in the ladybird beetle: a conserved function in wing development and a novel function in pupal ecdysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohde, T; Masumoto, M; Morita-Miwa, M; Matsuura, H; Yoshioka, H; Yaginuma, T; Niimi, T

    2009-10-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, Vestigial (Vg) and Scalloped (Sd) form a transcription factor complex and play a crucial role in wing development. To extend our knowledge of insect wing formation, we isolated vg and sd homologues from two ladybird beetle species, Henosepilachna vigintioctopunctata and Harmonia axyridis. Although the ladybird beetle vg homologues had only low homology with D. melanogaster vg, ectopic expression of H. vigintioctopunctata vg induced wing-like tissues in antennae and legs of D. melanogaster. Subsequent larval RNA interference (RNAi) analysis in H. vigintioctopunctata demonstrated conserved functions of vg and sd in wing development, and an unexpected novel function of sd in pupal ecdysis. Furthermore, our results can be applied to the production of a flightless ladybird beetle for biological control purposes using larval RNAi.

  17. Identification of male gametogenesis expressed genes from the scallop Nodipecten subnodosus by suppressive subtraction hybridization and pyrosequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llera-Herrera, Raúl; García-Gasca, Alejandra; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Huvet, Arnaud; Ibarra, Ana M

    2013-01-01

    Despite the great advances in sequencing technologies, genomic and transcriptomic information for marine non-model species with ecological, evolutionary, and economical interest is still scarce. In this work we aimed to identify genes expressed during spermatogenesis in the functional hermaphrodite scallop Nodipecten subnodosus (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pectinidae), with the purpose of obtaining a panel of genes that would allow for the study of differentially transcribed genes between diploid and triploid scallops in the context of meiotic arrest and reproductive sterility. Because our aim was to isolate genes involved in meiosis and other testis maturation-related processes, we generated suppressive subtractive hybridization libraries of testis vs. inactive gonad. We obtained 352 and 177 ESTs by clone sequencing, and using pyrosequencing (454-Roche) we maximized the identified ESTs to 34,276 reads. A total of 1,153 genes from the testis library had a blastx hit and GO annotation, including genes specific for meiosis, spermatogenesis, sex-differentiation, and transposable elements. Some of the identified meiosis genes function in chromosome pairing (scp2, scp3), recombination and DNA repair (dmc1, rad51, ccnb1ip1/hei10), and meiotic checkpoints (rad1, hormad1, dtl/cdt2). Gene expression analyses in different gametogenic stages in both sexual regions of the gonad of meiosis genes confirmed that the expression was specific or increased towards the maturing testis. Spermatogenesis genes included known testis-specific ones (kelch-10, shippo1, adad1), with some of these known to be associated to sterility. Sex differentiation genes included one of the most conserved genes at the bottom of the sex-determination cascade (dmrt1). Transcript from transposable elements, reverse transcriptase, and transposases in this library evidenced that transposition is an active process during spermatogenesis in N. subnodosus. In relation to the inactive library, we identified 833

  18. Identification of male gametogenesis expressed genes from the scallop Nodipecten subnodosus by suppressive subtraction hybridization and pyrosequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Llera-Herrera

    Full Text Available Despite the great advances in sequencing technologies, genomic and transcriptomic information for marine non-model species with ecological, evolutionary, and economical interest is still scarce. In this work we aimed to identify genes expressed during spermatogenesis in the functional hermaphrodite scallop Nodipecten subnodosus (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Pectinidae, with the purpose of obtaining a panel of genes that would allow for the study of differentially transcribed genes between diploid and triploid scallops in the context of meiotic arrest and reproductive sterility. Because our aim was to isolate genes involved in meiosis and other testis maturation-related processes, we generated suppressive subtractive hybridization libraries of testis vs. inactive gonad. We obtained 352 and 177 ESTs by clone sequencing, and using pyrosequencing (454-Roche we maximized the identified ESTs to 34,276 reads. A total of 1,153 genes from the testis library had a blastx hit and GO annotation, including genes specific for meiosis, spermatogenesis, sex-differentiation, and transposable elements. Some of the identified meiosis genes function in chromosome pairing (scp2, scp3, recombination and DNA repair (dmc1, rad51, ccnb1ip1/hei10, and meiotic checkpoints (rad1, hormad1, dtl/cdt2. Gene expression analyses in different gametogenic stages in both sexual regions of the gonad of meiosis genes confirmed that the expression was specific or increased towards the maturing testis. Spermatogenesis genes included known testis-specific ones (kelch-10, shippo1, adad1, with some of these known to be associated to sterility. Sex differentiation genes included one of the most conserved genes at the bottom of the sex-determination cascade (dmrt1. Transcript from transposable elements, reverse transcriptase, and transposases in this library evidenced that transposition is an active process during spermatogenesis in N. subnodosus. In relation to the inactive library, we identified

  19. Sensitivity towards elevated pCO2 in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck) embryos and fed larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Sissel; Grefsrud, Ellen S.; Harboe, Torstein

    2017-02-01

    The increasing amount of dissolved anthropogenic CO2 has caused a drop in pH values in the open ocean known as ocean acidification. This change in seawater carbonate chemistry has been shown to have a negative effect on a number of marine organisms. Early life stages are the most vulnerable, and especially the organisms that produce calcified structures in the phylum Mollusca. Few studies have looked at effects on scallops, and this is the first study presented including fed larvae of the great scallop (Pecten maximus) followed until day 14 post-fertilization. Fertilized eggs from unexposed parents were exposed to three levels of pCO2 using four replicate units: 465 (ambient), 768 and 1294 µatm, corresponding to pHNIST of 7.94, 7.75 (-0.19 units) and 7.54 (-0.40 units), respectively. All of the observed parameters were negatively affected by elevated pCO2: survival, larval development, shell growth and normal shell development. The latter was observed to be affected only 2 days after fertilization. Negative effects on the fed larvae at day 7 were similar to what was shown earlier for unfed P. maximus larvae. Growth rate in the group at 768 µatm seemed to decline after day 7, indicating that the ability to overcome the environmental change at moderately elevated pCO2 was lost over time. The present study shows that food availability does not decrease the sensitivity to elevated pCO2 in P. maximus larvae. Unless genetic adaptation and acclimatization counteract the negative effects of long term elevated pCO2, recruitment in populations of P. maximus will most likely be negatively affected by the projected drop of 0.06-0.32 units in pH within year 2100.

  20. Scallop protein with endogenous high taurine and glycine content prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity and improves plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tastesen, Hanne Sørup; Keenan, Alison H; Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten; Liaset, Bjørn

    2014-07-01

    High-protein diets induce alterations in metabolism that may prevent diet-induced obesity. However, little is known as to whether different protein sources consumed at normal levels may affect diet-induced obesity and associated co-morbidities. We fed obesity-prone male C57BL/6J mice high-fat, high-sucrose diets with protein sources of increasing endogenous taurine content, i.e., chicken, cod, crab and scallop, for 6 weeks. The energy intake was lower in crab and scallop-fed mice than in chicken and cod-fed mice, but only scallop-fed mice gained less body and fat mass. Liver mass was reduced in scallop-fed mice, but otherwise no changes in lean body mass were observed between the groups. Feed efficiency and apparent nitrogen digestibility were reduced in scallop-fed mice suggesting alterations in energy utilization and metabolism. Overnight fasted plasma triacylglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids, glycerol and hydroxy-butyrate levels were significantly reduced, indicating reduced lipid mobilization in scallop-fed mice. The plasma HDL-to-total-cholesterol ratio was higher, suggesting increased reverse cholesterol transport or cholesterol clearance in scallop-fed mice in both fasted and non-fasted states. Dietary intake of taurine and glycine correlated negatively with body mass gain and total fat mass, while intake of all other amino acids correlated positively. Furthermore taurine and glycine intake correlated positively with improved plasma lipid profile, i.e., lower levels of plasma lipids and higher HDL-to-total-cholesterol ratio. In conclusion, dietary scallop protein completely prevents high-fat, high-sucrose-induced obesity whilst maintaining lean body mass and improving the plasma lipid profile in male C57BL/6J mice.

  1. The occurrence of domoic acid linked to a toxic diatom bloom in a new potential vector: the tunicate Pyura chilensis (piure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rivera, Américo; Pinto, Maricela; Insinilla, Andrea; Suárez Isla, Benjamín; Uribe, Eduardo; Alvarez, Gonzalo; Lehane, Mary; Furey, Ambrose; James, Kevin J

    2009-11-01

    The tunicate Pyura chilensis (Molina, 1782); Phylum Chordata; Subphylum Urochordata; Class Ascidiacea, common local name "piure" or sea squirt; a filter-feeder (plankton and suspended particles) sessile species; may play an important role in monitoring domoic acid (DA) the principal toxic component of Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP). Significant DA concentrations have been determined in tunicate samples, collected during a recent ASP outbreak in Bahía Inglesa, an important scallop (Argopecten purpuratus) farming area. Several infaunal species were tested for the presence of DA, in addition to the usual scallop monitoring programme. DA was found at sub-toxic levels in filtering bivalves such as mussels (Mytilus chilensis), large mussels (Aulacomya ater) and clams (Protothaca thaca) (6.4, 5.4 and 4.7 microg DA/g tissue respectively). Of particular interest was the observation of significant accumulations of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia sp. diatoms in the internal siphon and atrium spaces of the tunicate. Toxin distribution within major tunicate organs was heterogeneous with 8.7-15.5 microg DA/g in edible tissues, 14.9-17.9 microg DA/g in the fecal material and 13.6-32.7 microg DA/g in the gut content. DA was determined by HPLC-UV and confirmed by diode-array detection and LC-MS/MS analysis. This is the first report of the presence of DA in a tunicate that is regularly consumed by coastal populations. These results confirm the need to include these organisms in sanitation programs for marine toxins.

  2. Comparison of total lipids and fatty acids from liver, heart and abdominal muscle of scalloped (Sphyrna lewini) and smooth (Sphyrna zygaena) hammerhead sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Bruce Clement; Nel, Wynand; Rais, Afsha; Namdarizandi, Vahid; Vizarra, Scott; Cliff, Geremy

    2014-01-01

    Liver, heart and abdominal muscle samples from scalloped (Sphyrna lewini) and smooth (Sphyrna zygaena) hammerhead sharks were analysed to characterise their lipid and fatty acid profiles. Samples were compared both between and within species, but there were no significant differences in total lipids for either comparison, although much greater total amounts were found in the liver samples. Within the individual fatty acids, the only significant differences were greater amounts of 22:6n-3, total n-3 polyunsaturates and total polyunsaturates in smooth, when compared to scalloped, hammerhead liver. This may reflect the more wide spread distribution of this species into cooler waters. Within both species the liver levels of the same fatty acid fractions decreased from spring to summer, which may correlate with changes in fatty acid profile to adapt to any differences in amount or species of prey consumed, or other considerations, eg. buoyancy, however there was no data to clarify this.

  3. Steam reforming of tar derived from lignin over pompom-like potassium-promoted iron-based catalysts formed on calcined scallop shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Guoqing; Kaewpanha, Malinee; Hao, Xiaogang; Zhu, Ai-Min; Kasai, Yutaka; Kakuta, Seiji; Kusakabe, Katsuki; Abudula, Abuliti

    2013-07-01

    In order to understand the improvement effect of potassium (K) on the catalytic activity of iron-loaded calcined scallop shell (CS) for the steam reforming tar derived from biomass, various K precursors were applied for the catalyst preparation. It is found that pompom-like iron-based particles with a mesoporous structure were easily formed on the surface of calcined scallop shell (CS) when K2CO3 was used as K precursor while no such kind of microsphere was formed when other kinds of K precursors such as KOH and KNO3 were applied. The optimum K-loading amount for the preparation of this catalyst was investigated. Based on the experimental results obtained, a mechanism for the formation of these microspheres was proposed. This pompom-like potassium-promoted iron-based catalyst showed a better catalytic activity and reusability for the steam reforming of tar derived from lignin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The genome-wide identification of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MKK) genes in Yesso scallop Patinopecten yessoensis and their expression responses to bacteria challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jiajun; Wang, Ruijia; Li, Ruojiao; Kong, Yifan; Wang, Jing; Ning, Xianhui; Zhang, Lingling; Wang, Shi; Hu, Xiaoli; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-08-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases (MKK) are the essential components of the evolutionarily conserved MAPK signaling cascade, which regulates a variety of cellular activities and innate immune responses. Although MKK genes have been extensively studied in various vertebrate and invertebrate species, they have not been systematically characterized in bivalves. In this study, we identified and characterized five MKK genes (PyMKK1/2, PyMKK4, PyMKK5, PyMKK3/6 and PyMKK7) in the Yesso scallop (Patinopecten yessoensis). Phylogenetic and protein structural analyses were conducted to determine their identities and evolutionary relationships. To gain insights into the possible roles of MKK genes during scallop innate immune responses, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to investigate their expression profiles during different developmental stages in samples taken from healthy adult tissues and hemocytes after Micrococcus luteus and Vibrio anguillarum bacterial infections. The Yesso scallop MKKs (PyMKKs) were found to have highly conserved structural features compared to the MKK genes from other invertebrate species. Using qRT-PCR analysis, three distinct expression patterns were detected among the PyMKKs over the course of ten different developmental stages. In adult scallops, the majority of the PyMKKs were highly expressed in mantle, gill, muscle and hemocytes. The differential expression patterns of the five PyMKKs after M. luteus (Gram-positive) and V. anguillarum (Gram-negative) bacterial infections suggested their possible involvement in the innate immune response and provide the foundation and resource for the further study on innate immune response of MAPK signal pathway in mollusk. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. SOME BIOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF SCALLOPED HAMMERHEAD SHARKS (Sphyrna lewini Griffith & Smith, 1834) CAUGHT FROM COASTAL FISHERIES IN THE EASTERN INDIAN OCEAN

    OpenAIRE

    Umi Chodrijah; Bram Setyadji

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia has the largest chondrichthyan fishery in the world, with a reported of 105,000 and 118,000 tonnes landed in 2002 and 2003 respectively. Scalloped hammerhead shark was either targeted or by-catch from this fishery, mostly for its fins. Despite of the growing concern around the world, the availability of biological data of this species, especially in the Eastern Indian Ocean is still lacking. The objectives of this paper are to present some biological information (size composition an...

  6. Characterization of {sup 241}Am and {sup 134}Cs bioaccumulation in the king scallop Pecten maximus: investigation via three exposure pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metian, Marc, E-mail: metian@hawaii.edu [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000, Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France); Warnau, Michel; Teyssie, Jean-Louis [International Atomic Energy Agency, Marine Environment Laboratories, 4, Quai Antoine Ier, MC-98000, Principality of Monaco (Monaco); Bustamante, Paco, E-mail: paco.bustamante@univ-lr.fr [Littoral Environnement et Societes (LIENSs), UMR 6250, CNRS-Universite de La Rochelle, 2 rue Olympe de Gouges, F-17042 La Rochelle Cedex 01 (France)

    2011-06-15

    In order to understand the bioaccumulation of {sup 241}Am and {sup 134}Cs in scallops living in sediments, the uptake and depuration kinetics of these two elements were investigated in the king scallop Pecten maximus exposed via seawater, food, or sediment under laboratory conditions. Generally, {sup 241}Am accumulation was higher and its retention was stronger than {sup 134}Cs. This was especially obvious when considering whole animals exposed through seawater with whole-body concentration factors (CF{sub 7d}) of 62 vs. 1, absorption efficiencies (A{sub 0l}) of 78 vs. 45 for seawater and biological half-lives (T{sub b1/2l}) of 892 d vs. 22 d for {sup 241}Am and {sup 134}Cs, respectively. In contrast, following a single feeding with radiolabelled phytoplankton, the assimilation efficiency (AE) and T{sub b1/2l} of {sup 134}Cs were higher than those of {sup 241}Am (AE: 28% vs. 20%; T{sub b1/2l}: 14 d vs. 9 d). Among scallop tissues, the shells always contained the higher proportion of the total body burden of {sup 241}Am whatever the exposure pathway. In contrast, the whole soft parts presented the major fraction of whole-body burden of {sup 134}Cs, which was generally associated with muscular tissues. Our results showed that the two radionuclides have contrasting behaviors in scallops, in relation to their physico-chemical properties. - Highlights: > We determined Am and Cs uptake and depuration kinetics following seawater, food and sediment exposures. > We determined radionuclide tissue distribution after exposure and after depuration periods. > Am was mainly associated to the shell whatever the exposure pathway was. > Transfer processes occurred between soft and hard tissues for Am.

  7. THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING, REGRESSION QUANTILES, AND GIS APPROACHES FOR MODELING OF SCALLOP LARVAE: A Case Study in Funka Bay, Hokkaido, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Radiarta

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the development of scallop cultivation in Japan, larvae collection and propagation become an important factor. Although the monitoring program has been conducted, modeling of species distribution is becoming an important tool for understanding the effects of environmental changes and resources management. This study was conducted to construct a model for providing estimation of the scallop larvae distribution in Funka Bay, Hokkaido, Japan using the integration of remote sensing, Regression Quantile (RQ and Geographic Information System (GIS-based model. Data on scallop larvae were collected during one year spawning season from April to July 2003. Environmental parameters were extracted from multi sensor remotely sensed data (chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature and a hydrographic chart (water depth. These parameters together with larvae data were then analyzed using RQ. Finally, spatial models were constructed within a GIS by combining the RQ models with digital map of environmental parameters. The results show that the model was best explained by using only sea surface temperature. The highest larvae densities were predicted in a relatively broad distribution along with the shallow water regions (Toyoura and Sawara to Yakumo and the deeper water areas (center of the bay. The spatial model built from the RQ provided robust estimation of the scallop larvae distributions in the study area, as confirmed by model validation using independent data. These findings could contribute on the monitoring program in this region in order to distinguish the potential areas for an effective spat collection.

  8. Risks and benefits of compost-like materials prepared by the thermal treatment of raw scallop hepatopancreas for supplying cadmium and the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushijima, Kensuke; Fukushima, Masami; Kanno, Shinya; Kanno, Itoko; Ohnishi, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Scallop hepatopancreas, fishery waste, contains relatively high levels of Cd and organic nitrogen compounds, the latter of which represent a fertilizer. In this study, raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue was thermally treated with sawdust and red loam in the presence of an iron catalyst to produce compost-like materials (CLMs). Two CLM samples were prepared by varying the content of raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue: 46 wt.% for CLM-1 and 18 wt.% for CLM-2. Mixtures of control soil (CTL) and CLMs (CLM content: 10 and 25 wt.%) were examined for the growth of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) to evaluate the risks and benefits of using this material for fertilization. The Cd content in shoots and roots of alfalfa, that were grown in the presence of CLMs, was significantly higher than those for the plants grown in the CTL, indicating that Cd had accumulated in the plants from CLMs. The accumulation of Cd in the alfalfa roots was quite high in the case of the 25% CLM-1 sample. However, alfalfa growth was significantly promoted in the presence of 10% CLM-1. This can be attributed to the higher levels of nitrogen and humic substances, which serve as fertilizer components. Although the fertilization effect in case of CLM-1showed a potential benefit, the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa was clearly increased in the presence of both CLMs. In conclusion, the use of CLMs produced from raw scallop hepatopancreas tissue can be considered to have a desirable benefit from standpoint of its use as fertilizer, but is accompanied by a risk of the accumulation of Cd in alfalfa plants.

  9. Application of SSH and quantitative real time PCR to construction of gene expression profiles from scallop Chlamys farreri in response to exposure to tetrabromobisphenol A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Xiaoli; Pan, Luqing; Miao, Jingjing; Liu, Na

    2012-11-01

    TBBPA-induced genes were identified using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) from Chlamys farreri. A total of 203 and 44 clones from SSH forward and reverse library were respectively obtained including cellular process, immune system process, response to stimulus, metabolic process and signaling etc. Differential gene expressions were compared between scallops from control and TBBPA treatment groups (400 μg/L, 15 days) using quantitative real time RT-PCR. For further research, eight significant genes expression from scallops exposed to TBBPA (0; 100; 200; 400 μg/L) sampling at 0, 1, 3, 6 and 15 days, were utilized for Q-RT-PCR. The results revealed that the expression level of most selected cDNAs was dominantly up-regulated or down-regulated in the TBBPA-induced scallops. These findings provide basic genomic information of the bivalve and the selected genes may be the potential molecular biomarkers for TBBPA pollution in aquatic environment. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Modelling larval dispersal of the king scallop ( Pecten maximus) in the English Channel: examples from the bay of Saint-Brieuc and the bay of Seine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Amandine; Dumas, Franck; Foveau, Aurélie; Foucher, Eric; Thiébaut, Eric

    2013-06-01

    The king scallop ( Pecten maximus) is one of the most important benthic species of the English Channel as it constitutes the first fishery in terms of landings in this area. To support strategies of spatial fishery management, we develop a high-resolution biophysical model to study scallop dispersal in two bays along the French coasts of the English Channel (i.e. the bay of Saint-Brieuc and the bay of Seine) and to quantify the relative roles of local hydrodynamic processes, temperature-dependent planktonic larval duration (PLD) and active swimming behaviour (SB). The two bays are chosen for three reasons: (1) the distribution of the scallop stocks in these areas is well known from annual scallop stock surveys, (2) these two bays harbour important fisheries and (3) scallops in these two areas present some differences in terms of reproductive cycle and spawning duration. The English Channel currents and temperature are simulated for 10 years (2000-2010) with the MARS-3D code and then used by the Lagrangian module of MARS-3D to model the transport. Results were analysed in terms of larval distribution at settlement and connectivity rates. While larval transport in the two bays depended both on the tidal residual circulation and the wind-induced currents, the relative role of these two hydrodynamic processes varied among bays. In the bay of Saint-Brieuc, the main patterns of larval dispersal were due to tides, the wind being only a source of variability in the extent of larval patch and the local retention rate. Conversely, in the bay of Seine, wind-induced currents altered both the direction and the extent of larval transport. The main effect of a variable PLD in relation to the thermal history of each larva was to reduce the spread of dispersal and consequently increase the local retention by about 10 % on average. Although swimming behaviour could influence larval dispersal during the first days of the PLD when larvae are mainly located in surface waters, it has a

  11. Age and growth of the Scalloped Hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834), from the southern Brazilian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotas, J E; Mastrochirico, V; Petrere Junior, M

    2011-08-01

    Age and growth studies for the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834) caught along the southern Brazilian coast, were based on ring measurements of vertebrae sections of 115 males, 116 females and 14 unknown sexed sharks between 48 and 344 cm total length (TL). The von Bertalanffy growth models were best fit using back-calculated data. The growth parameters obtained for males, were L∞ = 266 cm; K = 0.05/year; L0 = 47 cm. For females, L∞ = 300 cm; K = 0.05/year; L0 = 51 cm. An adult female reached 217 cm TL and was 31.5 years old. On the other hand, an adult male was 29.5 years old and measured 234 cm TL. Longevity estimate for males and females was 55 years. Therefore, S. lewini is a long-lived fish. Ageing precision, based on the IAPE index, was 5.6%. Marginal Increment analysis based on MIR index from hammerheads smaller than 105 cm, compared with the percentual of opaque and hyaline bands found per month ageing whole vertebrae, showed an annual ring formation, i.e., in winter.

  12. Juvenile king scallop, Pecten maximus, is potentially tolerant to low levels of ocean acidification when food is unrestricted.

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    Matthew Burton Sanders

    Full Text Available The decline in ocean water pH and changes in carbonate saturation states through anthropogenically mediated increases in atmospheric CO2 levels may pose a hazard to marine organisms. This may be particularly acute for those species reliant on calcareous structures like shells and exoskeletons. This is of particular concern in the case of valuable commercially exploited species such as the king scallop, Pecten maximus. In this study we investigated the effects on oxygen consumption, clearance rates and cellular turnover in juvenile P. maximus following 3 months laboratory exposure to four pCO2 treatments (290, 380, 750 and 1140 µatm. None of the exposure levels were found to have significant effect on the clearance rates, respiration rates, condition index or cellular turnover (RNA: DNA of individuals. While it is clear that some life stages of marine bivalves appear susceptible to future levels of ocean acidification, particularly under food limiting conditions, the results from this study suggest that where food is in abundance, bivalves like juvenile P. maximus may display a tolerance to limited changes in seawater chemistry.

  13. Changes in global DNA methylation intensity and DNMT1 transcription during the aging process of scallop Chlamys farreri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lian, Shanshan; He, Yan; Li, Xue; Zhao, Bosong; Hou, Rui; Hu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lingling; Bao, Zhenmin

    2015-08-01

    DNA methylation is an important epigenetic regulatory mechanism that influences genomic stability, gene activation, X-chromosome inactivation and other factors. A change in DNA methylation is usually associated with aging and cellular senescence. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) is the most abundant DNA methyltransferase, and it plays an important role in maintaining the established methylation pattern during DNA replication in vertebrates. Although the effect of aging on DNA methylation has been well studied in vertebrates, little research has been conducted in invertebrates, especially in marine bivalves. In this study, we examined global DNA methylation levels in four groups of adult Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri at different ages. The results showed that both the age and tissue type had a strong effect on the DNA methylation. In addition, a significant decrease in DNA methylation with aging (1-4 years) can be detected in mantle, kidney and hepatopancreas. We further measured the change in DNMT1 transcript abundance using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), which revealed that DNMT1 transcription significantly decreased with aging in mantle and hepatopancreas and strongly correlated with DNA methylation ( R = 0.72). Our data provided greater insight into the aging-related decline of DNA methylation, which could aid in gaining a better understanding of the relationship between DNA methylation and the aging process in bivalve mollusks.

  14. High-power free-electron laser amplifier using a scalloped electron beam and a two-stage wiggler

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    D. C. Nguyen

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available High-power free-electron laser (FEL amplifiers present many practical design and construction problems. One such problem is possible damage to any optical beam control elements beyond the wiggler. The ability to increase the optical beam’s divergence angle after the wiggler, thereby reducing the intensity on the first optical element, is important to minimize such damage. One proposal to accomplish this optical beam spreading is to pinch the electron beam thereby focusing the radiation as well. In this paper, we analyze an approach that relies on the natural betatron motion to pinch the electron beam near the end of the wiggler. We also consider a step-tapered, two-stage wiggler to enhance the efficiency. The combination of a pinched electron beam and step-taper wiggler leads to additional optical guiding of the optical beam. This novel configuration is studied in simulation using the MEDUSA code. For a representative set of beam and wiggler parameters, we discuss (i the effect of the scalloped beam on the interaction in the FEL and on the focusing and propagation of the radiation, and (ii the efficiency enhancement in the two-stage wiggler.

  15. Identification and expression analysis of cDNA encoding chitinase-like protein (CLP) gene in Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, L; Xu, G J; Su, H; Gao, X G; Li, Y F; Bao, X B; Liu, W D; He, C B

    2014-12-18

    Chitinase-like proteins (CLP) are important members of the glycoside hydrolase family 18 (GH18) and are involved in growth control and remodeling processes. In this study, a CLP transcript was isolated and sequenced from the Japanese scallop (Mizuhopecten yessoensis) after screening expressed sequence tags. The full-length complementary DNA of M. yessoensis CLP (My-Clp1) was 1555 bp in length, consisting of a 75-bp 5'-untranslated region (UTR), a 160-bp 3'-UTR, and a 1320-bp open reading frame bearing characteristics of the GH18 family. The My-Clp1 protein was well conserved, with similar domain structures and architecture across species (e.g., from mollusks to mammals). Expression analysis in healthy tissues and across developmental stages revealed a strong preference for expression; My-Clp1 was abundantly expressed in the mantle and throughout metamorphosis, which suggests the involvement of My-Clp1 in the synthesis of extracellular components, and tissue degeneration and remodeling. My-Clp1 expression was induced after infection with a bacterial pathogen, Vibrio anguillarum, suggesting its involvement in immunity against this intracellular pathogen.

  16. Production of L-lactic Acid from Biomass Wastes Using Scallop Crude Enzymes and Novel Lactic Acid Bacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Mitsunori; Nakamura, Kanami; Nakasaki, Kiyohiko

    In the present study, biomass waste raw materials including paper mill sludge, bamboo, sea lettuce, and shochu residue (from a distiller) and crude enzymes derived from inedible and discarded scallop parts were used to produce L-lactic acid for the raw material of biodegradable plastic poly-lactic acid. The activities of cellulase and amylase in the crude enzymes were 22 and 170units/L, respectively, and L-lactic acid was produced from every of the above mentioned biomass wastes, by the method of liquid-state simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) . The L-lactic acid concentrations produced from sea lettuce and shochu residue, which contain high concentration of starch were 3.6 and 9.3g/L, respectively, and corresponded to greater than 25% of the conversion of glucans contained in these biomass wastes. Furthermore, using the solid state SSF method, concentrations as high as 13g/L of L-lactic acid were obtained from sea lettuce and 26g/L were obtained from shochu residue.

  17. Cell cycle genes regulate vestigial and scalloped to ensure normal proliferation in the wing disc of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legent, Kevin; Dutriaux, Annie; Delanoue, Rénald; Silber, Joël

    2006-08-01

    In Drosophila, the Vestigial-Scalloped (VG-SD) dimeric transcription factor is required for wing cell identity and proliferation. Previous results have shown that VG-SD controls expression of the cell cycle positive regulator dE2F1 during wing development. Since wing disc growth is a homeostatic process, we investigated the possibility that genes involved in cell cycle progression regulate vg and sd expression in feedback loops. We focused our experiments on two major regulators of cell cycle progression: dE2F1 and the antagonist dacapo (dap). Our results reinforce the idea that VG/SD stoichiometry is critical for correct development and that an excess in SD over VG disrupts wing growth. We reveal that transcriptional activity of VG-SD and the VG/SD ratio are both modulated by down-expression of cell cycle genes. We also detected a dap-induced sd up-regulation that disrupts wing growth. Moreover, we observed a rescue of a vg hypomorphic mutant phenotype by dE2F1 that is concomitant with vg and sd induction. This regulation of the VG-SD activity by dE2F1 is dependent on the vg genetic background. Our results support the hypothesis that cell cycle genes fine-tune wing growth and cell proliferation, in part, through control of the VG/SD stoichiometry and activity. This points to a homeostatic feedback regulation between proliferation regulators and the VG-SD wing selector.

  18. Comparative analysis of the reproductive strategy of lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus in Baja California Sur, Mexico

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    Marco A Angel-Dapa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive strategy of lion's paw scallop Nodipecten subnodosus was evaluated in a culturing system in Bahía Tortugas, Baja California Sur, Mexico during an annual cycle, comparing its response with data previously reported at other localities. High frequencies of ripe gonads throughout the year indicate that reproduction was continuous, with two main ripening/spawning events: July-September and December-March. A continuous breeding is also reported for the species in Bahía Magdalena, Bahía Juncalito, and Bahía de Los Angeles. These eutrophic areas are Biological Active Centers where gametogenesis appears to be regulated by the energy taken from recently ingested food following an opportunistic strategy. However, the digestive gland index decreased and the muscle indices increased during one of the breeding peaks, suggesting that some stored reserves are also used to sustain gametogenesis (conservative strategy partially. High incidences of atretic oocytes are likely associated with atypical daily variations in water temperature from May through September (12 to 33°C, or with stressful conditions in the culturing system in summer. Despite this, the culturing system set in Bahía Tortugas appears beneficial for a continuous reproduction of N. subnodosus.

  19. Molecular Cloning, Characterization, and Expression of a Catalase Gene in the Japanese Scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis Induced in the Presence of Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Jialong; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2016-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is known to influence the oxidative status of marine organisms and can induce the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Catalase (CAT) is one of the important enzymes involved in scavenging high levels of ROS. In present study, we cloned CAT cDNA and investigated the response of this enzyme at the transcriptional level in the Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis exposed to Cd. The full-length CAT cDNA (MyCAT) of 1,870 nucleotides including a 57 bp 5'-UTR, a coding sequence of 1,500 bp and a 313 bp 3'-UTR were identified from the scallop. The deduced amino acid sequence of MyCAT corresponds to 499 amino acids with predicted molecular weight of 56.48 kDa and contains highly conserved motifs of the proximal heme-binding site RLFSYSTH, proximal active signature FNRERIPERVVHAKGGG and three catalytic amino acid residues His72, Asn145, and Tyr355. Its significant homology to CATs from multiple alignments revealed that MyCAT had a high identity with CATs from other mollusks. CAT mRNA expression analysis revealed that expression level was highest in the digestive gland ( p < 0.01) but weak in muscle. Following exposure to 200 and 400 µg/l of Cd, a high amount of Cd was found to have accumulated in the digestive gland and CAT mRNA expression had significantly increased in this organ among 7-day exposed scallops ( p < 0.001). The result demonstrated that antioxidant enzymes such as CAT play important roles in counteracting Cd stress in M. yessoensis.

  20. Seasonal Variations Preserved in an Extinct Neogene Scallop, Chesapecten, from Florida to Delaware, USA and its Implications for Paleobiogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goewert, A. E.; Surge, D.

    2007-12-01

    High-resolution records of climate variability on deep-time scales are needed to advance our understanding of the impact of a warming climate on seasonality and ecological change along a latitudinal gradient. The Middle Pliocene Warm Interval (MPWI: 3.2-2.8 Ma) provides insight into a globally warmer world, in which, relative to today, continental and oceanic configurations and atmospheric CO2 levels were similar; sea and continental ice were reduced; and interiors of continents were arid. Accretionary hard parts of marine organisms serve as physical (growth lines and increments) and chemical (87Sr/86Sr, δ18 O and δ13C) archives of life history, ecology, and environmental conditions during the life of the animal. Our goal was to examine variations in seasonality across latitudinal (~27° to37°N) and biogeographic (tropical to cold-­temperate) gradients of the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain (MACP) during two intervals of warming: the Middle Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO: 17-­15 Ma) and the Middle Pliocene Warm Interval (MPWI: 3.2-2.8 Ma). We analyzed variations in annual shell growth and isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr, δ18O and δ13C) of 12 Chesapecten shells from the extremes of their biogeographic range (tropical to warm- temperate) (MMCO: Florida and Delaware; and MPWI: Florida and Virginia). Today, Florida is warm-temperate, and Delaware and Virginia are cold-temperate. Chesapecten are an extinct genus of scallop commonly preserved in MAPC deposits. They inhabited subtidal marine environments during the Miocene and Pliocene. We used 87Sr/86Sr ratios to tightly refine the timing and modeled age of the MMCO and MPWI. Modeled ages across Chesapecten's biogeographic extremes include: Florida (MMCO) 15.5 to 14.1±0.6 Ma; Delaware (MMCO) 18.0 to 17.5±0.4 Ma; Florida (MPWI) 3.75 to 2.05±0.9 Ma; and Virginia (MPWI) 2.45 to 1.65±0.4 Ma. We estimated seasonal temperature from the δ18O time series assuming interglacial δ18OSEAWATER values of -0.05‰ and -0.35‰ for

  1. A C1q domain containing protein from scallop Chlamys farreri serving as pattern recognition receptor with heat-aggregated IgG binding activity.

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    Leilei Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The C1q domain containing (C1qDC proteins refer to a family of all proteins that contain the globular C1q (gC1q domain, and participate in a series of immune responses depending on their gC1q domains to bind a variety of self and non-self binding ligands. METHODOLOGY: In the present study, the mRNA expression patterns, localization, and activities of a C1qDC protein from scallop Chlamys farreri (CfC1qDC were investigated to understand its possible functions in innate immunity. The relative expression levels of CfC1qDC mRNA in hemocytes were all significantly up-regulated after four typical PAMPs (LPS, PGN, β-glucan and polyI:C stimulation. During the embryonic development of scallop, the mRNA transcripts of CfC1qDC were detected in all the stages, and the expression level was up-regulated from D-hinged larva and reached the highest at eye-spot larva. The endogenous CfC1qDC was dominantly located in the hepatopancreas, gill, kidney and gonad of adult scallop through immunofluorescence. The recombinant protein of CfC1qDC (rCfC1qDC could not only bind various PAMPs, such as LPS, PGN, β-glucan as well as polyI:C, but also enhance the phagocytic activity of scallop hemocytes towards Escherichia coli. Meanwhile, rCfC1qDC could interact with human heat-aggregated IgG, and this interaction could be inhibited by LPS. CONCLUSIONS: All these results indicated that CfC1qDC in C. farreri not only served as a PRR involved in the PAMPs recognition, but also an opsonin participating in the clearance of invaders in innate immunity. Moreover, the ability of CfC1qDC to interact with immunoglobulins provided a clue to understand the evolution of classical pathway in complement system.

  2. Feeding strategy of the night shark (Carcharhinus signatus and scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini near seamounts off northeastern Brazil

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    Teodoro Vaske Júnior

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A total of 425 stomachs of night shark (Carcharhinus signatus, and 98 stomachs of scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini, from longline and surface gillneters near seamounts off northeastern Brazil, were analysed between 1992 and 1999. Both predators prey upon reef and benthopelagic fishes, migrant cephalopods and deep water crustaceans, showing similar feeding niches (Schoener Index T=0.75. The great prey richness of the diets may reflect the fact that the marine food web for these species is very extensive in this region. Due to the concentration for feeding of both predators in the seamounts, intense fisheries should be monitored to avoid localised depletions.Um total de 425 estômagos de tubarão-toninha (Carcharhinus signatus e 98 estômagos de tubarão-martelo-entalhado (Sphyrna lewini, oriundos da pesca de espinhel e pesca com rede de emalhe nas adjacências dos bancos oceânicos do nordeste do Brasil, foi analisado entre 1992 e 1999. Ambas as espécies predam sobre peixes bento-pelágicos e recifais, cefalópodes migradores, e crustáceos de águas profundas, apresentando nichos alimentares similares (Índice de Schoener T=0.75. A alta riqueza de presas nas dietas deve ser um reflexo de que as teias alimentares para estas espécies são consideravelmente longas nessa região. Devido à concentração alimentar de ambos predadores nos bancos oceânicos, a pescaria intensa deve ser monitorada para evitar depleções locais.

  3. Global phylogeography with mixed-marker analysis reveals male-mediated dispersal in the endangered scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly-Engel, Toby S; Seraphin, Kanesa D; Holland, Kim N; Coffey, John P; Nance, Holly A; Toonen, Robert J; Bowen, Brian W

    2012-01-01

    The scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini, is a large endangered predator with a circumglobal distribution, observed in the open ocean but linked ontogenetically to coastal embayments for parturition and juvenile development. A previous survey of maternal (mtDNA) markers demonstrated strong genetic partitioning overall (global Φ(ST) = 0.749) and significant population separations across oceans and between discontinuous continental coastlines. We surveyed the same global range with increased sample coverage (N = 403) and 13 microsatellite loci to assess the male contribution to dispersal and population structure. Biparentally inherited microsatellites reveal low or absent genetic structure across ocean basins and global genetic differentiation (F(ST) = 0.035) over an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding measures for maternal mtDNA lineages (Φ(ST) = 0.749). Nuclear allelic richness and heterozygosity are high throughout the Indo-Pacific, while genetic structure is low. In contrast, allelic diversity is low while population structure is higher for populations at the ends of the range in the West Atlantic and East Pacific. These data are consistent with the proposed Indo-Pacific center of origin for S. lewini, and indicate that females are philopatric or adhere to coastal habitats while males facilitate gene flow across oceanic expanses. This study includes the largest sampling effort and the most molecular loci ever used to survey the complete range of a large oceanic predator, and findings emphasize the importance of incorporating mixed-marker analysis into stock assessments of threatened and endangered shark species.

  4. Global phylogeography with mixed-marker analysis reveals male-mediated dispersal in the endangered scalloped hammerhead shark (Sphyrna lewini.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toby S Daly-Engel

    Full Text Available The scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini, is a large endangered predator with a circumglobal distribution, observed in the open ocean but linked ontogenetically to coastal embayments for parturition and juvenile development. A previous survey of maternal (mtDNA markers demonstrated strong genetic partitioning overall (global Φ(ST = 0.749 and significant population separations across oceans and between discontinuous continental coastlines.We surveyed the same global range with increased sample coverage (N = 403 and 13 microsatellite loci to assess the male contribution to dispersal and population structure. Biparentally inherited microsatellites reveal low or absent genetic structure across ocean basins and global genetic differentiation (F(ST = 0.035 over an order of magnitude lower than the corresponding measures for maternal mtDNA lineages (Φ(ST = 0.749. Nuclear allelic richness and heterozygosity are high throughout the Indo-Pacific, while genetic structure is low. In contrast, allelic diversity is low while population structure is higher for populations at the ends of the range in the West Atlantic and East Pacific.These data are consistent with the proposed Indo-Pacific center of origin for S. lewini, and indicate that females are philopatric or adhere to coastal habitats while males facilitate gene flow across oceanic expanses. This study includes the largest sampling effort and the most molecular loci ever used to survey the complete range of a large oceanic predator, and findings emphasize the importance of incorporating mixed-marker analysis into stock assessments of threatened and endangered shark species.

  5. Seasonal variations of phytoplankton assemblages and its relation to environmental variables in a scallop culture sea area of Bohai Bay, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang-Hang; Gao, Ya-Hui; Chen, Chang-Ping; Liang, Jun-Rong; Sun, Lin; Zhen, Yu; Qiao, Ling

    2016-12-15

    Seasonal variations of phytoplankton assemblages were examined in a scallop culture sea area of Bohai Bay (China) with regard to some major physical and chemical variables. Samples were collected at three stations from July 2011 to September 2013. A total of 134 species belong to 4 phyla were identified, of which 104 were diatoms, 27 were dinoflagellates, 1 was euglenophyte and 2 were chrysophytes. The cells abundance in autumn (55.44×103cells/L) was higher than that in summer (6.99×103cells/L), spring (3.46×103cells/L) and winter (2.69×103cells/L). The Shannon-Wiener diversity index was higher in summer (3.06), followed by spring (3.02) and winter (2.91), and low in autumn (1.40). Results of canonical correspondence analysis showed that phosphate, salinity, temperature, silicate and DIN/SiO2 ratio were the most important environmental factors influencing the variation of phytoplankton community structure. It is suggested that eutrophication resulted from scallop culture would cause a potential red tide risk. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Yield potential and fruit quality of scallop squash (Cucurbita pepo L. var. patissonina Greb. f. radiata Nois. cultivars grown for processing

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    Eugeniusz Kołota

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scallop squash fruits may be harvested at different stages of development. Small size fruits, intended both for the fresh market and the food industry, have the highest biological value. This study was conducted to determine the yield potential of scallop squash cultivars (‘Polo F1’, ‘Disco’, ‘Gagat’, ‘Okra’, ‘Sunny Delight F1’ grown on mulched (black polyethylene foil or black agrotextile or unmulched soil, and harvested when fruits reached a diameter of 3–6 cm. Based on 3-year average data, the highest marketable and early yield was produced by ‘Sunny Delight F1’. This cultivar is also appreciated by consumers for its yellow colored skin of fruits. Another advantage of this cultivar was its high nutritional value expressed by the highest content of dry matter, vitamin C, polyphenols and minerals (K, P, Ca, Mg, with limited tendency to nitrate accumulation. Among the other cultivars tested, ‘Okra’ showed high yield potential, ‘Gagat’ was a rich source of carotenoids, and ‘Disco’ – polyphenols. Black polyethylene foil and black agrotextile appeared to be equally effective mulching materials. The benefit from the application of mulch was a significant increase in yield without any change in the chemical composition of the fruit.

  7. Observations of sea ice interannual variations and spring bloom occurrences at the Japanese scallop farming area in the Okhotsk Sea using satellite imageries

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    Mustapha, Muzzneena Ahmad; Saitoh, Sei-Ichi

    2008-05-01

    The dynamics of ice formation and phytoplankton bloom development in the coastal region of the Okhotsk Sea, Hokkaido, where the Japanese scallop, Mizuhopecten yessoensis, are cultured were investigated using seven years (1998-2004) satellite data from the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). The interannual variability of sea ice cover and timing of spring bloom occurrences were analyzed. Longer ice cover in 1999, 2001 and 2003 with the presence of ice until early April and shortened ice cover in 1998, 2000, 2002 and 2004 with the occurrence of ice until early March were recognized at this area. Variability in the timing of sea ice retreat and development of spring blooms at the scallop areas were observed. Progression of a single ice edge bloom showed higher Chl- a concentration compared to development of an initial ice edge bloom followed by a later open water bloom. Higher concentration of phytoplankton biomass was observed in the initial bloom when sea ice melting is delayed compared to when the sea ice leaves earlier. Wind events were also observed to affect the occurrences of spring bloom.

  8. Mixed effects of elevated pCO2 on fertilisation, larval and juvenile development and adult responses in the mobile subtidal scallop Mimachlamys asperrima (Lamarck, 1819).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanes, Elliot; Parker, Laura M; O'Connor, Wayne A; Ross, Pauline M

    2014-01-01

    Ocean acidification is predicted to have severe consequences for calcifying marine organisms especially molluscs. Recent studies, however, have found that molluscs in marine environments with naturally elevated or fluctuating CO2 or with an active, high metabolic rate lifestyle may have a capacity to acclimate and be resilient to exposures of elevated environmental pCO2. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of near future concentrations of elevated pCO2 on the larval and adult stages of the mobile doughboy scallop, Mimachlamys asperrima from a subtidal and stable physio-chemical environment. It was found that fertilisation and the shell length of early larval stages of M. asperrima decreased as pCO2 increased, however, there were less pronounced effects of elevated pCO2 on the shell length of later larval stages, with high pCO2 enhancing growth in some instances. Byssal attachment and condition index of adult M. asperrima decreased with elevated pCO2, while in contrast there was no effect on standard metabolic rate or pHe. The responses of larval and adult M. asperrima to elevated pCO2 measured in this study were more moderate than responses previously reported for intertidal oysters and mussels. Even this more moderate set of responses are still likely to reduce the abundance of M. asperrima and potentially other scallop species in the world's oceans at predicted future pCO2 levels.

  9. Effect of increased pCO2 level on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck larvae

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    S. Andersen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As a result of high anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the concentration of CO2 in the oceans has increased, causing a decrease in pH, known as ocean acidification (OA. Numerous studies have shown negative effects on marine invertebrates, and also that the early life stages are the most sensitive to OA. We studied the effects of OA on embryos and unfed larvae of the great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck, at pCO2 levels of 469 (ambient, 807, 1164, and 1599 μatm until seven days after fertilization. To our knowledge, this is the first study on OA effects on larvae of this species. A drop in pCO2 level the first 12 h was observed in the elevated pCO2 groups due to a discontinuation in water flow to avoid escape of embryos. When the flow was restarted, pCO2 level stabilized and was significantly different between all groups. OA affected both survival and shell growth negatively after seven days. Survival was reduced from 45% in the ambient group to 12% in the highest pCO2 group. Shell length and height were reduced by 8 and 15%, respectively, when pCO2 increased from ambient to 1599 μatm. Development of normal hinges was negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels in both trochophore larvae after two days and veliger larvae after seven days. After seven days, deformities in the shell hinge were more connected to elevated pCO2 levels than deformities in the shell edge. Embryos stained with calcein showed fluorescence in the newly formed shell area, indicating calcification of the shell at the early trochophore stage between one and two days after fertilization. Our results show that P. maximus embryos and early larvae may be negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels within the range of what is projected towards year 2250, although the initial drop in pCO2 level may have overestimated the effect of the highest pCO2 levels. Future work should focus on long-term effects on this species from hatching, throughout the larval stages, and further into the

  10. Effect of increased pCO2 level on early shell development in great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, S.; Grefsrud, E. S.; Harboe, T.

    2013-10-01

    As a result of high anthropogenic CO2 emissions, the concentration of CO2 in the oceans has increased, causing a decrease in pH, known as ocean acidification (OA). Numerous studies have shown negative effects on marine invertebrates, and also that the early life stages are the most sensitive to OA. We studied the effects of OA on embryos and unfed larvae of the great scallop (Pecten maximus Lamarck), at pCO2 levels of 469 (ambient), 807, 1164, and 1599 μatm until seven days after fertilization. To our knowledge, this is the first study on OA effects on larvae of this species. A drop in pCO2 level the first 12 h was observed in the elevated pCO2 groups due to a discontinuation in water flow to avoid escape of embryos. When the flow was restarted, pCO2 level stabilized and was significantly different between all groups. OA affected both survival and shell growth negatively after seven days. Survival was reduced from 45% in the ambient group to 12% in the highest pCO2 group. Shell length and height were reduced by 8 and 15%, respectively, when pCO2 increased from ambient to 1599 μatm. Development of normal hinges was negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels in both trochophore larvae after two days and veliger larvae after seven days. After seven days, deformities in the shell hinge were more connected to elevated pCO2 levels than deformities in the shell edge. Embryos stained with calcein showed fluorescence in the newly formed shell area, indicating calcification of the shell at the early trochophore stage between one and two days after fertilization. Our results show that P. maximus embryos and early larvae may be negatively affected by elevated pCO2 levels within the range of what is projected towards year 2250, although the initial drop in pCO2 level may have overestimated the effect of the highest pCO2 levels. Future work should focus on long-term effects on this species from hatching, throughout the larval stages, and further into the juvenile and adult

  11. An investigation of endocrine disrupting effects and toxic mechanisms modulated by benzo[a]pyrene in female scallop Chlamys farreri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Shuangmei; Pan, Luqing, E-mail: panlq@ouc.edu.cn; Sun, Xiaohua

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •B[a]P disturbed progesterone, 17β-estradiol and testosterone production in scallop. •B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD expression after a 10-day exposure. •B[a]P of lower dose elevated AHR-CYP1A expression but high dose B[a]P inhibited them. •ER and vitellogenin transcription was consistent with AHR after B[a]P exposure. •B[a]P exposure induced relatively developmental delay and impairment of ovary. -- Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the endocrine disrupting effects induced by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and explore the underlying mechanisms in mollusks. In this study, sexually mature female Chlamys farreri were exposed to benzo[a]pyrene for 10 days at four different concentrations as 0, 0.025, 0.5 and 10 μg/L. Sex steroids were identified and quantified by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method and results showed that exposure to B[a]P exerts great suppression on 17β-estradiol, testosterone production and disrupts progesterone levels in ovary. Transcription of genes were detected and measured by real-time RT-PCR. It showed that at day 10 B[a]P inhibited 3β-HSD, CYP17 and 17β-HSD mRNA expression in a dose-dependent manner, which suggests that they could be potential targets of B[a]P that disrupt steroidogenic machinery. Moreover, 0.025 μg/L B[a]P activated transcription of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT), CYP1A1 and estrogen receptor (ER), while 10 μg/L B[a]P suppressed all of them. The consistency of their responses to B[a]P exposure implies that AHR action may be involved in invertebrate CYP regulation and ER transcription despite of unknown mechanisms. Additionally, B[a]P exposure could induce ovarian impairment and developmental delay in C. farreri. Overall, sensitivity of C. farreri to endocrine disruption and toxicity suggests that C. farreri is a suitable species for study of endocrine-disrupting effects in marine invertebrates. This study will form a

  12. Seasonal variation in biomarkers in blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua)-Implications for environmental monitoring in the Barents Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahrgang, J., E-mail: jasmine.m.nahrgang@uit.no [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Brooks, S.J. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research (NIVA), NO-0349 Oslo (Norway); Evenset, A. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Camus, L. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway); Jonsson, M.; Smith, T.J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Lukina, J. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University of Tromso, Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, Department of Arctic and Marine Biosciences, NO-9037 Tromso (Norway); Frantzen, M. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); Giarratano, E. [Centro Nacional Patagonico (CENPAT-CONICET), AR-9120 Puerto Madryn (Argentina); Renaud, P.E. [Akvaplan-niva, FRAM Centre, NO-9296 Tromso (Norway); University Centre In Svalbard (UNIS), NO-9171 Longyearbyen (Norway)

    2013-02-15

    In the Barents Sea, the limited data on biological relevant indicators and their responses to various anthropogenic stressors have hindered the development of a consistent scientific basis for selecting indicator species and developing practical procedures for environmental monitoring. Accordingly, the main aim of the present study was to develop a common set of baseline values for contaminants and biomarkers in three species, and to identify their strengths and limitations in monitoring of the Barents Sea. Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), Icelandic scallop (Chlamys islandica) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) were sampled from a north Norwegian fjord in March, June, September and December 2010. Digestive glands from the bivalve species and liver from Atlantic cod were analysed for biomarkers of oxidative stress (catalase [CAT], glutathione peroxidase [GPX], glutathione-S-transferase activities [GST], lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric reactive substances [TBARS] and total oxyradical scavenging capacity [TOSC]), biotransformation (ethoxyresorufine-O-deethylase activity [EROD]) and general stress (lysosomal membrane stability [LMS]). Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and metals in the bivalves and PAH metabolites in fish bile were quantified. Finally, energy reserves (total lipids, proteins and carbohydrates) and electron transport system (ETS) activity in the digestive gland of the bivalves and liver of Atlantic cod provided background information for reproductive cycle and general physiological status of the organisms. Blue mussel and Icelandic scallop showed very similar trends in biological cycle, biomarker expression and seasonality. Biomarker baselines in Atlantic cod showed weaker seasonal variability. However, important biological events may have been undetected due to the large time intervals between sampling occasions. Physiological biomarkers such as energy reserves and ETS activity were recommended as complementary parameters to the

  13. Contribution of food availability to the more rapid growth of the scallop, Euvola ziczac (Pteroida, Pectinidae in bottom than in suspended culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Hunauld

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available We conducted a 5-month experiment at Turpialito in the Golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela, to examine whether the previously reported more rapid growth of scallop Euvola ziczac in bottom compared to suspended culture can be attributed to more abundant or higher quality food resources near the sediment/water interface. The various body components (shell, muscle, digestive gland, gonad and remaining tissues increased in size at a much greater rate for scallops maintained on the bottom, in partly buried cages at 5 m in depth, than in cages suspended at the same depth in the water column. Furthermore, survival was greater on the bottom. Food abundance and quality were examined by analyzing the seston collected in sediment traps at the sediment/water interface in the vicinity of the bottom cages and next to the suspended cages. Phytoplankton abundance (chlorophyll a and the proportion of various fatty acids in the lipid fraction of the seston were similar on the bottom and in suspension. However, sestonic protein, lipid and carbohydrate levels, and the estimated energetic content of the seston, were higher on the bottom than in suspension, and probably contributed to the greater growth on the bottom. As the increase in the energetic content of the seston on the bottom compared to in suspension was less than the increase in growth (biomass on the bottom compared to in suspension, and the evidence showed in previous studies above the negative influence of fouling and wave action in suspended culture, we conclude that the more rapid growth of Euvola ziczac in bottom than suspended culture is principally due to stress relative to suspended culture system. Rev. Biol. Trop. 53(3-4: 455-461. Epub 2005 Oct 3.

  14. Scalloped a member of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway controls mushroom body size in Drosophila brain by non-canonical regulation of neuroblast proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohith, Basavanahalli Nanjundaiah; Shyamala, Baragur Venkatanarayanasetty

    2017-12-15

    Cell proliferation, growth and survival are three different basic processes which converge at determining a fundamental property -the size of an organism. Scalloped (Sd) is the first characterised transcriptional partner to Yorkie (Yki), the downstream effector of the Hippo pathway which is a highly potential and evolutionarily conserved regulator of organ size. Here we have studied the hypomorphic effect of sd on the development of Mushroom Bodies (MBs) in Drosophila brain. We show that, sd non-function results in an increase in the size of MBs. We demonstrate that, sd regulation on MB size operates through multiple routes. Sd expressed in the differentiated MB neurons, imposes non-cell autonomous repression on the proliferation of MB precursor cells, and Sd expression in the MB neuroblasts (NB) cell autonomously represses mushroom body neuroblast (MBNB) proliferation. Further Sd in Kenyon cells (KCs) imparts a cell autonomous restriction on their growth. Our findings are distinctive because, while the classical sd loss of function phenotypes in eye, wing and lymph gland are reported as loss of tissue or reduced organ size, the present study shows that, Sd inactivation in the developing MB, promotes precursor cell proliferation and results in an increase in the organ size. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Development of a monoclonal antibody specific to granulocytes and its application for variation of granulocytes in scallop Chlamys farreri after acute viral necrobiotic virus (AVNV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Tingting; Xing, Jing; Sheng, Xiuzhen; Tang, Xiaoqian; Zhan, Wenbin

    2011-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody (MAb 6H7) specific to granulocytes of scallop Chlamys farreri was produced by immunising mice with separated granulocytes as an antigen. Characterised using a flow cytometric immunofluorescence assay, MAb 6H7 reacted to granulocytes by 87.1% of total positive haemocytes. At the ultrastructural level, MAb 6H7 demonstrated epitope in cytoplasmic granules of granulocytes. Western blotting analysis indicated that a peptide of 155 kDa was recognised by MAb 6H7. It was therefore used to investigate granulocyte variation in C. farreri after acute viral necrobiotic virus (AVNV) infection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The result illustrated that granulocytes varied greatly by AVNV infection, and their amount significantly increased on day 1 post-injection, then decreased on days 2, 3 and 4, thereafter, rebounded and approached to a second peak on day 6, finally went down gradually to the control level on day 8. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A novel multi-domain C1qDC protein from Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri provides new insights into the function of invertebrate C1qDC proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Leilei; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Daoxiang; Jiang, Qiufen; Sun, Rui; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Huan; Song, Linsheng

    2015-10-01

    The C1q domain containing (C1qDC) proteins are a family of proteins possessing globular C1q (gC1q) domains, and they rely on this domain to recognize various ligands such as PAMPs, immunoglobulins, ligands on apoptotic cell. In the present study, a novel multi-domain C1qDC protein (CfC1qDC-2) was identified from scallop Chlamys farreri, and its full length cDNA was composed of 1648 bp, encoding a signal peptide and three typical gC1q domains. BLAST analysis revealed significant sequence similarity between CfC1qDC-2 and C1qDC proteins from mollusks. Three gC1q domains were predicted in its tertiary structure to form a tightly packed bell-shaped trimer, and each one adopted a typical 10-stranded sandwich fold with a jelly-roll topology and contained six aromatic amino acids forming the hydrophobic core. The mRNA transcripts of CfC1qDC-2 were mainly detected in the tissues of hepatopancreas and gonad of adult scallops, and the expression level was up-regulated in hemocytes after stimulated by LPS, PGN and β-glucan. During the embryonic development of scallop, the mRNA transcripts of CfC1qDC-2 were presented in all the detected stages, and the expression level was up-regulated from D-hinged larvae and reached the highest at eye-spot larvae. The recombinant protein of MBP-CfC1qDC-2 (rCfC1qDC-2) could bind various PAMPs including LPS, PGN, LTA, β-glucan, mannan as well as polyI:C, and different microorganisms including three Gram-negative bacteria, three Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts, as well as scallop apoptotic cells. Meanwhile, rCfC1qDC-2 could interact with human heat-aggregated IgG and IgM, and inhibit the C1q-dependent hemolysis of rabbit serum. All these results indicated that CfC1qDC-2 could recognize not only PAMPs as a PRR, but also the apoptotic cells. Moreover, the similar structures and functions shared by CfC1qDC-2 and complement C1q provided a new insight into the evolution of C1qDC proteins in complement system. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd

  17. Short-Term Behavioural Responses of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus Exposed to the Toxic Alga Alexandrium minutum Measured by Accelerometry and Passive Acoustics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coquereau, Laura; Jolivet, Aurélie; Hégaret, Hélène; Chauvaud, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Harmful algal blooms produced by toxic dinoflagellates have increased worldwide, impacting human health, the environment, and fisheries. Due to their potential sensitivity (e.g., environmental changes), bivalves through their valve movements can be monitored to detect harmful algal blooms. Methods that measure valve activity require bivalve-attached sensors and usually connected cables to data transfers, leading to stress animals and limit the use to sessile species. As a non-intrusive and continuously deployable tool, passive acoustics could be an effective approach to detecting harmful algal blooms in real time based on animal sound production. This study aimed to detect reaction changes in the valve movements of adult Pecten maximus exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum using both accelerometry and passive acoustic methods. Scallops were experimentally exposed to three ecologically relevant concentrations of A. minutum for 2 hours. The number of each type of valve movement and their sound intensity, opening duration, and valve-opening amplitude were measured. Four behaviours were identified: closures, expulsion, displacement, and swimming. The response of P. maximus to A. minutum occurred rapidly at a high concentration. The valve activity of P. maximus was different when exposed to high concentrations (500 000 cells L-1) of A. minutum compared to the non-toxic dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra; the number of valve movements increased, especially closure and expulsion, which were detected acoustically. Thus, this study demonstrates the potential for acoustics and sound production changes in the detection of harmful algal blooms. However, field trials and longer duration experiments are required to provide further evidence for the use of acoustics as a monitoring tool in the natural environment where several factors may interfere with valve behaviours.

  18. Short-Term Behavioural Responses of the Great Scallop Pecten maximus Exposed to the Toxic Alga Alexandrium minutum Measured by Accelerometry and Passive Acoustics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Coquereau

    Full Text Available Harmful algal blooms produced by toxic dinoflagellates have increased worldwide, impacting human health, the environment, and fisheries. Due to their potential sensitivity (e.g., environmental changes, bivalves through their valve movements can be monitored to detect harmful algal blooms. Methods that measure valve activity require bivalve-attached sensors and usually connected cables to data transfers, leading to stress animals and limit the use to sessile species. As a non-intrusive and continuously deployable tool, passive acoustics could be an effective approach to detecting harmful algal blooms in real time based on animal sound production. This study aimed to detect reaction changes in the valve movements of adult Pecten maximus exposed to the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum using both accelerometry and passive acoustic methods. Scallops were experimentally exposed to three ecologically relevant concentrations of A. minutum for 2 hours. The number of each type of valve movement and their sound intensity, opening duration, and valve-opening amplitude were measured. Four behaviours were identified: closures, expulsion, displacement, and swimming. The response of P. maximus to A. minutum occurred rapidly at a high concentration. The valve activity of P. maximus was different when exposed to high concentrations (500 000 cells L-1 of A. minutum compared to the non-toxic dinoflagellate Heterocapsa triquetra; the number of valve movements increased, especially closure and expulsion, which were detected acoustically. Thus, this study demonstrates the potential for acoustics and sound production changes in the detection of harmful algal blooms. However, field trials and longer duration experiments are required to provide further evidence for the use of acoustics as a monitoring tool in the natural environment where several factors may interfere with valve behaviours.

  19. Neptuniibacter pectenicola sp. nov. and Neptuniibacter marinus sp. nov., two novel species isolated from a Great scallop (Pecten maximus) hatchery in Norway and emended description of the genus Neptuniibacter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diéguez, Ana L; Balboa, Sabela; Magnesen, Thorolf; Romalde, Jesús L

    2017-03-01

    Nine isolates obtained from a great scallop hatchery in Norway were characterized using a polyphasic approach. Strains were Gram-negative, aerobic and motile rods with oxidative metabolism. Phylogenetic analysis based on the sequences of 16S rRNA and rpoB genes showed that these strains formed two different groups associated with members of the genus Neptuniibacter. DNA-DNA hybridization (DDH) and Average Nucleotide Identity (ANI) demonstrated that the isolates constituted two novel species of this genus, which can be phenotypically differentiated from their closest relatives. The names Neptuniibacter marinus sp. nov. and Neptuniibacter pectenicola sp. nov are proposed, with ATR 1.1T (=CECT 8938T=DSM 100783T) and LFT 1.8T (=CECT 8936T=DSM 100781T) as respective type strains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Performance Characteristics of AOAC Method 2005.06 for the Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Manila Clams, European Otter Clams, Grooved Carpet Shell Clams, Surf Clams, and Processed King Scallops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Alison; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    An approach was developed for the verification of method performance of the AOAC 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. This was developed following advice published by the Analytical Laboratory Accreditation Criteria Committee and applied to shellfish species that had not been previously subjected to a full single-laboratory validation scheme. The refined approach was developed following the need to assess performance in a number of shellfish species infrequently monitored through the UK statutory monitoring program, while reducing the impact and cost of the studies, most notably in terms of the use of valuable reference standards. The species assessed were manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), European otter clams (Lutraria lutraria), grooved carpet shell clams (R. decussatus), surf clams (Spisula solida), and king scallops (Pecten maximus) presented as adductor only or adductor plus roe. The method was assessed for sensitivity in terms of LOD and LOQ, toxin recovery, and method precision in each species. It incorporated the PSP toxins deemed toxic and/or prevalent in UK samples and commercially available as certified reference standards. The toxins studied included GTX1-5, dcSTX, STX, C1&2, and NEO. The toxins dcGTX2&3 were included for surf clams due to the prevalence of these toxins in this species as a result of toxin decarbamoylation. Method performance targets were met for each of the characteristics investigated. Consequently, the method was deemed fit for purpose for the screening and quantification of these clam and scallop species for PSP toxins by AOAC Method 2005.06 LC-FLD.

  1. Evaluacion base para una eventual Área Marina Protegida (AMP) en el norte de Chile (III Región).

    OpenAIRE

    Vásquez, Julio

    2002-01-01

    En Chile, las áreas marinas protegidas (AMP) constituyen un herramienta de conservación creada recientemente a través de la Ley General de Pesca y Acuicultura. A lo largo de más de 4000 km de costa, sólo existe una AMP en el litoral de Chile continental, localizada en la costa de la II Región-Antofagasta. Esta AMP está orientada a la conservación y preservación de Argopecten purpuratus "Ostión del Norte".

  2. Mercury and Selenium in Muscle and Target Organs of Scalloped Hammerhead Sharks Sphyrna lewini of the SE Gulf of California: Dietary Intake, Molar Ratios, Loads, and Human Health Risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergés-Tiznado, Magdalena E; Márquez-Farías, Fernando; Lara-Mendoza, Raúl E; Torres-Rojas, Yassir E; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Bojórquez-Leyva, Humberto; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2015-11-01

    Selenium and mercury were evaluated in muscle, liver, kidney, brain, and the stomach contents of juvenile scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini. Se:Hg molar ratios were calculated. The average Hg levels in muscle ranged from 0.12 to 1.17 μg/g (wet weight); Hg was 1. Correlations were found for Hg in muscle with size, age, and weight, and also for Hg in liver with size, age, and weight. Hg in muscle was significantly positive correlated to Hg in brain as well as Hg in liver was correlated to Hg in kidney. The highest Hg in preys was for carangid fishes; scombrid and carangid fishes contributed with the highest Se levels. Results suggest that more than 98 % of the total Hg and 62 % of Se end up in muscle and might be affected by factors, such as geographical area, age, size, and feeding habits. The muscle of S. lewini should be consumed by people cautiously so as not to exceed the recommended intake per week.

  3. Filtration of sea louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, copepodids by the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis, and the Atlantic sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, under different flow, light and copepodid-density regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsch, A; Robinson, S M C; Liutkus, M; Ang, K P; Webb, J; Pearce, C M

    2013-03-01

    Population management of Lepeophtheirus salmonis in Canada currently relies on chemotherapeutants to remove attached stages of the ectoparasite. However, some populations of L. salmonis are developing resistance to chemotherapeutants making alternate management measures necessary. This article explores the ability of filter-feeding shellfish [i.e. blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and Atlantic sea scallops (Placopecten magellanicus)] to consume the copepodid stages of L. salmonis in the laboratory under static and flowing water conditions, with variable copepodid densities, and with the aid of a light attractant. Mytilus edulis consumed copepodids under both static and flowing water conditions, and the proportion of individuals ingested was similar at low and high copepodid densities, suggesting that M. edulis was not saturated at the concentrations tested. Also, M. edulis consumed more copepodids when a light attractant was present, suggesting that lights may be useful to concentrate widely dispersed copepodids around cultured shellfish in the field. Finally, P. magellanicus consumed the same number of copepodids as an equivalent total wet weight of M. edulis. During each of the four separate experiments, shellfish consumed between 18 and 38% of the copepodids presented per hour, suggesting that both species are well suited for low level removal of copepodids over time. © Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada 2013.

  4. Chromosomal localization and molecular marker development of the lipopolysaccharide and beta-1,3-glucan binding protein gene in the Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri (Jones et Preston (Pectinoida, Pectinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin Huan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Zhikong scallop Chlamys farreri (Jones et Preston is an economically important species in China. Understanding its immune system would be of great help in controlling diseases. In the present study, an important immunity-related gene, the Lipopolysaccharide and Beta-1,3-glucan Binding Protein (LGBP gene, was located on C. farreri chromosomes by mapping several lgbp-containing BAC clones through fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH. Through the localization of various BAC clones, it was shown that only one locus of this gene existed in the genome of C. farreri, and that this was located on the long arm of a pair of homologous chromosomes. Molecular markers, consisting of eight single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs markers and one insertion-deletion (indel, were developed from the LGBP gene. Indel marker testing in an F1 family revealed slightly distorted segregation (p = 0.0472. These markers can be used to map the LGBP gene to the linkage map and assign the linkage group to the corresponding chromosome. Segregation distortion of the indel marker indicated genes with deleterious alleles might exist in the surrounding region of the LGBP gene.

  5. The Patagonian scallop fishing grounds in shelf break frontal areas: the non assessed benthic fraction Bancos de pesca de vieira patagónica en áreas del frente de talud: fracción bentónica no evaluada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de los Ángeles Sánchez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a Picard dredge was used to sample the benthic community in shelf break frontal areas off Argentina in order to detect species that could be sensitive to fishing activities but are not usually caught during the annual monitoring of Patagonian scallop and associated fauna. The present results show at least 62 taxa not reported previously as components of the benthos in the scallop grounds that are potentially subjected to trawling disturbance.En este trabajo se utilizó una rastra Picard para muestrear la comunidad bentónica en áreas del frente de talud, Argentina, para detectar especies que serían sensibles a la actividad pesquera pero no son capturadas usualmente durante los monitoreos anuales de vieira patagónica y fauna asociada. Los resultados muestran que al menos 62 taxa, no reportados previamente como componentes del bentos en los bancos de vieira, están potencialmente sujetos a perturbaciones por el arrastre.

  6. Influence of environmental factors on the growth of the juvenile, maturing juvenile, and adult tropical scallop, Euvola ziczac (Pteroida: Pectinidae, in suspended culture conditions Influencia de los factores ambientales en el crecimiento de juveniles, juveniles con capacidad reproductiva y adultos de la vieira tropical Euvola ziczac (Pteroida: Pectinidae en condiciones de cultivo suspendido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Lodeiros

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We carried out growth trials on three size groups of the scallop, Euvola ziczac, during two short-term (34-36 days periods at 8, 21, and 34 m depth in Cariaco Gulf, Venezuela, in order to evaluate the effect of environmental factors on growth. Growth was greater in juveniles (initial size: 20-22 mm shell length than in maturing juveniles (30-40 mm and adults (70-75 mm. Somatic tissue growth was more than two-fold greater in juveniles than in maturing individuals. Adult scallops showed losses of tissue mass. The first period (December-January covered the transition from a stratified water column to upwelling conditions, with initial high temperatures and low phytoplankton biomass followed by lower temperatures and greater phytoplankton biomass. The second period (February-March consisted of upwelling, characterized by low temperatures and high phytoplankton production. The greater growth of juvenile and maturing scallops during the second period, particularly at 8 m depth, was associated with the greater availability of phytoplankton, related to coastal upwelling. The first development of gonads in maturing scallops only occurred in the second period, associated with food availability, and the degree of development was correlated with the depth. Our growth trials, which were too short to permit the negative impact of the development of fouling, showed that the growth of E. ziczac was enhanced in the presence of abundant phytoplankton biomass.Se efectuaron ensayos de crecimiento en tres grupos de tallas del pectínido Euvola ziczac, durante dos periodos de corto plazo (34-36 días a 8, 21 y 34 m de profundidad, en el golfo de Cariaco, Venezuela, para evaluar el efecto de factores ambientales en el crecimiento. El crecimiento fue mayor en juveniles (talla inicial 20-22 mm en longitud de concha, que en individuos madurando (30-40 mm y adultos (70-75 mm. El crecimiento del tejido somático fue más del doble en los juveniles que en los organismos en

  7. Age and growth of the Scalloped Hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834, from the southern Brazilian coast Idade e crescimento do tubarão-martelo-entalhado, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834, da costa sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JE. Kotas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Age and growth studies for the scalloped hammerhead shark, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834 caught along the southern Brazilian coast, were based on ring measurements of vertebrae sections of 115 males, 116 females and 14 unknown sexed sharks between 48 and 344 cm total length (TL. The von Bertalanffy growth models were best fit using back-calculated data. The growth parameters obtained for males, were L∞ = 266 cm; K = 0.05/year; L0 = 47 cm. For females, L∞ = 300 cm; K = 0.05/year; L0 = 51 cm. An adult female reached 217 cm TL and was 31.5 years old. On the other hand, an adult male was 29.5 years old and measured 234 cm TL. Longevity estimate for males and females was 55 years. Therefore, S. lewini is a long-lived fish. Ageing precision, based on the IAPE index, was 5.6%. Marginal Increment analysis based on MIR index from hammerheads smaller than 105 cm, compared with the percentual of opaque and hyaline bands found per month ageing whole vertebrae, showed an annual ring formation, i.e., in winter.O estudo da idade e do crescimento do tubarão-martelo-entalhado, Sphyrna lewini (Griffith and Smith, 1834, na costa sul do Brasil, baseou-se na leitura de anéis em seções de vértebras de 115 machos, 116 fêmeas e de 14 exemplares com sexo indeterminado, com comprimentos totais (CT entre 48 e 344 cm. Modelos de crescimento de von Bertalanffy foram mais bem ajustados aos dados de idade e comprimento retrocalculados, considerando sexos em separado. Os parâmetros de crescimento obtidos para os machos foram L∞ = 266 cm; K = 0,05/ano; L0 = 47 cm. Para as fêmeas L∞ = 300 cm; K = 0,05/ano; L0 = 51 cm. Uma fêmea adulta atingiu um CT de 217 cm e uma idade de 31,5 anos. Por sua vez, um macho adulto tinha 29,5 anos e CT de 234 cm. A estimativa de longevidade para machos e fêmeas foi de 55 anos. O índice de erro percentual médio (IAPE, que avalia a precisão na leitura de idades, foi de 5,6%. A análise do incremento marginal baseada no

  8. Latitudinal variation in the reproductive cycle of two bivalves with contrasting biogeographical origin along the Humboldt Current Upwelling Ecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto A. Uribe

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819 and Mesodesma donacium (Lamarck, 1818 are bivalves that inhabit the Humboldt Current Upwelling Ecosystem. They have contrasting biogeographical origins, suggesting that their responses to exogenous factors should differ. Using circular statistics, we examine synchrony/asynchrony in the reproductive cycle between populations of each species. The results indicate that there is reproductive asynchrony in both species along their distributional range. However, there was synchrony for A. purpuratus in several location-pairs, including Paita-Chimbote, Chimbote-Callao, Callao-Pisco and Pisco-Antofagasta. For M. donacium, there were only two synchronic groups: Camaná-Capellanía-Mehuín and Hornitos-Peñuelas-Longotoma-La Ligua-Cucao-Quilanlar. A. purpuratus showed gametogenenic activity throughout the year. In contrast, M. donacium showed strong seasonality, with gametogenesis in winter and spawning in spring/summer. In conclusion, the patterns observed for these sympatric species suggest that on a large scale the reproductive cycles follow the expected patterns for the contrasting biogeographic origin of each species, so it could be argued that they are modulated by endogenous factors. However, at a local scale, the reproductive cycles of these species show variation, likely determined by local oceanographic or hydrographic processes.

  9. Contaminación de alimentos marinos por cadmio en Lima, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Marín Vallejos

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos fueron determinar las concentraciones de cadmio en ocho especies de alimentos marinos y comparar con los valores máximos permitidos según la Comisión de la Unión Europea en su Reglamento (CE Nº 1881/2006 y su modificatoria Reglamento (UE N° 488/2014. La investigación fue de carácter descriptivo, trasversal. Las muestras fueron de 100 g de cada ejemplar de pescado en tres oportunidades; los ejemplares fueron: jurel (Trachurus picturatus murphyi, langostinos (Penaeus vannamei, conchas abanico (Argopecten purpuratus, conchas blancas (Semele sp, choros (Aulacomya ater, almejas (Gari solida, machas (Mesonesma donacium y pota (Dosidicus gigas recolectadas al azar en el terminal pesquero de Villa María del Triunfo, provenientes del litoral de la región Lima, sub área 3: Chorrillos – Islas Pachacámac. El proceso de análisis se realizó por espectrofotometría de absorción atómica. Como resultados de los promedios de las concentraciones de cadmio tenemos: en pescados, jurel (Trachurus picturatus murphyi fue 0,35 mg/kg peso fresco; en crustáceos, langostino (Penaeus vannamei fue 0,42 mg/kg peso fresco; en moluscos bivalvos tenemos conchas blancas (Semele sp, conchas abanico (Argopecten purpuratus, choros (Aulacomya ater, machas (Mesonesma donacium y almejas (Gari solida fueron 0,82 – 0,83 – 1,00 – 1,28 y 1,39 mg/kg peso fresco respectivamente. Con este estudio se concluyó que las concentraciones de cadmio en pescados, en moluscos bivalvos y cefalópodos superan los límites permitidos, pero en crustáceos no superan estos límites.

  10. Characterization and expression analysis of Galnts in developing Strongylocentrotus purpuratus embryos

    OpenAIRE

    Famiglietti, Amber L.; Wei, Zheng; Beres, Thomas M.; Milac, Adina L.; Tran, Duy T.; Patel, Divya; Angerer, Robert C.; Angerer, Lynne M.; Tabak, Lawrence A.

    2017-01-01

    Mucin-type O-glycosylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification in which N-Acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) is added to the hydroxyl group of select serine or threonine residues of a protein by the family of UDP-GalNAc:Polypeptide N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (GalNAc-Ts; EC 2.4.1.41). Previous studies demonstrate that O-glycosylation plays essential roles in protein function, cell-cell interactions, cell polarity and differentiation in developing mouse and Drosophila embryos. Alth...

  11. Histamine is a modulator of metamorphic competence in Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea)

    OpenAIRE

    Sutherby Josh; Giardini Jamie-Lee; Nguyen Julia; Wessel Gary; Leguia Mariana; Heyland Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A metamorphic life-history is present in the majority of animal phyla. This developmental mode is particularly prominent among marine invertebrates with a bentho-planktonic life cycle, where a pelagic larval form transforms into a benthic adult. Metamorphic competence (the stage at which a larva is capable to undergo the metamorphic transformation and settlement) is an important adaptation both ecologically and physiologically. The competence period maintains the larval st...

  12. Transgenerational exposure of North Atlantic bivalves to ocean acidification renders offspring more vulnerable to low pH and additional stressors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Andrew W; Gobler, Christopher J

    2017-09-12

    While early life-stage marine bivalves are vulnerable to ocean acidification, effects over successive generations are poorly characterized. The objective of this work was to assess the transgenerational effects of ocean acidification on two species of North Atlantic bivalve shellfish, Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians. Adults of both species were subjected to high and low pCO 2 conditions during gametogenesis. Resultant larvae were exposed to low and ambient pH conditions in addition to multiple, additional stressors including thermal stress, food-limitation, and exposure to a harmful alga. There were no indications of transgenerational acclimation to ocean acidification during experiments. Offspring of elevated pCO 2 -treatment adults were significantly more vulnerable to acidification as well as the additional stressors. Our results suggest that clams and scallops are unlikely to acclimate to ocean acidification over short time scales and that as coastal oceans continue to acidify, negative effects on these populations may become compounded and more severe.

  13. Response of juvenile scalloped hammerhead sharks to electric stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiura, Stephen M; Fitzgerald, Timothy P

    2009-01-01

    Sharks can use their electrosensory system to detect electric fields in their environment. Measurements of their electrosensitivity are often derived by calculating the voltage gradient from a model of the charge distribution for an ideal dipole. This study measures the charge distribution around a dipole in seawater and confirms the close correspondence with the model. From this, it is possible to predict how the sharks will respond to dipolar electric fields comprised of differing parameters. We tested these predictions by exposing sharks to different sized dipoles and levels of applied current that simulated the bioelectric fields of their natural prey items. The sharks initiated responses from a significantly greater distance with larger dipole sizes and also from a significantly greater distance with increasing levels of electric current. This study is the first to provide empirical evidence supporting a popular theoretical model and test predictions about how sharks will respond to a variety of different electric stimuli.

  14. Hooking mortality of scalloped hammerhead Sphyrna lewini and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    When these data are considered for potential management strategies to reduce the mortality of hammerhead sharks, a limitation on gear soak time would probably improve hammerhead shark survivorship. However, it may ... hammerheads. Keywords: bycatch, hook timer, logistic regression, soak time, time on the hook ...

  15. Sublethal mechanisms of Pb and Zn toxicity to the purple sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) during early development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellis, Margaret S; Lauer, Mariana M; Nadella, Sunita; Bianchini, Adalto; Wood, Chris M

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand sublethal mechanisms of lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) toxicity, developing sea urchins were exposed continuously from 3h post-fertilization (eggs) to 96 h (pluteus larvae) to 55 (±2.4) μgPb/L or 117 (±11)μgZn/L, representing ~ 70% of the EC50 for normal 72 h development. Growth, unidirectional Ca uptake rates, whole body ion concentrations (Na, K, Ca, Mg), Ca(2+) ATPase activity, and metal bioaccumulation were monitored every 12h over this period. Pb exhibited marked bioaccumulation whereas Zn was well-regulated, and both metals had little effect on growth, measured as larval dry weight, or on Na, K, or Mg concentrations. Unidirectional Ca uptake rates (measured by (45)Ca incorporation) were severely inhibited by both metals, resulting in lower levels of whole body Ca accumulation. The greatest disruption occurred at gastrulation. Ca(2+) ATPase activity was also significantly inhibited by Zn but not by Pb. Interestingly, embryos exposed to Pb showed some capacity for recovery, as Ca(2+)ATPase activities increased, Ca uptake rates returned to normal intermittently, and whole body Ca levels were restored to control values by 72-96 h of development. This did not occur with Zn exposure. Both Pb and Zn rendered their toxic effects through disruption of Ca homeostasis, though likely through different proximate mechanisms. We recommend studying the toxicity of these contaminants periodically throughout development as an effective way to detect sublethal effects, which may not be displayed at the traditional toxicity test endpoint of 72 h. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 August 2011-30 September 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hara, S W; Amouroux, P; Argo, Emily E; Avand-Faghih, A; Barat, Ashoktaru; Barbieri, Luiz; Bert, Theresa M; Blatrix, R; Blin, Aurélie; Bouktila, D; Broome, A; Burban, C; Capdevielle-Dulac, C; Casse, N; Chandra, Suresh; Cho, Kyung Jin; Cottrell, J E; Crawford, Charles R; Davis, Michelle C; Delatte, H; Desneux, Nicolas; Djieto-Lordon, C; Dubois, M P; El-Mergawy, R A A M; Gallardo-Escárate, C; Garcia, M; Gardiner, Mary M; Guillemaud, Thomas; Haye, P A; Hellemans, B; Hinrichsen, P; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Kerdelhué, C; Kharrat, I; Kim, Ki Hwan; Kim, Yong Yul; Kwan, Ye-Seul; Labbe, Ellen M; LaHood, Eric; Lee, Kyung Mi; Lee, Wan-Ok; Lee, Yat-Hung; Legoff, Isabelle; Li, H; Lin, Chung-Ping; Liu, S S; Liu, Y G; Long, D; Maes, G E; Magnoux, E; Mahanta, Prabin Chandra; Makni, H; Makni, M; Malausa, Thibaut; Matura, Rakesh; McKey, D; McMillen-Jackson, Anne L; Méndez, M A; Mezghani-Khemakhem, M; Michel, Andy P; Paul, Moran; Muriel-Cunha, Janice; Nibouche, S; Normand, F; Palkovacs, Eric P; Pande, Veena; Parmentier, K; Peccoud, J; Piatscheck, F; Puchulutegui, Cecilia; Ramos, R; Ravest, G; Richner, Heinz; Robbens, J; Rochat, D; Rousselet, J; Saladin, Verena; Sauve, M; Schlei, Ora; Schultz, Thomas F; Scobie, A R; Segovia, N I; Seyoum, Seifu; Silvain, J-F; Tabone, Elisabeth; Van Houdt, J K J; Vandamme, S G; Volckaert, F A M; Wenburg, John; Willis, Theodore V; Won, Yong-Jin; Ye, N H; Zhang, W; Zhang, Y X

    2012-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 299 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) EPIC primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources (MER) Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alosa pseudoharengus, Alosa aestivalis, Aphis spiraecola, Argopecten purpuratus, Coreoleuciscus splendidus, Garra gotyla, Hippodamia convergens, Linnaea borealis, Menippe mercenaria, Menippe adina, Parus major, Pinus densiflora, Portunus trituberculatus, Procontarinia mangiferae, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus rhombus, Tetraponera aethiops, Thaumetopoea pityocampa, Tuta absoluta and Ugni molinae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Barilius bendelisis, Chiromantes haematocheir, Eriocheir sinensis, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus cladocalix, Eucalyptus globulus, Garra litaninsis vishwanath, Garra para lissorhynchus, Guindilla trinervis, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, Luma chequen. Guayaba, Myrceugenia colchagüensis, Myrceugenia correifolia, Myrceugenia exsucca, Parasesarma plicatum, Parus major, Portunus pelagicus, Psidium guayaba, Schizothorax richardsonii, Scophthalmus maximus, Tetraponera latifrons, Thaumetopoea bonjeani, Thaumetopoea ispartensis, Thaumetopoea libanotica, Thaumetopoea pinivora, Thaumetopoea pityocampa ena clade, Thaumetopoea solitaria, Thaumetopoea wilkinsoni and Tor putitora. This article also documents the addition of nine EPIC primer pairs for Euphaea decorata, Euphaea formosa, Euphaea ornata and Euphaea yayeyamana. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Marine Bacteria with antimicrobials capacity isolated from cultures of bivalve mollusks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiola Pellon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Microorganisms have commonly been studied as producers of antibacterial substances; yet they are also considered producers of antifungic, antiviral, antiparasitic, citotoxics and inhibitory of other forms of cellular growth substances. This paper describes the isolation, inhibitory potential and phenotipic characterization of native bacterial strains associated to bivalve mollusks such as Argopecten purpuratus “concha de abanico” and Crassostrea gigas “ostra” in cultivation systems. From 345 marine strains collected, 20 strains were recovered that had the ability of inhibiting a wide spectrum of fish, mollusks and shellfish pathogenic bacteria; being the most sensitive pathogens Aeromonas sobria P-281, Aeromonas hydrophila ATCC 7966, Vibrio vulnificus ATCC 27562 and Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC 17803. The phenotipic characterization of this strains with inhibitory capacity allowed the identification of the following genera: Vibrio (40%, Aeromonas (15%, Flavobacterium (10%, Pseudomonas (5%, Moraxella (5%, Flexibacter (5%. A 20% could not be identified. The results suggest that the isolated bacteria could be used as probiotics agents for the biological control of pathogens from marine organisms of interest in mariculture.

  18. PRODUCCIÓN DE ENZIMAS EXTRACELLARES POR BACTERIAS AISLADAS DE INVERTEBRADOS MARINOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge León

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Con el fin de seleccionar las bacterias marinas con la capacidad de producir enzimas extracelulares ( CEE , se analizaron muestras de Argopecten purpuratus y Crassostrea gigas en el cultivo , así como de otros invertebrados interticlal y bentónicos. La selección de cepas de la CEE de productores se llevó a cabo en Agar Marino ( MA con la adición del sustrato relevante ( almidón , caseína , Tween - 80 , lecitina , ADN y gelatina . La CEE evaluación cepas productoras se llevó a cabo en 102 aislamientos . Los resultados muestran que las bacterias asociadas TOA . purpuratusand C. gigashave las mejores actividades multienzimáticos ; Sin embargo , Semimytilus algosus, Tetrapigus niger y Thais chocolata también son fuentes importantes de productores de bacterias de la CEE. La actividad multienzimático cualitativa en MA ( zonas claras u opacas alrededor de las colonias en mm de diámetro varió de 6 a > 16 mm . La frecuencia de la producción multienzimático fue caseinase 62,74 % , entre esterasa 57,84 % , 52,94 % de la amilasa , la gelatinasa 38,23 % , 33,3 % DNAsa , agarasa 5,43 % y 90,0 % lecitinasa . Los resultados sugieren la posibilidad de usar cepas nativas para fines biotecnológicos

  19. Modulation of pumping rate by two species of marine bivalve molluscs in response to neurotransmitters: Comparison of in vitro and in vivo results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Dana M; Deaton, Lewis; Shumway, Sandra E; Holohan, Bridget A; Ward, J Evan

    2015-07-01

    Most studies regarding the neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of molluscan ctenidia have focused on isolated ctenidial tissue preparations. This study investigated how bivalve molluscs modulate their feeding rates by examining the effects of a variety of neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, and the dopamine agonist apomorphine on both isolated ctenidial tissue and in intact members of two commercially important bivalve species: the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis; and the bay scallop Argopecten irradians. In particular, we examined the effect of changes in: 1) beat of the lateral cilia (in vitro), 2) distance between ctenidial filaments and/or plicae (in vivo), and 3) diameter of the siphonal openings (in vivo) on alteration of bulk water flow through the mantle cavity. Important differences were found between isolated tissue and whole animals, and between species. Drugs that stimulated ciliary beat in vitro did not increase water processing rate in vivo. None of the treatments increased water flow through the mantle cavity of intact animals. Results suggest that A. irradians was primarily modulating lateral ciliary activity, while M. edulis appeared to have a number of ways to control water processing activity, signifying that the two species may have different compensatory and regulatory mechanisms controlling feeding activity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C; Soto, Luis P; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten, while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  1. Benthic communities under anthropogenic pressure show resilience across the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinelli, Julieta C.; Soto, Luis P.; González, Jorge; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M.

    2017-09-01

    The Southeast Pacific is characterized by rich upwelling systems that have sustained and been impacted by human groups for at least 12 ka. Recent fishing and aquaculture practices have put a strain on productive coastal ecosystems from Tongoy Bay, in north-central Chile. We use a temporal baseline to determine whether potential changes to community structure and composition over time are due to anthropogenic factors, natural climatic variations or both. We compiled a database (n = 33 194) with mollusc species abundances from the Mid-Pleistocene, Late Pleistocene, Holocene, dead shell assemblages and live-sampled communities. Species richness was not significantly different, neither were diversity and evenness indices nor rank abundance distributions. There is, however, an increase in relative abundance for the cultured scallop Argopecten, while the previously dominant clam Mulinia is locally very rare. Results suggest that impacts from both natural and anthropogenic stressors need to be better understood if benthic resources are to be preserved. These findings provide the first Pleistocene temporal baseline for the south Pacific that shows that this highly productive system has had the ability to recover from past alterations, suggesting that if monitoring and management practices continue to be implemented, moderately exploited communities from today have hopes for recovery.

  2. Taxonomy Icon Data: purple urchin [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available purple urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Echinodermata Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_L.png Strongylocentr...otus_purpuratus_NL.png Strongylocentrotus_purpuratus_S.png Strongylocentrotus_purpu...ratus_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=L http://biosc...iencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=NL http://bi...osciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Strongylocentrotus+purpuratus&t=NS ...

  3. Scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini, utilizes deep-water, hypoxic zone in the Gulf of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, S J; Klimley, A P; Muhlia-Melo, A F

    2009-05-01

    A hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini tracked for 74 days revealed an expansion of the range of vertical distribution for the species to include the extreme hypoxic environment of the oxygen minimum layer in the Gulf of California.

  4. 78 FR 42890 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery and Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-18

    ... primary purpose of Joint Framework 24/49, developed by the New England Fishery Management Council (Council... public comment are not required for this rule by 5 U.S.C. 553, or any other law, the analytical...

  5. Evolutionary divergence of geographic subspecies within the scalloped spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Linnaeus 1758.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shane D Lavery

    Full Text Available Panulirus homarus is an economically important spiny lobster that is widespread through the Indo-West Pacific Region, but has an uncertain taxonomic status, with three or four geographic subspecies having been described. This study used mitochondrial (16S, COI and control region and nuclear (18S, ITS-1 DNA sequences to examine specimens of all putative subspecies and forms from throughout their range, in order to determine their genetic validity, and understand the evolutionary history of this species. Despite the range of diversity present in the loci examined, the results were consistent across genes. P. h. rubellus from the SW Indian Ocean comprised the most divergent lineage that was reciprocally monophyletic with respect to all other P. homarus (approx. 9% divergence in COI, and has likely evolved reproductive barriers. The putative P. h. "Brown" subspecies from the Marquesas Is in the central Pacific also comprised a somewhat divergent monophyletic lineage (approx. 3% in COI, but may simply be an allopatric population. The widespread P. h. homarus was not diverged at all from the described P. h. megasculpta from the NW Indian Ocean. The degree of evolutionary divergence of populations at the extremes distribution of the species is somewhat surprising, given the long pelagic larval stage, but suggests that allopatric speciation has been an important driver in the evolution of the genus.

  6. 77 FR 20728 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... front of the depressor plate. (2) The angle between the front edge of the cutting bar and the top of the... a sea turtle passing under the dredge frame when the gear is on the seafloor, which could result in... LAGC IFQ vessels that fish with dredge gear greater than or equal to 10.5 feet (3.2 m) in width in the...

  7. Analysis of the scallop microbiota by means of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Alex Mira; Jesus L Romalde

    2014-01-01

    Bivalve molluscs, due to its filter-feeding mechanism, have an abundant associated bacterial microbiota composed of a large number of species of different genera. The knowledge about the composition of the microbiota associated with bivalve molluscs is based, mostly, on techniques of cultivation of microorganisms, but also on DGGE methods. However, it is estimated that less than 1% of the bacteria are culturable with current methods, which lead to an underestimation of the microbial diversity...

  8. 78 FR 27088 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery and Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ....32, which is the F associated with a 25-percent probability of exceeding the OFL. The Council's... management uncertainty buffer based on the F associated with a 75-percent probability of remaining below the... add more complexity to IFQ monitoring, and because NMFS is currently making a number of programming...

  9. 78 FR 16573 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery and Northeast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ... on an F of 0.32, which is the ] F associated with a 25-percent probability of exceeding the OFL. The... management uncertainty buffer based on the F associated with a 75- percent probability of remaining below the... to how NMFS monitors the fishery, and does not involve extensive programming changes, NMFS would be...

  10. Analysis of the scallop microbiota by means of 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Mira

    2014-06-01

    Pyrosequencing of the samples resulted in a total of 18520 sequences (3000 per sample, approximately with an average length of 325 bp (base pairs. The taxonomic assignment of sequences allowed the identification to the genus level, being observed a large bacterial diversity with over 110 genera. The most prevalent genera in the samples were Hydrotalea, Acinetobacter, Delftia, Sediminibacter and Pseudomonas, among others. Differences in the microbial communities were observed among the samples, and the PCoA analysis allowed their separation by means on their gender and if they proceed from sampling before or after the spawning. Nevertheless, the rarefaction curves obtained for each sample failed to reach a saturation phase, indicating that more sequencing effort would be necessary.

  11. Sinobacterium norvegicum sp . nov., a new species isolated from scallop (Pecten maximus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Jacobsen

    2014-06-01

    The results of analysis of DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that these isolates constitute a new and differentiated cluster within the genus Sinobacterium. The predominant fatty acids were C16: 0, C16: 1 ω7c/C16: 1 ω6c and C18: 1 ω7c. The G + C content of the new isolates is 52.2 ± 1 mol%. Based on phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics, the seven isolates represent a new species for which the name Sinobacterium norvegicum sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 3CM4T (= CECT 8267T = CAIM 1884T as the type strain.

  12. Scalloped Implant-Abutment Connection Compared to Conventional Flat Implant-Abutment Connection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starch-Jensen, Thomas; Christensen, Ann-Eva; Lorenzen, Henning

    2017-01-01

    in combination with a hand-search of relevant journals was conducted. No language or year of publication restriction was applied. RESULTS: The search provided 298 titles. Three studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The included studies were characterized by low or moderate risk of bias. Survival...

  13. Sperm density required for inducing gynogenetic haploidy in scallop Chlamys nobilis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.

    Experiments conducted for standardizing sperm density for artificial insemination and inducing gynogenesis by ultra-violet rays irradiated sperms in Chlamys nobilis showed that 10:1 ratio of sperms to eggs, gave maximum rate of fertilization...

  14. 75 FR 22073 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Atlantic Sea Scallop Fishery; Framework Adjustment 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... submit attachments to electronic comments in Microsoft Word, Excel, WordPerfect, or Adobe PDF file... various rotational and permanent closures, as well as area-based differences in F, a lower F target should...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0458 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0458 ref|YP_001382296.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Argopecten irradian...s] gb|ABS17679.1| NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Argopecten irradians] YP_001382296.1 0.79 24% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-1564 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-1564 ref|YP_001382287.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Argopecten irradian...s] gb|ABS17670.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Argopecten irradians] YP_001382287.1 1.1 24% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0090 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0090 ref|YP_001382287.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Argopecten irradian...s] gb|ABS17670.1| ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [Argopecten irradians] YP_001382287.1 0.13 26% ...

  18. Peer-Reviewed Studies on the Effects of Anthropogenic Noise on Marine Invertebrates: From Scallop Larvae to Giant Squid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Soto, Natacha Aguilar

    2016-01-01

    Marine invertebrates at the base of oceanic trophic webs play important ecological and economical roles supporting worldwide fisheries worth millions. There is an increasing concern about the effects of anthropogenic noise on marine fauna but little is known about its effects on invertebrates. Here the current peer-reviewed literature on this subject is reviewed, dealing with different ontogenetic stages and taxa. These studies show that the noise effects on marine invertebrates range from apparently null to behavioral/physiological responses to mortalities. They emphasize the need to consider potential interactions of human activities using intense sound sources with the conservation and fisheries of local invertebrate stocks.

  19. Calcium oxide derived from waste shells of mussel, cockle, and scallop as the heterogeneous catalyst for biodiesel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buasri, Achanai; Chaiyut, Nattawut; Loryuenyong, Vorrada; Worawanitchaphong, Phatsakon; Trongyong, Sarinthip

    2013-01-01

    The waste shell was utilized as a bioresource of calcium oxide (CaO) in catalyzing a transesterification to produce biodiesel (methyl ester). The economic and environmen-friendly catalysts were prepared by a calcination method at 700-1,000°C for 4 h. The heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) method. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the CaO catalysts derived from waste shell showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of palm oil with methanol.

  20. Calcium Oxide Derived from Waste Shells of Mussel, Cockle, and Scallop as the Heterogeneous Catalyst for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achanai Buasri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The waste shell was utilized as a bioresource of calcium oxide (CaO in catalyzing a transesterification to produce biodiesel (methyl ester. The economic and environmen-friendly catalysts were prepared by a calcination method at 700–1,000°C for 4 h. The heterogeneous catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray fluorescence (XRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, and the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET method. The effects of reaction variables such as reaction time, reaction temperature, methanol/oil molar ratio, and catalyst loading on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. Reusability of waste shell catalyst was also examined. The results indicated that the CaO catalysts derived from waste shell showed good reusability and had high potential to be used as biodiesel production catalysts in transesterification of palm oil with methanol.

  1. Gene : CBRC-GGOR-01-1310 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ical protein, partial [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] 1e-47 38% MVSVNTSSVTSVSTPSVSTPSVTSLSTPSVTSLSTPSVTSLSTLSVSSLSTPSVTSVSTPSLSTPSVT...SLSTPSVTSLGTPSVTSLGTPSVTSVSIPSVTSLSTLSVSPLSTPSVTSLSTPSVTSVSTPSLSTPSVTSLGTPSVT...SVGTPSVTSVSTPSLSTPSVTSLSTPSVTSVSTPSVTSLSTPSVSSLSTPSVTSLSTPSITSLSTPSVTTPSVPSVSTPSVTSLSTLSVSSLSTPSVT...SVGTPSVSTPSVPSVSTPSVTSLSIPSLSTPSVTSLSTPSVTSVHHHSVHHQSHHSVHHQSHHSVHHQSHHSVHHQSHHSVHHQSHQYTITQYTISHITRYTISLTTQYTISHITRYTISHITQYTISHISQYTISHITQ ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-14-0022 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-14-0022 ref|XP_001179756.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [S...trongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199327.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentr...otus purpuratus] ref|XP_001179039.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpurat...us] ref|XP_001177206.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001179756.1 1e-124 37% ...

  3. Procesos naturales y antropogénicos asociados al evento de mortalidad de conchas de abanico ocurrido en la bahía de Paracas (Pisco, Perú en junio del 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Cabello

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de determinar los procesos que desencadenaron el evento de mortalidad de concha de abanico (Argopecten purpuratus el 6 de junio del 2000, se analizaron las condiciones ambientales naturales y antropogénicas en la Bahía de Paracas (Pisco, Perú durante el período de actividad pesquera industrial pesquera, entre el 17 de mayo y el 13 de junio del 2000. Se evaluaron diariamente las variables oceanográficas de temperatura, oxígeno disuelto, volumen de fitoplancton y variables de calidad acuática, aceites y grasas, sólidos suspendidos totales, DBO5 , pH, sulfuros y coliformes termotolerantes, en 5 estaciones de la Bahía de Paracas. Desde mediados de mayo, se registraron altos contenidos de aceites y grasas provenientes de efluentes pesqueros. A fines de mayo se observó la presencia de una marea roja asociada a un incremento en los sólidos suspendidos totales, pH y oxígeno disuelto, especialmente frente a Atenas y El Chaco. A inicios de junio en superficie se produjo una disminución de los sólidos suspendidos totales (< 25 mg.L-1 y oxígeno (< 3 mL.L-1, llegando a un máximo las concentraciones de grasa (m·x.: 10,1 mg.L-1, mientras que en los fondos el proceso acumulativo de carga orgánica produjo un estado anóxico con alto contenido de sulfuros (m·x.: 19,73 µg-at.L-1. Estas condiciones redujeron la calidad del ambiente marino, y produjeron la mortalidad de los organismos bentónicos. El aporte de materia org·nica proveniente de efluentes pesqueros, junto con el aporte proveniente de la floración algal nociva, ejerció un efecto sinérgico negativo sobre la calidad de la columna de agua y los sedimentos, lo que provocó la mortalidad de especies bentónicas, entre ellas la concha de abanico.

  4. Impacto de "El Niño 1997-98" sobre el asentamiento larval de algunos invertebrados marinos bentónicos de bahía Independencia, Pisco -Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmer Ramos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó mensualmente los cambios y la magnitud del impacto de "El Niño" (EN, sobre el mecanismo del asentamiento larval de algunos invertebrados marinos bentónicos, en sustratos artificiales filamentosos (fibra nylon, entre enero 1996 y julio 1998, en una estación fija, a 10m de profundidad, situada en el lado oriental de la Isla Independencia, en Bahía Independencia, Durante 1996, en la fase fría "La Niña" (LN, el número de especies presentó un pico en abril y la densidad en junio. En la fase cálida EN 199798, la densidad total y el número de especies, presentaron un primer pico en marzo de 1997, luego, un segundo pico, en febrero y julio de 1998, respectivamente. Un primer grupo de especies que intensificó su asentamiento durante la fase fría LN 1996, estuvo constituido por el bivalvo Hiatella solida, el turbelario Notoplana sp. y el gastrópodo Caecum chilense. El segundo grupo intensificó su asentamiento en la etapa temprana de la fase cálida EN 1997-98, Y lo formaron el braquiópodo Discinisca lamel/osa, el equinodermo Ophíactís kr6yerí y bivalvos de la Familia Mytllidae, Un tercer grupo, mostró una intensificación del asentamiento larval, en la etapa tardía de la fase cálida EN 1997-98, a inicios de 1998, y fue formado por el bivalvo Argopecten purpuratus y un gastrópodo turriforme. La aparición de larvas recién asentadas de especies tropicales, como el bivalvo Ptería stema y el gastrópodo Epitoníum sp., tuvo lugar en la etapa tardía de la fase cálida EN 1997-98.

  5. Dicty_cDB: SHH778 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-4019N9, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 13 unordered pieces. 58 2e-04 1...Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3072M7, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 21 unordered pieces. 50 0.056 1...Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-1039L18, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 22 unordered pieces. 50 0.056 1...Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3020N16, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 18 unordered pieces. 50 0.056 1...Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3099D24, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 34 unordered pieces. 50 0.056 1

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHP826 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-4002J19, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 30 unordered pieces. 46 1e-04 4...Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-4013M22, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 20 unordered pieces. 38 2e-04 2...Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-4002B2, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 13 unordered pieces. 42 0.001 4...Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-4002B23, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 20 unordered pieces. 50 0.001 5...Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-4002I3, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 12 unordered pieces. 42 0.003 3

  7. Application of calcium oxide (CaO, heated scallop-shell powder) for the reduction of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms on eggshell surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, S Y; Jung, S-J; Kang, I; Ha, S-D

    2017-12-13

    This study investigated bactericidal activity of 0.05 to 0.50% calcium oxide (CaO) against planktonic cells in tryptic soy broth (TSB) and biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes on eggshell surfaces. The bactericidal activity of CaO against planktonic cells and biofilms of L. monocytogens significantly (P < 0.05) increased log reductions with increasing concentrations of CaO. Exposure to 0.05 to 0.50% CaO for one min reduced planktonic cells in TSB cell suspensions by 0.47 to 3.86 log10CFU/mL and biofilm cells on the shell surfaces by 0.14 to 2.32 log10CFU/cm2. The Hunter colors of eggshells ("L" for lightness, "a" for redness, and "b" for yellowness), shell thickness (puncture force), and sensory quality (egg taste and yolk color) were not changed by 0.05 to 0.50% CaO treatment. The nonlinear Weibull model was used to calculate CR = 3 values as the CaO concentration of 3 log (99.9%) reduction for planktonic cells (R2 = 0.96, RMSE = 0.26) and biofilms (R2 = 0.95, RMSE = 0.18) of L. monocytogens. The CR = 3 value, 0.31% CaO for planktonic cells, was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than 0.57% CaO for biofilms. CaO could be an alternative disinfectant to reduce planktonic cells and biofilms L. monocytogenes on eggshell surface in egg processing plants. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Comparative transcriptomics reveals genes involved in metabolic and immune pathways in the digestive gland of scallop Chlamys farreri following cadmium exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Zhai, Yuxiu; Yao, Lin; Jiang, Yanhua; Li, Fengling

    2017-05-01

    Chlamys farreri is an economically important mollusk that can accumulate excessive amounts of cadmium (Cd). Studying the molecular mechanism of Cd accumulation in bivalves is difficult because of the lack of genome background. Transcriptomic analysis based on high-throughput RNA sequencing has been shown to be an efficient and powerful method for the discovery of relevant genes in non-model and genome reference-free organisms. Here, we constructed two cDNA libraries (control and Cd exposure groups) from the digestive gland of C. farreri and compared the transcriptomic data between them. A total of 227 673 transcripts were assembled into 105 071 unigenes, most of which shared high similarity with sequences in the NCBI non-redundant protein database. For functional classification, 24 493 unigenes were assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Additionally, EuKaryotic Ortholog Groups and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses assigned 12 028 unigenes to 26 categories and 7 849 unigenes to five pathways, respectively. Comparative transcriptomics analysis identified 3 800 unigenes that were differentially expressed in the Cd-treated group compared with the control group. Among them, genes associated with heavy metal accumulation were screened, including metallothionein, divalent metal transporter, and metal tolerance protein. The functional genes and predicted pathways identified in our study will contribute to a better understanding of the metabolic and immune system in the digestive gland of C. farreri. In addition, the transcriptomic data will provide a comprehensive resource that may contribute to the understanding of molecular mechanisms that respond to marine pollutants in bivalves.

  9. Identification of mRNAs coding for mammalian-type melanin-concentrating hormone and its receptors in the scalloped hammerhead shark Sphyrna lewini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizusawa, Kanta; Amiya, Noriko; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Takabe, Souichirou; Amano, Masafumi; Breves, Jason P; Fox, Bradley K; Grau, E Gordon; Hyodo, Susumu; Takahashi, Akiyoshi

    2012-10-01

    Melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) is a neuromodulator, synthesized in the hypothalamus, that regulates both appetite and energy homeostasis in mammals. MCH was initially identified in teleost fishes as a pituitary gland hormone that induced melanin aggregation in chromatophores in the skin; however, this function of MCH has not been observed in other vertebrates. Recent studies suggest that MCH is involved in teleost feeding behavior, spurring the hypothesis that the original function of MCH in early vertebrates was appetite regulation. The present study reports the results of cDNAs cloning encoding preproMCH and two MCH receptors from an elasmobranch fish, Sphyrna lewini, a member of Chondrichthyes, the earliest diverged class in gnathostomes. The putative MCH peptide is composed of 19 amino acids, similar in length to the mammalian MCH. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction revealed that MCH is expressed in the hypothalamus in S. lewini MCH cell bodies and fibers were identified by immunochemistry in the hypothalamus, but not in the pituitary gland, suggesting that MCH is not released via the pituitary gland into general circulation. MCH receptor genes mch-r1 and mch-r2 were expressed in the S. lewini hypothalamus, but were not found in the skin. These results indicate that MCH does not have a peripheral function, such as a melanin-concentrating effect, in the skin of S. lewini hypothalamic MCH mRNA levels were not affected by fasting, suggesting that feeding conditions might not affect the expression of MCH in the hypothalamus. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Bactericidal Effect of Calcium Oxide (Scallop-Shell Powder) Against Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm on Quail Egg Shell, Stainless Steel, Plastic, and Rubber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Soo-Jin; Park, Shin Young; Kim, Seh Eun; Kang, Ike; Park, Jiyong; Lee, Jungwon; Kim, Chang-Min; Chung, Myung-Sub; Ha, Sang-Do

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bactericidal effect of calcium oxide (CaO) against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms on quail eggshells and major egg contacting surfaces (stainless steel, plastic, and rubber). The samples were subjected to CaO treatments (0%, 0.01%, 0.05%, 0.10%, 0.15%, 0.20%, 0.25%, and 0.30%) for 1 min. All the CaO treatments significantly reduced P. aeruginosa biofilms on all tested surfaces as compared to controls. In comparison of biofilm stability, the strongest and most resistant biofilm was formed on eggshell against the CaO treatment, followed by rubber, stainless steel, and plastic. In evaluation of bactericidal effect, the largest reduction (3.16 log CFU) was observed in plastic even at the lowest concentration of CaO (0.01%), whereas the least reduction was found in eggshells, regardless of CaO concentration. In addition, stainless steel showed a significant reduction in biofilm formation at all concentrations except 0.10% to 0.15% CaO. At 0.30% CaO, the reduction of P. aeruginosa in biofilms on stainless steel, plastic, rubber, and eggshell were 5.48, 6.37, 4.87, and 3.14 log CFU/cm 2 (CFU/egg), respectively. Biofilm reduction after CaO treatment was also observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Based on the FE-SEM images, we observed that P. aeruginosa biofilms formed compact aggregations on eggshell surfaces with CaO treatments up to 0.30%. More specifically, a 0.20% CaO treatment resulted in the reductions of 3 to 6 log CFU in all materials. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Gene : CBRC-CJAC-01-1131 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : similar to beta-1,3-galactosyltransferase 6 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] 2e-28 29% MTITIIIISPSLSPSSSSLSPSSPSPSS...LSHHHYHHHHHHYPHHHHHNHHYLTIIITIIIIIPIITITIIIISPSLSPSSSSLSPSSPSLSSLSHHCYHHH...HHHHLTIVITIIIIIPIITITIIIISPSLSPSSLSLSPSSPSPSSLSHHHYHHHHYYPHHHHHHYHYLTIVITIIITSLSLSPSSLSLSPSSPSPSSLSHHHYHHHHY...LTVVITIIIIIIPIITITIIIISSPSPSSLSHHHHHHHYLTVIITIIIIIIPIITITITIIIINPIITITIIIITTVVIRIIIIITIIINISTITTAINTIITISVIAIITITNIVTIISISTIAIITIITITDVDNSFYRKKKGKMLRVT ...

  12. Dicty_cDB: SLK303 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLK303 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U07854-1 SLK303Z (Link to Original site)...- - SLK303Z 285 - - - - Show SLK303 Library SL (Link to library) Clone ID SLK303 (Link to dictyBase)...RP11-24B21 (Roswell Park Cancer Institute Human BAC Library) complete sequence. 48 0.058 1 AC016082 |AC016082...purpuratus, purple sea urchin, sperm genomic BAC library Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genomic clone Plate=149...purpuratus, purple sea urchin, sperm genomic BAC library Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genomic clone Plate=88

  13. Primary Inhibition by Light: A Unique Property of Bivalve Photoreceptors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lon A. Wilkens

    2008-01-01

    ...) and the mantle eyes of scallops (Pectinidae) and file clams (Limidae). In scallops, they form a distal retinal layer of ciliary receptors, distinct from a proximal microvillar layer that is excited by light. In off-receptors (ciliary...

  14. 76 FR 16595 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... the most recent formal scallop resource stock assessment; An increase in the possession limit for... implement annual catch limits (ACLs) and accountability measures (AMs) to bring the Scallop FMP into... overfishing definition, modification of the essential fish habitat (EFH) closed areas under the Scallop FMP...

  15. 50 CFR 648.54 - State waters exemption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... (g) of this section. (c) Gear and possession limit restrictions. Any vessel issued a limited access scallop permit, an LAGC NGOM, or an LAGC IFQ scallop permit is exempt from the minimum twine top mesh size for scallop dredge gear specified in § 648.51(b)(4)(iv) while fishing exclusively landward of the...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DNOV-01-0174 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DNOV-01-0174 ref|XP_786035.2| PREDICTED: similar to autism-related protein 1 [...Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001191209.1| PREDICTED: similar to autism-related protein 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_786035.2 2.3 34% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-2263 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-2263 ref|XP_784411.2| PREDICTED: similar to neurogenic locus notch (no...tch) [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001184431.1| PREDICTED: similar to neurogenic locus notch (notch) [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_784411.2 1.9 20% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0995 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0995 ref|XP_784411.2| PREDICTED: similar to neurogenic locus notch (no...tch) [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001184431.1| PREDICTED: similar to neurogenic locus notch (notch) [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_784411.2 1.9 22% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0173 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0173 ref|XP_784411.2| PREDICTED: similar to neurogenic locus notch (no...tch) [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001184431.1| PREDICTED: similar to neurogenic locus notch (notch) [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_784411.2 2.4 22% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-2804 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-2804 ref|XP_784411.2| PREDICTED: similar to neurogenic locus notch (no...tch) [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001184431.1| PREDICTED: similar to neurogenic locus notch (notch) [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_784411.2 1.9 22% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-LAFR-01-0446 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-LAFR-01-0446 ref|XP_784411.2| PREDICTED: similar to neurogenic locus notch (no...tch) [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001184431.1| PREDICTED: similar to neurogenic locus notch (notch) [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_784411.2 1.7 20% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-11-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-11-0007 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 1e-120 40% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2231 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2231 ref|XP_796436.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187269.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_796436.2 5e-19 43% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0514 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0514 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 3e-87 40% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0514 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0514 ref|XP_787857.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001191368.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_787857.2 1e-91 38% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-01-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-01-0021 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 8e-65 44% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2105 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2105 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 5e-79 43% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1148 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1148 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 1e-38 41% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1738 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1738 ref|XP_787857.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001191368.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_787857.2 0.007 30% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2167 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2167 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 3e-11 31% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3455 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3455 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 3e-47 44% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3457 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3457 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 6e-17 38% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0211 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0211 ref|XP_787857.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001191368.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_787857.2 6e-05 51% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1879 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1879 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 3e-61 42% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1904 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1904 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 1e-84 42% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2279 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2279 ref|XP_787857.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001191368.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_787857.2 6e-16 42% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-01-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-01-0021 ref|XP_796436.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187269.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_796436.2 2e-64 41% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2284 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2284 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 2e-64 41% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2405 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2405 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 9e-45 37% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1470 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1470 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 6e-44 36% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1491 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1491 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 2e-35 36% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-01-0021 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-01-0021 ref|XP_787857.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001191368.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_787857.2 4e-65 42% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1030 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1030 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 2e-23 33% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1048 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1048 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 2e-28 40% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0978 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0978 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 1e-44 40% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3296 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3296 ref|XP_787857.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001191368.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_787857.2 3e-10 41% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-11-0167 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-11-0167 ref|XP_796436.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187269.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_796436.2 0.48 28% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1934 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1934 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 8e-29 37% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0032 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0032 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 5e-63 48% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1242 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1242 ref|XP_787857.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001191368.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_787857.2 9e-04 43% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-04-0105 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-04-0105 ref|XP_795306.2| PREDICTED: similar to mind bomb [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001195978.1| PREDICTED: similar to mind bomb [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_795306.2 0.003 64% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DSIM-04-0105 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DSIM-04-0105 ref|XP_785777.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strong...ylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001185362.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_785777.2 1e-31 25% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0376 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0376 ref|XP_800520.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strong...ylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001192588.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_800520.2 2e-99 33% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OGAR-01-0071 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OGAR-01-0071 ref|XP_800577.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001188395.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_800577.2 2e-19 33% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRI-02-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRI-02-0009 ref|NP_001091930.1| receptor for egg jelly 6 [Strongylocentrotus ...purpuratus] gb|ABJ97173.1| receptor for egg jelly 6 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] NP_001091930.1 2e-06 19% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0516 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0516 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 2e-12 35% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0043 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0043 ref|XP_800577.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001188395.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_800577.2 8e-24 27% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FCAT-01-0177 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FCAT-01-0177 ref|XP_001191767.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001183886.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001191767.1 1e-163 38% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0026 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0026 ref|XP_781886.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001192250.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_781886.1 1e-60 31% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-06-0113 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-06-0113 ref|XP_797031.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strong...ylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001183572.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_797031.2 8e-64 31% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-04-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-04-0025 ref|XP_797031.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strong...ylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001183572.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_797031.2 0.82 23% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TTRU-01-0001 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TTRU-01-0001 ref|XP_800520.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strong...ylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001192588.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_800520.2 1e-171 37% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRI-02-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRI-02-0007 ref|XP_798210.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001195308.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_798210.2 5e-73 34% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-04-0054 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-04-0054 ref|XP_784737.2| PREDICTED: similar to Copg2 protein [Strongyloce...ntrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001177108.1| PREDICTED: similar to Copg2 protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_784737.2 0.0 67% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-02-0061 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-02-0061 ref|XP_001191767.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001183886.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001191767.1 1e-131 38% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-03-0156 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-03-0156 ref|XP_781315.2| PREDICTED: similar to Blastula protease-10 [Strong...ylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001176210.1| PREDICTED: similar to Blastula protease-10 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_781315.2 2e-16 34% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1480 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1480 ref|XP_001199725.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001193035.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001199725.1 8e-15 29% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0396 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0396 ref|XP_800577.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001188395.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_800577.2 2e-08 27% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-02-0078 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-02-0078 ref|XP_001191767.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001183886.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001191767.1 3e-12 24% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-04-0035 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-04-0035 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 4e-05 24% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1346 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1346 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 1e-11 39% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-23-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-23-0000 ref|XP_800577.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001188395.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_800577.2 4e-10 20% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-0958 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-0958 ref|XP_786063.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF 2 [Strongylocentrotus ...purpuratus] ref|XP_001178976.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF 2 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_786063.1 4e-21 24% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CFAM-20-0124 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CFAM-20-0124 ref|XP_781315.2| PREDICTED: similar to Blastula protease-10 [Strong...ylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001176210.1| PREDICTED: similar to Blastula protease-10 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_781315.2 1e-14 31% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-18-0006 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-18-0006 ref|XP_782690.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001186073.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_782690.1 5e-06 24% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-24-0024 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-24-0024 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 1e-11 34% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GGOR-01-1462 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GGOR-01-1462 ref|XP_001191767.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001183886.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001191767.1 9e-35 25% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-AGAM-04-0078 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-AGAM-04-0078 ref|XP_800520.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strong...ylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001192588.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_800520.2 1e-179 34% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-0453 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-0453 ref|XP_789210.2| PREDICTED: similar to Sidt2 protein [Strongyloce...ntrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001176487.1| PREDICTED: similar to Sidt2 protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_789210.2 0.061 22% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DDIS-04-0008 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DDIS-04-0008 ref|XP_801877.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein isoform 2 [Strong...ylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001176175.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_801877.1 1e-103 36% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TGUT-37-0060 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TGUT-37-0060 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 3e-07 32% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-01-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-01-0028 ref|XP_800740.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001177593.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_800740.1 1e-123 33% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-0505 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-0505 ref|XP_789072.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001189456.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_789072.1 3e-83 47% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0097 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0097 ref|XP_786175.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001181934.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_786175.2 2e-29 23% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-04-0445 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-04-0445 ref|XP_001199725.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001193035.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001199725.1 1e-11 27% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0447 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0447 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 3e-10 33% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CREM-01-0949 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CREM-01-0949 ref|XP_785317.2| PREDICTED: similar to polyprotein [Strongylocent...rotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001193430.1| PREDICTED: similar to polyprotein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_785317.2 8e-59 27% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0154 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0154 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 2e-11 23% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CINT-01-0014 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CINT-01-0014 ref|XP_001178094.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strong...ylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_800542.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001178094.1 1e-141 27% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0871 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0871 ref|XP_001201137.1| PREDICTED: similar to Y56A3A.9, partial [Strong...ylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_784653.2| PREDICTED: similar to Y56A3A.9, partial [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001201137.1 2e-15 71% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PABE-10-0010 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PABE-10-0010 ref|XP_001180666.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001180685.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001180666.1 1e-20 18% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-12-0046 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-12-0046 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 2e-17 33% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-15-0027 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-15-0027 ref|XP_001198604.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001185471.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001198604.1 6e-37 41% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-05-0025 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-05-0025 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 4e-14 32% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-11-0066 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-11-0066 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 6e-11 29% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DMEL-06-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DMEL-06-0045 ref|XP_796774.2| PREDICTED: similar to Wilsons disease protein [S...trongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001186876.1| PREDICTED: similar to Wilsons disease protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_796774.2 1e-134 55% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-23-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-23-0012 ref|XP_001191767.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001183886.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001191767.1 7e-22 32% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0873 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0873 ref|XP_780950.2| PREDICTED: similar to OSJNBa0011F23.1 [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001181316.1| PREDICTED: similar to OSJNBa0011F23.1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_780950.2 7e-18 41% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DRER-13-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DRER-13-0028 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 4e-14 32% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0956 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0956 ref|XP_001202282.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001199789.1| PREDICTED: similar to laccase 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001202282.1 3e-12 25% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-04-0114 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-04-0114 ref|XP_785777.2| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001185362.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein, partial [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_785777.2 6e-31 25% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OLAT-26-0078 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OLAT-26-0078 ref|XP_001191767.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001183886.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001191767.1 5e-80 33% ...

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PMAR-01-0673 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PMAR-01-0673 ref|XP_794041.1| PREDICTED: similar to xylulokinase homolog [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001193087.1| PREDICTED: similar to xylulokinase homolog [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_794041.1 2e-08 26% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-20-0009 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-20-0009 ref|XP_001191767.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentro...tus purpuratus] ref|XP_001183886.1| PREDICTED: hypothetical protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001191767.1 5e-21 28% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-GACU-23-0138 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-GACU-23-0138 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 1e-119 39% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-0211 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-0211 ref|XP_796436.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187269.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_796436.2 6e-05 63% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2234 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2234 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 1e-59 42% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3296 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3296 ref|XP_796436.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187269.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_796436.2 7e-11 32% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-01-0521 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-01-0521 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 8e-10 30% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0997 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0997 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 3e-49 40% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1904 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1904 ref|XP_796436.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187269.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_796436.2 6e-81 42% ...

  12. Bacterial and Benthic Community Response to Inorganic and Organic Sediment Amendments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-01

    polychaetes, Neanthes arenaceodentata/ purple sea urchins , Strongylocentrotus purpuratus/ larval sheepshead minnow, Cyprinodon variegates/ bacterial...the marine amphipods (Eohaustorius estuarius), marine polychaetes (Neanthes arenaceodentata), and purple sea urchins (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus...environmental implications. Marine Environmental Research 66:327-336. 24 Sakowicz GP. 2003. Comparative morphology and behavior of larval salt marsh

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-1732 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-1732 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 5e-39 36% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2034 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2034 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 8e-37 40% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-3275 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-3275 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 2e-87 43% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-2195 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-2195 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 8e-27 39% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-FRUB-02-0812 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-FRUB-02-0812 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 4e-59 43% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-OANA-01-0329 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-OANA-01-0329 ref|XP_792312.2| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Stro...ngylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001190361.1| PREDICTED: similar to ORF2-encoded protein [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_792312.2 3e-10 36% ...

  19. Molecular characterization of TGF-β type I receptor gene (Tgfbr1 in Chlamys farreri, and the association of allelic variants with growth traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Guo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Scallops are an economically important aquaculture species in Asian countries, and growth-rate improvement is one of the main focuses of scallop breeding. Investigating the genetic regulation of scallop growth could benefit scallop breeding, as such research is currently limited. The transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β signaling through type I and type II receptors, plays critical roles in regulating cell proliferation and growth, and is thus a plausible candidate growth regulator in scallops. RESULTS: We cloned and characterized the TGF-β type I receptor (Tgfbr1 gene from Zhikong scallops (Chlamys farreri. The deduced amino acid sequence contains characteristic residues and exhibits the conserved structure of Tgfbr1 proteins. A high expression level of scallop Tgfbr1 was detected during early embryonic stages, whereas Tgfbr1 expression was enriched in the gonad and striated muscle in adults. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP, c. 1815C>T in the 3' UTR was identified. Scallops with genotype TT had higher growth traits values than those with genotype CC or CT in a full-sib family, and significant differences were found between genotypes CC and TT for shell length, shell height, and striated muscle weight. An expression analysis detected significantly more Tgfbr1 transcripts in the striated muscle of scallops with genotype CC compared to those with genotype TT or CT. Further evaluation in a population also revealed higher striated muscle weight in scallops with genotype TT than those with the other two genotypes. The inverse correlation between striated muscle mass and Tgfbr1 expression is consistent with TGF-β signaling having a negative effect on cell growth. CONCLUSION: The scallop Tgfbr1 gene was cloned and characterized, and an SNP potentially associated with both scallop growth and Tgfbr1 expression was identified. Our results suggest the negative regulation of Tgfbr1 in scallop growth and provide a candidate marker for

  20. Type specimens of Pectinidae (Bivalvia) described by Ignaz von Born

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2009-01-01

    Born described in two publications (1778, 1780) the molluscs in the collection of Empress Maria Theresa (1717-1780), now in the Natural History Museum at Vienna. In this paper the Pectinidae type material is described. Ten new species were introduced of which Argopecten nucleus (Born, 1778) and

  1. Annotations to the described and figured scallops (Mollusca, Bivalvia, Pectinidae) in the German, French and Dutch editions of Georg Wolfgang Knorr’s “Vergnügen” (1757-1775)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, H.H.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with the described and figured Pectinidae of the three editions of Knorr’s “Vergnügen”. Plates are compared and treated taxonomically. Three new junior synonyms are recognized and ten figures are type figures of nominal taxa.

  2. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01139-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 179314 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-1102P16, W... 32 6.6 5 ( FG289388 ) 1108793297216 New World ...Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 38 6.9 2 ( FG286433 ) 1108770714983 New World Screww

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRE-01-0586 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRE-01-0586 ref|XP_786973.2| PREDICTED: similar to ecdysis triggering hormone... receptor subtype-A [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001178990.1| PREDICTED: similar to ecdysis trigger

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15067-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available apiens chromosome 13q34 schizophrenia regio... 36 1.7 9 ( AC177006 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-...andidatus Carsonella ruddii PV DNA, complete gen... 34 1.1 10 ( AE014303 ) Homo s

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0952 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0952 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 8e-11 34% ...

  6. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0121 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0121 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 1e-20 36% ...

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-05-0045 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-05-0045 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 2e-06 28% ...

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1792 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1792 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 8e-13 32% ...

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-11-0138 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-11-0138 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 5e-13 31% ...

  10. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-0778 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-0778 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 1e-12 31% ...

  11. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-ACAR-01-0971 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-ACAR-01-0971 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 1e-04 30% ...

  12. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-0069 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-0069 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 6e-19 36% ...

  13. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CJAC-01-1432 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CJAC-01-1432 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 2e-13 30% ...

  14. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1291 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1291 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 2e-15 31% ...

  15. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-SARA-01-1228 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-SARA-01-1228 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 1e-16 40% ...

  16. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-MDOM-06-0017 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-MDOM-06-0017 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 4e-18 36% ...

  17. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PHAM-01-1857 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PHAM-01-1857 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 8e-12 29% ...

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-HSAP-19-0102 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-HSAP-19-0102 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 4e-14 32% ...

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-PTRO-23-0012 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-PTRO-23-0012 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 2e-11 33% ...

  20. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-XTRO-01-2357 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-XTRO-01-2357 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 2e-18 41% ...

  1. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RNOR-12-0028 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RNOR-12-0028 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 2e-10 28% ...

  2. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-RMAC-03-0007 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-RMAC-03-0007 ref|XP_001203256.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong similarity to ex...tensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001187833.1| PREDICTED: similar to Strong... similarity to extensin-like protein gb|Z34465 from Zea mays. [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] XP_001203256.1 3e-15 32% ...

  3. Studying Hammerheads in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handler, Alex; Duncan, Kanesa

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the High School Scalloped Hammerhead Shark Tagging Program in Hawaii which is an example of a successful partnership research collaboration. High school students and teachers worked with biologists from the University of Hawaii-Manoa (UHM) to conduct research on the life history of scalloped hammerhead sharks…

  4. Treatment outcome of two adjacent implant crowns with different implant platform designs in the aesthetic zone : A 1-year randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tymstra, Nynke; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Den Hartog, Laurens; Stellingsma, Kees; Meijer, Henny J. A.

    P>Aim To evaluate the peri-implant tissues in patients with two adjacent implant crowns in the aesthetic zone, treated with either two adjacent implants with a scalloped platform or with a flat platform. Material and methods Forty patients were randomly allocated to: (1) a "scalloped implant group":

  5. 50 CFR 648.51 - Gear and crew restrictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... strengtheners, ropes, lines, or chafing gear, on the top of a trawl net, except that one splitting strap and one... top) possessed or used by vessels fishing with scallop dredge gear shall not be smaller than 10-inch... restrictions. No chafing gear or cookies shall be used on the top of a scallop dredge. (ii) Link restrictions...

  6. 75 FR 18355 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Framework Adjustment 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-09

    ... = Southern New England/Mid-Atlantic; CC = Cape Cod/GOM; plaice = American plaice; witch = witch flounder... the current Atlantic Sea Scallop FMP, if the scallop fishery harvests in excess of the yellowtail... of the fishery (72.5 percent and 27.5 percent for haddock; 66.3 percent and 33.7 percent for cod...

  7. 75 FR 5016 - Fisheries of the Northeastern United States; Northeast Multispecies Fishery; Framework Adjustment 44

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    ... (particularly for GOM cod and pollock). In particular, industry members noted that fishery participants may.../Mid-Atlantic; CC = Cape Cod/GOM; plaice = American plaice; witch = witch flounder; winter = winter... Atlantic Sea Scallop FMP, if the scallop fishery harvests in excess of the yellowtail flounder sub...

  8. 76 FR 11857 - Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ..., offshore hake, and ocean pout; while large- mesh species include Atlantic cod, haddock, yellowtail flounder...- Stock Total ACL ACL Scallop fishery herring fishery sub-component components GB cod 4,540 4,301 0 0 48... Scallop fishery herring fishery sub-component components GB cod 5,109 4,841 0 0 54 215 GB haddock 27,637...

  9. 50 CFR 648.11 - At-sea sea sampler/observer coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... sampler/observer in a timely fashion of when fishing operations are to begin and end. (5) Allow for the... any scallop trip of the time, port of departure, open area or specific Sea Scallop Access Area to be.../NEFOP must be notified by the owner, operator, or vessel manager of any trip plan changes at least 48 hr...

  10. to view fulltext PDF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xu Y., Liu J., Lan X., Zhang Y., Lei C., Zhang C., Yang D. and Chen H. 2011 Consistent effects of single and combined SNP(s) within bovine paired box 7 gene (Pax7) on ... polymorphic microsatellite markers from the cDNA library of Japanese scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis and cross-species amplification in bay scallop ...

  11. Transgenerational exposure of North Atlantic bivalves to ocean acidification renders offspring more vulnerable to low pH and additional stressors

    OpenAIRE

    Griffith, Andrew W.; Gobler, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    While early life-stage marine bivalves are vulnerable to ocean acidification, effects over successive generations are poorly characterized. The objective of this work was to assess the transgenerational effects of ocean acidification on two species of North Atlantic bivalve shellfish, Mercenaria mercenaria and Argopecten irradians. Adults of both species were subjected to high and low pCO2 conditions during gametogenesis. Resultant larvae were exposed to low and ambient pH conditions in addit...

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHE809 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3002K9, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 13 unordered pieces. 44 2.0 1 CX717922...|AC158172.17 Medicago truncatula clone mth2-143b6, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE. 42 8.0 1 AC182127 |AC182127.2 Bos...1 Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-50L4, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 15 unordered pieces. 42 8.0 1 AC181428...Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-50G16, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 16 unordered pieces. 42 8.0 1 AC168010...AC124163 |AC124163.2 Bos taurus clone RP42-242H20, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 5 ordered pieces. 42 8.0 1 AC159667

  13. Paleogenomics of echinoderms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottjer, David J; Davidson, Eric H; Peterson, Kevin J; Cameron, R Andrew

    2006-11-10

    Paleogenomics propels the meaning of genomic studies back through hundreds of millions of years of deep time. Now that the genome of the echinoid Strongylocentrotus purpuratus is sequenced, the operation of its genes can be interpreted in light of the well-understood echinoderm fossil record. Characters that first appear in Early Cambrian forms are still characteristic of echinoderms today. Key genes for one of these characters, the biomineralized tissue stereom, can be identified in the S. purpuratus genome and are likely to be the same genes that were involved with stereom formation in the earliest echinoderms some 520 million years ago.

  14. Notes on Plectranthus (Lamiaceae from southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. van Jaarsveld

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new Plectranthus taxa from South Africa are described: P. malvinus Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards, P. saccatus subsp. pondoensis Van Jaarsv. & S.Milstein,  P. purpuratus subsp. tongaensis Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards and  P. purpuratus subsp. montanus Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards.  P. aliciae (Codd Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards and  P. lucidus (Benth. Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards are given new status, and P. pentheri (Giirke Van Jaarsv. & TJ.Edwards is transferred to this genus from Coleus and recognized as a species.

  15. Dicty_cDB: VSF790 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSF790 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - VSF790F (Link to Original site) VSF790F 19 -...- - - - - - Show VSF790 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSF790 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP...SEAUMC002548 Sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell cDNA library Strongylocentrotus purpuratus cDNA clone PC_0015_B2_F05_MR...SEAUMC002408 Sea urchin primary mesenchyme cell cDNA library Strongylocentrotus purpuratus cDNA clone PC_0015_A1_B08_MR

  16. Dicty_cDB: VSC522 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSC522 (Link to dictyBase) - - - - VSC522E (Link to Original site) - - - - - - VSC522E...VSC522E 129 Show VSC522 Library VS (Link to library) Clone ID VSC522 (Link to dictyBase) Atlas ID - NBRP...RP11-80N2 (Roswell Park Cancer Institute Human BAC Library) complete sequence. 42 0.11 3 Z14085 |Z14085.1...adult male testis cDNA, RIKEN full-length enriched library, clone:4930439N15, 3' end partial sequence. 44...purpuratus, purple sea urchin, sperm genomic BAC library Strongylocentrotus purpuratus genomic clone Plate=1013

  17. 76 FR 66694 - New England Fishery Management Council (NEFMC); Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... relevant to the management of sandbar, dusky, and blacknose shark, and on a new status determination for scalloped hammerhead based on recent stock assessments for these species. Although other non-emergency...

  18. Shellfish Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about food allergies. Advocacy Resources Community Resources Teal Pumpkin Project Education Network Food for Thought Video Series ... urchin Scallops Snails (escargot) Squid (calamari) Whelk (Turban shell) *Note: The federal government does not require mollusks ...

  19. A Comparison of the foraging ecology and bioenergetics of the early life-stages of two sympatric hammerhead sharks from 1998-07-12 to 2005-07-27 (NCEI Accession 0163192)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This Archival Information Package (AIP) contains basic biological information on bonnethead and scalloped hammerhead sharks with specific (by stomach and prey item)...

  20. OBPRELIM Observer Preliminary Data System

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Paper logs are the primary data collection tool used by observers of the Northeast Fisheries Observer Program and Industry Funded Scallop Program deployed on...

  1. 78 FR 54240 - New England Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... held at the Best Western Hotel, 580 US Highway 1, Interstate Traffic Circle, Portsmouth, NH 03801... biological opinion of the sea scallop fishery related to sea turtles and Atlantic Sturgeon. There will be a...

  2. The biochemical textural and sensory properties of frozen stored ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-18

    . Key words: Scallop meats, frozen .... A portion (0.5 ml) of this filtrate was used for the determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances ..... mechanism of fish muscle proteins by maltodextrins. Cryobiology, 38: 16-26.

  3. A Climatological Oil Spill Planning Guide. Number 2. Gulf of Maine/Georges Bank,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-06-01

    Shellfish Distribution: Sea scallops and bay scallops . . . 99 76 Shellfish Distribution: American oyster .......... 100 77 Lobster Distribution...Sandy Hook to Bay of Fundy , Vol. I, Book I Submitted to Bureau of Land Management (08550- CT-S outh Portland, Maine; TRIGOK, November, 1974. Research...6?󈨆 Offite Shtateie Oft Shorn F...................45 44- ,7440 N. e.... ..... .... 430 43’ 41* 1 710 700 69, 680 6?’ 66’ Figure 77.-- Lobster

  4. Echocardiographic anatomy of the mitral valve: a critical appraisal of 2-dimensional imaging protocols with a 3-dimensional perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Feroze; Hess, Philip E; Matyal, Robina; Mackensen, G Burkhard; Wang, Angela; Qazi, Aisha; Panzica, Peter J; Lerner, Adam B; Maslow, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    To highlight the limitations of traditional 2-dimensional (2D) echocardiographic mitral valve (MV) examination methodologies, which do not account for patient-specific transesophageal echocardiographic (TEE) probe adjustments made during an actual clinical perioperative TEE examination. Institutional quality-improvement project. Tertiary care hospital. Attending anesthesiologists certified by the National Board of Echocardiography. Using the technique of multiplanar reformatting with 3-dimensional (3D) data, ambiguous 2D images of the MV were generated, which resembled standard midesophageal 2D views. Based on the 3D image, the MV scallops visualized in each 2D image were recognized exactly by the position of the scan plane. Twenty-three such 2D MV images were created in a presentation from the 3D datasets. Anesthesia staff members (n = 13) were invited to view the presentation based on the 2D images only and asked to identify the MV scallops. Their responses were scored as correct or incorrect based on the 3D image. The overall accuracy was 30.4% in identifying the MV scallops. The transcommissural view was identified correctly >90% of the time. The accuracy of the identification of A1, A3, P1, and P3 scallops was <50%. The accuracy of the identification of A2P2 scallops was ≥50%. In the absence of information on TEE probe adjustments performed to acquire a specific MV image, it is possible to misidentify the scallops. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Characterizations of sea urchin fibrillar collagen and its cDNA clone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, M; Kinoshita, T; Izumi, S; Tomino, S; Yoshizato, K

    1994-03-01

    Collagens were isolated from the adult test of the sea urchin species, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus, and their molecular properties were compared with those of Asthenosoma ijimai collagen. Collagens from H. pulcherrimus and S. purpuratus comprised two major alpha-chains (alpha 120 and alpha 90) and a minor chain (alpha 140), while collagen from A. ijimai contained four alpha-chains (alpha 1, alpha 2, alpha 3 and alpha 4). Based on their molecular and immunological properties, the alpha 90 chain of H. pulcherrimus and S. purpuratus, and the alpha 2 and alpha 4 chains of A. ijimai are grouped together, while the alpha 120 and alpha 140 chains of H. pulcherrimus and S. purpuratus, and the alpha 1 and alpha 3 chains of A. ijimai are classified into another group. It is likely that collagen molecules of sea urchins are heterotrimers composed of these two types of alpha-chains. A cDNA of collagen was cloned from the cDNA library prepared from mRNA of H. pulcherrimus test and denoted as Hpcol1. This clone contained sequences for uninterrupted triple helical domain (378 amino acids), carboxyl telopeptide (28 amino acids) and carboxyl propeptide (225 amino acids). This structure is characteristic for fibril-forming collagens and was shown to encode alpha 120 and alpha 140 chains of H. pulcherrimus collagen. Hpcol1-mRNA was expressed in embryos as early as the prism stage.

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHD461 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available S RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN L19. ;, mRNA sequence. 46 0.96 1 CK829062 |CK829062.1 Sp1183 Bacterially activated coe...lomocyte, arrayed Strongylocentrotus purpuratus cDNA clone Sp1183 5' similar to Rib

  7. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CELE-05-0210 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CELE-05-0210 ref|XP_001176680.1| PREDICTED: similar to broadly selective sodiu...m/nucleoside transporter hfCNT isoform 2 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001178521.1| PREDICTED: similar to broad

  8. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CELE-05-0210 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CELE-05-0210 ref|XP_001176814.1| PREDICTED: similar to broadly selective sodiu...m/nucleoside transporter hfCNT isoform 3 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_801848.2| PREDICTED: similar to broad

  9. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CELE-05-0210 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CELE-05-0210 ref|XP_001176530.1| PREDICTED: similar to broadly selective sodiu...m/nucleoside transporter hfCNT isoform 1 [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001178434.1| PREDICTED: similar to broad

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06400-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available AM054870 ) Isotricha prostoma EST, clone Iso_G08. 36 0.67 2 ( AC116957 ) Dictyostelium discoideum chromosom...piens genomic cl... 52 0.023 1 ( AC168571 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3065M21, W... 46 0.35 4 (

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05840-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available lone R3-12G8, WORK... 52 0.017 1 ( AC180970 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3059B02, W... 52 0.017 1 ( AC139728 ) Carol...lia perspicillata clone 29G20, complete sequ... 48 0.27 1 ( AC150467 ) Carol

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05052-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available nom... 34 2.7 3 ( AC149914 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-12I13, WOR... 36 2.8 9 ( AC146769 ) Carol... HindIII BAC Library Solanum lycoper... 36 5.9 3 ( AC146829 ) Carollia perspicillata clone 9I15, WORKING DRA

  13. make up.contents pg

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spamer

    agent found) caused a large mortality of black abalone Haliotis cracherodii and purple sea urchins. Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Richards and Davis. 1993, Kushner et al. 1995b). Subsequent to the present study, during the first quarter of 1997 there was again bacterial infection and mortalities of P. stolonifera along the.

  14. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15573-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 04_T7A Strongylocentrotus purpuratus,... 48 1.3 1 ( EL433298 ) CHCS7625.b1_B12.ab1 CHC(LMS) Texas... blueweed Helia... 48 1.3 1 ( EL415238 ) CHCL3923.b1_E21.ab1 CHC(LMS) Texas blueweed Helia..

  15. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15179-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 0.50 7 ( EB191876 ) PEG001-C-004854-501 Non-Normalized Pedal-Pleural ... 36 0.51 2 ( EB192542 ) PEG001-C-00...4854-502 Non-Normalized Pedal-Pleural ... 36 0.52 2 ( AC168460 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-35H9

  16. Isolation and characterization of a PUF-domain of pumilio gene from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-20

    Mar 20, 2009 ... fourteen proteins that contain Puf repeats and thus belong to pumilio protein family were picked. Proteins from animals [Aedes aegypti (XP_001656036), Apis mellifera (XP_391849), Drosophila melanogaster. (NP_731316),. Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. (XP_794621), Homo sapiens. (NP_056132), Mus.

  17. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U01942-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available W... 46 0.75 1 ( AC179610 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-1028M04, W... 46 0.75 1 ( FG646102 ) CSRLCD001_05-G10-pAL17d Heal...thy leaf tissue Solan... 46 0.75 1 ( BM579253 ) 17000687237959 A.Gam.ad.cDNA.blood1

  18. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-08-0024 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-08-0024 ref|XP_782738.2| PREDICTED: similar to golgi reassembly stacking ...protein 2, 55kDa [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001179823.1| PREDICTED: similar to golgi reassembly stack

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-DYAK-03-0088 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-DYAK-03-0088 ref|XP_782738.2| PREDICTED: similar to golgi reassembly stacking ...protein 2, 55kDa [Strongylocentrotus purpuratus] ref|XP_001179823.1| PREDICTED: similar to golgi reassembly stack

  20. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U11305-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available clone of Developmental Stages Lib... 38 0.70 2 ( EC819307 ) SME00006021 esmbsro2 Sawyeria marylandensis cDNA... 2 ( AC200916 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-1006I04, W... 34 0.54 2 ( CU558784 ) Spc_12YJ21 cDNA

  1. Dicty_cDB: CHK163 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ylocentrotus purpuratus genomic clone Plate=74 Col=16 Row=D, DNA sequence. 44 9e-12 6 BW529286 |BW529286.1 Ciona savigny...i cDNA, clone:cslv010m05, 5'end, single read. 48 1e-10 6 BW559326 |BW559326.1 Ciona savigny

  2. The Mosquitoes of Polynesia with a Pictorial Key to Some Species Associated with Filariasis and/or Dengue Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Jk28o *29. *30, ൧. *32. *33. *34. Jk350 *36. 37. 38. 39. 40, 410 42. Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynehitesl inornatus (Walker) (introduced...43. Toxorhynchites (Toxorhynchiteel splendens (Wiedemann) (introduced) Aedes (Levua) suvae Stone and Bohart (Fiji Is. only) Aedes (0chZerotatu.s...Tripteroides (Tripteroides) purpuratus (Edwards) (Fiji Is o only) Tripteroides (Rachionotomyia! rotumanus (Edwards) (Rotuma I. only) Toxorhynchites

  3. Domain combination of the vertebrate-like TLR gene family ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (a) Unrooted NJ phylogenetic trees revealing the evolutionary relationship between V-TLR of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus and vertebrate TLRs. (b) Unrooted NJ phylogenetic ... The database accession IDs of these sequences are listed in table 2 of electronic supplementary material. Figure 4. Unrooted ML phylogenetic ...

  4. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15835-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available rgopecten purpuratus heat shock p... 597 0.0 EU679412_1( EU679412 |pid:none) Tetranychus cinnabarinus heat s...0 EU747335_1( EU747335 |pid:none) Gallus gallus heat shock protein 7... 570 0.0 EU679414_1( EU679414 |pid:none) Tetranychus

  5. Effects of varying obliquity on Martian sublimation thermokarst landforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dundas, Colin M.

    2017-01-01

    Scalloped depressions in the Martian mid-latitudes are likely formed by sublimation of ice-rich ground. The stability of subsurface ice changes with the planetary obliquity, generally becoming less stable at lower axial tilt. As a result, the relative rates of sublimation and creep change over time. A landscape evolution model shows that these variations produce internal structure in scalloped depressions, commonly in the form of arcuate ridges, which emerge as depressions resume growth after pausing or slowing. In other scenarios, the formation of internal structure is minimal. Significant uncertainties in past climate and model parameters permit a range of scenarios. Ridges observed in some Martian scalloped depressions could date from obliquity lows or periods of low ice stability occurring <5 Ma, suggesting that the pits are young features and may be actively evolving.

  6. The benthic association between a bivalve and a shell boring polychaete and their potential food sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silina, A. V.; Zhukova, N. V.

    2012-09-01

    The trophic relationships in the association of the Yeso scallop Mizuhopecten yessoensis and its dominant endobiontic polychaete Polydora brevipalpa, which burrows into the scallop's shell, and their potential food sources were studied using the method of fatty acid biochemical markers. It is shown that the differences in the diet of the scallop and the polychaete allow them to coexist in a close association. The trophic role of the association in the benthic community was revealed. The association selectively utilizes the food sources of the environment. It almost does not consume organic matter of bottom sediments, which allows it to coexist with other species in the community of higher order. There is minimal food competition between the association and detritivorous species; however, association can limit the development of species mostly foraging on diatom algae.

  7. Treatment of severe mitral regurgitation caused by lesions in both leaflets using multiple mitral valve plasty techniques in a small dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoko Yokoyama

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mitral valve plasty (MVP is preferred over mitral valve replacement (MVR for mitral regurgitation in humans because of its favorable effect on quality of life. In small dogs, it is difficult to repair multiple lesions in both leaflets using MVP. Herein, we report a case of severe mitral regurgitation caused by multiple severe lesions in the posterior leaflet (PL in a mixed Chihuahua. Initially, we had planned MVR with an artificial valve. However, MVP combined with artificial chordal reconstruction of both leaflets, semicircular suture annuloplasty, and valvuloplasty using a newly devised direct scallop suture for the PL was attempted in this dog. The dog recovered well and showed no adverse cardiac signs, surviving two major operations. The dog died 4 years and 10 months after the MVP due to non-cardiovascular disease. Our additional technique of using a direct scallop suture seemed useful for PL repair involving multiple scallops in a small dog.

  8. Venus - Volcano With Massive Landslides

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This Magellan full-resolution mosaic which covers an area 143 by 146 kilometers (89 by 91 miles) is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 266 degrees east longitude. The bright feature, slightly south of center is interpreted to be a volcano, 15-20 kilometers (9.3 to 12.4 miles) in diameter with a large apron of blocky debris to its right and some smaller aprons to its left. A preferred explanation is that several massive catastrophic landslides dropped down steep slopes and were carried by their momentum out into the smooth, dark lava plains. At the base of the east-facing or largest scallop on the volcano is what appears to be a large block of coherent rock, 8 to 10 kilometers (5 to 6 miles) in length. The similar margin of both the scallop and block and the shape in general is typical of terrestrial slumped blocks (masses of rock which slide and rotate down a slope instead of breaking apart and tumbling). The bright lobe to the south of the volcano may either be a lava flow or finer debris from other landslides. This volcanic feature, characterized by its scalloped flanks is part of a class of volcanoes called scalloped or collapsed domes of which there are more than 80 on Venus. Based on the chute-like shapes of the scallops and the existence of a spectrum of intermediate to well defined examples, it is hypothesized that all of the scallops are remnants of landslides even though the landslide debris is often not visible. Possible explanations for the missing debris are that it may have been covered by lava flows, the debris may have weathered or that the radar may not be recognizing it because the individual blocks are too small

  9. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12616-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ( AC127153 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-9H24, WORKING DRAFT... 54 0.006 1 ( AC097021 ) Rattus norvegicus...AC135310 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-11C16, WORKING DRAF... 46 0.015 2 ( AC161418 ) Mus musculus...CH224-56H3, WORKING DRAFT SE... 52 0.024 1 ( AC134296 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-3H19, WORKING DRAFT...CH230-233E18, WORKING DRA... 52 0.024 1 ( AC115369 ) Rattus norvegicus clone CH230-89H17, WORKING DRAF.....AC201310 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-16J8, WORK... 52 0.024 1 ( AC181614 ) Strongylocentrotus purpuratus

  10. Neutronics of a mixed-flow gas-core reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soran, P.D.; Hansen, G.E.

    1977-11-01

    The study was made to investigate the neutronic feasibility of a mixed-flow gas-core reactor. Three reactor concepts were studied: four- and seven-cell radial reactors and a seven-cell scallop reactor. The reactors were fueled with UF/sub 6/ (either U-233 or U-235) and various parameters were varied. A four-cell reactor is not practical nor is the U-235 fueled seven-cell radial reactor; however, the 7-cell U-233 radial and scallop reactors can satisfy all design criteria. The mixed flow gas core reactor is a very attractive reactor concept and warrants further investigation.

  11. Bias-Variance Tradeoffs in Recombination Rate Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Eric A; Singh, Nadia D

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, we and coauthors published a paper characterizing rates of recombination within the 2.1-megabase garnet-scalloped (g-sd) region of the Drosophila melanogaster X chromosome. To extract the signal of recombination in our high-throughput sequence data, we adopted a nonparametric smoothing procedure, reducing variance at the cost of biasing individual recombination rates. In doing so, we sacrificed accuracy to gain precision-precision that allowed us to detect recombination rate heterogeneity. Negotiating the bias-variance tradeoff enabled us to resolve significant variation in the frequency of crossing over across the garnet-scalloped region. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  12. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U12069-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available trongylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3114N5, WO... 38 7.2 6 ( DJ060330 ) Method and nucleic acids for the improved... treatme... 36 7.3 2 ( DJ060208 ) Method and nucleic acids for the improved treatme... 36 7.3 2 ( DD3...92082 ) Method and nucleic acids for the improved treatme... 36 7.3 2 ( DD391808 ) Method and nucleic acids for the improved

  13. Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Krisler Alveal; Héctor Romo

    1980-01-01

    Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W) estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?), Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussilum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furce...

  14. Aspectos ecologicos de las algas marinas de la provincia de Concepcion, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Alveal, Krisler; Romo, Héctor

    1980-01-01

    Studies carried out in various localities of the Province of Concepción, Chile (36º40'S; 70º06'W) estabilished the existence of two principal patterns of zonation defined by the populations of Mastocarpus sp. (¿ ?), Tridaea laminarioides, Gelidium pussflum, Ulva lactuca and Perumytilus purpuratus which occupy the lower hydrolittoral. In submerged levels the populations of Gracilaria and Macrocystis. form growths of moderate dimensions and in shallow waters, Iridaea ciliata, Gymnogongrus furce...

  15. A method for identifying alternative or cryptic donor splice sites within gene and mRNA sequences. Comparisons among sequences from vertebrates, echinoderms and other groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Katherine M; Florea, Liliana D; Smith, L Courtney

    2009-07-16

    As the amount of genome sequencing data grows, so does the problem of computational gene identification, and in particular, the splicing signals that flank exon borders. Traditional methods for identifying splicing signals have been created and optimized using sequences from model organisms, mostly vertebrate and yeast species. However, as genome sequencing extends across the animal kingdom and includes various invertebrate species, the need for mechanisms to recognize splice signals in these organisms increases as well. With that aim in mind, we generated a model for identifying donor and acceptor splice sites that was optimized using sequences from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. This model was then used to assess the possibility of alternative or cryptic splicing within the highly variable immune response gene family known as 185/333. A donor splice site model was generated from S. purpuratus sequences that incorporates non-adjacent dependences among positions within the 9 nt splice signal and uses position weight matrices to determine the probability that the site is used for splicing. The Purpuratus model was shown to predict splice signals better than a similar model created from vertebrate sequences. Although the Purpuratus model was able to correctly predict the true splice sites within the 185/333 genes, no evidence for alternative or trans-gene splicing was observed. The data presented herein describe the first published analyses of echinoderm splice sites and suggest that the previous methods of identifying splice signals that are based largely on vertebrate sequences may be insufficient. Furthermore, alternative or trans-gene splicing does not appear to be acting as a diversification mechanism in the 185/333 gene family.

  16. Negative spatial regulation of the lineage specific CyIIIa actin gene in the sea urchin embryo

    OpenAIRE

    Hough-Evans, Barbara R.; Franks, Roberta R.; Zeller, Robert W.; Roy J. Britten; Davidson, Eric H.

    1990-01-01

    The CyIIIa·CAT fusion gene was injected into Strongylocentrotus purpuratus eggs, together with excess ligated competitor sequences representing subregions of the CyIIIa regulatory domain. In this construct, the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene is placed under the control of the 2300 nucleotide upstream regulatory domain of the lineage-specific CyIIIa cytoskeletal actin gene. CAT mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in serial sections of pluteus stage embryos derived...

  17. A method for identifying alternative or cryptic donor splice sites within gene and mRNA sequences. Comparisons among sequences from vertebrates, echinoderms and other groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Liliana D

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the amount of genome sequencing data grows, so does the problem of computational gene identification, and in particular, the splicing signals that flank exon borders. Traditional methods for identifying splicing signals have been created and optimized using sequences from model organisms, mostly vertebrate and yeast species. However, as genome sequencing extends across the animal kingdom and includes various invertebrate species, the need for mechanisms to recognize splice signals in these organisms increases as well. With that aim in mind, we generated a model for identifying donor and acceptor splice sites that was optimized using sequences from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. This model was then used to assess the possibility of alternative or cryptic splicing within the highly variable immune response gene family known as 185/333. Results A donor splice site model was generated from S. purpuratus sequences that incorporates non-adjacent dependences among positions within the 9 nt splice signal and uses position weight matrices to determine the probability that the site is used for splicing. The Purpuratus model was shown to predict splice signals better than a similar model created from vertebrate sequences. Although the Purpuratus model was able to correctly predict the true splice sites within the 185/333 genes, no evidence for alternative or trans-gene splicing was observed. Conclusion The data presented herein describe the first published analyses of echinoderm splice sites and suggest that the previous methods of identifying splice signals that are based largely on vertebrate sequences may be insufficient. Furthermore, alternative or trans-gene splicing does not appear to be acting as a diversification mechanism in the 185/333 gene family.

  18. Respiratory burst oxidase of fertilization.

    OpenAIRE

    Heinecke, J W; Shapiro, B M

    1989-01-01

    Partially reduced oxygen species are toxic, yet sea urchin eggs synthesize H2O2 in a "respiratory burst" at fertilization, as an extracellular oxidant to crosslink their protective surface envelopes. To study the biochemical mechanism for H2O2 production, we have isolated an NADPH-specific oxidase fraction from homogenates of unfertilized Strongylocentrotus purpuratus eggs that produces H2O2 when stimulated with Ca2+ and MgATP2-. Concentrations of free Ca2+ previously implicated in regulation...

  19. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U05011-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4 1.0 3 ( FG289817 ) 1108793307980 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 38 1.3 3 ( AC176252 ) Strongylocen...trotus purpuratus clone R3-3060I22, W... 40 1.3 4 ( FG290522 ) 1108793323765 New World... Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C... 38 1.4 3 ( FG286635 ) 1108770723708 New World Screwworm Egg 9261 ESTs C..

  20. Dicty_cDB: SLH444 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ylocentrotus purpuratus clone R3-3004M17, W... 56 7e-04 2 ( EC824745 ) SME00007878 esmbsro2 Sawyeria marylan...densis cDNA,... 56 0.001 1 ( EC824091 ) SME00007940 esmbsro2 Sawyeria marylandensis cDNA,... 56 0.001 1 ( EC...823945 ) SME00006892 esmbsro2 Sawyeria marylandensis cDNA,... 56 0.001 1 dna upda